WorldWideScience

Sample records for swath ships

  1. The SWATH Concept: Designing Superior Operability into a Surface Displacement Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    almost 40 knots for one of 2000 tont to about 30 knots for 20,000-ton or larger sizes. A SWATH ship may cost somewhat snore than a monohull...fairly sound understanding of the trade- offs necessary to achieve balanced ship designs, with reasonable pay- loads and operational characteristics...fairly sound understanding of t.ie tradeoffs necessary to achieve balanced SWATH ship designs, with reasonable payloads and operational

  2. Small ships don't shine: classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, Rory GV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the Understanding of Our Living Planet, 10-15 July 2016, Beijing, China Small ships don't shine: Classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions R. G. V. Meyer ; W. Kleynhans ; C. P. Schwegmann Abstract: Monitoring...

  3. SEAKEEPING PERFORMANCE OF SEMI-SWATH IN FOLLOWING SEA USING CONTROLLED FINS STABILIZER

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimuddin

    2014-01-01

    Semi-SWATH ship design is a result of combining the good features of SWATH and Catamaran designs. However, the disadvantage of semi-SWATH is that she has low restoring force at bow that causes a tendency to bow-dive when running in following seas. In some critical conditions, the foredeck was found to be immersed underwater. One of the efforts to improve the ship???s performance is to install fin stabilizers at bow and stern. The fin stabilizers are used to compensate for the low restoring fo...

  4. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT03 offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, from East Ship Island, Mississippi, to Dauphin Island, Alabama, April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Gibson, James N.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2012-01-01

    In April of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geophysical survey from the east end of East Ship Island, Miss., extending to the middle of Dauphin Island, Ala. (fig. 1). This survey had a dual purpose: (1) to interlink previously conducted nearshore geophysical surveys (shoreline to ~2 km) with those of offshore surveys (~2 to ~9 km) in the area, and (2) to extend the geophysical survey to include a portion of the Dauphin Island nearshore zone. The efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geological stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration feasibility, particularly in Camille Cut, and efforts for the preservation of historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/.

  5. Swath mapping system processing: Bathymetry and cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourillet, J. F.; Edy, C.; Rambert, F.; Satra, C.; Loubrieu, B.

    1996-06-01

    During swath mapping cruises various geophysical data were collected. Bathymetry, imagery and other geophysical information require specialised post-processing. Dedicated software enables post-processing and visualisation of each type of data. A graphic interface collects the files and exports them to a CAD system for cleaning and for adding extra information. The huge amount of soundings from multibeam echo sounder systems and the very particular sampling along and across the ship's track demand powerful software such as TRISMUS provides. Major steps in the processing are the merging of raw soundings with navigation corrected if necessary, the cleaning of soundings with a band-pass filter and the gridding of the data to obtain a Digital Terrain Model. Despite care and real time filtering during the acquisition phase, some errors persist and appear as abnormal patterns on contoured maps. It is often difficult to distinguish the origins of the errors and consequently to correct them in a deterministic way. But the analysis and description of typical patterns allows errors to be classified into five groups — sounding, profile, overlap area, surveyed area or gridding artefact — and in some cases to adopt specific processing techniques to reduce or cancel undesirable effects. Merging bathymetric maps and sonar mosaics can be achieved with IMAGEM or with the high level graphic interface MFEDIT. Since dedicated software splits the information up into different layers, the operator can manage the layers according to the information he wants on the final document. Additional information such as seismic reflection data and interpretation, geological logs and legends, can be imported or created as extra layers.

  6. Multibeam swath bathymetry signal processing techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranade, G.; Sudhakar, T.

    Mathematical advances and the advances in the real time signal processing techniques in the recent times, have considerably improved the state of art in the bathymetry systems. These improvements have helped in developing high resolution swath...

  7. Landsat-Swath Imaging Spectrometer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Van Gorp, Byron; Moore, Lori; Wilson, Daniel W.; Bender, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design of a high-throughput pushbroom imaging spectrometer and telescope system that is capable of Landsat swath and resolution while providing better than 10 nm per pixel spectral resolution. The design is based on a 3200 x 480 element x 18 µm pixel size focal plane array, two of which are utilized to cover the full swath. At an optical speed of F/1.8, the system is the fastest proposed to date to our knowledge. The utilization of only two spectrometer modules fed from the same telescope reduces system complexity while providing a solution within achievable detector technology. Predictions of complete system response are shown. Also, it is shown that detailed ghost analysis is a requirement for this type of spectrometer and forms an essential part of a complete design.

  8. Automated Probabilistic LiDAR Swath Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, A.; Gonçalves, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    We recently developed a new point cloud registration algorithm. Compared to Iterated Closest Point (ICP) techniques, it is robust to noise and outliers, and easier to use, as it is less sensitive to initial conditions. It minimizes the entropy of the joint point cloud (including intensity attributes to help register areas with poor relief), uses a voxel space and B-Spline interpolation to accelerate computation. A natural application of registration is swath alignment in airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR). Indeed, due to uncertainty in the inertial navigation system (INS), attitude angles are subject to time-dependent errors. Such errors can be understood as a sum of three terms: 1) a global term, or boresight error, which can be addressed using several existing techniques; 2) a low-frequency term, which is modeled as a constant attitude error for regions several hundred meters along-track; 3) a high-frequency term, responsible for corduroy artifacts (not addressed here). We propose to use the new registration algorithm to correct the low-frequency attitude variations. Relative geometric errors are significantly reduced, as pairs of swaths are registered onto each other local corrections. Absolute geometric errors are reduced during a second step, by applying all the corrections together to the entire dataset. We used a test area of 200 km2 in Portugal, with a density of 3-4 pts/m2. The point clouds were derived from waveform data, and include predictive range uncertainties estimated within a Bayesian framework. The data collection was supported by FCT and FEDER as part of the AutoProbaDTM research project (2009-2012). Modeling and reducing geometric error helps build consistent uncertainty maps. After correction, residual errors are taken into account in the final 3D error budget. For gridded elevation models a vertical uncertainty map is computed. Finally, it is possible to use the inter-swath registration parameters to estimate the distribution of

  9. Miniature Ka-band Automated Swath Mapper (KASM), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal discusses the development and demonstration of a swath-based airborne instrument suite intended as a calibration and validation with relevance to the...

  10. Shipping Fairways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  11. Comparison of fractionation proteomics for local SWATH library building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaert, Elisabeth; Van Steendam, Katleen; Willems, Sander; Vossaert, Liesbeth; Dhaenens, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    For data‐independent acquisition by means of sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH), a reference library of data‐dependent acquisition (DDA) runs is typically used to correlate the quantitative data from the fragment ion spectra with peptide identifications. The quality and coverage of such a reference library is therefore essential when processing SWATH data. In general, library sizes can be increased by reducing the impact of DDA precursor selection with replicate runs or fractionation. However, these strategies can affect the match between the library and SWATH measurement, and thus larger library sizes do not necessarily correspond to improved SWATH quantification. Here, three fractionation strategies to increase local library size were compared to standard library building using replicate DDA injection: protein SDS‐PAGE fractionation, peptide high‐pH RP‐HPLC fractionation and MS‐acquisition gas phase fractionation. The impact of these libraries on SWATH performance was evaluated in terms of the number of extracted peptides and proteins, the match quality of the peptides and the extraction reproducibility of the transitions. These analyses were conducted using the hydrophilic proteome of differentiating human embryonic stem cells. Our results show that SWATH quantitative results and interpretations are affected by choice of fractionation technique. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006190. PMID:28664598

  12. Archive of single beam and swath bathymetry data collected nearshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, from West Ship Island, Mississippi, to Dauphin Island, Alabama: Methods and data report for USGS Cruises 08CCT01 and 08CCT02, July 2008, and 09CCT03 and 09CCT04, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Hansen, Mark E.; Reynolds, B.J.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Wiese, Dana S.; Worley, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    During the summers of 2008 and 2009 the USGS conducted bathymetric surveys from West Ship Island, Miss., to Dauphin Island, Ala., as part of the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project. The survey area extended from the shoreline out to approximately 2 kilometers and included the adjacent passes (fig. 1). The bathymetry was primarily used to create a topo-bathymetric map and provide a base-level assessment of the seafloor following the 2005 hurricane season. Additionally, these data will be used in conjunction with other geophysical data (chirp and side scan sonar) to construct a comprehensive geological framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. The culmination of the geophysical surveys will provide baseline bathymetry necessary for scientists to define and interpret seafloor habitat for this area and for scientists to predict future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data provide information for feasibility of barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and for the preservation of historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html.

  13. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  14. VIIRS/NPP Moderate Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath 750m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIIRS/NPP Moderate Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath 750m (VNP02MOD). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated...

  15. VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath 375m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath 375m (VNP02IMG). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated...

  16. Study of Wide Swath Synthetic Aperture Ladar Imaging Techology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Keshu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Combining synthetic-aperture imaging and coherent-light detection technology, the weak signal identification capacity of Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL reaches the photo level, and the image resolution exceeds the diffraction limit of the telescope to obtain high-resolution images irrespective to ranges. This paper introduces SAL, including the development path, technology characteristics, and the restriction of imaging swath. On the basis of this, we propose to integrate the SAL technology for extending its swath. By analyzing the scanning-operation mode and the signal model, the paper explicitly proposes that the former mode will be the developmental trend of the SAL technology. This paper also introduces the flight demonstrations of the SAL and the imaging results of remote targets, showing the potential of the SAL in long-range, high-resolution, and scanning-imaging applications. The technology and the theory of the scanning mode of SAL compensates for the defects related to the swath and operation efficiency of the current SAL. It provides scientific foundation for the SAL system applied in wide swath, high resolution earth observation, and the ISAL system applied in space-targets imaging.

  17. Model Tests and Engineering Studies of the SWATH VII Small Waterplane Area Twin-Hull Ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    speed power performance is also greatly affected by propulsor char- acteristics. Therefore, a number of engineering studies were carried out as described...HYDRONAUTICS, INCORPORATED -27- 85 Assumed H ul I/ Propulsor Interaction Factors z In = 1-10 LU LU 0 LU S75 D PropellIer No. 0 7694-90 (D = 14.4 Ft...Approximate projected blade area A = EAR (1.067-0.229 P/D)D2 (r/4) p P P = Static pressure0 P = Vapor pressure V Li ISII I. .. . . . . . . . . .l . .. ... . . .. ;. . . . . . m . ..

  18. Wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing a multi-modular design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2010-10-05

    A wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing an array of individual spectrometer modules in the telescope focal plane to provide an extended field of view. The spectrometer modules with their individual detectors are arranged so that their slits overlap with motion on the scene providing contiguous spatial coverage. The number of modules can be varied to take full advantage of the field of view available from the telescope.

  19. Connecting Swath Satellite Data With Imagery in Mapping Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. K.; Hall, J. R.; Penteado, P. F.; Roberts, J. T.; Zhou, A. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Visualizations of gridded science data products (referred to as Level 3 or Level 4) typically provide a straightforward correlation between image pixels and the source science data. This direct relationship allows users to make initial inferences based on imagery values, facilitating additional operations on the underlying data values, such as data subsetting and analysis. However, that same pixel-to-data relationship for ungridded science data products (referred to as Level 2) is significantly more challenging. These products, also referred to as "swath products", are in orbital "instrument space" and raster visualization pixels do not directly correlate to science data values. Interpolation algorithms are often employed during the gridding or projection of a science dataset prior to image generation, introducing intermediary values that separate the image from the source data values. NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is researching techniques for efficiently serving "image-ready" data allowing client-side dynamic visualization and analysis capabilities. This presentation will cover some GIBS prototyping work designed to maintain connectivity between Level 2 swath data and its corresponding raster visualizations. Specifically, we discuss the DAta-to-Image-SYstem (DAISY), an indexing approach for Level 2 swath data, and the mechanisms whereby a client may dynamically visualize the data in raster form.

  20. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian

    maritime industries (including shipping, offshore energy, ports, and maritime service and equipment suppliers) as well as addresses topics that cut across maritime industries (regulation and competitiveness). The topics and narrower research questions addressed in the initiative were developed in close...... at CBS and create the foundation for CBS as a stronger partner for the maritime industries, as well as for other universities and business school with a devotion to maritime economics research. The competitiveness initiative comprises a number of PhD projects and five short term mapping projects...

  1. Airborne laser swath mapping: results from project laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William E.; Shrestha, Ramesh L.

    1998-09-01

    During October 1996, the University of Florida, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the Florida Department of Transportation and the United States Geological Survey-Center for Coastal Geology and Regional Marine Studies jointly conducted a demonstration/test project of airborne laser swath mapping. Project Laser Swath-mapping Evaluation and Resurvey, included mapping of more than three hundred kilometers of beaches, stretching from Mexico Beach, just east of Panama City, Florida, to the western tip of Perdido Key, Alabama. The observations collected along the beaches included returns from the water surface at a number of inlets and from near short portions of the Gulf. The typical flying altitude during the tests was 350 meters above the surface, with an airspeed of 75 meters per second. The laser swatch mapping system operated at 5000 pulses per second, and scanned in a saw tooth pattern with a scan angle of plus and minus 15 degrees and a scan rate of 25 Hz. More than 50 million data points were collected in about three hours of operations, spread over three days. Proprietary computer software was used by the vendor to combine aircraft orientation (roll, pitch and yaw) values from an inertial navigation unit in the laser scanning unit, the angular orientation of the scanner mirror, and the range data to compute vectors from the aircraft to the reflecting surface. These vectors were added to the location of the aircraft, determined by phase difference kinematic Global Positioning System observations to compute the coordinates of the reflecting surface at each measurement epoch, expressed in UTM Northings and Eastings and ellipsoid heights. Commercial software was then used to create a variety of products, including 3D shaded relief `snapshots,' contour maps, false colored maps, cross sections and profiles. Repeat coverage was used to estimate the short term repeatability of the measurements and comparisons with cross sections from classical

  2. Green Shipping Practices of Shipping Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tae Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to provide an empirical research using structural equation modeling to identify the factors that motivate shipping firms to adopt green shipping practices (GSP. Furthermore, it also examines if adopting GSP can enhance the shipping firms’ environmental and productivity performance. The findings show that shipping firms are motivated to adopt GSP mostly by industrial norms set by institutionalized associations. They are also motivated by customers’ demand for environmental friendliness and their own strategy to make good image. Unlike our expectation, government regulations and international environmental laws are not significant in influencing shipping firms to adopt GSP. Moreover, adoption of green shipping practices can improve the environmental and productivity performance of the shipping firms.

  3. VIIRS/NPP Day/Night Band 6-Min L1B Swath 750m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VIIRS/NPP Day/Night Band 6-Min L1B Swath 750m (VNP02DNB). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from...

  4. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  5. Western Rainier Seismic Zone Airborne Laser Swath Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Scott, Kevin M.; Weaver, Craig S.; Martinez, Diana M.; Zeigler, John C.; Latypov, Damir

    2003-01-01

    Airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) of the Puget Lowland conducted by TerraPoint LLC for the Purget Sound Lidar Concortium (PSLC), has been successful in revealing Holocene fault scarps and lendsliders hidden beneath the dense, temperate rain forest cover and in quantifying shoreline terrace uplift. Expanding the PSLC efforts, NASA-USGS collaboration is now focusing on topographic mapping of seismogenic zones adjacent to volcanois in the western Cascades range in order to assess the presence of active faulting and tectonic deformation, better define the extend of lahars and understand their flow processes, and characterize landslide occurrence. Mapping of the western Rainier zone (WRZ) was conducted by TerraPoint in late 2002, after leaf fall and before snow accumulation. The WRZ is a NNW-trending, approx. 30 km-long zone of seismicity west of Mount Rainier National Park. The Puget Lowland ALSM methods were modified to accommodate challenges posed by the steep, high relief terrian. The laser data, acquired with a density of approx. 2 pulses /sq m, was filtered to identify returns from the ground from which a bare Earth digital elevation model (DEM) was produced with a grid size of 1.8 m. The RMS elevation accuracy of the DEM in flat, unvegetated areas is approx. 10cm based on consistency between overlapping flight swaths and comparisons to ground control points. The resulting DEM substantially improves upon Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and USGS photogrammetric mapping. For example, the DEM defines the size and spatial distribution of flood erratics left by the Electron lahar and of megaclasts within the Round Pass lahar, important for characterizing the lahar hydraulics. A previously unknown lateral levee on the Round Pass lahar is also revealed. In addition, to illustrating geomorfic feature within the WRZ, future plans for laser mapping of the Saint Helens and Darrington seismic zones will be described.

  6. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  7. GEOMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LIDAR DATA BASED ON SWATH OVERLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sampath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidelines on quantifying the relative horizontal and vertical errors observed between conjugate features in the overlapping regions of lidar data. The quantification of these errors is important because their presence quantifies the geometric quality of the data. A data set can be said to have good geometric quality if measurements of identical features, regardless of their position or orientation, yield identical results. Good geometric quality indicates that the data are produced using sensor models that are working as they are mathematically designed, and data acquisition processes are not introducing any unforeseen distortion in the data. High geometric quality also leads to high geolocation accuracy of the data when the data acquisition process includes coupling the sensor with geopositioning systems. Current specifications (e.g. Heidemann 2014 do not provide adequate means to quantitatively measure these errors, even though they are required to be reported. Current accuracy measurement and reporting practices followed in the industry and as recommended by data specification documents also potentially underestimate the inter-swath errors, including the presence of systematic errors in lidar data. Hence they pose a risk to the user in terms of data acceptance (i.e. a higher potential for Type II error indicating risk of accepting potentially unsuitable data. For example, if the overlap area is too small or if the sampled locations are close to the center of overlap, or if the errors are sampled in flat regions when there are residual pitch errors in the data, the resultant Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD can still be small. To avoid this, the following are suggested to be used as criteria for defining the inter-swath quality of data: a Median Discrepancy Angle b Mean and RMSD of Horizontal Errors using DQM measured on sloping surfaces c RMSD for sampled locations from flat areas (defined as areas with less than 5

  8. Geometric Quality Assessment of LIDAR Data Based on Swath Overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, A.; Heidemann, H. K.; Stensaas, G. L.

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides guidelines on quantifying the relative horizontal and vertical errors observed between conjugate features in the overlapping regions of lidar data. The quantification of these errors is important because their presence quantifies the geometric quality of the data. A data set can be said to have good geometric quality if measurements of identical features, regardless of their position or orientation, yield identical results. Good geometric quality indicates that the data are produced using sensor models that are working as they are mathematically designed, and data acquisition processes are not introducing any unforeseen distortion in the data. High geometric quality also leads to high geolocation accuracy of the data when the data acquisition process includes coupling the sensor with geopositioning systems. Current specifications (e.g. Heidemann 2014) do not provide adequate means to quantitatively measure these errors, even though they are required to be reported. Current accuracy measurement and reporting practices followed in the industry and as recommended by data specification documents also potentially underestimate the inter-swath errors, including the presence of systematic errors in lidar data. Hence they pose a risk to the user in terms of data acceptance (i.e. a higher potential for Type II error indicating risk of accepting potentially unsuitable data). For example, if the overlap area is too small or if the sampled locations are close to the center of overlap, or if the errors are sampled in flat regions when there are residual pitch errors in the data, the resultant Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD) can still be small. To avoid this, the following are suggested to be used as criteria for defining the inter-swath quality of data: a) Median Discrepancy Angle b) Mean and RMSD of Horizontal Errors using DQM measured on sloping surfaces c) RMSD for sampled locations from flat areas (defined as areas with less than 5 degrees of slope

  9. Commercial nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier d'Ange d'Orsay, P.; Andrieu, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Following discussion of the arguments in favour of nuclear merchant ships and development of nuclear ship propulsion, the rentability of nuclear ships is dealt with in a comparative study with conventional ships regarding fuel costs, investments and environmental impact. The structure and components of a nuclear ship are described, with emphasis on its safety equipment. The problem of insurance is examined, particularly in connection with the difficulty in applying insurance for liability due to the present uncertainties of the legal position at international level. French legislation does not solve the problem of visiting foreign nuclear ships. The risk concept at operational, design and construction stages is also discussed. Unresolved difficulties, especially concerning the construction of nuclear ships, uncertainties in competitivity analyses between conventional and nuclear propulsion, and implementation of specific and complete legislation on nuclear ships are also mentioned, particularly in the context of their visits to ports [fr

  10. Guide to ship sanitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  11. An Arsenal Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    and dental services underway. 5. Disbursing Office In addition to being paperless, the Arsenal Ship is also a cashless ship. The ship does not have...1, Society of Naval Architects & Marine Engineers, 1988. 57. Gillmer, T.C., and Johnson, B., Introduction to Naval Architecture, Naval Institute...Vending Machines Cashless ship (i.e. Use MARC card) O 10.4.3 Provide Crew Entertainment O 10.4.3.1 Closed Circuit TV Shipboard Multi-Media Resource Center

  12. MODIS/Aqua Geolocation Fields 5-Min L1A Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Geolocation Fields 5-Min L1A Swath 1km (MYD03) are calculated for each 1 km MODIS Instantaneous Field of Views (IFOV) for all orbits daily(in...

  13. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Ozone (O3) Total Column swath orbital NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Ozone (O3) Total Column swath orbital product provides total ozone measurements from the Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite (OMPS) Nadir-Mapper...

  14. VIIRS/NPP Moderate Resolution Bands L1B 6-Min Swath 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  15. VIIRS/NPP Thermal Anomalies/Fire 6-Min L2 Swath 750m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Thermal Anomalies (VNP14) Version 1 product is produced in 6-minute temporal satellite increments (swaths) at...

  16. MODIS/Terra Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath (MOD01) product contains reformatted and packaged raw instrument data. MODIS instrument data, in packetized...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km (MYD06_L2) product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely...

  18. VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 375m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  19. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m (MYD02QKM) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km (MYD04_L2) product continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue...

  1. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD14 version 6 product is produced daily in 5-minute temporal satellite increments (swaths). The MOD14 product is used to generate all of the higher-level fire...

  2. OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Vertical Profile swath orbital NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Total Column swath orbital product provides ozone profile retrievals from the Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite (OMPS) Nadir-Profiler...

  3. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m (MOD02QKM) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located...

  4. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 500m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 500m (MOD02HKM) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 7 discrete bands located...

  5. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 500m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 500m (MYD02HKM) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 7 discrete bands located in...

  6. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km (MYD021KM) product contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath (MYD01) product contains reformatted and packaged raw instrument data. MODIS instrument data, in packetized...

  8. MODIS/Terra Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km (MOD06_L2) product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely...

  9. Quantitative proteomics by SWATH-MS reveals sophisticated metabolic reprogramming in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yanyan; Wang, Xinzheng; Sang, Zhihong; Li, Zongcheng; Liu, Feng; Mao, Jie; Yan, Dan; Zhao, Yongqiang; Wang, Hongli; Li, Ping; Ying, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xuemin; He, Kun; Wang, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and understanding its molecular pathogenesis is pivotal to managing this disease. Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) is an optimal proteomic strategy to seek crucial proteins involved in HCC development and progression. In this study, a quantitative proteomic study of tumour and adjacent non-tumour liver tissues was performed using a SWATH-MS strategy. In total, 4,216 proteins wer...

  10. The Use of Variable Q1 Isolation Windows Improves Selectivity in LC-SWATH-MS Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Bilbao, Aivett; Bruderer, Tobias; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2015-10-02

    As tryptic peptides and metabolites are not equally distributed along the mass range, the probability of cross fragment ion interference is higher in certain windows when fixed Q1 SWATH windows are applied. We evaluated the benefits of utilizing variable Q1 SWATH windows with regards to selectivity improvement. Variable windows based on equalizing the distribution of either the precursor ion population (PIP) or the total ion current (TIC) within each window were generated by an in-house software, swathTUNER. These two variable Q1 SWATH window strategies outperformed, with respect to quantification and identification, the basic approach using a fixed window width (FIX) for proteomic profiling of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Thus, 13.8 and 8.4% additional peptide precursors, which resulted in 13.1 and 10.0% more proteins, were confidently identified by SWATH using the strategy PIP and TIC, respectively, in the MDDC proteomic sample. On the basis of the spectral library purity score, some improvement warranted by variable Q1 windows was also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the metabolomic profiling of human urine. We show that the novel concept of "scheduled SWATH" proposed here, which incorporates (i) variable isolation windows and (ii) precursor retention time segmentation further improves both peptide and metabolite identifications.

  11. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions...... to the environment. The monitoring of the ship’s performance can be used as decision support in determining when actions to improve performance should be taken. The performance evaluation is based on a model of the ship and the added resistance from wind and waves during operation. Logged data on board the ship...... is used as input to the system and by comparing model and ship behaviour, an index describing the ship’s performance is generated. The work in this thesis is based on data logged through the automation system on board a PostPanmax container ship where data have been logged through a year. A routine...

  12. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries......This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information...... and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  13. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject......, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...

  14. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  15. Swath width study. A simulation assessment of costs and benefits of a sensor system for agricultural application

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Satellites provide an excellent platform from which to observe crops on the scale and frequency required to provide accurate crop production estimates on a worldwide basis. Multispectral imaging sensors aboard these platforms are capable of providing data from which to derive acreage and production estimates. The issue of sensor swath width was examined. The quantitative trade trade necessary to resolve the combined issue of sensor swath width, number of platforms, and their orbits was generated and are included. Problems with different swath width sensors were analyzed and an assessment of system trade-offs of swath width versus number of satellites was made for achieving Global Crop Production Forecasting.

  16. SWATH-ID: An instrument method which combines identification and quantification in a single analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Burton, Lyle; Lau, Adam; Tate, Stephen

    2017-04-07

    Data-independent acquisition (DIA) approaches, such as SWATH ® -MS, are showing great potential to reliably quantify significant numbers of peptides and proteins in an unbiased manner. These developments have enhanced interest in developing a single DIA method which integrates qualitative and quantitative analysis, eliminating the need of a pre-built library of peptide spectra which are created through data-dependent acquisition (DDA) methods or from public repositories. Here we introduce a new DIA approach, referred to as "SWATH-ID", which was developed to allow peptide identification as well as quantitation. The SWATH-ID method is composed of small Q1 windows, achieving better selectivity and thus significantly improving high-confidence peptide extractions from data files. Furthermore, the SWATH-ID approach transmits precursor ions without fragmentation as well as their fragments within the same SWATH acquisition period. This provides a single scan which includes all precursor ions within the isolation window as well as a record of all of their fragment ions, substantially negating the need for a survey scan. In this way all precursors present in a small Q1 window are associated with their fragment ions, improving the identification specificity and providing a more comprehensive and in-depth view of protein and peptide species in complex samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. SWATH Mass Spectrometry Performance Using Extended Peptide MS/MS Assay Libraries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jemma X.; Song, Xiaomin; Pascovici, Dana; Zaw, Thiri; Care, Natasha; Krisp, Christoph; Molloy, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    The use of data-independent acquisition methods such as SWATH for mass spectrometry based proteomics is usually performed with peptide MS/MS assay libraries which enable identification and quantitation of peptide peak areas. Reference assay libraries can be generated locally through information dependent acquisition, or obtained from community data repositories for commonly studied organisms. However, there have been no studies performed to systematically evaluate how locally generated or repository-based assay libraries affect SWATH performance for proteomic studies. To undertake this analysis, we developed a software workflow, SwathXtend, which generates extended peptide assay libraries by integration with a local seed library and delivers statistical analysis of SWATH-quantitative comparisons. We designed test samples using peptides from a yeast extract spiked into peptides from human K562 cell lysates at three different ratios to simulate protein abundance change comparisons. SWATH-MS performance was assessed using local and external assay libraries of varying complexities and proteome compositions. These experiments demonstrated that local seed libraries integrated with external assay libraries achieve better performance than local assay libraries alone, in terms of the number of identified peptides and proteins and the specificity to detect differentially abundant proteins. Our findings show that the performance of extended assay libraries is influenced by the MS/MS feature similarity of the seed and external libraries, while statistical analysis using multiple testing corrections increases the statistical rigor needed when searching against large extended assay libraries. PMID:27161445

  18. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction...... are just few examples of accident scenarios where the detailed knowledge of the crushing response of ship structure is crucial for a reliable engineering analysis....

  19. [Psychopathology service on ships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Radosław; Mazurek, Tomasz; Florkowski, Antoni

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the specific engineering services and suitability of candidates for the psychophysical performance. Navy ships are equipped with equipment and weapons are controlled by electronic devices ship and crew. Advanced technology puts high demands on operator. For the ship's staff are recruited soldiers of the psychophysical characteristics predisposing to this kind of action. The paper uses personal experience to work in military units of the Navy, and data from the literature. Terms of sailing ships off the summer season are defined as difficult. The crew during a combat mission felt the risks associated with movements of the ship in difficult meteorological conditions, and associated with the implementation of the task. The development of ship's technical equipment, working in isolated groups, functioning within a limited space, noise, vibration, electromagnetic waves heighten the emotional burden on crew members. Military service on Navy ships require high psycho-physical predisposition, resistance to stress. The crucial factor is proper selection among the candidates based on psychiatric and psychological counseling for military and medical jurisprudence. Also plays a significant role for training doctors and specialists in psychoprophylaxy of military units in the field of mental hygiene.

  20. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...... are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state-of-the art...

  1. SwathProfiler and NProfiler: Two new ArcGIS Add-ins for the automatic extraction of swath and normalized river profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Peña, J. V.; Al-Awabdeh, M.; Azañón, J. M.; Galve, J. P.; Booth-Rea, G.; Notti, D.

    2017-07-01

    The present-day great availability of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models has improved tectonic geomorphology analyses in their methodological aspects and geological meaning. Analyses based on topographic profiles are valuable to explore the short and long-term landscape response to tectonic activity and climate changes. Swath and river longitudinal profiles are two of the most used analysis to explore the long and short-term landscape responses. Most of these morphometric analyses are conducted in GIS software, which have become standard tools for analyzing drainage network metrics. In this work we present two ArcGIS Add-Ins to automatically delineate swath and normalized river profiles. Both tools are programmed in Visual Basic . NET and use ArcObjects library-architecture to access directly to vector and raster data. The SwathProfiler Add-In allows analyzing the topography within a swath or band by representing maximum-minimum-mean elevations, first and third quartile, local relief and hypsometry. We have defined a new transverse hypsometric integral index (THi) that analyzes hypsometry along the swath and offer valuable information in these kind of graphics. The NProfiler Add-In allows representing longitudinal normalized river profiles and their related morphometric indexes as normalized concavity (CT), maximum concavity (Cmax) and length of maximum concavity (Lmax). Both tools facilitate the spatial analysis of topography and drainage networks directly in a GIS environment as ArcMap and provide graphical outputs. To illustrate how these tools work, we analyzed two study areas, the Sierra Alhamilla mountain range (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) and the Eastern margin of the Dead Sea (Jordan). The first study area has been recently studied from a morphotectonic perspective and these new tools can show an added value to the previous studies. The second study area has not been analyzed by quantitative tectonic geomorphology and the results suggest a landscape

  2. Civilian nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

  3. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  4. Optimization in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...

  5. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  6. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...... (GPUs) can provide the basis for efficient simulations in combination with an accurate free-surface model for Ship-Ship simulation. Another area of application is the determination of wave disturbances from a ship in a coastal environment, channels and harbours. The model proposed in the following can...

  8. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  9. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km (MOD021KM) contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4...

  10. Recent situations around nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The philosophy when the safety standard for nuclear ships is drawn up and the international rules specifically for nuclear ships are summarized. As for the safety standard for nuclear ships, the safety requirements for ordinary ships, for the ships transporting nuclear reactors, for ordinary nuclear reactors, and for the reactors moving around the seas must be included. As for the international rules for nuclear ships, there are chapter 8 ''Nuclear ships'' in the International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 and 1974, and Safety Consideration in the Use of Ports and Approaches by Nuclear Merchant Ships. Also there are national rules and standards in Japan and foreign countries. One of the means to explore the practicality of nuclear ships is the investigation of the economy. At this time, the social merits and demerits of nuclear ships must be compared with conventional ships by taking total expenses into account without omission. When oil is depleted, the age of nuclear ships will not necessarily begin, and the will be still some competitors. The investigations concerning the economy of nuclear ships have been carried out in various countries. The present state of the development of nuclear ships in Japan and foreign countries is explained. Many conferences and symposia have been held concerning nuclear ships, and those held recently are enumerated. The realization of nuclear ship age cannot be anticipated from existing papers and shipbuilding projects. (Kako, I.)

  11. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  12. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  13. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  14. Ship operations report, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The NOAA Fleet Operations Report 1973 was developed to provide a summary of project accomplishments during calendar year 1973. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. Centralized management of the NOAA Fleet was finalized by changing the operational control of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Ships DAVID STARR JORDAN (FRS 44), TOWNSEND CROMWELL (FRS 43) and MURRE II (FRV 63) from NMFS to the National Ocean Survey on July 1, 1973. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  15. Automated ship image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  16. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  17. Combined Inkjet Printing and Infrared Sintering of Silver Nanoparticles using a Swathe-by-Swathe and Layer-by-Layer Approach for 3-Dimensional Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Simonelli, Marco; Saleh, Ehab; Senin, Nicola; Wildman, Ricky D; Hague, Richard J M; Leach, Richard K; Tuck, Christopher J

    2017-02-22

    Despite the advancement of additive manufacturing (AM)/3-dimensional (3D) printing, single-step fabrication of multifunctional parts using AM is limited. With the view of enabling multifunctional AM (MFAM), in this study, sintering of metal nanoparticles was performed to obtain conductivity for continuous line inkjet printing of electronics. This was achieved using a bespoke three-dimensional (3D) inkjet-printing machine, JETx, capable of printing a range of materials and utilizing different post processing procedures to print multilayered 3D structures in a single manufacturing step. Multiple layers of silver were printed from an ink containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and infrared sintered using a swathe-by-swathe (SS) and layer-by-layer sintering (LS) regime. The differences in the heat profile for the SS and LS was observed to influence the coalescence of the AgNPs. Void percentage of both SS and LS samples was higher toward the top layer than the bottom layer due to relatively less IR exposure in the top than the bottom. The results depicted a homogeneous microstructure for LS of AgNPs and showed less deformation compared to the SS. Electrical resistivity of the LS tracks (13.6 ± 1 μΩ cm) was lower than the SS tracks (22.5 ± 1 μΩ cm). This study recommends the use of LS method to sinter the AgNPs to obtain a conductive track in 25% less time than SS method for MFAM.

  18. Improving Protein Detection Confidence Using SWATH-Mass Spectrometry with Large Peptide Reference Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jemma X; Pascovici, Dana; Ignjatovic, Vera; Song, Xiaomin; Krisp, Christoph; Molloy, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    Protein quantification using data-independent acquisition methods such as SWATH-MS most commonly relies on spectral matching to a reference MS/MS assay library. To enable deep proteome coverage and efficient use of existing data, in silico approaches have been described to use archived or publicly available large reference spectral libraries for spectral matching. Since implicit in the use of larger libraries is the increasing likelihood of false-discoveries, new workflows are needed to ensure high confidence in protein matching under these conditions. We present a workflow which introduces a range of filters and thresholds aimed at increasing confidence that the resulting proteins are reliably detected and their quantitation is consistent and reproducible. We demonstrated the workflow using extended libraries with SWATH data from human plasma samples and yeast-spiked human K562 cell lysate digest. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  20. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  1. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    avocados on their journey from the trees in Africa, to the retail shelves in Europe, revealing the plethora of organizations, activities and documents involved. The implication being that containerized shipping becomes inefficiently; costly, unreliably, and risky. These are posited as the major impediments...

  2. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  3. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...... are described. The literature within each group is reviewed, much of it for the first time....

  4. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Sea Ice Extent 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Sea Ice Extent 5-Min L2 Swath 1km (MOD29) contains the following fields: sea ice by reflectance, sea ice by reflectance pixel...

  5. MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km (MYDCSR_G) provides a variety of statistical measures that characterize observed...

  6. MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is data set "MODIS/AQUA Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min 2 Swath 10 km" See the MODIS Science Team homepage for more dataset...

  7. OMPS/NPP PCA SO2 Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 50x50km NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

  8. NPP/VIIRS Moderate-Resolution Dual Gain Bands Calibrated Radiance 6-Min L1B Swath 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level-1 and Level-2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  9. MODIS/Terra Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km (MODCSR_G) provides a variety of, statistical measures that characterize...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m, Version 006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m (MYD10_L2) data set contains snow cover and Quality Assessment (QA) data, latitudes and longitudes...

  11. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11_L2 version 6 swath product provides per-pixel land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity. The product is produced daily in 5-minute temporal increments...

  12. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11_L2 version 6 swath product provides per-pixel land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity. The product is produced daily in 5-minute temporal increments...

  13. VIIRS/NPP Day/Night Band 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The Day/Night...

  14. Highly resolved global distribution of tropospheric NO2 using GOME narrow swath mode data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beirle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME allows the retrieval of tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs of NO2 on a global scale. Regions with enhanced industrial activity can clearly be detected, but the standard spatial resolution of the GOME ground pixels (320x40km2 is insufficient to resolve regional trace gas distributions or individual cities. Every 10 days within the nominal GOME operation, measurements are executed in the so called narrow swath mode with a much better spatial resolution (80x40km2. We use this data (1997-2001 to construct a detailed picture of the mean global tropospheric NO2 distribution. Since - due to the narrow swath - the global coverage of the high resolution observations is rather poor, it has proved to be essential to deseasonalize the single narrow swath mode observations to retrieve adequate mean maps. This is done by using the GOME backscan information. The retrieved high resolution map illustrates the shortcomings of the standard size GOME pixels and reveals an unprecedented wealth of details in the global distribution of tropospheric NO2. Localised spots of enhanced NO2 VCD can be directly associated to cities, heavy industry centers and even large power plants. Thus our result helps to check emission inventories. The small spatial extent of NO2 'hot spots' allows us to estimate an upper limit of the mean lifetime of boundary layer NOx of 17h on a global scale. The long time series of GOME data allows a quantitative comparison of the narrow swath mode data to the nominal resolution. Thus we can analyse the dependency of NO2 VCDs on pixel size. This is important for comparing GOME data to results of new satellite instruments like SCIAMACHY (launched March 2002 on ENVISAT, OMI (launched July 2004 on AURA or GOME II (to be launched 2005 with an improved spatial resolution.

  15. Means to achieve wide swath widths in synthetic aperture satellite borne radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The radar range equation including processing gains for pulse compression and synthetic aperture generation was the starting point. System geometry considerations were introduced. For simplicity, flat earth geometry was used, although it was realized that this was not a good model for satellite-borne radars. Next, the constraints were introduced. These included those needed to avoid ambiguities in both range and azimuth, those needed to acheive the desired resolution, and those needed to achieve the desired swath width.

  16. Definition of a RACK1 Interaction Network in Drosophila melanogaster Using SWATH-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Lauriane; Majzoub, Karim; Einhorn, Evelyne; Chicher, Johana; Pompon, Julien; Imler, Jean-Luc; Hammann, Philippe; Meignin, Carine

    2017-07-05

    Receptor for Activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1) is a scaffold protein that has been found in association with several signaling complexes, and with the 40S subunit of the ribosome. Using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster , we recently showed that RACK1 is required at the ribosome for internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of viruses. Here, we report a proteomic characterization of the interactome of RACK1 in Drosophila S2 cells. We carried out Label-Free quantitation using both Data-Dependent and Data-Independent Acquisition (DDA and DIA, respectively) and observed a significant advantage for the Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) method, both in terms of identification of interactants and quantification of low abundance proteins. These data represent the first SWATH spectral library available for Drosophila and will be a useful resource for the community. A total of 52 interacting proteins were identified, including several molecules involved in translation such as structural components of the ribosome, factors regulating translation initiation or elongation, and RNA binding proteins. Among these 52 proteins, 15 were identified as partners by the SWATH strategy only. Interestingly, these 15 proteins are significantly enriched for the functions translation and nucleic acid binding. This enrichment reflects the engagement of RACK1 at the ribosome and highlights the added value of SWATH analysis. A functional screen did not reveal any protein sharing the interesting properties of RACK1, which is required for IRES-dependent translation and not essential for cell viability. Intriguingly however, 10 of the RACK1 partners identified restrict replication of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), an IRES-containing virus. Copyright © 2017 Kuhn et al.

  17. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  18. Added masses of ship structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  19. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL BIO-NONWOVEN FABRICS FOR EYES'S SWATH AND DIAPERS FOR INFANT'S INCUBATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElSayed A. ElNashar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An infant incubator is a piece of equipment common to pediatric hospitals, birthing centers and neonatal intensive care units. While the unit may serve several specific functions, it is generally used to provide a safe and stable environment for newborn infants, often those who were born prematurely or with an illness or disability that makes them especially vulnerable for the first several months of life. The objective of this research was to gain a better understanding of New Approach for a Bio-Nonwoven fabrics and infant's incubator in terms of the specific materials as MaterBi/PCL® as Bioplastic and the elements of comfort, drivers associated with it and its waste biodegradation by different methods. Shortly after birth, the beginning in first hours of life babies with neonatal, a byproduct of the red blood cells decomposition. Many convenient features to consider with tow basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers on infant’s incubator options: cloth of basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers, with their end use properties. The form design of eyes` swathe® and diapers® shapes, for infant’s incubator stage then consider convenience, cost, and environmental waste.

  1. Trends of shipping markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  2. Ship and Shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  3. Global Shipping Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    CDR Ed Suraci, and Mr. Leif Bergey . Cell Support: Each cell had an assigned data collection support assistant. These personnel assisted the players...Mr. Leif Bergey (Control Cell). Ethnographers (Environmental Recorders): Employed a variety of quasi-anthropological, ethnographic techniques to...for this project was Mr. Leif Bergey . Global Shipping Game Report 20 7 / 14 7 / 5 19 / 8 3 / 10 III. ANALYSIS

  4. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Document Server

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  5. Ship Model Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    zero degrees angle of attack than the conventional foil at eight degrees angle of attack . This increase in lift is believed to be limited to low...Bureau of Shipping (ABS) supported this effort through the purchase of the 60 specimens used in this thesis. Metal Shark boats also provided aluminum...strength of welded aluminum panels. Metal Shark Boats, again, provided the necessary test panels for this effort. The optical extensometer was not

  6. An ML-Based Radial Velocity Estimation Algorithm for Moving Targets in Spaceborne High-Resolution and Wide-Swath SAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Jin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR is a significant breakthrough to the inherent limitation between high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS compared with conventional SAR. Moving target indication (MTI is an important application of spaceborne HRWS SAR systems. In contrast to previous studies of SAR MTI, the HRWS SAR mainly faces the problem of under-sampled data of each channel, causing single-channel imaging and processing to be infeasible. In this study, the estimation of velocity is equivalent to the estimation of the cone angle according to their relationship. The maximum likelihood (ML based algorithm is proposed to estimate the radial velocity in the existence of Doppler ambiguities. After that, the signal reconstruction and compensation for the phase offset caused by radial velocity are processed for a moving target. Finally, the traditional imaging algorithm is applied to obtain a focused moving target image. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the estimator under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR. Furthermore, the performance is analyzed with respect to the motion ship that experiences interference due to different distributions of sea clutter. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient with low computational complexity. This paper aims at providing a solution to the velocity estimation problem in the future HRWS SAR systems with multiple receive channels.

  7. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  8. Defining and Verifying Research Grade Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, C. C.

    2004-12-01

    The first and primary goal of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM), operated jointly by the University of Florida and the University of California, Berkeley, is to make "research grade" ALSM data widely available at affordable cost to the national scientific community. Cost aside, researchers need to know what NCALM considers research grade data and how the quality of the data is verified, to be able to determine the likelihood that the data they receive will meet their project specific requirements. Given the current state of the technology it is reasonable to expect a well planned and executed survey to produce surface elevations with uncertainties less than 10 centimeters and horizontal uncertainties of a few decimeters. Various components of the total error are generally associated with the aircraft trajectory, aircraft orientation, or laser vectors. Aircraft trajectory error is dependent largely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, aircraft orientation on Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) observations, and laser vectors on the scanning and ranging instrumentation. In addition to the issue of the precision or accuracy of the coordinates of the surface points, consideration must also be given to the point-to-point spacing and voids in the coverage. The major sources of error produce distinct artifacts in the data set. For example, aircraft trajectory errors tend to change slowly as the satellite constellation geometry varies, producing slopes within swaths and offsets between swaths. Roll, pitch and yaw biases in the IMU observations tend to persist through whole flights, and created distinctive artifacts in the swath overlap areas. Errors in the zero-point and scale of the laser scanner cause the edges of swaths to turn up or down. Range walk errors cause offsets between bright and dark surfaces, causing paint stripes to float above the dark surfaces of roads. The three keys to producing

  9. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  10. Operational options for green ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  11. Ship Classification with High Resolution TerraSAR-X Imagery Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ship surveillance using space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR, taking advantages of high resolution over wide swaths and all-weather working capability, has attracted worldwide attention. Recent activity in this field has concentrated mainly on the study of ship detection, but the classification is largely still open. In this paper, we propose a novel ship classification scheme based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP in order to achieve better performance. The main idea is to apply AHP on both feature selection and classification decision. On one hand, the AHP based feature selection constructs a selection decision problem based on several feature evaluation measures (e.g., discriminability, stability, and information measure and provides objective criteria to make comprehensive decisions for their combinations quantitatively. On the other hand, we take the selected feature sets as the input of KNN classifiers and fuse the multiple classification results based on AHP, in which the feature sets’ confidence is taken into account when the AHP based classification decision is made. We analyze the proposed classification scheme and demonstrate its results on a ship dataset that comes from TerraSAR-X SAR images.

  12. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  13. Machinery Options for Green Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Sherbaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shipping is critical to global economy being means of transportation for 90 % of world trade goods. Shipping continues to remain the most environmental friendly transportation option compared to other available means due to lowest gCO2/ton.km emissions. It can however not be overlooked that shipping is responsible for 3 % of global CO2 emissions, 14-15 % of global NOX emissions and 16 % of global SOX emissions. International Maritime Organization (IMO is committed to reducing shipping emissions through policy and regulatory measures. Marine Pollution (MARPOL regulations have been increasingly demanding to tackle aggravating environmental concerns. IMO has been introducing measures for better energy-effectiveness (i.e. SEEMP in addition to better environmental performance (i.e. EEDI. Green ship concepts require exploring and implementing technologies and practices on ships to reduce emissions and increase energy-efficiency. Ship machinery is an important area with large potential to reduce emissions and increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the machinery options for green ship. The author will discuss basic concepts, principles and potential of machinery options for green ship in detail.

  14. ERDC Ship/Tow Simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Performing Advanced Hydrodynamic ModelingEngineers and ship pilots can now overcome the challenges of evaluating navigation channel designs, modifications and safety...

  15. Multichannel High Resolution Wide Swath SAR Imaging for Hypersonic Air Vehicle with Curved Trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Sun, Jinping; Hu, Yuxin; Qi, Yaolong

    2018-01-31

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped on the hypersonic air vehicle in near space has many advantages over the conventional airborne SAR. However, its high-speed maneuvering characteristics with curved trajectory result in serious range migration, and exacerbate the contradiction between the high resolution and wide swath. To solve this problem, this paper establishes the imaging geometrical model matched with the flight trajectory of the hypersonic platform and the multichannel azimuth sampling model based on the displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) technology. Furthermore, based on the multichannel signal reconstruction theory, a more efficient spectrum reconstruction model using discrete Fourier transform is proposed to obtain the azimuth uniform sampling data. Due to the high complexity of the slant range model, it is difficult to deduce the processing algorithm for SAR imaging. Thus, an approximate range model is derived based on the minimax criterion, and the optimal second-order approximate coefficients of cosine function are obtained using the two-population coevolutionary algorithm. On this basis, aiming at the problem that the traditional Omega-K algorithm cannot compensate the residual phase with the difficulty of Stolt mapping along the range frequency axis, this paper proposes an Exact Transfer Function (ETF) algorithm for SAR imaging, and presents a method of range division to achieve wide swath imaging. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the ETF imaging algorithm.

  16. Testing Suitability of Cell Cultures for SILAC-Experiments Using SWATH-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Yvonne; Völler, Daniel; Bosserhoff, Anja-K; Oefner, Peter J; Reinders, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Precise quantification is a major issue in contemporary proteomics. Both stable-isotope-labeling and label-free methods have been established for differential protein quantification and both approaches have different advantages and disadvantages. The present protocol uses the superior precision of label-free SWATH-mass spectrometry to test for suitability of cell lines for a SILAC-labeling approach as systematic regulations may be introduced upon incorporation of the "heavy" amino acids. The SILAC-labeled cell cultures can afterwards be used for further analyses where stable-isotope-labeling is mandatory or has substantial advantages over label-free approaches such as pulse-chase-experiments and differential protein interaction analyses based on co-immunoprecipitation. As SWATH-mass spectrometry avoids the missing-value-problem typically caused by undersampling in highly complex samples and shows superior precision for the quantification, it is better suited for the detection of systematic changes caused by the SILAC-labeling and thus, can serve as a useful tool to test cell lines for changes upon SILAC-labeling.

  17. Spectral Libraries for SWATH-MS Assays for Drosophila melanogaster and Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Bertrand; Korona, Dagmara; Mata, Clara I; Parsons, Harriet T; Deery, Michael J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Russell, Steven; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative proteomics methods have emerged as powerful tools for measuring protein expression changes at the proteome level. Using MS-based approaches, it is now possible to routinely quantify thousands of proteins. However, prefractionation of the samples at the protein or peptide level is usually necessary to go deep into the proteome, increasing both MS analysis time and technical variability. Recently, a new MS acquisition method named SWATH is introduced with the potential to provide good coverage of the proteome as well as a good measurement precision without prior sample fractionation. In contrast to shotgun-based MS however, a library containing experimental acquired spectra is necessary for the bioinformatics analysis of SWATH data. In this study, spectral libraries for two widely used models are built to study crop ripening or animal embryogenesis, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. The spectral libraries comprise fragments for 5197 and 6040 proteins for S. lycopersicum and D. melanogaster, respectively, and allow reproducible quantification for thousands of peptides per MS analysis. The spectral libraries and all MS data are available in the MassIVE repository with the dataset identifiers MSV000081074 and MSV000081075 and the PRIDE repository with the dataset identifiers PXD006493 and PXD006495. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 46 CFR 154.1820 - Shipping document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping document. 154.1820 Section 154.1820 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1820 Shipping document. No person may operate a vessel without carrying a shipping document in the wheelhouse that lists for each...

  19. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  20. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of difficulties associated with control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance...... limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...... and the applicability of different mathematical models, and it surveys the control methods that have been implemented and validated with full scale experiments. The paper also presents an outlook on what are believed to be potential areas of research within this topic....

  1. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  2. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical

  3. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Duncan, J.; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical

  4. Navy Hospital ships in history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougat Ray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital ships are operated by the Naval forces in or near war zones to provide medical assistance to the wounded personnel of all nationalities and not be used for any military purpose. Hospital ships possibly existed in ancient times and the Athenian Navy had a ship named Therapia. However, it was only during the 17th century that it became a common practice for the naval squadrons to be accompanied by large ships with the facilities of carrying the wounded after each engagement. In 1860, the steamships HMS Melbourne and HMS Mauritius were equipped with genuine medical facilities. They were manned by the Medical Staff Corps and provided services to the British expedition to China. During the World War I and World War II, passenger ships were converted for use as hospital ships and were started to be used on a massive scale. RMS Aquitania and HMHS Britannic were two famous examples of hospital ships used extensively. Modern US hospital ships USNS Mercy and USNS Comfort are operated by Military Sealift Command of the US Navy. Their primary mission is to provide emergency on-site care for US combatant forces deployed in war or other operations.

  5. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  6. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Geolocation Fields 1km 5-Min 1A Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC03S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  8. MODIS/Aqua Geolocation Fields 1km 5-Min 1A Wide Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC03S1) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the wide-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the wide-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  9. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 10km 5-Min L2 Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC04S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 250m 5-Min L1B Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC02QS0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 250m 5-Min L1B Wide Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC02QS1) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the wide-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the wide-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  12. Evaluating watershed protection programs in New York City's Cannonsville Reservoir source watershed using SWAT-HS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, L.; Mukundan, R.; Moore, K. E.; Owens, E. M.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    New York City (NYC)'s reservoirs supply over one billion gallons of drinking water each day to over nine million consumers in NYC and upstate communities. The City has invested more than $1.5 billion in watershed protection programs to maintain a waiver from filtration for the Catskill and Delaware Systems. In the last 25 years, the NYC Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) has implemented programs in cooperation with upstate communities that include nutrient management, crop rotations, improvement of barnyards and manure storage, implementing tertiary treatment for Phosphorus (P) in wastewater treatment plants, and replacing failed septic systems in an effort to reduce P loads to water supply reservoirs. There have been several modeling studies evaluating the effect of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) on P control in the Cannonsville watershed in the Delaware System. Although these studies showed that BMPs would reduce dissolved P losses, they were limited to farm-scale or watershed-scale estimates of reduction factors without consideration of the dynamic nature of overland flow and P losses from variable source areas. Recently, we developed the process-based SWAT-Hillslope (SWAT-HS) model, a modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) that can realistically predict variable source runoff processes. The objective of this study is to use the SWAT-HS model to evaluate watershed protection programs addressing both point and non-point sources of P. SWAT-HS predicts streamflow very well for the Cannonsville watershed with a daily Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.85 at the watershed outlet and NSE values ranging from 0.56 - 0.82 at five other locations within the watershed. Based on good hydrological prediction, we applied the model to predict P loads using detailed P inputs that change over time due to the implementation of watershed protection programs. Results from P model predictions provide improved projections of P

  13. Comparing global-scale topographic and climatic metrics to long-term erosion rates using ArcSwath, an efficient new ArcGIS tool for swath profile analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Niclas; Whipp, David

    2016-04-01

    The topography of the Earth's surface is the result of the interaction of tectonics, erosion and climate. Thus, topography should contain a record of these processes that can be extracted by topographic analysis. The question considered in this study is whether the spatial variations in erosion that have sculpted the modern topography are representative of the long-term erosion rates in mountainous regions. We compare long-term erosion rates derived from low-temperature thermochronometry to erosional proxies calculated from topographic and climatic data analysis. The study has been performed on a global scale including six orogens: The Himalaya, Andes, Taiwan, Olympic Mountains, Southern Alps in New Zealand and European Alps. The data was analyzed using a new swath profile analysis tool for ArcGIS called ArcSwath (https://github.com/HUGG/ArcSwath) to determine the correlations between the long-term erosion rates and modern elevations, slope angles, relief in 2.5-km- and 5-km-diameter circles, erosion potential, normalized channel steepness index ksn, and annual rainfall. ArcSwath uses a Python script that has been incorporated into an ArcMap 10.2 add-in tool, extracting swath profiles in about ten seconds compared to earlier workflows that could take more than an hour. In ArcMap, UTM-projected point or raster files can be used for creating swath profiles. Point data are projected onto the swath and the statistical parameters (minimum, mean and maximum of the values across the swath) are calculated for the raster data. Both can be immediately plotted using the Python matplotlib library, or plotted externally using the csv-file that is produced by ArcSwath. When raster and point data are plotted together, it is easier to make comparisons and see correlations between the selected data. An unambiguous correlation between the topographic or climatic metrics and long-term erosion rates was not found. Fitting of linear regression lines to the topographic/ climatic metric

  14. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km (MYD07_L2). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing...

  15. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m, Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m (MOD10_L2) contains snow cover and quality assurance (QA) data, latitudes, and longitudes in HDF-EOS...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km (MYD05_L2). MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am equator...

  17. ASTC-MIMO-TOPS Mode with Digital Beam-Forming in Elevation for High-Resolution Wide-Swath Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Future spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR missions require complete and frequent coverage of the earth with a high resolution. Terrain Observation by Progressive Scans (TOPS is a novel wide swath mode but has impaired azimuth resolution. In this paper, an innovative extended TOPS mode named Alamouti Space-time Coding multiple-input multiple-output TOPS (ASTC-MIMO-TOPS mode combined with digital beam-forming (DBF in elevation and multi-aperture SAR signal reconstruction in azimuth is proposed. This innovative mode achieves wide-swath coverage with a high geometric resolution and also overcomes major drawbacks in conventional MIMO SAR systems. The data processing scheme of this imaging scheme is presented in detail. The designed system example of the proposed ASTC-MIMO-TOPS mode, which has the imaging capacity of a 400 km wide swath with an azimuth resolution of 3 m, is given. Its system performance analysis results and simulated imaging results on point targets demonstrate the potential of the proposed novel spaceborne SAR mode for high-resolution wide-swath (HRWS imaging.

  18. MODIS/Aqua L2 Surface Reflectance, 5-Min Swath 250m, 500m, and 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua L2 Surface Reflectance, 5-Min Swath 250m, 500m, and 1km (MYD09). This product is computed from the MODIS Level 1B land bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7...

  19. A method to eliminate refraction artifacts in EM1002 multibeam echosounder system (Swath bathymetry and seabed surveys of EEZ)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.

    - NIO/TR-01/2011 A METHOD TO ELIMINATE REFRACTION ARTIFACTS IN EM1002 MULTIBEAM ECHOSOUNDER SYSTEM (Swath Bathymetry & Seabed Surveys of Exclusive Economic Zone) By WILLIAM A. FERNANDES... are extracted. This information is written in a defined packet type format (binary) to an output file. A Method Employed to Eliminate Refraction Artifacts in EM1002 Multibeam Echosounder 2011...

  20. Precise Temporal Profiling of Signaling Complexes in Primary Cells Using SWATH Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Caron

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal organization of protein interactions in cell signaling is a fundamental process that drives cellular functions. Given differential protein expression across tissues and developmental stages, the architecture and dynamics of signaling interaction proteomes is, likely, highly context dependent. However, current interaction information has been almost exclusively obtained from transformed cells. In this study, we applied an advanced and robust workflow combining mouse genetics and affinity purification (AP-SWATH mass spectrometry to profile the dynamics of 53 high-confidence protein interactions in primary T cells, using the scaffold protein GRB2 as a model. The workflow also provided a sufficient level of robustness to pinpoint differential interaction dynamics between two similar, but functionally distinct, primary T cell populations. Altogether, we demonstrated that precise and reproducible quantitative measurements of protein interaction dynamics can be achieved in primary cells isolated from mammalian tissues, allowing resolution of the tissue-specific context of cell-signaling events.

  1. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  2. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...... demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

  3. Neutrino physics with SHIP

    CERN Document Server

    van Herwijnen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    SHIP is a new general purpose fixed target facility, whose Technical Proposal has been recently reviewed by the CERN SPS Committee. It recommended that the experiment proceed further to a Comprehensive Design phase. In its initial phase, the 400 GeV proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2×1020 POT (Protons On Target) in 5 years. A dedicated detector, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below O(10) GeV/c 2 . The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals. The sensitivity to Heavy Neutrinos will allow to probe for the first time the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, and a range of couplings for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Another dedicated detector will allow the study of neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. ντ ...

  4. Adaptive CFAR detection of ship targets in high resolution SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi; Ji, Kefeng; Xing, Xiangwei; Zou, Huanxin

    2013-10-01

    Ship detection is significant especially with the increasing worldwide cooperation in commerce and military affairs. Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is optimal for ship detection due to its high resolution over wide swaths and all-weather working capability. Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detection of ships in SAR imagery is a robust and popular choice. K distribution has been widely accepted for homogeneous sea clutter modeling. Although localized K-distribution based CFAR detection has been developed to solve the non-homogeneous problem, it is not satisfied under adverse conditions, for example, interference target appears in the background window. In order to overcome its shortcomings, this paper presents an adaptive algorithm to improve the performance. It mainly includes the homogeneity assessment of the local background area and the automatic selection between the localized K-distribution-based CFAR detector and the OS-CFAR detector, which has better detecting performance in non-homogeneous situation. The theory is investigated in detail firstly, and then experiments are carried out and the results illustrate that the novel algorithm outperforms the state-of-art methods especially under complex sea background condition.

  5. Ship Repair Workflow Cost Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDevitt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The effects of intermittent work patterns and funding on the costs of ship repair and maintenance were modeled for the San Diego region in 2002 for Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair (SUPSHIP) San Diego...

  6. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  7. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travel Chapter 6 - Death during Travel Cruise Ship Travel Joanna J. Regan, Kara Tardivel, Susan A. Lippold, ... Insurance, & Medical Evacuation Insurance ). Box 6-01. Cruise travel health precautions ADVICE FOR CLINICIANS GIVING PRETRAVEL CRUISE ...

  8. The Surface Warfare Test Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-26

    reactivated, resulting in algae in the tanks and tank seepage. This has led to degraded fuel quality and fuel leakage into ship’s storerooms. The inherent...The cosmetic bulkhead is smooth like line 1; only 1 % of the reflected power is reflected along the sea surface. 4. Angled Bulkhead around Fantail... algae present and require continuous treatment to prevent fouling of the main engines and generators. The ship s tank system was not properly

  9. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  10. Archive of Side Scan Sonar and Swath Bathymetry Data collected during USGS Cruise 10CCT02 Offshore of Petit Bois Island Including Petit Bois Pass, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, William R.; Flocks, James G.; DeWitt, Nancy T.; Forde, Arnell S.; Kelso, Kyle; Thompson, Phillip R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys offshore of Petit Bois Island, Mississippi, and Dauphin Island, Alabama (fig. 1). These efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geologic stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorphological changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts on Ship Island, Mississippi. For more information please refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, seabed backscatter images, and ASCII x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  11. PrimeShip-ASSAS: Advanced Ship Structural Analysis and Validation System

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuharu, Tsutsui; Takuya, Yoneya; Toshiro, Koiwa; Toshiro, Arima; Shin-ichi, Yamashita; Abdul M., Rahim; Technical Investigation and Information Department; Technical Investigation and Information Department; Technical Investigation and Information Department; Research Institute; Technical Investigation and Information Department; Technical Investigation and Information Department

    1996-01-01

    The Society has been establishing a total assessment system for ship hull structures with the aim of realizing consistent hull structural assessment over the life cycle of ships. It comprises a comprehensive computer software system intended to support advanced ship structural design and assessment. This system called PrimeShip-ASSAS, the Advanced Ship Structural Analysis and Validation System, is outlined in this paper.

  12. MS1 Peptide Ion Intensity Chromatograms in MS2 (SWATH) Data Independent Acquisitions. Improving Post Acquisition Analysis of Proteomic Experiments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rardin, Matthew J.; Schilling, Birgit; Cheng, Lin-Yang; MacLean, Brendan X.; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Sahu, Alexandria K.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Vitek, Olga; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of discovery-based proteomic workflows now relies on high-throughput large-scale methods for identification and quantitation of proteins and post-translational modifications. Advancements in label-free quantitative techniques, using either data-dependent or data-independent mass spectrometric acquisitions, have coincided with improved instrumentation featuring greater precision, increased mass accuracy, and faster scan speeds. We recently reported on a new quantitative method called MS1 Filtering (Schilling et al. (2012) Mol. Cell. Proteomics 11, 202–214) for processing data-independent MS1 ion intensity chromatograms from peptide analytes using the Skyline software platform. In contrast, data-independent acquisitions from MS2 scans, or SWATH, can quantify all fragment ion intensities when reference spectra are available. As each SWATH acquisition cycle typically contains an MS1 scan, these two independent label-free quantitative approaches can be acquired in a single experiment. Here, we have expanded the capability of Skyline to extract both MS1 and MS2 ion intensity chromatograms from a single SWATH data-independent acquisition in an Integrated Dual Scan Analysis approach. The performance of both MS1 and MS2 data was examined in simple and complex samples using standard concentration curves. Cases of interferences in MS1 and MS2 ion intensity data were assessed, as were the differentiation and quantitation of phosphopeptide isomers in MS2 scan data. In addition, we demonstrated an approach for optimization of SWATH m/z window sizes to reduce interferences using MS1 scans as a guide. Finally, a correlation analysis was performed on both MS1 and MS2 ion intensity data obtained from SWATH acquisitions on a complex mixture using a linear model that automatically removes signals containing interferences. This work demonstrates the practical advantages of properly acquiring and processing MS1 precursor data in addition to MS2 fragment ion

  13. MS1 Peptide Ion Intensity Chromatograms in MS2 (SWATH) Data Independent Acquisitions. Improving Post Acquisition Analysis of Proteomic Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rardin, Matthew J; Schilling, Birgit; Cheng, Lin-Yang; MacLean, Brendan X; Sorensen, Dylan J; Sahu, Alexandria K; MacCoss, Michael J; Vitek, Olga; Gibson, Bradford W

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of discovery-based proteomic workflows now relies on high-throughput large-scale methods for identification and quantitation of proteins and post-translational modifications. Advancements in label-free quantitative techniques, using either data-dependent or data-independent mass spectrometric acquisitions, have coincided with improved instrumentation featuring greater precision, increased mass accuracy, and faster scan speeds. We recently reported on a new quantitative method called MS1 Filtering (Schilling et al. (2012) Mol. Cell. Proteomics 11, 202-214) for processing data-independent MS1 ion intensity chromatograms from peptide analytes using the Skyline software platform. In contrast, data-independent acquisitions from MS2 scans, or SWATH, can quantify all fragment ion intensities when reference spectra are available. As each SWATH acquisition cycle typically contains an MS1 scan, these two independent label-free quantitative approaches can be acquired in a single experiment. Here, we have expanded the capability of Skyline to extract both MS1 and MS2 ion intensity chromatograms from a single SWATH data-independent acquisition in an Integrated Dual Scan Analysis approach. The performance of both MS1 and MS2 data was examined in simple and complex samples using standard concentration curves. Cases of interferences in MS1 and MS2 ion intensity data were assessed, as were the differentiation and quantitation of phosphopeptide isomers in MS2 scan data. In addition, we demonstrated an approach for optimization of SWATH m/z window sizes to reduce interferences using MS1 scans as a guide. Finally, a correlation analysis was performed on both MS1 and MS2 ion intensity data obtained from SWATH acquisitions on a complex mixture using a linear model that automatically removes signals containing interferences. This work demonstrates the practical advantages of properly acquiring and processing MS1 precursor data in addition to MS2 fragment ion

  14. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a simplified ship collision analysis tool in order to rapidly estimate the structural damage and energy absorption of both striking and struck ships as well as prediction of rupture of cargo oil tanks of struck tankers. The present tool calculates external...... to the collision scenario thatwhere a VLCC in ballast condition collides perpendicularly with the mid part of another D/H VLCC in fully loaded condition. The results obtained from the present tool are compared with those obtained by large scale FEA, and fairy good agreements are achieved. The applicability...

  15. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    A disastrous oil spill from a struck oil tanker has become one of the major problems in view of conservation of maritime environment. So far double hulls (D/H) have been introduced to reduce the consequences of collision and grounding events In order to further reduce the oil spill from struck oil...... structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where...

  16. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... of our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory...

  17. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get underway...

  18. ROI-ORIENTATED SENSOR CORRECTION BASED ON VIRTUAL STEADY REIMAGING MODEL FOR WIDE SWATH HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirement of high accuracy and high speed processing for wide swath high resolution optical satellite imagery under emergency situation in both ground processing system and on-board processing system. This paper proposed a ROI-orientated sensor correction algorithm based on virtual steady reimaging model for wide swath high resolution optical satellite imagery. Firstly, the imaging time and spatial window of the ROI is determined by a dynamic search method. Then, the dynamic ROI sensor correction model based on virtual steady reimaging model is constructed. Finally, the corrected image corresponding to the ROI is generated based on the coordinates mapping relationship which is established by the dynamic sensor correction model for corrected image and rigours imaging model for original image. Two experimental results show that the image registration between panchromatic and multispectral images can be well achieved and the image distortion caused by satellite jitter can be also corrected efficiently.

  19. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  20. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  1. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMMYDCLD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  2. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital V2 (OMPS_NPP_NMSO2_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

  3. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital V2 (OMPS_NPP_NMNO2_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved nitrogen dioxide (NO2)...

  4. Advanced L-Band SAR System Concepts for High-Resolution Ultra-Wide-Swath SAR Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Gerhard; Queiroz de Almeida, Felipe; Huber, Sigurd; Villano, Michelangelo; Younis, Marwan; Moreira, Alberto; del Castillo, Javier; Rodriguez-Cassola, Marc; Prats, Pau; Petrolati, Daniele; Ludwig, Michael; Buck, C.; Suess, Martin; Gebert, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews multichannel SAR instrument architectures, modes and processing techniques for the imaging of ultra-wide swaths with high azimuth resolution. The review includes both direct radiating arrays and reflector-based system architectures that are operated in either a single-transmit multiple-receive (SIMO) or in a multiple-transmit multiple-receive (MIMO) mode. The work has been conducted by DLR under the ESA contract -Advanced Processing Techniques for Next Generation Multichann...

  5. The use of LC predicted retention times to extend metabolites identification with SWATH data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Tobias; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2017-12-15

    The application of predicted LC retention time to support metabolite identification was evaluated for a metabolomics MS/MS database containing 532 compounds representative for the major human metabolite classes. LC retention times could be measured for two C18 type columns using a mobile phase of pH=3.0 for positive ESI mode (n=337, 228) and pH=8.0 for negative ESI mode (n=410, 233). A QSRR modelling was applied with a small set of model compound selected based on the Kennard-Stone algorithm. The models were implemented in the R environment and can be applied to any library. The prediction model was built with two molecular descriptors, LogD2 and the molecular volume. A limited set of model compounds (LC CalMix, n=16) could be validated on two different C18 reversed phase LC columns and with comparable prediction accuracy. The CalMix can be used to compensate for different LC systems. In addition, LC retention prediction was found, in combination with SWATH-MS, to be attractive to eliminate false positive identification as well as for ranking purpose different metabolite isomeric forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SWATH-MS data of Drosophila melanogaster proteome dynamics during embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Fabre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenesis is one of the most important processes in the life of an animal. During this dynamic process, progressive cell division and cellular differentiation are accompanied by significant changes in protein expression at the level of the proteome. However, very few studies to date have described the dynamics of the proteome during the early development of an embryo in any organism. In this dataset, we monitor changes in protein expression across a timecourse of more than 20 h of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic development. Mass-spectrometry data were produced using a SWATH acquisition mode on a Sciex Triple-TOF 6600. A spectral library built in-house was used to analyse these data and more than 1950 proteins were quantified at each embryonic timepoint. The files presented here are a permanent digital map and can be reanalysed to test against new hypotheses. The data have been deposited with the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD0031078.

  7. Ships - inspiring objects in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living - is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis of

  8. Quality management in shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đergović Dragana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As international business becomes more competitive, companies are finding that they need to work more effectively to stay in business. Quality assurance has become very important to the majority of production and service companies with international activity. Shipping companies were also required to implement a quality management system. The huge importance of safety in maritime transport operations resulted in the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code by the International Maritime Organization. The general management system principles embodied by the maritime ISM Code and generics ISO standards, have enabled their complementary application in establishing a quality management system in shipping companies, within a safety management system as its subset.

  9. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  10. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...

  11. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...

  12. Visualization of Ship Risk Profiles for the Shipping Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); M. van de Velden (Michel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article uses correspondence analysis to visualize risk profiles and their changes over the time period 1977 to 2008. It is based on a unique dataset which combines incident data and ship particular data. The risk profiles can help stakeholders better understand the relationship of

  13. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  14. Application of SWAT-HS, a lumped hillslope model to simulate hydrology in the Cannonsville Reservoir watershed, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Linh; Schneiderman, Elliot; Mukundan, Rajith; Moore, Karen; Owens, Emmet; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2017-04-01

    Surface runoff is the primary mechanism transporting substances such as sediments, agricultural chemicals, and pathogens to receiving waters. In order to predict runoff and pollutant fluxes, and to evaluate management practices, it is essential to accurately predict the areas generating surface runoff, which depend on the type of runoff: infiltration-excess runoff and saturation-excess runoff. The watershed of Cannonsville reservoir is part of the New York City water supply system that provides high quality drinking water to nine million people in New York City (NYC) and nearby communities. Previous research identified saturation-excess runoff as the dominant runoff mechanism in this region. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a promising tool to simulate the NYC watershed given its broad application and good performance in many watersheds with different scales worldwide, for its ability to model water quality responses, and to evaluate the effect of management practices on water quality at the watershed scale. However, SWAT predicts runoff based mainly on soil and land use characteristics, and implicitly considers only infiltration-excess runoff. Therefore, we developed a modified version of SWAT, referred to as SWAT-Hillslope (SWAT-HS), which explicitly simulates saturation-excess runoff by redefining Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) based on wetness classes with varying soil water storage capacities, and by introducing a surface aquifer with the ability to route interflow from "drier" to "wetter" wetness classes. SWAT-HS was first tested at Town Brook, a 37 km2 headwater watershed draining to the Cannonsville reservoir using a single sub-basin for the whole watershed. SWAT-HS performed well, and predicted streamflow yielded Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.68 and 0.87 at the daily and monthly time steps, respectively. More importantly, it predicted the spatial distribution of saturated areas accurately. Based on the good performance in the Town Brook

  15. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    condition and higher-order accurate numerical approximations. The equations presented facilitate both Neumann-Kelvin and double-body linearizations. The body boundary condition on the ship hull is approximated by a static and dynamic moving pressure distribution. The pressure distribution method is used......, because it is simple, easy to implement and computationally efficient. Multiple many-core graphical processing units (GPUs) are used for parallel execution and the model is implemented using a combination of C/C++, CUDA and MPI. Two ship hydrodynamic cases are presented: Kriso Container Carrier at steady...

  16. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  17. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  18. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  19. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  20. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudko, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is to provide the Navy with an affordable, small, multi-mission ship capable of independent, interdependent, and integrated operations inside the littorals...

  1. Added masses of ship structures (russian)

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  2. A merchant ship size optimization model

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ki-Chul

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This paper analyzes how a shipowner or charterer may determine the specification of optimal ship size for a given route with respect to certain market requirements . The theory of optimal ship size, a methodology for estimating scale economics, and the various factors affecting ship size are examined using a typical conventional cargo ship and bulk cargo carriers based on shipowners ' cost data. http://archi...

  3. Analysis of ship deformation under sailing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuwen, Shan; Lixiang, Sun; Yi, Pu; Chuncheng, Xu

    2018-01-01

    With the help of the three-dimensional potential flow theory and the hydrodynamic analysis of the loaded ship, the wave pressure distribution and the design wave parameters of the ship under loading conditions have been analyzed. Using the method of AQWA and ANSYS co-simulation, the stress level, stress distribution and deformation of the whole ship under loading conditions are obtained. The numerical analysis results can provide an effective basis for the assessment of ship navigation safety.

  4. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  5. Fine Ice Sheet margins topography from swath processing of CryoSat SARIn mode data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Shepherd, A.; Foresta, L.; Muir, A.; Briggs, K.; Hogg, A. E.; Roca, M.; Baker, S.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of Glacier and Ice Sheet Margin (GISM) topography are critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The lack of such sustained observations was identified in the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) Cryosphere Theme Report as a major shortcoming. Conventional altimetry measurements over GISMs exist, but coverage has been sparse and characterized by coarse ground resolution. Additionally, and more importantly, they proved ineffective in the presence of steep slopes, a typical feature of GISM areas. Since the majority of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass loss is estimated to lie within 100 km from the coast, but only about 10% is surveyed, there is the need for more robust and dense observations of GISMs, in both time and space. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the Cryosphere. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry. The corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over GISMs and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA) is a standard product of the CryoSat mission. Here we present an approach for more comprehensively exploiting the SARIn mode of CryoSat and produce an ice elevation product with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat-2 height products. In this so called L2-swath processing approach, the full CryoSat waveform is exploited under specific conditions of signal and surface characteristics. We will present the rationale, validation exercises and preliminary results from the Eurpean Space Agency's STSE CryoTop study over selected test regions of the margins of the Greenland

  6. netCDF Operators for Rapid Analysis of Measured and Modeled Swath-like Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Swath-like data (hereafter SLD) are defined by non-rectangular and/or time-varying spatial grids in which one or more coordinates are multi-dimensional. It is often challenging and time-consuming to work with SLD, including all Level 2 satellite-retrieved data, non-rectangular subsets of Level 3 data, and model data on curvilinear grids. Researchers and data centers want user-friendly, fast, and powerful methods to specify, extract, serve, manipulate, and thus analyze, SLD. To meet these needs, large research-oriented agencies and modeling center such as NASA, DOE, and NOAA increasingly employ the netCDF Operators (NCO), an open-source scientific data analysis software package applicable to netCDF and HDF data. NCO includes extensive, fast, parallelized regridding features to facilitate analysis and intercomparison of SLD and model data. Remote sensing, weather and climate modeling and analysis communities face similar problems in handling SLD including how to easily: 1. Specify and mask irregular regions such as ocean basins and political boundaries in SLD (and rectangular) grids. 2. Bin, interpolate, average, or re-map SLD to regular grids. 3. Derive secondary data from given quality levels of SLD. These common tasks require a data extraction and analysis toolkit that is SLD-friendly and, like NCO, familiar in all these communities. With NCO users can 1. Quickly project SLD onto the most useful regular grids for intercomparison. 2. Access sophisticated statistical and regridding functions that are robust to missing data and allow easy specification of quality control metrics. These capabilities improve interoperability, software-reuse, and, because they apply to SLD, minimize transmission, storage, and handling of unwanted data. While SLD analysis still poses many challenges compared to regularly gridded, rectangular data, the custom analyses scripts SLD once required are now shorter, more powerful, and user-friendly.

  7. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46 U...

  8. Underwater radiated noise from modern commercial ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan F; Ross, Donald; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Underwater radiated noise measurements for seven types of modern commercial ships during normal operating conditions are presented. Calibrated acoustic data (autonomous seafloor-mounted acoustic recorder were combined with ship passage information from the Automatic Identification System. This approach allowed for detailed measurements (i.e., source level, sound exposure level, and transmission range) on ships of opportunity. A key result was different acoustic levels and spectral shapes observed from different ship-types. A 54 kGT container ship had the highest broadband source level at 188 dB re 1 μPa@1m; a 26 kGT chemical tanker had the lowest at 177 dB re 1 μPa@1m. Bulk carriers had higher source levels near 100 Hz, while container ship and tanker noise was predominantly below 40 Hz. Simple models to predict source levels of modern merchant ships as a group from particular ship characteristics (e.g., length, gross tonnage, and speed) were not possible given individual ship-type differences. Furthermore, ship noise was observed to radiate asymmetrically. Stern aspect noise levels are 5 to 10 dB higher than bow aspect noise levels. Collectively, these results emphasize the importance of including modern ship-types in quantifying shipping noise for predictive models of global, regional, and local marine environments. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  9. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  10. Cruise ship seakeeping and passenger comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, R.P.; Bos, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade the design and construction of a substantial volume of large cruise ships has stimulated the evolution of cruise ship design. The MARIN and TNO involvement in these developments, and in particular the increase in size, have lead to new insights in how the ship design governs

  11. Stopping of Ships Equipped with Azipods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nowicki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of different possibilities of stopping a large ship equipped with azipods. The model tests were carried out to compare the effectiveness of stopping the ship using the different methods. The ship model used in stopping tests reproduces a large LNG carrier of capacity ~150 000 m3

  12. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars are...

  13. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C...

  14. The Museum-ship "Abdon Calderon"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals the reconstruction of the career of the Ecuadorian tug "Abdon Calderon," which is now a museum-ship. It is shown that the ship had a significant impact on the naval history of Ecuador. But the role of the ship in the battle in the strait Jambeli in 1941 clearly exaggerated.

  15. Designing Adaptable Ships: Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    installed on new-construction DDG102AF. MwS provides digital wind speed and direction information, including crosswind and headwind, that supports...rather than incur the heavy cost of maintaining their missile launching systems. These initial Ticonderoga-class cruisers were equipped with twin ...D.1—Continued 126 Designing Adaptable Ships Requirement System Execution Impact 70403 Digital Fuel Justification: If the alteration is not

  16. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  17. Ship recycling and marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Wang, Nannan; Durak, Onur Sabri

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses the historical background, structure and enforcement of the '2009 Hong Kong International Convention on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.' the 2009 Hong Kong Convention establishes control and enforcement instruments related to ship recycling, determining the control rights of Port States and the obligations of Flag States, Parties and recycling facilities under its jurisdiction. The Convention also controls the communication and exchange of information procedures, establishes a reporting system to be used upon the completion of recycling, and outlines an auditing system for detecting violations. The Convention, however, also contains some deficiencies. This paper concludes these deficiencies will eventually influence the final acceptance of this Convention by the international community. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... of non-linear wave induced load effects and the corresponding long-term formulations. Methods to combine linear and non-linear components of wave induced load effects have been developed and checked by alternative methods.These improved models were used for the reliability assessment of the primary hull...

  19. Human Reliability and Ship Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-04

    systems. Many aspects of ship operation can be viewed as a continuos process system. A partial HAZOP example is shown in Table 4 below. Function...in the first place. This may require wholesale functional reorganisation of the system. Enhance error Detection Provide improved display systems...For example, manage watch (shift) system to reduce fatigue, design interface for fatigued users. Increase Predictability Provide improved display

  20. World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

    A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

  1. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  2. Ultimate Longitudinal Strength of Composite Ship Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Huang, Lingkai; Zhu, Libao; Tang, Yuhang; Wang, Anwen

    2017-01-01

    A simple analytical model to estimate the longitudinal strength of ship hulls in composite materials under buckling, material failure and ultimate collapse is presented in this paper. Ship hulls are regarded as assemblies of stiffened panels which idealized as group of plate-stiffener combinations. Ultimate strain of the plate-stiffener combination is predicted under buckling or material failure with composite beam-column theory. The effects of initial imperfection of ship hull and eccentricity of load are included. Corresponding longitudinal strengths of ship hull are derived in a straightforward method. A longitudinally framed ship hull made of symmetrically stacked unidirectional plies under sagging is analyzed. The results indicate that present analytical results have a good agreement with FEM method. The initial deflection of ship hull and eccentricity of load can dramatically reduce the bending capacity of ship hull. The proposed formulations provide a simple but useful tool for the longitudinal strength estimation in practical design.

  3. CryoSat-2 swath interferometric altimetry for mapping polar land ice terrain and elevation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Foresta, L.; Shepherd, A.; Muir, A.; Hogg, A. E.; Roca, M.; Nagler, T.; Baker, S.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of Glacier and Ice Sheet Margin (GISM) topography are critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The lack of such sustained observations was identified in the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) Cryosphere Theme Report as a major shortcoming. Conventional altimetry measurements over GISMs exist, but coverage has been sparse and characterized by coarse ground resolution. Additionally, and more importantly, they proved ineffective in the presence of steep slopes, a typical feature of GISM areas. Since the majority of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass loss is estimated to lie within 100 km from the coast, but only about 10% is surveyed, there is the need for more robust and dense observations of GISMs, in both time and space. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the Cryosphere. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry. The corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over GISMs and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA) is a standard product of the CryoSat mission. Here we present, through a wide range of examples in Polar settings, a new approach for more comprehensively exploiting the SARIn mode of CryoSat and produce ice elevation and elevation change with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat elevation products. In this so-called CryoSat Swath SARIn (CSSARIn) approach, the signal beyond the POCA is analysed, leading to between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude more elevation measurements than conventional approaches, and providing elevation where conventional POCA fails. We will

  4. Swath-altimetry measurements of the main stem Amazon River: measurement errors and hydraulic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. D.; Durand, M.; Jung, H. C.; Alsdorf, D.

    2015-04-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface-water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water-surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i) characterise and illustrate in two dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii) simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii) assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water-surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a virtual mission for a ~260 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões) River, using a hydraulic model to provide water-surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimensional height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water-surface elevation measurements for the Amazon main stem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-sectional averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1 % average overall error in discharge, respectively. We extend the results to other rivers worldwide and infer that SWOT-derived discharge estimates may be more accurate for rivers with larger channel widths (permitting a greater level of cross

  5. Case study: Development of a swath harvester for small diameter (<10 cm) woody vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P. [Subsecretaria de Agricultura, Santiago del Estero (Argentina); McLauchlan, R.A.; Conkey, A. [Texas A and M University-Kingsville, Texas (United States); Brown, S. [Brown-Bear Corporation, Corning (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A 216 kW biomass harvester, modified from a John Deere silage harvester, was field tested in Texas and New Mexico to examine the productivity and cost of harvesting shrubs and small trees for energy purposes. The harvester was tested on mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) in Texas and salt cedar (Tamarisk pentandra) and pinyon (Pinus edulis)/juniper (Juniperus monosperma) stands in New Mexico. While the harvester severed and chipped a few individual 20-cm basal diameter trees, the harvester was much more efficient harvesting dense stands of small trees that were less than 10-cm in basal diameter. During the course of these trials, major modifications were made to increase the efficiency of the cutterhead and the materials handling system. After these modifications, when harvesting mesquite stands less than 10-cm in basal diameter, the machine harvested at the rate of 0.95 ha h{sup -1} with a fresh weight harvest production of 7050 kg h{sup -1}. Using $70 h{sup -1} operating cost data for similar commercial equipment, we estimated an energy cost of $1.00 kJ{sup -1} which compares favorably to energy sources such as low sulfur Wyoming coal, natural gas and fuel oil. The swath harvester described here did not bale the chips. However, baling trials with 3 commercial balers found that 2 commercial balers could pick up dense windrows of the chips and make a satisfactory 300 kg square bale and a 595 kg round bale. The large square bale with a density of 319 kg m{sup -3}, provides an opportunity for full load potential of flat bed truck trailers to be realized. As the harvester is built on an agricultural frame, it is not sufficiently robust to operate in a forestry environment. A commercial version will need to be built on a high clearance, heavy duty frame with 4 wheel drive similar to a forestry skidder. Brown Bear Corporation, the company that manufactures the cutterhead, is anxious to build this harvester for a purchase price of about $280,000. We estimate

  6. SWOT: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission. Wide- Swath Altimetric Elevation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng (Editor); Alsdorf, Douglas (Editor); Morrow, Rosemary; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Mognard, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    The elevation of the surface of the ocean and freshwater bodies on land holds key information on many important processes of the Earth System. The elevation of the ocean surface, called ocean surface topography, has been measured by conventional nadirlooking radar altimeter for the past two decades. The data collected have been used for the study of large-scale circulation and sea level change. However, the spatial resolution of the observations has limited the study to scales larger than about 200 km, leaving the smaller scales containing substantial kinetic energy of ocean circulation that is responsible for the flux of heat, dissolved gas and nutrients between the upper and the deep ocean. This flux is important to the understanding of the ocean's role in regulatingfuture climate change.The elevation of the water bodies on land is a key parameter required for the computation of storage and discharge of freshwater in rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Globally, the spatial and temporal variability of water storage and discharge is poorly known due to the lack of well-sampled observations. In situ networks measuring river flows are declining worldwide due to economic and political reasons. Conventional altimeter observations suffers from the complexity of multiple peaks caused by the reflections from water, vegetation canopy and rough topography, resulting in much less valid data over land than over the ocean. Another major limitation is the large inter track distance preventing good coverage of rivers and other water bodies.This document provides descriptions of a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurement of water elevation at high resolution over both the ocean and land. Making this type of measurement, which addresses the shortcomings of conventional altimetry in both oceanographic and hydrologic applications, is the objective of a mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which was recommended by

  7. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    A disastrous oil spill from a struck oil tanker has become one of the major problems in view of conservation of maritime environment. So far double hulls (D/H) have been introduced to reduce the consequences of collision and grounding events In order to further reduce the oil spill from struck oil......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  8. Ship Collision Avoidance by Distributed Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.

  9. The beauty of being (label)-free: sample preparation methods for SWATH-MS and next-generation targeted proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate; Deery, Michael J.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Ralser, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The combination of qualitative analysis with label-free quantification has greatly facilitated the throughput and flexibility of novel proteomic techniques. However, such methods rely heavily on robust and reproducible sample preparation procedures. Here, we benchmark a selection of in gel, on filter, and in solution digestion workflows for their application in label-free proteomics. Each procedure was associated with differing advantages and disadvantages. The in gel methods interrogated were cost effective, but were limited in throughput and digest efficiency. Filter-aided sample preparations facilitated reasonable processing times and yielded a balanced representation of membrane proteins, but led to a high signal variation in quantification experiments. Two in solution digest protocols, however, gave optimal performance for label-free proteomics. A protocol based on the detergent RapiGest led to the highest number of detected proteins at second-best signal stability, while a protocol based on acetonitrile-digestion, RapidACN, scored best in throughput and signal stability but came second in protein identification. In addition, we compared label-free data dependent (DDA) and data independent (SWATH) acquisition on a TripleTOF 5600 instrument. While largely similar in protein detection, SWATH outperformed DDA in quantification, reducing signal variation and markedly increasing the number of precisely quantified peptides. PMID:24741437

  10. Ship collision with iceberg database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, B.T. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Inst. for Ocean Technology

    2006-11-15

    Approximately 20 per cent of collisions between icebergs, steam ships and motor vessels since 1850 have resulted in sinkings. The available data indicates that most sinkings were due to some kind of indirect impact rather than a head on collision. This paper presented the newly augmented Microsoft Access Database of Ship Collisions with Icebergs that includes more than 670 events over 200 years, most of which occurred on the Grand Banks. Other collisions occurred further afield in the Arctic, off Greenland and in the fjords of Alaska. The operation, search categories and data fields of the database were described along with various trends of collisions, scope of damage and environmental factors involved. Based on an estimate of the number of voyages over the Grand Banks, a probability of collision was derived from the number of cargo ship collisions over the past several years. The Microsoft Access template was provided by the Canadian Hydraulic Centre which had been developed by them for their Ice Regime Database to describe sea ice and ship interactions. This template was adapted and modified for iceberg collisions. Where possible, the data base was augmented to include information about the nature of the damage, the weather and sea state, the ice conditions, iceberg size, the vessel route and location at the time of collision, and vessel characteristics. The purpose of the database is to provide operators and regulators with an assessment of the frequency of collisions and environmental factors that played a role at the time of the collision. The database provides a basis to undertake risk analysis for vessels entering a given area and provides a better understanding of conditions under which collisions are likely to occur. It was concluded that although the trend of collisions has improved over the years with better observation and detection techniques, collisions still occur. Reduced visibility by fog, precipitation or low light conditions were found to be

  11. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  12. Analytical support management shipping company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Tarasenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article to determine areas of improvement of the economic analysis of the shipping companies tested, allowing to identify the problems of organization and methods, which are as follows: lack of regulation of economic analysis, unregulated and methods of economic analysis, using methods such as coefficient method, absolute differences method relative differences groupings balance method, while as factor analysis and correlation are ignored. Proved that today the priority targets of management that should be subject to economic analysis are: analysis of the efficiency of the fleet; analysis of the efficiency of transport services; analysis of the cost of transport services and costs; analysis of the efficiency of resource use.

  13. TMI-2 Core Shipping Preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, L.J.; Barkanic, R.J.; Conaway, W.T. II; Schmoker, D. S.; Post, Roy G.

    1988-01-01

    Shipping the damaged core from the Unit 2 reactor of Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, required development and implementation of a completely new spent fuel transportation system. This paper describes of the equipment developed, the planning and activities used to implement the hard-ware-systems into the facilities, and the planning involved in making the rail shipments. It also includes a summary of recommendations resulting from this experience. (author)

  14. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs......-integer program (MIP) and a novel method called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). We evaluate the performance of each of these techniques on a dataset of real-world instances from our industrial collaborator, and show that automated planning scales to the size of problems faced by industry....

  15. Development of a nuclear ship safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A unique safety philosophy must be recognized and accepted as an integral part of the design and operation of a nuclear ship. For the nuclear powered ship, the ultimate safety of the reactor and therefore the crew and the environment lies with the safety of the ship itself. The basis for ship safety is its ability to navigate and survive the conditions or the environment in which it may find itself. The subject of traditional ship safety is examined along with its implication for reactor protection and safety. Concepts of reactor safety are also examined. These two philosophies are combined in a manner so as to provide a sound philosophy for the safety of nuclear ships, their crews, and the environment

  16. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor......A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  17. ASPECTS RELATED TO THE PROPULSION HYDRAFOIL SHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent ALI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze some aspects related to the propulsion of hydrofoil ships. They are very important for the success of the mission if they are military ships and for cargo security, if they are civilian transport ships, especially when navigating at high speed on their hydrofoil wings in rough sea conditions. This paper presents an original procedure for estimating the propulsion of hydrofoil ships. This procedure has enabled the development of a computer program that can predict both those types of ship propulsion regime imposed at a quasi-stationary speed and the march regime on wings. The calculation software obtained may serve to design any type of hydrofoil ship.

  18. Parametric Method For Evaluating Optimal Ship Deadweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Jan P.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of choosing the optimal value of the cargo ships deadweight. The method may be useful at the stage of establishing the main owners requirements concerning the ship design parameters as well as for choosing a proper ship for a given transportation task. The deadweight is determined on the basis of a selected economic measure of the transport effectiveness of ship - the Required Freight Rate (RFR. The mathematical model of the problem is of a deterministic character and the simplifying assumptions are justified for ships operating in the liner trade. The assumptions are so selected that solution of the problem is obtained in analytical closed form. The presented method can be useful for application in the pre-investment ships designing parameters simulation or transportation task studies.

  19. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived...... mathematical models include friction at the contact point so that situation where the collision results in a sliding motion is included. Results obtained by application of the present procedure are compared with results obtained by time simulations and good agreement has been achieved. In addition, a number...... of illustrative examples are presented. The procedure presented in the paper is well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic calculation model for damage of ship structures due to collisions....

  20. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-01-01

    The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negativ...

  1. Applications of Probabilistic Interpolation to Ship Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    this problem in issues from oil-spill investigation to maritime security and fisheries management. It outlines a general Bayesian approach to the...Introduction This paper is concerned with reconstructing past events involving ships, events around which the ships were employing self-reporting...systems. The motivation behind such reconstruction is typically forensic. In the classic scenario, one of the ships may have done something suspicious

  2. Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-303 Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...28, 2015 Program Information Program Name Ship to Shore Connector Amphibious Craft (SSC) DoD Component Navy Responsible Office References SAR...5 Mission and Description Ship to Shore Connector (SSC) is the Landing Craft , Air Cushion (LCAC) replacement. It is an Air Cushion Vehicle with the

  3. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the str......The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration...... of the structural design. For a tanker vessel or other vessels carrying hazardous cargo, damage is not acceptable if it results in cargo outflow with disastrous consequences to the environment. Likewise, the foundering of a passenger vessel can be disastrous with loss of many human lives. A major challenge...... a structure is subjected to biaxial loading. The main aspect of this thesis has therefore been to study the fracture criteria available in the literature and to validate them against various experiments with varying stress and strain states....

  4. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  5. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  6. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  7. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  8. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  9. Navy Ships: Turning Over Auxiliary Ship Operations to the Military Sealift Command Could Save Millions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... One additional multiproduct ship of a new class is currently under construction. The Navy has delegated operational control of 27 of these ships to MSC, the military's single manager for sealift, to better...

  10. Ship Technology Workshop Materials from Collaboration with Mexico to Reduce Emissions from Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 26, 2012, a ship technology seminar was held to provide Mexican stakeholders with information about some of the ship technologies needed to meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI and an ECA.

  11. MODIS/Aqua CLD Mask Spect. Results 250m and 1km 5-Min L2 Wide Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC35S1) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the wide-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the wide-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  12. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 1km and 5km 5-Min L2 Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC06S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  13. MODIS/Aqua CLD Mask Spect. Results 250m and 1km 5-Min L2 Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC35S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  14. Behavioral and Physiological Response of Baleen Whales to Ships and Ship Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Behavioral and physiological response of baleen whales to...and physiological response of baleen whales to ships and ship noise off California using a combination of opportunistic and controlled research. Ship...Our objectives include: 1. Determine behavioral response (avoidance and changes in dive behavior) of blue whales and other large mystecetes to

  15. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties.......Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...

  16. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  17. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school...

  18. Nearshore coastal bathymetry data collected in 2016 from West Ship Island to Horn Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Stalk, Chelsea A.; Fredericks, Jake J.; Flocks, James G.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Farmer, Andrew S.; Tuten, Thomas M.; Buster, Noreen A.

    2018-04-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, conducted bathymetric surveys of the nearshore waters surrounding Ship and Horn Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi. The objective of this study was to establish base-level elevation conditions around West Ship, East Ship, and Horn Islands and their associated active littoral system prior to restoration activities. These activities include the closure of Camille Cut and the placement of sediment in the littoral zone of East Ship Island. These surveys can be compared with future surveys to monitor sediment migration patterns post-restoration and can also be measured against historic bathymetric datasets to further our understanding of island evolution.The USGS collected 667 line-kilometers (km) of single-beam bathymetry data and 844 line-km of interferometric swath bathymetry data in July 2016 under Field Activity Number 2016-347-FA. Data are provided in three datums: (1) the International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 (ellipsoid height); (2) the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) CORS96 realization and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 with respect to the GEOID12B model (orthometric height); and (3) NAD83 (CORS96) and Mean Lower Low Water (tidal datum). Data products, including x,y,zpoint datasets, trackline shapefiles, digital and handwritten Field Activity Collection Systems logs, 50-meter digital elevation model, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata, are available for download.

  19. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither...... take the container transportation times that can be realized in the network nor the number of transshipments into consideration. This is mainly because the optimization problem is based on other transportation networks where these constraints are not decisive to the quality of the network. Furthermore...... network. The result is prototypes of decision support tools to make incremental changes to a network e.g. by adding/deleting ports from routes or change speed between two ports in order to examine how it changes the total earnings taking into account the network’s competitiveness and quality...

  20. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin

    With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping ...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where... dead boiler with the live system or systems shall be secured, blanked, and tagged indicating that...

  2. A Survey on the Ship Loading Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario

    2015-01-01

    on externalities. One of those is the ship loading process. Based on the stowage plan received by liner shippers, terminal operators plan the execution of load and discharge operations. In this paper we present a literature review for the Ship Loading Problem, where stowage and loading sequencing and scheduling...

  3. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    a glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  4. Infrared ship signature analysis and optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the awareness of the infrared signature of naval ships. New ship designs show that infrared signature reduction measures are being incorporated, such as exhaust gas cooling systems, relocation of the exhausts and surface cooling systems. Hull and

  5. Detecting potential ship objects from satellite pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested

  6. Automatic temperature control method of shipping can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Kaoru.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of rapidly and accurately controlling the temperature of a shipping can, which is used upon shipping inspection for a nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a measured temperature value of the shipping can is converted to a gas pressure setting value in a jacket of the shipping can by conducting a predetermined logic calculation by using a fuzzy logic. A gas pressure control section compares the pressure setting value of a fuzzy estimation section and the measured value of the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can, and conducts air supply or exhaustion of the jacket gas so as to adjust the measured value with the setting value. These fuzzy estimation section and gas pressure control section control the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can to control the water level in the jacket. As a result, the temperature of the shipping can is controlled. With such procedures, since the water level in the jacket can be controlled directly and finely, temperature of the shipping can is automatically controlled rapidly and accurately compared with a conventional case. (I.S.)

  7. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel

  8. Impact analysis of shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Shipping casks are being used in the United States Department of Energy to transport irradiated experiments, reactor fuel, radioactive waste, etc. One of the critical requirements in shipping cask analysis is the necessity to withstand severe impact environments. It is still conventional to develop the design and to verify the design requirements by hand calculations. Full three dimensional computations of impact scenarios have been performed but they are too expensive and time consuming for design purposes. Typically, on the order of more than an hour of CRAY time is required for a detailed, three dimensional analysis. The paper describes how simpler two- and three-dimensional models can be used to provide an intermediate level of detail between full three dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations. The regulation that is examined here is: 10 CFR-71.73 hypothetical accident conditions, free drop. Free drop for an accident condition of a Class I package (approximate weight of 22,000 lb) is defined as a 30 foot drop onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected. Three free drop scenarios are analyzed to assess the integrity of the cask when subjected to large bending and axial stresses. These three drop scenarios are: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end, (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the top end cask corner, and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the strength of the various components that comprise the cask. The predicted levels of deformation and stresses in the cask will be used to assess the potential damage level. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived...... mathematical models include friction at the contact point so that situation where the collision results in a sliding motion is included. Results obtained by application of the present procedure are compared with results obtained by time simulations and good agreement has been achieved. In addition, a number...... of illustrative examples are presented. The procedure presented in the paper is well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic calculation model for damage of ship structures due to collisions....

  10. MODIS/Terra Cloud Mask and Spectral Test Results 5-Min L2 Swath 250m and 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Cloud Mask and Spectral Test Results 5-Min L2 Swath 250m and 1km (MOD35_L2). MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am...

  11. SWATHtoMRM: Development of High-Coverage Targeted Metabolomics Method Using SWATH Technology for Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Haihong; Cai, Yuping; Yin, Yandong; Wang, Zhuozhong; Li, Kang; Zhu, Zheng-Jiang

    2018-03-02

    The complexity of metabolome presents a great analytical challenge for quantitative metabolite profiling, and restricts the application of metabolomics in biomarker discovery. Targeted metabolomics using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) technique has excellent capability for quantitative analysis, but suffers from the limited metabolite coverage. To address this challenge, we developed a new strategy, namely, SWATHtoMRM, which utilizes the broad coverage of SWATH-MS technology to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method. Specifically, SWATH-MS technique was first utilized to untargeted profile one pooled biological sample and to acquire the MS 2 spectra for all metabolites. Then, SWATHtoMRM was used to extract the large-scale MRM transitions for targeted analysis with coverage as high as 1000-2000 metabolites. Then, we demonstrated the advantages of SWATHtoMRM method in quantitative analysis such as coverage, reproducibility, sensitivity, and dynamic range. Finally, we applied our SWATHtoMRM approach to discover potential metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. A high-coverage targeted metabolomics method with 1303 metabolites in one injection was developed to profile colorectal cancer tissues from CRC patients. A total of 20 potential metabolite biomarkers were discovered and validated for CRC diagnosis. In plasma samples from CRC patients, 17 out of 20 potential biomarkers were further validated to be associated with tumor resection, which may have a great potential in assessing the prognosis of CRC patients after tumor resection. Together, the SWATHtoMRM strategy provides a new way to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method, and facilitates the application of targeted metabolomics in disease biomarker discovery. The SWATHtoMRM program is freely available on the Internet ( http://www.zhulab.cn/software.php ).

  12. Single-pass Airborne InSAR for Wide-swath, High-Resolution Cryospheric Surface Topography Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, D.; Hensley, S.; Wu, X.; Muellerschoen, R.

    2014-12-01

    In May 2009 a mm-wave single-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) for the first time demonstrated ice surface topography swath-mapping in Greenland. This was achieved with the airborne Glacier and Ice Surface Topography Interferometer (GLISTIN-A). Ka-band (35.6GHz) was chosen for high-precision topographic mapping from a compact sensor with minimal surface penetration. In recent years, the system was comprehensively upgraded for improved performance, stability and calibration. In April 2013, after completing the upgrades, GLISTIN-A flew a brief campaign to Alaska. The primary purpose was to demonstrate the InSAR's ability to generate high-precision, high resolution maps of ice surface topography with swaths in excess of 10km. Comparison of GLISTIN-A's elevations over glacial ice with lidar verified the precision requirements and established elevation accuracies to within 2 m without tie points. Feature tracking of crevasses on Columbia Glacier using data acquired with a 3-day separation exhibit an impressive velocity mapping capability. Furthermore, GLISTIN-A flew over the Beaufort sea to determine if we could not only map sea ice, but also measure freeboard. Initial analysis has established we can measure sea-ice freeboard using height differences from the top of the sea-ice and the sea surface in open leads. In the future, a campaign with lidar is desired for a quantitative validation. Another proof-of-concept collection mapped snow-basins for hydrology. Snow depth measurements using summer and winter collections in the Sierras were compared with lidar measurements. Unsurprisingly when present, trees complicate the interpretation, but additional filtering and processing is in work. For each application, knowledge of the interferometric penetration is important for scientific interpretation. We present analytical predictions and experimental data to upper bound the elevation bias of the InSAR measurements over snow and snow-covered ice.

  13. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Satellite Mission - An Assessment of Swath Altimetry Measurements of River Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew D.; Durand, Michael; Alsdorf, Douglas; Chul-Jung, Hahn; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Lee, Hyongki

    2012-01-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, scheduled for launch in 2020 with development commencing in 2015, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations, which will allow for the estimation of river and floodplain flows via the water surface slope. In this paper, we characterize the measurements which may be obtained from SWOT and illustrate how they may be used to derive estimates of river discharge. In particular, we show (i) the spatia-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT, (ii) the errors which maybe expected in swath altimetry measurements of the terrestrial surface water, and (iii) the impacts such errors may have on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge, We illustrate this through a "virtual mission" study for a approximately 300 km reach of the central Amazon river, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to the SWOT spatia-temporal sampling scheme (orbit with 78 degree inclination, 22 day repeat and 140 km swath width) to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. Water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT were thereby obtained. Using these measurements, estimates of river slope and discharge were derived and compared to those which may be obtained without error, and those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. It was found that discharge can be reproduced highly accurately from the water height, without knowledge of the detailed channel bathymetry using a modified Manning's equation, if friction, depth, width and slope are known. Increasing reach length was found to be an effective method to reduce systematic height error in SWOT measurements.

  14. Ships as salient objects in synthetic aperture radar imaginary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available perspective on ships in Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery by viewing them as visually salient objects. The paper introduces common methods of ship object extraction and demonstrates how salient object mapping can improve the accuracy of extracted ships...

  15. Kadının ve Kaderin “Tırpan”ı Swath Of Woman And Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim DURUKOĞLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The novel Tırpan (Swath would be the most prominent outcome of a historical and literary brainstorming about the World Women’s Day in particular and the unfortunate faith of women in general. The novel Tırpan, which first merges and then separates the concepts of woman and faith, is one or probably the only work with a thesis that comes to the mind first in that it was written with the naïve belief that the faith will show up not before but after it is lived and generally all people particularly the women can write their faith; it questions the faith or the unfortunate faith of people, especially the that of women within the boundaries of the genre of novel, expanding to cover class clashes, the breaths of Marxist ideologies, and feminist viewpoints. Inherited from an image of old tool in our mind, accompanied with the motive of Azrael claiming lives with the swath in its hands, swath gains a function beyond that of an agricultural tool in this novel. Swath changes hand from Azrael to women and the woman punishes the man who disrespects her field of existence and freedom, thus reclaims and rewrites her faith with her own hands using the swath. Swath would preserve its function as a goal and an instrument in the writer’s hand, however, in terms of its consequences it will transform into a symbol of woman’s revolution as the hammer and sickle of the Bolshevist revolution. The author, who wants to create a resisting, active and activist women spirit and mentality instead of an understanding which takes it as an escape to commit suicide by hanging themselves when they are forced to get married as a passive reaction, tries to impose the fatalist Turkish society and Turkish women with the idea that they can reclaim their faiths and direct their own lives, offering and inspiring a shift of awareness through this novel. Özelde Dünya Kadınlar Günü ve genelde kadının makus talihi ve tarihi ekseninde ve edebiyat düzleminde yapaca

  16. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and of the international conventions. In all the relationships which he establishes with physical or juridical people, the master represents the ship-owner, in a double condition, as an officer and as a commercial manager. In this paper, it is analysed the situation of the ship masters, the relationships which these masters have with the crew and the problems which appear during their voyage. At the end of the paper there are proposed measures to increase the quality of the training of the ship masters, to solve the situations connected with the members of the crew.

  17. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  18. Using High-Resolution Swath Mapping Data and Other Underway Geophysical Measurements Collected during Transit Cruises of RV Isabu to Map Deep Sea Floor of the Pacific and Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, G. H.; Lee, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Detail images of the seafloor are often the first collection of clues that set one towards a path that leads to a new discovery. The mapping of unchartered seafloor is like exploring the surface of an unknown planet for the first time. The launch of new global-ocean-class RV Isabu operated by Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) in November 2016 has reinvigorated the ongoing open ocean research in Korea. The location of the KIOST research vessels can be found at http://www.kiost.net/. Here we present a new collaborative research and education program which utilizes onboard measurements taken during the transit cruises. The measurements include high-resolution swath mapping bathymetric data, underway geophysical measurements (3.5 kHz subbottom profile, sea surface gravity and magnetic field) which are gathered semi-automatically during a scientific operation. The acquisition of data alone is not sufficient for meaningful scientific knowledge as the initial measurements must be cleaned and processed during or after the cruise. As in any scientific endeavor, planning is important. Prior to the cruise, preliminary study will be carried out by carefully examining the previously collected data from various global databases. Whenever possible, a small offset will be made of the ship track lines crossing the region so that important new measurements can be obtained systematically over the years. We anticipate that the program will not only contribute to fill the gap in the high-resolution bathymetry in some part of the Indian Ocean and Pacific. The processed and analyzed data will be available to other scientific communities for further understanding via download from KIOST website.

  19. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and artificial reefs. As the decision is a commercial one, the selection of a yard is predominantly based on the offer price, which depends on the location of the yard and the recycling process employed.Among...

  20. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  1. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the Interna......Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body...... emerging private ‘green shipping’ initiatives to achieve better ecological outcomes? Contributing to transnational governance theory, we find that conditions stalling regulatory progress include low environmental issue visibility, poor interest alignment, a broadening scope of environmental issues...

  2. Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-02-01

    Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.

  3. Solvency and Liquidity in Shipping Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Yeo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors affecting the solvency of shipping firms. The paper uses a panel dataset and employs the GLM and FGLS regression analyses. This study explores the financial structure of top 130 shipping firms provided by the Factiva database during the period between 2009 and 2013. The paper finds that liquidity is closely related to the leverage of shipping companies. The negative association between the asset liquidity and the leverage level implies that there exist conflicts of interest between managers and investors. Shipping firms have a comfortable high liquidity position, but they have a high degree of leverage. They need to take steps to reduce debts. There is evidence of heterogeneity in the determinants of leverage level. The paper also finds that the variables such as profitability, FSIZE, FAGE influence differently the leverage level whether the debt is short-term or long-term.

  4. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  5. AIS Ship Traffic: Hawaii: 2011-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship position data from a satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) were obtained jointly by PacIOOS (J. Potemra), SOEST/ORE of the University of Hawaii...

  6. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    of voyages for the same ship. The procedure has been applied to two ships that are identical, with the exception that one has a conventional propeller, whereas the other one is fitted with a high-efficiency propeller of the KAPPEL type. The results are obtained from a period of 2 years steaming for both...... vessels. They clearly confirm the increase of propulsive efficiency obtained with the KAPPEL propeller in the order of magnitude of 4%....

  7. Study of the Optimal Timing of Container Ship Orders Considering the Uncertain Shipping Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Woo Jeon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to apply System Dynamics (SD to analyze the optimal timing of container ship orders by considering the uncertain shipping environment. The collected monthly data for 12 years was obtained from the China seaborne container trade (CSCT and the China Containerized Freight Index (CCFI. Containership fleet development and the prices of new and second-hand container ships were classified based on five container vessel sizes (January of 2004–December of 2015. The period of simulation for this study was from 2004 to 2020. To analyze the optimal timing for the container ship orders, container ship fleet development as a supply factor and the CSCT as a demand factor, both of which are components of CCFI, were simulated. After the first simulation, CCFI was simulated holistically. Based on the CCFI simulation results, it was possible to develop three optimal timing scenarios for ship order placement. The CCFI for October 2016 was in the initial entry status of a short-term rebound, which makes it possible for shipping companies to order ships without the risk of revenue loss. The second best time period is May 2018, before the CCFI recovery of May 2019. The third best time for ship orders is later in 2020 for a CCFI recovery after 2021.

  8. Optimal Evasive Maneuver for a Ship in an Environment of Fixed Installations and Other Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Skjong

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance for encounters between several ships and installations in the open sea, is treated as a problem of optimal control, using the theory of differential games. Each ship is, in this idealized model, assumed to have two controls corresponding to rudder angle and engine setting. The objective function, which the shipmasters try to minimize in an optimal evasive manoeuvre, is defined as the collision risk. Numerical solutions for the M-ships and I-installations optimal evasive manoeuvre problem, can be found by the ping-pong algorithm. Numerical examples are given for up to five ships and two installations.

  9. A Nonlinear Ship Manoeuvering Model: Identification and adaptive control with experiments for a model ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Skjetne

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete nonlinear dynamic manoeuvering models of ships, with numerical values, are hard to find in the literature. This paper presents a modeling, identification, and control design where the objective is to manoeuver a ship along desired paths at different velocities. Material from a variety of references have been used to describe the ship model, its difficulties, limitations, and possible simplifications for the purpose of automatic control design. The numerical values of the parameters in the model is identified in towing tests and adaptive manoeuvering experiments for a small ship in a marine control laboratory.

  10. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  11. AGING EFFECTS ON SHIP STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Parunov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important degradation effects of ship structures are corrosion and fatigue cracks. Both of these aging effects have clear consequences of increasing the level of stresses and degrading the strength of ship structures for almost all relevant failure modes. This study presents an overview of some recent developments on the aging effects on the ship structural integrity. The analysis of the thickness measurements has been undertaken to improve understanding of the corrosion degradation phenomena and to develop prediction models of aging effects suitable for practical applications in the ship structural design and analysis. The study also deals with the application of the non-linear finite element analysis as a suitable tool for a collapse assessment of uniaxially loaded plates and stiffened panels of ship structures weakened by non-uniform corrosion degradation and fatigue cracks. Experimental studies have also been reviewed to better understand the recently found degradation of mechanical properties of corroded steel, while theoretical calculations have been performed to evaluate consequences of such degradation on the ship structural integrity.

  12. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  13. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  14. Automatic production planning for the construction of complex ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, C.D.

    2017-01-01

    European shipyards specialize in building complex ship types including offshore vessels, yachts, dredgers, and cruise ships. One key difference between these ships and the simple cargo ships typically built in the Far East is the amount and variety of mission-related equipment required to operate

  15. 76 FR 30229 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... systems. --Requirements for ships carrying hydrogen and compressed natural gas vehicles. --Fire resistance.... --Recycling of ships. --Prevention of air pollution from ships. --Reduction of GHG emissions from ships..., air inlets and openings in the superstructure of tankers. --Means of escape from machinery spaces...

  16. A building cost estimation method for inland ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is very little publicly available data about the building cost of inland ships, especially for ships that have dimensions that differ significantly from those of common ships. Also, no methods to determine the building cost of inland ships are described in literature. In this paper, a method

  17. 32 CFR 700.872 - Ships and craft in drydock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ships and craft in drydock. 700.872 Section 700... Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.872 Ships and craft in drydock. (a) The... ship or craft, not in commission, is in a naval drydock, the provisions of this article shall apply...

  18. Development of software for handling ship's pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in

  19. Quality Assessment of the CCI ECV Soil Moisture Product Using ENVISAT ASAR Wide Swath Data over Spain, Ireland and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pratola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, great progress has been made by the scientific community in generating satellite-derived global surface soil moisture products, as a valuable source of information to be used in a variety of applications, such as hydrology, meteorology and climatic modeling. Through the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI, the most complete and consistent global soil moisture (SM data record based on active and passive microwaves sensors is being developed. However, the coarse spatial resolution characterizing such data may be not sufficient to accurately represent the moisture conditions. The objective of this work is to assess the quality of the CCI Essential Climate Variable (ECV SM product by using finer spatial resolution Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR Wide Swath and in situ soil moisture data taken over three regions in Europe. Ireland, Spain, and Finland have been selected with the aim of assessing the spatial and temporal representativeness of the ECV SM product over areas that differ in climate, topography, land cover and soil type. This approach facilitated an understanding of the extent to which geophysical factors, such as soil texture, terrain composition and altitude, affect the retrieved ECV SM product values. A good temporal and spatial agreement has been observed between the three soil moisture datasets for the Irish and Spanish sites, while poorer results have been found at the Finnish sites. Overall, the two different satellite derived products capture the soil moisture temporal variations well and are in good agreement with each other.

  20. Prediction of Ship Unsteady Maneuvering in Calm Water by a Fully Nonlinear Ship Motion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Qing Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the continuation of our research on development of a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, numerical ship motion model (DiSSEL. In this study we will report our results in predicting ship motions in unsteady maneuvering in calm water. During the unsteady maneuvering, both the rudder angle, and ship forward speed vary with time. Therefore, not only surge, sway, and yaw motions occur, but roll, pitch and heave motions will also occur even in calm water as heel, trim, and sinkage, respectively. When the rudder angles and ship forward speed vary rapidly with time, the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions and their interactions become strong. To accurately predict the six degrees-of-freedom ship motions in unsteady maneuvering, a universal method for arbitrary ship hull requires physics-based fully-nonlinear models for ship motion and for rudder forces and moments. The numerical simulations will be benchmarked by experimental data of the Pre-Contract DDG51 design and an Experimental Hull Form. The benchmarking shows a good agreement between numerical simulations by the enhancement DiSSEL and experimental data. No empirical parameterization is used, except for the influence of the propeller slipstream on the rudder, which is included using a flow acceleration factor.

  1. Effects of cross-education on the muscle after a period of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Charlene R A; Barss, Trevor S; Lanovaz, Joel L; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cross-education during 4 wk of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe to investigate the effects on muscle strength, muscle size, and muscle activation. Twenty-five right-handed participants were assigned to one of three groups as follows: the Immob + Train group wore a sling and swathe and strength trained (n = 8), the Immob group wore a sling and swathe and did not strength train (n = 8), and the Control group received no treatment (n = 9). Immobilization was applied to the nondominant (left) arm. Strength training consisted of maximal isometric elbow flexion and extension of the dominant (right) arm 3 days/wk. Torque (dynamometer), muscle thickness (ultrasound), maximal voluntary activation (interpolated twitch), and electromyography (EMG) were measured. The change in right biceps and triceps brachii muscle thickness [7.0 ± 1.9 and 7.1 ± 2.2% (SE), respectively] was greater for Immob + Train than Immob (0.4 ± 1.2 and -1.9 ± 1.7%) and Control (0.8 ± 0.5 and 0.0 ± 1.1%, P effect on maximal voluntary activation or EMG. The cross-education effect on the immobilized limb was greater after elbow extension training. This study suggests that strength training the nonimmobilized limb benefits the immobilized limb for muscle size and strength.

  2. Risk Analysis on Ship Wreck and Container Cargo to Ship Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wreck of a ship is an incident that must be avoided. Ship accidents are generally caused by a several cases, such as human error, natural disaster, technical errors, missed communication, poor condition of the ship, and many more. Ship wreckage have huge impact for ship navigation, environment, economics, and others. Those impact have many disadvantages for the shipowners, and also for environment. For examples the fuel spills that pollute the environment, make disturbance to sailing ship because the track for those navigation is blocked by the ship wreck and their cargo especially on shallow location (<50 m. These research will discuss the effect the container when it is floats on the sea and its interference other ships. The main objective of this study is to present a risk assessment on the environmental impact of the wreck and container cargo. Wrecks on the seabed is likely to pose a risk to passing ships. container and its contents as well as the possibility of refloat, and also their environmental risks emanating from the wreck and container cargo, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemical cargo. Variations scenario is a collision between ships that pass by floating containers. The frequency of refloating container, and the consequences of the passing ship depends on several factors, which will be the subject of research. However, because of the frequency of refloating containers is unlikely, then the risk is low and does not pose a danger to navigation. These risk assessment using risk matrix 5x5 which is the combined value of the frequency and consequences of the incident. The results of this study indicate the level of risk, whether the risk is accepted, not accepted or received by considering the costs and benefits (ALARP. To consequence, there are two parameters which energy is absorbed and the penetration occurs. The absorbed energy is divided into two, namely the energy absorbed by ship and the energy absorbed by containers. In this

  3. A Simplified Method for Calculating Propeller Thrust Decrease for a Ship Sailing on a Given Shipping Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelazny Katarzyna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During ship sailing on rough water, relative ship motions can be observed which make the propeller emerge from the water, and decrease its thrust as a consequence. The article presents a simplified method for calculating the thrust decrease and the time of propeller emergence from water for the ship on a regular an irregular wave. The method can be used for predicting the operating speed of the ship on a given shipping lane.

  4. Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

  5. Qualification of ship doctors: a German approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenstuecker, Klaus H; Neidhardt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    While a steady growth of cruise tourism since the 1970s created an increasing demand for ship doctors medical postgraduate specialty training did not sufficiently reflect the scope of skills and knowledge required from a physician being left to himself at sea. The German Maritime Health Association therefore tasked a working group with analysing the situation and coming up with suggestions for an adequate postgraduate training for ship doctors. The working group consisted of 19 experts with various backgrounds in maritime medicine. A literature review was done on cruise ship epidemiology as well as an assessment of tasks and environmental factors influencing medical care on board of cruise ships. Necessary knowledge and skills were derived and compared with those imparted by standard German medical education. Mandatory knowledge and skills were identified as well as elements of standard medical education contributing to these goals. Those aspects that would or could not be adequately covered by German standard education were catalogued and summarised in a course curriculum. In 2013 after approval by its board of directors the German Maritime Health Association published a qualification and training recommendation addressing colleagues planning to muster as ship doctors.

  6. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  7. The Two Regimes of Postwar Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Tenold, Stig

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the most important changes in the regulatory framework of the shipping sector from the 1960s to 2010, and to analyse the basis for, and effects of, these changes. In order to explain how the transformation has occurred, we use two traditional maritime...... nations—Denmark and Norway—as case studies. First, we introduce the two regimes of Danish and Norwegian shipping: ‘the national regime’ from the early 1960s to the mid-1970s; and ‘the competitive regime’, which was fully established by the middle of the 1990s and still persists. Then, we briefly sketch...... the bargaining that accompanied the shift from the national regime to the competitive regime. Specifically, we show that the new regime primarily accommodated the interests of private actors such as shipping companies, rather than the interests of the authorities and the trade unions....

  8. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  9. Key Design Properties for Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    on paper, e-mail, phone and text message, and far too costly. This paper explores the design properties for a shared information infrastructure to exchange information between all parties in the supply chain, commercial parties as well as authorities, which is called a Shipping Information Pipeline...... Infrastructures. The paper argues why the previous attempts are inadequate to address the issues in the domain of international supply chains. Instead, a different set of key design properties are proposed for the Shipping Information Pipeline. The solution has been developed in collaboration with a network......This paper reports on the use of key design properties for development of a new approach towards a solution for sharing shipping information in the supply chain for international trade. Information exchange in international supply chain is extremely inefficient, rather uncoordinated, based largely...

  10. Ship information system: overview and research trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship Information Systems (SISs have been one of the main research focuses in ship design and become a multidisciplinary area. With these growing research trends, it is important to consolidate the latest knowledge and information to keep up with the research needs. In this paper, the SIS and its different forms are introduced and discussed. The beginning of this paper discusses the history and evolution of SIS. The next part of this paper focuses on different fields and research areas such as networking technology, information fusion, information decision, message display, ship control in real-time SISs. A Semi-Physical Simulation Platform (SPSIM designed for SIS research and its running effect through a new Fuzzy-PID fusion algorithm are introduced in this paper then. A brief literature survey and possible future direction concerning each topic is included.

  11. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem. The model takes into account coordination between vessels and transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. The solution method is an improvement heuristic, where an integer program is solved...... iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios...

  12. Code of safety for nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Code is in chapters, entitled: general (including general safety principles and principles of risk acceptance); design criteria and conditions; ship design, construction and equipment; nuclear steam supply system; machinery and electrical installations; radiation safety (including radiological protection design; protection of persons; dosimetry; radioactive waste management); operation (including emergency operation procedures); surveys. Appendices cover: sinking velocity calculations; seaway loads depending on service periods; safety assessment; limiting dose-equivalent rates for different areas and spaces; quality assurance programme; application of single failure criterion. Initial application of the Code is restricted to conventional types of ships propelled by nuclear propulsion plants with pressurized light water type reactors. (U.K.)

  13. Probabilistic Damage Stability Calculations for Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    compartments in the formulation of a computer-based general procedure for probabilistic damaged stability assessment is shown. Some comments are given on the current state of knowledge on the ship survivability in damaged conditions. Finally, problems regarding proper account of water ingress through openings......The aim of these notes is to provide background material for the present probabilistic damage stability rules fro dry cargo ships.The formulas for the damage statistics are derived and shortcomings as well as possible improvements are discussed. The advantage of the definiton of fictitious...

  14. A PDDL Domain for the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Coles, Amanda; Coles, Andrew

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  15. Challenges to Ship Hydrodynamics in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kobylinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of twenty-first century is characterized with important changes in world shipping and exploitation of ocean resources. Three important trends are clearly visible: environment protection, safety and economy. They materialize in important changes in the structure of world fleet where some existing ship types are going to disappear and new ship types emerge. Increasing the size of some ship types is another visible tendency. Stress on environment protection has serious impact on the hydrodynamic characteristics of ships whether with regard to safety zero accident rate is the goal. Important challenges to ship hydrodynamics caused by those tendencies are discussed in the paper.

  16. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 19 - Ship Repair Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unsupported shall be forwarded by the District offices to the Chief, Operating Cost Control Branch, Office of..., purchase orders, price warehouse delivery tickets, property removal notices, WORKSMALREP Contracts, a... removed from a vessel, etc., shall be forwarded to the Chief, Division of Ship Repair and Maintenance...

  18. Design and evaluation of ship's power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.J.; Nienhuis, U.; Vugt, J. van; Folkersma, W.

    1999-01-01

    The cruise industry is host to major changes in the way the skip's power plants are configured. Diesel-electric propulsion has replaced most diesel-mechanic systems for larger ships. Podded propulsion is making serious headway and gas turbines are currently under order. In future, fuel cells,

  19. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  20. Dutch Ships and Sailors Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Victor; Leinenga, Jurjen; Hoekstra, F.G.; van Rossum, Matthias; Mika, Peter; Tudorache, Tadia; Bernstein, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We present the Dutch Ships and Sailors Linked Data Cloud. This heterogeneous dataset brings together four curated datasets on Dutch Maritime history as five-star linked data. The individual datasets use separate datamodels, designed in close collaboration with maritime historical researchers. The

  1. Trace of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' required the long period of about 30 years from 1963 to 1992. When this period is looked back, it is roughly divided into the period from the initial planning to the construction, the period of the power increase test and the occurrence of radiation leak, the period of the repair of shielding and the general safety checkup as the countermeasures, the period of the checkup and maintenance based on the new research plan, the period of the power increase test and the sea trial, and the period of the experimental voyage after the completion. The course of the development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' is shown. The design of Mutsu, the incidental land facilities for Mutsu, the power increase test and the experimental voyage of Mutsu, the law system for nuclear powered ships, the research and development of an improved marine nuclear reactor and the development of nuclear powered ships in the world are reported. Nuclear powered warships are operated in USA, USSR, UK, France and China. (K.I.)

  2. Reconfigurable Control of a Ship Propulsion Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    1998-01-01

    -tolerant control is a fairly new area. Thise paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for the development of new ideas and a comparison of methods. The benchmark has two main elements. One is the development of efficient FDI algorithms, and the other...

  3. Measuring ship acoustic signatures against mine threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Quesson, B.A.J.; Ainslie, M.A.; Vermeulen, R.C.N.

    2012-01-01

    The NATO standard ‘AMP-15’ [1] provides procedures for the measurement and reporting of the acoustic signature of ships and for the establishment of acoustic signature goals to counter the naval mine threat. Measurements are carried out at dedicated shallow water acoustic ranges. Measurements

  4. Transfer of structureborne sound to ship's cabins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regt, M.J.A.M. de

    1979-01-01

    In the laboratory the transfer of structureborne sound from a ship-like steel structure to cabin bulkheads has heen investigated for three types of bulkhead material: chipboard, plastic faced calcium silicate and steel plates sandwiching a rock wool core. The most relevant results of the

  5. Wave energy extraction using decommisioned ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, A.E.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    to scrap naval vessels in 2002 was $33.4 million. Now apparently the Navy sinks naval vessels by bombs and torpedos. Scrapping can cause pollution, health hazards, accidents and threat to the ecosystem. Can a “polluting” ship about to be scrapped be used to generate clean wave energy? Maybe! It is possible...

  6. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Video Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During each NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer field season, full-resolution video in a ProRes 422 format at a bitrate of 145 Mbps is produced during each deployment of the...

  7. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    evolutionary change, and the name sources of the Navy’s ships have not been immune to this change.”9 The July 2012 Navy report to Congress states that...Legion of Honor, and the Croix de Guerre with Gilt Star and 2 palms; Whereas during World War II, Clifton B. Cates led Marines at Guadalcanal, and

  8. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have shown several incidents with dramatic damage on container vessels caused by parametric resonance. When the resonance starts, the roll oscillation at a sub-harmonic frequency of the wave excitation may be completely unexpected. Timely warning about the onset of the resonance...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  9. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  10. PARTICIPATION BASED MODEL OF SHIP CREW MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Bielić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This paper analyse the participation - based model on board the ship as possibly optimal leadership model existing in the shipping industry with accent on decision - making process. In the paper authors have tried to define master’s behaviour model and management style identifying drawbacks and disadvantages of vertical, pyramidal organization with master on the top. Paper describes efficiency of decision making within team organization and optimization of a ship’s organisation by introducing teamwork on board the ship. Three examples of the ship’s accidents are studied and evaluated through “Leader - participation” model. The model of participation based management as a model of the teamwork has been applied in studying the cause - and - effect of accidents with the critical review of the communication and managing the human resources on a ship. The results have showed that the cause of all three accidents is the autocratic behaviour of the leaders and lack of communication within teams. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  11. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, M.; Mack, A.; van Eijk, A. M. J.; Schleijpen, H. M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the plume. Exhaust plumes come in different shapes, sizes, and opaqueness and depending on atmospheric parameters like wind speed and direction, as well as engine settings (power, gas or diesel, etc.). A CFD model is used to determine the plume's flow field outside the stack on the basis of exhaust flow properties, the interaction with the superstructure of the ship, the meteorological conditions and the interaction of ship's motion and atmospheric wind fields. A modified version of the NIRATAM code performs the gas radiation calculations and provides the radiant intensity of the (hot) exhaust gases and the transmission of the atmosphere around the plume is modeled with MODTRAN. This allows assessing the irradiance of a sensor positioned at some distance from the ship and its plume, as function of the conditions that influence the spatial distribution and thermal properties of the plume. Furthermore, an assessment can be made of the probability of detecting objects behind the plume. This plume module will be incorporated in the TNO EOSTAR-model, which provides estimates of detection range and image quality of EO-sensors under varying meteorological conditions.

  12. Propagation of light through ship exhaust plumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M. van; Mack, A.; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Looking through the atmosphere, it is sometimes difficult to see the details of an object. Effects like scintillation and blur are the cause of these difficulties. Exhaust plumes of e.g. a ship can cause extreme scintillation and blur, making it even harder to see the details of what lies behind the

  13. Load and Global Response of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    The present monograph covers wave load and global structural response for ships. It is primary written as a textbook for students with an introductionary background in naval architecture and a basic knowledge of statistics and strength of materials. The subjects are treated in details starting from...

  14. Global Loads on FRP Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites used for high-speed vessels have lower modulus of elasticity than the conventionally used steels.Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest natural frequencies of the global hull modes can be relatively low compared to the frequency of waveencounter...

  15. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund

    This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...

  16. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passengers sailed on cruise ships in the Vessel Sanitation Program’s jurisdiction. Only 129,678 passengers met the program’s case definition for acute gastrointestinal illness and only a small proportion of those cases (1 in 10) were part of ...

  17. 48 CFR 8.708 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... small orders, ordering offices may specify other shipment methods. (c) When shipments are under.... Failure of an ordering office to furnish bills of lading or to designate a method of transportation may... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.708 Shipping. (a) Delivery is accomplished when a shipment is placed aboard...

  18. Teaching of Naval Architecture and Ship Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    freely select their courses. In the paper this system is briefly outlined and the teaching of naval achitecture and offshore engineering within this system described. In contrast to many other universities ship design is taught for students relatively early in their study. This course and the advantages...

  19. Environmental accounting for Arctic shipping - a framework building on ship tracking data from satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, A; Martinsen, K; Eide, M; Endresen, Ø

    2014-10-15

    Arctic shipping is on the rise, leading to increased concern over the potential environmental impacts. To better understand the magnitude of influence to the Arctic environment, detailed modelling of emissions and environmental risks are essential. This paper describes a framework for environmental accounting. A cornerstone in the framework is the use of Automatic Identification System (AIS) ship tracking data from satellites. When merged with ship registers and other data sources, it enables unprecedented accuracy in modelling and geographical allocation of emissions and discharges. This paper presents results using two of the models in the framework; emissions of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, which is of particular concern for climate change, and; bunker fuels and wet bulk carriage in the Arctic, of particular concern for oil spill to the environment. Using the framework, a detailed footprint from Arctic shipping with regards to operational emissions and potential discharges is established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EX1101: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer (EM302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will involve the shakedown of all Okeanos Explorer ship capabilities and a patch test of the Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system. Operations for this...

  1. Contribution of ship traffic to aerosol particle concentrations downwind of a major shipping lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivekäs, N.; Massling, Andreas; Grythe, H.

    2014-01-01

    in Denmark. During episodes of western winds, the site is about 50 km downwind of a major shipping lane and the plumes are approximately 1 hour old when they arrive at the site. We have used a sliding percentile-based method for separating the plumes from the measured background values and to calculate...... species in both particle and gas phase. The total number of analyzed ship plumes was 726, covering on average 19% of the time when air masses were arriving at the site over the shipping lane. During the periods when plumes were present, the particle concentration exceeded the background values on average...... the ship plume contribution to the total particle number and PM0.15 mass concentration (mass of particles below 150 nm in diameter, converted from volume assuming sphericity) at the site. The method is not limited to particle number or volume concentration, but can also be used for different chemical...

  2. INFLUENCE OF OPERABILITY CRITERIA LIMITING VALUES ON SHIP SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Prpić-Oršić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the ship is caught in heavy seas, there are two manoeuvres that the shipmaster can undertake to avoid excessive ship motion and hull damage: changing course or voluntary speed reduction. This paper presents a study of the effect of the various voluntary speed reduction criteria to attainable speed of ship on seaway. The speed loss is calculated by taking into account wind and wave effect on ship speed, the engine and propeller performance in actual seas as well as the mass inertia of the ship. The attainable ship speed for ship in head, following and beam waves by accounting for voluntary speed reduction is estimated for various significant wave height. The criteria of slamming, deck wetness, propeller emergence, excessive accelerations and roll are taken into account. The impact of variations of the limiting values of certain criteria due to which the captain intentionally reduces the ship speed is analysed and discussed.

  3. Virtual Ship Architecture Description Document Issue 1.00

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, John

    2000-01-01

    The Virtual Ship concept calls for simulation models of systems to be brought together to create a virtual representation of a warship, in a process analogous to the construction of a physical ship...

  4. 78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Ship's Store Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... stores, ship's stores, controlled narcotic drugs, bunker coal, or bunker oil in a format that can be..., and the articles on the ship. It is pursuant to the provisions of section 432, Tariff Act of 1930 and...

  5. Sustainability reporting within the shipping industry - An exploratory study of the ten largest container shipping companies

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The shipping industry is one of the driving forces of the global economy, and sustainability issues are of key importance to the future of our world. Therefore, this thesis will combine them and look at sustainability within the shipping sector by doing an exploratory study of the ten largest container sh ipping companies . Sustainability reporting is becoming commonplace among larger companies, and therefore this thesis sets out to look at what i...

  6. Autonomous ships in sight: Starting signal for the unmanned merchant shipping project MUNIN

    OpenAIRE

    Burmeister, Hans-Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous and unmanned vessels are seen as a key element in a competitive and sustainable European shipping industry in the future. For this reason, a new research project called MUNIN (Maritime Unmanned Navigation through Intelligence in Networks) started this September aiming to develop a concept for autonomous ships and to prove its feasibility. It is named after the Old Norse raven, Munin that flew around the world each day without guidance, gathering information and safely returning it ...

  7. The investigation of ship maneuvering with hydrodynamic effects between ships in curved narrow channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ki Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic interaction between two large vessels can't be neglected when two large vessels are closed to each other in restricted waterways such as in a harbor or narrow channel. This paper is mainly concerned with the ship maneuvering motion based on the hydrodynamic interaction effects between two large vessels moving each other in curved narrow channel. In this research, the characteristic features of the hydrodynamic interaction forces between two large vessels are described and illustrated, and the effects of velocity ratio and the spacing between two vessels are summarized and discussed. Also, the Inchon outer harbor area through the PALMI island channel in Korea was selected, and the ship maneuvering simulation was carried out to propose an appropriate safe speed and distance between two ships, which is required to avoid sea accident in confined waters. From the inspection of this investigation, it indicates the following result. Under the condition of SP12≤0.5L, it may encounter a dangerous tendency of grounding or collision due to the combined effect of the interaction between ships and external forces. Also considering the interaction and wind effect as a parameter, an overtaken and overtaking vessel in narrow channel can navigate while keeping its own original course under the following conditions; the lateral separation between two ships is about kept at 0.6 times of ship length and 15 degrees of range in maximum rudder angle. On the other hand, two ships while overtaking in curved narrow channel such as Inchon outer harbor in Korea should be navigated under the following conditions; SP12 is about kept at 1.0 times of ship length and the wind velocity should not be stronger than 10 m/s.

  8. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT01 offshore of Cat Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys east of Cat Island, Mississippi (fig. 1). The efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geological stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and provide protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, surface images, and x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten FACS logs and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report or hold the cursor over an acronym for a pop-up explanation. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 10CCT01 tells us the data were collected in 2010 for the Coastal Change and Transport (CCT) study and the data were collected during the first field

  9. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping compa...

  10. A Mathematical Model for Analysis on Ships Collision Avoidance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study develops a mathematical model for analysis on collision avoidance of ships. The obtained model provides information on the quantitative effect of the ship's engine's response and the applied reversing force on separation distance and stopping abilities of the ships. Appropriate evasive maneuvers require the ...

  11. 75 FR 8176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... --Formal safety assessment --Noise from commercial shipping and its adverse impacts on marine life --Work... is to prepare for the sixtieth Session of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine... ballast water --Recycling of ships --Prevention of air pollution from ships --Consideration and adoption...

  12. 10 CFR 71.127 - Handling, storage, and shipping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handling, storage, shipping, cleaning, and preservation of materials and equipment to be used in packaging... MATERIAL Quality Assurance § 71.127 Handling, storage, and shipping control. The licensee, certificate... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling, storage, and shipping control. 71.127 Section 71...

  13. 48 CFR 47.305-16 - Shipping characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping characteristics... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-16 Shipping characteristics... shipments of agreed size. (b) Guaranteed shipping characteristics. (1) The contracting officer shall insert...

  14. Experimental Assessment of Underwater Radiated Sound of Different Ship Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.W.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SONIC project is to develop tools to investigate and mitigate the effects of underwater noise generated by shipping. One way to study the contribution of shipping noise to the background noise in the seas is to produce shipping noise maps. The SONIC project delivers the required

  15. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machiner...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.164 - Ship's propulsion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's propulsion machinery. 1915.164 Section 1915.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.164 Ship's...

  17. DOD Leases of Foreign-Built Ships: Background for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    .... DOD argues that its ship leases are the most cost-effective way to meet its needs for the ships in question, and opposes the idea of reducing the leasing term from five years to two years for foreign-built ships...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and followed...

  19. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge any...

  1. Model for Environmental Assessment of Container Ship Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2012-01-01

    A generic computer model for systematic investigations of container ship designs is described in this paper. The primary statistical data on container ships used for the model development are also presented. The model can be used to calculate exhaust gas emissions from container ships, including...

  2. 47 CFR 80.81 - Antenna requirements for ship stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna requirements for ship stations. 80.81 Section 80.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... Stations § 80.81 Antenna requirements for ship stations. All telephony emissions of a ship station or a...

  3. 46 CFR 128.410 - Ship's service refrigeration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship's service refrigeration systems. 128.410 Section 128.410 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... service refrigeration systems. No self-contained unit either for air-conditioning or for refrigerated...

  4. Littoral Combat Ship: Is it a Blue-Green Asset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    4.5) CODAG: 2 gas turbines, 2 diesels; 4 steerable waterjets ; 1 steerable thruster 45 4,300 at 18 kt Raytheon RAM ·· e 5immti:0Mk2•220...the ship in dry-dock for extended periods of time, cutting holes in the side of the ship, or running lengths of cables and piping throughout the ship

  5. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  6. Identifying Urinary and Serum Exosome Biomarkers for Radiation Exposure Using a Data Dependent Acquisition and SWATH-MS Combined Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Shilpa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Koller, Antonius [Proteomics Center, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mani, Kartik M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Wen, Ruofeng [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Alfieri, Alan; Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Wang, Jian [Center for Computational Mass Spectrometry, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Patel, Purvi [Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Bandeira, Nuno [Center for Computational Mass Spectrometry, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); and others

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Early and accurate assessment of radiation injury by radiation-responsive biomarkers is critical for triage and early intervention. Biofluids such as urine and serum are convenient for such analysis. Recent research has also suggested that exosomes are a reliable source of biomarkers in disease progression. In the present study, we analyzed total urine proteome and exosomes isolated from urine or serum for potential biomarkers of acute and persistent radiation injury in mice exposed to lethal whole body irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: For feasibility studies, the mice were irradiated at 10.4 Gy WBI, and urine and serum samples were collected 24 and 72 hours after irradiation. Exosomes were isolated and analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry-based workflow for radiation exposure signatures. A data dependent acquisition and SWATH-MS combined workflow approach was used to identify significantly exosome biomarkers indicative of acute or persistent radiation-induced responses. For the validation studies, mice were exposed to 3, 6, 8, or 10 Gy WBI, and samples were analyzed for comparison. Results: A comparison between total urine proteomics and urine exosome proteomics demonstrated that exosome proteomic analysis was superior in identifying radiation signatures. Feasibility studies identified 23 biomarkers from urine and 24 biomarkers from serum exosomes after WBI. Urinary exosome signatures identified different physiological parameters than the ones obtained in serum exosomes. Exosome signatures from urine indicated injury to the liver, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. In contrast, serum showed vascular injuries and acute inflammation in response to radiation. Selected urinary exosomal biomarkers also showed changes at lower radiation doses in validation studies. Conclusions: Exosome proteomics revealed radiation- and time-dependent protein signatures after WBI. A total of 47 differentially secreted

  7. Identifying Urinary and Serum Exosome Biomarkers for Radiation Exposure Using a Data Dependent Acquisition and SWATH-MS Combined Workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Shilpa; Koller, Antonius; Mani, Kartik M.; Wen, Ruofeng; Alfieri, Alan; Saha, Subhrajit; Wang, Jian; Patel, Purvi; Bandeira, Nuno; Guha, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Early and accurate assessment of radiation injury by radiation-responsive biomarkers is critical for triage and early intervention. Biofluids such as urine and serum are convenient for such analysis. Recent research has also suggested that exosomes are a reliable source of biomarkers in disease progression. In the present study, we analyzed total urine proteome and exosomes isolated from urine or serum for potential biomarkers of acute and persistent radiation injury in mice exposed to lethal whole body irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: For feasibility studies, the mice were irradiated at 10.4 Gy WBI, and urine and serum samples were collected 24 and 72 hours after irradiation. Exosomes were isolated and analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry-based workflow for radiation exposure signatures. A data dependent acquisition and SWATH-MS combined workflow approach was used to identify significantly exosome biomarkers indicative of acute or persistent radiation-induced responses. For the validation studies, mice were exposed to 3, 6, 8, or 10 Gy WBI, and samples were analyzed for comparison. Results: A comparison between total urine proteomics and urine exosome proteomics demonstrated that exosome proteomic analysis was superior in identifying radiation signatures. Feasibility studies identified 23 biomarkers from urine and 24 biomarkers from serum exosomes after WBI. Urinary exosome signatures identified different physiological parameters than the ones obtained in serum exosomes. Exosome signatures from urine indicated injury to the liver, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. In contrast, serum showed vascular injuries and acute inflammation in response to radiation. Selected urinary exosomal biomarkers also showed changes at lower radiation doses in validation studies. Conclusions: Exosome proteomics revealed radiation- and time-dependent protein signatures after WBI. A total of 47 differentially secreted

  8. Ship-Track Models Based on Poisson-Distributed Port-Departure Times

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heitmeyer, Richard

    2006-01-01

    ... of those ships, and their nominal speeds. The probability law assumes that the ship departure times are Poisson-distributed with a time-varying departure rate and that the ship speeds and ship routes are statistically independent...

  9. The Surge, Wave, and Tide Hydrodynamics (SWaTH) network of the U.S. Geological Survey—Past and future implementation of storm-response monitoring, data collection, and data delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Richard J.; Lotspeich, R. Russell; Robbins, Jeanne C.; Busciolano, Ronald J.; Mullaney, John R.; Massey, Andrew J.; Banks, William S.; Roland, Mark A.; Jenter, Harry L.; Peppler, Marie C.; Suro, Thomas P.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-06-20

    After Hurricane Sandy made landfall along the northeastern Atlantic coast of the United States on October 29, 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) carried out scientific investigations to assist with protecting coastal communities and resources from future flooding. The work included development and implementation of the Surge, Wave, and Tide Hydrodynamics (SWaTH) network consisting of more than 900 monitoring stations. The SWaTH network was designed to greatly improve the collection and timely dissemination of information related to storm surge and coastal flooding. The network provides a significant enhancement to USGS data-collection capabilities in the region impacted by Hurricane Sandy and represents a new strategy for observing and monitoring coastal storms, which should result in improved understanding, prediction, and warning of storm-surge impacts and lead to more resilient coastal communities.As innovative as it is, SWaTH evolved from previous USGS efforts to collect storm-surge data needed by others to improve storm-surge modeling, warning, and mitigation. This report discusses the development and implementation of the SWaTH network, and some of the regional stories associated with the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, as well as some previous events that informed the SWaTH development effort. Additional discussions on the mechanics of inundation and how the USGS is working with partners to help protect coastal communities from future storm impacts are also included.

  10. Lightning enhancement over major oceanic shipping lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Joel A.; Virts, Katrina S.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Mitchell, Todd P.

    2017-09-01

    Using 12 years of high-resolution global lightning stroke data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), we show that lightning density is enhanced by up to a factor of 2 directly over shipping lanes in the northeastern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea as compared to adjacent areas with similar climatological characteristics. The lightning enhancement is most prominent during the convectively active season, November-April for the Indian Ocean and April-December in the South China Sea, and has been detectable from at least 2005 to the present. We hypothesize that emissions of aerosol particles and precursors by maritime vessel traffic lead to a microphysical enhancement of convection and storm electrification in the region of the shipping lanes. These persistent localized anthropogenic perturbations to otherwise clean regions are a unique opportunity to more thoroughly understand the sensitivity of maritime deep convection and lightning to aerosol particles.

  11. Leadership Profiling of Ocean Going Ship Masters1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Theotokas

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the ocean going ship Masters and aims at identifying their leadership profiles and understanding their attitudes and reactions in given circumstances. It analyses and discusses the results of a field study of ship officers of different nationalities employed as Masters on board ships of a leading international maritime group. Results of the research reveal that the characteristics and the competencies of ship Masters as identified using the specially developed questionnaire, are compatible with those proposed by situational leadership theories. Ship Masters seem to give priority to the people on board and their needs and try to be supportive in their decisions.

  12. The Ship Movement Trajectory Prediction Algorithm Using Navigational Data Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Piotr

    2017-06-20

    It is essential for the marine navigator conducting maneuvers of his ship at sea to know future positions of himself and target ships in a specific time span to effectively solve collision situations. This article presents an algorithm of ship movement trajectory prediction, which, through data fusion, takes into account measurements of the ship's current position from a number of doubled autonomous devices. This increases the reliability and accuracy of prediction. The algorithm has been implemented in NAVDEC, a navigation decision support system and practically used on board ships.

  13. Empty Container Management in Cyclic Shipping Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Ping Song; Jing-Xin Dong

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the empty container management problem in a cyclic shipping route. The objective is to seek the optimal empty container repositioning policy in a dynamic and stochastic situation by minimising the expected total costs consisting of inventory holding costs, demand lost-sale costs, lifting-on and lifting-off charges, and container transportation costs. A three-phase threshold control policy is developed to reposition empty containers in cyclic routes. The threshold values a...

  14. Connecting Land-Based Networks to Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    VSAT ) system. The stations, equipped with VSAT antennas, share the satellite’s transmission capacity to transmit to the station having the central hub...and base stations, which are connected to the ship’s VSAT system by which the voice and data connections from the phones are routed from the ship to...Maritime VSAT Communications Solutions, June 2010. [17] MCP Maritime Communications Partner, “Technology overview,” August 2012, http

  15. Trends in Integrated Ship Control Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    1997-01-01

    Integrated Ship Control systems can be designed as robust, distributed, autonomous control systems. The EU funded ATOMOS and ATOMOS II projects involves both technical and non technical aspects of this process. A reference modelling concept giving an outline of a generic ISC system covering...... the network and the equipment connected to it, a framework for verification of network functionality and performance by simulation and a general distribution platform for ISC systems, The ATOMOS Network, are results of this work....

  16. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive for the b......In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive...... for the bunker consumption in the network as well as the transit time of cargo. Speed optimization has been considered for tramp shipping showing significant reductions in fuel consumption. However, variable speeds has not been considered for post optimization of the LSNDP, where speed optimization could result...... in changes to the cargo flow due to transit time restrictions as well as significant savings in fuel consumption and required vessel deployment due to a weekly frequency requirement. We present a heuristic method to calculate variable speed on a service and present computational results for improving...

  17. Ships in Russian Literature: Folklore Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Dudareva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a genesis of the ship image in the Russian literature and folklore, an idea of “other kingdom” in the Russian literature poetics of the 19-20 centuries. An emphasis is put on the issues related to the metaphor of a ship, a boat in the artistic world of Lermontov, Turgenev, Dostoevsky and in the poetry of the early 20th century. A paradigm “the Moon – boat” is studied in detail. The image of a boat, which regularly appears in Russian literature, various word-painters’ art works, is associated with semantics of funeral ceremonial boat typical for different folk genres. Addressing to riddles about death, to Russian epic tradition, to plots dedicated to Razin demonstrates complexity and significance of the symbol of a boat/ferry/ship for the national culture. This symbol encapsulates the supreme idea of death as cosmic regeneration, character’s initiation, which appeared highly sought by Russian literature, both realistic prose and avantgarde and modernism poetry.

  18. Ship motion control system; Sentai shisei seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaga, H. [Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-15

    Techno-super-liner is a large object combining with catamaran in application of an amphibious principle of a hover craft, called as the air pressure type complex support from (TSL-A form). In this paper, the driving device in the ship motion control system (RCS), equipped with `HISYO` developed as an experimental ship of TSL-A 70m type in the marine area, was mainly introduced. This RCS was a motion control system for a propose to reduce swing of a ship body when high speed navigation in the opening sea, this structural device consisted of the control calculation device, the swing detection device, the operation monitoring device, the underwater fin flip driving device, the lopper driving device, and the hydraulic power unit. As investigation results on the effectiveness of RCS in the HISYO through the marine experiments and general experiments, it was proved that the expected effect was obtained, high speed navigation was possible in a worse weather. 1 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Adaptation to carbon dioxide tax in shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This note discusses the consequences for the sea transport sector between Norway and continental Europe of levying a carbon dioxide tax on international bunker. The influence of such a tax on the operational costs of various types of ship and various transport routes is calculated. The profit obtainable from the following ways of adapting to an increased tax level is assessed: (1) Reducing the speed, (2) Rebuilding the engine to decrease fuel consumption, (3) Changing the design speed for new ships. It is found that a carbon dioxide tax of NOK 200 per tonne of CO 2 will increase the transport costs by 3 - 15 percent. In the long run much of this may be transferred to the freight rates since so much of the sea transport are in segments in which the demand for the service is not sensitive to the prices. Even if the freight rates are not changed, a tax this size will not make it necessary to reduce the speed of the existing fleet. The income lost by taking fewer trips will exceed the costs saved in reducing the speed. However, the optimum design speed for new ships may be somewhat reduced (0.5 knots). Rebuilding engines to reduce the fuel consumption would pay off were it not for the fact that the remaining life of the present fleet is probably too short for this to be interesting

  20. Historic survey on nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nuclear merchants ships already built are described and studied. • Their history and main architectural choices are presented, focusing nuclear domain. • The typical problems in those projects are discussed. • Some key factors for developing successful nuclear merchant ships are identified. - Abstract: This work provides a survey on past nuclear merchant ships experience. On light of new regulations on CO 2 , SO x and NO x , the options for clean naval propulsion need to be studied. Despite many efforts, the only already sea proven emissions-free energy is nuclear power of pressurized water reactor type. Given the past experience on the field, this work provides some information on history, architectures and hints of reasons for the success or failures of each project. It is found that adequate requirements identification must be done keeping economics always in the center of design. Experience shows, except after major catastrophic accidents, public trust may be earned by open dialog and sound engineering practices.

  1. Evaluation of iTRAQ and SWATH-MS for the Quantification of Proteins Associated with Insulin Resistance in Human Duodenal Biopsy Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bourassa

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is associated with increased production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins of intestinal origin. In order to assess whether insulin resistance affects the proteins involved in lipid metabolism, we used two mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics techniques to compare the intestinal proteome of 14 IR patients to that of 15 insulin sensitive (IS control patients matched for age and waist circumference. A total of 3886 proteins were identified by the iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation mass spectrometry approach and 2290 by the SWATH-MS strategy (Serial Window Acquisition of Theoretical Spectra. Using these two methods, 208 common proteins were identified with a confidence corresponding to FDR < 1%, and quantified with p-value < 0.05. The quantification of those 208 proteins has a Pearson correlation coefficient (r2 of 0.728 across the two techniques. Gene Ontology analyses of the differentially expressed proteins revealed that annotations related to lipid metabolic process and oxidation reduction process are overly represented in the set of under-expressed proteins in IR subjects. Furthermore, both methods quantified proteins of relevance to IR. These data also showed that SWATH-MS is a promising and compelling alternative to iTRAQ for protein quantitation of complex mixtures.

  2. SYNCHRONIZATION OF NATIONAL GRID NETWORK WITH THE ELECTRICITY SHIPS NETWORK IN THE "SHORE TO SHIP" SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Shore to ship’ system – ships’ power supply from the local electrical substations – is one of the effective ways to limit the negative impact of the ships lying in ports on the environment. Energy infrastructure of the port installation necessary to provide ships with power supply has to be designed so that different types of ships can use it. The important issue concerning ‘shore to ship’ system is the quality of power supply. This can be achieved via sustaining continuity of power supply while switching from the ships’ electrical network over to the national grid. In this article the author presents the way of synchronizing the national grid with the ships’ electrical network during ship’s lying in port. Such synchronization would allow for uninterruptible work of the ship’s electrical devices.

  3. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangguang Leng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way.

  4. Evidence for ship noise impacts on humpback whale foraging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Hannah B; Merchant, Nathan D; Friedlaender, Ari S; Wiley, David N; Parks, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Noise from shipping activity in North Atlantic coastal waters has been steadily increasing and is an area of growing conservation concern, as it has the potential to disrupt the behaviour of marine organisms. This study examines the impacts of ship noise on bottom foraging humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the western North Atlantic. Data were collected from 10 foraging whales using non-invasive archival tags that simultaneously recorded underwater movements and the acoustic environment at the whale. Using mixed models, we assess the effects of ship noise on seven parameters of their feeding behaviours. Independent variables included the presence or absence of ship noise and the received level of ship noise at the whale. We found significant effects on foraging, including slower descent rates and fewer side-roll feeding events per dive with increasing ship noise. During 5 of 18 ship passages, dives without side-rolls were observed. These findings indicate that humpback whales on Stellwagen Bank, an area with chronically elevated levels of shipping traffic, significantly change foraging activity when exposed to high levels of ship noise. This measureable reduction in within-dive foraging effort of individual whales could potentially lead to population-level impacts of shipping noise on baleen whale foraging success. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Reconfigurable Control of a Ship Propulsion Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    1998-01-01

    Fault-tolerant control combines fault detection and isolation techniques with supervisory control, to achieve the autonomous accommodation of faults before they develop into failures. While fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods have matured during the past decade, the extension to fault......-tolerant control is a fairly new area. Thise paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for the development of new ideas and a comparison of methods. The benchmark has two main elements. One is the development of efficient FDI algorithms, and the other...... is the analysis and implementation of autonomous fault accommodation. A benchmark kit can be obtained from the authors....

  6. Containership Traffic Optimization on Feeder Shipping Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozhzhyn Oleksii

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to feeder containership traffic optimization on the trunk and feeder shipping lines. The optimization is fulfilled in case of the necessity of laden containers delivery between fixed pairs of ports as well as in case of the requirement not to exceed the vessel's capacity, taking into account her residual value during transition between feeder port lines. The paper takes into account uneven distribution of empty container equipment in ports of line and the solution is suggested considering the estimation of the empty TEU’s number which is subject to reposition.

  7. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...... analyses, it is shown that the influence of torsion induced warping stresses on the ultimate hull girder bending strength is small for ductile hull materials while torsion induced shear stresses will of course reduce the ship hull ultimate bending moment....

  8. Ship Grounding on Rock - I. Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of analytical expressions which can be used to calculate the reaction force on a ship bottom deformed by a conical rock with a rounded tip. Closed form solutions are given for the resistance of inner and outer bottom plating, longitudinal stiffeners, girders and bulkhead...... the damage of four large scale tests and an accidental grounding with errors less than 10%. Moreover, it is illustrated by an example that the model evaluation of a grounding scenario is sufficientlty fast to be used in a probabilistic framework in a Formal safety Assessment....

  9. The Retrograde of Shipping Containers from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    War, (New York, New York: The Random House Publishing Group, 1993), Page 78. 2 MAJ Tony Velazquez , 1st TSC, SPO Mobility and Mark LaRue, Global...mail to author, March 23, 2013 25 Ibid. 26 Ibid. 27 MAJ Tony Velazquez , 1st TSC, SPO Mobility and Mark LaRue, Global Container Manager, Surface...Late Fees for Military Shipping Containers Soar”, USA Today, October 4, 2012 33 MAJ Tony Velazquez , 1st TSC, SPO Mobility and Mark LaRue, Global

  10. Fast Evaluation of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to provide a rational and efficient procedure able to predict the design wave-induced motions, accelerations and loads with sufficient engineering accuracy in the conceptual design phase and in risk assessment. The procedure relies only on the following main parame...... parameters of the ship: Length, breadth, draught, block coefficient and water plane area together with the operational profile. The formulas are semi-analytical and the calculations can be easily done using a standard spreadsheet program....

  11. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    Minorsky's well-known empirical formula, which relates the absorbed energy to the destroyed material volume, has been widely used in analyses of high energy collision and grounding accidents for nearly 40 years. The advantage of the method is its apparent simplcity. Obviously, its drawback...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  12. Structural analysis of a ship on global aspect using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Muzibur; Kamol, Rajia Sultana; Islam, Reyana

    2017-12-01

    Ship is a complex geometry which undergoes a combination of loadings such as hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, wind, wave etc. at sea and thus adequate strength in a ship has always been one of the most challenging tasks for the ship designers. International Maritime Organization (IMO) and classification societies are providing the standards to ensure the adequacy of strength for the ship against all demands throughout its service life. Thus, structural analysis is needed to assess the overall strength of hull, and the means in this regard are based on finite element method which may be applied either local or global aspect of the ship. This paper is an attempt to carry out the structural analysis of a ship in global aspect using ANSYS software to locate the most stress concentration and deformed area, which will have ultimate effect on fatigue fracture.

  13. Reliability of Hull Girder Ultimate Strength of Steel Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-wei, Gao; Gui-jie, Shi

    2018-03-01

    Hull girder ultimate strength is an evaluation index reflecting the true safety margin or structural redundancy about container ships. Especially, after the hull girder fracture accident of the MOL COMFORT, the 8,000TEU class large container ship, on June 17 2013, larger container ship safety has been paid on much more attention. In this paper, different methods of calculating hull girder ultimate strength are firstly discussed and compared with. The bending ultimate strength can be analyzed by nonlinear finite element method (NFEM) and increment-iterative method, and also the shear ultimate strength can be analyzed by NFEM and simple equations. Then, the probability distribution of hull girder wave loads and still water loads of container ship are summarized. At last, the reliability of hull girder ultimate strength under bending moment and shear forces for three container ships is analyzed by using a first order method. The conclusions can be applied to give guidance for ship design and safety evaluation.

  14. A Way Forward for Ship Classification and Technical Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam-Bee Goh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Classification societies are one of key organizations that promote the highest standards in ship safety and quality shipping. The paper reviews the ship classification industry and identifies what the classification societies can do to add value to the maritime industry more effectively. To meet this objective, an analysis of the five competitive forces is carried out, together with an opinion survey performed on some of the leading shipping companies, to assess and to establish some of the key factors which should be considered when formulating an overall business strategy for the growth of the classification services business. The findings from the study are discussed with the strategic options and choices. A classification services industrial value chain analysis together with ship management and operation is undertaken to explore the opportunities for classification societies. These findings also provide guidance to policy-makers who design and seek to implement more effective international shipping policies.

  15. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguíluz, Victor M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  16. Crushing of ship bows in head-on collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocakli, H.; Zhang, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    . The approach developed can be used easily to determine the crushing resistance and damage extent of the ship bow when ship length and collision speed are known. The method can be used in probabilistic analysis of damage extents in ship collisions where a large number of calculations are generally required.......Semi-analytical methods for analysis of plate crushing and ship bow damage in head-on collisions are developed in this paper. Existing experimental and theoretical studies for crushing analysis of plated structures are summarized and compared. Simple formulae for determining the crushing force......, force-deformation curve and damge extent of a ship bow, expressed in terms of ship principal particulars, are derived for longitudinally stiffened oil tankers and bulk carriers with length of 150 meters and above. The methods are compared with published results and good agreement is achieved...

  17. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dalsøren

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds, N2O, BC (Black Carbon and OC (Organic Carbon. The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions.

    A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over Western North America (contribution 15–25% and Western Europe (5–15%. The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5–6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With

  18. The berthing ship problem : Forces on berthing structures from moving ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijn, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    In this report a mathematical model is formulated which is sufficiently accurate to describe quantitatively and qualitatively the behaviour of a ship berthing to a structure equipped with fenders as well as to determine the response of the fenders themselves. In order to achieve this a set of

  19. Ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall : Fender forces and ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijn, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    In this report a mathematical model is formulated which is sufficiently accurate to describe the typical behaviour of a ship berthing to a vertical quay-wall fitted with fenders as well as to determine the response of the fenders themselves. In order to achieve this a three-dimensional set of

  20. Emission of toxic organic microcontaminants from ship's engines: first measurements on three cruising ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaan, H.; Rhemrev, M.M.; Houtzager, M.M.G.

    1992-01-01

    This work was undertaken within the framework of Lloyd's Register's Marine Exhaust Emissions Research Programme. Phase II of this research programme [] evaluated exhaust emissions from ships in service under steady state and transient modes of operation and incorporated measurements of CO, CO2, 02,

  1. EX1201: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between 20100214 and 20120223

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EX1201 is the 2012 shakedown mission of NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer (EX) and will perform system patch tests of the vessel’s Kongsberg EM302 multibeam sonar....

  2. A method for remote sensing of acoustic ship noise

    OpenAIRE

    Coward, Stian

    2013-01-01

    Ship noise in the ocean due to commercial shipping has gained increased interest in recent years because of its potential impact on marine life and the ocean environment. Hence, rapid methods to estimate the source level of commercial ships has obtained considerable research interest. Although a number of measurement standards exist that describe measurement procedures for dedicated measurement ranges or well-controlled measurement conditions, there is an interest in methods adapted/develop...

  3. Ship Operation Research and Development, A Program for Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    operating technologically advanced ships manned by nontraditionally organized crews--the Baff Project in Sweden, the Netherlands’ Ship 󈨔 Project, Japan’s...example: o Manning the technically advanced ships of the future (the BAFF project conducted and financed by the Swedish Shipowners’ Association) o The... BAFF Development Project: Manning of Technically Advanced Snips of the Future. Swedish Shipowners’ Association, 1972. Bolton, F., A Statement of

  4. Effect of Fracture on Crushing of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Abramowicz, W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with loads and energy absorption during crushing of ship structures. Particular focus is on the effect of fracture of welds or parent material on the energy absorption of typical structural subassemblies of ships during deep collapse. The paper presents experiments...... absorption in axial crushing of typical ship structural components. This effect of fracture has been neglected in previously published studies of bow crushing mechanics....

  5. Characterization of ships as sources of underwater noise

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, C.A.F. de

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the possible impact of anthropogenic underwater noise on marine life [1]. One of the concerns is the increasing contribution of shipping noise, with the growing number and size of commercial ships. Traditionally, underwater radiated noise control was only of interest for naval [2,3] and fishery research vessels [4]. Due to the potential environmental impact, it becomes also relevant for commercial shipping. The challenge is to bring the expertise from the naval ...

  6. Adaptive ship autopilot with wave filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Sælid

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with analysis and design of an adaptive autopilot for ships. The design is based on a low and high frequency model of the vessel motion adequate to ship steering. The low frequency model describes the vessel response to rudder control and slowly varying environmental forces. The high frequency model represents the wave induced oscillatory part of the yaw motion. The models are used in a Kalman filter and the rudder control is computed from linear quadratic theory based on the low frequency part of the vector. This yields a very effective filtering of the wave component of the yaw motion. Proper operation of this filter/controller structure requires knowledge of the vessel model parameters and the dominating wave frequency. The vessel parameters are estimated on line by a recursive prediction error method. In order to reduce the computing requirements, the state estimator is operated using scheduled gains. This results in an easy and robust design. The convergence properties are investigated by using the method of Ljung. The performance is confirmed by simulation experiments.

  7. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  8. 3D RECORDING OF A 19-CENTURY OB RIVER SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pushkarev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 3D recording of a 19-century wooden ship discovered on the bank of the river Ob (Western Siberia was performed in autumn 2015. The archaeologized ship was partly under water, partly lying ashore, buried under fluvial deposits. The 3D recording was performed in October, when the water level was at its lowest after clearing the area around the ship. A 3D recording at the place of discovery was required as part of the ship museumification and reconstruction project. The works performed were primarily aimed at preserving as much information about the object as possible. Given the location and peculiar features of the object, a combination of close-range photogrammetry and aerial photography was considered to be the best possible solution for creating a high-quality 3D model. The dismantled ship was delivered to Nizhnevartovsk Museum of Local History in October 2015. The ship is going to be reassembled using the created 3D model to be exhibited in the museum. The resulting models are also going to be used to make a virtual 3D reconstruction of the ship in the future. We shot a stereoscopic video for Nizhnevartovsk Museum of Local History to let visitors see the place of discovery and explore the ship in greater details. Besides, 3D printing allowed for creating a miniature of the ship, which is also going to be included in the exposition devoted to this unique discovery.

  9. Drills and Training on board Ship in Maritime Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Dragomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In maritime transport, drills are methods of practicing how a team or individuals should behavein case of an emergency on board ship (fire, explosion, pirates’ attacks, ship sinking, shipgrounding, capsizing etc.. Most commonly acknowledged in the shipping domain, drills aresynonyms to training exercises. Drills are extremely important for the safety of ship, crew andpassengers and are mandatory to be performed in any sea voyage. In this paper is made anoverview on regulatory framework and strategic role of efficient maritime drills and training.

  10. Crushing of ship bows in head-on collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocakli, H.; Zhang, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    Semi-analytical methods for analysis of plate crushing and ship bow damage in head-on collisions are developed in this paper. Existing experimental and theoretical studies for crushing analysis of plated structures are summarized and compared. Simple formulae for determining the crushing force....... The approach developed can be used easily to determine the crushing resistance and damage extent of the ship bow when ship length and collision speed are known. The method can be used in probabilistic analysis of damage extents in ship collisions where a large number of calculations are generally required....

  11. The Ship Movement Trajectory Prediction Algorithm Using Navigational Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Borkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for the marine navigator conducting maneuvers of his ship at sea to know future positions of himself and target ships in a specific time span to effectively solve collision situations. This article presents an algorithm of ship movement trajectory prediction, which, through data fusion, takes into account measurements of the ship’s current position from a number of doubled autonomous devices. This increases the reliability and accuracy of prediction. The algorithm has been implemented in NAVDEC, a navigation decision support system and practically used on board ships.

  12. [Medicine aboard cruise ships--law insurance specifics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottomann, C; Frenzel, R; Muehlberger, T

    2013-04-01

    The booming cruise industry, associated with ships with more passengers and crew on board, results in growing medical needs for the ship doctor. The ship's doctor insurance policy includes different jurisdictions, namely national law, international law, tort law, insurance law and labor law. In addition, international agreements must be taken into account, which complicates the design of an adequate insurance policy. Equally high are the costs and defense costs for the ship's doctor in case of liability. In order to limit the liability for all parties is to ask for appropriately qualified medical staff, hired on board. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...... introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against...... to solve the LSFRP....

  14. Radar imagery from the 1994 Lock Linnhe ship wake experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullenhoff, C.J.; Lehman, S.K.; Jones, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    The 1994 Loch Linnhe radar ocean imaging trials were held from September 4 through September 17. Two ships were used: the R.V. Colonel Templer, and the RMAS Collie. Thorn EMI, Inc., fielded a dual band, dual polarization radar on a hillside overlooking the loch. A primary purpose of the experiment was to obtain highly visible images of ship generated internal waves. Presented here is imagery for a few of the good ship runs, as well as a study of the environment of the visibility of ship generated internal waves.

  15. International R&D Rivalry with a Shipping Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Takauchi, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    To examine the role of shipping firms in the international research and development (R&D) rivalry, we build a two-country (exporting and importing), two-firm (exporting and local) duopoly model with a shipping firm. The exporting firm competes with the local firm in the duopoly market of the local country but must pay a shipping fee to the shipping firm in order to sell its product in the local market. Similar to market competition, exporting and local firms engage in R&D competition. We comp...

  16. A Study on Green Shipping in Major Countries: In the View of Shipyards, Shipping Companies, Ports, and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to define green shipping and eco-friendly vessels and identify the regulations and current market situation regarding eco-friendly vessels in major countries such as Europe, United States, Japan, China and South Korea within the framework of shipping companies, shipyards, ports, and policies. This conceptual study defines and analyzes the current market situation of green shipping based on the previous literatures as well as the cases of each stakeholder in major countries. As the results, this study identifies six major problems and proposes countermeasures to enhance strategic plans in preparation for green shipping in South Korea. The countermeasures are 1 the establishment of a shipping–shipbuilding collaborative network, 2 information sharing and joint cost reduction for shipping and shipbuilding industry, 3 investment in R&D in eco-friendly vessels by shipbuilding industry, 4 expanded support for LNG fueled ship.

  17. Community on a cruise ship: The contribution of an ethnographic research in studying the cruise ship industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Končar Lara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Originating from a very small part of the industry of ocean passenger transport, the cruise ship phenomenon grew into a global international business for organizing vacation and travel, becoming by the mid-20th century the fastest-growing branch of tourism industry. Seen as both a process and a project of globalization, and a manifestation of the fluidity of modern society, a series of scientific research questions were raised regarding the nature of globalization and consumerism. As opposed to the wider social, economic and cultural processes, the experiences of cruise ship workers offer a completely different perspective to this phenomenon. As the “fluid” nature of the industry and the ships themselves blurs the borders between places and space, within which communities of cruise ship workers are appearing, in this text I will try to point out the existence of a “social order” on the ships which is simultaneously defined by wider globalization processes and established regulations of cruise ship companies. With the ethnographic approach to researching the cruise ship industry, this text aims to offer a view from “within”: from the perspective of those who live and work on cruise ships, thus pointing out the existence and the particularities of “displaced enclaves” being formed on the ships, as well as the important connection between work, everyday life and travel.

  18. Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm.

  19. Status of spent fuel shipping cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, I.K.; Hinschberger, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how several new-generation shopping cask systems are being developed for safe and economical transport of commercial spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes for the generating sites to a federal geologic repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Primary objectives of the from-reactor spent fuel cask development work are: to increase cask payloads by taking advantage of the increased at-reactor storage time under the current spent fuel management scenario, to facilitate more efficient cask handling operations with reduced occupational radiation exposure, and to promote standardization of the physical interfaces between casks and the shipping and receiving facilities. Increased cask payloads will significantly reduce the numbers of shipments, with corresponding reductions in transportation costs and risks to transportation workers, cask handling personnel, and the general public

  20. Cargo-mix optimization in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario; Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva

    ’ utilization.The more containers a vessel carries the smaller is the resulting CO2 emissions per transported tonof cargo. This is what can be seen as a win-win situation. Better vessel utilization will result bothin cleaner transport and in better revenue margins for the shippers. Focus on vessel intake...... maximization is old news for liner shippers. Container vessels are deliveredwith a nominal capacity that ship owners know is only theoretical. Unless the cargo weightdistribution is perfect, the nominal intake cannot be reached. Stowage coordinators fight this battleeveryday. They are the planners of the cargo...... and have to find a load configuration (stowage plan)that both suits the current cargo to be loaded but also guarantees that the vessel can be utilizedto its maximum in future ports. The size of nowadays vessels is, however, making this work harderand harder (Pacino et al. (2011)). Moreover, the cargo...

  1. 10 CFR 72.166 - Handling, storage, and shipping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... materials and equipment to prevent damage or deterioration. When necessary for particular products, special... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling, storage, and shipping control. 72.166 Section 72... WASTE Quality Assurance § 72.166 Handling, storage, and shipping control. The licensee, applicant for a...

  2. Real-Time Simulation of Ship Impact for Crew Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    Real-time simulation of marine accidents and representation in a realistic, virtual environment may be an efficient way to train emergency procedures for ship?s crews and thus improve safety at sea. However, although various fast, simplified methods have been presented over the past decades...

  3. Ship Inspection Strategies: Effects on Maritime Safety and Environmental Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGlobal trade depends for a large part on maritime transport, and safe ships are needed not only to protect precious cargo but also to prevent environmental damage. Flag state and port state authorities spend much effort in ship safety inspections to ensure a minimum safety level and to

  4. Ship inspection strategies: effects on maritime safety and environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, C.; Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Global trade largely depends on maritime transport, and appropriate ships are needed to protect cargo but to minimize environmental damage and to this end, flag and port state authorities expend considerable effort in ship safety inspections. This paper investigates the safety gains of current

  5. Model for Estimation of Fuel Consumption of Cruise Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Simonsen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a model to estimate the energy use and fuel consumption of cruise ships that sail Norwegian waters. Automatic identification system (AIS data and technical information about cruise ships provided input to the model, including service speed, total power, and number of engines. The model was tested against real-world data obtained from a small cruise vessel and both a medium and large cruise ship. It is sensitive to speed and the corresponding engine load profile of the ship. A crucial determinate for total fuel consumption is also associated with hotel functions, which can make a large contribution to the overall energy use of cruise ships. Real-world data fits the model best when ship speed is 70–75% of service speed. With decreased or increased speed, the model tends to diverge from real-world observations. The model gives a proxy for calculation of fuel consumption associated with cruise ships that sail to Norwegian waters and can be used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and to evaluate energy reduction strategies for cruise ships.

  6. Recognition of ships for long-term tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, S.P. van den; Bouma, H.; Veerman, H.E.T.; Benoist, K.W.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term tracking is important for maritime situational awareness to identify currently observed ships as earlier encounters. In cases of, for example, piracy and smuggling, past location and behavior analysis are useful to determine whether a ship is of interest. Furthermore, it is beneficial to

  7. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    We present an integer programming based heuristic, a matheuristic, for the liner shipping network design problem. This problem consists of finding a set of container shipping routes defining a capacitated network for cargo transport. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport...

  8. 48 CFR 52.247-60 - Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Characteristics. 52.247-60 Section 52.247-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-60 Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics. As prescribed in 47.305-16(b)(1), insert the following clause: Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics (DEC 1989) (a) The offeror is requested to complete...

  9. 75 FR 39089 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... to July 30, 2010. The primary matters to be considered include: --Adoption of the agenda --Decisions of other IMO bodies --Routing of ships, ship reporting and related matters --Guidelines for... equipment --International Telecommunication Union (ITU) matters, including Radiocommunication ITU-R Study...

  10. Unsupervised ship trajectory modeling and prediction using compression and clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.; van Someren, M.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show how to build a model of ship trajectories in a certain maritime region and use this model to predict future ship movements. The presented method is unsupervised and based on existing compression (line-simplification) and clustering techniques. We evaluate the model with a

  11. 76 FR 44977 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... international trade. --Ship/port interface. --Technical co-operation and assistance. --Relations with other... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6827] Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee... upcoming events at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in London, United Kingdom. The first of...

  12. Tramp Ship Routing and Scheduling - Models, Methods and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    to mergers, pooling, and collaboration efforts between shipping companies, the fleet sizes have grown to a point where manual planning is no longer adequate in a market with tough competition and low freight rates. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive introduction to tramp ship routing...

  13. The plundering of the ship graves from Oseberg and Gokstad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Daly, Aoife

    2012-01-01

    Not the least of the unusual revelations that have come from the wonderfully preserved ninth-century Norwegian ship burials at Oseberg and Gokstad, is the fact that both had been later broken into-by interlopers who defaced the ship, damaged the grave goods and pulled out and dispersed the bones ...

  14. Proposed New Method of Interpretation of Infrared Ship Signature Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; Wilson, M.T.; Youern, K.

    2005-01-01

    new method of deriving and defining requirements for the infrared signature of new ships is presented. The current approach is to specify the maximum allowed temperature or radiance contrast of the ship with respect to its background. At present, in most NATO countries, it is the contractor’s

  15. Characterization of ships as sources of underwater noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the possible impact of anthropogenic underwater noise on marine life [1]. One of the concerns is the increasing contribution of shipping noise, with the growing number and size of commercial ships. Traditionally, underwater radiated noise control was only of interest

  16. The Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem Under Environmental Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dithmer, Philip; Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kontovas, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the Liner Shipping Routing and Scheduling Problem (LSRSP), which consists of designing the time schedule for a vessel to visit a fixed set of ports while minimizing costs. We extend the classical problem to include the external cost of ship air emissions and we present some ...

  17. Observations during the first K West fuel shipping campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    Three fuel elements were shipped to the 300 Area hotcells during the first characterization shipping campaign from K West Basin. This document summarizes observations made during this campaign including the gas, liquid, and sludge content of the observed canisters. Included in an appendix is a detailed evaluation of fuel element condition for each canister opened

  18. Technological and economic study of ship recycling in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Abdel Naby, Maged M.; Tadros, Mina Y.

    2012-12-01

    The ship recycling industry is growing rapidly. It is estimated that the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) decision to phase-out single hull tankers by 2015 will result in hundreds of ships requiring disposal. At present, the ship recycling industry is predominantly based in South Asia. Due to the bad practice of current scrapping procedure, the paper will highlight the harm occurring to health, safety and environment. The efforts of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) which led to the signing of the Hong Kong International Convention are also reviewed. The criteria and standards required to reduce the risk and damage to the environment are discussed and a proposed plan for the safe scrapping of ships is then presented. A technological and economic study for the ship recycling in Egypt is carried out as a case study. This includes the ship recycling facility size and layout. The equipment and staff required to operate the facility are also evaluated. A cost analysis is then carried out. This includes site development, human resources, machineries and equipment. A fuzzy logic approach is used to assess the benefits of the ship breaking yard. The use of the fuzzy logic approach is found suitable to make decisions for the ship breaking industry. Based on given constraints, the proposed model has proved capable of assessing the profit and the internal rate of return.

  19. 75 FR 65551 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... from passenger ships. --Review of damage stability regulations for ro-ro passenger ships. --Legal and... SOLAS chapter II-1 subdivision and damage stability regulations. --Consideration of IACS unified... 2012. --Any other business. --Report to the Maritime Safety Committee. Members of the public may attend...

  20. Toolset for evaluating infrared countermeasures and signature reduction for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The protection of ships against infrared guided missiles is a concern for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents a set of simulation tools which can be used for assessing

  1. Exhaust emissions from ships at berth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Emission measurements have been carried out on board six ships at berth during normal real-world operation (hotelling, unloading and loading activities). The study included three passenger ferries, one transoceanic container/ro-ro, one transoceanic car/truck carrier, and one chemical tanker. Emissions were measured from 22 auxiliary engines (AEs, medium and high-speed marine diesels) covering seven engine models and ranging in size from 720 to 2675 kW maximum output. The fuels varied from low sulphur gasoils ( 2.91 cst viscosity) through to residual oils ( 411 cst viscosity). Both specific emission factors ( g kWh -1) at a given engine load and total emissions (kg) of nitrogen oxides (NO x), sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons during actual harbour stops were determined. In addition, some preliminary measurements to investigate PM size distributions were undertaken. The specific emissions showed significant variations between the different engine models and also within the same engine model on board the same ship. For example NO x emissions varied between 9.6 and 20.2 g kWh corr-1 between all engines and 14.2- 18.6 g kWh corr-1 between engines of the same model and fuel. Other emissions from boiler use and possible main engine warm-up prior to departure were in general expected to be considerably less than those from the AEs. The results obtained for the three passenger ferries demonstrate that empirically derived, emission formulae using dead weight tonnage can prove to be a cost-effective and accurate tool for harbour emission inventories.

  2. The KiteShip (TM) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De winter, Francis; Swenson, Ronald B; Culp, David [Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Foreseeable crude oil shortages provide an incentive to use wind power in the merchant marine again, to save fuel by providing propulsion power. Out prototype KiteShip (TM), a lightweight fiberglass proa 7 m long, has been sailed with 2 different sizes of kites in fresh water. The kites are shaped like parafoil wings, with areas of 4 sq m and 9 sq m. Steering is accomplished with two coupled rudders, one fore and one aft. We have been encouraged by the boat speed and the handling, although we have encountered only light winds up to now, of no more than about 20 km/ht. In the next phase we will employ a custom-built kite of 2 sq m. and will also start sailing in the ocean with heavier winds, of 40 km/hr and above. [Spanish] La escasez previsible de petroleo motiva volver a utilizar la fuerza del viento en la marina mercante, para ahorrar combustible al suministrar la potencia de propulsion. Nuestro prototipo KiteShip (MR), con una proa ligera de fibra de vidrio con 7 m de longitud, ha navegado con dos diferentes tipos de vela ({sup k}ite{sup )} en agua dulce. Los kites tienen forma de alas de parafol, con areas de 4 m{sup 2} y 9 m{sup 2}. La direccion se logra con dos timones acoplados, uno en la proa y otro en la popa. Nos entusiasmo la velocidad del bote y su manejo, aunque hemos encontrado hasta ahora solo vientos ligeros de no mas de alrededor de 20 km/hr. En la siguiente fase emplearemos un kite hecho a la medida, de 28 m{sup 2} y tambien comenzaremos a navegar en el oceano con vientos mas fuertes de 40 km/hr o mas.

  3. LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    True, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world''s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia

  4. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2005-01-01

    A disastrous oil spill from a struck oil tanker has become one of the major problems in view of conservation of maritime environment. So far double hulls (D/H) have been introduced to reduce the consequences of collision and grounding events In order to further reduce the oil spill from struck oil...... structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where...... a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  5. Analysis of Methods of Determining the Safe Ship Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Lisowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes six methods of optimal and game theory and artificial neural network for synthesis of safe control in collision situations at sea. The application of optimal and game control algorithms to determine the own ship safe trajectory during the passing of other encountered ships in good and restricted visibility at sea is presented. The comparison of the safe ship control in collision situation: multi-step matrix non-cooperative and cooperative games, multi-stage positional non-cooperative and cooperative games have been introduced. The considerations have been illustrated with examples of computer simulation of the algorithms to determine safe of own ship trajectories in a navigational situation during passing of eight met ships.

  6. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize pro_t by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a _xed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel...... is referred to as bunker fuel or simply bunker and bunker costs constitute a signi_cant part of the daily operating costs. There can be great variations in bunker prices across bunker ports so it is important to carefully plan bunkering for each ship. As ships operate 24 hours a day, they must refuel during...... and bunker consumption. We devise a solution method based on column generation with a dynamic programming algorithm to generate columns. The method is heuristic mainly due to a discretization of the continuous bunker purchase variables. We show that the integrated planning approach can increase pro...

  7. Wastewater Pollution from Cruise Ships in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Perić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global growth of cruise tourism has brought increasing concern for the pollution of the marine environment. Marine pollution from sanitary wastewater is a problem especially pronounced on large cruise ships where the number of people on board may exceed 8,000. To evaluate future marine pollution in any selected period of time it is necessary to know the movement of ships in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the problem of marine pollution by sanitary wastewater from cruise ships, wastewater treatment technology and a model of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic Sea considering MARPOL Annex IV areas of limited wastewater discharge. Using the model, it is possible to know in advance the routes of the cruisers and retention time in certain geographic areas. The data obtained by this model can be used as input parameters for evaluation model of wastewater pollution or for evaluation of other types of pollution from cruise ships.

  8. Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic performance of ship under oblique conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Zhiming

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper is intended to study the viscous flow field around a ship under oblique conditions and provide a research basis for ship maneuverability. [Methods] Using commercial software STRA-CCM+, the SST k-ω turbulence model is selected to predict the hydrodynamic performance of the KVLCC2 model at different drift angles, and predict the hull flow field. The pressure distribution of the ship model at different drift angles is observed and the vortex shedding of the ship's hull and constraint streamlines on the hull's surface are also observed. [Results] The results show that numerical simulation can satisfy the demands of engineering application in the prediction of the lateral force, yaw moment and hull surface pressure distribution of a ship. [Conclusions] The research results of this paper can provide valuable references for the study of the flow separation phenomenon under oblique conditions.

  9. An Integrated Approach to Naval Ship Survivability in Preliminary Ship Design

    OpenAIRE

    Piperakis, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Alongside deploying weapons and sensors what makes a warship distinct is survivability, being the measure that enables a warship to survive in a militarily hostile environment. The rising cost of warship procurement, coupled with declining defence budgets, has led to a reduction in the number of ships in most western navies. Moreover, cost cutting is often aimed at aspects which may be difficult to quantify, such as survivability, and can lead to potentially inadequate designs. Innovation in ...

  10. Capability of geometric features to classify ships in SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Haitao; Wu, Siwen; Lai, Quan; Ma, Li

    2016-10-01

    Ship classification in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery has become a new hotspot in remote sensing community for its valuable potential in many maritime applications. Several kinds of ship features, such as geometric features, polarimetric features, and scattering features have been widely applied on ship classification tasks. Compared with polarimetric features and scattering features, which are subject to SAR parameters (e.g., sensor type, incidence angle, polarization, etc.) and environment factors (e.g., sea state, wind, wave, current, etc.), geometric features are relatively independent of SAR and environment factors, and easy to be extracted stably from SAR imagery. In this paper, the capability of geometric features to classify ships in SAR imagery with various resolution has been investigated. Firstly, the relationship between the geometric feature extraction accuracy and the SAR imagery resolution is analyzed. It shows that the minimum bounding rectangle (MBR) of ship can be extracted exactly in terms of absolute precision by the proposed automatic ship-sea segmentation method. Next, six simple but effective geometric features are extracted to build a ship representation for the subsequent classification task. These six geometric features are composed of length (f1), width (f2), area (f3), perimeter (f4), elongatedness (f5) and compactness (f6). Among them, two basic features, length (f1) and width (f2), are directly extracted based on the MBR of ship, the other four are derived from those two basic features. The capability of the utilized geometric features to classify ships are validated on two data set with different image resolutions. The results show that the performance of ship classification solely by geometric features is close to that obtained by the state-of-the-art methods, which obtained by a combination of multiple kinds of features, including scattering features and geometric features after a complex feature selection process.

  11. Towards a different view on ship design : The development of ships observed through a social?technological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruinessen, T.M.; Smulders, F.E.H.M.; Hopman, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The research this paper reports on aims to develop a design and engineering strategy for complex ships in between incremental and radical innovation. The majority of European ship-design industry concentrates on the development of complex, one-off ‘specials’ for the offshore industry, like dredgers,

  12. Strategic guidance based on the concept of cleaner production to improve the ship recycling industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.; Pruijn, J.F.J.; Hopman, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of international ship recycling regulations and international standards of health, safety and environment on a ship recycling yard improves environmental protection, occupational health and safety of the workers. However, it results in increased costs of the ship recycling

  13. Radiated noise from commercial ships in the Gulf of Maine: implications for whale/vessel collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J Kaitlyn; Peterson, Michael L; Sharrard, George V; Wright, Dana L; Todd, Sean K

    2012-09-01

    To understand mysticete acoustic-based detection of ships, radiated noise from high-speed craft, cruise ships, catamarans and fishing vessels was recorded June-September 2009. Calibrated acoustic data (fishing vessel had the lowest. Ship noise radiated asymmetrically and varied with depth. Bow null-effect acoustic shadow zones were observed for all ship classes and were correlated with ship-length-to-draft-ratios. These shadow zones may reduce ship detection by near-surface mysticetes.

  14. Azimuth method for ship position in celestial navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Suong Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods of celestial navigation to fix the ship position in line with the stars are only applied in the twilight time interval when both the celestial bodies and the horizon apppear simultaneously. This means that these methods cannot be used during the night even if the stars are visible. This paper proposes a novel approach which uses the azimuth of the celestial body in order to establish the great circle equation relating the observed body to the ship position when the celestial bodies appear. In addition, the proposed method does not demand the horizon and sextant equipment as with the previous methods. The key advantage which differentiates this method from previous ones is its ability to determine the ship position during the night when the horizon is invisible. Firstly, the vector calculus is applied to find the mathematical equation for the ship position through analyzing the relationship between the ship position and the great-circle azimuth of the observed body. Secondly, the equation system for the ship position is expanded into a standard system in which the input for the proposed mathematical system are the great-circle azimuth and the coordinates of the observed body. Finally, the numerical technique is also proposed to solve the nonlinear system for the ship position. To verify the validation of this proposed method, a numerical experiment is carried out and the results show that it can be applied well in practice.

  15. High SHIP2 Expression Indicates Poor Survival in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SH2-containing inositol 5′-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2, which generally regulates insulin signaling, cytoskeleton remodeling, and receptor endocytosis, has been suggested to play a significant role in tumor development and progression. However, the associations between SHIP2 expression and the clinical features to evaluate its clinicopathologic significance in colorectal cancer (CRC have not been determined yet. In the present study, one-step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR test and immunohistochemistry (IHC analysis with CRC tissue microarrays (TMA were employed to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression of SHIP2 in CRC. The results showed that SHIP2 expression in the mRNA and protein levels was significantly higher in CRC tissues than that in corresponding noncancerous tissues (both P<0.05. The expression of SHIP2 protein in CRC was related to lymph node metastasis (P=0.036, distant metastasis (P=0.001, and overall survival (P=0.009. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multifactor analysis suggested that high SHIP2 protein level (P=0.040 and positive distant metastasis (P=0.048 were critically associated with the unfavorable survival of CRC patients. The findings suggested that SHIP2 may be identified as a useful prognostic marker in CRC and targeting CRC may provide novel strategy for CRC treatment.

  16. Automatic detection of ship tracks in ATSR-2 satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Campmany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ships modify cloud microphysics by adding cloud condensation nuclei (CCN to a developing or existing cloud. These create lines of larger reflectance in cloud fields that are observed in satellite imagery. An algorithm has been developed to automate the detection of ship tracks in Along Track Scanning Radiometer 2 (ATSR-2 imagery. The scheme has been integrated into the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE processing chain. The algorithm firstly identifies intensity ridgelets in clouds which have the potential to be part of a ship track. This identification is done by comparing each pixel with its surrounding ones. If the intensity of three adjacent pixels is greater than the intensity of their neighbours, then it is classified as a ridgelet. These ridgelets are then connected together, according to a set of connectivity rules, to form tracks which are classed as ship tracks if they are long enough. The algorithm has been applied to two years of ATSR-2 data. Ship tracks are most frequently seen off the west coast of California, and the Atlantic coast of both West Africa and South-Western Europe. The global distribution of ship tracks shows strong seasonality, little inter-annual variability and a similar spatial pattern to the distribution of ship emissions.

  17. Six cyclopic ships with the death of one of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-09-01

    Given the knowledge of cyclopic humans and animals and their lethal nature, and given the negative way in which the cyclops is portrayed in mythology and in art, it is unusual that six naval ships--four English and two American--were named "Cyclops." However, there are also important positive attributes of the Cyclopes in Greek mythology, which explain the reasons the ships were given this name. One ship, the USS "Cyclops," with 306 men aboard, was lost at sea in the "Bermuda Triangle" in 1918 without a trace and no wreckage has ever been found.

  18. Legionella risk assessment in cruise ships and ferries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualina Laganà

    2017-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila sg 1 was isolated from the samples of shower and tap water in 7 (70% of the 10 ferries examined, and in 3 (33% of the 6 cruise ships examined, and L. pneumophila sg 2–14 in 8 (80% and 1 (16.7% of these ships, respectively. No Legionella contamination was found in whirlpool baths, air and ice samples. In conclusion, the data obtained confirm higher levels of Legionella contamination in local ferries and cruise ships, underlining the need to adopt corrective actions more specific for these smaller vessels.

  19. Routing and Scheduling in Tramp Shipping - Integrating Bunker Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize proFIt by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a fixed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel...... and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed and bunker consumption...

  20. Tramp ship routing and scheduling with integrated bunker optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A tramp ship operator typically has some contracted cargoes that must be carried and seeks to maximize prot by carrying optional cargoes. Hence, tramp ships operate much like taxies following available cargoes and not according to a fixed route network and itinerary as liner ships. Marine fuel...... and scheduling phase and present a mixed integer programming formulation for the integrated problem of optimally routing, scheduling and bunkering a tramp fleet. Aside from the integration of bunker, this model also extends standard tramp formulations by using load dependent costs, speed and bunker consumption...

  1. Methodology of Day-To-Day Ship Costs Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojka Počuča

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology of assessing the day-to-day fixed costs of maritime cargo ships. The authoress refersthe reader to factors that affect the amount affixed daily costsand the day-to-day voyage costs of ships. In the last chapter thepaper presents an estimation of the average daily fixed costsand day-to-day voyage costs of ships per type and size for theyear 2003. Besides particular explanations, the reader is refe"ed to data bases that authentically impart data on the structureof maritime fleets and their technical characteristics, aswell as databases on prices and costs in maritime transport.

  2. Evaluation of Differentiation Strategy in Shipping Enterprises with Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaxevanou, Anthi Z.; Ferfeli, Maria V.; Damianos, Sakas P.

    2009-08-01

    The present inquiring study aims at investigating the circumstances that prevail in the European Shipping Enterprises with special reference to the Greek ones. This investigation is held in order to explore the potential implementation of strategies so as to create a unique competitive advantage [1]. The Shipping sector is composed of enterprises that are mainly activated in the following three areas: the passenger, the commercial and the naval. The main target is to create a dynamic simulation model which, with reference to the STAIR strategic model, will evaluate the strategic differential choice that some of the shipping enterprises have.

  3. Discovery of potential protein biomarkers of lung adenocarcinoma in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by SWATH MS data-independent acquisition and targeted data extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortea, I; Rodríguez-Ariza, A; Chicano-Gálvez, E; Arenas Vacas, M S; Jurado Gámez, B

    2016-04-14

    Lung cancer currently ranks as the neoplasia with the highest global mortality rate. Although some improvements have been introduced in recent years, new advances in diagnosis are required in order to increase survival rates. New mildly invasive endoscopy-based diagnostic techniques include the collection of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), which is discarded after using a portion of the fluid for standard pathological procedures. BALF proteomic analysis can contribute to clinical practice with more sensitive biomarkers, and can complement cytohistological studies by aiding in the diagnosis, prognosis, and subtyping of lung cancer, as well as the monitoring of treatment response. The range of quantitative proteomics methodologies used for biomarker discovery is currently being broadened with the introduction of data-independent acquisition (DIA) analysis-related approaches that address the massive quantitation of the components of a proteome. Here we report for the first time a DIA-based quantitative proteomics study using BALF as the source for the discovery of potential lung cancer biomarkers. The results have been encouraging in terms of the number of identified and quantified proteins. A panel of candidate protein biomarkers for adenocarcinoma in BALF is reported; this points to the activation of the complement network as being strongly over-represented and suggests this pathway as a potential target for lung cancer research. In addition, the results reported for haptoglobin, complement C4-A, and glutathione S-transferase pi are consistent with previous studies, which indicates that these proteins deserve further consideration as potential lung cancer biomarkers in BALF. Our study demonstrates that the analysis of BALF proteins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), combining a simple sample pre-treatment and SWATH DIA MS, is a useful method for the discovery of potential lung cancer biomarkers. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF

  4. Water-immersion type ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Hiroki; Yamamura, Toshio.

    1996-01-01

    In a water immersion-type ship reactor in which a water-tight wall is formed around a pressure vessel by way of an air permeable heat insulation layer and immersing the wall under water in a reactor container, a pressure equalizing means equipped with a back flow check valve and introducing a gas in a gas phase portion above the water level of the container into a water tight wall and a relief valve for releasing the gas in the water tight wall to the reactor container are disposed on the water tight wall. When the pressure in the water tight wall exceeds the pressure in the container, the gas in the water tight wall is released from the relief valve to the reactor container. On the contrary, when the pressure in the container exceeds the pressure in the water tight wall, the gas in the gas phase portion is flown from the pressure equalizing means equipped with a back flow check valve to the inside of the water tight wall. Thus, a differential pressure between both of them is kept around 0kg/cm 2 . A large differential pressure is not exerted on the water tight wall thereby capable of preventing rupture of them to improve reliability, as well as the thickness of the plate can be decreased thereby enabling to moderate the design for the pressure resistance and reduce the weight. (N.H.)

  5. A high temperature reactor for ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobet, P.; Seigel, R.; Thompson, A.C.; Beadnell, R.M.; Beeley, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The initial thermal hydraulic and physics design of a high temperature gas cooled reactor for ship propulsion is described. The choice of thermodynamic cycle and thermal power is made to suit the marine application. Several configurations of a Helium cooled, Graphite moderated reactor are then analysed using the WIMS and MONK codes from AEA Technology. Two geometries of fuel elements formed using micro spheres in prismatic blocks, and various arrangements of control rods and poison rods are examined. Reactivity calculations through life are made and a pattern of rod insertion to flatten the flux is proposed and analysed. Thermal hydraulic calculations are made to find maximum fuel temperature under high power with optimized flow distribution. Maximum temperature after loss of flow and temperatures in the reactor vessel are also computed. The temperatures are significantly below the known limits for the type of fuel proposed. It is concluded that the reactor can provide the required power and lifetime between refueling within likely space and weight constraints. (author)

  6. F-16XL ship #1 crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    November 27, 1995 Photograph of the F-16XL Ship #1 Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) Test Team; from left to right, Ron Wilcox; Operations Engineer, Art Cope; Aircraft Mechanic, Dave Fisher; Chief Project Engineer, Dick Denman; Aircraft Mechanic, Bob Garcia; A/C Crew Chief, Susan Ligon; Aircraft Mechanic, Rodger Tarango; Mobile Operations Facility (MOF) Staff, Jerry Cousins; Aircraft Mechanic, Bruce Gallmeyer; MOF Staff, and Mike Reardon; Aircraft Mechanic/Helper. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The first flight of CAWAP occurred at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

  7. Design of Control and Monitoring System to Avoid Inter-Ship Collisions in West Shipping Lane Tanjung Perak Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina P. Sari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of several ship accidents in narrow waters of Madura strait which is the west shipping lane of Tanjung Perak Surabaya has inspired the research on the design of a control system on the ship to avoid any collision between ships. The existence of automatic control with the autopilot is required to minimize the occurrence of collisions between ships In this final study investigated the application of fuzzy logic to control the yaw angle on the vessel MV Karana Sembilan. Fuzzy logic used is Sugeno Takagi type with the input of the error yaw, yaw rate and distance of the ship with a disturbance. Tests conducted with a control system without disturbance, with disturbance, and the presence of obstacles in front of the ship. Performance of control system is obtained by using the disturbance, the fuzzy appearance is 2:41 hm distance position, the speed of 7.5 knots and 0.5 error, then the resulting yaw angle is 6580. Results control with fuzzy syncronized with monitoring at M&C system in visual basic. The view of the monitoring, 3 types of scenarios obtained. For the first scenario, which is created with the control on it, produces the best results of the avoidance, if compared to the second scenario, with trajectory and control anti-collision cross, and if compared with the third scenario that has no built control system with decision-making on it.

  8. Allocation of ESS by interval optimization method considering impact of ship swinging on hybrid PV/diesel ship power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shuli; Lan, Hai; Hong, Ying-Yi; Yu, David C.; Zhang, Lijun; Cheng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An uncertainty model of PV generation on board is developed based on the experiments. • The moving and swinging of the ship are considered in the optimal ESS sizing problem. • Optimal sizing of ESS in a hybrid PV/diesel/ESS ship power system is gained by the interval optimization method. • Different cases were studied to show the significance of the proposed method considering the swinging effects on the cost. - Abstract: Owing to low efficiency of traditional ships and the serious environmental pollution that they cause, the use of solar energy and an energy storage system (ESS) in a ship’s power system is increasingly attracting attention. However, the swinging of a ship raises crucial challenges in designing an optimal system for a large oil tanker ship, which are associated with uncertainties in solar energy. In this study, a series of experiments are performed to investigate the characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) system on a moving ship. Based on the experimental results, an interval uncertainty model of on-board PV generation is established, which considers the effect of the swinging of the ship. Due to the power balance equations, the outputs of the diesel generator and the ESS on a large oil tanker are also modeled using interval variables. An interval optimization method is developed to determine the optimal size of the ESS in this hybrid ship power system to reduce the fuel cost, capital cost of the ESS, and emissions of greenhouse gases. Variations of the ship load are analyzed using a new method, taking five operating conditions into account. Several cases are compared in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. The inositol phosphatase SHIP-2 down-regulates FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in murine macrophages independently of SHIP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jing; Maturu, Amita; Johnson, Wesley; Wang, Yijie; Marsh, Clay B.; Tridandapani, Susheela

    2006-01-01

    FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles is a complex process involving the activation of multiple signaling enzymes and is regulated by the inositol phosphatases PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and SHIP-1 (Src homology [SH2] domain-containing inositol phosphatase). In a recent study we have demonstrated that SHIP-2, an inositol phosphatase with high-level homology to SHIP-1, is involved in FcγR signaling. However, it is not known whether SHIP-2 plays a role in modulating phagocytosis. In this study we have analyzed the role of SHIP-2 in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis using independent cell models that allow for manipulation of SHIP-2 function without influencing the highly homologous SHIP-1. We present evidence that SHIP-2 translocates to the site of phagocytosis and down-regulates FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. Our data indicate that SHIP-2 must contain both the N-terminal SH2 domain and the C-terminal proline-rich domain to mediate its inhibitory effect. The effect of SHIP-2 is independent of SHIP-1, as overexpression of dominant-negative SHIP-2 in SHIP-1-deficient primary macrophages resulted in enhanced phagocytic efficiency. Likewise, specific knockdown of SHIP-2 expression using siRNA resulted in enhanced phagocytosis. Finally, analysis of the molecular mechanism of SHIP-2 down-regulation of phagocytosis revealed that SHIP-2 down-regulates upstream activation of Rac. Thus, we conclude that SHIP-2 is a novel negative regulator of FcγR-mediated phagocytosis independent of SHIP-1. (Blood. 2006;107:813-820) PMID:16179375

  10. Energy and exergy analysis of a cruise ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Francesco; Ahlgren, Fredrik; Nguyen, Tuong-Van

    2015-01-01

    The shipping sector is today facing numerous challenges. Fuel prices are expected to increase in the medium - long term , and a sharp turn in environmental regulations will require several companies to switch to more expensive distillate fuels. In this context, passenger ships represent a small...... to its final use on board. To illustrate this, we perform ed an analysis of the energy and exergy flow rates of a cruise ship sailing in the Baltic Sea based on a combination of available measurements from ship operations and of mechanistic knowledge of the system . The energy analys is allows...... identifying propulsion as the main energy user (41% of the total) followed by heat (34%) and electric power (25%) generation ; the exergy analysis allow ed instead identifying the main inefficiencies of the system: exergy is primarily destroyed in all processes involving combustion (88% of the exergy...

  11. Using Face Recognition System in Ship Protection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bača

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of security improvement is a huge problem especiallyin large ships. Terrorist attacks and everyday threatsagainst life and property destroy transport and tourist companies,especially large tourist ships. Every person on a ship can berecognized and identified using something that the personknows or by means of something the person possesses. The bestresults will be obtained by using a combination of the person'sknowledge with one biometric characteristic. Analyzing theproblem of biometrics in ITS security we can conclude that facerecognition process supported by one or two traditional biometriccharacteristics can give very good results regarding ship security.In this paper we will describe a biometric system basedon face recognition. Special focus will be given to crew member'sbiometric security in crisis situation like kidnapping, robbelyor illness.

  12. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  13. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  14. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  15. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  16. NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  17. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  18. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  19. NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  20. Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  1. Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  2. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  3. Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  4. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  5. Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  7. Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  8. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  9. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  10. Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  11. Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  12. Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  13. Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  14. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  15. NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  16. Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  17. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  18. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  19. NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  20. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  1. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  2. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  3. Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  4. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  5. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. Outline of The probabilistic Concept of Ship Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    concept. This may facilitate our present efforts in developing a sound assessment, consistent with the results of damage stability model tests. A new method is provided regarding the capsizal probability, based on the theory underlying numerical simulations of damaged ship behaviour in natural sea......An outline of the whole probabilistic concept of ship subdivision is given, comprising the latest advances in determination of pi and s1 factors - the two probabilistic factors that form the basis of the new regulations.The method for calculating the pi factor for dry cargo ships is thoroughly...... presented and compared with the original method, developed by IMO inthe late 60's for passenger ships. After that, a review is presented of the past efforts to develop an estimate for the factor si - the most difficultand controversial part of the new subdivision regulations based on the probabilistic...

  7. Damage scenarios and an onboard support system for damaged ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a safety assessment of damaged ships, which considers environmental conditions such as waves and wind, is important in both the design and operation phases of ships, in Korea, rules or guidelines to conduct such assessments are not yet developed. However, NATO and European maritime societies have developed guidelines for a safety assessment. Therefore, it is required to develop rules or guidelines for safety assessments such as the Naval Ship Code (NSC of NATO. Before the safety assessment of a damaged ship can be performed, the available damage scenarios must be developed and the safety assessment criteria must be established. In this paper, the parameters related to damage by accidents are identified and categorized when developing damage scenarios. The need for damage safety assessment criteria is discussed, and an example is presented. In addition, a concept and specifications for the DB-based supporting system, which is used in the operation phases, are proposed.

  8. Compounding the Losses of Convoyed Ships Attacked by Tactical Submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kåre M. Mjelde

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that a time dependent stochastic model for the losses of convoyed ships attacked by submarines can be applied in the determination of the losses in terms of the results of two submodels:

  9. Variant Designing in the Preliminary Small Ship Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karczewski Artur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ship designing is a complex process, as the ship itself is a complex, technical multi-level object which operates in the air/water boundary environment and is exposed to the action of many different external and internal factors resulting from the adopted technical solutions, type of operation, and environmental conditions. A traditional ship design process consists of a series of subsequent multistage iterations, which gradually increase the design identification level. The paper presents problems related to the design of a small untypical vessel with the aid of variant methodology making use of optimisation algorithms. The computer-aided design methodology has been developed which does not need permanent reference to already built real ships and empirical-statistical relations. Possibilities were indicated for integrating together early design stages, and parallel designing of hull shape and parameters.

  10. 75 FR 54415 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Code for ships operating in polar waters; --Thermal performance of immersion suits; --Protection... equipment; --Measures to promote integrated bilge water treatment systems; --Guidelines for a shipboard oil... maritime radiocommunication systems and technology --Revision of the IAMSAR Manual --Safety provisions...

  11. 77 FR 70526 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... from machinery spaces --Development of requirements for ships carrying hydrogen and compressed natural gas vehicles --Consideration of IACS unified interpretations --Harmonization of the requirements for the location of entrances, air inlets and openings in the superstructures of tankers --Development of...

  12. 78 FR 70391 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... amendments to the 2011 ESP Code --Development of guidelines for use of Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) within... clarify the requirements for plastic pipes on ships --Review of the recommendation on evacuation analysis...

  13. Ship Design and Construction. An Integrated University Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated course in design and construction of merchant ships taught at the Department of Naval Architecture andOffshore Engineering, the Technical University of Denmark. During the course, the students make a preliminary design of a ship of selected type and also design ...... on special subjects in addition to the teaching provided by the university professors. The course is offered to and especially designed for students relatively early in their Master's programme....... its engine room. The teaching combines lectures with laboratory work at the drawing tables and computer terminals. During the summer holiday, sea time on board ships of the relevant types are offered. Experienced naval architects from shipyards and ship consultancies give lectures and instructions...

  14. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  15. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  16. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  17. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  18. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  19. Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  20. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...