WorldWideScience

Sample records for swath ocean products

  1. Small ships don't shine: classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, Rory GV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the Understanding of Our Living Planet, 10-15 July 2016, Beijing, China Small ships don't shine: Classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions R. G. V. Meyer ; W. Kleynhans ; C. P. Schwegmann Abstract: Monitoring...

  2. SWOT: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission. Wide- Swath Altimetric Elevation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng (Editor); Alsdorf, Douglas (Editor); Morrow, Rosemary; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Mognard, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    The elevation of the surface of the ocean and freshwater bodies on land holds key information on many important processes of the Earth System. The elevation of the ocean surface, called ocean surface topography, has been measured by conventional nadirlooking radar altimeter for the past two decades. The data collected have been used for the study of large-scale circulation and sea level change. However, the spatial resolution of the observations has limited the study to scales larger than about 200 km, leaving the smaller scales containing substantial kinetic energy of ocean circulation that is responsible for the flux of heat, dissolved gas and nutrients between the upper and the deep ocean. This flux is important to the understanding of the ocean's role in regulatingfuture climate change.The elevation of the water bodies on land is a key parameter required for the computation of storage and discharge of freshwater in rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Globally, the spatial and temporal variability of water storage and discharge is poorly known due to the lack of well-sampled observations. In situ networks measuring river flows are declining worldwide due to economic and political reasons. Conventional altimeter observations suffers from the complexity of multiple peaks caused by the reflections from water, vegetation canopy and rough topography, resulting in much less valid data over land than over the ocean. Another major limitation is the large inter track distance preventing good coverage of rivers and other water bodies.This document provides descriptions of a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurement of water elevation at high resolution over both the ocean and land. Making this type of measurement, which addresses the shortcomings of conventional altimetry in both oceanographic and hydrologic applications, is the objective of a mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which was recommended by

  3. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Satellite Mission - An Assessment of Swath Altimetry Measurements of River Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew D.; Durand, Michael; Alsdorf, Douglas; Chul-Jung, Hahn; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Lee, Hyongki

    2012-01-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, scheduled for launch in 2020 with development commencing in 2015, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations, which will allow for the estimation of river and floodplain flows via the water surface slope. In this paper, we characterize the measurements which may be obtained from SWOT and illustrate how they may be used to derive estimates of river discharge. In particular, we show (i) the spatia-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT, (ii) the errors which maybe expected in swath altimetry measurements of the terrestrial surface water, and (iii) the impacts such errors may have on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge, We illustrate this through a "virtual mission" study for a approximately 300 km reach of the central Amazon river, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to the SWOT spatia-temporal sampling scheme (orbit with 78 degree inclination, 22 day repeat and 140 km swath width) to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. Water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT were thereby obtained. Using these measurements, estimates of river slope and discharge were derived and compared to those which may be obtained without error, and those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. It was found that discharge can be reproduced highly accurately from the water height, without knowledge of the detailed channel bathymetry using a modified Manning's equation, if friction, depth, width and slope are known. Increasing reach length was found to be an effective method to reduce systematic height error in SWOT measurements.

  4. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  5. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMMYDCLD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  6. Ocean Acidification Product Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists within the ACCRETE (Acidification, Climate, and Coral Reef Ecosystems Team) Lab of AOML_s Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division (OCED) have constructed...

  7. Quality Assessment of the CCI ECV Soil Moisture Product Using ENVISAT ASAR Wide Swath Data over Spain, Ireland and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pratola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, great progress has been made by the scientific community in generating satellite-derived global surface soil moisture products, as a valuable source of information to be used in a variety of applications, such as hydrology, meteorology and climatic modeling. Through the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI, the most complete and consistent global soil moisture (SM data record based on active and passive microwaves sensors is being developed. However, the coarse spatial resolution characterizing such data may be not sufficient to accurately represent the moisture conditions. The objective of this work is to assess the quality of the CCI Essential Climate Variable (ECV SM product by using finer spatial resolution Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR Wide Swath and in situ soil moisture data taken over three regions in Europe. Ireland, Spain, and Finland have been selected with the aim of assessing the spatial and temporal representativeness of the ECV SM product over areas that differ in climate, topography, land cover and soil type. This approach facilitated an understanding of the extent to which geophysical factors, such as soil texture, terrain composition and altitude, affect the retrieved ECV SM product values. A good temporal and spatial agreement has been observed between the three soil moisture datasets for the Irish and Spanish sites, while poorer results have been found at the Finnish sites. Overall, the two different satellite derived products capture the soil moisture temporal variations well and are in good agreement with each other.

  8. CryoTop - CryoSat-2 swath elevation and derived Digital Elevation Models and rates of elevation change products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Hogg, A.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Wuite, J.; Nagler, T.; Roca, M.; Shepherd, A.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of ice sheet margin topography is critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat-2 aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the cryosphere, in particular over the steep slopes typically found along ice sheet margins where the majority of the mass loss is taking place. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry, the corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over ice sheet margins and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA), or level-2, is a standard product of the CryoSat-2 mission. CryoSat-2 SARIn mode allows a new approach for more comprehensively exploiting the CryoSat-2 record and produce ice elevation and elevation change with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat-2 level-2 products. In this so-called CryoSat-2 Swath SARIn (CSSARIn) approach, the entire waveform is analysed providing elevation beyond the POCA, leading to between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude more elevation measurements than conventional level-2 product. As part of the European Space Agency project CryoTop Evolution we are generating CSSARIn elevation, Digital Elevation Models and maps of rates of surface elevation change over the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. These products will be generated and distributed to the community. Here we will present the methods and quality assessment of the products as well as showcase examples of the added value of the products.

  9. Enhancing moderate-resolution ocean color products over coastal/inland waters (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Schott, John R.; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    With the successful launch of Landsat-8 in 2013 followed by a very recent launch of Sentinel-2A, we are entering a new area where frequent moderate resolution water quality products over coastal/inland waters will be available to scientists and operational agencies. Although designed for land observations, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) has proven to provide high-fidelity products in these aquatic systems where coarse-resolution ocean color imagers fail to provide valid observations. High-quality, multi-scale ocean color products can give insights into the biogeochemical/physical processes from the upstream in watersheds, into near-shore regions, and further out in ocean basins. In this research, we describe a robust cross-calibration approach, which facilitates seamless ocean color products at multi scales. The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) OLI imagery is cross-calibrated against near-simultaneous MODIS and VIIRS ocean color observations in high-latitude regions. This allows for not only examining the overall relative performance of OLI but also for characterizing non-uniformity (i.e., banding) across its swath. The uncertainty of this approach is, on average, found to be less than 0.5% in the blue channels. The adjustments made for OLI TOA reflectance products are then validated against in-situ measurements of remote sensing reflectance collected in research cruises or at the AERONET-OC.

  10. High resolution ocean fronts product from JPSS VIIRS for improved composite mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkova, I.; Ignatov, A.; Kihai, Y.; Shahriar, F.; Petrenko, B.

    2016-02-01

    High-resolution composite maps of oceanic thermal fronts reveal their spatial distribution and variability, along with seasonal variability and climatology, which are used to study a variety of marine environmental phenomena. Customarily, fronts are detected in a clear sky domain of instantaneous Level 2 (swath) or 3 (gridded) SST images (e.g., Miller 2009, 2014). However, dynamic regions of the ocean (e.g., ocean currents, eddies and upwellings) are often misidentified as cloud by many current cloud masks, thus significantly limiting the front detection, exactly in the areas where it is needed the most. Using a gap-free, high-resolution Level 4 SST analysis (such as the 1km global NASA MUR), in which various high-resolution satellite data have been assimilated and blended with in situ data, appears attractive. Application of SIED algorithm (Cayula 1995) to MUR indeed provides daily frontal product at a 1km resolution. However, high-resolution thermal structure is degraded in the L4 products. In particular, it is less reliable in the coastal zones, and may over-smoothed (especially, when over-screened L2/3 products are used as input). The new NOAA operational instrument, VIIRS onboard S-NPP (launched in 2011) and two future satellites, J1 (2017) and J2 (2021), provides high quality and resolution SST imagery, superior to the current operational AVHRR and experimental MODIS sensors. The cloud mask employed in the NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) SST system, is most liberal among the community SST products. Yet, false alarms do occasionally occur in ACSPO, especially in the dynamic oceanic regions. Performing front detection at the stage of cloud masking improves both fronts and mask. We plan to output the frontal product as an extra layer of the ACSPO SST product, which can be directly used in the composition process. We are very interested in discussing the new ACSPO fronts product, its utility and improvements, with our potential users.

  11. Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freing, Alina; Wallace, Douglas W. R.; Bange, Hermann W.

    2012-01-01

    We use transient time distributions calculated from tracer data together with in situ measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) to estimate the concentration of biologically produced N2O and N2O production rates in the ocean on a global scale. Our approach to estimate the N2O production rates integrates the effects of potentially varying production and decomposition mechanisms along the transport path of a water mass. We estimate that the oceanic N2O production is dominated by nitrification with a contribution of only approximately 7 per cent by denitrification. This indicates that previously used approaches have overestimated the contribution by denitrification. Shelf areas may account for only a negligible fraction of the global production; however, estuarine sources and coastal upwelling of N2O are not taken into account in our study. The largest amount of subsurface N2O is produced in the upper 500 m of the water column. The estimated global annual subsurface N2O production ranges from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.9 Tg N yr−1. This is in agreement with estimates of the global N2O emissions to the atmosphere and indicates that a N2O source in the mixed layer is unlikely. The potential future development of the oceanic N2O source in view of the ongoing changes of the ocean environment (deoxygenation, warming, eutrophication and acidification) is discussed. PMID:22451110

  12. Ensuring Continuity of Coastal Ocean Optical Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crout, Richard L.; Ladner, Sherwin; Lawson, Adam; Martinolich, Paul; Arnone, Bob; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Bowers, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Satellite ocean colour remote sensing evolved rapidly following the 1978 launch of the Color Zone Coastal Scanner (CZCS). Since that launch, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed and transitioned tactical ocean optical products (diver visibility, laser penetration depth, chlorophyll concentration, and inherent optical products) from polar-orbiting ocean color sensors to the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). Beginning with CZCS, NRL exploited the succession of ocean color sensors, including Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (Aqua MODIS), MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infra Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (S-NPP VIIRS). Additionally, the geostationary Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (COMS GOCI) is also being exploited. Future sensors of interest include the Sentinel-3 series Ocean and Land Color Imager (OLCI) and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) VIIRS. NRL’s Automated Optical Processing System (AOPS) processes ocean color satellite data to provide an operational near-real time depiction of the bio-optical ocean environment. These products are also used for validation of/or assimilation into ocean forecast models and to predict the impact of the environment on Navy coastal operations. NRL contributes to advancements in satellite processing techniques, atmospheric correction for coastal waters, enhanced resolution optical properties using imaging bands, cloud masking, and sensor merging for optimal operational products. Multiple satellites are necessary to provide changing conditions throughout the day allowing for detection of rapid optical temporal and spatial changes due to tides, winds, and river outflow. The Sentinel-3A and -3B OLCIs are critical to Navy coastal operations due to the quality of the data and the morning orbit that complements MODIS Aqua and

  13. COPEPOD: The Coastal & Oceanic Plankton Ecology, Production, & Observation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal & Oceanic Plankton Ecology, Production, & Observation Database (COPEPOD) provides NMFS scientists with quality-controlled, globally distributed...

  14. Multiple stressors for oceanic primary production

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana

    2015-12-15

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stress factors of anthropogenic origin that change their function, structure and services they deliver society. Climate change occurs simultaneously with other changes in the environment acting jointly in a context of global environmental change. For oceanic phytoplankton communities, the research conducted so far has identified stress factors associated with global change and their impact individually (warming, acidification, increased UVB radiation, pollutants). But when several stressors act simultaneously interactions and responses are not equal to the sum of individual impacts, but may have synergistic effects (the effects are multiplied) or antagonistic (cancel out the effects) that hinder predictions of the vulnerability of ecosystems to global change. Here we will examine the vulnerability of oceanic primary producers to the accumulation of different stressors associated with global change. The trend for autotrophic picoplankton to increase with temperature in the ocean has led to predictions that autotrophic picoplankton abundance will increase with warming. However, it is documented a trend towards a decline in productivity, due to declined autotroph biomass and production with warming and the associated stratification in the subtropical ocean. Models predicting an increase in abundance are in contradiction with the reported decrease in productivity in several oceanic areas, and associate oligotrophication. Here we perform a global study to analyze the relationships of autotrophic picoplankton with oceanic temperature, nutrients, underwater light and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and productivity. We built a model to project the future changes of autotrophic picoplankton considering multiple environmental changes in future climate scenarios for the subtropical gyres. We considered increased water temperature, and associated changes in productivity and underwater light and UVB. The model show that warming and

  15. The 360 Degree Fulldome Production "Clockwork Ocean"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschek, B.; Heinsohn, R.; Opitz, D.; Fischer, T.; Baschek, T.

    2016-02-01

    The investigation of submesoscale eddies and fronts is one of the leading oceanographic topics at the Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016. In order to observe these small and short-lived phenomena, planes equipped with high-resolution cameras and fast vessels were deployed during the Submesoscale Experiments (SubEx) leading to some of the first high-resolution observations of these eddies. In a future experiment, a zeppelin will be used the first time in marine sciences. The relevance of submesoscale processes for the oceans and the work of the eddy hunters is described in the fascinating 9-minute long 360 degree fulldome production Clockwork Ocean. The fully animated movie is introduced in this presentation taking the observer from the bioluminescence in the deep ocean to a view of our blue planet from space. The immersive media is used to combine fascination for a yet unknown environment with scientific education of a broad audience. Detailed background information is available at the parallax website www.clockwork-ocean.com. The Film is also available for Virtual Reality glasses and smartphones to reach a broader distribution. A unique Mobile Dome with an area of 70 m² and seats for 40 people is used for science education at events, festivals, for politicians and school classes. The spectators are also invited to participate in the experiments by presenting 360 degree footage of the measurements. The premiere of Clockwork Ocean was in July 2015 in Hamburg, Germany and will be worldwide available in English and German as of fall 2015. Clockwork Ocean is a film of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht produced by Daniel Opitz and Ralph Heinsohn.

  16. NCEI Standard Product: World Ocean Database (WOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the world's largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  17. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Johnson et al. 2007). The OSCAR product is, however, a global product. Thus there is a pressing need to validate this product in the other basins of the world ocean, e.g., in the Indian Ocean. The present study is motivated by this need. In the present study, monthly climatology of OSCAR ocean surface currents in the TIO ...

  18. NODC Standard Product: World ocean database 2005 (NCEI Accession 0099241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database 2005 (WOD05) DVD contains data, documentation, programs, and utilities for the latest release of this product. Data include 7.9 million...

  19. Ocean state indicators from MyOcean altimeter products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bessières

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European MyOcean project (http://www.myocean.eu.org provides observations of the ocean dynamic topography from altimeter measurements. Three specific indicators have been developed, based on altimeter data only, in order to monitor the ocean state. The first ocean indicator observes the positive and negative phases of the ENSO events in the tropical Pacific, the El Niño/La Niña events, since 1992. The second ocean indicator tracks the contracted or extended state of the Kuroshio Extension. The last ocean indicator is dedicated to the Ionian Basin in the Mediterranean Sea and permits separation of "zonal-cyclonic" state (1998–2005 and since 2011 up to now from the "anticyclonic" state (1993–1996 usually discussed in the literature. In addition, it allows identifying a third state in which both the anticyclonic circulation around the northern part of the basin and the strong zonal Mid-Ionian Jet co-exist (2008–2010.

  20. Comparative Analysis of GOCI Ocean Color Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Amin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI is the first geostationary ocean color sensor in orbit that provides bio-optical properties from coastal and open waters around the Korean Peninsula at unprecedented temporal resolution. In this study, we compare the normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw products generated by the Naval Research Laboratory Automated Processing System (APS with those produced by the stand-alone software package, the GOCI Data Processing System (GDPS, developed by the Korean Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI. Both results are then compared to the nLw measured by the above water radiometer at the Ieodo site. This above-water radiometer is part of the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AeroNET. The results indicate that the APS and GDPS processed  correlates well within the same image slot where the coefficient of determination (r2 is higher than 0.84 for all the bands from 412 nm to 745 nm. The agreement between APS and the AeroNET data is higher when compared to the GDPS results. The Root-Mean-Squared-Error (RMSE between AeroNET and APS data ranges from 0.24 [mW/(cm2srμm] at 555 nm to 0.52 [mW/(cm2srμm]  at 412 nm while RMSE between AeroNET and GDPS data ranges from 0.47 [mW/(cm2srμm] at 443 nm to 0.69 [mW/(cm2srμm]  at 490 nm.

  1. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  2. Models for ecological models: Ocean primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikle, Christopher K.; Leeds, William B.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean accounts for more than 70% of planet Earth's surface, and it processes are critically important to marine and terrestrial life.  Ocean ecosystems are strongly dependent on the physical state of the ocean (e.g., transports, mixing, upwelling, runoff, and ice dynamics(.  As an example, consider the Coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA) region.

  3. Climate of the northern Indian Ocean and associated productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Gopinathan, C.K.

    The climatic factors likely to influence the phytoplankton production in the northern Indian Ocean are examined. The major cause for the high productivity of the Arabian Sea is the nutrient enrichment of the euphotic zone by upwelling especially off...

  4. VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 375m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  5. VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 375m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  6. VIIRS/NPP Day/Night Band 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 750m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The Day/Night...

  7. VIIRS/NPP Thermal Anomalies/Fire 6-Min L2 Swath 750m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Thermal Anomalies (VNP14) Version 1 product is produced in 6-minute temporal satellite increments (swaths) at...

  8. OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Vertical Profile swath orbital NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Total Column swath orbital product provides ozone profile retrievals from the Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite (OMPS) Nadir-Profiler...

  9. VIIRS Ocean Color Products over Turbid Coastal and Inland Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Jiang, L.; Liu, X.; Son, S.; Sun, J.; Shi, W.; Tan, L.; Mikelsons, K.; Wang, X.; Lance, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP), which has 22 spectral bands similar to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), is a multi-disciplinary sensor providing observations for the Earth's atmosphere, land, and ocean properties. In this presentation, we provide some extensive evaluations and assessments of VIIRS ocean color data products, including normalized water-leaving radiance spectra nLw(l) at VIIRS five spectral bands, chlorophyll-a concentration, and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm Kd(490) (and at the photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), Kd(PAR)), over global open oceans and particularly turbid coastal and inland waters. Specifically, VIIRS ocean color products derived from the NOAA Multi-Sensor Level-1 to Level-2 (MSL12) ocean color data processing system, which is the NOAA official data processing system, are evaluated and compared with those from in situ measurements, as well as ocean color data derived from MODIS-Aqua. Specifically, we show evaluation results using the near-infrared (NIR)-based, shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based, and NIR-SWIR combined ocean color data processing approaches. Furthermore, to meet requirements from broad users (e.g., operational, research, modeling, etc.), we propose to routinely produce two VIIRS ocean color data streams, i.e., the near-real-time and science quality ocean color product data. The implementation details for the two data streams will be discussed. Our results show that VIIRS is capable of providing high-quality global ocean color products in support of the science researches and operational applications. Our efforts on instrument calibration using both solar and lunar calibration approaches for VIIRS Level-1B data, as well as the system vicarious calibration for improving ocean color products will also be discussed.

  10. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 1. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical Indian Ocean using in situ data. Rajesh Sikhakolli Rashmi Sharma Sujit Basu B S Gohil Abhijit Sarkar K V S R Prasad. Volume 122 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 187-199 ...

  11. Multibeam swath bathymetry signal processing techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranade, G.; Sudhakar, T.

    Mathematical advances and the advances in the real time signal processing techniques in the recent times, have considerably improved the state of art in the bathymetry systems. These improvements have helped in developing high resolution swath...

  12. NOAA GCOM-W1/AMSR2 Oceanic Environmental Products: Phase-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenak, Z.; Alsweiss, S.; Chang, P.; Park, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Passive microwave radiometry is a special application of microwave communications technology for the purpose of collecting Earth's electromagnetic radiation. With the use of radiometers onboard earth orbiting satellites, scientists are able to monitor the Earth's environment and climate system on both short- and long-term temporal scales with near global coverage. The Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) is part of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) broader commitment toward global and long-term observation of the Earth's environment. GCOM consists of two polar orbiting satellite series, GCOM-W (Water) and GCOM-C (Climate), with 1-year overlap between them for inter-calibration. AMSR2 onboard GCOM-W1 is a microwave radiometer system that measures dual polarized radiances at 6.9, 7.3, 10.65, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 GHz. It is a sun-synchronous orbiter that acquires microwave radiances by conically scanning the Earth's surface at a nominal earth incidence angle of 55 degrees that results in a wide swath of 1450 km. As a part of Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) GCOM-W1 product development and validation project will provide NOAA's users access to critical geophysical products derived from AMSR-2. These products, which are detailed in NOAA's JPSS Level 1 Requirements Document Supplement, include: microwave brightness temperature, total precipitable water, cloud liquid water, precipitation type/rate, sea surface temperature, and Sea Surface Wind Speed. Phase-1 of the AMSR-2 project at NOAA included inter-calibration of AMSR-2 measured brightness temperatures with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager as the reference radiometer. The second phase of the project utilized the calibrated brightness temperatures in a robust Bayesian network to retrieve more accurate geophysical parameters over the ocean surface. It can handle retrievals even with missing channels and

  13. New production regulates export stoichiometry in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamelander, Tobias; Reigstad, Marit; Olli, Kalle; Slagstad, Dag; Wassmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The proportion in which carbon and growth-limiting nutrients are exported from the oceans' productive surface layer to the deep sea is a crucial parameter in models of the biological carbon pump. Based on >400 vertical flux observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) from the European Arctic Ocean we show the common assumption of constant C:N stoichiometry not to be met. Exported POC:PON ratios exceeded the classical Redfield atomic ratio of 6.625 in the entire region, with the largest deviation in the deep Central Arctic Ocean. In this part the mean exported POC:PON ratio of 9.7 (a:a) implies c. 40% higher carbon export compared to Redfield-based estimates. When spatially integrated, the potential POC export in the European Arctic was 10-30% higher than suggested by calculations based on constant POC:PON ratios. We further demonstrate that the exported POC:PON ratio varies regionally in relation to nitrate-based new production over geographical scales that range from the Arctic to the subtropics, being highest in the least productive oligotrophic Central Arctic Ocean and subtropical gyres. Accounting for variations in export stoichiometry among systems of different productivity will improve the ability of models to resolve regional patterns in carbon export and, hence, the oceans' contribution to the global carbon cycle will be predicted more accurately.

  14. New production regulates export stoichiometry in the ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Tamelander

    Full Text Available The proportion in which carbon and growth-limiting nutrients are exported from the oceans' productive surface layer to the deep sea is a crucial parameter in models of the biological carbon pump. Based on >400 vertical flux observations of particulate organic carbon (POC and nitrogen (PON from the European Arctic Ocean we show the common assumption of constant C:N stoichiometry not to be met. Exported POC:PON ratios exceeded the classical Redfield atomic ratio of 6.625 in the entire region, with the largest deviation in the deep Central Arctic Ocean. In this part the mean exported POC:PON ratio of 9.7 (a:a implies c. 40% higher carbon export compared to Redfield-based estimates. When spatially integrated, the potential POC export in the European Arctic was 10-30% higher than suggested by calculations based on constant POC:PON ratios. We further demonstrate that the exported POC:PON ratio varies regionally in relation to nitrate-based new production over geographical scales that range from the Arctic to the subtropics, being highest in the least productive oligotrophic Central Arctic Ocean and subtropical gyres. Accounting for variations in export stoichiometry among systems of different productivity will improve the ability of models to resolve regional patterns in carbon export and, hence, the oceans' contribution to the global carbon cycle will be predicted more accurately.

  15. OMI/Aura Aerosol product Multi-wavelength Algorithm Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Aerosol data product OMAEROZ at 13x12 km resolution has been made available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  16. HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCES OF SMALL SIZE SWATH CRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermina Begovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The good seakeeping characteristics of SWATH hull form are very interesting for small working craft and pleasure boats. Intrinsic limitations as the low values of weight per inch of immersion and transversal and longitudinal instability, can be acceptable and successfully managed when the mission profile does not ask for significant load variation and shift. The exploitation of SWATH concept is limited by the craft size, but if main dimensions allow enough static stability, this configuration appears very promising. SWATH behaviour in rough sea at zero and low speed have led to consider this hull form within the small craft design research program in progress at University of Naples Federico II. The design of small size SWATH working/pleasure craft has to begin from the consideration of strut waterplane areas that are the key factor to get acceptable static and dynamic stability. Displacement has to be reduced as most as possible to increase static stability, as shown by last design trends. The results of CFD analysis concerning SWATH resistance and propulsion, aspects are presented. A numerical evaluation of the hull-propeller interactions is performed, through simulations of self-propulsion tests with a simplified method (Actuator Disk model to discretize the propeller effect. The effective wake coefficient, the thrust deduction fraction and hull efficiency are provided. To validate CFD resistance results a comparison with experimental tests performed by Authors is reported. The presented work highlights different hydrodynamic aspects, comments advantages and critical issues of SWATH concept and reports detailed CFD modelling procedure with the aim to provide a reference for SWATH small craft design.

  17. Modulation of the Southern Ocean cadmium isotope signature by ocean circulation and primary productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abouchami, W.; Galer, S.J.G.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Alderkamp, A.C.; Middag, R.; Laan, P.; Feldmann, H.; Andreae, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    The High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) Southern Ocean plays a key role in regulating the biological pump and the global carbon cycle. Here we examine the efficacy of stable cadmium (Cd) isotope fractionation for detecting differences in biological productivity between regions. Our results show

  18. Small diversity effects on ocean primary production under environmental change in a diversity-resolving ocean ecosystem model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowe, Friederike; Pahlow, M.; Dutkiewicz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine ecosystem models used to investigate how global change affects ocean ecosystems and their functioning typically omit pelagic diversity. Diversity, however, can affect functions such as primary production and their sensitivity to environmental changes. Using a global ocean ecosystem model...... the diversity effects on ecosystem functioning captured in ocean ecosystem models....

  19. Production of oceanic nitrous oxide by ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Löscher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent finding that microbial ammonia oxidation in the ocean is performed by archaea to a greater extent than by bacteria has drastically changed the view on oceanic nitrification. The numerical dominance of archaeal ammonia-oxidizers (AOA over their bacterial counterparts (AOB in large parts of the ocean leads to the hypothesis that AOA rather than AOB could be the key organisms for the oceanic production of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O that occurs as a by-product of nitrification. Very recently, enrichment cultures of marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been reported to produce N2O.

    Here, we demonstrate that archaeal ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA were detectable throughout the water column of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA and eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP Oceans. Particularly in the ETNA, comparable patterns of abundance and expression of archaeal amoA genes and N2O co-occurred in the oxygen minimum, whereas the abundances of bacterial amoA genes were negligible. Moreover, selective inhibition of archaea in seawater incubations from the ETNA decreased the N2O production significantly. In studies with the only cultivated marine archaeal ammonia-oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1, we provide the first direct evidence for N2O production in a pure culture of AOA, excluding the involvement of other microorganisms as possibly present in enrichments. N. maritimus showed high N2O production rates under low oxygen concentrations comparable to concentrations existing in the oxycline of the ETNA, whereas the N2O production from two AOB cultures was comparably low under similar conditions. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the production of N2O in tropical ocean areas results mainly from archaeal nitrification and will be affected by the predicted decrease in dissolved

  20. Ocean fronts drive marine fishery production and biogeochemical cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, C. Brock; Litvin, Steven Y.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term changes in nutrient supply and primary production reportedly foreshadow substantial declines in global marine fishery production. These declines combined with current overfishing, habitat degradation, and pollution paint a grim picture for the future of marine fisheries and ecosystems. However, current models forecasting such declines do not account for the effects of ocean fronts as biogeochemical hotspots. Here we apply a fundamental technique from fluid dynamics to an ecosystem model to show how fronts increase total ecosystem biomass, explain fishery production, cause regime shifts, and contribute significantly to global biogeochemical budgets by channeling nutrients through alternate trophic pathways. We then illustrate how ocean fronts affect fishery abundance and yield, using long-term records of anchovy–sardine regimes and salmon abundances in the California Current. These results elucidate the fundamental importance of biophysical coupling as a driver of bottom–up vs. top–down regulation and high productivity in marine ecosystems. PMID:25624488

  1. Ocean fronts drive marine fishery production and biogeochemical cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, C Brock; Litvin, Steven Y

    2015-02-10

    Long-term changes in nutrient supply and primary production reportedly foreshadow substantial declines in global marine fishery production. These declines combined with current overfishing, habitat degradation, and pollution paint a grim picture for the future of marine fisheries and ecosystems. However, current models forecasting such declines do not account for the effects of ocean fronts as biogeochemical hotspots. Here we apply a fundamental technique from fluid dynamics to an ecosystem model to show how fronts increase total ecosystem biomass, explain fishery production, cause regime shifts, and contribute significantly to global biogeochemical budgets by channeling nutrients through alternate trophic pathways. We then illustrate how ocean fronts affect fishery abundance and yield, using long-term records of anchovy-sardine regimes and salmon abundances in the California Current. These results elucidate the fundamental importance of biophysical coupling as a driver of bottom-up vs. top-down regulation and high productivity in marine ecosystems.

  2. Use of Real Time Satellite Infrared and Ocean Color to Produce Ocean Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffer, M. A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Westhaver, D.; Gawlikowski, G.; Upton, M.; Hall, C.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time data products derived from infrared and ocean color satellites are useful for several types of users around the world. Highly relevant applications include recreational and commercial fisheries, commercial towing vessel and other maritime and navigation operations, and other scientific and applied marine research. Uses of the data include developing sampling strategies for research programs, tracking of water masses and ocean fronts, optimizing ship routes, evaluating water quality conditions (coastal, estuarine, oceanic), and developing fisheries and essential fish habitat indices. Important considerations for users are data access and delivery mechanisms, and data formats. At this time, the data are being generated in formats increasingly available on mobile computing platforms, and are delivered through popular interfaces including social media (Facebook, Linkedin, Twitter and others), Google Earth and other online Geographical Information Systems, or are simply distributed via subscription by email. We review 30 years of applications and describe how we develop customized products and delivery mechanisms working directly with users. We review benefits and issues of access to government databases (NOAA, NASA, ESA), standard data products, and the conversion to tailored products for our users. We discuss advantages of different product formats and of the platforms used to display and to manipulate the data.

  3. NPP/VIIRS Moderate-Resolution Dual Gain Bands Calibrated Radiance 6-Min L1B Swath 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level-1 and Level-2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  4. OMPS/NPP PCA SO2 Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 50x50km NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

  5. VIIRS/NPP Day/Night Band 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The Day/Night...

  6. Depth Dependent Relationships between Temperature and Ocean Heterotrophic Prokaryotic Production

    KAUST Repository

    Lønborg, Christian

    2016-06-07

    Marine prokaryotes play a key role in cycling of organic matter and nutrients in the ocean. Using a unique dataset (>14,500 samples), we applied a space-for-time substitution analysis to assess the temperature dependence of prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in epi- (0-200 m), meso- (201-1000 m) and bathypelagic waters (1001-4000 m) of the global ocean. Here, we show that the temperature dependence of PHP is fundamentally different between these major oceanic depth layers, with an estimated ecosystem-level activation energy (E) of 36 ± 7 kJ mol for the epipelagic, 72 ± 15 kJ mol for the mesopelagic and 274 ± 65 kJ mol for the bathypelagic realm. We suggest that the increasing temperature dependence with depth is related to the parallel vertical gradient in the proportion of recalcitrant organic compounds. These Ea predict an increased PHP of about 5, 12, and 55% in the epi-, meso-, and bathypelagic ocean, respectively, in response to a water temperature increase by 1°C. Hence, there is indication that a major thus far underestimated feedback mechanism exists between future bathypelagic ocean warming and heterotrophic prokaryotic activity.

  7. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT gridded data products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2 data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT. The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007. The SOCAT gridded data presented here is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust, regularly spaced CO2 fugacity (fCO2 product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation, which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet (e.g., regional differences in the seasonal cycles, but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address (e.g., local influences on values in some coastal regions.

  8. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Atlas 2001 (6 disc set) (NODC Accession 0095600)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Atlas 2001 (WOA01) Series consists of two sets of products. The first set of products consists of three DATA CD-ROMs containing global data...

  9. SWOT Oceanography and Hydrology Data Product Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, Eva; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Fernandez, Daniel Esteban; Johnson, Michael P.; Blumstein, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would demonstrate a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurements of water elevation at high resolution over ocean and land, addressing the needs of both the hydrology and oceanography science communities. To accurately evaluate the performance of the proposed SWOT mission, we have developed several data product simulators at different levels of fidelity and complexity.

  10. Zooplankton Gut Passage Mobilizes Lithogenic Iron for Ocean Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katrin; Schlosser, Christian; Atkinson, Angus; Fielding, Sophie; Venables, Hugh J; Waluda, Claire M; Achterberg, Eric P

    2016-10-10

    Iron is an essential nutrient for phytoplankton, but low concentrations limit primary production and associated atmospheric carbon drawdown in large parts of the world's oceans [1, 2]. Lithogenic particles deriving from aeolian dust deposition, glacial runoff, or river discharges can form an important source if the attached iron becomes dissolved and therefore bioavailable [3-5]. Acidic digestion by zooplankton is a potential mechanism for iron mobilization [6], but evidence is lacking. Here we show that Antarctic krill sampled near glacial outlets at the island of South Georgia (Southern Ocean) ingest large amounts of lithogenic particles and contain 3-fold higher iron concentrations in their muscle than specimens from offshore, which confirms mineral dissolution in their guts. About 90% of the lithogenic and biogenic iron ingested by krill is passed into their fecal pellets, which contain ∼5-fold higher proportions of labile (reactive) iron than intact diatoms. The mobilized iron can be released in dissolved form directly from krill or via multiple pathways involving microbes, other zooplankton, and krill predators. This can deliver substantial amounts of bioavailable iron and contribute to the fertilization of coastal waters and the ocean beyond. In line with our findings, phytoplankton blooms downstream of South Georgia are more intensive and longer lasting during years with high krill abundance on-shelf. Thus, krill crop phytoplankton but boost new production via their nutrient supply. Understanding and quantifying iron mobilization by zooplankton is essential to predict ocean productivity in a warming climate where lithogenic iron inputs from deserts, glaciers, and rivers are increasing [7-10]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NOAA AVHRR Clear-Sky Products over Oceans (ACSPO): Sea Surface Temperature, Clear Sky Radiances, and Aerosol Optical Depth for the Global Ocean, 2011 - present (NCEI Accession 0072979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Clear-Sky Processor over Oceans, jointly developed between NESDIS STAR and OSDPD, produces AVHRR clear-sky products over oceans. ACSPO generates output...

  12. Seabird guano enhances phytoplankton production in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatova, Olga; Wing, Stephen; Hoffmann, Linn; Jack, Lucy; Gault-Ringold, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    Great congregations of seabirds in sub-Antarctic and Antarctic coastal areas result in delivery of nutrient-rich guano to marine ecosystems that potentially enhances productivity and supports biodiversity in the region. Guano-derived bio-available micronutrients and macronutrients might be utilized by marine phytoplankton for photosynthetic production, however, mechanisms and significance of guano fertilization in the Southern Ocean are largely understudied. Over austral summers of 2012 and 2013 we performed a series of guano-enrichment phytoplankton incubation experiments with water samples collected from three different water masses in the Southern Ocean: Antarctic waters of the Ross sea and sub-Antarctic waters offshore the Otago Peninsula, both showing iron limitation of phytoplankton productivity in summer, and in the subtropical frontal zone offshore from the Snares Islands, which is generally micronutrient-repleted. Samples were enriched with known concentrations of guano-derived nutrients. Phytoplankton biomass increased significantly in guano-treated samples during all three incubation experiments (7-10 fold increase), while remained low in control samples. This response indicates that seabird guano provides nutrients that limit primary production in the Southern Ocean and that these nutrients are readily taken up by phytoplankton. Guano additions were compared to Fe and Macronutrient treatments (both added in quantities similar to those in the guano treatment). Phytoplankton biomass increased significantly in response to the Macronutrient treatment in the subtropical frontal zone, however, the response had a smaller magnitude compared to the guano treatment (2.8 µgL-1 vs 5.2 µgL-1) ; there was no significant effect of Fe on phytoplankton growth. This suggests the potential importance of synergistic effects of nutrients in guano. Incubation with sub-Antarctic waters showed that Fe and Macronutrients might be equally important for enhancement of

  13. Landsat-Swath Imaging Spectrometer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Van Gorp, Byron; Moore, Lori; Wilson, Daniel W.; Bender, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design of a high-throughput pushbroom imaging spectrometer and telescope system that is capable of Landsat swath and resolution while providing better than 10 nm per pixel spectral resolution. The design is based on a 3200 x 480 element x 18 µm pixel size focal plane array, two of which are utilized to cover the full swath. At an optical speed of F/1.8, the system is the fastest proposed to date to our knowledge. The utilization of only two spectrometer modules fed from the same telescope reduces system complexity while providing a solution within achievable detector technology. Predictions of complete system response are shown. Also, it is shown that detailed ghost analysis is a requirement for this type of spectrometer and forms an essential part of a complete design.

  14. The making of a productivity hotspot in the coastal ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K Wingfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly productive hotspots in the ocean often occur where complex physical forcing mechanisms lead to aggregation of primary and secondary producers. Understanding how hotspots persist, however, requires combining knowledge of the spatio-temporal linkages between geomorphology, physical forcing, and biological responses with the physiological requirements and movement of top predators. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we integrate remotely sensed oceanography, ship surveys, and satellite telemetry to show how local geomorphology interacts with physical forcing to create a region with locally enhanced upwelling and an adjacent upwelling shadow that promotes retentive circulation, enhanced year-round primary production, and prey aggregation. These conditions provide an area within the upwelling shadow where physiologically optimal water temperatures can be found adjacent to a region of enhanced prey availability, resulting in a foraging hotspot for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta off the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the set of conditions that lead to a persistent top predator hotspot, which increases our understanding of how highly migratory species exploit productive regions of the ocean. These results will aid in the development of spatially and environmentally explicit management strategies for marine species of conservation concern.

  15. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of Conneaut, Ohio: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  16. Coastal Virginia to Coastal North Carolina RGB Aerial Photography: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product (IOCM). The images were acquired from a nominal altitude of 7,500 feet above ground level (AGL), using an Applanix...

  17. 2012 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Texas: Trinity Bay, Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  18. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Atlas 1994 (11 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observed and standard level profile data (along with quality control flags) used in the production of these atlases were made available in a World Ocean Atlas 1994...

  19. IOCM Aerial Photography: New Hampshire MLLW Natural Color Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product (IOCM). The images were acquired from a nominal altitude of 7,500 feet above ground level (AGL), using an Applanix...

  20. 2008 NOAA Aerial Photography (RGB) of Alaska: Kachemak Bay: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Product. The images were acquired from a nominal altitude of 5,000 feet above ground level (AGL), using an Applanix...

  1. ERA*: An eddy-scale ocean forcing product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portabella, Marcos; Trindade, Ana; Stoffelen, Ad; Lin, Wenming

    2017-04-01

    High resolution satellite derived sea surface wind data, such as those from scatterometers, are increasingly required for operational monitoring and forecasting of the ocean. We present the development of ERA*, which keeps the time and space coverage of atmospheric model fields, but adds the accurately observed local mean and variability of wind scatterometers, to make these datasets suitable for, among others, high-resolution ocean model forcing. Recent attempts of combining scatterometer data and numerical weather prediction (NWP) outputs, i.e., blended ocean forcing products, allows for an increased temporal resolution (e.g., daily) but generally only resolves NWP spatial scales of 200 km. Therefore, information on the wind-current interaction, the diurnal wind cycle and the wind variability in moist convection areas is lost in such products. Moreover, known systematic NWP model (parameterization) errors are in fact propagated at times and locations where no scatterometer winds are available. The alternative, direct forcing from NWP results in even more extensive physical drawbacks. We propose to maintain the increased temporal coverage in a gridded wind and stress product (ERA*), but also to maintain the most beneficial physical qualities of the scatterometer winds, i.e., 25-km spatial resolution, wind-current interaction, variability due to moist convection, etc., and, at the same time correct the large-scale NWP parameterization and dynamical errors. Additionally, we correct these winds for the effects of atmospheric stability and mass density, using stress equivalent 10 m winds, U10S. In fact, collocations of scatterometer and global NWP winds show physical differences, where the local mean and variability of such differences are rather constant in time and thus could be added to the ERA-interim time record in order to better represent physical interaction processes and avoid NWP model errors. Correction of both wind vector biases and wind vector variability

  2. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  3. Boosted food web productivity through ocean acidification collapses under warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Silvan U; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Ferreira, Camilo M; Ullah, Hadayet; Connell, Sean D

    2017-10-01

    Future climate is forecast to drive bottom-up (resource driven) and top-down (consumer driven) change to food web dynamics and community structure. Yet, our predictive understanding of these changes is hampered by an over-reliance on simplified laboratory systems centred on single trophic levels. Using a large mesocosm experiment, we reveal how future ocean acidification and warming modify trophic linkages across a three-level food web: that is, primary (algae), secondary (herbivorous invertebrates) and tertiary (predatory fish) producers. Both elevated CO2 and elevated temperature boosted primary production. Under elevated CO2 , the enhanced bottom-up forcing propagated through all trophic levels. Elevated temperature, however, negated the benefits of elevated CO2 by stalling secondary production. This imbalance caused secondary producer populations to decline as elevated temperature drove predators to consume their prey more rapidly in the face of higher metabolic demand. Our findings demonstrate how anthropogenic CO2 can function as a resource that boosts productivity throughout food webs, and how warming can reverse this effect by acting as a stressor to trophic interactions. Understanding the shifting balance between the propagation of resource enrichment and its consumption across trophic levels provides a predictive understanding of future dynamics of stability and collapse in food webs and fisheries production. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital V2 (OMPS_NPP_NMSO2_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

  5. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital V2 (OMPS_NPP_NMNO2_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved nitrogen dioxide (NO2)...

  6. Inter comparison of Tropical Indian Ocean features in different ocean reanalysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Ananya; Parekh, Anant; Chowdary, J. S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2017-09-01

    This study makes an inter comparison of ocean state of the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in different ocean reanalyses such as global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS), ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA), ocean reanalysis system 4 (ORAS4) and simple ocean data assimilation (SODA) with reference to the in-situ buoy observations, satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST), EN4 analysis and ocean surface current analysis real time (OSCAR). Analysis of mean state of SST and sea surface salinity (SSS) reveals that ORAS4 is better comparable with satellite observations as well as EN4 analysis, and is followed by SODA, ECDA and GODAS. The surface circulation in ORAS4 is closer to OSCAR compared to the other reanalyses. However mixed layer depth (MLD) is better simulated by SODA, followed by ECDA, ORAS4 and GODAS. Seasonal evolution of error indicates that the highest deviation in SST and MLD over the TIO exists during spring and summer in GODAS. Statistical analysis with concurrent data of EN4 for the period of 1980-2010 supports that the difference and standard deviation (variability strength) ratio for SSS and MLD is mostly greater than one. In general the strength of variability is overestimated by all the reanalyses. Further comparison with in-situ buoy observations supports that MLD errors over the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) and the Bay of Bengal are higher than with EN4 analysis. Overall ORAS4 displays higher correlation and lower error among all reanalyses with respect to both EN4 analysis and buoy observations. Major issues in the reanalyses are the underestimation of upper ocean stability in the TIO, underestimation of surface current in the EIO, overestimation of vertical shear of current and improper variability in different oceanic variables. To improve the skill of reanalyses over the TIO, salinity vertical structure and upper ocean circulation need to be better represented in reanalyses.

  7. The effect of wide swathing on wilting times and nutritive value of alfalfa haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Stough, E C; McDonell, E E; Schmidt, R J; Hofherr, M W; Reich, L J; Klingerman, C M

    2010-04-01

    On 3 consecutive cuttings, alfalfa from a single field was mowed with a John Deere 946 mower-conditioner (4-m cut width; Moline, IL) to leave narrow swaths (NS) ranging from 1.2 to 1.52 m wide (30-37% of cutter bar width) and wide swaths (WS) ranging from 2.44 to 2.74 m wide (62-67% of cutter bar width). Samples were collected from windrows and dry matter (DM) was monitored during wilting until a target of 43 to 45% DM was obtained. Forage from random windrows (n=4-6) was harvested by hand, chopped through a forage harvester before being packed in replicated vacuum-sealed bags, and allowed to ensile for 65 d. There was no swath width x cutting interaction for any parameter tested. Over all cuttings, the resulting silage DM was not different between the NS silage (43.8%) and the WS silage (44.9%). However, wide swathing greatly reduced the time of wilting before making silage. The hours of wilting time needed to reach the targeted DM for the NS silage compared with the WS silage at cuttings 1, 2, and 3 were 50 versus 29, 54 versus 28, and 25 versus 6, respectively. At the time of ensiling, the WS silage had more water-soluble carbohydrates (5.1%) than did the NS silage (3.7%). The WS silage had a lower pH (4.58) than did the NS silage (4.66), but swath width did not affect fermentation end products (lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol). The NS silage had more NH(3)-N (0.26%) than did the WS silage (0.21%). Wide swathing did not affect the concentration of ash or the digestibility of NDF, but it lowered the N content (NS=3.45%; WS=3.23%) and increased the ADF content (NS=39.7%; WS=40.9%) of the resulting silage. Wide swathing can markedly reduce the time that alfalfa must wilt before it can be chopped for silage, but under good conditions, as in this study, the resulting silage quality was generally not improved. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inter-Sensor Comparison of Satellite Ocean Color Products from GOCI and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    Ocean Model (NCOM). 15. SUBJECT TERMS satellite ocean color products, GOCI, MODIS, phytoplankton 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT...Modeled Data: We used relocatable NCOM model (Navy Coastal Ocean Model), which is physical model providing predictions of currents, Temperature (T...region. The GOCI FLH products were generated using nLw at bands 5, 6 and 7. 3. Results and Discussion: Phytoplankton blooms develop over the course of a

  9. Hydrographic and productivity characteristics along 45 degrees E longitude in the southwestern Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean during austral summer 2004

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jasmine, P.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Madhu, N.V.; AshaDevi, C.R.; Alagarsamy, R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Jayan, Z.; Sanjeevan, V.N.; Sahayak, S.

    During the austral summer 2004, an intensive multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean to study the main hydrographic features and the associated productivity processes. This sector includes...

  10. Relevance of bacterioplankton abundance and production in the oligotrophic equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.; Rodrigues, V.; Ramaiah, N.; Paul, J.T.

    Bacterioplankton abundance and production, chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations and primary production (PP) were measured from the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) during northeast (NEM), southwest (SWM) and spring intermonsoon (SpIM) seasons from 1...

  11. Hydrological structure and biological productivity of the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, U.D.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    Hydrological structure analyses of regions in the tropical Atlantic Ocean have consistently revealed the existence of a typical tropical structure characterized by a nitrate-depleted mixed layer above the thermocline. The important biological...

  12. Providing Ocean Forecast Products during Unmanned Warrior 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Richard; Campbell, Tim; Martin, Paul; Edwards, Kacey; Smith, Travis; Blain, Cheryl Ann

    2017-04-01

    A coupled nested ocean-wave modeling system supported the Unmanned Warrior 2016 Exercise in LochAlsh, Scotland for the period of September 10 - October 16, 2016. Utilizing available bathymetry from the UK Hydrographic Office and shallow-water bathymetry collected in April 2016, a 250 m host and 46 m inner nest of the coupled Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model were run twice daily with atmospheric forcing from a nested 3/1 km Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). The coupled system was run twice per day producing 72-hr forecasts of ocean currents and wave heights for the exercise operating areas. The model forecasts were used to provide guidance in mission planning for the use of unmanned underwater vehicles in the Kyle of LochAlsh. We show comparisons of the NCOM's tidal prediction versus tide gauge data and modeled currents versus ADCP data collected during the exercise.

  13. Calcite production by coccolithophores in the south east Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Beaufort

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BIOSOPE cruise covered an oceanographic transect through the centre of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG from the Marquesas archipelago to the Peru-Chile upwelling (PCU. Water samples from 6 depths in the euphotic zone were collected at 20 stations. The concentrations of suspended calcite particles, coccolithophores cells and detached coccoliths were estimated together with size and weight using an automatic polarizing microscope, a digital camera, and a collection of softwares performing morphometry and pattern recognition. Some of these softwares are new and described here for the first time. The coccolithophores standing stocks were usually low and reached maxima west of the PCU. The coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa spp. and Crenalithus spp. (Order Isochrysidales represented more than 30% of all the suspended calcite particles detected in the size range 0.1–46 μm (22% of PIC in term of calcite weight. These species grew preferentially in the Chlorophyll maximum zone. In the SPG their maximum cell concentrations were recorded between depth of 150 and 200 m, which is unusually deep for these taxa. The weight of coccoliths and coccospheres were correlated to their size. Large and heavy coccoliths and coccospheres were found in regions with relatively high fertility in the Marquises Island and in the PCU. Small and light coccoliths and coccospheres were found west of the PCU. This distribution is strongly related to ocean chemistry in particular to alkalinity and to carbonate ions concentration. The biotic (coccolithophores production influence on calcification is mainly driven at the local scale (depth whereas the abiotic (carbonate chemistry plays its most important role at the regional (horizontal level. Here 94% of the variability of coccolith and coccosphere weight can be explained by a change in 7 environmental variables.

  14. Miniature Ka-band Automated Swath Mapper (KASM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal discusses the development and demonstration of a swath-based airborne instrument suite intended as a calibration and validation with relevance to the...

  15. Identifying high frequency signals in the daily swath mascon solutions from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has provided us with unique information about the total water column in the Earth system over the past 14 years. The GRACE project provides a monthly mean time-variable gravity solution. There has been significant progress in the community over the years to develop shorter time-window gravity solutions. The daily swath mascon solutions, which are under development at the Center for Space Research (CSR), are computed using daily GRACE observation data. This paper discusses the development and the progress of this product. This paper summarizes the analysis of these solutions with special emphasis on identifying the higher frequency natural processes observed by GRACE using these daily swath mascon solutions.

  16. Photosynthetic oxygen production in a warmer ocean: the Sargasso Sea as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Katherine; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-08-01

    Photosynthetic O2 production can be an important source of oxygen in sub-surface ocean waters especially in permanently stratified oligotrophic regions of the ocean where O2 produced in deep chlorophyll maxima (DCM) is not likely to be outgassed. Today, permanently stratified regions extend across approximately 40% of the global ocean and their extent is expected to increase in a warmer ocean. Thus, predicting future ocean oxygen conditions requires a better understanding of the potential response of photosynthetic oxygen production to a warmer ocean. Based on our own and published observations of water column processes in oligotrophic regions, we develop a one-dimensional water column model describing photosynthetic oxygen production in the Sargasso Sea to quantify the importance of photosynthesis for the downward flux of O2 and examine how it may be influenced in a warmer ocean. Photosynthesis is driven in the model by vertical mixing of nutrients (including eddy-induced mixing) and diazotrophy and is found to substantially increase the downward O2 flux relative to physical-chemical processes alone. Warming (2°C) surface waters does not significantly change oxygen production at the DCM. Nor does a 15% increase in re-mineralization rate (assuming Q10 = 2; 2°C warming) have significant effect on net sub-surface oxygen accumulation. However, changes in the relative production of particulate (POM) and dissolved organic material (DOM) generate relatively large changes in net sub-surface oxygen production. As POM/DOM production is a function of plankton community composition, this implies plankton biodiversity and food web structure may be important factors influencing O2 production in a warmer ocean. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  17. Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust

    CERN Document Server

    Crowley, John W; Huybers, Peter; Langmuir, Charles H; Park, Sung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Glacial cycles redistribute water between the oceans and continents causing pressure changes in the upper mantle, with potential consequences for melting of Earth's interior. A numerical model of mid-ocean ridge dynamics that explicitly includes melt transport is used to calculate the melting effects that would be caused by Plio-Pleistocene sea-level variations. Model results interpreted in the context of an analytical approximation predict sea-level induced variations in crustal thickness on the order of hundreds of meters. The specifics of the response depend on rates of sea-level change, mid-ocean ridge spreading rates, and mantle permeability. Spectral analysis of the bathymetry of the Australian-Antarctic ridge shows significant spectral energy near 23, 41, and 100 ky periods, consistent with model results and with the spectral content of Pleistocene sea-level variability. These results support the hypothesis that sea-floor topography records the magmatic response to changes in sea level, reinforcing the...

  18. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F11 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F11 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  19. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F17 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSMIS Ocean Product Grids Weekly Average from DMSP F17 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  20. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F17 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSMIS Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F17 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  1. Ocean primary production and available light: Further algorithms for remote sensing

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Platt, T.; Sathyendranath, S.; Caverhill, C.M.; Lewis, M.R.

    In the context of remote sensing of the ocean, the general problem of estimating water column production from surface irradiance and column chlorophyll concentration is examined, and some refinements are made to the linear theory presented by PLATr...

  2. Compartmental models for assessing the fishery production in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Compartmental models for assessing the fishery production in the Indian Ocean is discussed. The article examines the theoretical basis on which modern fishery sciences is built. The model shows that, large changes in energy flux from one pathway...

  3. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F16 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSMIS Ocean Product Grids 3-Day Average from DMSP F16 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  4. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F17 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSMIS Ocean Product Grids Monthly Average from DMSP F17 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special...

  5. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F15 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Monthly Average from DMSP F15 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special...

  6. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F13 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Monthly Average from DMSP F13 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special...

  7. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F16 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSMIS Ocean Product Grids Weekly Average from DMSP F16 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  8. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F14 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F14 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  9. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F14 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Monthly Average from DMSP F14 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special...

  10. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F15 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F15 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  11. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F13 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F13 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  12. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F11 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Monthly Average from DMSP F11 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special...

  13. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F10 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Monthly Average from DMSP F10 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special...

  14. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F10 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F10 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  15. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F16 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSMIS Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F16 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  16. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F16 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSMIS Ocean Product Grids Monthly Average from DMSP F16 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special...

  17. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F17 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSMIS Ocean Product Grids 3-Day Average from DMSP F17 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  18. Remote sensing of oceanic primary production: Computations using a spectral model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathyendranath, S.; Platt, T.; Caverhill, C.M.; Warnock, R.E.; Lewis, M.R.

    A spectral model of underwater irradiance is coupled with a spectral version of the photosynthesis-light relationship to compute oceanic primary production. The results are shown to be significantly different from those obtained using...

  19. Swath mapping system processing: Bathymetry and cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourillet, J. F.; Edy, C.; Rambert, F.; Satra, C.; Loubrieu, B.

    1996-06-01

    During swath mapping cruises various geophysical data were collected. Bathymetry, imagery and other geophysical information require specialised post-processing. Dedicated software enables post-processing and visualisation of each type of data. A graphic interface collects the files and exports them to a CAD system for cleaning and for adding extra information. The huge amount of soundings from multibeam echo sounder systems and the very particular sampling along and across the ship's track demand powerful software such as TRISMUS provides. Major steps in the processing are the merging of raw soundings with navigation corrected if necessary, the cleaning of soundings with a band-pass filter and the gridding of the data to obtain a Digital Terrain Model. Despite care and real time filtering during the acquisition phase, some errors persist and appear as abnormal patterns on contoured maps. It is often difficult to distinguish the origins of the errors and consequently to correct them in a deterministic way. But the analysis and description of typical patterns allows errors to be classified into five groups — sounding, profile, overlap area, surveyed area or gridding artefact — and in some cases to adopt specific processing techniques to reduce or cancel undesirable effects. Merging bathymetric maps and sonar mosaics can be achieved with IMAGEM or with the high level graphic interface MFEDIT. Since dedicated software splits the information up into different layers, the operator can manage the layers according to the information he wants on the final document. Additional information such as seismic reflection data and interpretation, geological logs and legends, can be imported or created as extra layers.

  20. Estimating Primary Production of Picophytoplankton Using the Carbon-Based Ocean Productivity Model: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yantao; Zhang, Yongyu; Wang, Nannan; Luo, Tingwei; Zhang, Yao; Rivkin, Richard B

    2017-01-01

    Picophytoplankton are acknowledged to contribute significantly to primary production (PP) in the ocean while now the method to measure PP of picophytoplankton (PPPico) at large scales is not yet well established. Although the traditional (14)C method and new technologies based on the use of stable isotopes (e.g., (13)C) can be employed to accurately measure in situ PPPico, the time-consuming and labor-intensive shortage of these methods constrain their application in a survey on large spatiotemporal scales. To overcome this shortage, a modified carbon-based ocean productivity model (CbPM) is proposed for estimating the PPPico whose principle is based on the group-specific abundance, cellular carbon conversion factor (CCF), and temperature-derived growth rate of picophytoplankton. Comparative analysis showed that the estimated PPPico using CbPM method is significantly and positively related (r(2) = 0.53, P model application may be limited by the use of invariant cellular CCF and the relatively small data sets to validate the model which may introduce some uncertainties and biases. Model performance will be improved by the use of variable conversion factors and the larger data sets representing diverse growth conditions. Finally, we apply the CbPM-based model on the collected data during four cruises in the Bohai Sea in 2005. Model-estimated PPPico ranged from 0.1 to 11.9, 29.9 to 432.8, 5.5 to 214.9, and 2.4 to 65.8 mg C m(-2) d(-1) during March, June, September, and December, respectively. This study shed light on the estimation of global PPPico using carbon-based production model.

  1. Nutrient Loading Fosters Seagrass Productivity Under Ocean Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Ravaglioli, Chiara; Lauritano, Chiara; Buia, Maria Cristina; Balestri, Elena; Capocchi, Antonella; Fontanini, Debora; Pardi, Giuseppina; Tamburello, Laura; Procaccini, Gabriele; Bulleri, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The effects of climate change are likely to be dependent on local settings. Nonetheless, the compounded effects of global and regional stressors remain poorly understood. Here, we used CO2 vents to assess how the effects of ocean acidification on the seagrass, Posidonia oceanica, and the associated epiphytic community can be modified by enhanced nutrient loading. P. oceanica at ambient and low pH sites was exposed to three nutrient levels for 16 months. The response of P. oceanica to experime...

  2. Micro-phytoplankton photosynthesis, primary production and potential export production in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilstone, Gavin H.; Lange, Priscila K.; Misra, Ankita; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Cain, Terry

    2017-11-01

    Micro-phytoplankton is the >20 μm component of the phytoplankton community and plays a major role in the global ocean carbon pump, through the sequestering of anthropogenic CO2 and export of organic carbon to the deep ocean. To evaluate the global impact of the marine carbon cycle, quantification of micro-phytoplankton primary production is paramount. In this paper we use both in situ data and a satellite model to estimate the contribution of micro-phytoplankton to total primary production (PP) in the Atlantic Ocean. From 1995 to 2013, 940 measurements of primary production were made at 258 sites on 23 Atlantic Meridional Transect Cruises from the United Kingdom to the South African or Patagonian Shelf. Micro-phytoplankton primary production was highest in the South Subtropical Convergence (SSTC ∼ 409 ± 720 mg C m-2 d-1), where it contributed between 38 % of the total PP, and was lowest in the North Atlantic Gyre province (NATL ∼ 37 ± 27 mg C m-2 d-1), where it represented 18 % of the total PP. Size-fractionated photosynthesis-irradiance (PE) parameters measured on AMT22 and 23 showed that micro-phytoplankton had the highest maximum photosynthetic rate (PmB) (∼5 mg C (mg Chl a)-1 h-1) followed by nano- (∼4 mg C (mg Chl a)-1 h-1) and pico- (∼2 mg C (mg Chl a)-1 h-1). The highest PmB was recorded in the NATL and lowest in the North Atlantic Drift Region (NADR) and South Atlantic Gyre (SATL). The PE parameters were used to parameterise a remote sensing model of size-fractionated PP, which explained 84 % of the micro-phytoplankton in situ PP variability with a regression slope close to 1. The model was applied to the SeaWiFS time series from 1998-2010, which illustrated that micro-phytoplankton PP remained constant in the NADR, NATL, Canary Current Coastal upwelling (CNRY), Eastern Tropical Atlantic (ETRA), Western Tropical Atlantic (WTRA) and SATL, but showed a gradual increase in the Benguela Upwelling zone (BENG) and South Subtropical Convergence (SSTC

  3. 2015 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of Port Everglades, Florida: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  4. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of The Everglades, Florida: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  5. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Below Mean High Water Color Mosaic of Freeport, Texas: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  6. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Texas: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product (NODC Accession 0105604)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  7. 2012 NOAA Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of Tacoma and Gig Harbor, Washington: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  8. 2012 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Laguna Madre / Arroyo Colorado, Texas: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  9. Nutrient Loading Fosters Seagrass Productivity Under Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaglioli, Chiara; Lauritano, Chiara; Buia, Maria Cristina; Balestri, Elena; Capocchi, Antonella; Fontanini, Debora; Pardi, Giuseppina; Tamburello, Laura; Procaccini, Gabriele; Bulleri, Fabio

    2017-10-23

    The effects of climate change are likely to be dependent on local settings. Nonetheless, the compounded effects of global and regional stressors remain poorly understood. Here, we used CO2 vents to assess how the effects of ocean acidification on the seagrass, Posidonia oceanica, and the associated epiphytic community can be modified by enhanced nutrient loading. P. oceanica at ambient and low pH sites was exposed to three nutrient levels for 16 months. The response of P. oceanica to experimental conditions was assessed by combining analyses of gene expression, plant growth, photosynthetic pigments and epiphyte loading. At low pH, nutrient addition fostered plant growth and the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments. Overexpression of nitrogen transporter genes following nutrient additions at low pH suggests enhanced nutrient uptake by the plant. In addition, enhanced nutrient levels reduced the expression of selected antioxidant genes in plants exposed to low pH and increased epiphyte cover at both ambient and low pH. Our results show that the effects of ocean acidification on P. oceanica depend upon local nutrient concentration. More generally, our findings suggest that taking into account local environmental settings will be crucial to advance our understanding of the effects of global stressors on marine systems.

  10. Development of a Near-Real Time Hail Damage Swath Identification Algorithm for Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Schultz, Lori A.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Burks, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    for hail damage swath identification. Initial validation of the automated algorithm is based upon Storm Prediction Center storm reports but also the National Severe Storm Laboratory (NSSL) Maximum Estimated Size Hail (MESH) product. Opportunities for future work are also shown, with focus on expansion of this algorithm with pixel-based image classification techniques for tracking surface changes as a result of severe weather.

  11. Photosynthetic production in the central Arctic Ocean during the record sea-ice minimum in 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Méndez, M.; Katlein, C.; Rabe, B.; Nicolaus, M.; Peeken, I.; Bakker, K.; Flores, H.; Boetius, A.

    2015-01-01

    The ice-covered central Arctic Ocean is characterized by low primary productivity due to light and nutrient limitations. The recent reduction in ice cover has the potential to substantially increase phytoplankton primary production, but little is yet known about the fate of the ice-associated

  12. SWATH2stats: An R/Bioconductor Package to Process and Convert Quantitative SWATH-MS Proteomics Data for Downstream Analysis Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, Peter; Heusel, Moritz; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2016-01-01

    SWATH-MS is an acquisition and analysis technique of targeted proteomics that enables measuring several thousand proteins with high reproducibility and accuracy across many samples. OpenSWATH is popular open-source software for peptide identification and quantification from SWATH-MS data. For downstream statistical and quantitative analysis there exist different tools such as MSstats, mapDIA and aLFQ. However, the transfer of data from OpenSWATH to the downstream statistical tools is currently technically challenging. Here we introduce the R/Bioconductor package SWATH2stats, which allows convenient processing of the data into a format directly readable by the downstream analysis tools. In addition, SWATH2stats allows annotation, analyzing the variation and the reproducibility of the measurements, FDR estimation, and advanced filtering before submitting the processed data to downstream tools. These functionalities are important to quickly analyze the quality of the SWATH-MS data. Hence, SWATH2stats is a new open-source tool that summarizes several practical functionalities for analyzing, processing, and converting SWATH-MS data and thus facilitates the efficient analysis of large-scale SWATH/DIA datasets.

  13. Seasonal trends of ACSPO VIIRS SST product characterized by the differences in orbital overlaps for various water types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ignatov, Alexander; Cayula, Jean François

    2015-05-01

    The uncertainty of the Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite is examined using consecutive orbital overlaps in coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The overlapping region on the left and right side of the VIIRS swath at 23-35 degree latitude covers approximately 500 pixels, which occur within 100 minutes and can provide a total of 4 SST products (2 day and 2 night) per day. By assuming the ocean SST should be similar on each side of the swath in this short time period, diel changes are examined and the uncertainty of SST retrieval is determined by comparing with buoy-derived SST. The VIIRS ACSPO product from NOAA STAR was used to determine the difference in SST within the overlapping regions. These SST changes are evaluated between consecutive orbits to validate the accuracy of SST algorithms on each side of the swath at high sensor angles. The SST product differences across the swath can result from surface glint, sensor angular impacts and sensor characteristics such as half angle mirror side (HAM) and calibration. The absolute diurnal SST changes that can occur within 100 minutes are evaluated with the buoy and VIIRS-derived SST. Sensitivity of the SST to water types is evaluated by measuring diurnal differences for open ocean, shelf and coastal waters. The 100 minute VIIRS SST overlap shows the capability to monitor the diurnal ocean heating and cooling which are associated with water mass optical absorption. The seasonal trends of the difference in SST at the overlaps for these water masses were tracked on a monthly basis. The unique capability of using the same VIIRS sensor for self-characterization can provide a method to define the uncertainty of ocean products and characterize the diurnal changes for different water types.

  14. Silent oceans: ocean acidification impoverishes natural soundscapes by altering sound production of the world's noisiest marine invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2016-03-16

    Soundscapes are multidimensional spaces that carry meaningful information for many species about the location and quality of nearby and distant resources. Because soundscapes are the sum of the acoustic signals produced by individual organisms and their interactions, they can be used as a proxy for the condition of whole ecosystems and their occupants. Ocean acidification resulting from anthropogenic CO2 emissions is known to have profound effects on marine life. However, despite the increasingly recognized ecological importance of soundscapes, there is no empirical test of whether ocean acidification can affect biological sound production. Using field recordings obtained from three geographically separated natural CO2 vents, we show that forecasted end-of-century ocean acidification conditions can profoundly reduce the biological sound level and frequency of snapping shrimp snaps. Snapping shrimp were among the noisiest marine organisms and the suppression of their sound production at vents was responsible for the vast majority of the soundscape alteration observed. To assess mechanisms that could account for these observations, we tested whether long-term exposure (two to three months) to elevated CO2 induced a similar reduction in the snapping behaviour (loudness and frequency) of snapping shrimp. The results indicated that the soniferous behaviour of these animals was substantially reduced in both frequency (snaps per minute) and sound level of snaps produced. As coastal marine soundscapes are dominated by biological sounds produced by snapping shrimp, the observed suppression of this component of soundscapes could have important and possibly pervasive ecological consequences for organisms that use soundscapes as a source of information. This trend towards silence could be of particular importance for those species whose larval stages use sound for orientation towards settlement habitats. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Investigation on mechanisms controlling export production at the LGM with an biogeochemical ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Chikamoto, M.; Ide, T.

    2012-04-01

    Using a biogeochemical ocean model that includes the iron cycle, we carry out preindustrial (control, CTL) and glacial (Last Glacial Maximum, LGM) climate simulations and investigate difference in export production (EP) between CTL and LGM. The model successfully reproduces general trends of a paleoclimate reconstruction of EP at the LGM except over the Atlantic Ocean. By conducting a series of sensitivity simulations, we investigate the mechanism controlling EP at the LGM in each basin. In the Southern Ocean, the model successfully reproduces the dipole pattern of the paleo reconstruction: the higher-latitude decrease and lower-latitude increase of EP. It is found that the lower-latitude increase of EP comes from iron fertilization effects by enhanced dust deposition, while the higher-latitude decrease of EP is caused by the reduction of surface shortwave due to spreading of sea ice there. We also find that increased dust input in other basins remotely affects EP in the Southern Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean where the model fails to reproduce the paleo reconstruction, it is demonstrated that the response of EP in the Atlantic Ocean is strongly affected by distribution of iron limitation in a control climate. It is implied that the accurate evaluation of iron limitation in the present ocean is critical for evaluating changes in EP and associated reduction of atmospheric CO2 concentration at the LGM.

  16. Study of Wide Swath Synthetic Aperture Ladar Imaging Techology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Keshu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Combining synthetic-aperture imaging and coherent-light detection technology, the weak signal identification capacity of Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL reaches the photo level, and the image resolution exceeds the diffraction limit of the telescope to obtain high-resolution images irrespective to ranges. This paper introduces SAL, including the development path, technology characteristics, and the restriction of imaging swath. On the basis of this, we propose to integrate the SAL technology for extending its swath. By analyzing the scanning-operation mode and the signal model, the paper explicitly proposes that the former mode will be the developmental trend of the SAL technology. This paper also introduces the flight demonstrations of the SAL and the imaging results of remote targets, showing the potential of the SAL in long-range, high-resolution, and scanning-imaging applications. The technology and the theory of the scanning mode of SAL compensates for the defects related to the swath and operation efficiency of the current SAL. It provides scientific foundation for the SAL system applied in wide swath, high resolution earth observation, and the ISAL system applied in space-targets imaging.

  17. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  18. Ocean colour products from geostationary platforms, opportunities with Meteosat Second and Third Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska, E. J.; Ruddick, K.; Ramon, D.; Vanhellemont, Q.; Brockmann, C.; Lebreton, C.; Bonekamp, H. G.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean colour applications from medium-resolution polar-orbiting satellite sensors have now matured and evolved into operational services. The examples include the Sentinel-3 OLCI missions of the European Earth Observation Copernicus programme and the VIIRS missions of the US Joint Polar Satellite System programme. Key drivers for Copernicus ocean colour services are the national obligations of the EU member states to report on the quality of marine, coastal and inland waters for the EU Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Further applications include CO2 sequestration, carbon cycle and climate, fisheries and aquaculture management, near-real-time alerting to harmful algae blooms, environmental monitoring and forecasting, and assessment of sediment transport in coastal waters. Ocean colour data from polar-orbiting satellite platforms, however, suffer from fractional coverage, primarily due to clouds, and inadequate resolution of quickly varying processes. Ocean colour remote sensing from geostationary platforms can provide significant improvements in coverage and sampling frequency and support new applications and services. EUMETSAT's SEVIRI instrument on the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation platforms (MSG) is not designed to meet ocean colour mission requirements, however, it has been demonstrated to provide valuable contribution, particularly in combination with dedicated ocean colour polar observations. This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop operational ocean colour water turbidity and related products and user services from SEVIRI. A survey of user requirements and a study of technical capabilities and limitations of the SEVIRI instruments are the basis for this development and are described in this paper. The products will support monitoring of sediment transport, water clarity, and tidal dynamics. Further products and services are anticipated from EUMETSAT's FCI instruments on Meteosat Third Generation

  19. Bacterioplankton abundance and production in Indian Ocean Regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Fernandes, V.; Rodrigues, V.V.; Paul, J.T.; Gauns, M.

    Microbes mediating biological and many geochemical processes are the key components in marine ecosystems. Information on spatiotemporal variations in heterotrophic bacterial (Hbac) abundance and production in three ecologically disparate regions...

  20. Are Ferroan Anorthosites Direct Products of the Lunar Magma Ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    According to Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) theory, lunar samples that fall into the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) category represent the only samples we have of of the primordial crust of the Moon. Modeling indicates that plagioclase crystallizes after >70% LMO crystallization and formed a flotation crust, depending upon starting composition. The FAN group of highlands materials has been subdivided into mafic-magnesian, mafic-ferroan, anorthositic- sodic, and anorthositic-ferroan, although it is not clear how these subgroups are related. Recent radiogenic isotope work has suggested the range in FAN ages and isotopic systematics are inconsistent with formation of all FANs from the LMO. While an insulating lid could have theoretically extend the life of the LMO to explain the range of the published ages, are the FAN compositions consistent with crystallization from the LMO? As part of a funded Emerging Worlds proposal (NNX15AH76G), we examine this question through analysis of FAN samples. We compare the results with various LMO crystallization models, including those that incorporate the influence of garnet.

  1. Buffering of Ocean Export Production by Flexible Elemental Stoichiometry of Particulate Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Katsumi

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important factors that determine the ocean-atmosphere carbon partitioning is the sinking of particulate organic matter (POM) from the surface ocean to the deep ocean. The amount of carbon (C) removed from the surface ocean by this POM export production depends critically on the elemental ratio in POM of C to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), two essential elements that limit productivity. Recent observations indicate that P:N:C in marine POM varies both spatially and temporally due to chemical, physical, and ecological dynamics. In a new approach to predicting a flexible P:C ratio, we developed a power law model with a stoichiometry sensitivity factor, which is able to relate P:C of POM to ambient phosphate concentration. The new factor is robust, measurable, and biogeochemically meaningful. Using the new stoichiometry sensitivity factor, we present a first-order estimate that P:C plasticity could buffer against a generally expected future reduction in global carbon export production by up to 5% under a future warming scenario compared to a fixed, Redfield P:C. Further, we demonstrate that our new stoichiometry model can be implemented successfully and easily in a global model to reproduce the large-scale P:N:C variability in the ocean.

  2. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F; Jaccard, Samuel L; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-31

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  3. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  4. Assessment of Satellite Ocean Colour Radiometry and Derived Geophysical Products. Chapter 6.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Frederic; Franz, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Standardization of methods to assess and assign quality metrics to satellite ocean color radiometry and derived geophysical products has become paramount with the inclusion of the marine reflectance and chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) as essential climate variables (ECV; [1]) and the recognition that optical remote sensing of the oceans can only contribute to climate research if and when a continuous succession of satellite missions can be shown to collectively provide a consistent, long-term record with known uncertainties. In 20 years, the community has made significant advancements toward that objective, but providing a complete uncertainty budget for all products and for all conditions remains a daunting task. In the retrieval of marine water-leaving radiance from observed top-of-atmosphere radiance, the sources of uncertainties include those associated with propagation of sensor noise and radiometric calibration and characterization errors, as well as a multitude of uncertainties associated with the modeling and removal of effects from the atmosphere and sea surface. This chapter describes some common approaches used to assess quality and consistency of ocean color satellite products and reviews the current status of uncertainty quantification in the field. Its focus is on the primary ocean color product, the spectrum of marine reflectance Rrs, but uncertainties in some derived products such as the Chla or inherent optical properties (IOPs) will also be considered.

  5. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, J. M.

    2015-08-31

    The Arctic Ocean is warming at two to three times the global rate1 and is perceived to be a bellwether for ocean acidification2, 3. Increased CO2 concentrations are expected to have a fertilization effect on marine autotrophs4, and higher temperatures should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production5. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range of 145–2,099 μatm; however, the greatest effects are observed only at lower temperatures and are constrained by nutrient and light availability to the spring period. The temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production has significant implications for metabolic balance in a warmer, CO2-enriched Arctic Ocean in the future. In particular, it indicates that a twofold increase in primary production during the spring is likely in the Arctic.

  6. What drives the biological productivity of the northern Indian Ocean?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Gauns, M.; Sardessai, S.

    by winter cooling and convective mixing, which are able to supply nutrients to the upper layers from the nutri- cline. Subsequently, a number of authors attempted to link the seasonal distribution of chlorophyll and phytoplankton production... the freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipita- tion, E − P) showed an annual cycle in both basins, it dif- fered considerably in their temporal distribution (Figure 3c). In the AS the annual signal was weak, and the evaporation always exceeded precipitation...

  7. Modeling the role of nitrification in open ocean productivity and the nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yool, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is an important component of the global carbon cycle, and currently serves as the principal sink for anthropogenic CO(2) from the atmosphere. A key role in the natural oceanic carbon cycle is played by the plankton ecosystem, which acts to elevate the storage capacity of the ocean, but it is believed that this will experience change in the future in response to anthropogenic forcing. One of the approaches used to understand and forecast the oceanic carbon cycle is ecosystem modeling, and this is typically grounded on the nitrogen cycle because of the strong regulatory role this element plays in biological productivity. Nitrification is one of the central processes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle, one whose role may change in the future, but also one with a particular relevance to observational efforts to quantify the biological carbon cycle. Here, we describe and summarize current efforts to model nitrification in pelagic open ocean ecosystems, and look forward to future avenues for progress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors limiting heterotrophic bacterial production in the southern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Van Wambeke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of potential factors limiting bacterial growth was investigated along vertical and longitudinal gradients across the South Eastern Pacific Gyre. The effects of glucose, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate additions on heterotrophic bacterial production (using leucine technique were studied in parallel in unfiltered seawater samples incubated under natural daily irradiance. The enrichments realized on the subsurface showed three types of responses. From 141° W (Marquesas plateau to approx 125° W, bacteria were not bottom-up controlled, as confirmed by the huge potential of growth in non-enriched seawater (median of enhancement factor×39 in 24 h. Within the Gyre (125° W–95° W, nitrogen alone stimulated leucine incorporation rates (median×4.2, but rapidly labile carbon (glucose became a second limiting factor (median×37 when the two elements were added. Finally from the border of the gyre to the Chilean upwelling (95° W–73° W, labile carbon was the only factor stimulating heterotrophic bacterial production. Interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial communities and the direct versus indirect effect of iron and macronutrients on bacterial production were also investigated in four selected sites: two sites on the vicinity of the Marquesas plateau, the centre of the gyre and the Eastern border of the gyre. Both phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were limited by availability of nitrogen within the gyre, but not by iron. Iron limited phytoplankton at Marquesas plateau and at the eastern border of the gyre. However 48 h enrichment experiments were not sufficient to show any clear limitation of heterotrophic bacteria within Marquesas plateau and showed a limitation of these organisms by labile carbon in the eastern border of the Gyre.

  9. The CAFE model: A net production model for global ocean phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silsbe, Greg M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Milligan, Allen J.; Westberry, Toby K.

    2016-12-01

    The Carbon, Absorption, and Fluorescence Euphotic-resolving (CAFE) net primary production model is an adaptable framework for advancing global ocean productivity assessments by exploiting state-of-the-art satellite ocean color analyses and addressing key physiological and ecological attributes of phytoplankton. Here we present the first implementation of the CAFE model that incorporates inherent optical properties derived from ocean color measurements into a mechanistic and accurate model of phytoplankton growth rates (μ) and net phytoplankton production (NPP). The CAFE model calculates NPP as the product of energy absorption (QPAR), and the efficiency (ϕμ) by which absorbed energy is converted into carbon biomass (CPhyto), while μ is calculated as NPP normalized to CPhyto. The CAFE model performance is evaluated alongside 21 other NPP models against a spatially robust and globally representative set of direct NPP measurements. This analysis demonstrates that the CAFE model explains the greatest amount of variance and has the lowest model bias relative to other NPP models analyzed with this data set. Global oceanic NPP from the CAFE model (52 Pg C m-2 yr-1) and mean division rates (0.34 day-1) are derived from climatological satellite data (2002-2014). This manuscript discusses and validates individual CAFE model parameters (e.g., QPAR and ϕμ), provides detailed sensitivity analyses, and compares the CAFE model results and parameterization to other widely cited models.

  10. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F10 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Weekly Average from DMSP F10 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  11. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F15 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Weekly Average from DMSP F15 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  12. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F13 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Weekly Average from DMSP F13 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  13. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F8 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Daily from DMSP F8 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave...

  14. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F8 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Monthly Average from DMSP F8 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  15. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F8 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Products Grid Weekly Average from DMSP F8 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  16. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F14 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Weekly Average from DMSP F14 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  17. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F11 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids Weekly Average from DMSP F11 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  18. Photosynthetic production in the central Arctic Ocean during the record sea-ice minimum in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fernández-Méndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ice-covered central Arctic Ocean is characterized by low primary productivity due to light and nutrient limitations. The recent reduction in ice cover has the potential to substantially increase phytoplankton primary production, but little is yet known about the fate of the ice-associated primary production and of the nutrient supply with increasing warming. This study presents results from the central Arctic Ocean collected during summer 2012, when sea-ice extent reached its lowest ever recorded since the onset of satellite observations. Net primary productivity (NPP was measured in the water column, sea ice and melt ponds by 14CO2 uptake at different irradiances. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (PI curves were established in laboratory experiments and used to upscale measured NPP to the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78° N using the irradiance-based Central Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity (CAOPP model. In addition, new annual production has been calculated from the seasonal nutrient drawdown in the mixed layer since last winter. Results show that ice algae can contribute up to 60% to primary production in the central Arctic Ocean at the end of the productive season (August–September. The ice-covered water column has lower NPP rates than open water due to light limitation in late summer. As indicated by the nutrient ratios in the euphotic zone, nitrate was limiting primary production in the deep Eurasian Basin close to the Laptev Sea area, while silicate was the main limiting nutrient at the ice margin near the Atlantic inflow. Although sea-ice cover was substantially reduced in 2012, total annual new production in the Eurasian Basin was 17 ± 7 Tg C yr−1, which is within the range of estimates of previous years. However, when adding the contribution by sub-ice algae, the annual production for the deep Eurasian Basin (north of 78° N could double previous estimates for that area with a surplus of 16 Tg C yr−1. Our data suggest that

  19. Drivers of trophic amplification of ocean productivity trends in a changing climate

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. Stock; J. P. Dunne; J. G. John

    2014-01-01

    Pronounced projected 21st century trends in regional oceanic net primary production (NPP) raise the prospect of significant redistributions of marine resources. Recent results further suggest that NPP changes may be amplified at higher trophic levels. Here, we elucidate the role of planktonic food web dynamics in driving projected changes in mesozooplankton production (MESOZP) found to be, on average, twice as large as projected changes in...

  20. Emergent constraints on projections of declining primary production in the tropical oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Bopp, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Cox, Peter M.; Laufkötter, Charlotte; Li, Yue; Séférian, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Marine primary production is a fundamental component of the Earth system, providing the main source of food and energy to the marine food web, and influencing the concentration of atmospheric CO 2 (refs ,). Earth system model (ESM) projections of global marine primary production are highly uncertain with models projecting both increases and declines of up to 20% by 2100. This uncertainty is predominantly driven by the sensitivity of tropical ocean primary production to climate change, with the latest ESMs suggesting twenty-first-century tropical declines of between 1 and 30% (refs ,). Here we identify an emergent relationship between the long-term sensitivity of tropical ocean primary production to rising equatorial zone sea surface temperature (SST) and the interannual sensitivity of primary production to El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-driven SST anomalies. Satellite-based observations of the ENSO sensitivity of tropical primary production are then used to constrain projections of the long-term climate impact on primary production. We estimate that tropical primary production will decline by 3 +/- 1% per kelvin increase in equatorial zone SST. Under a business-as-usual emissions scenario this results in an 11 +/- 6% decline in tropical marine primary production and a 6 +/- 3% decline in global marine primary production by 2100.

  1. Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties from the 1 Km Resolution MODIS Ocean Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds-on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  2. Evaluation of Climate Variability of Sea Level from the ESA CCI products and ECMWF ocean reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao; Balmaseda, Magdalena

    2017-04-01

    Together with ocean heat content change, sea level rise is the most reliable climate indicator of global warming. Robust climate signals can be derived from sea level changes in the objective analysis of satellite radar altimeter data, as well as in the ocean reanalysis products during the satellite era. The ESA Sea Level Climate Change Initiative (SL_CCI) project provides a stable, homogenized satellite-based sea level product with reduced altimetry errors at climate scales. Climate signals from different versions of SL_CCI product were assessed and verified against other reference sea-level datasets (e.g. mapped SLA data from AVISO), and ECMWF's ocean reanalyses using multi-model approach. The robustness of the sea level temporal variability from SL_CCI and its attribution to physical processes were evaluated using the new ECMWF's Ocean ReAnalysis System 5 (ORAS5), with a generic perturbation scheme and 5 ensemble members. The spatial distribution of uncertainties on sea level trends from SL_CCI product was evaluated against ensemble spreads from ORAS5. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis show that the amplitude, phase, and spatial patterns of the interannual signals of sea level in the new SL_CCI product are more consistent with the ORAS5 than previous SL_CCI products. A robust SL signals in the Baltic Sea and North Sea as identified from the leading EOF pattern for the North Atlantic can be derived from both SL_CCI product and AVISO MSLAs, and was likely associated with the prevailing zonal wind patterns in the North Atlantic sub-polar regions. The relation between the leading EOF modes of sea-level and climate variability processes was also discussed here.

  3. Monitoring Land Based Sources of Pollution over Coral Reefs using VIIRS Ocean Color Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, E.; Strong, A. E.; Eakin, C. M.; Wang, M.; Hernandez, W. J.; Cardona Maldonado, M. A.; De La Cour, J. L.; Liu, G.; Tirak, K.; Heron, S. F.; Skirving, W. J.; Armstrong, R.; Warner, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    NOAA's Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program and the NESDIS Ocean Color Team are developing new products to monitor land based sources of pollution (LBSP) over coral reef ecosystems using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the S-NPP satellite. LBSP are a major threat to corals that can cause disease and mortality, disrupt critical ecological reef functions, and impede growth, reproduction, and larval settlement, among other impacts. From VIIRS, near-real-time satellite products of Chlorophyll-a, Kd(490), and sea surface temperature are being developed for three U.S. Coral Reef Task Force priority watershed sites - Ka'anapali (West Maui, Hawai'i), Faga'alu (American Samoa), and Guánica Bay (Puerto Rico). Background climatological levels of these parameters are being developed to construct anomaly products. Time-series data are being generated to monitor changes in water quality in near-real-time and provide information on historical variations, especially following significant rain events. A pilot calibration/validation field study of the VIIRS-based ocean color products is underway in Puerto Rico; we plan to expand this validation effort to the other two watersheds. Working with local resource managers, we have identified a focal area for product development and validation for each watershed and its associated local reefs. This poster will present preliminary results and identify a path forward to ensure marine resource managers understand and correctly use the new ocean color products, and to help NOAA CRW refine its satellite products to maximize their benefit to coral reef management. NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NESDIS - NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service S-NPP - Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership

  4. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis wind products with in situ wave glider wind observations in the Southern Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmidt, KM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wave Glider (WG) deployments in the Southern Ocean with the intent to determine which blended satellite or reanalysis product best represents the magnitude and variability of the observed wind field. Results show that the ECMWF reanalysis product...

  5. A linkage between Asian dust, dissolved iron and marine export production in the deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongxiang; Zhao, Tianliang; Song, Lianchun; Fang, Xiaomin; Yin, Yan; Deng, Zuqin; Wang, Suping; Fan, Shuxian

    2011-08-01

    Iron-addition experiments have revealed that iron supply exerts controls on biogeochemical cycles in the ocean and ultimately influences the Earth's climate system. The iron hypothesis in its broad outlines has been proved to be correct. However, the hypothesis needs to be verified with an observable biological response to specific dust deposition events. Plankton growth following the Asian dust storm over Ocean Station PAPA (50°N, 145°W) in the North Pacific Ocean in April 2001 was the first supportive evidence of natural aeolian iron inputs to ocean; The data were obtained through the SeaWiFS satellite and robot carbon explorers by Bishop et al. Using the NARCM modeling results in this study, the calculated total dust deposition flux was 35 mg m -2 per day in PAPA region from the dust storm of 11-13 April, 2001 into 0.0615 mg m -2 d -1 (about 1100 nM) soluble iron in the surface layer at Station PAPA. It was enough for about 1100 nM to enhance the efficiency of the marine biological pump and trigger the rapid increase of POC and chlorophyll. The iron fertilization hypothesis therefore is plausible. However, even if this specific dust event can support the iron fertilization hypothesis, long-term observation data are lacking in marine export production and continental dust. In this paper, we also conducted a simple correlation analysis between the diatoms and foraminifera at about 3000 m and 4000 m at two subarctic Pacific stations and the dust aerosol production from China's mainland. The correlation coefficient between marine export production and dust storm frequency in the core area of the dust storms was significantly high, suggesting that aerosols generated by Asian dust storm are the source of iron for organic matter fixation in the North Pacific Ocean. These results suggest that there could be an interlocking chain for the change of atmospheric dust aerosol-soluble iron-marine export production.

  6. Effects of UVB radiation on net community production in the upper global ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2016-08-31

    Aim Erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer together with oligotrophication of the subtropical ocean is leading to enhanced exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in ocean surface waters. The impact of increased exposure to UVB on planktonic primary producers and heterotrophs is uncertain. Here we test the null hypothesis that net community production (NCP) of plankton communities in surface waters of the tropical and subtropical ocean is not affected by ambient UVB radiation and extend this test to the global ocean, including the polar oceans and the Mediterranean Sea using previous results. Location We conducted experiments with 131 surface communities sampled during a circumnavigation cruise along the tropical and subtropical ocean and combined these results with 89 previous reports encompassing the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic and Southern Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Methods The use of quartz (transparent to UVB radiation) and borosilicate glass materials (opaque to most UVB) for incubations allowed us to compare NCP between communities where UVB is excluded and those receiving natural UVB radiation. Results We found that NCP varies when exposed to natural UVB radiation compared to those where UVB was removed. NCP of autotrophic communities tended to decrease under natural UVB radiation, whereas the NCP of heterotrophic communities tended to increase. However, these variations showed the opposite trend under higher levels of UVB radiation. Main conclusions Our results suggest that earlier estimates of NCP for surface communities, which were hitherto derived using materials blocking UVB radiation were biased, with the direction and magnitude of this bias depending on the metabolic status of the communities and the underwater penetration of UVB radiation.

  7. Comparison of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation between 1960 and 2007 in six ocean reanalysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karspeck, A. R.; Stammer, D.; Köhl, A.; Danabasoglu, G.; Balmaseda, M.; Smith, D. M.; Fujii, Y.; Zhang, S.; Giese, B.; Tsujino, H.; Rosati, A.

    2017-08-01

    The mean and variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), as represented in six ocean reanalysis products, are analyzed over the period 1960-2007. Particular focus is on multi-decadal trends and interannual variability at 26.5°N and 45°N. For four of the six reanalysis products, corresponding reference simulations obtained from the same models and forcing datasets but without the imposition of subsurface data constraints are included for comparison. An emphasis is placed on identifying general characteristics of the reanalysis representation of AMOC relative to their reference simulations without subsurface data constraints. The AMOC as simulated in these two sets are presented in the context of results from the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II) effort, wherein a common interannually varying atmospheric forcing data set was used to force a large and diverse set of global ocean-ice models. Relative to the reference simulations and CORE-II forced model simulations it is shown that (1) the reanalysis products tend to have greater AMOC mean strength and enhanced variance and (2) the reanalysis products are less consistent in their year-to-year AMOC changes. We also find that relative to the reference simulations (but not the CORE-II forced model simulations) the reanalysis products tend to have enhanced multi-decadal trends (from 1975-1995 to 1995-2007) in the mid to high latitudes of the northern hemisphere.

  8. Southern Ocean overturning, export production and climate variability over the past 1 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, S.; Hayes, C. T.; Martinez Garcia, A.; Galbraith, E. D.; Anderson, R. F.; Sigman, D. M.; Haug, G. H.

    2011-12-01

    Recently developed XRF core-scanning methods permit paleoceanographic reconstructions on time-scales similar to ice core temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements. We have investigated distribution of carbonate and biogenic barium (bioBa) - a proxy for integrated organic carbon export - in a sedimentary archive retrieved from the deep South Atlantic (ODP 1094, 53°S, 6°E, 2807 m) covering the past 1 Myr. These measurements are complemented with high-resolution, 230Th-normalized opal, bioBa and chlorin flux determinations spanning the last 150 kyrs. Our multi-proxy approach reveals that export production and biogenic carbonate preservation were tightly linked to atmospheric pCO2 reconstructions over the last 1 Myr. In particular, lukewarm interglacials (i.e. MIS 13-19) show generally lower organic matter export and reduced carbonate preservation when compared to more recent interglacials. This supports the critical contribution of Southern Ocean deglacial upwelling to modulate the partitioning of CO2 between the ocean interior and the atmosphere over the last million years, and immediately suggests that the moderate pCO2 increases during the lukewarm interglacials were due to a reduced dynamic range of Southern Ocean overturning. Changes in the vertical structure of the Southern Ocean water-column do not only prove to be crucial for the transitions from glacial to interglacial climate states. The decrease in upwelling following peak interglacial conditions leads the climate system to progressively converge towards colder, glacial conditions. Once a pCO2 threshold value of about 225 ppmv is reached, export production tends to stabilize around very low values, consistent with more strongly stratified conditions. This threshold also marks the abrupt inception of iron-rich mineral dust generation and deposition downwind of major South American dust sources, thereby catalyzing export production in the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, to the north

  9. Climate engineering and the ocean: effects on biogeochemistry and primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvset, Siv K.; Tjiputra, Jerry; Muri, Helene

    2017-12-01

    Here we use an Earth system model with interactive biogeochemistry to project future ocean biogeochemistry impacts from the large-scale deployment of three different radiation management (RM) climate engineering (also known as geoengineering) methods: stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), marine sky brightening (MSB), and cirrus cloud thinning (CCT). We apply RM such that the change in radiative forcing in the RCP8.5 emission scenario is reduced to the change in radiative forcing in the RCP4.5 scenario. The resulting global mean sea surface temperatures in the RM experiments are comparable to those in RCP4.5, but there are regional differences. The forcing from MSB, for example, is applied over the oceans, so the cooling of the ocean is in some regions stronger for this method of RM than for the others. Changes in ocean net primary production (NPP) are much more variable, but SAI and MSB give a global decrease comparable to RCP4.5 (˜ 6 % in 2100 relative to 1971-2000), while CCT gives a much smaller global decrease of ˜ 3 %. Depending on the RM methods, the spatially inhomogeneous changes in ocean NPP are related to the simulated spatial change in the NPP drivers (incoming radiation, temperature, availability of nutrients, and phytoplankton biomass) but mostly dominated by the circulation changes. In general, the SAI- and MSB-induced changes are largest in the low latitudes, while the CCT-induced changes tend to be the weakest of the three. The results of this work underscore the complexity of climate impacts on NPP and highlight the fact that changes are driven by an integrated effect of multiple environmental drivers, which all change in different ways. These results stress the uncertain changes to ocean productivity in the future and advocate caution at any deliberate attempt at large-scale perturbation of the Earth system.

  10. Modeling the sensitivity of coastal ocean Primary Production to Extreme Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, H.; Luo, H.; Mattingly, K. S.; Rosen, J. J.; Yager, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    Responding to the July 2012 extreme melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, this study investigates how marine primary productivity of the region may be affected by changes resulting from increasing meltwater discharge. The freshwater melt from the ice sheet flows primarily to the sea, where wind and ocean currents then distribute and mix it with ocean water. Depending on its delivery, meltwater may increase stratification in the coastal ocean, which is often beneficial to the light-limited phytoplankton typically found in polar regions. While plumes of buoyant meltwater can reduce light limitation by creating a shallower mixed layer, they may also increase nutrient limitation by isolating the phytoplankton from deep nitrogen supplies. Turbidity in the plume would also dampen any meltwater-driven relief from light limitation. To characterize and quantify these responses to melt in the coastal ocean west of Greenland, we created a bottom-up (nutrient-and-light-influenced) marine ecosystem model using model output generated as a part of a larger interdisciplinary Ice Sheet Impact Study. The collaborative project includes an examination of the changes of Greenland's surface mass balance, a hydrological runoff model of glacial meltwater, and a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Meltwater distributions and mixed layer depths from the ROMS model were used to analyze the potential effects on marine phytoplankton. The ROMS produced ocean output for two cases over a ten-year period: with and without meltwater runoff. Using these two cases, we determined the perturbation in mixed layer depth, light availability, and the expected phytoplankton biomass, due to meltwater over different regions and melting conditions. Results are compared to remote sensing data analyzed by other members of the Ice Sheet Impact Study. The sensitivity results indicate an increase in variability of mixed layer depths with increasing meltwater input, and that the increased light availability caused

  11. Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of

  12. Corrections to MODIS Terra Calibration and Polarization Trending Derived from Ocean Color Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Robert E.; Franz, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed ocean color products require highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances, on the order of 0.5% or better. Due to incidents both prelaunch and on-orbit, meeting this requirement has been a consistent problem for the MODIS instrument on the Terra satellite, especially in the later part of the mission. The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) has developed an approach to correct the TOA radiances of MODIS Terra using spatially and temporally averaged ocean color products from other ocean color sensors (such as the SeaWiFS instrument on Orbview-2 or the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite). The latest results suggest that for MODIS Terra, both linear polarization parameters of the Mueller matrix are temporally evolving. A change to the functional form of the scan angle dependence improved the quality of the derived coefficients. Additionally, this paper demonstrates that simultaneously retrieving polarization and gain parameters improves the gain retrieval (versus retrieving the gain parameter only).

  13. Evaluating VIIRS ocean color products for west coast and Hawaiian waters

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Curtiss O.

    2013-06-03

    Automated match ups allow us to maintain and improve the ocean color products of current satellite instruments MODIS, and since February 2012 the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). As part of the VIIRS mission Ocean Calibration and Validation Team, we have created a web-based automated match up tool that provides access to searchable fields for date, site, and products, and creates matchups between satellites (MODIS, VIIRS), and in-situ measurements (HyperPRO and SeaPRISM). The goal is to evaluate the standard VIIRS ocean color products produced by the IDPS and available through NOAA’s CLASS data system. Comparisons are made with MODIS data for the same location, and VIIRS data processed using the NRL Automated Processing System (APS) used to produce operational products for the Navy. Results are shown for the first year of VIIRS data matching the satellite data with the data from Platform Eureka SeaPRISM off L. A. Harbor in the Southern California Bight, and HyperPRO data from Station ALOHA near Hawaii. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. An inter-comparison of six latent and sensible heat flux products over the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejiang Yu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The latent heat fluxes (LHF and sensible heat fluxes (SHF over the Southern Ocean from six different data sets are inter-compared for the period 1988–2000. The six data sets include three satellite-based products, namely, the second version of the Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes data set (GSSTF-2, the third version of the Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS-3 and the Japanese Ocean Fluxes Data Sets with Use of Remote Sensing Observations (J-OFURO; two global reanalysis products, namely, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 data set (NCEP-2 and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 40 Year Re-analysis data set (ERA-40; and the Objectively Analyzed Air–Sea Fluxes for the Global Oceans data set (OAFlux. All these products reveal a similar pattern in the averaged flux fields. The zonal mean LHF fields all exhibit a continuous increase equatorward. With an exception of HOAPS-3, the zonal mean SHF fields display a minimum value near 50°S, increasing both pole- and equatorward. The differences in the standard deviation for LHF are larger among the six data products than the differences for SHF. Over the regions where the surface fluxes are significantly influenced by the Antarctic Oscillation and the Pacific–South American teleconnection, the values and distributions of both LHF and SHF are consistent among the six products. It was found that the spatial patterns of the standard deviations and trends of LHF and SHF can be explained primarily by sea–air specific humidity and temperature differences; wind speed plays a minor role.

  15. Ocean thermal plantships for production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, C.B.; Pandolfini, P. P.; Kumm, W. H.; Energy Systems; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Arctic Energies, Ltd.

    2009-12-02

    Conventional petroleum, natural gas, and coal are the primary sources of energy that have underpinned modern civilization. Their continued availability in the projected quantities required and the impacts of emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the environment are issues at the forefront of world concerns. New primary sources of energy are being sought that would significantly reduce the emissions of GHGs. One such primary source that can help supply energy, water, and fertilizer without GHG emissions is available in the heretofore unexploited thermal gradients of the tropical oceans. The world's oceans are the largest natural collector and reservoir of solar energy. The potential of ocean energy is limitless for producing base-load electric power or ammonia as the hydrogen carrier and fresh water from seawater. However, until now, ocean energy has been virtually untapped. The general perception is that ocean thermal energy is limited to tropical countries. Therefore, the full potential of at-sea production of (1) ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and (2) desalinated water has not been adequately evaluated. Using ocean thermal plantships for the at-sea co-production of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and desalinated water offer potential energy, environmental, and economic benefits that support the development of the technology. The introduction of a new widespread solution to our projected energy supply requires lead times of a decade or more. Although continuation of the ocean thermal program from the 1970s would likely have put us in a mitigating position in the early 2000s, we still have a window of opportunity to dedicate some of our conventional energy sources to the development of this renewable energy by the time new sources would be critically needed. The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the technical and economic viability of ocean thermal plantships for the production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier. This objective is achieved by

  16. Production of giant marine diatoms and their export at oceanic frontal zones: Implications for Si and C flux from stratified oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A. E. S.; Pearce, R. B.; Grigorov, I.; Rance, J.; Lange, C. B.; Quilty, P.; Salter, I.

    2006-12-01

    From a synthesis of recent oceanic observations and paleo-data it is evident that certain species of giant diatoms including Rhizosolenia spp. Thalassiothrix spp. and Ethmodiscus rex may become concentrated at oceanic frontal zones and subsequently form episodes of mass flux to the sediment. Within the nutrient bearing waters advecting towards frontal boundaries, these species are generally not dominant, but they appear selectively segregated at fronts, and thus may dominate the export flux. Ancient Thalassiothrix diatom mat deposits in the eastern equatorial Pacific and beneath the Polar Front in the Southern Ocean record the highest open ocean sedimentation rates ever documented and represent vast sinks of silica and carbon. Several of the species involved are adapted to a stratified water column and may thrive in Deep Chlorophyll Maxima. Thus in oceanic regions and/or at times prone to enhanced surface water stratification (e.g., during meltwater pulses) they provide a mechanism for generating substantial biomass at depth and its subsequent export with concomitant implications for Si export and C drawdown. This ecology has important implications for ocean biogeochemical models suggesting that more than one diatom "functional type" should be used. In spite of the importance of these giant diatoms for biogeochemical cycling, their large size coupled with the constraints of conventional oceanographic survey schemes and techniques means that they are undersampled. An improved insight into these key species will be an important prerequisite for enhancing our understanding of marine biogeochemical cycling and for assessing the impacts of climate change on ocean export production.

  17. Reduced prokaryotic heterotrophic production at in situ pressure conditions in the dark ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano-Sato, Chie; Sintes, Eva; Reinthaler, Thomas; Utsumi, Motoo; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2017-04-01

    Prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) is a key process in the ocean's biological carbon cycle. About 50% of the oceanic PHP takes place in the dark ocean characterized by low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure, which increases by 1 MPa (10 atm) every 100 m depth. However, rate measurements of PHP are usually performed under atmospheric pressure conditions. Yet, the difference in pressure conditions and the handling of the samples on board may introduce biases in the PHP measurements. To determine PHP at in situ conditions, we developed an in situ microbial incubator (ISMI) designed to autonomously sample and incubate seawater down to a depth of 4000 m. Natural prokaryotic communities from the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans were incubated in the ISMI with 5 nM 3H-leucine at different depths ranging between 10 and 3200 m. For comparison, atmospheric pressure incubations at in situ temperature were also conducted. PHP and single cell activity assessed by microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (MICRO-CARD-FISH) were determined. PHP obtained under in situ pressure conditions was generally lower than under atmospheric pressure conditions, suggesting that incubation under atmospheric pressure on board stimulates activity of dark ocean prokaryotes. The ratio between the bulk PHP obtained under in situ and under atmospheric pressure conditions decreased with depth. Moreover, MICRO-CARD-FISH revealed that some specific prokaryotic groups are apparently more affected by the hydrostatic pressure condition than others. Our results suggest that PHP in the dark ocean might be lower than assumed based on measurements under surface pressure conditions.

  18. Near Real Time Operational Satellite Ocean Color Products From NOAA OSPO CoastWatch Okeanos System:: Status and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banghua Yan, B.

    2016-02-01

    Near real-time (NRT) ocean color (OC) satellite operation products are generated and distributed in NOAA Okeanos Operational Product System, by using the CWAPS including the Multi-Sensor Level (MSL) 12 and the chlorophyll-a frontal algorithms. Current OC operational products include daily chlorophyll concentration (anomaly), water turbidity, remote sensing reflectance and chlorophyll frontal products from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua. The products have been widely applied to USA local and state ecosystem research, ecosystem observations, and fisheries managements for coastal and regional forecasting of ocean water quality, phytoplankton concentrations, and primary production. Users of the products have the National Ocean Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Weather Service, and Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. Recently, the OC products are being extended to S-NPP VIIRS to provide global NRT ocean color products to user community suh as National Weatrher Service for application for Global Data Assimilation System and Real-Time Ocean Forecast System. However, there remain some challenges in application of the products due to certain product quality and coverage issues. Recent efforts were made to provide a comprehensive web-based Quality Assurance (QA) tool for monitoring OC products quality in near real time mode, referring to http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/ocean/color_new/color.htm. The new QA monitoring tool includes but not limited to the following advanced features applicable for MODIS/Aqua and NPP/VIIRS OC products: 1) Monitoring product quality in NRT mode; 2) Monitoring the availability and quality of OC products with time; 3) Detecting anomalous OC products due to low valid pixels and other quality issues. As an example, potential application and challenges of the ocean color products to oceanic oil spill detection are investigated. It is thus expected that the Okeanos ocean color operational system in

  19. The simulated response of dimethylsulfide production in the Arctic Ocean to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabric, Albert J.; Qu, Bo; Matrai, Patricia; Hirst, Anthony C.

    2005-11-01

    Sulfate aerosols (of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin) play a key role in the Earth's radiation balance both directly through scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly by modifying cloud microphysical properties. However, the uncertainties associated with radiative forcing of climate due to aerosols substantially exceed those associated with the greenhouse gases. The major source of sulfate aerosols in the remote marine atmosphere is the biogenic compound dimethylsulfide (DMS), which is ubiquitous in the world's oceans and is synthesized by plankton. Climate models point to significant future changes in sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean due to warming. This will have consequences for primary production and the sea-to-air flux of a number of biogenic compounds, including DMS. In this paper we discuss the impact of warming on the future production of DMS in the Arctic Ocean. A DMS production model has been calibrated to current climate conditions with satellite ocean colour data (SeaWiFS) using a genetic algorithm, an efficient non-derivative based optimization technique. We use the CSIRO Mk 2 climate model to force the DMS model under enhanced greenhouse climate conditions. We discuss the simulated change in DMS flux and its consequences for future aerosol production and the radiative budget of the Arctic. Significant decreases in sea-ice cover (by 18.5% annually and 61% in summer autumn), increases in mean annual sea surface temperature of 1°C, and a decrease of mixed layer depth by 13% annually are predicted to result in annual DMS flux increases of over 80% by the time of equivalent CO2 tripling (2080). Estimates of the impact of this increase in DMS emissions suggest significant changes to summer aerosol concentrations and the radiative balance in the Arctic region.

  20. UV sensitivity of planktonic net community production in ocean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaudie-de-Gioux, Aurore; Agustí, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-05-01

    The net plankton community metabolism of oceanic surface waters is particularly important as it more directly affects the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters and thus the air-sea fluxes of CO2. Plankton communities in surface waters are exposed to high irradiance that includes significant ultraviolet blue (UVB, 280-315 nm) radiation. UVB radiation affects both photosynthetic and respiration rates, increase plankton mortality rates, and other metabolic and chemical processes. Here we test the sensitivity of net community production (NCP) to UVB of planktonic communities in surface waters across contrasting regions of the ocean. We observed here that UVB radiation affects net plankton community production at the ocean surface, imposing a shift in NCP by, on average, 50% relative to the values measured when excluding partly UVB. Our results show that under full solar radiation, the metabolic balance shows the prevalence of net heterotrophic community production. The demonstration of an important effect of UVB radiation on NCP in surface waters presented here is of particular relevance in relation to the increased UVB radiation derived from the erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Our results encourage design future research to further our understanding of UVB effects on the metabolic balance of plankton communities.

  1. Environmental variability and chum salmon production at the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suam; Kang, Sukyung; Kim, Ju Kyoung; Bang, Minkyoung

    2017-09-01

    Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, are distributed widely in the North Pacific Ocean, and about 76% of chum salmon were caught from Russian, Japanese, and Korean waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean during the last 20 years. Although it has been speculated that the recent increase in salmon production was aided by not only the enhancement program that targeted chum salmon but also by favorable ocean conditions since the early 1990s, the ecological processes for determining the yield of salmon have not been clearly delineated. To investigate the relationship between yield and the controlling factors for ocean survival of chum salmon, a time-series of climate indices, seawater temperature, and prey availability in the northwestern Pacific including Korean waters were analyzed using some statistical tools. The results of cross-correlation function (CCF) analysis and cumulative sum (CuSum) of anomalies indicated that there were significant environmental changes in the North Pacific during the last century, and each regional stock of chum salmon responded to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) differently: for Russian stock, the correlations between PDO index and catch were significantly negative with a time-lag of 0 and 1 years; for Japanese stock, significantly positive with a timelag of 0-2 years; and for Korean stock, positive but no significant correlation. The results of statistical analyses with Korean chum salmon also revealed that a coastal seawater temperature over 14°C and the return rate of spawning adults to the natal river produced a significant negative correlation.

  2. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices and policies. This paper discusses several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14% between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21st century food availability in some countries by disrupting moisture transports and bringing down dry air over crop growing areas. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced rainfall during the main growing season along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, this study presents an analysis of emerging

  3. Linking small-scale circulation dynamics with large-scale seasonal production (phytoplankton) in the Southern Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nicholson, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the seasonal and intra-seasonal (daily to weekly) changes of the upper ocean and the impact on the primary production in the Southern Ocean is key to better understanding the sensitivities of the global carbon cycle....

  4. Directional and Spectral Irradiance in Ocean Models: Effects on Simulated Global Phytoplankton, Nutrients, and Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of including directional and spectral light in simulations of ocean radiative transfer was investigated using a coupled biogeochemical-circulation-radiative model of the global oceans. The effort focused on phytoplankton abundances, nutrient concentrations and vertically-integrated net primary production. The importance was approached by sequentially removing directional (i.e., direct vs. diffuse) and spectral irradiance and comparing results of the above variables to a fully directionally and spectrally-resolved model. In each case the total irradiance was kept constant; it was only the pathways and spectral nature that were changed. Assuming all irradiance was diffuse had negligible effect on global ocean primary production. Global nitrate and total chlorophyll concentrations declined by about 20% each. The largest changes occurred in the tropics and sub-tropics rather than the high latitudes, where most of the irradiance is already diffuse. Disregarding spectral irradiance had effects that depended upon the choice of attenuation wavelength. The wavelength closest to the spectrally-resolved model, 500 nm, produced lower nitrate (19%) and chlorophyll (8%) and higher primary production (2%) than the spectral model. Phytoplankton relative abundances were very sensitive to the choice of non-spectral wavelength transmittance. The combined effects of neglecting both directional and spectral irradiance exacerbated the differences, despite using attenuation at 500 nm. Global nitrate decreased 33% and chlorophyll decreased 24%. Changes in phytoplankton community structure were considerable, representing a change from chlorophytes to cyanobacteria and coccolithophores. This suggested a shift in community function, from light-limitation to nutrient limitation: lower demands for nutrients from cyanobacteria and coccolithophores favored them over the more nutrient-demanding chlorophytes. Although diatoms have the highest nutrient demands in the model, their

  5. An Inter-calibrated Passive Microwave Brightness Temperature Data Record and Ocean Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, K. A.; Wentz, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Inter-calibration of passive microwave sensors has been the subject of on-going activity at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) since 1974. RSS has produced a brightness temperature TB data record that spans the last 28 years (1987-2014) from inter-calibrated passive microwave sensors on 14 satellites: AMSR-E, AMSR2, GMI, SSMI F08-F15, SSMIS F16-F18, TMI, WindSat. Accompanying the TB record are a suite of ocean products derived from the TBs that provide a 28-year record of wind speed, water vapor, cloud liquid, and rain rate; and 18 years (1997-2014) of sea surface temperatures, corresponding to the period for which 6 and/or 10 GHz measurements are available. Crucial to the inter-calibration and ocean product retrieval are a highly accurate radiative transfer model RTM. The RSS RTM has been continually refined for over 30 years and is arguably the most accurate model in the 1-100 GHz spectrum. The current generation of TB and ocean products, produced using the latest version of the RTM, is called Version-7. The accuracy of the Version-7 inter-calibration is estimated to be 0.1 K, based on inter-satellite comparisons and validation of the ocean products against in situ measurements. The data record produced by RSS has had a significant scientific impact. Over just the last 14 years (2000-2013) RSS data have been used in 743 peer-reviewed journal articles. This is an average of 4.5 peer-reviewed papers published every month made possible with RSS data. Some of the most important scientific contributions made by RSS data have been to the study of the climate. The AR5 Report "Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis" by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the internationally accepted authority on climate change, references 20 peer-reviewed journal papers from RSS scientists. The report makes direct use of RSS water vapor data, RSS atmospheric temperatures from MSU/AMSU, and 9 other datasets that are derived from RSS data. The RSS TB data record is

  6. Prediction of the Export and Fate of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The EXPORTS Science Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Siegel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth’s carbon cycle and the quantification of their impacts for both present conditions and for predictions into the future remains one of the greatest challenges in oceanography. The goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS Science Plan is to develop a predictive understanding of the export and fate of global ocean net primary production (NPP and its implications for present and future climates. The achievement of this goal requires a quantification of the mechanisms that control the export of carbon from the euphotic zone as well as its fate in the underlying twilight zone where some fraction of exported carbon will be sequestered in the ocean’s interior on time scales of months to millennia. Here we present a measurement / synthesis / modeling framework aimed at quantifying the fates of upper ocean NPP and its impacts on the global carbon cycle based upon the EXPORTS Science Plan. The proposed approach will diagnose relationships among the ecological, biogeochemical and physical oceanographic processes that control carbon cycling across a range of ecosystem and carbon cycling states leading to advances in satellite diagnostic and numerical prognostic models. To collect these data, a combination of ship and robotic field sampling, satellite remote sensing and numerical modeling is proposed which enables the sampling of the many pathways of NPP export and fates. This coordinated, process-oriented approach has the potential to foster new insights on ocean carbon cycling that maximizes its societal relevance through the achievement of research goals of many international research agencies and will be a key step towards our understanding of the Earth as an integrated system.

  7. Correlating Remotely-Sensed Ocean Productivity Variations to Volcanic Ash Deposition Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, J. A.; Gonzalez, P.; Delmelle, P.

    2008-12-01

    Similar to wet and dry atmospheric deposition of mineral dust, ash deposition from large volcanic eruptions has been hypothesized to release sufficient iron (Fe) to stimulate surface ocean primary production, providing a plausible link between intense volcanism and abrupt climate changes in the past. There is, however, very little information on the atmospheric deposition flux of volcanic ash or the subsequent seawater dissolution of ash associated Fe in the surface ocean, although a few recent laboratory studies have demonstrated that substantial amounts of macro- and micro-nutrients can be released from ash within 1-2 h. One way to test the idea that volcanic ash can naturally enrich the ocean acting as a source of micronutrients for marine organisms is by monitoring chlorophyll-a, an accepted proxy for phytoplankton concentration. Chlorophyll-a is accurately estimated from routinely-collected ocean color sensor imagery. Through the study of a readily-available MODIS data set, we carried out a systematic investigation of localized anomalous chlorophyll-a responses that could be correlated to recent volcanic ash deposition events. Previous works have shown that phytoplankton response to artificial and natural iron fertilization is most apparent in high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. The focus of this study is on the known HNLC region of the Northern Pacific Ocean which was the chosen site for earlier large-scale Fe fertilization experiments (SEEDS and SERIES), and is also conveniently near to Kamchatka, Japan, and Alaska volcanoes. MODIS images corresponding to periods before and after ash deposition for 25 eruptions were systematically investigated for chlorophyll response. Our findings thus far have not shown a reliably detectable effect in relation to ash deposition. We provide a discussion on the possible reasons for these findings.

  8. Pan-Arctic Distribution of Bioavailable Dissolved Organic Matter and Linkages With Productivity in Ocean Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Benner, Ronald; Kaiser, Karl; Fichot, Cédric G.; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2018-02-01

    Rapid environmental changes in the Arctic Ocean affect plankton productivity and the bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that supports microbial food webs. We report concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and yields of amino acids (indicators of labile DOM) in surface waters across major Arctic margins. Concentrations of DOC and bioavailability of DOM showed large pan-Arctic variability that corresponded to varying hydrological conditions and ecosystem productivity, respectively. Widespread hot spots of labile DOM were observed over productive inflow shelves (Chukchi and Barents Seas), in contrast to oligotrophic interior margins (Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, and Beaufort Seas). Amino acid yields in outflow gateways (Canadian Archipelago and Baffin Bay) indicated the prevalence of semilabile DOM in sea ice covered regions and sporadic production of labile DOM in ice-free waters. Comparing these observations with surface circulation patterns indicated varying shelf subsidies of bioavailable DOM to Arctic deep basins.

  9. Decadal Variations in Eastern Canada’s Taiga Wood Biomass Production Forced by Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Etienne Boucher; Antoine Nicault; Dominique Arseneault; Yves Bégin; Mehdi Pasha Karami

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we analyze an extensive network of black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.) ring width and wood density measurements and provide new evidence that wood biomass production is influenced by large-scale, internal ocean-atmosphere processes...

  10. Recent developments of the Mercator Océan ocean monitoring and forecasting system and corresponding product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowsky, E.; Drillet, Y.; Ferry, N.; Lellouche, J.-M.; Legalloudec, O.; Drevillon, M.; Chanut, J.; Elmoussaoui, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mercator Océan (the French ocean forecast service provider) was setup in France about 10 years ago by all the French organisations holding stakes in ocean forecasting. It has since then constantly developed and is currently operating operational ocean forecasting systems based on state-of-the-art Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM, we use the NEMO code) assimilating the observations of the Global Ocean Observing System (remote sensing + in situ). The mandate of Mercator Océan is to cover the global ocean at a resolution sufficient to both simulate the physics including the eddies (eddy resolving) and take the maximum benefit from the GOOS via data assimilation. To do so, Mercator Océan is strongly connected to the ocean modelling and data assimilation research communities, at French, European and international levels. Mercator Océan is engaged in the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European initiative and is currently coordinating a European consortium (>60 partners) gathering all the European skills in ocean monitoring and forecasting to build the Marine forecast component of the GMES service. This is done in the MyOcean EU funded project (project started in 2009). A follow on 2.5-year project has just started in April 2012. Within the MyOcean consortium, among other commitments, Mercator Océan is the operator of the global ocean forecasting system, and one of the providers of global ocean reanalysis products. We present here an update of the status of the Mercator Océan system. We describe the current system and its performances. We also present some improvements recently done with respect to downscaling from the global ocean to coastal regions, with respect to the inclusion of the biogeochemistry in addition to physics, and the related developments done within the NEMO OGCM.

  11. Geophysical Global Modeling for Extreme Crop Production Using Photosynthesis Models Coupled to Ocean SST Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, D.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change appears to have manifested itself along with abnormal meteorological disasters. Instability caused by drought and flood disasters is producing poor harvests because of poor photosynthesis and pollination. Fluctuations of extreme phenomena are increasing rapidly because amplitudes of change are much greater than average trends. A fundamental cause of these phenomena derives from increased stored energy inside ocean waters. Geophysical and biochemical modeling of crop production can elucidate complex mechanisms under seasonal climate anomalies. The models have progressed through their combination with global climate reanalysis, environmental satellite data, and harvest data on the ground. This study examined adaptation of crop production to advancing abnormal phenomena related to global climate change. Global environmental surface conditions, i.e., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. Basic streams of the concepts of modeling rely upon continental energy flow and carbon circulation among crop vegetation, land surface atmosphere combining energy advection from ocean surface anomalies. Global environmental surface conditions, e.g., vegetation, surface air temperature, and sea surface temperature observed by satellites, enable global modeling of crop production and monitoring. The method of validating the modeling relies upon carbon partitioning in biomass and grains through carbon flow by photosynthesis using carbon dioxide unit in photosynthesis. Results of computations done for this study show global distributions of actual evaporation, stomata opening, and photosynthesis, presenting mechanisms related to advection effects from SST anomalies in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans on global and continental croplands. For North America, climate effects appear clearly in severe atmospheric phenomena, which have caused drought and forest fires

  12. Interpolate with DIVA and view the products in OceanBrowser : what's up ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watelet, Sylvain; Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Troupin, Charles

    2017-04-01

    The Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) software is a statistical tool designed to reconstruct a continuous field from discrete measurements. This method is based on the numerical implementation of the Variational Inverse Model (VIM), which consists of a minimization of a cost function, allowing the choice of the analyzed field fitting at best the data sets without presenting unrealistic strong variations. The problem is solved efficiently using a finite-element method. This method, equivalent to the Optimal Interpolation, is particularly suited to deal with irregularly-spaced observations and produces outputs on a regular grid (2D, 3D or 4D). The results are stored in NetCDF files, the most widespread format in the earth sciences community. OceanBrowser is a web-service that allows one to visualize gridded fields on-line. Within the SeaDataNet and EMODNET (Chemical lot) projects, several national ocean data centers have created gridded climatologies of different ocean properties using the data analysis software DIVA. In order to give a common viewing service to those interpolated products, the GHER has developed OceanBrowser which is based on open standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), in particular Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS). These standards define a protocol for describing, requesting and querying two-dimensional maps at a given depth and time. DIVA and OceanBrowser are both softwares tools which are continuously upgraded and distributed for free through frequent version releases. The development is funded by the EMODnet and SeaDataNet projects and include many discussions and feedback from the users community. Here, we present two recent major upgrades. First, we have implemented a "customization" of DIVA analyses following the sea bottom, using the bottom depth gradient as a new source of information. The weaker the slope of the bottom ocean, the higher the correlation length. This correlation length being

  13. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Database 2009 (2 disc set) (NCEI Accession 0094887)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Database 2009 (WOD09) is a collection of scientifically quality-controlled ocean profile and plankton data that includes measurements of temperature,...

  14. Controls on 231Pa/230Th in the Indian Ocean: Circulation or Productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A. L.; Henderson, G. M.; McCave, N.

    2004-12-01

    (231Paxs/230Thxs)0 ratios in marine sediments are a potential proxy of palaeoproductivity and/or past ocean circulation. Studies in the Atlantic have demonstrated the particular potential of this proxy to assess the rate of past circulation AƒAøAøâ_sA¬Aøâ,¬Å" an important environmental variable which is otherwise difficult to reconstruct {[1, 2]}. In this study, we present new water-column and sediment data from the western Indian Ocean to improve understanding of the controls on (231Paxs/230Thxs)0 and test the use of this proxy. The Indian Ocean differs from the Atlantic because deep waters forming in the Southern Ocean and transported into the basin have high rather than low Pa and Th concentrations [3]. The ability to reconstruct past rates of flow into the Indian Ocean would be a powerful new use of Pa/Th, but no data presently exist to test this application. Water samples (10 litre), surface sediments, and a 5.5m Kasten core were collected on the Charles Darwin cruise CD154 from the area East of Madagascar. The down-core record, from10°S extends to 150 ka, and is coupled with a stable isotope stratigraphy and a sortable silt record. Water and sediment samples were analysed for isotopes of Pa, Th and U on a Nu Instruments MC-ICP-MS. The water-column dataset (26 samples) indicate that Pa concentrations are high in NADW transported into the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic, while opal scavenging has lowered Pa concentrations in deeper water masses. Sedimentary 230Th data indicate that there has been significant sediment focusing and that sediment mass fluxes are low. Preliminary sedimentary Pa/Th data show little relation to the sortable silt record. Ongoing Pa/Th and Ba data will complete this downcore record and allow comparison of a Pa/Th record with independent proxies of current speed and productivity in the same core. [1] E.F. Yu, et al, Nature 379, 689-694, 1996. [2] J.F. McManus, et al, Nature 428, 834-837, 2004. [3] M. M. Rutgers van der Loeff

  15. Meltwater Induced Changes in Micronutrient Availability and Productivity in the Southern Ocean During LGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, T.; Robinson, R. S.; Ariztegui, D.; Wilkinson, K. J.

    2008-12-01

    The Southern Ocean plays an important role in the CO2 air-sea balance and have regulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations over glacial-interglacial cycles. Increased productivity resulting from higher nutrient deposition over Antarctica could have contributed to lower the atmospheric CO2 content during ice ages. Although Fe-fertilization has been observed in waters of present Southern Ocean, there is still a lack of convincing evidence for such events in the past. Nutrients supply and consumption were reconstructed by analyzing the Zn incorporated in diatom frustules and diatom-bound δ 15N from sedimentary core RC13-259 from the Antarctic sector of the South Atlantic (54°S, 5°W). These data evidence for the first time a greater availability of westerlies-driven micronutrients to phytoplankton during the LGM. These changes in concert with higher nitrate consumption are resulting from massive meltwater discharge to the Southern Ocean. The widespread presence of meltwaters and free-drifting icebergs may have stimulated nutrient drawdown contributing in turn to the sequestration of CO2 during glacial times.

  16. Impact of Icebergs on Net Primary Productivity in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang-Ye; Hou, Shugui

    2017-04-01

    Productivity in the Southern Ocean (SO) is iron-limited, and supply of iron dissolved from aeolian dust is believed to be the main source from outside the marine environment. However, recent studies show that icebergs could provide comparable amount of bioavailable iron to the SO as aeolian dust. In addition, small scale areal studies suggest increased concentrations of chlorophyll, krill, and seabirds surrounding icebergs. Based on previous research, this study aims to examine whether iceberg occurrence has a significant impact on marine productivity at the scale of the SO, using remote sensing data of iceberg occurrences and ocean net primary productivity (NPP) covering the period 2002-2014. The impacts of both large and small icebergs are examined in four major ecological zones of the SO: the continental shelf zone (CSZ), the seasonal ice zone (SIZ), the permanent open ocean zone (POOZ) and the polar front zone (PFZ). We found that both large and small icebergs have an observable positive impact on NPP, but their impacts vary in different zones. Small icebergs on average increase NPP in most iron deficient zones: by 21% for the SIZ, 16% for the POOZ, and 12% for the PFZ, but have relatively small effect in the CSZ where iron is supplied from melt water and sediment input from the continent. Large icebergs on average increase the NPP by about 10%. Their impacts are stronger at higher latitudes, where they are more concentrated. From 1992-2014, there is a significant increasing trend for both small and large icebergs. The increase was most rapid in the early 2000s, and has levelled off since then. As the climate continues to warm, the Antarctic Ice Sheet is expected to experience increased mass loss as a whole, which could lead to more icebergs in the region. Based on our study, this could result in higher level of NPP in the SO as a whole, providing a negative feedback for global warming.

  17. Quantifying melt production and degassing rate at mid-ocean ridges from global mantle convection models with plate motion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Black, Benjamin; Zhong, Shijie; Manga, Michael; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Olson, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The Earth's surface volcanism exerts first-order controls on the composition of the atmosphere and the climate. On Earth, the majority of surface volcanism occurs at mid-ocean ridges. In this study, based on the dependence of melt fraction on temperature, pressure, and composition, we compute melt production and degassing rate at mid-ocean ridges from three-dimensional global mantle convection models with plate motion history as the surface velocity boundary condition. By incorporating melting in global mantle convection models, we connect deep mantle convection to surface volcanism, with deep and shallow mantle processes internally consistent. We compare two methods to compute melt production: a tracer method and an Eulerian method. Our results show that melt production at mid-ocean ridges is mainly controlled by surface plate motion history, and that changes in plate tectonic motion, including plate reorganizations, may lead to significant deviation of melt production from the expected scaling with seafloor production rate. We also find a good correlation between melt production and degassing rate beneath mid-ocean ridges. The calculated global melt production and CO2 degassing rate at mid-ocean ridges varies by as much as a factor of 3 over the past 200 Myr. We show that mid-ocean ridge melt production and degassing rate would be much larger in the Cretaceous, and reached maximum values at ˜150-120 Ma. Our results raise the possibility that warmer climate in the Cretaceous could be due in part to high magmatic productivity and correspondingly high outgassing rates at mid-ocean ridges during that time.

  18. Overview and preliminary results of the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Law

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the relationship between marine boundary layer (MBL aerosols and surface water biogeochemistry is required to understand aerosol and cloud production processes over the remote ocean and represent them more accurately in earth system models and global climate projections. This was addressed by the SOAP (Surface Ocean Aerosol Production campaign, which examined air–sea interaction over biologically productive frontal waters east of New Zealand. This overview details the objectives, regional context, sampling strategy and provisional findings of a pilot study, PreSOAP, in austral summer 2011 and the following SOAP voyage in late austral summer 2012. Both voyages characterized surface water and MBL composition in three phytoplankton blooms of differing species composition and biogeochemistry, with significant regional correlation observed between chlorophyll a and DMSsw. Surface seawater dimethylsulfide (DMSsw and associated air–sea DMS flux showed spatial variation during the SOAP voyage, with maxima of 25 nmol L−1 and 100 µmol m−2 d−1, respectively, recorded in a dinoflagellate bloom. Inclusion of SOAP data in a regional DMSsw compilation indicates that the current climatological mean is an underestimate for this region of the southwest Pacific. Estimation of the DMS gas transfer velocity (kDMS by independent techniques of eddy covariance and gradient flux showed good agreement, although both exhibited periodic deviations from model estimates. Flux anomalies were related to surface warming and sea surface microlayer enrichment and also reflected the heterogeneous distribution of DMSsw and the associated flux footprint. Other aerosol precursors measured included the halides and various volatile organic carbon compounds, with first measurements of the short-lived gases glyoxal and methylglyoxal in pristine Southern Ocean marine air indicating an unidentified local source. The application of a real-time clean sector

  19. 2015 NOAA Ortho-rectified Below Mean High Water Color Mosaic of Ports of Houston, Texas City, and Galveston, Texas: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  20. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean Low Low Water Near-Infrared Mosaic of Puget Sound - Whidbey Island, Washington: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  1. 2015 NOAA Ortho-rectified Below Mean High Water Color Mosaic of Ports of Gulfport, Biloxi and Pascagoula, Mississippi: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  2. 2012 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of South Carolina: Northeast Point to Murphy Island, Mean Lower Low Water Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  3. 2012 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of California: Port Hueneme to Seal Rock, Mean Lower Low Water Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  4. 2013 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean High Water Near-Infrared Mosaic of Cape Lookout, North Carolina: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  5. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean Low Low Water Near-Infrared Mosaic of Puget Sound - Everett to Spring Beach, Washington: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  6. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean Low Low Water Near-Infrared Mosaic of Cape Lookout, North Carolina: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  7. 2015 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Ortho-rectified Below Mean High Water Color Mosaic of Jacksonville, Florida: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  8. 2013 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean Low Low Water Near-Infrared Mosaic of Santa Rosa Island, Florida: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  9. NOAA Coral Reef Watch 25km Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) for January 1988 to the present covering the Greater Caribbean Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  10. PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY - PHYTOPLANKTON, CHLOROPHYLL A CONCENTRATION, and others in Arctic Ocean from 1959-08-03 to 2011-10-21 (NCEI Accession 0161176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Arctic Ocean net primary productivity (NPP) was assembled for 1959-2011 from existing databases and recent polar research cruises. At each NPP station, if available,...

  11. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1988-01-01 to 2012-01-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  12. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean Low Low Water Color Mosaic of Dewees Island to Bulls Bay (ICW), South Carolina: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  13. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean High Water Near-Infrared Mosaic of Dewees Island to Bulls Bay (ICW), South Carolina: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  14. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean High Water Color Mosaic of Dewees Island to Bulls Bay (ICW), South Carolina: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  15. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean High Water Color Mosaic of The Channel Islands, California: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  16. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean High Water Near-Infrared Mosaic of The Channel Islands, California: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  17. Evaluation of Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment Products on South Florida Nested Simulations with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing simula- tions and prediction with GODAE global and basin-scale models have fulfilled the main GODAE objectives of developing state-of-the- art ...discussions and Viva Benzon (UM/RSMAS Satellite Group) for preparing the composite ocean color image. References Beardsley RC, Butman B (1974

  18. Isotopic evidence for biogenic molecular hydrogen production in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sylvia; Kock, Annette; Steinhoff, Tobias; Fiedler, Björn; Fietzek, Peer; Kaiser, Jan; Krol, Maarten; Popa, Elena; Chen, Qianjie; Tanhua, Toste; Röckmann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2) to the atmosphere. The production of marine H2 is assumed to be mainly biological by N2 fixation, but photochemical pathways are also discussed. We present measurements of mole fraction and isotopic composition of dissolved and atmospheric H2 from the southern and northern Atlantic between 2008 and 2010. In total almost 400 samples were taken during five cruises along a transect between Punta Arenas (Chile) and Bremerhaven (Germany), as well as at the coast of Mauritania. The isotopic source signatures of dissolved H2 extracted from surface water are highly deuterium-depleted and correlate negatively with temperature, showing δD values of (-629±54) ‰ for water temperatures at (27±3) ˚ C and (-249±88) ‰ below (19±1) ˚ C. The results for warmer water masses are consistent with biological production of H2. This is the first time that marine H2 excess has been directly attributed to biological production by isotope measurements. However, the isotope values obtained in the colder water masses indicate that beside possible biological production a significant different source should be considered. The atmospheric measurements show distinct differences between both hemispheres as well as between seasons. Results from the global chemistry transport model TM5 reproduce the measured H2 mole fractions and isotopic composition well. The climatological global oceanic emissions from the GEMS database are in line with our data and previously published flux calculations. The good agreement between measurements and model results demonstrates that both the magnitude and the isotopic signature of the main components of the marine H2 cycle are in general adequately represented in current atmospheric models despite a proposed source different from biological production or a substantial underestimation of nitrogen fixation by several authors.

  19. Meteorite impacts on ancient oceans opened up multiple NH3 production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Nakano, Aiichiro; Tanaka, Shigenori

    2017-05-10

    A recent series of shock experiments by Nakazawa et al. starting in 2005 (e.g. [Nakazawa et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2005, 235, 356]) suggested that meteorite impacts on ancient oceans would have yielded a considerable amount of NH3 to the early Earth from atmospheric N2 and oceanic H2O through reduction by meteoritic iron. To clarify the mechanisms, we imitated the impact events by performing multi-scale shock technique-based ab initio molecular dynamics in the framework of density functional theory in combination with multi-scale shock technique (MSST) simulations. Our previous simulations with impact energies close to that of the experiments revealed picosecond-order rapid NH3 production during shock compression [Shimamura et al., Sci. Rep., 2016, 6, 38952]. It was also shown that the reduction of N2 took place with an associative mechanism as seen in the catalysis of nitrogenase enzymes. In this study, we performed an MSST-AIMD simulation to investigate the production by meteorite impacts with higher energies, which are closer to the expected values on the early Earth. It was found that the amount of NH3 produced further increased. We also found that the increased NH3 production is due to the emergence of multiple reaction mechanisms at increased impact energies. We elucidated that the reduction of N2 was not only attributed to the associative mechanism but also to a dissociative mechanism as seen in the Haber-Bosch process and to a mechanism through a hydrazinium ion. The emergence of these multiple production mechanisms capable of providing a large amount of NH3 would support the suggestions from recent experiments much more strongly than was previously believed, i.e., shock-induced NH3 production played a key role in the origin of life on Earth.

  20. Gradients in microbial methanol uptake: productive coastal upwelling waters to oligotrophic gyres in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Joanna L; Sargeant, Stephanie; Nightingale, Philip D; Colin Murrell, J

    2013-01-01

    Methanol biogeochemistry and its importance as a carbon source in seawater is relatively unexplored. We report the first microbial methanol carbon assimilation rates (k) in productive coastal upwelling waters of up to 0.117±0.002 d−1 (∼10 nmol l−1 d−1). On average, coastal upwelling waters were 11 times greater than open ocean northern temperate (NT) waters, eight times greater than gyre waters and four times greater than equatorial upwelling (EU) waters; suggesting that all upwelling waters upon reaching the surface (⩽20 m), contain a microbial population that uses a relatively high amount of carbon (0.3–10 nmol l−1 d−1), derived from methanol, to support their growth. In open ocean Atlantic regions, microbial uptake of methanol into biomass was significantly lower, ranging between 0.04–0.68 nmol l−1 d−1. Microbes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling used up to 57% of the total methanol for assimilation of the carbon into cells, compared with an average of 12% in the EU, and 1% in NT and gyre waters. Several methylotrophic bacterial species were identified from open ocean Atlantic waters using PCR amplification of mxaF encoding methanol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in bacterial methanol oxidation. These included Methylophaga sp., Burkholderiales sp., Methylococcaceae sp., Ancylobacter aquaticus, Paracoccus denitrificans, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Methylobacterium oryzae, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Methylosulfonomonas methylovora. Statistically significant correlations for upwelling waters between methanol uptake into cells and both chlorophyll a concentrations and methanol oxidation rates suggest that remotely sensed chlorophyll a images, in these productive areas, could be used to derive total methanol biological loss rates, a useful tool for atmospheric and marine climatically active gas modellers, and air–sea exchange scientists. PMID:23178665

  1. Yangtze River floods enhance coastal ocean phytoplankton biomass and potential fish production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gwo-Ching; Liu, Kon-Kee; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Hsiung, Tung-Ming; Chang, Jeng; Chen, Chung-Chi; Hung, Chin-Chang; Chou, Wen-Chen; Chung, Chih-Ching; Chen, Hung-Yu; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Tsai, An-Yi; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Tseng, Chun-Mao; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lee, Hung-Jen; Lee, Ming-An; Lin, I.-I.; Tsai, Fujung

    2011-07-01

    The occurrence of extreme weather conditions appears on the rise under current climate change conditions, resulting in more frequent and severe floods. The devastating floods in southern China in 2010 and eastern Australia 2010-2011, serve as a solemn testimony to that notion. Accompanying the excess runoffs, elevated amount of terrigenous materials, including nutrients for microalgae, are discharged to the coastal ocean. However, how these floods and the materials they carry affect the coastal ocean ecosystem is still poorly understood. Yangtze River (aka Changjiang), which is the largest river in the Eurasian continent, flows eastward and empties into the East China Sea. Since the early twentieth century, serious overflows of the Changjiang have occurred four times. During the two most recent ones in July 1998 and 2010, we found total primary production in the East China Sea reaching 147 × 103 tons carbon per day, which may support fisheries catch as high as 410 × 103 tons per month, about triple the amount during non-flooding periods based on direct field oceanographic observations. As the frequencies of floods increase world wide as a result of climate change, the flood-induced biological production could be a silver lining to the hydrological hazards and human and property losses inflicted by excessive precipitations.

  2. CALIBRATION/VALIDATION OF LANDSAT-DERIVED OCEAN COLOUR PRODUCTS IN BOSTON HARBOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pahlevan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Landsat data archive provides a unique opportunity to investigate the long-term evolution of coastal ecosystems at fine spatial scales that cannot be resolved by ocean colour (OC satellite sensors. Recognizing Landsat’s limitations in applications over coastal waters, we have launched a series of field campaigns in Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay (MA, USA to validate OC products derived from Landsat-8. We will provide a preliminary demonstration on the calibration/validation of the existing OC algorithms (atmospheric correction and in-water optical properties to enhance monitoring efforts in Boston Harbor. To do so, Landsat optical images were first compared against ocean colour products over high-latitude regions. The in situ cruise data, including optical data (remote sensing reflectance and water samples were analyzed to obtain insights into the optical and biogeochemical properties of near-surface waters. Along with the cruise data, three buoys were deployed in three locations across the Harbor to complement our database of concentrations of chlorophyll a, total suspended solids (TSS, and absorption of colour dissolved organic matter (CDOM. The data collected during the first year of the project are used to develop and/or tune OC algorithms. The data will be combined with historic field data to map in-water constituents back to the early 1990’s. This paper presents preliminary analysis of some of the data collected under Landsat-8 overpasses.

  3. Possible impacts of zooplankton grazing on dimethylsulfide production in the Antarctic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasamatsu, N. [Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tokyo (Japan); Kawaguchi, S. [National Research Inst. of Far Seas Fisheries, Shimizu (Japan); Watanabe, S. [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka (Japan); Odate, T.; Fukuchi, M. [Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Tokyo (Japan); National Inst. of Polar Research, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is the most abundant form of volatile sulfur in the ocean and may act as a climate regulatory mechanism. This study examined the influence of macrozooplankton grazing on DMS and dissolved dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in the Antarctic Ocean in January and February 2002. The shipboard incubation experiment involved Antarctic krill and salps which both fed on phytoplankton during the experiments. The concentration of DMSP and DMS increased in the water during incubation with krill. The DMSP and DMS production rate was linearly associated with the ingestion rate of krill. The addition of salps to the surface water did not change the concentrations of DMSP and DMS. The fecal waste of krill contained broken phytoplankton cells but the salps contained unbroken cells. This suggests that the production of DMS and DMSP is most likely due to sloppy feeding by krill and not the direct ingestion of phytoplankton cells by salps. From January to February, the upper 200 metres of the water column had a lower DMS concentration due to changes in the composition of the macrozooplankton community. 34 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Seabird diversity hotspot linked to ocean productivity in the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecian, W James; Witt, Matthew J; Attrill, Martin J; Bearhop, Stuart; Becker, Peter H; Egevang, Carsten; Furness, Robert W; Godley, Brendan J; González-Solís, Jacob; Grémillet, David; Kopp, Matthias; Lescroël, Amélie; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Patrick, Samantha C; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Phillips, Richard A; Stenhouse, Iain J; Votier, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    Upwelling regions are highly productive habitats targeted by wide-ranging marine predators and industrial fisheries. In this study, we track the migratory movements of eight seabird species from across the Atlantic; quantify overlap with the Canary Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) and determine the habitat characteristics that drive this association. Our results indicate the CCLME is a biodiversity hotspot for migratory seabirds; all tracked species and more than 70% of individuals used this upwelling region. Relative species richness peaked in areas where sea surface temperature averaged between 15 and 20°C, and correlated positively with chlorophyll a, revealing the optimum conditions driving bottom-up trophic effects for seabirds. Marine vertebrates are not confined by international boundaries, making conservation challenging. However, by linking diversity to ocean productivity, our research reveals the significance of the CCLME for seabird populations from across the Atlantic, making it a priority for conservation action. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Combined effects of iron and copper from atmospheric dry deposition on ocean productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. J.; Chen, Y.; Guo, Z. G.; Gao, H. W.; Mackey, K. R.; Yao, X. H.; Zhuang, G. S.; Paytan, A.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition can provide nutrients and potential toxicants to marine ecosystem, hence affecting ocean net primary productivity (NPP). Nonetheless, the interactive effects of mixed aerosol components on phytoplankton have rarely been reported. Here we explored the combined effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on NPP over the East China Sea. In aerosol addition mesocosm experiments, phytoplankton growth was suppressed under high aerosol Cu but was increased when high Cu was accompanied by high Fe in aerosols. A time series of soluble aerosol Fe and Cu deposition was obtained and compared to regional chlorophyll a (Chl a) abundances from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Aqua. Strong positive correlations were observed between the dry flux ratios of soluble Fe/Cu and Chl a abundances in the large offshore area, whereas these variables were uncoupled in coastal regions where riverine input and upwelling dominated the biogeochemistry. Current work provides insight into the complex linkage between atmospheric deposition and marine productivity.

  6. Ocean Productivity May Predict Recruitment of the Rainbow Wrasse (Coris julis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Brice; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Santos, Ricardo S.; Prakya, Shree R.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting recruitment fluctuations of fish populations remains the Holy Grail of fisheries science. While previous work has linked recruitment of reef fish to environmental variables including temperature, the demonstration of a robust relationship with productivity remains elusive. Despite decades of research, empirical evidence to support this critical link remains limited. Here we identify a consistent and strong relationship between recruitment of a temperate wrasse Coris julis, from temperate reefs in the mid-Atlantic region, with Chlorophyll, over contrasting scales, across multiple years. Additionally, we find that the correlation between Chlorophyll and recruitment is not simply masking a temperature-recruitment relationship. Understanding the potential mechanisms underlying recruitment variability, particularly as it relates to changing climate and ocean regimes, is a critical first step towards characterizing species’ vulnerability to mismatches between pulsed planktonic production and early pelagic life stages. PMID:27824889

  7. Drivers of trophic amplification of ocean productivity trends in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C. A.; Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.

    2014-07-01

    Pronounced projected 21st century trends in regional oceanic net primary production (NPP) raise the prospect of significant redistributions of marine resources. Recent results further suggest that NPP changes may be amplified at higher trophic levels. Here, we elucidate the role of planktonic food web dynamics in driving projected changes in mesozooplankton production (MESOZP) found to be, on average, twice as large as projected changes in NPP by the latter half of the 21st century under a high emissions scenario. Globally, MESOZP was projected to decline by 7.9% but regional MESOZP changes sometimes exceeded 50%. Changes in three planktonic food web properties - zooplankton growth efficiency (ZGE), the trophic level of mesozooplankton (MESOTL), and the fraction of NPP consumed by zooplankton (zooplankton-phytoplankton coupling, ZPC), were demonstrated to be responsible for the projected amplification. Zooplankton growth efficiencies (ZGE) changed with NPP, amplifying both NPP increases and decreases. Negative amplification (i.e., exacerbation) of projected subtropical NPP declines via this mechanism was particularly strong since consumers in the subtropics already have limited surplus energy above basal metabolic costs. Increased mesozooplankton trophic level (MESOTL) resulted from projected declines in large phytoplankton production, the primary target of herbivorous mesozooplankton. This further amplified negative subtropical NPP declines but was secondary to ZGE and, at higher latitudes, was often offset by increased ZPC. Marked ZPC increases were projected for high latitude regions experiencing shoaling of deep winter mixing or decreased winter sea ice - both tending to increase winter zooplankton biomass and enhance grazer control of spring blooms. Increased ZPC amplified projected NPP increases associated with declining sea ice in the Artic and damped projected NPP declines associated with decreased mixing in the Northwest Atlantic and Southern Ocean

  8. Multi-laboratory assessment of reproducibility, qualitative and quantitative performance of SWATH-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ben C; Hunter, Christie L; Liu, Yansheng; Schilling, Birgit; Rosenberger, George; Bader, Samuel L; Chan, Daniel W; Gibson, Bradford W; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Held, Jason M; Hirayama-Kurogi, Mio; Hou, Guixue; Krisp, Christoph; Larsen, Brett; Lin, Liang; Liu, Siqi; Molloy, Mark P; Moritz, Robert L; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Schlapbach, Ralph; Selevsek, Nathalie; Thomas, Stefani N; Tzeng, Shin-Cheng; Zhang, Hui; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2017-08-21

    Quantitative proteomics employing mass spectrometry is an indispensable tool in life science research. Targeted proteomics has emerged as a powerful approach for reproducible quantification but is limited in the number of proteins quantified. SWATH-mass spectrometry consists of data-independent acquisition and a targeted data analysis strategy that aims to maintain the favorable quantitative characteristics (accuracy, sensitivity, and selectivity) of targeted proteomics at large scale. While previous SWATH-mass spectrometry studies have shown high intra-lab reproducibility, this has not been evaluated between labs. In this multi-laboratory evaluation study including 11 sites worldwide, we demonstrate that using SWATH-mass spectrometry data acquisition we can consistently detect and reproducibly quantify >4000 proteins from HEK293 cells. Using synthetic peptide dilution series, we show that the sensitivity, dynamic range and reproducibility established with SWATH-mass spectrometry are uniformly achieved. This study demonstrates that the acquisition of reproducible quantitative proteomics data by multiple labs is achievable, and broadly serves to increase confidence in SWATH-mass spectrometry data acquisition as a reproducible method for large-scale protein quantification.SWATH-mass spectrometry consists of a data-independent acquisition and a targeted data analysis strategy that aims to maintain the favorable quantitative characteristics on the scale of thousands of proteins. Here, using data generated by eleven groups worldwide, the authors show that SWATH-MS is capable of generating highly reproducible data across different laboratories.

  9. The value of Operational Ocean SST and Current products in glider deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D.; Proctor, R.; Hollings, B.; Pattiaratchi, C.; Suthers, I.

    2009-04-01

    On November 26, 2008 a Slocum Glider was launched with the mission to explore near-shore processes off southern New South Wales, Australia, then return to the coast. This study contributed to regional activity of the Integrated Marine Observing System (www.imos.org.au), an AU100m 5-year project to establish an ocean and regional ocean observing system for Australia. The planned mission got into difficulties due to the strength of the East Australian Current and the glider began to track offshore and away from the region of interest. In order not to lose the glider to the ocean the mission was redefined to circumnavigate a warm-core eddy evident in satellite imagery. CSIRO routinely generates maps of sea surface temperature from satellite AVHRR imagery and geostrophic currents derived from sea surface height anomalies measured by satellite altimetry. By tracking the development of the SST and geostrophic circulation against the glider reported positions the satellite data helped to guide the glider into the eddy and thus continue the study, even though the satellite SST data quality was low during much of the deployment due to heavy cloud cover, and there being only two altimeters presently useful for estimating currents. The glider was successfully retrieved on December 11, 2008 40km off Jervis Bay after travelling 1002.84 km in 15 days, an average of 0.76m/s, or 1.5kt. This was achieved principally by drifting with the current, and using the glider's 0.25m/s horizontal glide velocity to go sideways with respect to the currents, to get into water thought to be going in the desired direction. The glider was saved and 2374 CTD casts produced giving a valuable dataset for understanding warm-core eddy processes, a dataset which would not have been obtained without the use of operational products.

  10. Mechanisms controlling export production at the LGM: Effects of changes in oceanic physical fields and atmospheric dust deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Akira; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Chikamoto, Megumi O.; Ide, Tomoyuki

    2011-06-01

    Using a biogeochemical ocean model that includes the iron cycle, we carry out preindustrial (control, CTL) and glacial (Last Glacial Maximum, LGM) climate simulations focusing on changes in export production (EP). The model successfully reproduces general trends of a paleoclimate reconstruction of EP at the LGM except over the Atlantic Ocean. By conducting a series of sensitivity simulations, we investigate the mechanism controlling EP at the LGM in each basin. In the Southern Ocean, the model successfully reproduces the dipole pattern of the paleoreconstruction: the higher-latitude decrease and lower-latitude increase of EP. It is found that the lower-latitude increase of EP comes from iron fertilization effects by enhanced dust deposition, while the higher-latitude decrease of EP is caused by the reduction of surface shortwave due to spreading of sea ice there. We also find that increased dust input in other basins remotely affects EP in the Southern Ocean. In the Pacific Ocean, the model suggests that iron fertilization effects are dominant in open ocean regions. In the Atlantic Ocean, the model simulates overall reduction of EP, whereas the paleoreconstruction suggests the increase in some regions. We propose that the Atlantic response is strongly affected by distribution of iron limitation in a control climate. In our CTL simulation, the biological production is limited not by iron but by phosphate in the Atlantic Ocean, which leads to the decrease of EP in spite of the significant increase of dust deposition there. It is implied that the accurate evaluation of iron limitation in the present ocean is critical for evaluating changes in EP and associated reduction of atmospheric CO2 concentration at the LGM.

  11. Patterns and trends of macrobenthic abundance, biomass and production in the deep Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Degen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the distribution and dynamics of macrobenthic communities of the deep Arctic Ocean. The few previous studies report low standing stocks and confirm a gradient with declining biomass from the slopes down to the basins, as commonly reported for deep-sea benthos. In this study, we investigated regional differences of faunal abundance and biomass, and made for the first time ever estimates of deep Arctic community production by using a multi-parameter artificial neural network model. The underlying data set combines data from recent field studies with published and unpublished data from the past 20 years, to analyse the influence of water depth, geographical latitude and sea-ice concentration on Arctic benthic communities. We were able to confirm the previously described negative relationship of macrofauna standing stock with water depth in the Arctic deep sea, while also detecting substantial regional differences. Furthermore, abundance, biomass and production decreased significantly with increasing sea-ice extent (towards higher latitudes down to values <200 ind m−2, <65 mg C m−2 and <73 mg C m−2 y−1, respectively. In contrast, stations under the seasonal ice zone regime showed much higher standing stock and production (up to 2500 mg C m−2 y−1, even at depths down to 3700 m. We conclude that particle flux is the key factor structuring benthic communities in the deep Arctic Ocean as it explains both the low values in the ice-covered Arctic basins and the higher values in the seasonal ice zone.

  12. Mapping of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea using KOMPSAT-5 wide swath SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H.; Kim, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used for mapping sea ice because it can observe Earth's surface regardless of sun altitudes and weather conditions. Korea Multi-Purpose SATellte-5 (KOMPSAT-5) is South Korea's first satellite equipped with X-band SAR system that provides high-resolution images in various observation modes. In this study, sea ice mapping model based on Random Forest (RF), a rule-based machine learning approach, was developed for KOMPSAT-5 Enhanced Wide (EW) swath SAR data obtained from August to September 2015 in the Chukchi Sea of the Arctic Ocean. All SAR images were acquired in HH-polarization at incidence angle ranging from 17 to 50°. Each SAR image covers the area of 100 km × 100 km. A total of 12 texture features derived from backscattering intensity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were used as input variables for sea ice mapping model. The sea ice mapping model based on the RF produced sea ice map with a grid size of 125 m, with the overall accuracy of 99.2% and the kappa coefficient of 98.5% in the classification of sea ice and open water. Sea ice concentration (SIC) was computed from the RF-derived sea ice maps and compared with that from the observations of two passive microwave sensors— the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2). SSMIS and AMSR2 estimates SIC using the NASA Team (NT) and Turbulence Interaction STudy (ARTIST) Sea Ice (ASI) algorithm, respectively. The SSMIS NT SIC was underestimated in marginal ice zone and compact ice zone, while they were overestimated in sea ice edge. Meanwhile, the AMSR2 ASI SIC was underestimated in compact ice zone and overestimated in other regions. This research was funded by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) under the project titled `SaTellite remote sensing on west Antarctic ocean Research (STAR) (PE16040)'.

  13. SWATH-MS Quantitative Proteomic Investigation Reveals a Role of Jasmonic Acid during Lead Response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Chan, Wai-Lung; Chen, Mo-Xian; Kong, Ricky P W; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Lo, Clive

    2016-10-07

    Lead (Pb) pollution is a growing environment problem that continuously threatens the productivity of crops. To understand the molecular mechanisms of plant adaptation to Pb toxicity, we examined proteome changes in Arabidopsis seedlings following Pb treatment by SWATH-MS, a label-free quantitative proteomic platform. We identified and quantified the expression of 1719 proteins in water- and Pb-treated plants. Among them, 231 proteins showed significant abundance changes (151 elevated and 80 reduced) upon Pb exposure. Functional categorization revealed that most of the Pb-responsive proteins are involved in different metabolic processes. For example, down-regulation of photosynthesis and biosynthesis of isoprenoids and tetrapyrroles in chloroplasts were observed. On the contrary, pathways leading to glutathione, jasmonic acid (JA), glucosinolate (GSL), and phenylpropanoid production are up-regulated. Experimental characterizations demonstrated a rapid elevation of endogenic JA production in Pb-treated Arabidopsis seedlings, while a JA-deficient mutant and a JA-insensitive mutant showed hypersensitivity to root inhibition by Pb, implicating an essential role of JA during Pb responses. Consistently, methyl jasmonate supplementation alleviated Pb toxicity in the wild-type and JA-deficient mutant. Furthermore, GSL levels were substantially enhanced following Pb treatment, while such induction was not detected in the JA mutant, suggesting that the Pb-induced GSL accumulation is JA-dependent. Overall, our work represents the first SWATH-MS analysis in Arabidopsis and highlights a potential mediating role of JA during Pb stress.

  14. Control of primary production in the Arctic by nutrients and light: insights from a high resolution ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the Arctic Basin was generally considered to be a low productivity area and was afforded little attention in global- or even basin-scale ecosystem modelling studies. Due to anthropogenic climate change however, the sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean is undergoing an unexpectedly fast retreat, exposing increasingly large areas of the basin to sunlight. As indicated by existing Arctic phenomena such as ice-edge blooms, this decline in sea-ice is liable to encourage pronounced growth of phytoplankton in summer and poses pressing questions concerning the future of Arctic ecosystems. It thus provides a strong impetus to modelling of this region.

    The Arctic Ocean is an area where plankton productivity is heavily influenced by physical factors. As these factors are strongly responding to climate change, we analyse here the results from simulations of the 1/4° resolution global ocean NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean model coupled with the MEDUSA (Model for Ecosystem Dynamics, carbon Utilisation, Sequestration and Acidification biogeochemical model, with a particular focus on the Arctic basin. Simulated productivity is consistent with the limited observations for the Arctic, with significant production occurring both under the sea-ice and at the thermocline, locations that are difficult to sample in the field.

    Results also indicate that a substantial fraction of the variability in Arctic primary production can be explained by two key physical factors: (i the maximum penetration of winter mixing, which determines the amount of nutrients available for summer primary production, and (ii short-wave radiation at the ocean surface, which controls the magnitude of phytoplankton blooms. A strong empirical correlation was found in the model output between primary production and these two factors, highlighting the importance of physical processes in the Arctic Ocean.

  15. Biological physical interactions and pelagic productivity at the Prince Edward Islands, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, R.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.; van Ballegooyen, R. C.

    2000-03-01

    The Prince Edward Islands lie in the subantarctic zone of the Southern Ocean, just north of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF). Recent investigations have shown enhanced primary productivity in its immediate environment due to an island effect. An extensive cruise, covering ≈10 5 km 2 around the island group was carried out to study this supposed island effect in a wider setting. We report here on the biological productivity relative to the physico-chemical environment during the period 7-19 April 1989. Overall, the chlorophyll- a (chl- a) values as well as primary productivity were substantially lower on this occasion than those observed previously. The distribution of terrigenous urea and ammonia clearly demarcated the geographical limits of the immediate island effect, which did not extend further than 80 km off-shore. The hydrography exhibited strong flow past the islands and a distinct wake downstream of the archipelago. Vortices associated with this wake showed some degree of spatial covariance with the distribution of chl- a. No region of enhanced primary productivity was observed between the islands, a conspicuous feature observed during previous cruises to the area.

  16. SEAKEEPING PERFORMANCE OF SEMI-SWATH IN FOLLOWING SEA USING CONTROLLED FINS STABILIZER

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimuddin

    2014-01-01

    Semi-SWATH ship design is a result of combining the good features of SWATH and Catamaran designs. However, the disadvantage of semi-SWATH is that she has low restoring force at bow that causes a tendency to bow-dive when running in following seas. In some critical conditions, the foredeck was found to be immersed underwater. One of the efforts to improve the ship???s performance is to install fin stabilizers at bow and stern. The fin stabilizers are used to compensate for the low restoring fo...

  17. Destriping algorithm for improved satellite-derived ocean color product imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikelsons, Karlis; Wang, Menghua; Jiang, Lide; Bouali, Marouan

    2014-11-17

    While modern multi-detector sensors offer a much improved image resolution and signal-to-noise ratio among other performance benefits, the multi-detector arrangement gives rise to striping in satellite imagery due to various sources, which cannot be perfectly corrected by sensor calibration. Recently, Bouali and Ignatov (2014) [J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31, 150-163 (2014)] introduced a new approach to remove relatively small detector performance-related striping from thermal infrared bands for improved sea surface temperature data. We show that this methodology, with appropriately chosen parameters and adjustments, can also be applied to remove striping of a much larger variance from the solar reflective band data. Specifically, we modify and apply this new approach to remove striping from satellite-derived normalized water-leaving radiance spectra nLw(λ) obtained from solar reflective bands. It is important that the destriping approach not be applied to the top-of-atmosphere radiances. The results show a significant improvement in image quality for both nLw(λ) spectra and nLw(λ)-derived ocean biological and biogeochemical products such as chlorophyll-a concentration, and the water diffuse attenuation coefficient at the wavelength of 490 nm Kd(490).

  18. Isotopic disequilibrium in Globigerina bulloides and carbon isotope response to productivity increase in Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, K.; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Mohan, K.; Anilkumar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides collected from tow samples along a transect from the equatorial Indian ocean to the Southern Ocean (45°E and 80°E and 10°N to 53°S) were analysed and compared with the equilibrium δ18O and δ13C values of calcite calculated using the temperature and isotopic composition of the water column. The results agree within ~0.25‰ for the region between 10°N and 40°S and 75–200 m water depth which is considered to be the habitat of Globigerina bulloides. Further south (from 40°S to 55°S), however, the measured δ18O and δ13C values are higher than the expected values by ~2‰ and ~1‰ respectively. These enrichments can be attributed to either a ‘vital effect’ or a higher calcification rate. An interesting pattern of increase in the δ13C(DIC) value of the surface water with latitude is observed between 35°S and~ 60°S, with a peak at~ 42°S. This can be caused by increased organic matter production and associated removal. A simple model accounting for the increase in the δ13C(DIC) values is proposed which fits well with the observed chlorophyll abundance as a function of latitude. PMID:26903274

  19. Bio-mining the microbial treasures of the ocean: new natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Johannes F; Labes, Antje; Wiese, Jutta

    2011-01-01

    The biological resources of the oceans have been exploited since ancient human history, mainly by catching fish and harvesting algae. Research on natural products with special emphasis on marine animals and also algae during the last decades of the 20th century has revealed the importance of marine organisms as producers of substances useful for the treatment of human diseases. Though a large number of bioactive substances have been identified, some many years ago, only recently the first drugs from the oceans were approved. Quite astonishingly, the immense diversity of microbes in the marine environments and their almost untouched capacity to produce natural products and therefore the importance of microbes for marine biotechnology was realized on a broad basis by the scientific communities only recently. This has strengthened worldwide research activities dealing with the exploration of marine microorganisms for biotechnological applications, which comprise the production of bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical use, as well as the development of other valuable products, such as enzymes, nutraceuticals and cosmetics. While the focus in these fields was mainly on marine bacteria, also marine fungi now receive growing attention. Although culture-dependent studies continue to provide interesting new chemical structures with biological activities at a high rate and represent highly promising approaches for the search of new drugs, exploration and use of genomic and metagenomic resources are considered to further increase this potential. Many efforts are made for the sustainable exploration of marine microbial resources. Large culture collections specifically of marine bacteria and marine fungi are available. Compound libraries of marine natural products, even of highly purified substances, were established. The expectations into the commercial exploitation of marine microbial resources has given rise to numerous institutions worldwide, basic research facilities as

  20. Towards a merged satellite and in situ fluorescence ocean chlorophyll product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, H.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Claustre, H.; Poteau, A.

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the ocean carbon cycle requires a precise assessment of phytoplankton biomass in the oceans. In terms of numbers of observations, satellite data represent the largest available data set. However, as they are limited to surface waters, they have to be merged with in situ observations. Amongst the in situ data, fluorescence profiles constitute the greatest data set available, because fluorometers have operated routinely on oceanographic cruises since the 1970s. Nevertheless, fluorescence is only a proxy of the total chlorophyll a concentration and a data calibration is required. Calibration issues are, however, sources of uncertainty, and they have prevented a systematic and wide range exploitation of the fluorescence data set. In particular, very few attempts to standardize the fluorescence databases have been made. Consequently, merged estimations with other data sources (e.g. satellite) are lacking. We propose a merging method to fill this gap. It consists firstly in adjusting the fluorescence profile to impose a zero chlorophyll a concentration at depth. Secondly, each point of the fluorescence profile is then multiplied by a correction coefficient, which forces the chlorophyll a integrated content measured on the fluorescence profile to be consistent with the concomitant ocean colour observation. The method is close to the approach proposed by Boss et al. (2008) to correct fluorescence data of a profiling float, although important differences do exist. To develop and test our approach, in situ data from three open ocean stations (BATS, HOT and DYFAMED) were used. Comparison of the so-called "satellite-corrected" fluorescence profiles with concomitant bottle-derived estimations of chlorophyll a concentration was performed to evaluate the final error (estimated at 31%). Comparison with the Boss et al. (2008) method, using a subset of the DYFAMED data set, demonstrated that the methods have similar accuracy. The method was applied to two different

  1. Estimates of oceanic mesozooplankton production: a comparison using the Bermuda and Hawaii time-series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, M. R.; Adolf, H. A.; Landry, M. R.; Madin, L. P.; Steinberg, D. K.; Zhang, X.

    Mesozooplankton growth rates were estimated for the Hawaiian (HOT) and Bermuda (BATS) ocean time-series stations using the empirical model of Hirst and Lampitt (Marine Biology 132 (1998) 247), which predicts copepod growth rate from temperature and body size. Using this approach we derived seasonal and annual estimates of mesozooplankton production as well as rates of mesozooplankton ingestion and egestion using assumed growth and assimilation efficiencies for the period 1994-1997. Annual mesozooplankton production estimates at HOT (average 0.79 mol C m -2 yr -1) were higher than production estimates at BATS (average 0.33 mol C m -2 yr -1) due to both higher mesozooplankton biomass and higher estimated mesozooplankton individual growth rates. Annual primary production at the two sites was similar (average 14.92 mol C m -2 yr -1 at HOT and 13.43 mol C m -2 yr -1 at BATS). Thus, mesozooplankton production was a greater fraction of primary production at HOT (0.05) as compared to BATS (0.02). Mesozooplankton potentially contributed more to the gravitational flux of carbon at HOT, where the ratio of the average annual estimate of mesozooplankton fecal pellet carbon production/annual estimate of carbon flux at the base of the euphotic zone was 1.03 compared to the same ratio of 0.39 at BATS. Mortality estimates were similar to estimates of mesozooplankton production when compared over the entire study period. The higher mesozooplankton biomass and derived rate parameters at HOT compared to BATS may be due to the more episodic nature of nutrient inputs at BATS, which could result in mis-matches between increases in phytoplankton production and the grazing/production response by mesozooplankton. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that there are periodic blooms of gelatinous macrozooplankton (salps) at BATS that may not be captured sufficiently by the monthly sampling program. Thus the gelatinous zooplankton would add to the overall grazing impact on the

  2. NODC Standard Product: Global ocean temperature and salinity profiles (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set of CD-ROMs contains global ocean temperature and salinity profiles derived from NODC archive data files. It includes oceanographic station (bottle) data,...

  3. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Atlas 1998 (7 disc set) (NODC Accession 0095184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Atlas 1998 (WOA98 and WOA98F) consists of 7 CD-ROMs: 3 discs contain objectively analyzed fields of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, derived...

  4. NODC Standard Product: World ocean atlas 2005 (4 disc set) (NODC Accession 0097967)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (1 disc) The WOA05 contains data files of objectively analyzed climatologies and related statistical fields of temperature, salinity,...

  5. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Database 1998 version 2 (5 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since the first release of WOD98, the staff of the Ocean Climate Laboratory have performed additional quality control on the database. Version 2.0 also includes...

  6. Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, K R N; Kline, D I; Diaz-Pulido, G; Dove, S; Hoegh-Guldberg, O

    2008-11-11

    Ocean acidification represents a key threat to coral reefs by reducing the calcification rate of framework builders. In addition, acidification is likely to affect the relationship between corals and their symbiotic dinoflagellates and the productivity of this association. However, little is known about how acidification impacts on the physiology of reef builders and how acidification interacts with warming. Here, we report on an 8-week study that compared bleaching, productivity, and calcification responses of crustose coralline algae (CCA) and branching (Acropora) and massive (Porites) coral species in response to acidification and warming. Using a 30-tank experimental system, we manipulated CO(2) levels to simulate doubling and three- to fourfold increases [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projection categories IV and VI] relative to present-day levels under cool and warm scenarios. Results indicated that high CO(2) is a bleaching agent for corals and CCA under high irradiance, acting synergistically with warming to lower thermal bleaching thresholds. We propose that CO(2) induces bleaching via its impact on photoprotective mechanisms of the photosystems. Overall, acidification impacted more strongly on bleaching and productivity than on calcification. Interestingly, the intermediate, warm CO(2) scenario led to a 30% increase in productivity in Acropora, whereas high CO(2) lead to zero productivity in both corals. CCA were most sensitive to acidification, with high CO(2) leading to negative productivity and high rates of net dissolution. Our findings suggest that sensitive reef-building species such as CCA may be pushed beyond their thresholds for growth and survival within the next few decades whereas corals will show delayed and mixed responses.

  7. Predicting global oceanic net primary productivity with reduced-dimension, linear dynamical spatiotemporal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.; Barton, A.; Stock, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Oceanic net primary production (NPP) accounts for roughly half of biological carbon fixation at the global scale, determining upper bounds for fisheries and export production. Assessing our ability to predict changes in NPP has thus major implications for the analysis of climate change impacts and for the management of living marine resources. Here, we fitted a series of reduced-dimension, linear dynamical spatiotemporal models to estimates of NPP derived from 18 years of remote sensing data and from simulations of a fully coupled, ocean-atmosphere Earth System Model (ESM). The method projects the evolution of NPP anomalies at the global scale from the time decay and interactions among a reduced set of major NPP modes of variability. This approach allowed us to assess potential limits to the predictability of NPP at the seasonal scale, and to assess the agreement in regional patterns of predictability based on remote sensing and ESM NPP estimates at large scales. The models are able to anticipate changes in NPP at lead times up to 24 months, especially in subtropical latitudes. Predictability was dominated by the decay of major modes at short time scales, with a prevalence of slow moving modes related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. This decay dominated short-term predictions in both remote sensing and ESM NPP, although the modes prevailed for a longer time in ESM simulations. The dominance of short time persistence declined gradually at longer lead times as interactions between modes became more important for predicting NPP changes. These interactions were related to the propagation of major climate modes. Our approach provides a novel set of diagnostics to assess the performance of ESMs, and allowed us to identify potential regions where the prediction of NPP might lead to an improved management of living marine resources.

  8. The impact of global warming on seasonality of ocean primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal cycle (i.e. phenology of oceanic primary production (PP is expected to change in response to climate warming. Here, we use output from 6 global biogeochemical models to examine the response in the seasonal amplitude of PP and timing of peak PP to the IPCC AR5 warming scenario. We also investigate whether trends in PP phenology may be more rapidly detectable than trends in annual mean PP. The seasonal amplitude of PP decreases by an average of 1–2% per year by 2100 in most biomes, with the exception of the Arctic which sees an increase of ~1% per year. This is accompanied by an advance in the timing of peak PP by ~0.5–1 months by 2100 over much of the globe, and particularly pronounced in the Arctic. These changes are driven by an increase in seasonal amplitude of sea surface temperature (where the maxima get hotter faster than the minima and a decrease in the seasonal amplitude of the mixed layer depth and surface nitrate concentration. Our results indicate a transformation of currently strongly seasonal (bloom forming regions, typically found at high latitudes, into weakly seasonal (non-bloom regions, characteristic of contemporary subtropical conditions. On average, 36 yr of data are needed to detect a climate-change-driven trend in the seasonal amplitude of PP, compared to 32 yr for mean annual PP. Monthly resolution model output is found to be inadequate for resolving phenological changes. We conclude that analysis of phytoplankton seasonality is not necessarily a shortcut to detecting climate change impacts on ocean productivity.

  9. GEOMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LIDAR DATA BASED ON SWATH OVERLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sampath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidelines on quantifying the relative horizontal and vertical errors observed between conjugate features in the overlapping regions of lidar data. The quantification of these errors is important because their presence quantifies the geometric quality of the data. A data set can be said to have good geometric quality if measurements of identical features, regardless of their position or orientation, yield identical results. Good geometric quality indicates that the data are produced using sensor models that are working as they are mathematically designed, and data acquisition processes are not introducing any unforeseen distortion in the data. High geometric quality also leads to high geolocation accuracy of the data when the data acquisition process includes coupling the sensor with geopositioning systems. Current specifications (e.g. Heidemann 2014 do not provide adequate means to quantitatively measure these errors, even though they are required to be reported. Current accuracy measurement and reporting practices followed in the industry and as recommended by data specification documents also potentially underestimate the inter-swath errors, including the presence of systematic errors in lidar data. Hence they pose a risk to the user in terms of data acceptance (i.e. a higher potential for Type II error indicating risk of accepting potentially unsuitable data. For example, if the overlap area is too small or if the sampled locations are close to the center of overlap, or if the errors are sampled in flat regions when there are residual pitch errors in the data, the resultant Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD can still be small. To avoid this, the following are suggested to be used as criteria for defining the inter-swath quality of data: a Median Discrepancy Angle b Mean and RMSD of Horizontal Errors using DQM measured on sloping surfaces c RMSD for sampled locations from flat areas (defined as areas with less than 5

  10. The rise of ocean giants: maximum body size in Cenozoic marine mammals as an indicator for productivity in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Vermeij, Geerat J

    2016-07-01

    Large consumers have ecological influence disproportionate to their abundance, although this influence in food webs depends directly on productivity. Evolutionary patterns at geologic timescales inform expectations about the relationship between consumers and productivity, but it is very difficult to track productivity through time with direct, quantitative measures. Based on previous work that used the maximum body size of Cenozoic marine invertebrate assemblages as a proxy for benthic productivity, we investigated how the maximum body size of Cenozoic marine mammals, in two feeding guilds, evolved over comparable temporal and geographical scales. First, maximal size in marine herbivores remains mostly stable and occupied by two different groups (desmostylians and sirenians) over separate timeframes in the North Pacific Ocean, while sirenians exclusively dominated this ecological mode in the North Atlantic. Second, mysticete whales, which are the largest Cenozoic consumers in the filter-feeding guild, remained in the same size range until a Mio-Pliocene onset of cetacean gigantism. Both vertebrate guilds achieved very large size only recently, suggesting that different trophic mechanisms promoting gigantism in the oceans have operated in the Cenozoic than in previous eras. © 2016 The Authors.

  11. Solar Irradiance Changes and Phytoplankton Productivity in Earth's Ocean Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Patrick J.; Thomas, Brian C.

    2016-04-01

    Two atmospheric responses to simulated astrophysical ionizing radiation events significant to life on Earth are production of odd-nitrogen species, especially NO2, and subsequent depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ozone depletion increases incident short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-315 nm) and longer (>600 nm) wavelengths of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). On the other hand, the NO2 haze decreases atmospheric transmission in the long-wavelength UVA (315-400 nm) and short-wavelength PAR. Here, we use the results of previous simulations of incident spectral irradiance following an ionizing radiation event to predict changes in terran productivity focusing on photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. The prediction is based on a spectral model of photosynthetic response, which was developed for the dominant genera in central regions of the ocean (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), and on remote-sensing-based observations of spectral water transparency, temperature, wind speed, and mixed layer depth. Predicted productivity declined after a simulated ionizing event, but the effect integrated over the water column was small. For integrations taking into account the full depth range of PAR transmission (down to 0.1% of utilizable PAR), the decrease was at most 2-3% (depending on strain), with larger effects (5-7%) for integrations just to the depth of the surface mixed layer. The deeper integrations were most affected by the decreased utilizable PAR at depth due to the NO2 haze, whereas shallower integrations were most affected by the increased surface UV. Several factors tended to dampen the magnitude of productivity responses relative to increases in surface-damaging radiation, for example, most inhibition in the modeled strains is caused by UVA and PAR, and the greatest relative increase in damaging exposure is predicted to occur in the winter when UV and productivity are low.

  12. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  13. Quantitative proteomics by SWATH-MS reveals sophisticated metabolic reprogramming in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yanyan; Wang, Xinzheng; Sang, Zhihong; Li, Zongcheng; Liu, Feng; Mao, Jie; Yan, Dan; Zhao, Yongqiang; Wang, Hongli; Li, Ping; Ying, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xuemin; He, Kun; Wang, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and understanding its molecular pathogenesis is pivotal to managing this disease. Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) is an optimal proteomic strategy to seek crucial proteins involved in HCC development and progression. In this study, a quantitative proteomic study of tumour and adjacent non-tumour liver tissues was performed using a SWATH-MS strategy. In total, 4,216 proteins wer...

  14. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperature and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate in Hurricanes Earl And Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; James, Mark; Roberts, Brent J.; Biswax, Sayak; Uhlhorn, Eric; Black, Peter; Linwood Jones, W.; Johnson, Jimmy; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem

    2012-01-01

    Ocean surface emission is affected by: a) Sea surface temperature. b) Wind speed (foam fraction). c) Salinity After production of calibrated Tb fields, geophysical fields wind speed and rain rate (or column) are retrieved. HIRAD utilizes NASA Instrument Incubator Technology: a) Provides unique observations of sea surface wind, temp and rain b) Advances understanding & prediction of hurricane intensity c) Expands Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer capabilities d) Uses synthetic thinned array and RFI mitigation technology of Lightweight Rain Radiometer (NASA Instrument Incubator) Passive Microwave C-Band Radiometer with Freq: 4, 5, 6 & 6.6 GHz: a) Version 1: H-pol for ocean wind speed, b) Version 2: dual ]pol for ocean wind vectors. Performance Characteristics: a) Earth Incidence angle: 0deg - 60deg, b) Spatial Resolution: 2-5 km, c) Swath: approx.70 km for 20 km altitude. Observational Goals: WS 10 - >85 m/s RR 5 - > 100 mm/hr.

  15. Global rates of mantle serpentinization and H2 production at oceanic transform faults in 3-D geodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüpke, Lars H.; Hasenclever, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have estimated that mantle serpentinization reactions generate H2 at a rate of 1010-1012 mol/yr along the global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. Here we present results of 3-D geodynamic simulations that predict rates of additional mantle serpentinization and H2 production at oceanic transform faults (OTF). We find that the extent and rate of mantle serpentinization increases with OTF length and is maximum at intermediate slip rates of 5 to 10 cm/yr. The additional global OTF-related production of H2 is found to be between 6.1 and 10.7 × 1011 mol/yr, which is comparable to the predicted background MOR rate of 4.1-15.0 × 1011 mol H2/yr. This points to oceanic transform faults as potential sites of intense fluid-rock interaction, where chemosynthetic life could be sustained by serpentinization reactions.

  16. Constraining calving front processes on W Greenland outlet glaciers using inertial-corrected laser scanning & swath-bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Hubbard, A.; Neale, M.; Woodward, J.; Box, J. E.; Nick, F.

    2010-12-01

    Calving and submarine melt account for the majority of loss from the Antarctic and over 50% of that from the Greenland Ice Sheet. These ice-ocean processes are highly efficient mass-loss mechanisms, providing a rapid link between terrestrial ice (storage) and the oceanic sink (sea level/freshwater flux) which renders the ocean-outlet-ice sheet system potentially highly non-linear. Despite this, the controls on tidewater processes are poorly understood and a process based description of them is lacking from the present generation of coupled ice sheet models. We present details from an innovative study where two survey techniques are integrated to enable the construction of accurate, ~m resolution 3d digital terrain models (DTMs) of the aerial and submarine ice front of calving outlet glaciers. A 2km range terrestrial laser scanner was combined with a 416KHz swath-interferometric system and corrected via an inertial motion unit stabilized by RTK GPS and gyro-compass data. The system was mounted aboard a heavy displacement (20,000kg) yacht in addition to a light displacement (100kg) semi-autonomous boat and used to image the aerial and submarine calving fronts of two large outlet glaciers in W Greenland. Six daily surveys, each 2.5km long were repeated across Lille Glacier during which significant ice flow, melt and calving events were observed and captured from on-ice GPS stations and time-lapse sequences. A curtain of CTD and velocity casts were also conducted to constrain the fresh and oceanic mass and energy fluxes within the fjord. The residual of successive DTMs yield the spatial pattern of frontal change enabling the processes of aerial and submarine calving and melt to be quantified and constrained in unprecedented detail. These observed frontal changes are tentatively related to local dynamic, atmospheric and oceanographic processes that drive them. A partial survey of Store Glacier (~7km calving front & W Greenland 2nd largest outlet after Jakobshavn Isbrae

  17. The Use of Variable Q1 Isolation Windows Improves Selectivity in LC-SWATH-MS Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Bilbao, Aivett; Bruderer, Tobias; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2015-10-02

    As tryptic peptides and metabolites are not equally distributed along the mass range, the probability of cross fragment ion interference is higher in certain windows when fixed Q1 SWATH windows are applied. We evaluated the benefits of utilizing variable Q1 SWATH windows with regards to selectivity improvement. Variable windows based on equalizing the distribution of either the precursor ion population (PIP) or the total ion current (TIC) within each window were generated by an in-house software, swathTUNER. These two variable Q1 SWATH window strategies outperformed, with respect to quantification and identification, the basic approach using a fixed window width (FIX) for proteomic profiling of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Thus, 13.8 and 8.4% additional peptide precursors, which resulted in 13.1 and 10.0% more proteins, were confidently identified by SWATH using the strategy PIP and TIC, respectively, in the MDDC proteomic sample. On the basis of the spectral library purity score, some improvement warranted by variable Q1 windows was also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the metabolomic profiling of human urine. We show that the novel concept of "scheduled SWATH" proposed here, which incorporates (i) variable isolation windows and (ii) precursor retention time segmentation further improves both peptide and metabolite identifications.

  18. Millennial-scale variability in dust deposition, marine export production, and nutrient consumption in the glacial subantarctic ocean (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, A.; Sigman, D. M.; Anderson, R. F.; Ren, H. A.; Hodell, D. A.; Straub, M.; Jaccard, S.; Eglinton, T. I.; Haug, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Based on the limitation of modern Southern Ocean phytoplankton by iron and the evidence of higher iron-bearing dust fluxes to the ocean during ice ages, it has been proposed that iron fertilization of Southern Ocean phytoplankton contributed to the reduction in atmospheric CO2 during ice ages. In the Subantarctic zone of the Atlantic Southern Ocean, glacial increases in dust flux and export production have been documented, supporting the iron fertilization hypothesis. However, these observations could be interpreted alternatively as resulting from the equatorward migration of Southern Ocean fronts during ice ages if the observed productivity rise was not accompanied by an increase in major nutrient consumption. Here, new 230Th-normalized lithogenic and opal fluxes are combined with high-resolution biomarker measurements to reconstruct millennial-scale changes in dust deposition and marine export production in the subantarctic Atlantic over the last glacial cycle. In the same record foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes are used to reconstruct ice age changes in surface nitrate utilization, providing a comprehensive test of the iron fertilization hypothesis. Elevation in foraminifera-bound δ15N, indicating more complete nitrate consumption, coincides with times of surface cooling and greater dust flux and export production. These observations indicate that the ice age Subantarctic was characterized by iron fertilized phytoplankton growth. The resulting strengthening of the Southern Ocean's biological pump can explain the ~40 ppm lowering of CO2 that characterizes the transitions from mid-climate states to full ice age conditions as well as the millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 fluctuations observed within the last ice age

  19. Underway Sampling of Marine Inherent Optical Properties on the Tara Oceans Expedition as a Novel Resource for Ocean Color Satellite Data Product Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Proctor, Christopher W.; Boss, Emmanuel; Leeuw, Thomas; Ouhssain, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    Developing and validating data records from operational ocean color satellite instruments requires substantial volumes of high quality in situ data. In the absence of broad, institutionally supported field programs, organizations such as the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group seek opportunistic datasets for use in their operational satellite calibration and validation activities. The publicly available, global biogeochemical dataset collected as part of the two and a half year Tara Oceans expedition provides one such opportunity. We showed how the inline measurements of hyperspectral absorption and attenuation coefficients collected onboard the R/V Tara can be used to evaluate near-surface estimates of chlorophyll-a, spectral particulate backscattering coefficients, particulate organic carbon, and particle size classes derived from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard Aqua (MODISA). The predominant strength of such flow-through measurements is their sampling rate-the 375 days of measurements resulted in 165 viable MODISA-to-in situ match-ups, compared to 13 from discrete water sampling. While the need to apply bio-optical models to estimate biogeochemical quantities of interest from spectroscopy remains a weakness, we demonstrated how discrete samples can be used in combination with flow-through measurements to create data records of sufficient quality to conduct first order evaluations of satellite-derived data products. Given an emerging agency desire to rapidly evaluate new satellite missions, our results have significant implications on how calibration and validation teams for these missions will be constructed.

  20. Western Pacific atmospheric nutrient deposition fluxes, their impact on surface ocean productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, M.; Hamilton, D.; Baker, A. R.; Jickells, T. D.; Bromley, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Quack, B.; Boyd, P. W.

    2014-07-01

    The atmospheric deposition of both macronutrients and micronutrients plays an important role in driving primary productivity, particularly in the low-latitude ocean. We report aerosol major ion measurements for five ship-based sampling campaigns in the western Pacific from ~25°N to 20°S and compare the results with those from Atlantic meridional transects (~50°N to 50°S) with aerosols collected and analyzed in the same laboratory, allowing full incomparability. We discuss sources of the main nutrient species (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe)) in the aerosols and their stoichiometry. Striking north-south gradients are evident over both basins with the Northern Hemisphere more impacted by terrestrial dust sources and anthropogenic emissions and the North Atlantic apparently more impacted than the North Pacific. We estimate the atmospheric supply rates of these nutrients and the potential impact of the atmospheric deposition on the tropical western Pacific. Our results suggest that the atmospheric deposition is P deficient relative to the needs of the resident phytoplankton. These findings suggest that atmospheric supply of N, Fe, and P increases primary productivity utilizing some of the residual excess phosphorus (P*) in the surface waters to compensate for aerosol P deficiency. Regional primary productivity is further enhanced via the stimulation of nitrogen fixation fuelled by the residual atmospheric iron and P*. Our stoichiometric calculations reveal that a P* of 0.1 µmol L-1 can offset the P deficiency in atmospheric supply for many months. This study suggests that atmospheric deposition may sustain ~10% of primary production in both the western tropical Pacific.

  1. Climatic and oceanic forcing of new, net, and diatom production in the North Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Jean-Eric; Gratton, Yves; Fauchot, Juliette; Price, Neil M.

    New, net, and diatom production in the North Water were estimated during May to July 1998 from in vitro measurements of nitrate uptake and mesoscale temporal changes in the inventories of nitrate, silicate, oxygen, and inorganic carbon (DIC). Sampling stations were divided into two domains according to the position of the dominant water types: the silicate-rich Arctic water (SRAW) and Baffin Bay Water (BBW). BBW dominated in the southeast and was associated with relatively shallow upper mixed layers (UMLs) and weak horizontal advection. A phytoplankton bloom started in late April in BBW and grew slowly over 7 weeks, during which time the build-up of particulate organic nitrogen and carbon accounted for ca. 80% of the nitrate and DIC deficit, respectively. Over half of the new production (1.37 g C m -2 d -1) during this period was attributed to wind-driven replenishment of nitrate in the euphotic zone. The bloom culminated when seasonally declining winds and rising temperatures severed the UML from the deep nutrient reservoir. The same change in weather induced ice melt, stratification, and bloom development in northern SRAW, which had previously been characterized by deep UMLs. Collectively, the results imply that the timing and magnitude of blooms in the North Water are controlled by a succession of oceanic and climatic forcings. New C production in the North Water during April to July (1.11 g C m -2 d -1) was an order of magnitude higher than in adjacent waters and up to 8 times higher than in the Northeast Water polynya. As much as 80% of this production was mediated by diatoms >5 μm, suggesting potentially high and efficient C transfer to the herbivorous food web and deep waters.

  2. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F13 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids 3-Day Average from DMSP F13 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  3. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F10 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids 3-Day Average from DMSP F10 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  4. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F11 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids 3-Day Average from DMSP F11 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  5. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F15 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids 3-Day Average from DMSP F15 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  6. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F14 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Ocean Product Grids 3-Day Average from DMSP F14 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  7. New sea surface salinity product in the tropical Indian Ocean estimated from outgoing longwave radiation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, B.; Murty, V.S.N.; O'Brien, J.J.

    rests uponthe authors, and notuponthe Marine Technology Society, the Institute ofElectrical and Electronics Engineers/Oceanic Engineering Society, orits members and HollandEnterprises dba HollandPublications. Copies of the OCEANS 2003 IEEE... including translations, are reserved bythe Marine Technology Society andthe Institute ofElectrical Electronics Engineers/Oceanic Engineering Society. Forcopying, reprint, orrepublications permission, write to Publications Manager, MTS 5565 Sterrett...

  8. Towards a merged satellite and in situ fluorescence ocean chlorophyll product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lavigne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the ocean carbon cycle requires a precise assessment of phytoplankton biomass in the oceans. In terms of numbers of observations, satellite data represent the largest available data set. However, as they are limited to surface waters, they have to be merged with in situ observations. Amongst the in situ data, fluorescence profiles constitute the greatest data set available, because fluorometers have operated routinely on oceanographic cruises since the 1970s. Nevertheless, fluorescence is only a proxy of the total chlorophyll a concentration and a data calibration is required. Calibration issues are, however, sources of uncertainty, and they have prevented a systematic and wide range exploitation of the fluorescence data set. In particular, very few attempts to standardize the fluorescence databases have been made. Consequently, merged estimations with other data sources (e.g. satellite are lacking.

    We propose a merging method to fill this gap. It consists firstly in adjusting the fluorescence profile to impose a zero chlorophyll a concentration at depth. Secondly, each point of the fluorescence profile is then multiplied by a correction coefficient, which forces the chlorophyll a integrated content measured on the fluorescence profile to be consistent with the concomitant ocean colour observation. The method is close to the approach proposed by Boss et al. (2008 to correct fluorescence data of a profiling float, although important differences do exist. To develop and test our approach, in situ data from three open ocean stations (BATS, HOT and DYFAMED were used. Comparison of the so-called "satellite-corrected" fluorescence profiles with concomitant bottle-derived estimations of chlorophyll a concentration was performed to evaluate the final error (estimated at 31%. Comparison with the Boss et al. (2008 method, using a subset of the DYFAMED data set, demonstrated that the methods have similar

  9. netCDF Operators for Rapid Analysis of Measured and Modeled Swath-like Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Swath-like data (hereafter SLD) are defined by non-rectangular and/or time-varying spatial grids in which one or more coordinates are multi-dimensional. It is often challenging and time-consuming to work with SLD, including all Level 2 satellite-retrieved data, non-rectangular subsets of Level 3 data, and model data on curvilinear grids. Researchers and data centers want user-friendly, fast, and powerful methods to specify, extract, serve, manipulate, and thus analyze, SLD. To meet these needs, large research-oriented agencies and modeling center such as NASA, DOE, and NOAA increasingly employ the netCDF Operators (NCO), an open-source scientific data analysis software package applicable to netCDF and HDF data. NCO includes extensive, fast, parallelized regridding features to facilitate analysis and intercomparison of SLD and model data. Remote sensing, weather and climate modeling and analysis communities face similar problems in handling SLD including how to easily: 1. Specify and mask irregular regions such as ocean basins and political boundaries in SLD (and rectangular) grids. 2. Bin, interpolate, average, or re-map SLD to regular grids. 3. Derive secondary data from given quality levels of SLD. These common tasks require a data extraction and analysis toolkit that is SLD-friendly and, like NCO, familiar in all these communities. With NCO users can 1. Quickly project SLD onto the most useful regular grids for intercomparison. 2. Access sophisticated statistical and regridding functions that are robust to missing data and allow easy specification of quality control metrics. These capabilities improve interoperability, software-reuse, and, because they apply to SLD, minimize transmission, storage, and handling of unwanted data. While SLD analysis still poses many challenges compared to regularly gridded, rectangular data, the custom analyses scripts SLD once required are now shorter, more powerful, and user-friendly.

  10. A major upgrade of the global Mercator Océan ocean monitoring and forecasting system and corresponding product quality improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowsky, Eric; Drillet, Yann; Legalloudec, Olivier; Lellouche, Jean Michel; Regnier, Charly

    2013-04-01

    Mercator Océan (the French ocean forecast service provider) was setup in France about 10 years ago by all the French organizations holding stakes in ocean forecasting. It has since then constantly developed and is currently operating operational ocean forecasting systems based on state-of-the-art Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM, we use the NEMO code) assimilating the observations of the Global Ocean Observing System (remote sensing + in situ). The mandate of Mercator Océan is to cover the global ocean at a resolution sufficient to both simulate the physics including the eddies (eddy resolving) and take the maximum benefit from the GOOS via data assimilation. To do so, Mercator Océan is strongly connected to the ocean modeling and data assimilation research communities, at French, European and international levels. Mercator Océan is engaged in the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European initiative and is currently coordinating a European consortium (~60 partners) gathering all the European skills in ocean monitoring and forecasting to build the Marine forecast component of the GMES service. This is currently done in the MyOcean II EU funded project (project started in 2012). Within the MyOcean consortium, among other commitments, Mercator Océan is the operator of the global ocean forecasting system, and one of the providers of global ocean reanalysis products. In this context (MyOcean V3 service), we have implemented a major upgrade of the systems operated at Mercator Océan ., including improvements in the model configurations, in data assimilation and product elaboration and serving. This concerns especially the global eddy resolving system (1/12° global) which is operational providing daily service. We focus our presentation on product quality, showing how these upgrades correspond to product improvements, and illustrating how the users are served with better quality products, thanks to this upgrade.

  11. Spaceborne Quantitative Assessment of Primary Production Variations in the Arctic Ocean Over the Previous Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakov, D.; Petrenko, D.

    2015-04-01

    Spaceborne one month averaged data, predominantly from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and partly from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), were used to investigate changes in primary production (PP) by phytoplankton in the Arctic Ocean from 1998 till 2010. Several PP retrieval algorithms were tested against the collected in situ data, and it was shown that the algorithm by Behrenfeld and Falkowski gave the best results (with the coefficient of correlation, r equal to 0.8 and 0.75, respectively, for the pelagic and shelf zones. Based on the performed test, the Behrenfeld and Falkowski algorithm was further applied for determining both the annual PP in the Arctic and the PP trend over the aforementioned time period. The results of our analysis indicate that PP in the Arctic has increased by ~ 15.9% over 13 years. This finding, as well as the absolute annual values of PP remotely quantified in the present study, is at odds with analogous numerical assessments by other workers. These disagreements are thought to be due to differences in the applied methodologies of satellite data processing, such as cloud masking and determination of phytoplankton concentration within (i) overcast areas, and (ii) areas of massive growth of coccolithophore algae, as well as (iii) in the shelf zone prone to a significant influence of land and river runoff. Hindcast (a decadal long) and forecast projections of PP variations are performed.

  12. Uncertainties in radiative transfer computations: consequences on the ocean color products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilligeard, Eric; Zagolski, Francis; Fischer, Juergen; Santer, Richard P.

    2003-05-01

    Operational MERIS (MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) level-2 processing uses auxiliary data generated by two radiative transfer tools. These two codes simulate upwelling radiances within a coupled 'Atmosphere-Ocean' system, using different approaches based on the matrix-operator method (MOMO) and the successive orders (SO) technique. Intervalidation of these two radiative transfer codes was performed in order to implement them in the MERIS level-2 processing. MOMO and SO simulations were then conducted on a set of representative test cases. Results stressed both for all test cases good agreements were observed. The scattering processes are retrieved within a few tenths of a percent. Nevertheless, some substantial discrepancies occurred if the polarization is not taken into account mainly in the Rayleigh scattering computations. A preliminary study indicates that the impact of the code inaccuracy in the water leaving radiances retrieval (a level-2 MERIS product) is large, up to 50% in relative difference. Applying the OC2 algorithm, the effect on the retrieval chlorophyll concentration is less than 10%.

  13. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sabine, C.L.; Hankin, S.; Koyuk, H.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Pfeil, B.; Olsen, A; Metzl, N; Kozyr, A; Fassbender, A; Manke, A; Malczyk, J.; Akl, J.; Alin, S.R.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Borges, A.; Boutin, J.; Brown, P.J.; Cai, W.-J.; Chavez, F.P.; Chen, A.; Cosca, C.; Feely, R.A.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.; Goyet, C.; Hardman-Mountford, N.; Heinze, C.; Hoppema, M.; Hunt, C.W.; Hydes, D.; Ishii, M.; Johannessen, T.; Key, R.M.; Kortzinger, A.; Landschutzer, P.; Lauvset, S.K.; Lefevre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lourantou, A.; Merlivat, L.; Midorikawa, T.; Mintrop, L.; Miyazaki, C.; Murata, A.; Nakadate, A.; Nakano, Y.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Omar, A.M.; Padin, X.A.; Park, G.-H.; Paterson, K.; Perez, F.F.; Pierrot, D.; Poisson, A.; Rios, A.F.; Salisbury, J.; Santana-Casiano, J.M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; et al.

    As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2...

  14. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Database 1998 version 1 (5 disc set) (NODC Accession 0095340)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database 1998 (WOD98) is comprised of five CD-ROMs containing profile and plankton/biomass data in compressed format. WOD98-01 through WOD98-04...

  15. Glacial-interglacial variations in marine phosphorus cycling: implications for ocean productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsandev, I.; Slomp, C.P.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2008-01-01

    Using a box model of organic carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) cycling in the global ocean, we assess the effects of changes in the continental supply of reactive P, oceanic mixing, and sea level on the marine P cycle on glacial-interglacial timescales. Our model results suggest that mixing is a

  16. Impacts of light shading and nutrient enrichment geo-engineering approaches on the productivity of a stratified, oligotrophic ocean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman-Mountford, Nick J; Polimene, Luca; Hirata, Takafumi; Brewin, Robert J W; Aiken, Jim

    2013-12-06

    Geo-engineering proposals to mitigate global warming have focused either on methods of carbon dioxide removal, particularly nutrient fertilization of plant growth, or on cooling the Earth's surface by reducing incoming solar radiation (shading). Marine phytoplankton contribute half the Earth's biological carbon fixation and carbon export in the ocean is modulated by the actions of microbes and grazing communities in recycling nutrients. Both nutrients and light are essential for photosynthesis, so understanding the relative influence of both these geo-engineering approaches on ocean ecosystem production and processes is critical to the evaluation of their effectiveness. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between light and nutrient availability on productivity in a stratified, oligotrophic subtropical ocean ecosystem using a one-dimensional water column model coupled to a multi-plankton ecosystem model, with the goal of elucidating potential impacts of these geo-engineering approaches on ecosystem production. We find that solar shading approaches can redistribute productivity in the water column but do not change total production. Macronutrient enrichment is able to enhance the export of carbon, although heterotrophic recycling reduces the efficiency of carbon export substantially over time. Our results highlight the requirement for a fuller consideration of marine ecosystem interactions and feedbacks, beyond simply the stimulation of surface blooms, in the evaluation of putative geo-engineering approaches.

  17. Approach for estimating the dynamic physical thresholds of phytoplankton production and biomass in the tropical-subtropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ocampo, E.; Gaxiola-Castro, G.; Durazo, Reginaldo

    2017-06-01

    Threshold is defined as the point where small changes in an environmental driver produce large responses in the ecosystem. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to estimate the thresholds and contribution of key dynamic physical variables in terms of phytoplankton production and variations in biomass in the tropical-subtropical Pacific Ocean off Mexico. The statistical approach used here showed that thresholds were shallower for primary production than for phytoplankton biomass (pycnocline Ekman pumping (ADT 0 cm d-1 versus ADT 4 cm d-1). The relatively high productivity on seasonal (spring) and interannual (La Niña 2008) scales was linked to low ADT (45-60 cm) and shallow pycnocline depth (9-68 m) and mixed layer (8-40 m). Statistical estimations from satellite data indicated that the contributions of ocean circulation to phytoplankton variability were 18% (for phytoplankton biomass) and 46% (for phytoplankton production). Although the statistical contribution of models constructed with in situ integrated chlorophyll a and primary production data was lower than the one obtained with satellite data (11%), the fits were better for the former, based on the residual distribution. The results reported here suggest that estimated thresholds may reliably explain the spatial-temporal variations of phytoplankton in the tropical-subtropical Pacific Ocean off the coast of Mexico.

  18. Effects of ocean acidification on primary production in a coastal North Sea phytoplankton community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Tim; Wohlrab, Sylke; Rost, Björn; John, Uwe; Bach, Lennart T; Riebesell, Ulf; Van de Waal, Dedmer B

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on a coastal North Sea plankton community in a long-term mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (BIOACID II long-term mesocosm study). From March to July 2013, 10 mesocosms of 19 m length with a volume of 47.5 to 55.9 m3 were deployed in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. CO2 concentrations were enriched in five mesocosms to reach average CO2 partial pressures (pCO2) of 760 μatm. The remaining five mesocosms were used as control at ambient pCO2 of 380 μatm. Our paper is part of a PLOS collection on this long-term mesocosm experiment. Here, we here tested the effect of OA on total primary production (PPT) by performing 14C-based bottle incubations for 24 h. Furthermore, photoacclimation was assessed by conducting 14C-based photosynthesis-irradiance response (P/I) curves. Changes in chlorophyll a concentrations over time were reflected in the development of PPT, and showed higher phytoplankton biomass build-up under OA. We observed two subsequent phytoplankton blooms in all mesocosms, with peaks in PPT around day 33 and day 56. OA had no significant effect on PPT, except for a marginal increase during the second phytoplankton bloom when inorganic nutrients were already depleted. Maximum light use efficiencies and light saturation indices calculated from the P/I curves changed simultaneously in all mesocosms, and suggest that OA did not alter phytoplankton photoacclimation. Despite large variability in time-integrated productivity estimates among replicates, our overall results indicate that coastal phytoplankton communities can be affected by OA at certain times of the seasonal succession with potential consequences for ecosystem functioning.

  19. Effects of ocean acidification on primary production in a coastal North Sea phytoplankton community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Eberlein

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of ocean acidification (OA on a coastal North Sea plankton community in a long-term mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (BIOACID II long-term mesocosm study. From March to July 2013, 10 mesocosms of 19 m length with a volume of 47.5 to 55.9 m3 were deployed in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. CO2 concentrations were enriched in five mesocosms to reach average CO2 partial pressures (pCO2 of 760 μatm. The remaining five mesocosms were used as control at ambient pCO2 of 380 μatm. Our paper is part of a PLOS collection on this long-term mesocosm experiment. Here, we here tested the effect of OA on total primary production (PPT by performing 14C-based bottle incubations for 24 h. Furthermore, photoacclimation was assessed by conducting 14C-based photosynthesis-irradiance response (P/I curves. Changes in chlorophyll a concentrations over time were reflected in the development of PPT, and showed higher phytoplankton biomass build-up under OA. We observed two subsequent phytoplankton blooms in all mesocosms, with peaks in PPT around day 33 and day 56. OA had no significant effect on PPT, except for a marginal increase during the second phytoplankton bloom when inorganic nutrients were already depleted. Maximum light use efficiencies and light saturation indices calculated from the P/I curves changed simultaneously in all mesocosms, and suggest that OA did not alter phytoplankton photoacclimation. Despite large variability in time-integrated productivity estimates among replicates, our overall results indicate that coastal phytoplankton communities can be affected by OA at certain times of the seasonal succession with potential consequences for ecosystem functioning.

  20. Relationships between meiofaunal biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production in different tropical habitats and oceanic regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pusceddu

    Full Text Available Tropical marine ecosystems are among the most diverse of the world oceans, so that assessing the linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem functions (BEF is a crucial step to predict consequences of biodiversity loss. Most BEF studies in marine ecosystems have been carried out on macrobenthic diversity, whereas the influence of the meiofauna on ecosystem functioning has received much less attention. We compared meiofaunal and nematode biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production across seagrass, mangrove and reef sediments in the Caribbean, Celebes and Red Seas. For all variables we report the presence of differences among habitats within the same region, and among regions within the same habitat. In all regions, the richness of meiofaunal taxa in reef and seagrass sediments is higher than in mangrove sediments. The sediments of the Celebes Sea show the highest meiofaunal biodiversity. The composition of meiofaunal assemblages varies significantly among habitats in the same region. The nematode beta diversity among habitats within the same region is higher than the beta diversity among regions. Although one site per habitat was considered in each region, these results suggest that the composition of meiofaunal assemblages varies primarily among biogeographic regions, whereas the composition of nematode assemblages varies more considerably among habitats. Meiofauna and nematode biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production, even after the removal of covariate effects linked with longitude and the quantity and nutritional quality of organic matter, are positively and linearly linked both across regions and within each habitat type. Our results confirm that meiofauna and nematode biodiversity may influence benthic prokaryotic activity, which, in turn, implies that diversity loss could have negative impacts on ecosystem functioning in these systems.

  1. Intensified hydrologic cycle and increased marine productivity during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helmond, N. A.; Sluijs, A.; Reichart, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Slomp, C. P.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-12-01

    The late Cretaceous (~94 Ma) Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) represents one of the most pronounced OAEs and ranks among the largest global carbon cycle perturbations in the Phanerozoic. An extended succession of strata spanning OAE2 and the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary, was recovered from the Bass River borehole, New Jersey (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 174AX). The OAE2 interval at this site, identified by biostratigraphy and a ~2.5‰ positive shift in the δ13C of organic carbon and foraminifer calcite, comprises a 15 m thick, dark gray laminated, fossiliferous silty clay section, deposited at relatively shallow paleodepth. We employed biomarker analyses and dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) micropaleontology to assess temperature, environmental, and ecosystem changes across the event. TEX86H sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions show a relatively rapid (~30kyr) 2.5°C pre-OAE2 warming starting from background values of ~34°C. During the onset of OAE2, SSTs remain stable at ~36,5°C. Two distinct cooling events are recorded within OAE2, of ~3°C and ~1°C. These cooling pulses were recorded previously and attributed to decreasing atmospheric CO2-levels as a result of enhanced global carbon burial. Towards the termination of OAE2 SSTs rose to ~37°C, while they gradually decrease towards pre-OAE2 values after the event. Pre-OAE2 dinocyst assemblages are dominated by typical open marine species (e.g. Spiniferites spp.). Dinocyst assemblages change during the onset of OAE2 and become dominated by Paleohystrichophora and Senegalinium, suggesting intensified continental run off, leading to water column stratification, and increased marine productivity. The runoff indicating species decrease in abundance during the two cooling events. Furthermore, the cooler episodes are marked by the influx of high latitude species (e.g. those belonging to the Cyclonephelium compactum-membraniphorum complex). Additionally, saccate gymnosperm pollen, presumably transported by wind

  2. Surface distribution of dissolved trace metals in the oligotrophic ocean and their influence on phytoplankton biomass and productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Pinedo-González, Paulina

    2015-10-25

    The distribution of bioactive trace metals has the potential to enhance or limit primary productivity and carbon export in some regions of the world ocean. To study these connections, the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V were determined for 110 surface water samples collected during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition (MCE). Total dissolved Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and V concentrations averaged 19.0 ± 5.4 pM, 21.4 ± 12 pM, 0.91 ± 0.4 nM, 0.66 ± 0.3 nM, 88.8 ± 12 nM, 1.72 ± 0.4 nM, and 23.4 ± 4.4 nM, respectively, with the lowest values detected in the Central Pacific and increased values at the extremes of all transects near coastal zones. Trace metal concentrations measured in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean during the MCE were compared to previously published data for the same region. The comparison revealed little temporal changes in the distribution of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni over the last 30 years. We utilized a multivariable linear regression model to describe potential relationships between primary productivity and the hydrological, biological, trace nutrient and macronutrient data collected during the MCE. Our statistical analysis shows that primary productivity in the Indian Ocean is best described by chlorophyll a, NO3, Ni, temperature, SiO4, and Cd. In the Atlantic Ocean, primary productivity is correlated with chlorophyll a, NO3, PO4, mixed layer depth, Co, Fe, Cd, Cu, V, and Mo. The variables salinity, temperature, SiO4, NO3, PO4, Fe, Cd, and V were found to best predict primary productivity in the Pacific Ocean. These results suggest that some of the lesser studied trace elements (e.g., Ni, V, Mo, and Cd) may play a more important role in regulating oceanic primary productivity than previously thought and point to the need for future experiments to verify their potential biological functions.

  3. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean - shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, M.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Moll, A.; Sein, D.

    2013-06-01

    Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one-fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of anthropogenic CO2 (carbon shelf pump). Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelves and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent northeast Atlantic. Using model climate projections we found that already a~moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of the biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 1990s, the reduction of biological production amounts is even larger. The relative decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%). The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption in the North Sea by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long-term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean's mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere. The predicted decline in biological productivity, and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (in the North Sea by averaged 25%) due to reduced nutrient imports from the deeper Atlantic

  4. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean – shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gröger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one-fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of anthropogenic CO2 (carbon shelf pump. Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelves and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent northeast Atlantic. Using model climate projections we found that already a~moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of the biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 1990s, the reduction of biological production amounts is even larger. The relative decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption in the North Sea by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long-term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean's mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere. The predicted decline in biological productivity, and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (in the North Sea by averaged 25% due to reduced nutrient imports from

  5. Cascading influence of inorganic nitrogen sources on DOM production, composition, lability and microbial community structure in the open ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S J; Nelson, C E; Viviani, D A; Shulse, C N; Church, M J

    2017-09-01

    Nitrogen frequently limits oceanic photosynthesis and the availability of inorganic nitrogen sources in the surface oceans is shifting with global change. We evaluated the potential for abrupt increases in inorganic N sources to induce cascading effects on dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microbial communities in the surface ocean. We collected water from 5 m depth in the central North Pacific and amended duplicate 20 liter polycarbonate carboys with nitrate or ammonium, tracking planktonic carbon fixation, DOM production, DOM composition and microbial community structure responses over 1 week relative to controls. Both nitrogen sources stimulated bulk phytoplankton, bacterial and DOM production and enriched Synechococcus and Flavobacteriaceae; ammonium enriched for oligotrophic Actinobacteria OM1 and Gammaproteobacteria KI89A clades while nitrate enriched Gammaproteobacteria SAR86, SAR92 and OM60 clades. DOM resulting from both N enrichments was more labile and stimulated growth of copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria (Alteromonadaceae and Oceanospirillaceae) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae and Hyphomonadaceae) in weeklong dark incubations relative to controls. Our study illustrates how nitrogen pulses may have direct and cascading effects on DOM composition and microbial community dynamics in the open ocean. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Shelf erosion and submarine river canyons: implications for deep-sea oxygenation and ocean productivity during glaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tsandev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The areal exposure of continental shelves during glacial sea level lowering enhanced the transfer of erodible reactive organic matter to the open ocean. Sea level fall also activated submarine canyons thereby allowing large rivers to deposit their particulate load, via gravity flows, directly in the deep-sea. Here, we analyze the effects of shelf erosion and particulate matter re-routing to the open ocean during interglacial to glacial transitions, using a coupled model of the marine phosphorus, organic carbon and oxygen cycles. The results indicate that shelf erosion and submarine canyon formation may significantly lower deep-sea oxygen levels, by up to 25%, during sea level low stands, mainly due to the supply of new material from the shelves, and to a lesser extent due to particulate organic matter bypassing the coastal zone. Our simulations imply that deep-sea oxygen levels can drop significantly if eroded shelf material is deposited to the seafloor. Thus the glacial ocean's oxygen content could have been significantly lower than during interglacial stages. Primary production, organic carbon burial and dissolved phosphorus inventories are all affected by the erosion and rerouting mechanisms. However, re-routing of the continental and eroded shelf material to the deep-sea has the effect of decoupling deep-sea oxygen demand from primary productivity in the open ocean. P burial is also not affected showing a disconnection between the biogeochemical cycles in the water column and the P burial record.

  7. Inter-Comparison between VIIRS and MODIS Radiances and Ocean Color Data Products over the Chesapeake Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Rong Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the October 2011 launch of the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite instrument, a number of inter-sensor comparisons between VIIRS and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer radiances have been reported. Most of these comparisons are between calibrated radiances and temperatures based on observations of the two sensors from simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO. Few comparisons between the retrieved ocean color data products, such as chlorophyll concentration, from VIIRS and MODIS data have been reported. Retrievals from measured data at large solar zenith angles and large view zenith angles are excluded from these comparison studies. In this paper, we report the inter-sensor comparisons between VIIRS and MODIS data acquired over the Chesapeake Bay and nearby areas with relatively large differences in sensor view angles. The goal for this study is to check the consistency between MODIS and VIIRS ocean color data products in order to merge the products from the two sensors. We compare total radiances (Lt at the top of atmosphere (TOA and the ocean color (OC data products derived with the automatic processing system (APS from both VIIRS and MODIS data. APS was developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center (NRL/SSC. We have found that, although there are large differences between the measured radiances (Lt of the two sensors when the sensor zenith angle differences are significant, the mean percent differences between the retrieved normalized water-leaving radiances are about 15%. The results show that the variation in satellite view zenith angles is not a main factor affecting the retrieval of ocean color data products, i.e., the atmospheric correction routine adequately removes the view-angle dependence.

  8. NODC Standard Product: Ocean current drifter data (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0098060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These CD-ROMs hold over 4 million surface current observations, almost all obtained by the ship drift method. Date, data source, position, and current direction and...

  9. Economic costs of ocean acidification: a look into the impact on shellfish production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narita, D.; Rehdanz, K.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a major global problem. Yet economic assessments of its effects are currently almost absent. Unlike most other marine organisms, mollusks, which have significant commercial value worldwide, have relatively solid scientific evidence of biological

  10. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low‐oxygen Proterozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donald A.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well‐preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane‐derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O 2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co‐occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low‐oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic

  11. A Holocene record of ocean productivity and upwelling from the northern California continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, J. A.; Barron, J. A.; Finney, B.; Kusler, J. E.; Bukry, D.; Heusser, L. E.; Alexander, C. R., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    The Holocene upwelling history of the northern California continental slope is examined using a 7-m-long marine sediment core (TN062-O550; 40.9°N, 124.6°W, 550 m water depth) collected offshore from Eureka, CA, that spans the last 7,400 calibrated years before present (cal yrs BP). A combination of biogenic sediment concentrations (opal, total organic C, and total N), stable isotopes (organic matter δ13C and bulk sedimentary δ15N), and key microfossil indicators of upwelling were used to test the hypothesis that marine productivity in the California Current System (CCS) driven by coastal upwelling has co-varied with global Holocene millennial-scale warm intervals. Results show biogenic sediment accumulation in TN062-O550 varied considerably during the Holocene, despite being located within 50 km of the mouth of the Eel River, one of the largest sources of terrigenous sediment to the Northeast Pacific Ocean margin. A key time interval beginning at 2900 cal yr BP indicates the onset of modern upwelling in the CCS, and that this period also corresponds to the most intense period of upwelling in the last 7,400 years. When these results are placed into a regional CCS context during the Holocene, it was found that the timing of upwelling intensification as recorded in TN062-O550 corresponds closely to that seen at nearby ODP Site 1019 as well as in the Santa Barbara Basin of southern California. Other CCS records with less high-quality age control show similar results, which suggest late Holocene upwelling intensification may be synchronous throughout the CCS. Based on the strong correspondence between the alkenone-derived sea surface temperature record at ODP Site 1019 and the onset of late Holocene upwelling in northern California, we tentatively suggest that regional CCS warming may be conducive to upwelling intensification in the future.

  12. A Holocene record of ocean productivity and upwelling from the northern California continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Jason A.; Barron, John A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Kusler, Jennifer E.; Bukry, David; Heusser, Linda E.; Alexander, Clark R.

    2017-01-01

    The Holocene upwelling history of the northern California continental slope is examined using the high-resolution record of TN062-O550 (40.9°N, 124.6°W, 550 m water depth). This 7-m-long marine sediment core spans the last ∼7500 years, and we use it to test the hypothesis that marine productivity in the California Current System (CCS) driven by coastal upwelling has co-varied with Holocene millennial-scale warm intervals. A combination of biogenic sediment concentrations (opal, total organic C, and total N), stable isotopes (organic matter δ13C and bulk sedimentary δ15N), and key microfossil indicators of upwelling were used to test this hypothesis. The record of biogenic accumulation in TN062-O550 shows considerable Holocene variability despite being located within 50 km of the mouth of the Eel River, which is one of the largest sources of terrigenous sediment to the Northeast Pacific Ocean margin. A key time interval beginning at ∼2900 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP) indicates the onset of modern upwelling in the CCS, and this period also corresponds to the most intense period of upwelling in the last 7500 years. When these results are placed into a regional CCS context during the Holocene, it was found that the timing of upwelling intensification at TN062-O550 corresponds closely to that seen at nearby ODP Site 1019, as well as in the Santa Barbara Basin of southern California. Other CCS records with less refined age control show similar results, which suggest late Holocene upwelling intensification may be synchronous throughout the CCS. Based on the strong correspondence between the alkenone sea surface temperature record at ODP Site 1019 and the onset of late Holocene upwelling in northern California, we suggest that CCS warming may be conducive to upwelling intensification, though future changes are unclear as the mechanisms forcing SST variability may differ.

  13. Net community production at Ocean Station Papa observed with nitrate and oxygen sensors on profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Joshua N.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Jannasch, Hans W.; Coletti, Luke J.; Riser, Stephen C.; Swift, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    Six profiling floats equipped with nitrate and oxygen sensors were deployed at Ocean Station P in the Gulf of Alaska. The resulting six calendar years and 10 float years of nitrate and oxygen data were used to determine an average annual cycle for net community production (NCP) in the top 35 m of the water column. NCP became positive in February as soon as the mixing activity in the surface layer began to weaken, but nearly 3 months before the traditionally defined mixed layer began to shoal from its winter time maximum. NCP displayed two maxima, one toward the end of May and another in August with a summertime minimum in June corresponding to the historical peak in mesozooplankton biomass. The average annual NCP was determined to be 1.5 ± 0.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 using nitrate and 1.5 ± 0.7 mol C m-2 yr-1 using oxygen. The results from oxygen data proved to be quite sensitive to the gas exchange model used as well as the accuracy of the oxygen measurement. Gas exchange models optimized for carbon dioxide flux generally ignore transport due to gas exchange through the injection of bubbles, and these models yield NCP values that are two to three time higher than the nitrate-based estimates. If nitrate and oxygen NCP rates are assumed to be related by the Redfield model, we show that the oxygen gas exchange model can be optimized by tuning the exchange terms to reproduce the nitrate NCP annual cycle.

  14. Primary productivity, phytoplankton standing crop and physico-chemical characteristics of the Antarctic and adjacent central Indian Ocean waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam, M.

    ), PP 0.55 mg C m sup(-3) h sup(-1)). Fairly higher values of standing crop and column production in the coastal ice-edge zone (av. 179.39 mg m sup(-3) and 15.8 mg m sup(-2) h sup(-1)) than that of Antarctic oceanic region (49.25 mg m sup(-3) and 1.92 mg...

  15. ARMOR3D: A 3D multi-observations T,S,U,V product of the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, Nathalie; Mulet, Sandrine; Guinehut, Stéphanie; Buongiorno-Nardelli, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    To have a synoptic view of the 3D ocean to pursue oceanic studies, an observed gridded product can be often useful instead of using raw observations which can be irregularly distributed in space and time as the in situ profiles for instance or which offer only a surface view of the ocean as satellite data. The originality of the ARMOR3D observation based product is to take advantage of the strengths of these 2 types of data by combining satellite SLA, SST, SSS datasets with in situ T, S vertical profiles in order to build a global 3D weekly temperature, salinity and geostrophic velocities fields at a spatial 1/4° resolution. The mesoscale content of the satellite data and the vertical sampling of the in situ profiles are complementary in this statistical approach. ARMOR3D is part of the CMEMS project through the GLO-OBS component. A full reprocessing from 1993 to 2016 and near-real-time fields from 1/1/2014 to present are available through the CMEMS web portal. The range of applications of this product is wide: OSE studies have been already conducted to evaluate the ARGO network and in 2017, OSE and OSSE will be performed in the western Tropical Pacific as part of the TPOS2020 project (Tropical Pacific Observing System for 2020 Pacific). The product is useful also to study mesoscale eddies characteristics as well as links with the biogeochemical processes. For example, in 2015, ARMOR3D fields have been used as inputs of a micronekton model within the framework of the ESA OSMOSIS Project. Furthermore, ARMOR3D also contributes to the annual CMEMS Ocean State Report.

  16. The influence of solar ultraviolet radiation on the photochemical production of H2O2 in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, LJA; Rijkenberg, MJA; Timmermans, KR; Buma, AGJ

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured in marine surface waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean between 25degreesN and 25degreesS. H2O2 concentrations decreased from 80 nM in the north to 20 nM in the south, in agreement with earlier observations. A diel cycle of H2O2 production as a function of

  17. An assessment of phytoplankton primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean from satellite ocean color/in situ chlorophyll‐a based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrai, Patricia A.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Saba, Vincent S.; Antoine, David; Ardyna, Mathieu; Asanuma, Ichio; Babin, Marcel; Bélanger, Simon; Benoît‐Gagné, Maxime; Devred, Emmanuel; Fernández‐Méndez, Mar; Gentili, Bernard; Hirawake, Toru; Kang, Sung‐Ho; Kameda, Takahiko; Katlein, Christian; Lee, Sang H.; Lee, Zhongping; Mélin, Frédéric; Scardi, Michele; Smyth, Tim J.; Tang, Shilin; Turpie, Kevin R.; Waters, Kirk J.; Westberry, Toby K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated 32 net primary productivity (NPP) models by assessing skills to reproduce integrated NPP in the Arctic Ocean. The models were provided with two sources each of surface chlorophyll‐a concentration (chlorophyll), photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), sea surface temperature (SST), and mixed‐layer depth (MLD). The models were most sensitive to uncertainties in surface chlorophyll, generally performing better with in situ chlorophyll than with satellite‐derived values. They were much less sensitive to uncertainties in PAR, SST, and MLD, possibly due to relatively narrow ranges of input data and/or relatively little difference between input data sources. Regardless of type or complexity, most of the models were not able to fully reproduce the variability of in situ NPP, whereas some of them exhibited almost no bias (i.e., reproduced the mean of in situ NPP). The models performed relatively well in low‐productivity seasons as well as in sea ice‐covered/deep‐water regions. Depth‐resolved models correlated more with in situ NPP than other model types, but had a greater tendency to overestimate mean NPP whereas absorption‐based models exhibited the lowest bias associated with weaker correlation. The models performed better when a subsurface chlorophyll‐a maximum (SCM) was absent. As a group, the models overestimated mean NPP, however this was partly offset by some models underestimating NPP when a SCM was present. Our study suggests that NPP models need to be carefully tuned for the Arctic Ocean because most of the models performing relatively well were those that used Arctic‐relevant parameters. PMID:27668139

  18. An assessment of phytoplankton primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean from satellite ocean color/in situ chlorophyll-a based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younjoo J; Matrai, Patricia A; Friedrichs, Marjorie A M; Saba, Vincent S; Antoine, David; Ardyna, Mathieu; Asanuma, Ichio; Babin, Marcel; Bélanger, Simon; Benoît-Gagné, Maxime; Devred, Emmanuel; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Gentili, Bernard; Hirawake, Toru; Kang, Sung-Ho; Kameda, Takahiko; Katlein, Christian; Lee, Sang H; Lee, Zhongping; Mélin, Frédéric; Scardi, Michele; Smyth, Tim J; Tang, Shilin; Turpie, Kevin R; Waters, Kirk J; Westberry, Toby K

    2015-09-01

    We investigated 32 net primary productivity (NPP) models by assessing skills to reproduce integrated NPP in the Arctic Ocean. The models were provided with two sources each of surface chlorophyll-a concentration (chlorophyll), photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), sea surface temperature (SST), and mixed-layer depth (MLD). The models were most sensitive to uncertainties in surface chlorophyll, generally performing better with in situ chlorophyll than with satellite-derived values. They were much less sensitive to uncertainties in PAR, SST, and MLD, possibly due to relatively narrow ranges of input data and/or relatively little difference between input data sources. Regardless of type or complexity, most of the models were not able to fully reproduce the variability of in situ NPP, whereas some of them exhibited almost no bias (i.e., reproduced the mean of in situ NPP). The models performed relatively well in low-productivity seasons as well as in sea ice-covered/deep-water regions. Depth-resolved models correlated more with in situ NPP than other model types, but had a greater tendency to overestimate mean NPP whereas absorption-based models exhibited the lowest bias associated with weaker correlation. The models performed better when a subsurface chlorophyll-a maximum (SCM) was absent. As a group, the models overestimated mean NPP, however this was partly offset by some models underestimating NPP when a SCM was present. Our study suggests that NPP models need to be carefully tuned for the Arctic Ocean because most of the models performing relatively well were those that used Arctic-relevant parameters.

  19. Radiometry from Bio-Argo Floats: a New Strategy to Validate Ocean Color Products at the Global Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organelli, E.; Claustre, H.; Serra, R.; Bricaud, A.; Schmechtig, C.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Poteau, A.; Mangin, A.; Leymarie, E.; Obolensky, G.; Prieur, L. M.; Dall'Olmo, G.; Xing, X.

    2016-02-01

    Thanks to a new generation of Bio-Argo floats equipped with sensors for PAR (Photosynthetically Available Irradiance) and downward irradiance measurements at selected wavelengths (i.e., 380, 412 and 490 nm), the number of radiometric measurements has been dramatically increasing and data are available for diverse open ocean systems, including winter periods with harsh seas when ships can hardly sample. More than 6500 radiometric profiles have so far been acquired around solar noon in the upper 250 m of the ocean. These radiometric profiles, acquired simultaneously to other key biogeochemical and bio-optical variables (chlorophyll a, CDOM, light backscattering), represent a fruitful data source for validation of Ocean Color (OC) products. Two different strategies can be implemented: direct validation of satellite OC products and identification of regions characterized by bio-optical anomalies. Diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd) derived from these profiles, after a specifically developed quality control, are used for these purposes.A good agreement is observed between satellite-derived Kd values at 490 nm and their Bio-Argo counterparts. However, satellite overestimates low in situ Kd values found in very clear waters (e.g., Atlantic and Pacific Sub-Tropical Gyres). The analysis of the spectral Kd variability in the surface ocean shows the potential of Bio-Argo floats in identifying those regions with optical properties departing from global bio-optical relationships. Divergences of the ratio between Kd values at 380 nm and those at 490 nm from global bio-optical models are observed in areas such as the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic in winter. This might cause difficulties in retrieving biogeochemical parameters from satellite data. Hence, delineation of "anomalous" regions by Bio-Argo floats represents a useful strategy for planning dedicated cruises, setting mooring buoys or using CAL/VAL floats in order to improve Ocean Color applications.

  20. Community production modulates coral reef pH and the sensitivity of ecosystem calcification to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Cohen, Anne L.; Wong, George T. F.; Shiah, Fuh-Kwo; Lentz, Steven J.; Davis, Kristen A.; Shamberger, Kathryn E. F.; Lohmann, Pat

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs are built of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced biogenically by a diversity of calcifying plants, animals, and microbes. As the ocean warms and acidifies, there is mounting concern that declining calcification rates could shift coral reef CaCO3 budgets from net accretion to net dissolution. We quantified net ecosystem calcification (NEC) and production (NEP) on Dongsha Atoll, northern South China Sea, over a 2 week period that included a transient bleaching event. Peak daytime pH on the wide, shallow reef flat during the nonbleaching period was ˜8.5, significantly elevated above that of the surrounding open ocean (˜8.0-8.1) as a consequence of daytime NEP (up to 112 mmol C m-2 h-1). Diurnal-averaged NEC was 390 ± 90 mmol CaCO3 m-2 d-1, higher than any other coral reef studied to date despite comparable calcifier cover (25%) and relatively high fleshy algal cover (19%). Coral bleaching linked to elevated temperatures significantly reduced daytime NEP by 29 mmol C m-2 h-1. pH on the reef flat declined by 0.2 units, causing a 40% reduction in NEC in the absence of pH changes in the surrounding open ocean. Our findings highlight the interactive relationship between carbonate chemistry of coral reef ecosystems and ecosystem production and calcification rates, which are in turn impacted by ocean warming. As open-ocean waters bathing coral reefs warm and acidify over the 21st century, the health and composition of reef benthic communities will play a major role in determining on-reef conditions that will in turn dictate the ecosystem response to climate change.

  1. Use of swath data in realtime navigation by pattern recognition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivakholundu, K.M.; Prabaharan, N.

    A new method is proposed with the aim of reducing dead reckoning error (DRE) during multibeam echosounding survey in deep ocean. Bathymetric data is used in this method to estimate DRE in position fixing. This method can be activated at any desired...

  2. Pelagic community production and carbon-nutrient stoichiometry under variable ocean acidification in an Arctic fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silyakova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Net community production (NCP and carbon to nutrient uptake ratios were studied during a large-scale mesocosm experiment on ocean acidification in Kongsfjorden, western Svalbard, during June–July 2010. Nutrient depleted fjord water with natural plankton assemblages, enclosed in nine mesocosms of ~ 50 m3 in volume, was exposed to pCO2 levels ranging initially from 185 to 1420 μatm. NCP estimations are the cumulative change in dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations after accounting for gas exchange and total alkalinity variations. Stoichiometric coupling between inorganic carbon and nutrient net uptake is shown as a ratio of NCP to a cumulative change in inorganic nutrients. Phytoplankton growth was stimulated by nutrient addition half way through the experiment and three distinct peaks in chlorophyll a concentration were observed during the experiment. Accordingly, the experiment was divided in three phases. Cumulative NCP was similar in all mesocosms over the duration of the experiment. However, in phases I and II, NCP was higher and in phase III lower at elevated pCO2. Due to relatively low inorganic nutrient concentration in phase I, C : N and C : P uptake ratios were calculated only for the period after nutrient addition (phase II and phase III. For the total post-nutrient period (phase II + phase III ratios were close to Redfield, however they were lower in phase II and higher in phase III. Variability of NCP, C : N and C : P uptake ratios in different phases reflects the effect of increasing CO2 on phytoplankton community composition and succession. The phytoplankton community was composed predominantly of haptophytes in phase I, prasinophytes, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes in phase II, and haptophytes, prasinophytes, dinoflagellates and chlorophytes in phase III (Schulz et al., 2013. Increasing ambient inorganic carbon concentrations have also been shown to promote primary production and carbon assimilation. For this study, it is

  3. Ocean acidification of a coastal Antarctic marine microbial community reveals a critical threshold for CO2 tolerance in phytoplankton productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppeler, Stacy; Petrou, Katherina; Schulz, Kai G.; Westwood, Karen; Pearce, Imojen; McKinlay, John; Davidson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    High-latitude oceans are anticipated to be some of the first regions affected by ocean acidification. Despite this, the effect of ocean acidification on natural communities of Antarctic marine microbes is still not well understood. In this study we exposed an early spring, coastal marine microbial community in Prydz Bay to CO2 levels ranging from ambient (343 µatm) to 1641 µatm in six 650 L minicosms. Productivity assays were performed to identify whether a CO2 threshold existed that led to a change in primary productivity, bacterial productivity, and the accumulation of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and particulate organic matter (POM) in the minicosms. In addition, photophysiological measurements were performed to identify possible mechanisms driving changes in the phytoplankton community. A critical threshold for tolerance to ocean acidification was identified in the phytoplankton community between 953 and 1140 µatm. CO2 levels ≥ 1140 µatm negatively affected photosynthetic performance and Chl a-normalised primary productivity (csGPP14C), causing significant reductions in gross primary production (GPP14C), Chl a accumulation, nutrient uptake, and POM production. However, there was no effect of CO2 on C : N ratios. Over time, the phytoplankton community acclimated to high CO2 conditions, showing a down-regulation of carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) and likely adjusting other intracellular processes. Bacterial abundance initially increased in CO2 treatments ≥ 953 µatm (days 3-5), yet gross bacterial production (GBP14C) remained unchanged and cell-specific bacterial productivity (csBP14C) was reduced. Towards the end of the experiment, GBP14C and csBP14C markedly increased across all treatments regardless of CO2 availability. This coincided with increased organic matter availability (POC and PON) combined with improved efficiency of carbon uptake. Changes in phytoplankton community production could have negative effects on the Antarctic food web and the

  4. An evaluation of ocean color model estimates of marine primary productivity in coastal and pelagic regions across the globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Saba

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half of the earth's photosynthetically fixed carbon derives from the oceans. To determine global and region specific rates, we rely on models that estimate marine net primary productivity (NPP thus it is essential that these models are evaluated to determine their accuracy. Here we assessed the skill of 21 ocean color models by comparing their estimates of depth-integrated NPP to 1156 in situ 14C measurements encompassing ten marine regions including the Sargasso Sea, pelagic North Atlantic, coastal Northeast Atlantic, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Sea, subtropical North Pacific, Ross Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone. Average model skill, as determined by root-mean square difference calculations, was lowest in the Black and Mediterranean Seas, highest in the pelagic North Atlantic and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone, and intermediate in the other six regions. The maximum fraction of model skill that may be attributable to uncertainties in both the input variables and in situ NPP measurements was nearly 72%. On average, the simplest depth/wavelength integrated models performed no worse than the more complex depth/wavelength resolved models. Ocean color models were not highly challenged in extreme conditions of surface chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature, nor in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters. Water column depth was the primary influence on ocean color model performance such that average skill was significantly higher at depths greater than 250 m, suggesting that ocean color models are more challenged in Case-2 waters (coastal than in Case-1 (pelagic waters. Given that in situ chlorophyll-a data was used as input data, algorithm improvement is required to eliminate the poor performance of ocean color NPP models in Case-2 waters that are close to coastlines. Finally, ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms are challenged by optically complex Case-2 waters

  5. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  6. Forage intake and wastage by ewes in pea/hay barley swath grazing and bale feeding systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvested feed costs, particularly during the winter, are traditionally the highest input associated with a ruminant livestock operation. Although swath grazing has been practiced for over 100 years and literature exists for cattle use of swath grazing, no published results are available on use of s...

  7. Implications of sea-ice biogeochemistry for oceanic production and emissions of dimethyl sulfide in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Hakase; Steiner, Nadja; Monahan, Adam; Galindo, Virginie; Lizotte, Martine; Levasseur, Maurice

    2017-06-01

    Sea ice represents an additional oceanic source of the climatically active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS) for the Arctic atmosphere. To what extent this source contributes to the dynamics of summertime Arctic clouds is, however, not known due to scarcity of field measurements. In this study, we developed a coupled sea ice-ocean ecosystem-sulfur cycle model to investigate the potential impact of bottom-ice DMS and its precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) on the oceanic production and emissions of DMS in the Arctic. The results of the 1-D model simulation were compared with field data collected during May and June of 2010 in Resolute Passage. Our results reproduced the accumulation of DMS and DMSP in the bottom ice during the development of an ice algal bloom. The release of these sulfur species took place predominantly during the earlier phase of the melt period, resulting in an increase of DMS and DMSP in the underlying water column prior to the onset of an under-ice phytoplankton bloom. Production and removal rates of processes considered in the model are analyzed to identify the processes dominating the budgets of DMS and DMSP both in the bottom ice and the underlying water column. When openings in the ice were taken into account, the simulated sea-air DMS flux during the melt period was dominated by episodic spikes of up to 8.1 µmol m-2 d-1. Further model simulations were conducted to assess the effects of the incorporation of sea-ice biogeochemistry on DMS production and emissions, as well as the sensitivity of our results to changes of uncertain model parameters of the sea-ice sulfur cycle. The results highlight the importance of taking into account both the sea-ice sulfur cycle and ecosystem in the flux estimates of oceanic DMS near the ice margins and identify key uncertainties in processes and rates that should be better constrained by new observations.

  8. Implications of sea-ice biogeochemistry for oceanic production and emissions of dimethyl sulfide in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayashida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice represents an additional oceanic source of the climatically active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS for the Arctic atmosphere. To what extent this source contributes to the dynamics of summertime Arctic clouds is, however, not known due to scarcity of field measurements. In this study, we developed a coupled sea ice–ocean ecosystem–sulfur cycle model to investigate the potential impact of bottom-ice DMS and its precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP on the oceanic production and emissions of DMS in the Arctic. The results of the 1-D model simulation were compared with field data collected during May and June of 2010 in Resolute Passage. Our results reproduced the accumulation of DMS and DMSP in the bottom ice during the development of an ice algal bloom. The release of these sulfur species took place predominantly during the earlier phase of the melt period, resulting in an increase of DMS and DMSP in the underlying water column prior to the onset of an under-ice phytoplankton bloom. Production and removal rates of processes considered in the model are analyzed to identify the processes dominating the budgets of DMS and DMSP both in the bottom ice and the underlying water column. When openings in the ice were taken into account, the simulated sea–air DMS flux during the melt period was dominated by episodic spikes of up to 8.1 µmol m−2 d−1. Further model simulations were conducted to assess the effects of the incorporation of sea-ice biogeochemistry on DMS production and emissions, as well as the sensitivity of our results to changes of uncertain model parameters of the sea-ice sulfur cycle. The results highlight the importance of taking into account both the sea-ice sulfur cycle and ecosystem in the flux estimates of oceanic DMS near the ice margins and identify key uncertainties in processes and rates that should be better constrained by new observations.

  9. In situ laboratory sea spray production during the Marine Aerosol Production 2006 cruise on the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hultin, K.A.H.; Nilsson, E.D.; Krejci, R.; Mrtensson, E.M.; Ehn, M.; Hagström, Å.; Leeuw, G. de

    2010-01-01

    Bubbles bursting from whitecaps are considered to be the most effective mechanism for particulate matter to be ejected into the atmosphere from the Earth's oceans. To realistically predict the climate effect of marine aerosols, global climate models require process-based understanding of particle

  10. Diva software, a tool for European regional seas and Ocean climatologies production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouberdous, M.; Troupin, C.; Barth, A.; Alvera-Azcàrate, A.; Beckers, J.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Diva (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) is a software based on a method designed to perform data-gridding (or analysis) tasks, with the assets of taking into account the intrinsic nature of oceanographic data, i.e., the uncertainty on the in situ measurements and the anisotropy due to advection and irregular coastlines and topography. The Variational Inverse Method (VIM, Brasseur et al., 1996) implemented in Diva consists in minimizing a variational principle which accounts for the differences between the observations and the reconstructed field, the influence of the gradients and variability of the reconstructed field. The resolution of the numerical problem is based on finite-element method, which allows a great numerical efficiency and the consideration of complicated contours. Along with the analysis, Diva provides also error fields (Brankart and Brasseur, 1998; Rixen et al., 2000) based on the data coverage and noise. Diva is used for the production of climatologies in the pan-European network SeaDataNet. SeaDataNet is connecting the existing marine data centres of more than 30 countries and set up a data management infrastructure consisting of a standardized distributed system. The consortium has elaborated integrated products, using common procedures and methods. Among these, it uses the Diva software as reference tool for climatologies computation for various European regional seas, the Atlantic and the global ocean. During the first phase of the SeaDataNet project, a number of additional tools were developed to make easier the climatologies production for the users. Among these tools: the advection constraint during the field reconstruction through the specification of a velocity field on a regular grid, forcing the analysis to align with the velocity vectors; the Generalized Cross Validation for the determination of analysis parameters (signal-to-noise ratio); the creation of contours at selected depths; the detection of possible outliers; the

  11. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low-oxygen Proterozoic oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Bryant, Donald A; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well-preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane-derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co-occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low-oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic photosynthesis

  12. Iron control on global productivity: an efficient inverse model of the ocean's coupled phosphate and iron cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, B.; Holzer, M.; Frants, M.

    2016-02-01

    We construct a data-constrained mechanistic inverse model of the ocean's coupled phosphorus and iron cycles. The nutrient cycling is embedded in a data-assimilated steady global circulation. Biological nutrient uptake is parameterized in terms of nutrient, light, and temperature limitations on growth for two classes of phytoplankton that are not transported explicitly. A matrix formulation of the discretized nutrient tracer equations allows for efficient numerical solutions, which facilitates the objective optimization of the key biogeochemical parameters. The optimization minimizes the misfit between the modelled and observed nutrient fields of the current climate. We systematically assess the nonlinear response of the biological pump to changes in the aeolian iron supply for a variety of scenarios. Specifically, Green-function techniques are employed to quantify in detail the pathways and timescales with which those perturbations are propagated throughout the world oceans, determining the global teleconnections that mediate the response of the global ocean ecosystem. We confirm previous findings from idealized studies that increased iron fertilization decreases biological production in the subtropical gyres and we quantify the counterintuitive and asymmetric response of global productivity to increases and decreases in the aeolian iron supply.

  13. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  14. Modeling UV-B Effects on Primary Production Throughout the Southern Ocean Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Dan

    2001-01-01

    This study has used a combination of ocean color, backscattered ultraviolet, and passive microwave satellite data to investigate the impact of the springtime Antarctic ozone depletion on the base of the Antarctic marine food web - primary production by phytoplankton. Spectral ultraviolet (UV) radiation fields derived from the satellite data are propagated into the water column where they force physiologically-based numerical models of phytoplankton growth. This large-scale study has been divided into two components: (1) the use of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data in conjunction with radiative transfer theory to derive the surface spectral UV irradiance throughout the Southern Ocean; and (2) the merging of these UV irradiances with the climatology of chlorophyll derived from SeaWiFS data to specify the input data for the physiological models.

  15. SwathProfiler and NProfiler: Two new ArcGIS Add-ins for the automatic extraction of swath and normalized river profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Peña, J. V.; Al-Awabdeh, M.; Azañón, J. M.; Galve, J. P.; Booth-Rea, G.; Notti, D.

    2017-07-01

    The present-day great availability of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models has improved tectonic geomorphology analyses in their methodological aspects and geological meaning. Analyses based on topographic profiles are valuable to explore the short and long-term landscape response to tectonic activity and climate changes. Swath and river longitudinal profiles are two of the most used analysis to explore the long and short-term landscape responses. Most of these morphometric analyses are conducted in GIS software, which have become standard tools for analyzing drainage network metrics. In this work we present two ArcGIS Add-Ins to automatically delineate swath and normalized river profiles. Both tools are programmed in Visual Basic . NET and use ArcObjects library-architecture to access directly to vector and raster data. The SwathProfiler Add-In allows analyzing the topography within a swath or band by representing maximum-minimum-mean elevations, first and third quartile, local relief and hypsometry. We have defined a new transverse hypsometric integral index (THi) that analyzes hypsometry along the swath and offer valuable information in these kind of graphics. The NProfiler Add-In allows representing longitudinal normalized river profiles and their related morphometric indexes as normalized concavity (CT), maximum concavity (Cmax) and length of maximum concavity (Lmax). Both tools facilitate the spatial analysis of topography and drainage networks directly in a GIS environment as ArcMap and provide graphical outputs. To illustrate how these tools work, we analyzed two study areas, the Sierra Alhamilla mountain range (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) and the Eastern margin of the Dead Sea (Jordan). The first study area has been recently studied from a morphotectonic perspective and these new tools can show an added value to the previous studies. The second study area has not been analyzed by quantitative tectonic geomorphology and the results suggest a landscape

  16. Net primary productivity collected from New Horizon in Gulf of California and North Pacific Ocean from 2004-07-14 to 2008-08-06 (NCEI Accession 0130076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Net primary productivity determined from 13C-labeled in situ incubations. Water collected via Niskin bottle was incubated with labeled bicarbonate for 24 hours at...

  17. Product database composed of physical and nutrient profile data collected in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas from 1928 to 2008 (NODC Accession 0072133)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The nitrate, nitrite, and nitrate +nitrate data and phosphate data in this file were used to estimate Net Community Production (NCP) from seasonal changes in...

  18. ACP-EU fisheries research initiative: proceedings of the EXPO '98 conference : Ocean Food Webs and Economic Productivity : Lisbon, Portugal, 1-3 July 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pauly, D; Christensen, V; Coelho, L

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the proceedings of a three day scientific conference on "Ocean Food Webs and Economic Productivity", held under the auspices of the ACP-EU Fisheries Research Initiative and the European Commission...

  19. "Supergreen" Renewables: Integration of Mineral Weathering Into Renewable Energy Production for Air CO2 Removal and Storage as Ocean Alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Carroll, S.; Ren, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    Excess planetary CO2 and accompanying ocean acidification are naturally mitigated on geologic time scales via mineral weathering. Here, CO2 acidifies the hydrosphere, which then slowly reacts with silicate and carbonate minerals to produce dissolved bicarbonates that are ultimately delivered to the ocean. This alkalinity not only provides long-term sequestration of the excess atmospheric carbon, but it also chemically counters the effects of ocean acidification by stabilizing or raising pH and carbonate saturation state, thus helping rebalance ocean chemistry and preserving marine ecosystems. Recent research has demonstrated ways of greatly accelerating this process by its integration into energy systems. Specifically, it has been shown (1) that some 80% of the CO2 in a waste gas stream can be spontaneously converted to stable, seawater mineral bicarbonate in the presence of a common carbonate mineral - limestone. This can allow removal of CO2 from biomass combustion and bio-energy production while generating beneficial ocean alkalinity, providing a potentially cheaper and more environmentally friendly negative-CO2-emissions alternative to BECCS. It has also been demonstrated that strong acids anodically produced in a standard saline water electrolysis cell in the formation of H2 can be reacted with carbonate or silicate minerals to generate strong base solutions. These solutions are highly absorptive of air CO2, converting it to mineral bicarbonate in solution. When such electrochemical cells are powered by non-fossil energy (e.g. electricity from wind, solar, tidal, biomass, geothermal, etc. energy sources), the system generates H2 that is strongly CO2-emissions-negative, while producing beneficial marine alkalinity (2-4). The preceding systems therefore point the way toward renewable energy production that, when tightly coupled to geochemical mitigation of CO2 and formation of natural ocean "antacids", forms a high capacity, negative-CO2-emissions, "supergreen

  20. The PETM in the coastal ocean: changes in redox, productivity, and organic matter sources recorded in mid-Atlantic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, S. L.; Baczynski, A. A.; Vornlocher, J.; Freeman, K. H.

    2016-12-01

    Climate events in the geologic record reveal the broad array of Earth's responses to carbon cycle perturbations, and provide valuable insights to the predicted impacts of future anthropogenic climate change. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) hyperthermal was linked to a rapid injection of isotopically light carbon into Earth's ocean-atmosphere system, and this event serves as the best-known analogue for anthropogenic climate change. The addition of 4500 Gt CO2 over cycle perturbations and have been implicated in PETM off-shore ocean records. Yet, despite numerous studies of biomarkers and organic matter in terrestrial and marine PETM records, we lack organic records from truly coastal environments, leaving a gap in our understanding of the land-ocean interface and how the shallow marine environments changed during the PETM. To better understand the effects of climate change on coastal sites and the marine sedimentary records during the PETM, we investigated the role of redox, productivity, and organic matter sourcing using recently collected cores from the paleo-Atlantic shelf. These new coastal PETM records provide needed datasets to understand biogeochemical changes in the shallow marine environment. Here, we present lipid biomarkers (pristane, phytane, n-alkanes, hopanoids, steranes, GDGTs) and compound-specific carbon isotope data along a transect from proximal coastal to more distal inner shelf. These molecular records help detail the intensity of water column stratification, productivity, and carbon source changes, as well as shifting terrestrial and marine inputs. Constraining the marine carbon isotope excursion, organic matter sourcing, and water column chemistry along the shallow shelf during the PETM reveals the impact of abrupt changes in the carbon cycle and global temperatures on the coastal ocean.

  1. In situ observations of ocean productivity using the SeaCycler mooring in the central Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamanchuk, Dariia; Koelling, Jannes; Devred, Emmanuel; Siddall, Greg; Send, Uwe; Wallace, Douglas

    2017-04-01

    The Central Labrador Sea is a major deep-convection region in the NW Atlantic which is the most intense sink for anthropogenic carbon in the global ocean (de Vries et al, 2013). CO2 enters the ocean by air-sea exchange and is transported into the ocean's interior mainly though the biological pump (Longhurst et al., 1989). Despite its important role for CO2 uptake and high natural variability, the Labrador Sea is undersampled due to rough conditions and an overall lack of volunteer observing ship (VOS) transits. The SeaCycler moored profiler is currently providing year-round data from the central Labrador Sea and resolves daily changes of inorganic carbon and related properties from the upper 150m of the water column. SeaCycler's sensor float is equipped with 13 physical, chemical and biooptical sensors which measure temperature, salinity, dissolved gases, nutrients and optical properties of seawater. A combination of Pro-CV (Pro-Oceanus Inc, Canada) and CO2 optode (Aanderaa, Norway) sensors in profiling mode provides a detailed description of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) dynamics in the upper 150m over the productive season. This allows, for the first time, high-resolution carbon-based estimates of ocean productivity from throughout the euphotic zone over an annual cycle which can be compared to estimates derived from simultaneous oxygen and nitrate (Deep SUNA, Satlantic LP, Canada) profiles. These in situ carbon, nitrogen and oxygen-based estimates of using in-situ data are further compared with remotely-sensed estimates from MODIS satellite data. The SeaCycler data allow estimation of the annual cycle of the air-sea CO2 flux and carbon export. Concurrently recorded in-situ bio-optical data allow direct comparison of optical measurements of biomass change and reveal key patterns in the seasonal succession of phytoplankton groups responsible for carbon drawdown.

  2. Effects of ocean acidification on primary production in a coastal North Sea phytoplankton community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberlein, Tim; Wohlrab, Sylke; Rost, Björn; John, Uwe; Bach, Lennart T.; Riebesell, U.; Van de Waal, D.B.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on a coastal North Sea plankton community in a long-term mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (BIOACID II long-term mesocosm study). From March to July 2013, 10 mesocosms of 19 m length with a volume of 47.5 to 55.9 m3 were deployed in the Gullmar

  3. Regional estimates of reef carbonate dynamics and productivity Using Landsat 7 ETM+, and potential impacts from ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, C.S.; Andrefouet, S.; Kranenburg, C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    2009-01-01

    Using imagery at 30 m spatial resolution from the most recent Landsat satellite, the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), we scale up reef metabolic productivity and calcification from local habitat-scale (10 -1 to 100 km2) measurements to regional scales (103 to 104 km2). Distribution and spatial extent of the North Florida Reef Tract (NFRT) habitats come from supervised classification of the Landsat imagery within independent Landsat-derived Millennium Coral Reef Map geomorphologic classes. This system minimizes the depth range and variability of benthic habitat characteristics found in the area of supervised classification and limits misclassification. Classification of Landsat imagery into 5 biotopes (sand, dense live cover, sparse live cover, seagrass, and sparse seagrass) by geomorphologic class is >73% accurate at regional scales. Based on recently published habitat-scale in situ metabolic measurements, gross production (P = 3.01 ?? 109 kg C yr -1), excess production (E = -5.70 ?? 108 kg C yr -1), and calcification (G = -1.68 ?? 106 kg CaCO 3 yr-1) are estimated over 2711 km2 of the NFRT. Simple models suggest sensitivity of these values to ocean acidification, which will increase local dissolution of carbonate sediments. Similar approaches could be applied over large areas with poorly constrained bathymetry or water column properties and minimal metabolic sampling. This tool has potential applications for modeling and monitoring large-scale environmental impacts on reef productivity, such as the influence of ocean acidification on coral reef environments. ?? Inter-Research 2009.

  4. Technical Evaluation of the 60 Foot Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH) Ship HALCYON

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Microwave Oven) Head (Sink, Shower, Water Closet) 37 ft2 Berthing (2 bunks) 63 ft2 Payload/Berthing (unfinished) 200 ft2 Anchor 90 lb. Danforth 400 ft. 1... kelp pad. 27 - COMPARISON OF SWATH HALCYON AND PT KNOLL SIGNIFICANT MOTIONS IN 5 FT SEAS, USING RAO CALCULATIONS. SPEED 17 KNOTS HALCYON PT KNOLL

  5. Asthenosphere and lithosphere structure controls on early onset oceanic crust production in the southern South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taposeea, Chandra A.; Armitage, John J.; Collier, Jenny S.

    2017-10-01

    The southern South Atlantic has often been considered a classic example of continental break-up in the presence of a starting mantle plume. Evidence for a mantle plume includes the Paranà-Etendeka continental flood basalts, which are associated with the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, and the wide-spread presence of seaward dipping reflectors and high-velocity lower-crustal bodies along the conjugate margins. Observations from seaward dipping reflector distributions suggested that lithospheric segmentation played a major role in the pattern of volcanism during break-up in this region, and consequent numerical modelling was used to test this. We tested this hypothesis ourselves by measuring the thickness of the earliest oceanic crust generated. This was done through the use of 37 measurements of initial oceanic crustal thickness from wide-angle and multichannel seismic profiles collected along the conjugate margins. These measurements show that at 450 km south of the Paranà-Etendeka flood basalts the oceanic crust is thicker than the global average at 11.7 km. Farther south the oceanic crust thins, reaching 6.1 km at a distance of 2300 km along-strike. Overall, the along-strike trend of oceanic crustal thickness is linear with a regression coefficient of 0.7 and little indication of segmentation. From numerical models representing extension of the lithosphere, we find that observed melt volumes are matched with the presence of a hot layer. If we assume this region of hot mantle has a thickness of 100 km, its excess temperature relative to the asthenosphere has to decrease from 200 to 50 °C, north to south. This decrease in temperature, also seen in published thermobarometry results, suggests that temperature was the primary control of volcanism during the opening of the southern South Atlantic.

  6. Dynamical consequences of mantle heterogeneity in two-phase models of mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R. F.

    2010-12-01

    The mid-ocean ridge system, over 50,000 km in length, samples the magmatic products of a large swath of the asthenosphere. It provides our best means to assess the heterogeneity structure of the upper mantle. Interpretation of the diverse array of observations of MOR petrology, geochemistry, tomography, etc requires models that can map heterogeneity structure onto predictions testable by comparison with these observations. I report on progress to this end; in particular, I describe numerical models of coupled magma/mantle dynamics at mid-ocean ridges [1,2]. These models incorporate heterogeneity in terms of a simple, two-component thermochemical system with specified amplitude and spatial distribution. They indicate that mantle heterogeneity has significant fluid-dynamical consequences for both mantle and magmatic flow. Models show that the distribution of enrichment can lead to asymmetry in the strength of upwelling across the ridge-axis and channelised magmatic transport to the axis. Furthermore, heterogeneity can cause off-axis upwelling of partially molten diapirs, trapping of enriched melts off-axis, and re-fertilization of the mantle by pooled and refrozen melts. Predicted consequences of geochemical heterogeneity may also be considered. References: [1] Katz, RF, (2008); Magma dynamics with the Enthalpy Method: Benchmark Solutions and Magmatic Focusing at Mid-ocean Ridges. Journal of Petrology, doi: 10.1093/petrology/egn058. [2] Katz RF, (2010); Porosity-driven convection and asymmetry beneath mid-ocean ridges. Submitted to G3.

  7. Investigation of the Characteristics of Small SWATH Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    smuggling and drugs; boarding and inspection of fishing vessels, both foreign and domestic ; and enforcement I, of any laws pertaining to ocean...71- Z u U cm Oj /Va IIII 0 u U LUS L L.= Q C.) OEnIUDNVU 2 La W)~ Lijo C"U LLIA 4.X LUJ maLUS U -/L/ Cto / / 113114 V A I Is" AA I 1. Total gas turbine...THE 125 LTON CONCEPT 15 knots 20 knots 25 knots 30 knots - DOMESTIC DIESELS- Manufacture DDA DDA DDA DDA Model 8V92TI 8V92TI 12V149 16V149T Rating (BHP

  8. Ocean Acidification Experiments in Large-Scale Mesocosms Reveal Similar Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter Production and Biotransformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Zark

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM represents a major reservoir of carbon in the oceans. Environmental stressors such as ocean acidification (OA potentially affect DOM production and degradation processes, e.g., phytoplankton exudation or microbial uptake and biotransformation of molecules. Resulting changes in carbon storage capacity of the ocean, thus, may cause feedbacks on the global carbon cycle. Previous experiments studying OA effects on the DOM pool under natural conditions, however, were mostly conducted in temperate and coastal eutrophic areas. Here, we report on OA effects on the existing and newly produced DOM pool during an experiment in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean at the Canary Islands during an (1 oligotrophic phase and (2 after simulated deep water upwelling. The last is a frequently occurring event in this region controlling nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics. We manipulated nine large-scale mesocosms with a gradient of pCO2 ranging from ~350 up to ~1,030 μatm and monitored the DOM molecular composition using ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry via Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS. An increase of 37 μmol L−1 DOC was observed in all mesocosms during a phytoplankton bloom induced by simulated upwelling. Indications for enhanced DOC accumulation under elevated CO2 became apparent during a phase of nutrient recycling toward the end of the experiment. The production of DOM was reflected in changes of the molecular DOM composition. Out of the 7,212 molecular formulae, which were detected throughout the experiment, ~50% correlated significantly in mass spectrometric signal intensity with cumulative bacterial protein production (BPP and are likely a product of microbial transformation. However, no differences in the produced compounds were found with respect to CO2 levels. Comparing the results of this experiment with a comparable OA experiment in the Swedish Gullmar Fjord, reveals

  9. Insolation forcing of coccolithophore productivity in the western tropical Indian Ocean over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangunan, Deborah; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Pätzold, Jürgen; Henrich, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Groeneveld, Jeroen

    2017-07-01

    We present a new coccolithophore productivity reconstruction spanning the last 300 ka in core GeoB12613-1 retrieved from the western tropical Indian Ocean (IO), an area that mainly derives its warm and oligotrophic surface waters from the eastern IO. Application of a calibrated assemblage-based productivity index indicates a reduction in estimated primary productivity (EPP) from 300 ka to the present, with reconstructed EPP values ranging from 91 to 246 g C/m2/yr. Coccolithophore assemblages and coccolith fraction Sr/Ca indicate three main phases of productivity change, with major changes at 160 and 46 ka. The productivity and water-column stratification records show both dominant precession and obliquity periodicities, which appear to control the paleoproductivity in the study area over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. Shallowing of the thermocline due to strengthening of the trade winds in response to insolation maxima resulted to peaks in EPP. Comparison with the eastern IO productivity and stratification coccolithophore data reveals good correspondence with our records, indicating a strong tropical Pacific influence in our study area. Both of these records show high productivity from 300 to 160 ka, interpreted to be due to stronger Walker Circulation while the declining productivity from 160 ka to the present day is a consequence of its weakening intensity.

  10. UV sensitivity of planktonic net community production in ocean surface waters

    OpenAIRE

    Regaudie de Gioux, Aurore; Agustí, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    The net plankton community metabolism of oceanic surface waters is particularly important as it more directly affects the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters and thus the air-sea fluxes of CO2. Plankton communities in surface waters are exposed to high irradiance that includes significant ultraviolet blue (UVB, 280-315 nm) radiation. UVB radiation affects both photosynthetic and respiration rates, increase plankton mortality rates, and other metabolic and chemical processes. Here we tes...

  11. Production of sulphate-rich vapour during the Chicxulub impact and implications for ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sohsuke; Kadono, Toshihiko; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Hamura, Taiga; Sakaiya, Tatsuhiro; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Sano, Takayoshi; Watari, Takeshi; Otani, Kazuto; Matsui, Takafumi; Sugita, Seiji

    2014-04-01

    The mass extinction event at the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary 65.5 Myr ago has been widely attributed to the Chicxulub impact, but the mechanisms of extinction remain debated. In the oceans, near-surface planktonic foraminifera suffered severe declines, in contrast to the relatively high survival rates of bottom-dwelling benthic foraminifera. The vapour produced by an impact into Chicxulub's target rocks, which include sulphate-rich anhydrite, could have led to global acid rain, which can explain the pattern of oceanic extinctions. However, it has been suggested that most of the sulphur in the target rocks would have been released as sulphur dioxide and would have stayed in the stratosphere for a long time. Here we show, from impact experiments into anhydrite at velocities exceeding 10 km s-1, that sulphur trioxide dominates over sulphur dioxide in the resulting vapour cloud. Our experiments suggest that the Chicxulub impact released a huge quantity of sulphur trioxide into the atmosphere, where it would have rapidly combined with water vapour to form sulphuric acid aerosol particles. We also find, using a theoretical model of aerosol coagulation following the Chicxulub impact, that larger silicate particles ejected during the impact efficiently scavenge sulphuric acid aerosol particles and deliver the sulphuric acid to the surface within a few days. The rapid surface deposition of sulphuric acid would cause severe ocean acidification and account for preferential extinction of planktonic over benthic foraminifera.

  12. Interacting effects of ocean acidification and warming on growth and DMS-production in the haptophyte coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Hayley E; Kerrison, Philip; Steinke, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The production of the marine trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS) provides 90% of the marine biogenic sulfur in the atmosphere where it affects cloud formation and climate. The effects of increasing anthropogenic CO2 and the resulting warming and ocean acidification on trace gas production in the oceans are poorly understood. Here we report the first measurements of DMS-production and data on growth, DMSP and DMS concentrations in pH-stated cultures of the phytoplankton haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi. Four different environmental conditions were tested: ambient, elevated CO2 (+CO2 ), elevated temperature (+T) and elevated temperature and CO2 (+TCO2 ). In comparison to the ambient treatment, average DMS production was about 50% lower in the +CO2 treatment. Importantly, temperature had a strong effect on DMS production and the impacts outweighed the effects of a decrease in pH. As a result, the +T and +TCO2 treatments showed significantly higher DMS production of 36.2 ± 2.58 and 31.5 ± 4.66 μmol L(-1) cell volume (CV) h(-1) in comparison with the +CO2 treatment (14.9 ± 4.20 μmol L(-1) CV h(-1) ). As the cultures were aerated with an air/CO2 mixture, DMS was effectively removed from the incubation bottles so that concentration remained relatively low (3.6-6.1 mmol L(-1) CV). Intracellular DMSP has been shown to increase in E. huxleyi as a result of elevated temperature and/or elevated CO2 and our results are in agreement with this finding: the ambient and +CO2 treatments showed 125 ± 20.4 and 162 ± 27.7 mmol L(-1) CV, whereas +T and +TCO2 showed significantly increased intracellular DMSP concentrations of 195 ± 15.8 and 211 ± 28.2 mmol L(-1) CV respectively. Growth was unaffected by the treatments, but cell diameter decreased significantly under elevated temperature. These results indicate that DMS production is sensitive to CO2 and temperature in E. huxleyi. Hence, global environmental change that manifests in ocean acidification and warming may not result in

  13. The influence of solar ultraviolet radiation on the photochemical production of H2O2 in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Gerringa, LJA; Rijkenberg, MJA; Timmermans, KR; Buma, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured in marine surface waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean between 25degreesN and 25degreesS. H2O2 concentrations decreased from 80 nM in the north to 20 nM in the south, in agreement with earlier observations. A diel cycle of H2O2 production as a function of sunlight in surface waters was followed twice whilst the ship steamed southward. Around 23degreesN a distinct diel cycle could be measured which correlated well with irradiance conditions. The wavelength...

  14. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT01 offshore of Cat Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys east of Cat Island, Mississippi (fig. 1). The efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geological stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and provide protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, surface images, and x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten FACS logs and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report or hold the cursor over an acronym for a pop-up explanation. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 10CCT01 tells us the data were collected in 2010 for the Coastal Change and Transport (CCT) study and the data were collected during the first field

  15. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2000-01-01 to 2000-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075248)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  16. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2004-01-01 to 2004-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075252)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  17. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2001-01-01 to 2001-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  18. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2009-01-01 to 2009-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075257)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  19. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1994-01-01 to 1994-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  20. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1999-01-01 to 1999-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  1. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1996-01-01 to 1996-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075244)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  2. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2007-01-01 to 2007-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075255)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  3. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2006-01-01 to 2006-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  4. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1992-01-01 to 1992-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075240)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  5. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1988-01-01 to 1988-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0072302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  6. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2003-01-01 to 2003-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  7. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2008-01-01 to 2008-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  8. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1995-01-01 to 1995-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  9. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1989-01-01 to 1989-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0074924)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  10. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1993-01-01 to 1993-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  11. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1990-01-01 to 1990-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075238)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  12. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2011-01-01 to 2011-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  13. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1991-01-01 to 1991-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  14. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2012-01-01 to 2012-01-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0089061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  15. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2005-01-01 to 2005-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075253)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  16. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1998-01-01 to 1998-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  17. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2010-01-01 to 2010-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  18. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1997-01-01 to 1997-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075245)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  19. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 2002-01-01 to 2002-12-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region (NCEI Accession 0075250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  20. Quaternary carbonate record from the equatorial Indian Ocean and its relationship with productivity changes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Malmgren, B.A.

    oceanic carbon chemistry and atmospheric CO content over orbital time scales Broecker and 2 . Peng, 1987 . Sediment trap data from the Arabian Sea Haake . et al., 1993 and the Sargasso Sea Dueser et al., . 1981 point to the existence of a relationship....C., Morley, J.J., Pisias, N.G., Prell, W.L., Shackleton, N.J., 1984. The orbital theory of Pleistocene climate: support from a revised chronology of the marine 18O record. In: Berger, A., .Imbrie, J., Hays, J., Kukla, G., Saltzman, B. Eds. , Mi- lankovitch...

  1. Iron fertilization enhanced net community production but not downward particle flux during the Southern Ocean iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Cassar, Nicolas; Vandromme, Pieter; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Stemmann, Lars; Rengarajan, R.; Soares, Melena; González, Humberto E.; Ebersbach, Friederike; Lampitt, Richard S.; Sanders, Richard; Barnett, Bruce A.; Smetacek, Victor; Naqvi, S. Wajih A.

    2013-09-01

    closed eddy core in the Subantarctic Atlantic Ocean was fertilized twice with two tons of iron (as FeSO4), and the 300 km2 fertilized patch was studied for 39 days to test whether fertilization enhances downward particle flux into the deep ocean. Chlorophyll a and primary productivity doubled after fertilization, and photosynthetic quantum yield (FV/FM) increased from 0.33 to ≥0.40. Silicic acid (artificially fertilized bloom with very low diatom biomass. Net community production (NCP) inside the patch, estimated from O2:Ar ratios, averaged 21 mmol POC m-2 d-1, probably ±20%. 234Th profiles implied constant export of 6.3 mmol POC m-2 d-1 in the patch, similar to unfertilized waters. The difference between NCP and 234Th-derived export partly accumulated in the mixed layer and was partly remineralized between the mixed layer and 100 m. Neutrally buoyant sediment traps at 200 and 450 m inside and outside the patch caught mostly fertilization. Our data thus indicate intense flux attenuation between 100 and 200 m, and probably between the mixed layer and 100 m. We attribute the lack of fertilization-induced export to silicon limitation of diatoms and reprocessing of sinking particles by detritus feeders. Our data are consistent with the view that nitrate-rich but silicate-deficient waters are not poised for enhanced particle export upon iron addition.

  2. Composition of settling particles in the Southern Ocean and processes controlling seasonal variations of deep export production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Damien; Ameur, Khedidja; Closset, Ivia; Bray, Stephen; Trull, Thomas W.

    2014-05-01

    In order to understand the processes controlling the biological carbon pump and the efficiency of export production, we need time series in contrasted oceanic regions that fully describe seasonality. Due to strong logistic constraints, especially in the Southern Ocean, such data can only be obtained from above (satellite) or from below (sediment traps). In this study, settling particles of Subantarctic Zone (SAZ), Polar Front Zone (PFZ) and Antarctic Zone (AZ) along the CLIVAR-SR3 transect (140°E, south to Tasmania) have been collected in sediment traps deployed at 1000, 2000 and 3800m (SAZ), 800 and 1500 m (PFZ) and 200 and 3700 m (AZ). In addition to the measurements of Particulate Organic Carbon, Particulate Inorganic Carbon, Biogenic silica we have measured particulate composition of some trace and major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Ti, Ba, Sr, Mn, U, light Rare Earth Elements) by ICP-MS. When looking at correlations between elemental fluxes we show that there are generally different modes of variations. Surprisingly, those are not necessarily site-specific, i.e. different periods of SAZ and AZ traps can behave in a similar way, while they can be strongly decoupled at other periods. This is the case not only for biogenic elements (e.g. Ba, Ca, Sr) but also for elements usually representative of lithogenic particles (e.g., Al, Fe, Ti). More particularly Al vs. Fe fluxes appear to be strongly bimodal: Al fluxes are generally higher in northern traps while Fe fluxes are higher in AZ and PFZ traps; moreover single data points of both traps are distributed over two clear correlation lines, each one displaying little scattering. This suggests that the types of Fe- and/or Al- bearing particles vary more seasonally than spatially. In contrast, Ba fluxes, which are used in paleo-oceanography as a proxy of export production, are very similar to Ca fluxes, whatever the location. This suggests that carbonate productivity is more prone to deep carbon export compared to opal

  3. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Upper ocean thermal data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000308)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from January 01, 1990 to December 31, 1999. Data were submitted by MEDS, IFREMER, NODC,...

  4. MODIS Aqua Optical Throughput Degradation Impact on Relative Spectral Response and Calibration on Ocean Color Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shihyan; Meister, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Since Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua's launch in 2002, the radiometric system gains of the reflective solar bands have been degrading, indicating changes in the systems optical throughput. To estimate the optical throughput degradation, the electronic gain changes were estimated and removed from the measured system gain. The derived optical throughput degradation shows a rate that is much faster in the shorter wavelengths than the longer wavelengths. The wavelength-dependent optical throughput degradation modulated the relative spectral response (RSR) of the bands. In addition, the optical degradation is also scan angle-dependent due to large changes in response versus the scan angle over time. We estimated the modulated RSR as a function of time and scan angles and its impacts on sensor radiometric calibration for the ocean science. Our results show that the calibration bias could be up to 1.8 % for band 8 (412 nm) due to its larger out-of-band response. For the other ocean bands, the calibration biases are much smaller with magnitudes at least one order smaller.

  5. Landsat 8 Remote Sensing Reflectance (Rrs) Products: Evaluations, Intercomparisons, and Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Schott, John R.; Franz, Bryan A.; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Markham, Brian; Bailey, Sean; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Greb, Steven; Strait, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard Landsat-8 is generating high-quality aquatic science products, the most critical of which is the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs), defined as the ratio of water-leaving radiance to the total downwelling irradiance just above water. The quality of the Rrs products has not, however, been extensively assessed. This manuscript provides a comprehensive evaluation of Level-1B, i.e., top of atmosphere reflectance, and Rrs products available from OLI imagery under near-ideal atmospheric conditions in moderately turbid waters. The procedure includes a) evaluations of the Rrs products at sites included in the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC), b) intercomparisons and cross-calibrations against other ocean color products, and c) optimizations of vicarious calibration gains across the entire OLI observing swath. Results indicate that the near-infrared and shortwave infrared (NIR-SWIR) band combinations yield the most robust and stable Rrs retrievals in moderately turbid waters. Intercomparisons against products derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Aqua platform (MODISA) indicate slight across-track non-uniformities (<1%) associated with OLI scenes in the blue bands. In both product domains (TOA and Rrs), on average, the OLI products were found larger in radiometric responses in the blue channels. Following the implementation of updated vicarious calibration gains and accounting for across-track non-uniformities, matchup analyses using independent in-situ validation data confirmed improvements in Rrs products. These findings further support high-fidelity OLI-derived aquatic science products in terms of both demonstrating a robust atmospheric correction method and providing consistent products across OLI's imaging swath.

  6. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m, Version 006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m (MYD10_L2) data set contains snow cover and Quality Assessment (QA) data, latitudes and longitudes...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is data set "MODIS/AQUA Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min 2 Swath 10 km" See the MODIS Science Team homepage for more dataset...

  8. AMSR-E/Aqua L2B Global Swath Rain Rate/Type GSFC Profiling Algorithm V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-2B rain product includes instantaneous rain rate and rain type over ice-free and snow-free land and ocean between 70 degrees north and south...

  9. Estimation of Effective Swath Width for Dual-Head Multibeam Echosounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grządziel Artur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many surveying companies and maritime institutions are now using multibeam systems for their operations, either offshore or in coastal and inland waters. Since the time the first multibeam echosounder appeared (late 1970s the technology has advanced enormously. Modern systems now boast far greater angular coverage (typically 120°-150° and form hundreds of beams. Dual-head multibeam systems can potentially cover the entire sector (180° underneath the ship. However surveyors must be aware that the outer beams of these acoustic systems return the most errors causing that the effective swath width is shorter than what the manufacturers declare. The paper presents the methods of estimating of effective (usable swath width of dual-head multibeam echosounder EM 3002D. Results of the hydrographic survey performed by the polish navy survey ship ORP ‘Arctowski’ have been showed in the article.

  10. Improving Protein Detection Confidence Using SWATH-Mass Spectrometry with Large Peptide Reference Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jemma X; Pascovici, Dana; Ignjatovic, Vera; Song, Xiaomin; Krisp, Christoph; Molloy, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    Protein quantification using data-independent acquisition methods such as SWATH-MS most commonly relies on spectral matching to a reference MS/MS assay library. To enable deep proteome coverage and efficient use of existing data, in silico approaches have been described to use archived or publicly available large reference spectral libraries for spectral matching. Since implicit in the use of larger libraries is the increasing likelihood of false-discoveries, new workflows are needed to ensure high confidence in protein matching under these conditions. We present a workflow which introduces a range of filters and thresholds aimed at increasing confidence that the resulting proteins are reliably detected and their quantitation is consistent and reproducible. We demonstrated the workflow using extended libraries with SWATH data from human plasma samples and yeast-spiked human K562 cell lysate digest. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The assessment of optimal MERIS ocean colour products in the shelf waters of the KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, ME

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available )), aerosol and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) products from the 2nd and 3rd reprocessing as well as the case 2 Regional (C2R) processor. Confidence flags indicated that the ocean colour products from the 2nd reprocessing were not reliable over the sampling site during...

  12. Combined Inkjet Printing and Infrared Sintering of Silver Nanoparticles using a Swathe-by-Swathe and Layer-by-Layer Approach for 3-Dimensional Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Simonelli, Marco; Saleh, Ehab; Senin, Nicola; Wildman, Ricky D; Hague, Richard J M; Leach, Richard K; Tuck, Christopher J

    2017-02-22

    Despite the advancement of additive manufacturing (AM)/3-dimensional (3D) printing, single-step fabrication of multifunctional parts using AM is limited. With the view of enabling multifunctional AM (MFAM), in this study, sintering of metal nanoparticles was performed to obtain conductivity for continuous line inkjet printing of electronics. This was achieved using a bespoke three-dimensional (3D) inkjet-printing machine, JETx, capable of printing a range of materials and utilizing different post processing procedures to print multilayered 3D structures in a single manufacturing step. Multiple layers of silver were printed from an ink containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and infrared sintered using a swathe-by-swathe (SS) and layer-by-layer sintering (LS) regime. The differences in the heat profile for the SS and LS was observed to influence the coalescence of the AgNPs. Void percentage of both SS and LS samples was higher toward the top layer than the bottom layer due to relatively less IR exposure in the top than the bottom. The results depicted a homogeneous microstructure for LS of AgNPs and showed less deformation compared to the SS. Electrical resistivity of the LS tracks (13.6 ± 1 μΩ cm) was lower than the SS tracks (22.5 ± 1 μΩ cm). This study recommends the use of LS method to sinter the AgNPs to obtain a conductive track in 25% less time than SS method for MFAM.

  13. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and qual...

  14. Highly resolved global distribution of tropospheric NO2 using GOME narrow swath mode data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beirle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME allows the retrieval of tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs of NO2 on a global scale. Regions with enhanced industrial activity can clearly be detected, but the standard spatial resolution of the GOME ground pixels (320x40km2 is insufficient to resolve regional trace gas distributions or individual cities. Every 10 days within the nominal GOME operation, measurements are executed in the so called narrow swath mode with a much better spatial resolution (80x40km2. We use this data (1997-2001 to construct a detailed picture of the mean global tropospheric NO2 distribution. Since - due to the narrow swath - the global coverage of the high resolution observations is rather poor, it has proved to be essential to deseasonalize the single narrow swath mode observations to retrieve adequate mean maps. This is done by using the GOME backscan information. The retrieved high resolution map illustrates the shortcomings of the standard size GOME pixels and reveals an unprecedented wealth of details in the global distribution of tropospheric NO2. Localised spots of enhanced NO2 VCD can be directly associated to cities, heavy industry centers and even large power plants. Thus our result helps to check emission inventories. The small spatial extent of NO2 'hot spots' allows us to estimate an upper limit of the mean lifetime of boundary layer NOx of 17h on a global scale. The long time series of GOME data allows a quantitative comparison of the narrow swath mode data to the nominal resolution. Thus we can analyse the dependency of NO2 VCDs on pixel size. This is important for comparing GOME data to results of new satellite instruments like SCIAMACHY (launched March 2002 on ENVISAT, OMI (launched July 2004 on AURA or GOME II (to be launched 2005 with an improved spatial resolution.

  15. Definition of a RACK1 Interaction Network in Drosophila melanogaster Using SWATH-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriane Kuhn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Receptor for Activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1 is a scaffold protein that has been found in association with several signaling complexes, and with the 40S subunit of the ribosome. Using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, we recently showed that RACK1 is required at the ribosome for internal ribosome entry site (IRES-mediated translation of viruses. Here, we report a proteomic characterization of the interactome of RACK1 in Drosophila S2 cells. We carried out Label-Free quantitation using both Data-Dependent and Data-Independent Acquisition (DDA and DIA, respectively and observed a significant advantage for the Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH method, both in terms of identification of interactants and quantification of low abundance proteins. These data represent the first SWATH spectral library available for Drosophila and will be a useful resource for the community. A total of 52 interacting proteins were identified, including several molecules involved in translation such as structural components of the ribosome, factors regulating translation initiation or elongation, and RNA binding proteins. Among these 52 proteins, 15 were identified as partners by the SWATH strategy only. Interestingly, these 15 proteins are significantly enriched for the functions translation and nucleic acid binding. This enrichment reflects the engagement of RACK1 at the ribosome and highlights the added value of SWATH analysis. A functional screen did not reveal any protein sharing the interesting properties of RACK1, which is required for IRES-dependent translation and not essential for cell viability. Intriguingly however, 10 of the RACK1 partners identified restrict replication of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV, an IRES-containing virus.

  16. Means to achieve wide swath widths in synthetic aperture satellite borne radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The radar range equation including processing gains for pulse compression and synthetic aperture generation was the starting point. System geometry considerations were introduced. For simplicity, flat earth geometry was used, although it was realized that this was not a good model for satellite-borne radars. Next, the constraints were introduced. These included those needed to avoid ambiguities in both range and azimuth, those needed to acheive the desired resolution, and those needed to achieve the desired swath width.

  17. Space-based Swath-imaging Laser Altimeter for Cryospheric Topography and Surface Property Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, D. J.; Abshire, J. B.; Sun, X.; Dabney, P. W.; Shuman, C. A.; Seas, A. A.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past decade airborne laser swath mapping has provided unprecedented measurements of ice and land topography, and vegetation canopy three-dimensional structure. These data have enabled new approaches to studies of the Earth's cryosphere, biosphere, and land surface processes, including those related to natural hazards and water resources. Achieving laser altimeter swath mapping in Earth orbit would provide timely global access that enables greatly expanded utilization of this rapidly advancing remote sensing capability. First year activities of an ESTO-funded project directed toward this goal, Push-broom Laser Altimeter Demonstration for Space-based Cryospheric Topographic and Surface Property Mapping, provide a foundation for development of a prototype Swath-imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL). A high net electrical efficiency is key to achieving a swath mapping capability on orbit. An analysis of measurement efficiencies, considering three pulse modulation schemes, three wavelengths, and three receiver approaches, indicates that the combination of a micropulse transmitter and single photon detection offers the highest efficiency. Assessment of component readiness indicates that in the near-term fiber lasers, frequency doubled to 532 nm, and solid state Si APD detectors offer the best development path. Light penetration at visible wavelengths poses potential uncertainty in 532 nm laser ranging to snow and ice surfaces. However, new laboratory retro-reflection measurements of natural snow and ice samples with nanosecond precision documents that there is no appreciable range delay due to penetration, likely because volume scattering causes the retro-return from beneath the surface to be negligible compared to the direct surface backscatter. Depolarization measurements, using parallel and perpendicular receiver channels, will differentiate surface types, such as liquid and frozen water, based on the proportion of diffuse to specular

  18. An ocean modelling and assimilation guide to using GOCE geoid products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haines, K.; Johannessen, J. A.; Knudsen, Per

    2011-01-01

    the combination of the geoid information with time-mean sea level information derived from satellite altimeter data, to construct a mean dynamic topography (MDT), and considers how this complements the time-varying sea level anomaly, also available from the satellite altimeter. We particularly consider...... for assimilating the resulting dynamic topography information into an ocean circulation model using three different operational forecasting and data assimilation systems. We look at methods used for assimilating altimeter anomaly data in the absence of a suitable geoid, and then discuss different approaches which...... have been tried for assimilating the additional geoid information. We review the problems that have been encountered and the lessons learned in order the help future users. Finally we present some results from the use of GRACE geoid information in the operational oceanography community and discuss...

  19. Evidence for variations in magma production along oceanic spreading centers - A critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karson, J. A.; Elthon, D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies of the oceanic lithosphere near fracture zones have resulted in the proposal that the 'magma budget', defined as the amount of magma delivered to magma chambers or conduits beneath a spreading center for a given amount of spreading, decreases as fracture zones are approached. Geochemical variations in basaltic glasses collected near fracture zones are consistent with a decrease in partial melting as fracture zones are approached, but they could also be produced by variations in open-system magmatic processes with no change in the extent of partial melting. Although a decrease in the magma budget as fracture zones are approached is consistent with these data, so are alternative models that incorporate a constant magma budget.

  20. Landsat 8 Remote Sensing Reflectance (Rrs) Products: Evaluations, Intercomparisons, and Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Schott, John R.; Franz, Bryan A.; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Markham, Brian; Bailey, Sean; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Ondrusek, Michael; Greb, Steven; Strait, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard Landsat-8 is generating high-quality aquatic science products, the most critical of which is the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs), defined as the ratio of water-leaving radiance to the total downwelling irradiance just above water. The quality of the Rrs products has not, however, been extensively assessed. This manuscript provides a comprehensive evaluation of Level-1B, i.e., top of atmosphere reflectance, and Rrs products available from OLI imagery under near-ideal atmospheric conditions in moderately turbid waters. The procedure includes a) evaluations of the Rrs products at sites included in the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC), b) intercomparisons and cross-calibrations against other ocean color products, and c) optimizations of vicarious calibration gains across the entire OLI observing swath. Results indicate that the near-infrared and shortwave infrared (NIR-SWIR) band combinations yield the most robust and stable Rrs retrievals in moderately turbid waters. Intercomparisons against products derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Aqua platform (MODISA) indicate slight across-track non-uniformities (TOA and Rrs), on average, the OLI products were found larger in radiometric responses in the blue channels. Following the implementation of updated vicarious calibration gains and accounting for across-track non-uniformities, matchup analyses using independent in-situ validation data confirmed improvements in Rrs products. These findings further support high-fidelity OLI-derived aquatic science products in terms of both demonstrating a robust atmospheric correction method and providing consistent products across OLI's imaging swath.

  1. Comparative Lipidomics of Caenorhabditis elegans Metabolic Disease Models by SWATH Non-Targeted Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan K. Prasain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS with Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical (SWATH mass spectra generates a comprehensive archive of lipid species within an extract for retrospective, quantitative MS/MS analysis. Here we apply this new technology in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans to identify potential lipid mediators and pathways. The DAF-1 type I TGF-β and DAF-2 insulin receptors transmit endocrine signals that couple metabolic status to fertility and lifespan. Mutations in daf-1 and daf-2 reduce prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (i.e., Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis, increase triacylglyceride storage, and alter transcription of numerous lipid metabolism genes. However, the extent to which DAF-1 and DAF-2 signaling modulate lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. MS/MSALL with SWATH analysis across the groups identified significant changes in numerous lipids, including specific triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, and phosphatidylinositols. Examples are provided, using retrospective neutral loss and precursor ion scans as well as MS/MS spectra, to help identify annotated lipids and search libraries for lipids of interest. As proof of principle, we used comparative lipidomics to investigate the prostaglandin metabolism pathway. SWATH data support an unanticipated model: Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis may involve lysophosphatidylcholine and other lyso glycerophospholipids. This study showcases the power of comprehensive, retrospectively searchable lipid archives as a systems approach for biological discovery in genetic animal models.

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL BIO-NONWOVEN FABRICS FOR EYES'S SWATH AND DIAPERS FOR INFANT'S INCUBATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElSayed A. ElNashar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An infant incubator is a piece of equipment common to pediatric hospitals, birthing centers and neonatal intensive care units. While the unit may serve several specific functions, it is generally used to provide a safe and stable environment for newborn infants, often those who were born prematurely or with an illness or disability that makes them especially vulnerable for the first several months of life. The objective of this research was to gain a better understanding of New Approach for a Bio-Nonwoven fabrics and infant's incubator in terms of the specific materials as MaterBi/PCL® as Bioplastic and the elements of comfort, drivers associated with it and its waste biodegradation by different methods. Shortly after birth, the beginning in first hours of life babies with neonatal, a byproduct of the red blood cells decomposition. Many convenient features to consider with tow basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers on infant’s incubator options: cloth of basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers, with their end use properties. The form design of eyes` swathe® and diapers® shapes, for infant’s incubator stage then consider convenience, cost, and environmental waste.

  3. Viral effects on bacterial respiration, production and growth efficiency: Consistent trends in the Southern Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Findji, Osana; Malits, Andrea; Lefèvre, Dominique; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Lemée, Rodolphe; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the potential effects of viruses on bacterial respiration (BR), production (BP) and growth efficiency (BGE), experiments were performed using natural microbial communities from the coastal Mediterranean Sea, from a typical high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region in the Southern Ocean and from a naturally iron (Fe)-fertilized algal bloom above the Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). Seawater was sequentially filtered and concentrated to produce a bacterial concentrate, a viral concentrate and a virus-free ultrafiltrate. The combination of all three fractions served as treatments with active viruses. Heating or microwaving was used to inactivate viruses for the control treatments. Despite the differences in the initial trophic state and community composition of the study sites, consistent trends were found. In the presence of active viruses, BR was stimulated (up to 113%), whereas BP and BGE were reduced (up to 51%). Our results suggest that viruses enhance the role of bacteria as oxidizers of organic matter, hence as producers of CO 2, and remineralizers of CO 2, N, P and Fe. In the context of Fe-fertilization, this has important implications for the final fate of organic carbon in marine systems.

  4. GREP: Evaluation of the Copernicus Marine Service Global Reanalysis Ensemble Product: deriving uncertainty estimates for 3D T and S variability in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desportes, Charles; Drévillon, Marie; Drillet, Yann; Garric, Gilles; Parent, Laurent; Régnier, Charly; Masina, Simona; Storto, Andrea; Petterson, Drew; Wood, Richard; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Zuo, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Global ocean reanalyses are homogeneous 3D gridded descriptions of the physical state of the ocean spanning several decades, produced with a numerical ocean model constrained with data assimilation of satellite and in situ observations. The evaluation of global ocean reanalyses, and of how well they capture ocean variability, has progressed these recent years thanks to the CLIVAR/GSOP/GODAE Ocean Reanalyses Intercomparison Project ORA-IP (Balmaseda et al 2015). During the MyOcean project, several high resolution (1/4° horizontal grid) reanalyses based on NEMO but produced with different tunings and by different institutes, were evaluated jointly using common validation guidelines (Masina et al, 2015). The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service CMEMS (marine.copernicus.eu) Global Monitoring and Forecasting Center now takes advantage of the diversity of ocean reanalyses currently developed with that same NEMO model grid (ORCA025 at ¼°) to propose a multi-model ensemble product, which spread allows uncertainties or error bars to be estimated. In a number of regions, the ensemble mean may even provide a more reliable estimate than any individual reanalysis product. Four reanalyses have been selected to contribute to the project; GLORYS2V4 from Mercator Ocean (Fr), ORAS5 from ECMWF, FOAM/GloSea from Met Office (UK), and C-GLORS from CMCC (It). The four different time series of global ocean 3D monthly estimates have been post-processed to create the new product called GREP (Global Reanalysis Ensemble Product), covering the recent period during which altimetry observations are available: 1993-2015. Starting from April 20th 2017, the ensemble mean and standard deviation of the ensemble, as well as the four individual members for the period 1993-2015, are thus made available on a 1°x1° grid and monthly frequency. The time series will be extended by one year each year. In the presentation, we will describe the results of the scientific qualification of the

  5. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F10 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  6. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F17 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  7. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F11 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  8. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F16 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  9. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F13 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  10. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F17 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  11. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F17 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  12. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F14 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  13. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F14 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  14. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F10 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  15. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F15 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  16. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F8 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  17. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F16 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  18. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F11 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  19. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F11 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  20. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F17 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  1. Marine foods sourced from farther as their use of global ocean primary production increases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Reg A; Nowara, Gabrielle B; Hartmann, Klaas; Green, Bridget S; Tracey, Sean R; Carter, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    .... Marine production supports some of the world's poorest people but increasingly provides for the needs of the affluent, either directly by fishing or via fodder-based feeds for marine and terrestrial farming...

  2. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F10 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  3. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F13 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  4. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F15 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  5. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F14 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  6. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS WEEKLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F16 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  7. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F15 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  8. RSS SSMIS OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F16 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  9. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F13 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  10. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS MONTHLY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F8 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  11. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS DAILY FROM DMSP F8 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  12. Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test-Bed -- Net Ecosystem Calcification and Net Ecosystem Productivity, Flower Garden Banks, FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AOAT project is engaged in monitoring/modeling efforts designed to: a) establish methodologies for monitoring, assessing, and modeling the impacts of Ocean...

  13. Phytoplankton community composition and primary production in the tropical tidal ecosystem, Maputo Bay (the Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Malin; Karlberg, Maria; Lage, Sandra; Ploug, Helle

    2017-07-01

    Maputo Bay is highly affected by large tidal changes and riverine freshwater input with a phytoplankton biomass peak during March each year. Microscopy analysis was used to describe how the phytoplankton community composition was affected by tidal changes, during four in situ incubation experiments. Using stable isotope tracers, new and total primary production, based on nitrate (15NO3-)- and carbon (13C-bicarbonate)-assimilation were estimated. The highest biovolume of phytoplankton (> 2 μm) and also the highest C- and NO3--assimilation rates (nM h-1) were found at spring-high tide. The C:N (mol:mol) ratio of particulate organic matter (POM) varied between 6.0 and 8.2. The proportion of diatoms in the phytoplankton community was higher at spring-high tide as compared to neap-low tide, whereas dinoflagellates were found in a reverse pattern. New production ranged between 6.3% and 10.4% of total primary production and was thus within the range previously reported for tropical regions. The largest proportion of NO3--based new production relative to total production was estimated during calm conditions and spring-high tide. Concordantly, a large fraction of the microplanktonic community covered their N-demand by other sources of N than NO3-.

  14. Enhanced productivity rather than enhanced preservation led to increased organic carbon burial in the euxinic southern proto North Atlantic Ocean during the Cenomanian/Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Pancost, R.D.; Nijenhuis, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Three Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T, ∼93.5 Ma) black shale sections along a northeast-southwest transect in the southern part of the proto-North Atlantic Ocean were correlated by stable carbon isotope stratigraphy using the characteristic excursion in δ¹³C values of both bulk organic matter (OM) and

  15. Marine pastures: a by-product of large (100 megawatt or larger) floating ocean-thermal power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, S.; Roels, O.A.

    1976-08-31

    The potential biological productivity of an open-sea mariculture system utilizing the deep-sea water discharged from an ocean-thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant was investigated. In a series of land-based studies, surface water was used to inoculate deep water and the primary production of the resultant blooms was investigated. Each cubic meter of deep water can produce approximately 2.34 g of phytoplankton protein, and that an OTEC plant discharging deep water at a rate of 4.5 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3/ min/sup -1/ could produce 5.3 x 10/sup 7/ kg of phytoplankton protein per 350-day year. A series of land-based shellfish studies indicated that, when fed at a constant rate of 1.83 x 10/sup -3/ g of protein per second per 70-140 g of whole wet weight, the clam, Tapes japonica, could convert the phytoplankton protein-nitrogen into shellfish meat protein-nitrogen with an efficiency of about 33 per cent. Total potential wet meat weight production from an OTEC plant pumping 4.5 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3/ min/sup -1/ is approximately 4.14 x 10/sup 8/ kg for a 350-day year. Various factors affecting the feasibility of open-sea mariculture are discussed. It is recommended that future work concentrate on a technical and economic analysis. (WDM)

  16. The effect of warm-core eddies on oceanic productivity off northeastern New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J. M.; Heath, R. A.; Chang, F. H.; Hay, C. H.

    1982-12-01

    Two hydrological features influence the primary productivity of an area off East Cape, New Zealand. Deep winter mixing (>275 m) occurs inside a warm-core anticyclonic eddy 190 km offshore. It is suggested that the deep mixing limits primary production, thus conserving nutrients so that they are in greater supply than in peripheral regions. Consequently a spring phytoplankton bloom develops inside the eddy, and this is followed by a corresponding growth in the number of salps. The second feature is the nearshore upwelling over Ranfurly Bank, which increases primary production and influences shelf and slope waters just east and south of the bank. Both features have important implications for pelagic fisheries and the sea-floor fauna.

  17. Drugs from the Oceans: Marine Natural Products as Leads for Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    2017-10-25

    The marine environment harbors a vast number of species that are the source of a wide array of structurally diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. At this point in time, roughly 27'000 marine natural products are known, of which eight are (were) at the origin of seven marketed drugs, mostly for the treatment of cancer. The majority of these drugs and also of drug candidates currently undergoing clinical evaluation (excluding antibody-drug conjugates) are unmodified natural products, but synthetic chemistry has played a central role in the discovery and/or development of all but one of the approved marine-derived drugs. More than 1000 new marine natural products have been isolated per year over the last decade, but the pool of new and unique structures is far from exhausted. To fully leverage the potential offered by the structural diversity of marine-produced secondary metabolites for drug discovery will require their broad assessment for different bioactivities and the productive interplay between new fermentation technologies, synthetic organic chemistry, and medicinal chemistry, in order to secure compound supply and enable lead optimization.

  18. Occurrence and distribution of ladderane oxidation products in different oceanic regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rush, D.; Hopmans, E.C.; Wakeham, S.G.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Ladderane fatty acids are commonly used as biomarkers for bacteria involved in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). These lipids have been experimentally shown to undergo aerobic microbial degradation to form short chain ladderane fatty acids. However, nothing is known of the production or the

  19. TropFlux wind stresses over the tropical oceans: Evaluation and comparison with other products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PraveenKumar, B.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Murty, V.S.N.; McPhaden, M.J.; Cronin, M.F.; Pinsard, F.; Reddy, K.G.

    We present TropFlux wind stresses and evaluate them against observations along with other widely used daily air-sea momentum flux products (NCEP, NCEP2, ERA-I and QuikSCAT). TropFlux wind stresses are computed from the COARE v3.0 algorithm, using...

  20. What Happens to Bio-degradables in the Ocean? Due to the increasing amount of plastic that ends up in the ocean there is much alarm about it killing sea life from ingestion and changing chemical properties of the ocean. But what really happens t these products in the ocean, and how do they affect the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, A.

    2016-12-01

    What Happens to Bio-degradables in the Ocean? Due to the increasing amount of plastic that ends up in the ocean there is much alarm about it killing sea life from entanglement and ingestion and changing chemical properties of the ocean. Our society is trying to take action by purchasing and using materials that claim to be biodegradable. But how long do these materials take to degrade in ocean water and do they actually change the water composition? Answering these questions will determine if one should invest in these materials as an alternative to plastic.

  1. STUDY OF STATISTICAL CORELATION AMONG FISH PRODUCTION AND INDIAN OCEAN DIPOLE AND MONSOON IN WESTERN INDONESIAN SEA USING SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRATMAN -

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Western Indonesian Sea especially Sumatra Sea, Sunda Strait, Pelabuhan Ratu Sea and Prigi Sea is a potential areafor fisheries especially tongkol. Oceanography factors that influenced to the fisheries activity are Sea SurfaceTemperature (SST, Sea Surface Height (SSH, concentration chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, monsoon and Indian Ocean Dipole.This research location is in Western Indonesian Sea. With coordinate is 97.00 E to 114.00 E, and 02.00 N to 11.00 Sin period of 2002 to 2006. Spatial and temporal analysis SSH from Jason-1 Satellite, SST and chl-a from AQUA-MODISsatellite data set used to correlation with fish production. The correlation between Dipole Mode Index (DMI and fishproduction is use also. SST and chl-a data processing by SeaDAS software, SSH derive from website NASA, DMIderived from website NASDA. Fish production data is from statistic fish production data.The correlation value between fish production and SST in Sumatra Sea and Pelabuhanratu Sea is high with value -0.734 and -0.660. In Sunda Strait and Prigi Sea is low, with value -0.560 and -0.566. Meanwhile the correlation valuebetween fish production and chl-a in Sumatra Sea, Sunda Strait and Pelabuhanratu are high and in Prigi Sea is low. Thevalue in Sumatra Sea is 0.868, in Sunda Strait is 0.660, in Pelabuharatu Sea is 0.751 and in Prigi sea is 0.588.The fish production caught by fisherman influence by northwest monsoon (rainy season and southeast monsoon (dryseason. Fish production will decrease in rainy season, and increase at dry season.The correlation value between fish production and DMI has a high correlation in Sumatra Sea, Sunda Strait andPelabuhanratu Sea. Meanwhile, in Prigi Sea the corelation is low. Correlation value in Sumatra Sea is 0.851, in SundaStrait is 0.656, in Pelabuhanratu Sea is 0.691 and in Prigi Sea is 0.463.

  2. Ocean energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlier, R.H. (Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)); Justus, J.R. (The Library of Congress, CRS/SPRD, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-09-01

    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  3. INVESTIGATION THE BEHAVIOR OF MODIS OCEAN COLOR PRODUCTS UNDER THE 2008 RED TIDE IN THE EASTERN PERSIAN GULF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghanea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical properties of water undergo serious variations under red tide (RT outbreak. During RT conditions, algal blooms spread out in the estuarine, marine and fresh waters due to different triggering factors such as nutrient loading, marine currents, and monsoonal winds. The Persian Gulf (PG was a talent region subjected to different RTs in recent decade. A massive RT started from the Strait of Hormuz in October 2008 and extended towards the northern parts of the PG covering more than 1200 km of coastlines. The bloom of microorganism C. Polykrikoides was the main specie that generated large fish mortalities, and hampered marine industries, and water desalination appliances. Ocean color satellite data have many advantages to monitor and alarm RT occurrences, such as wide and continuous extent, short time of imagery, high accessibility, and appropriate estimation of ocean color parameters. Since 1999, MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite sensor has estimated satellite derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH, and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm (kd490. It provides a capability to study the behavior of these parameters during RT and normal conditions. This study monitors variations in satellite derived Chl-a, nFLH, and kd490 under both RT and normal conditions of the PG between 2002 and 2008. Up to now, daily and monthly variations in these products were no synchronously investigated under RT conditions in the PG. In doing so, the MODIS L1B products were provided from NASA data archive. They were corrected for Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption, and atmospheric interference in turbid coastal waters, and then converted to level 2 data. In addition, Enhanced Red Green Blue (ERGB image was used to illustrate better water variations. ERGB image was built with three normalized leaving water radiance between 443 to 560nm. All the above data processes were applied by SeaDAS 7

  4. A biomarker perspective on dust, productivity, and sea surface temperature in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Andrea; Wengler, Marc; Hefter, Jens; Ronge, Thomas A.; Geibert, Walter; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Gersonde, Rainer; Lamy, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we present a new multiproxy data set of terrigenous input, marine productivity and sea surface temperature (SST) from 52 surface sediment samples collected along E-W transects in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. Allochthonous terrigenous input was characterized by the distribution of plant wax n-alkanes and soil-derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs). 230Th-normalized burial of both compound groups were highest close to the potential sources in Australia and New Zealand and are strongly related to lithogenic contents (232Th), indicating common sources and transport. Detection of both long-chain n-alkanes and brGDGTs at the most remote sites in the open ocean strongly suggests a primarily eolian transport mechanism to at least 110°W, i.e. by prevailing westerly winds. Two independent organic SST proxies were used, the U37K‧ based on alkenones, and the TEX86 based on isoprenoid GDGTs. Both, U37K‧ and TEX86 indices show robust relationships with temperature over a temperature range between 0.5 and 20 °C, likely implying different seasonal and regional imprints on the temperature signal. Alkenone-based temperature estimates best reflect modern summer SST in the study area when using the polar calibration of Sikes et al. (1997). In contrast, TEX86-derived temperatures may reflect a subsurface signal rather than surface. 230Th-normalized burial of alkenones is highest close to the Subtropical Front and is positively related to the deposition of lithogenic material throughout the study area. In contrast, highest isoGDGT burial south of the Antarctic Polar Front may be largely controlled by diatom blooms, and thus high opal fluxes during austral summer.

  5. Productivity, chlorophyll a, Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) and other phytoplankton data from the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea, East Siberian Sea, Kara Sea, Barents Sea, and Arctic Archipelago measured between 17 April, 1954 and 30 May, 2006 compiled as part of the Arctic System Science Primary Production (ARCSS-PP) observational synthesis project (NODC Accession 0063065)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Arctic Ocean primary production data were assembled from original input data archived in various international databases, provided by individual investigators or in...

  6. The SWATH Concept: Designing Superior Operability into a Surface Displacement Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    assistance from the Naval Underseas Center (NUC) as well as industrial and academic institutions. The Naval Ship Engineering Center (NAVSEC) has...17. The SWATH ship speed degradation band also shown in Figure 17 is based on engineering judgment as to the combined effects of additional wave...in unpublished form). 56 ■ ■■■-■I’^W*« WMW *«Wlil^^ r U « < H T y p e of W a v e s CO i a: eg . an d rr eg . eg . an d rr eg . eg

  7. Coastal interferometric swath bathymetry data collected in 2015 from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Jake J.; Buster, Noreen A.; DeWitt, Nancy T.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Miselis, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (USGS SPCMSC), collected swath bathymetry data at the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana in September 2015. This USGS Data Release includes the resulting processed elevation point data (xyz) and an interpolated digital elevation model (DEM). For further information regarding data collection and/or processing please see the metadata associated with this data release and previous data series published by the USGS SPCMSC http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds847 and http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds848.

  8. Cascading influence of inorganic nitrogen sources on DOM production, composition, lability and microbial community structure in the open ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, SJ; Nelson, CE; Viviani, DA; Shulse, CN; Church, MJ

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd Nitrogen frequently limits oceanic photosynthesis and the availability of inorganic nitrogen sources in the surface oceans is shifting with global change. We evaluated the potential for abrupt increases in inorganic N sources to induce cascading effects on dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microbial communities in the surface ocean. We collected water from 5 m depth in the central North Pacific and amended duplicate 20 liter...

  9. Swath bathymetric survey of Englebright Lake, Yuba-Nevada Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Stevenson, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    In March, 2004, the USGS conducted a swath bathymetric survey of Englebright Lake, a 9-mile long reservoir located in the Sierra Nevada foothills of northern California on the Yuba River. This survey was follow-on to an earlier bathymetric survey and sediment thickness analysis done by the USGS in 2001 (Childs and others, 2003). The primary purpose of these studies is to assess the quantity and nature of the sediment that has accumulated since the dam was completed in 1940. The specific purpose of the swath bathymetry was to map in high detail the prograding delta that is being formed as the lake fills in with sediment. In the event of another large flood such as occurred on January 1, 1997, the survey could be repeated to determine the effect of such an event on the sediment volume and distribution. This study was conducted under the auspices of the Upper Yuba River Studies Program (UYRSP) . The UYRSP is funded by the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, whose mission is to "develop and implement a long-term comprehensive plan that will restore ecological health and improve water management for beneficial uses of the San Francisco Bay-Delta System".

  10. Spectral Libraries for SWATH-MS Assays for Drosophila melanogaster and Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Bertrand; Korona, Dagmara; Mata, Clara I; Parsons, Harriet T; Deery, Michael J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Russell, Steven; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative proteomics methods have emerged as powerful tools for measuring protein expression changes at the proteome level. Using MS-based approaches, it is now possible to routinely quantify thousands of proteins. However, prefractionation of the samples at the protein or peptide level is usually necessary to go deep into the proteome, increasing both MS analysis time and technical variability. Recently, a new MS acquisition method named SWATH is introduced with the potential to provide good coverage of the proteome as well as a good measurement precision without prior sample fractionation. In contrast to shotgun-based MS however, a library containing experimental acquired spectra is necessary for the bioinformatics analysis of SWATH data. In this study, spectral libraries for two widely used models are built to study crop ripening or animal embryogenesis, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. The spectral libraries comprise fragments for 5197 and 6040 proteins for S. lycopersicum and D. melanogaster, respectively, and allow reproducible quantification for thousands of peptides per MS analysis. The spectral libraries and all MS data are available in the MassIVE repository with the dataset identifiers MSV000081074 and MSV000081075 and the PRIDE repository with the dataset identifiers PXD006493 and PXD006495. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The rise of ocean giants: maximum body size in Cenozoic marine mammals as an indicator for productivity in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2016-01-01

    Large consumers have ecological influence disproportionate to their abundance, although this influence in food webs depends directly on productivity. Evolutionary patterns at geologic timescales inform expectations about the relationship between consumers and productivity, but it is very difficult to track productivity through time with direct, quantitative measures. Based on previous work that used the maximum body size of Cenozoic marine invertebrate assemblages as a proxy for benthic produ...

  12. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  13. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 3 - Hydrochemical Atlas of the Sea of Okhotsk 2001 (NODC Accession 0000521)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrochemical and other data were collected from bottle casts in the Sea of Okhotsk from the Protractor from 01 June 1990 to 31 August 1997. Data were compiled as an...

  14. NODC Standard Product: Experimental Compact Disk NODC-01 Pacific Ocean Temperature-Salinity Profiles (1900-1988) (NODC Accession 0086259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) created a compact disk containing over 1.3 million temperature-depth and salinity-depth profiles taken in the Pacific...

  15. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 12 - Climatic atlas of the North Pacific Seas 2009 (NODC Accession 0098576)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Atlas contains monthly climatic charts of temperature, salinity, and oxygen at the sea surface and at standard depth levels for the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk,...

  16. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 6 - Zooplankton of the Arctic Seas 2002 (NODC Accession 0098570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and biological data for the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions extending from the Barents Sea to the Northwest Pacific, sampled during 25 scientific cruises for...

  17. Using Remote Sensing Products to Identify Marine Association Patterns in Factors Relating to ENSO in the Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunjin Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO and its relationships with marine environmental parameters comprise a very complicated and interrelated system. Traditional spatiotemporal techniques face great challenges in dealing with which, how, and where the marine environmental parameters in different zones help to drive, and respond to, ENSO events. Remote sensing products covering a 15-year period from 1998 to 2012 were used to quantitatively explore these patterns in the Pacific Ocean (PO by a prevail quantitative association rule mining algorithm, that is, a priori, within a mining framework. The marine environmental parameters considered were monthly anomaly of sea surface chlorophyll-a (CHLA, monthly anomaly of sea surface temperature (SSTA, monthly anomaly of sea level anomaly (SLAA, monthly anomaly of sea surface precipitation (SSPA, and monthly anomaly of sea surface wind speed (WSA. Four significant discoveries are found, namely: (1 Association patterns among marine environmental parameters and ENSO events were found primarily in five sub-regions of the PO: the western PO, the central and eastern tropical PO, the middle of the northern subtropical PO, offshore of the California coast, and the southern PO; (2 In the western and the middle and east of the equatorial PO, the association patterns are more complicated than other regions; (3 The following factors were found to be predicators of and responses to La Niña events: abnormal decrease of SLAA and WSA in the east of the equatorial PO, abnormal decrease of SSPA and WSA in the middle of the equatorial PO, abnormal decrease of SSTA in the eastern and central tropical PO, and abnormal increase of SLAA in the western PO; (4 Only abnormal decrease of CHLA in the middle of the equatorial PO was found to be a predicator of and response to El Niño events. These findings will help to improve our abilities to identify the marine association patterns in factors relating to ENSO events.

  18. Perception of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) by loggerhead sea turtles: a possible mechanism for locating high-productivity oceanic regions for foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Courtney S; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2012-10-15

    During their long-distance migrations, sea turtles of several species feed on jellyfish and other invertebrates that are particularly abundant in ocean regions characterized by high productivity. An ability to distinguish productive oceanic regions from other areas, and to concentrate foraging activities in locations where prey density is highest, might therefore be adaptive. The volatile compound dimethyl sulfide (DMS) accumulates in the air above productive ocean areas such as upwelling and frontal zones. In principle, DMS might therefore serve as an indicator of high prey density for turtles. To determine whether turtles perceive DMS, juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) were placed into a water-filled arena in which DMS and other odorants could be introduced to the air above the water surface. Turtles exposed to air that had passed over a cup containing 10 nmol l(-1) DMS spent more time at the surface with their noses out of the water than control turtles, which were exposed to air that had passed over a cup containing distilled water. Odors that do not occur in the sea (cinnamon, jasmine and lemon) did not elicit increased surface time, implying that the response to DMS is unlikely to reflect a generalized response to any novel odor. The results demonstrate for the first time that sea turtles can detect DMS, an ability that might enable the identification of favorable foraging areas.

  19. Precise Temporal Profiling of Signaling Complexes in Primary Cells Using SWATH Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Caron

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal organization of protein interactions in cell signaling is a fundamental process that drives cellular functions. Given differential protein expression across tissues and developmental stages, the architecture and dynamics of signaling interaction proteomes is, likely, highly context dependent. However, current interaction information has been almost exclusively obtained from transformed cells. In this study, we applied an advanced and robust workflow combining mouse genetics and affinity purification (AP-SWATH mass spectrometry to profile the dynamics of 53 high-confidence protein interactions in primary T cells, using the scaffold protein GRB2 as a model. The workflow also provided a sufficient level of robustness to pinpoint differential interaction dynamics between two similar, but functionally distinct, primary T cell populations. Altogether, we demonstrated that precise and reproducible quantitative measurements of protein interaction dynamics can be achieved in primary cells isolated from mammalian tissues, allowing resolution of the tissue-specific context of cell-signaling events.

  20. Airborne Optical Remote Sensing of Ocean Surface Current Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. P.; Zuckerman, S.; Stuart, G.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate and timely knowledge of open ocean surface currents are needed for a variety of engineering and emergency missions, as well as for improving scientific understanding of ocean dynamics. This paper presents surface current observations from a new airborne current measurement capability called the Remote Ocean Current Imaging System (ROCIS). ROCIS exploits space-time processing of airborne ocean wave imagery to produce real-time maps of surface currents every 1 km along the flight track. Post-processing of the data allows for more in depth sensitivity studies than can be undertaken with the real-time measurements alone, providing swaths of current retrievals at higher spatial resolutions. Currents can be calculated on scales down to 100 m, across swaths 3 km wide, along the entire flight path. Here, we report on results for multiple ROCIS data collection flights over the Gulf of Mexico conducted in 2012, 2014 and 2015. We show comparisons to in situ current measurements, explore performance as a function of altitude, dwell, wind speed, and wave height, and discuss sources of error. We present examples of current retrievals revealing mesoscale and submesoscale variability. Lastly, we present horizontal kinetic energy spectra from select flights covering a range of spatial scales from hundreds of meters to hundreds of kilometers.

  1. Ocean acidification has different effects on the production of dimethylsulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate measured in cultures of Emiliania huxleyi and a mesocosm study : A comparison of laboratory monocultures and community interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Alison L.; Malin, Gill; Hopkins, Frances E.; Ho, Kai Lam; Riebesell, Ulf; Schulz, Kai G.; Larsen, Aud; Liss, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental context Approximately 25% of CO2 released to the atmosphere by human activities has been absorbed by the oceans, resulting in ocean acidification. We investigate the acidification effects on marine phytoplankton and subsequent production of the trace gas dimethylsulfide, a major route

  2. Improvement in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System/Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget Dust Aerosol Properties, Effects on Surface Validation of Clouds and Radiative Swath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutan, D.; Rose, F.; Charlock, T.P.

    2005-03-18

    Within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (Wielicki et al. 1996), the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) group is tasked with calculating vertical profiles of heating rates, globally, and continuously, beneath CERES footprint observations of Top of Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes. This is accomplished using a fast radiative transfer code originally developed by Qiang Fu and Kuo-Nan Liou (Fu and Liou 1993) and subsequently highly modified by the SARB team. Details on the code and its inputs can be found in Kato et al. (2005) and Rose and Charlock (2002). Among the many required inputs is characterization of the vertical column profile of aerosols beneath each footprint. To do this SARB combines aerosol optical depth information from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with aerosol constituents specified by the Model for Atmosphere and Chemical Transport (MATCH) of Collins et al. (2001), and aerosol properties (e.g. single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter) from Tegen and Lacis (1996) and OPAC (Hess et al. 1998). The publicly available files that include these flux profiles, called the Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) data product, available from the Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/). As various versions of the code are completed, publishable results are named ''Editions.'' After CRS Edition 2A was finalized it was found that dust aerosols were too absorptive. Dust aerosols have subsequently been modified using a new set of properties developed by Andy Lacis and results have been released in CRS Edition 2B. This paper discusses the effects of changing desert dust aerosol properties, which can be significant for the radiation budget in mid ocean, a few thousand kilometers from the source regions. Resulting changes are validated via comparison of surface observed fluxes from the Saudi Solar Village surface site (Myers et al

  3. An Overview of the Naval Research Laboratory Ocean Surface Flux (NFLUX) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rowley, C. D.; Barron, C. N.

    2016-02-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) ocean surface flux (NFLUX) system is an end-to-end data processing and assimilation system used to provide near-real time satellite-based surface heat flux fields over the global ocean. Swath-level air temperature (TA), specific humidity (QA), and wind speed (WS) estimates are produced using multiple polynomial regression algorithms with inputs from satellite sensor data records from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A, the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder, and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 sensors. Swath-level WS estimates are also retrieved from satellite environmental data records from WindSat, the MetOp scatterometers, and the Oceansat scatterometer. Swath-level solar and longwave radiative flux estimates are produced utilizing the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for Global Circulation Models (RRTMG). Primary inputs to the RRTMG include temperature and moisture profiles and cloud liquid and ice water paths from the Microwave Integrated Retrieval System. All swath-level satellite estimates undergo an automated quality control process and are then assimilated with atmospheric model forecasts to produce 3-hourly gridded analysis fields. The turbulent heat flux fields, latent and sensible heat flux, are determined from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) 3.0 bulk algorithms using inputs of TA, QA, WS, and a sea surface temperature model field. Quality-controlled in situ observations over a one-year time period from May 2013 through April 2014 form the reference for validating ocean surface state parameter and heat flux fields. The NFLUX fields are evaluated alongside the Navy's operational global atmospheric model, the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM). NFLUX is shown to have smaller biases and lower or similar root mean square errors compared to NAVGEM.

  4. Investigation into the impact of storms on sustaining summer primary productivity in the Sub-Antarctic Ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nicholson, Sarah-Anne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available of such phenomena for ocean-biogeochemical models. 1. Introduction An unexplained peculiarity of phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean (SO) is the regional-scale occur- rence of prolonged blooms into late summer [Swart et al., 2015; Carranza and Gille, 2015...]. Observations of chlorophyll a show that summer blooms are widespread and occur annually [Carranza and Gille, 2015], are prominent within the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ), and may be several months in duration (e.g., ~16weeks in Racault et al. [2012]), typically...

  5. Patterns and Trends of Primary Production, Inorganic Carbon and Oxygen and Their Ecosystem Impacts in a Regional Biogeochemical Ocean Model for Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, K.; Rutherford, K. E.; Kuhn, A. M.; Zhang, W.; Brennan, C. E.; Zhang, R.

    2016-12-01

    Representing coastal oceans in global biogeochemical models is a challenge, yet the ecosystems in these regions are most vulnerable to the combined stressors of ocean warming, deoxygenation, acidification, eutrophication and fishing. Coastal regions also have large air-sea fluxes of CO2, making them an important but poorly quantified component of the global carbon cycle, and are the most relevant for human activities. Regional model applications that are nested within large-scale or global models are necessary for detailed studies of coastal regions. We present results from such a regional biogeochemical model for the northwestern North Atlantic shelves and adjacent deep ocean of Atlantic Canada. The model is an implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and includes an NPZD-type nitrogen cycle model with explicit representation of dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon. The region is at the confluence of the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current making it highly dynamic, a challenge for analysis and prediction, and prone to large changes. Historically a rich fishing ground, coastal ecosystems in Atlantic Canada have undergone dramatic changes including the collapse of several economically important fish stocks and the listing of many species as threatened or endangered. Furthermore it is unclear whether the region is a net source or sink of atmospheric CO2 with estimates of the size and direction of the net air-sea CO2 flux remaining controversial. We will discuss simulated patterns of primary production, inorganic carbon fluxes and oxygen trends in the context of circulation features and shelf residence times for the present ocean state and present future projections.

  6. JPSS VIIRS level 3 uncollated sea surface temperature product at NOAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Gladkova, Irina; Ding, Yanni; Shahriar, Fazlul; Kihai, Yury; Zhou, Xinjia

    2017-07-01

    Following the launch of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite in October 2011 with the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor onboard, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) started generating a global level 2 preprocessed (L2P) sea surface temperature (SST) product. The NOAA Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Ocean (ACSPO) L2P data are organized into 144 10-min granules per day, with a total volume of ˜27 GB. The L2P product has been successfully assimilated in several level 4 (L4) analyses. At the same time, some other users requested a gridded level 3 (L3) product with a reduced data volume. An L3U "uncollated" product (in which multiple passes over the same grid are independently saved) was produced by mapping the L2P product into equal 0.02° grids. Similar to the L2P, the L3U data are also reported in 10-min granules, but with a daily volume <1 GB. Currently, the NOAA VIIRS L3U SST product is operationally used or tested in several major international numerical weather prediction centers. The L3U shows comparable performance with L2P, suggesting that both products can be used interchangeably as input into L4 analyses. The original L2P pixel-level swath data continue to be produced and available to interested users from NOAA (NCEI) and JPL (Physical Oceanography) data archives.

  7. SPECIATION CHIMIQUE DU FER DANS L'OCEAN : Les complexes fer-porphyrines, méthodes de détection et mécanismes de production

    OpenAIRE

    Vong, Lilita

    2008-01-01

    + Nouveau chapitre de la thèse inclus (encouragé par l'Association Bernard Grégory); Iron bioavailability is a limiting factor for phytoplankton production in many oceanic regions. Dissolved iron (

  8. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients and productivity profile data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON Cruise 001, 19651014 to 19651207 in the Caribbean Sea and the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 7100507)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a copy of University of Washington Department of Oceanography Technical Report No. 249, Physical, chemical, and productivity data from a...

  9. Iron fertilization enhanced net community production but not downward particle flux during the Southern Ocean iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Martin, P.; Loeff, M.M.R. van der.; Cassar, N.; Vandromme, P.; d'Ovidio, F.; Stemmann, L.; Rengarajan, R.; Soares, M.A.; Gonzalez, H.E.; Ebersbach, F.; Lampitt, R.S.; Sanders, R.; Barnett, B.A.; Smetacek, V.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    A closed eddy core in the Subantarctic Atlantic Ocean was fertilized twice with two tons of iron (as FeSO4), and the 300 km2 fertilized patch was studied for 39 days to test whether fertilization enhances downward particle flux...

  10. Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated from Si isotopic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

    2014-05-01

    A massive diatom-bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the Plateau biogenic silica production fluxes are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 in average), silica dissolution rates were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (Si:C and Si:N) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate the primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution to production ratios (D:P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustained most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS-expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution on the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to a higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling between H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross-Si:N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the HNLC area, likely due to different diatoms communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long time scales does not necessarily decrease Si:N uptake ratios

  11. Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated with Si isotopic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

    2014-10-01

    A massive diatom bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe-fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes (ρSi and ρDiss, respectively) in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a high-nutrient low-chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the plateau biogenic ρSi are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 on average), ρDiss were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (ρSi : ρC and ρSi : ρN) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution-to-production ratios (D : P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustain most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution of the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling of H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross Si : N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area, likely due to different diatom communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long timescales does not necessarily

  12. OMPS-NPP L2 LP Aerosol Extinction Vertical Profile swath daily 3slit V1 (OMPS_NPP_LP_L2_AER675_DAILY) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 LP Aerosol Extinction Vertical Profile swath daily 3slit collection contains the retrieved aerosol extinction coefficients at 675 nm (AER675)...

  13. Effects of cross-education on the muscle after a period of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charlene R. A. Magnus; Trevor S. Barss; Joel L. Lanovaz; Jonathan P. Farthing

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cross-education during 4 wk of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe to investigate the effects on muscle strength, muscle size, and muscle activation...

  14. Effects of ocean acidification on the physiological performance and carbon production of the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia sp. ICE-H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chang-Feng; Liu, Fang-Ming; Zheng, Zhou; Wang, Yi-Bin; Li, Xue-Gang; Yuan, Hua-Mao; Li, Ning; An, Mei-Ling; Wang, Xi-Xi; He, Ying-Ying; Li, Lu-Lu; Miao, Jin-Lai

    2017-07-15

    Ocean acidification (OA) resulting from increasing atmospheric CO 2 strongly influences marine ecosystems, particularly in the polar ocean due to greater CO 2 solubility. Here, we grew the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia sp. ICE-H in a semicontinuous culture under low (~400ppm) and high (1000ppm) CO 2 levels. Elevated CO 2 resulted in a stimulated physiological response including increased growth rates, chlorophyll a contents, and nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rates. Furthermore, high CO 2 enhanced cellular particulate organic carbon production rates, indicating a greater shift from inorganic to organic carbon. However, the cultures grown in high CO 2 conditions exhibited a decrease in both extracellular and intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, suggesting that the carbon concentrating mechanisms of Nitzschia sp. ICE-H may be suppressed by elevated CO 2 . Our results revealed that OA would be beneficial to the survival of this sea ice diatom strain, with broad implications for global carbon cycles in the future ocean. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. ROI-ORIENTATED SENSOR CORRECTION BASED ON VIRTUAL STEADY REIMAGING MODEL FOR WIDE SWATH HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirement of high accuracy and high speed processing for wide swath high resolution optical satellite imagery under emergency situation in both ground processing system and on-board processing system. This paper proposed a ROI-orientated sensor correction algorithm based on virtual steady reimaging model for wide swath high resolution optical satellite imagery. Firstly, the imaging time and spatial window of the ROI is determined by a dynamic search method. Then, the dynamic ROI sensor correction model based on virtual steady reimaging model is constructed. Finally, the corrected image corresponding to the ROI is generated based on the coordinates mapping relationship which is established by the dynamic sensor correction model for corrected image and rigours imaging model for original image. Two experimental results show that the image registration between panchromatic and multispectral images can be well achieved and the image distortion caused by satellite jitter can be also corrected efficiently.

  16. The Proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Alsdorf, Douglas; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Morrow, Rosemary; Mognard, Nelly; Vaze, Parag; Lafon, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    A new space mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is being developed jointly by a collaborative effort of the international oceanographic and hydrological communities for making high-resolution measurement of the water elevation of both the ocean and land surface water to answer the questions about the oceanic submesoscale processes and the storage and discharge of land surface water. The key instrument payload would be a Ka-band radar interferometer capable of making high-resolution wide-swath altimetry measurement. This paper describes the proposed science objectives and requirements as well as the measurement approach of SWOT, which is baselined to be launched in 2019. SWOT would demonstrate this new approach to advancing both oceanography and land hydrology and set a standard for future altimetry missions.

  17. Productivity gains do not compensate for reduced calcification under near-future ocean acidification in the photosynthetic benthic foraminifer species Marginopora vertebralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Fabricius, Katharina E

    2012-09-01

    Changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry (ocean acidification) from increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations negatively affect many marine calcifying organisms, but may benefit primary producers under dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) limitation. To improve predictions of the ecological effects of ocean acidification, the net gains and losses between the processes of photosynthesis and calcification need to be studied jointly on physiological and population levels. We studied productivity, respiration, and abundances of the symbiont-bearing foraminifer species Marginopora vertebralis on natural CO2 seeps in Papua New Guinea and conducted additional studies on production and calcification on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) using artificially enhanced pCO2 . Net oxygen production increased up to 90% with increasing pCO2 ; temperature, light, and pH together explaining 61% of the variance in production. Production increased with increasing light and increasing pCO2 and declined at higher temperatures. Respiration was also significantly elevated (~25%), whereas calcification was reduced (16-39%) at low pH/high pCO2 compared to present-day conditions. In the field, M. vertebralis was absent at three CO2 seep sites at pHTotal levels below ~7.9 (pCO2 ~700 μatm), but it was found in densities of over 1000 m(-2) at all three control sites. The study showed that endosymbiotic algae in foraminifera benefit from increased DIC availability and may be naturally carbon limited. The observed reduction in calcification may have been caused either by increased energy demands for proton pumping (measured as elevated rates of respiration) or by stronger competition for DIC from the more productive symbionts. The net outcome of these two competing processes is that M. vertebralis cannot maintain populations under pCO2 exceeding 700 μatm, thus are likely to be extinct in the next century. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Parameterization of vertical chlorophyll a in the Arctic Ocean: impact of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum on regional, seasonal, and annual primary production estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ardyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Predicting water-column phytoplankton biomass from near-surface measurements is a common approach in biological oceanography, particularly since the advent of satellite remote sensing of ocean color (OC. In the Arctic Ocean, deep subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SCMs that significantly contribute to primary production (PP are often observed. These are neither detected by ocean color sensors nor accounted for in the primary production models applied to the Arctic Ocean. Here, we assemble a large database of pan-Arctic observations (i.e., 5206 stations and develop an empirical model to estimate vertical chlorophyll a (Chl a according to (1 the shelf–offshore gradient delimited by the 50 m isobath, (2 seasonal variability along pre-bloom, post-bloom, and winter periods, and (3 regional differences across ten sub-Arctic and Arctic seas. Our detailed analysis of the dataset shows that, for the pre-bloom and winter periods, as well as for high surface Chl a concentration (Chl asurf; 0.7–30 mg m−3 throughout the open water period, the Chl a maximum is mainly located at or near the surface. Deep SCMs occur chiefly during the post-bloom period when Chl asurf is low (0–0.5 mg m−3. By applying our empirical model to annual Chl asurf time series, instead of the conventional method assuming vertically homogenous Chl a, we produce novel pan-Arctic PP estimates and associated uncertainties. Our results show that vertical variations in Chl a have a limited impact on annual depth-integrated PP. Small overestimates found when SCMs are shallow (i.e., pre-bloom, post-bloom > 0.7 mg m−3, and the winter period somehow compensate for the underestimates found when SCMs are deep (i.e., post-bloom −3. SCMs are, however, important seasonal features with a substantial impact on depth-integrated PP estimates, especially when surface nitrate is exhausted in the Arctic Ocean and where highly stratified and oligotrophic conditions prevail.

  19. The use of LC predicted retention times to extend metabolites identification with SWATH data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Tobias; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2017-12-15

    The application of predicted LC retention time to support metabolite identification was evaluated for a metabolomics MS/MS database containing 532 compounds representative for the major human metabolite classes. LC retention times could be measured for two C18 type columns using a mobile phase of pH=3.0 for positive ESI mode (n=337, 228) and pH=8.0 for negative ESI mode (n=410, 233). A QSRR modelling was applied with a small set of model compound selected based on the Kennard-Stone algorithm. The models were implemented in the R environment and can be applied to any library. The prediction model was built with two molecular descriptors, LogD2 and the molecular volume. A limited set of model compounds (LC CalMix, n=16) could be validated on two different C18 reversed phase LC columns and with comparable prediction accuracy. The CalMix can be used to compensate for different LC systems. In addition, LC retention prediction was found, in combination with SWATH-MS, to be attractive to eliminate false positive identification as well as for ranking purpose different metabolite isomeric forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SWATH-MS data of Drosophila melanogaster proteome dynamics during embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Fabre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenesis is one of the most important processes in the life of an animal. During this dynamic process, progressive cell division and cellular differentiation are accompanied by significant changes in protein expression at the level of the proteome. However, very few studies to date have described the dynamics of the proteome during the early development of an embryo in any organism. In this dataset, we monitor changes in protein expression across a timecourse of more than 20 h of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic development. Mass-spectrometry data were produced using a SWATH acquisition mode on a Sciex Triple-TOF 6600. A spectral library built in-house was used to analyse these data and more than 1950 proteins were quantified at each embryonic timepoint. The files presented here are a permanent digital map and can be reanalysed to test against new hypotheses. The data have been deposited with the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD0031078.

  1. New Approach for Unambiguous High-Resolution Wide-Swath SAR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueguan Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution wide-swath (HRWS SAR system uses a small antenna for transmitting waveform and multiple antennas both in elevation and azimuth for receiving echoes. It has the potential to achieve wide spatial coverage and fine azimuth resolution, while it suffers from elevation pattern loss caused by the presence of topographic height and impaired azimuth resolution caused by nonuniform sampling. A new approach for HRWS SAR imaging based on compressed sensing (CS is introduced. The data after range compression of multiple elevation apertures are used to estimate direction of arrival (DOA of targets via CS, and the adaptive digital beamforming in elevation is achieved accordingly, which avoids the pattern loss of scan-on-receive (SCORE algorithm when topographic height exists. The effective phase centers of the system are nonuniformly distributed when displaced phase center antenna (DPCA technology is adopted, which causes Doppler ambiguities under traditional SAR imaging algorithms. Azimuth reconstruction based on CS can resolve this problem via precisely modeling the nonuniform sampling. Validation with simulations and experiment in an anechoic chamber are presented.

  2. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  3. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  4. Primary productivity and other data from bottle casts from the USCGC STATEN ISLAND and other platforms in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 07 August 1974 to 06 May 1979 (NODC Accession 8000599)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary productivity and other data were collected from bottle casts from the USCGC STATEN ISLAND and other platforms in the North Pacific Ocean from 07 August 1974...

  5. Satellite surface salinity maps to determine fresh water fluxes in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Estrella, Olmedo; Emelianov, Mikhail; Ballabrera, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Salinity and temperature gradients drive the thermohaline circulation of the oceans, and play a key role in the ocean-atmosphere coupling. The strong and direct interactions between the ocean and the cryosphere (primarily through sea ice and ice shelves) are also a key ingredient of the thermohaline circulation. Recent observational studies have documented changes in upper Arctic Ocean hydrography [1, 2]. The ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in 2009, have the objective to measure soil moisture over the continents and sea surface salinity over the oceans [3]. However, SMOS is also making inroads in Cryospheric science, as the measurements of thin ice thickness and sea ice concentration. SMOS carries an innovative L-band (1.4 GHz, or 21-cm wavelength), passive interferometric radiometer (the so-called MIRAS) that measures the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, at about 50 km spatial resolution wide swath (1200-km), and with a 3-day revisit time at the equator, but more frequently at the poles. Although the SMOS radiometer operating frequency offers almost the maximum sensitivity of the brightness temperature (TB) to sea surface salinity (SSS) variations, such sensitivity is rather low, even lower at cold waters [4]: 90% of ocean SSS values span a range of brightness temperatures of just 5K. This implies that the SMOS SSS retrieval requires a high performance of the MIRAS interferometric radiometer [5]. New algorithms, recently developed at the Barcelona Expert Center (BEC) to improve the quality of SMOS measurements [6], allow for the first time to derive cold-water SSS maps from SMOS data, and to observe the variability of the SSS in the higher north Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. In this work, we will provide an assessment of the quality of these new SSS Arctic maps, and we will illustrate their potential to monitor the impact on ocean state of the discharges from the main rivers to the Arctic Ocean. Moreover

  6. Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2008-12-01

    It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of

  7. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  8. Impact of ocean acidification on phytoplankton assemblage, growth, and DMS production following Fe-dust additions in the NE Pacific high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélançon, Josiane; Levasseur, Maurice; Lizotte, Martine; Scarratt, Michael; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Tortell, Philippe; Yang, Gui-Peng; Shi, Guang-Yu; Gao, Huiwang; Semeniuk, David; Robert, Marie; Arychuk, Michael; Johnson, Keith; Sutherland, Nes; Davelaar, Marty; Nemcek, Nina; Peña, Angelica; Richardson, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is likely to have an effect on the fertilizing potential of desert dust in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceanic regions, either by modifying iron (Fe) speciation and bioavailability or by altering phytoplankton Fe requirements and acquisition. To address this issue, short incubations (4 days) of northeast subarctic Pacific waters enriched with either FeSO4 or dust and set at pH 8.0 (in situ) and 7.8 were conducted in August 2010. We assessed the impact of a decrease in pH on dissolved Fe concentration, phytoplankton biomass, taxonomy and productivity, and the production of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and its algal precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Chlorophyll a (chl a) remained unchanged in the controls and doubled in both the FeSO4-enriched and dust-enriched incubations, confirming the Fe-limited status of the plankton assemblage during the experiment. In the acidified treatments, a significant reduction (by 16-38 %) in the final concentration of chl a was measured compared to their nonacidified counterparts, and a 15 % reduction in particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration was measured in the dust-enriched acidified treatment compared to the dust-enriched nonacidified treatment. FeSO4 and dust additions had a fertilizing effect mainly on diatoms and cyanobacteria as estimated from algal pigment signatures. Lowering the pH affected mostly the haptophytes, but pelagophyte concentrations were also reduced in some acidified treatments. Acidification did not significantly alter DMSP and DMS concentrations. These results show that dust deposition events in a low-pH iron-limited northeast subarctic Pacific are likely to stimulate phytoplankton growth to a lesser extent than in today's ocean during the few days following fertilization and point to a low initial sensitivity of the DMSP and DMS dynamics to OA.

  9. Application of SWAT-HS, a lumped hillslope model to simulate hydrology in the Cannonsville Reservoir watershed, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Linh; Schneiderman, Elliot; Mukundan, Rajith; Moore, Karen; Owens, Emmet; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2017-04-01

    Surface runoff is the primary mechanism transporting substances such as sediments, agricultural chemicals, and pathogens to receiving waters. In order to predict runoff and pollutant fluxes, and to evaluate management practices, it is essential to accurately predict the areas generating surface runoff, which depend on the type of runoff: infiltration-excess runoff and saturation-excess runoff. The watershed of Cannonsville reservoir is part of the New York City water supply system that provides high quality drinking water to nine million people in New York City (NYC) and nearby communities. Previous research identified saturation-excess runoff as the dominant runoff mechanism in this region. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a promising tool to simulate the NYC watershed given its broad application and good performance in many watersheds with different scales worldwide, for its ability to model water quality responses, and to evaluate the effect of management practices on water quality at the watershed scale. However, SWAT predicts runoff based mainly on soil and land use characteristics, and implicitly considers only infiltration-excess runoff. Therefore, we developed a modified version of SWAT, referred to as SWAT-Hillslope (SWAT-HS), which explicitly simulates saturation-excess runoff by redefining Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) based on wetness classes with varying soil water storage capacities, and by introducing a surface aquifer with the ability to route interflow from "drier" to "wetter" wetness classes. SWAT-HS was first tested at Town Brook, a 37 km2 headwater watershed draining to the Cannonsville reservoir using a single sub-basin for the whole watershed. SWAT-HS performed well, and predicted streamflow yielded Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.68 and 0.87 at the daily and monthly time steps, respectively. More importantly, it predicted the spatial distribution of saturated areas accurately. Based on the good performance in the Town Brook

  10. Improving satellite data products for open oceans with a scheme to correct the residual errors in remote sensing reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lee, Zhongping; Hu, Chuanmin; Wei, Jianwei

    2016-06-01

    An approach to semianalytically derive waters' inherent optical properties (IOPs) from remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and at the same time to take into account the residual errors in satellite Rrs is developed for open-ocean clear waters where aerosols are likely of marine origin. This approach has two components: (1) a scheme of combining a neural network and an algebraic solution for the derivation of IOPs, and (2) relationships between Rrs residual errors at 670 nm and other spectral bands. This approach is evaluated with both synthetic and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data, and the results show that it can significantly reduce the effects of residual errors in Rrs on the retrieval of IOPs, and at the same time remove partially the Rrs residual errors for "low-quality" and "high-quality" data defined in this study. Furthermore, more consistent estimation of chlorophyll concentrations between the empirical blue-green ratio and band-difference algorithms can be derived from the corrected "low-quality" and "high-quality" Rrs. These results suggest that it is possible to improve both data quality and quantity of satellite-retrieved Rrs over clear open-ocean waters with a step considering the spectral relationships of the residual errors in Rrs after the default atmospheric correction procedure and without fixing Rrs at 670 nm to one value for clear waters in a small region such as 3 × 3 box.

  11. Retracking CryoSat waveforms for near-real-time ocean forecast products, platform attitude, and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. H.; Scharroo, R.; Lillibridge, J. L.; Leuliette, E. W.

    2011-12-01

    The SIRAL altimeter on CryoSat, launched in 2010, can operate in three modes: the low-rate mode (LRM) behaves as a conventional altimeter; the SAR mode allows more precise range and more focused footprint through use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR), also known as delay-Doppler, processing; the SARIN mode, or interferometric SAR, also affords across-track slope determination from interferometry. We have been working on several CryoSat studies over this year and will present some highlights. For the conventional LRM mode, we have built a retracker that processes near-real-time (FDM: Fast Delivery Mode) and Level 1-B data at 20 Hz to yield wind speed, wave height, and sea surface height anomaly. These data are being fed to NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The retracking also estimates the off-nadir mispointing angle of the satellite. After accounting for an effect due to orbit height variations, we find that the off-nadir angle estimates are sufficiently accurate that we have used them to calibrate biases in the pitch and roll of the spacecraft platform reported by the platform attitude control system. These biases account for mis-alignment between the star tracker bench and the antenna boresight. We have Full Bit Rate (FBR) data in SAR mode for some ocean passes, including portions crossing coastlines, both from ocean to land and from land to ocean. FBR data includes all the raw I and Q samples of the raw radar echoes, prior to the range FFT that deramps the chirp, or the azimuth FFT that initiates the delay-Doppler SAR focusing calculation. We are currently working on these data with several applications in mind: (1) We can use these data to trace exactly what happens as the instrument crosses a coastline. (2) We can use these data to derive a LRM (conventional) waveform as well as a SAR waveform, and can compare the performance of these two modes under the same conditions (sea state, propagation, etc.) (3) We can test a conjecture by J R

  12. Oceanic Weather Decision Support for Unmanned Global Hawk Science Missions into Hurricanes with Tailored Satellite Derived Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Wayne; Griffin, Sarah; Velden, Christopher; Zipser, Ed; Cecil, Daniel; Braun, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to identify in-flight hazards to high-altitude aircraft, namely the Global Hawk. The Global Hawk was used during Septembers 2012-2016 as part of two NASA funded Hurricane Sentinel-3 field campaigns to over-fly hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. This talk identifies the cause of severe turbulence experienced over Hurricane Emily (2005) and how a combination of NOAA funded GOES-R algorithm derived cloud top heights/tropical overshooting tops using GOES-13/SEVIRI imager radiances, and lightning information are used to identify areas of potential turbulence for near real-time navigation decision support. Several examples will demonstrate how the Global Hawk pilots remotely received and used real-time satellite derived cloud and lightning detection information to keep the aircraft safely above clouds and avoid regions of potential turbulence.

  13. Relationship between Late Pleistocene sea-level variations, carbonate platform morphology and aragonite production (Maldives, Indian Ocean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, A.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; Fürstenau, J.

    2012-01-01

    A piston core from the Maldives carbonate platform was investigated for carbonate mineralogy, grain-size distributions, calcium carbonate content and organic carbon. The sedimentary record was linked to Late Pleistocene sea-level variations, using an age model based on oxygen isotopes obtained from...... of the atolls of the Maldives carbonate platform. Platform flooding events were characterized by strongly increased deposition of aragonite and mud within the Inner Sea of the Maldives. Exposure events, in contrast, can be recognized by rapid decreases in the values of both proxy records. The results show...... that sediments on the Maldives carbonate platform contain a continuous record of Pleistocene sea-level variations. These sediments may, therefore, contribute to a better understanding of regional and even global sea-level changes, and yield new insights into the interplay between ocean currents and carbonate...

  14. Measurement of dark, particle-generated superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and decay in the subtropical and temperate North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Kelly L.; Schneider, Robin J.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Voelker, Bettina M.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which include the superoxide radical (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are thought to be generated mostly through photochemical reactions and biological activity in seawater and can influence trace metal speciation in the ocean. This study reports the results of an intercomparison of two methods to measure particle-generated [O2-] in seawater samples, as well as measurements of particle-generated O2- and H2O2 concentrations, decay kinetics, and dark production rates in seawater samples at Station ALOHA and (O2- only) in the southern California Current Ecosystem. O2- was measured using two different methods relying on chemiluminescence detection. The first method measured the difference between steady-state [O2-] in filtered and unfiltered seawater, while the second method (standard method) measured O2- decay to baseline in freshly filtered seawater. Because both methods detected [O2-] relative to the background signal from filtered seawater, both should have measured [O2-] generated by particles (presumably biota). However, the O2- concentrations determined by the first method were always much smaller than those obtained from the second (standard) method. Follow-up laboratory and field experiments showed that the increased signal in the standard method was due to a filtration artifact that could neither be eliminated nor consistently accounted for under the tested conditions. We therefore recommend the first method for measuring particle-generated [O2-]. Measured by this method, Station ALOHA had particle-generated O2- concentrations that ranged from undetectable to 0.02 nM, with production rates less than 0.6 nM hr-1 and decay rate coefficients from 0.003 to 0.014 s-1. The southern California Current Ecosystem had particle-generated O2- concentrations that ranged from undetectable to 0.05 nM, with production rates up to 4.7 nM hr-1 and decay rate coefficients from 0.006 to 0.017 s-1. H2O2 concentrations were measured by

  15. Trace-element budgets in the Ohio/Sunbury shales of Kentucky: Constraints on ocean circulation and primary productivity in the Devonian-Mississippian Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R.B.; Piper, D.Z.; Mason, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrography of the Appalachian Basin in late Devonian-early Mississippian time is modeled based on the geochemistry of black shales and constrained by others' paleogeographic reconstructions. The model supports a robust exchange of basin bottom water with the open ocean, with residence times of less than forty years during deposition of the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale. This is counter to previous interpretations of these carbon-rich units having accumulated under a stratified and stagnant water column, i.e., with a strongly restricted bottom bottom-water circulation. A robust circulation of bottom waters is further consistent with the palaeoclimatology, whereby eastern trade-winds drove upwelling and arid conditions limited terrestrial inputs of siliciclastic sediment, fresh waters, and riverine nutrients. The model suggests that primary productivity was high (~ 2??g C m- 2 d- 1), although no higher than in select locations in the ocean today. The flux of organic carbon settling through the water column and its deposition on the sea floor was similar to fluxes found in modern marine environments. Calculations based on the average accumulation rate of the marine fraction of Ni suggest the flux of organic carbon settling out of the water column was approximately 9% of primary productivity, versus an accumulation rate (burial) of organic carbon of 0.5% of primary productivity. Trace-element ratios of V:Mo and Cr:Mo in the marine sediment fraction indicate that bottom waters shifted from predominantly anoxic (sulfate reducing) during deposition of the Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale to predominantly suboxic (nitrate reducing) during deposition of the Cleveland Shale Member and the Sunbury Shale, but with anoxic conditions occurring intermittently throughout this period. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Decadal to millennial-scale variability in sea ice, primary productivity, and Pacific-Water inflow in the Chukchi/East Siberian Sea area (Arctic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Matthiessen, Jens; Méheust, Marie; Nam, Seung-il; Niessen, Frank; Schade, Inka; Schreck, Michael; Wassmuth, Saskia; Xiao, Xiaotong

    2014-05-01

    Sea-ice is an essential component of the global climate system and, especially, the Polar Oceans. An alarming decrease in term of sea-ice concentration, thickness and duration, has been observed in the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas over the last 30 years. Thus, understanding the processes controlling modern sea-ice variability and reconstructing paleo-sea-ice extent and variability in polar regions have become of great interest for the international scientific community during the last years. Here, we present new proxy records determined in sediment cores from the East Siberian Sea (RV Polarstern Expedition ARK-XXIII/3 in 2008; Core PS72/350) and from the Chukchi Sea (RV Araon Expedition ARA2B in 2011; Core ARA2B-1A, -1B). These records, including organic-geochemical bulk parameters, specific biomarkers (IP25 and sterols; PIP25; for recent reviews see Stein et al., 2012; Belt and Müller, 2013), biogenic opal, mineralogical data as well as high-resolution XRF scanning data, give new insight into the short-term (decadal-, centennial- to millennial-scale) variability in sea-ice, primary productivity and Pacific-Water inflow during Holocene times. Maximum concentrations of phytoplankton biomarkers and biogenic opal were determined between 8.5 and 4 kyrs. BP, suggesting enhanced primary productivity triggered by increased inflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water (and/or an increased nutrient input due to an ice-edge position). Short-lived peak values in productivity might be related to strong pulses of Pacific-Water input during this time period (cf., Ortiz et al., 2009). A seasonal sea-ice cover was present in the Chukchi Sea throughout the last 10 kyrs. During the last 3-4 kyrs. BP, the sea-ice cover significantly extended. References Belt, S.T. and Müller, J., 2013. The Arctic sea ice biomarker IP25: a review of current understanding, recommendations for future research and applications in palaeo sea ice reconstructions. Quaternary Science Review 73, 9-25. Ortiz

  17. Long-Term Pattern of Primary Productivity in the East/Japan Sea Based on Ocean Color Data Derived from MODIS-Aqua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HuiTae Joo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The East/Japan Sea (hereafter, the East Sea is highly dynamic in its physical phenomena and biological characteristics, but it has changed substantially over the last several decades. In this study, a recent decadal trend of primary productivity in the East Sea was analyzed based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-derived monthly values to detect any long-term change. The daily primary productivities averaged using monthly values from 2003 to 2012 were 719.7 mg·C·m−2·d−1 (S.D. ± 197.5 mg·C·m−2·d−1, n = 120 and 632.3 mg·C·m−2·d−1 (S.D. ± 235.1 mg·C·m−2·d−1, n = 120 for the southern and northern regions of the East Sea, respectively. Based on the daily productivities, the average annual primary production in the East Sea was 246.8 g·C·m−2·y−1, which was substantially higher than that previously reported in deep oceans. However, a decreasing trend (13% per 10 years in the annual primary production was observed in the East Sea within the study period from 2003 to 2012. The shallower mixed layers caused by increased temperature could be a potential cause for the decline in annual production. However, this decline could also be part of an oscillation pattern that is strongly governed by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. A better understanding of primary productivity patterns and their subsequent effects on the marine ecosystem is required for further interdisciplinary studies in the East Sea.

  18. Evolution of the C2RCC Neural Network for Sentinel 2 and 3 for the Retrieval of Ocean Colour Products in Normal and Extreme Optically Complex Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Carsten; Doerffer, Roland; Peters, Marco; Kerstin, Stelzer; Embacher, Sabine; Ruescas, Ana

    2016-08-01

    Retrieval of water constituents, or its optical properties, requires inversion of the water leaving reflectance spectrum, measured at top of atmosphere by ocean colour satellites. The Case 2 Regional processor, originally developed by Doerffer and Schiller [6], uses a large database of radiative transfer simulations inverted by neural networks as basic technology. Through the CoastColour project major improvements were introduced. It has been amended by a set of additional neural networks performing specific tasks and special neural networks have been trained to cover extreme ranges of scattering and absorption. The processor has been renamed into C2RCC (Case 2 Regional CoastColour) and is applicable to all past and current ocean colour sensors as well as Sentinel 2. It has been validated in various studies and is available through ESA's Sentinel toolbox SNAP. It is also used in the Sentinel 3 OLCI ground segment processor of ESA for the generation of the Case 2 water products, as well as in the processor for the upcoming MERIS 4th reprocessing.

  19. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. Ocean acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gattuso, J.P; Hansson, L

    2011-01-01

    The fate of much of the CO 2 we produce will be to enter the ocean. In a sense, we are fortunate that ocean water is endowed with the capacity to absorb far more CO 2 per litre than were it salt free...

  1. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2016-01-01

    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...

  2. A supplement to model validation: estimating uncertainty between ocean forecast products of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea by use of a multi-model ensemble approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbeck, Inga; Li, Xin; Janssen, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Several independent operational ocean-forecasting models are available for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea providing a sometimes wide range of predictions of the ocean's state. It is essential to provide highly qualitative forecasts for e.g. sea level warning or oil drift predictions. Therefore there is a special need to continuously validate and improve the model systems in order to enhance their predictability. A Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) has been developed in the EU-funded MyOcean project and is now further monitored and augmented in the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). The MME serves as supplement to validation and shall provide additional information to the users of a single-model forecast, especially in those regions where comprehensive observations are lacking. The aim of this MME initiative is to assess the amount as well as temporal and spatial distribution of uncertainties between the ensemble members for several physical parameters. Presently, there are 13 different operational ocean forecasting models of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea providing 48h-forecasts which serve as input for the MMEs of the following parameters: 2D salinity and temperature at the sea surface and the bottom, 2D sea surface currents, vertically integrated water transports across NOOS and BOOS[1] transects, and sea surface height at 24 stations along the coast of the Baltic Sea. So-called ensemble statistics are calculated each day based on the actual forecast and the resulting figures and data are displayed and provided on the NOOS and BOOS MME websites[2]. For the MME of sea surface height a weighting method is applied yielding a best estimate of the water level forecast at each station in the Baltic Sea. Moreover, sea surface temperature is validated with Copernicus satellite data and temperature and salinity are evaluated with in-situ data at offshore stations on a monthly basis. We would like to present the MMEs showing results of the ensemble

  3. The fate of pelagic CaCO3 production in a high CO2 ocean: a model study

    OpenAIRE

    Gehlen, M; R. Gangstø; Schneider, B.; L. Bopp; O. Aumont; Ethe, C.

    2007-01-01

    This model study addresses the change in pelagic calcium carbonate production (CaCO3, as calcite in the model) and dissolution in response to rising atmospheric CO2. The parameterization of CaCO3 production includes a dependency on the saturation state of seawater with respect to calcite. It was derived from laboratory and mesocosm studies on particulate organic and inorganic carbon production in Emiliania huxleyi as a function of pCO2. The model predicts values of CaCO3 pro...

  4. Hidden depths: atlas of the oceans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theberge, Albert E; Lautenbacher, Conrad Charles

    2007-01-01

    Atlas developed by NOAA and the Smithsonian Institution devoted to ocean education and literacy, a product of a partnership to develop the Ocean Hall in the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History...

  5. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F11 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  6. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F14 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  7. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F15 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  8. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F13 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  9. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F10 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  10. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F8 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data products produced as part...

  11. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Current meter moorings data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000311)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Compilation of ocean circulation data from a World-Wide distribution from 01 January 1972 to 12 December 1998. Data were collected by Oregon State University (OSU)...

  12. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Acoustic doppler current profilers data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World-Wide shipboard current data were collected from ADCP casts from the ALPHA HELIX and other platforms as part of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). Data...

  13. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, and primary production collected by bottle and CTD in the North Atlantic Ocean from 8/25/1903 - 11/14/1997 (NODC Accession 0000101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, algal species, and other data were collected using water bottle or CTD casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from WEST-HINDER and other platforms....

  14. NODC Standard Product: US Navy Geosat geophysical data records (GDRs) from the Southern Ocean 30-72 degrees south (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 9000189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains U.S. Navy Geodetic Satellite (GEOSAT) Geophysical data records from the Southern Oceans 60 to 70 degrees south. March 31, 1985 to September...

  15. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Program (WOCE) Global Data, Version 2: Surface fluxes data on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 0000315)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind speed, temperature, and other data were collected in a world-wide survey as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from January 1, 1960 to...

  16. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, primary production, and meteorological data collected by bottle in the South Pacific Ocean from 1/16/1962 - 8/2/1964 (NODC Accession 0000092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using net and bottle casts from the HUAYAIPE and ST JUDE in the South Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  17. NODC Standard Product: World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) global data, version 3.0, 2002 (2 disc set) (NODC Accession 0000841)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) was a part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) which used resources from nearly 30 countries to make...

  18. Formulation of a Commercial Biosurfactant for Application as a Dispersant of Petroleum and By-Products Spilled in Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Bruno G.; Brito, Juliana G. M.; Brasileiro, Pedro P. F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills in oceans cause irreparable damage to marine life and harm the coastal populations of affected areas. It is therefore fundamental to develop treatment strategies for such spills. Currently, chemical dispersants have been used during oil spills, although these agents have been increasingly restricted due to their toxic potential. Thus, the aim of the present study was to formulate a biodegradable commercial biosurfactant for application as a dispersant. Biosurfactants are scientifically known biomolecules produced by microorganisms capable of allowing water-oil interaction. Thus, a biosurfactant was produced by the yeast Candida bombicola URM 3718 cultivated in industrial waste and formulated with the addition of a potassium sorbate preservative for fractionated sterilization (tyndallization) and the combination of fluent vaporization with the preservative. After formulation, samples were stored for 120 days, followed by surface tension, emulsification and oil dispersant tests in sea water. The results were promising for the biosurfactant formulated with the preservative, which demonstrated stability and an absence of toxicity in experiments with a marine indicator. The commercial biosurfactant was tested at different pH values, temperatures and in the presence of salt, demonstrating potential industrial application at a cost compatible with the environmental field. The formulation process developed in this research was patented in the Brazilian National Intellectual Property Institute (patent number BR1020140179631). PMID:27803697

  19. Formulation of a Commercial Biosurfactant for Application as a Dispersant of Petroleum and By-products Spilled in Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galdino Freitas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills in oceans cause irreparable damage to marine life and harm the coastal populations of affected areas. It is therefore fundamental to develop treatment strategies for such spills. Currently, chemical dispersants have been used during oil spills, although these agents have been increasingly restricted due to their toxic potential. Thus, the aim of the present study was to formulate a biodegradable commercial biosurfactant for application as a dispersant. Biosurfactants are scientifically known biomolecules produced by microorganisms capable of allowing water-oil interaction. Thus, a biosurfactant was produced by the yeast Candida bombicola URM 3718 cultivated in industrial waste and formulated with the addition of a potassium sorbate preservative for fractionated sterilisation (tyndallisation and the combination of fluent vaporisation with the preservative. After formulation, samples were stored for 120 days, followed by surface tension, emulsification and oil dispersant tests in sea water. The results were promising for the biosurfactant formulated with the preservative, which demonstrated stability and an absence of toxicity in experiments with a marine indicator. The commercial biosurfactant was tested at different pH values, temperatures and in the presence of salt, demonstrating potential industrial application at a cost compatible with the environmental field. The formulation process developed in this research was patented in the Brazilian National Intellectual Property Institute (patent number BR1020140179631.

  20. The atypical hydrodynamics of the Mayotte Lagoon (Indian Ocean): Effects on water age and potential impact on plankton productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, C.; Devenon, J. L.; Pagano, M.; Rougier, G.; Blanchot, J.; Arfi, R.

    2017-09-01

    In mesotidal lagoons of the Indian Ocean, the coral reef barrier may be temporarily submerged at high tide and partially exposed at low tide, and this may cause unusual lagoon dynamics. A field measurement campaign was conducted in the north-east Mayotte Lagoon in order to understand these processes. An experimental approach was used, combining measurements taken by 1) a side-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) on a moving boat along transects through the reef passages (17 transects) and 2) by more conventional high-resolution moored ADCP measurements. A specific tidal analysis methodology was used to determine the spatial variability of the velocity. The tidal hydrodynamics within the lagoon were determined using a numerical model and then analyzed. The tide acted as a quasi-progressive forced wave in the lagoon: at low tide, water entered through the south passage, over the reef and left the lagoon through the north passage. This flow was reversed at high tide. The tide-driven quasi-progressive wave created a specific lagoon dynamics. Contrary to most other channel lagoons, the flow over the reef was mainly outward. This increases the inflow through the passages, which renews the water in the lagoon as shown by the indicators of age and origin of the water inside the lagoon. This study also showed the importance of these indicators for better understanding the variations and levels of plankton biomass (with chlorophyll concentration as proxy) which is quite high in this lagoon.

  1. Classification of building infrastructure and automatic building footprint delineation using airborne laser swath mapping data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Jhon

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of urban infrastructure comprise critical data for planners working on problems in wireless communications, environmental monitoring, civil engineering, and urban planning, among other tasks. Photogrammetric methods have been the most common approach to date to extract building models. However, Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) observations offer a competitive alternative because they overcome some of the ambiguities that arise when trying to extract 3D information from 2D images. Regardless of the source data, the building extraction process requires segmentation and classification of the data and building identification. In this work, approaches for classifying ALSM data, separating building and tree points, and delineating ALSM footprints from the classified data are described. Digital aerial photographs are used in some cases to verify results, but the objective of this work is to develop methods that can work on ALSM data alone. A robust approach for separating tree and building points in ALSM data is presented. The method is based on supervised learning of the classes (tree vs. building) in a high dimensional feature space that yields good class separability. Features used for classification are based on the generation of local mappings, from three-dimensional space to two-dimensional space, known as "spin images" for each ALSM point to be classified. The method discriminates ALSM returns in compact spaces and even where the classes are very close together or overlapping spatially. A modified algorithm of the Hough Transform is used to orient the spin images, and the spin image parameters are specified such that the mutual information between the spin image pixel values and class labels is maximized. This new approach to ALSM classification allows us to fully exploit the 3D point information in the ALSM data while still achieving good class separability, which has been a difficult trade-off in the past. Supported by the spin

  2. BCube Ocean Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mattia; Schofield, Oscar; Pearlman, Jay; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    To address complex Earth system issues such as climate change and water resources, geoscientists must work across disciplinary boundaries; this requires them to access data outside of their fields. Scientists are being called upon to find, access, and use diverse and voluminous data types that are described with semantics. Within the framework of the NSF EarthCube programme, the BCube project (A Broker Framework for Next Generation Geoscience) is addressing the need for effective and efficient multi-disciplinary collaboration and interoperability through the advancement of brokering technologies. BCube develops science scenarios as key elements in providing an environment for demonstrating capabilities, benefits, and challenges of the developed e-infrastructure. The initial focus is on hydrology, oceans, polar and weather, with the intent to make the technology applicable and available to all the geosciences. This presentation focuses on the BCube ocean scenario. The purpose of this scenario is to increase the understanding of the ocean dynamics through incorporation of a wide range of in-situ and satellite data into ocean models using net primary productivity as the initial variable. The science scenario aims to identify spatial and temporal domains in ocean models, and key ecological variables. Field data sets and remote observations data sets from distributed and heterogeneous systems are accessed through the broker and will be incorporated into the models. In this work we will present the achievements in the development of the BCube ocean scenario.

  3. RSS SSM/I OCEAN PRODUCT GRIDS 3-DAY AVERAGE FROM DMSP F8 NETCDF V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The RSS SSM/I Oceean Product Grids 3-Day Average from DMSP F8 netCDF dataset is part of the collection of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor...

  4. Iron from melting glaciers fuels phytoplankton blooms in the Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean): Phytoplankton characteristics and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderkamp, A.C.; Mills, M.M.; van Dijken, G.L.; Laan, P.; Thuróczy, C.-E.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Payne, C.D.; Visser, R.J.W.; Buma, A.G.J.; Arrigo, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    The phytoplankton community composition and productivity in waters of the Amundsen Sea and surrounding sea ice zone were characterized with respect to iron (Fe) input from melting glaciers. High Fe input from glaciers such as the Pine Island Glacier, and the Dotson and Crosson ice shelves resulted

  5. Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  6. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  7. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  8. Sensitivity analysis of an ocean carbon cycle model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Merchant

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. We explore the effect on these outputs of variation in the values of the twenty parameters that control ocean ecosystem growth in a 1-D formulation of the UK Met Office HadOCC NPZD model used in GCMs. We use and compare the results from one-at-a-time and all-at-a-time perturbations performed at three sites in the EuroSITES European Ocean Observatory Network: the Central Irminger Sea (60° N 40° W, the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (49° N 16° W and the European Station for Time series in the Ocean Canary Islands (29° N 15° W. Reasonable changes to the values of key parameters are shown to have a large effect on the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production, and export of biological detritus to the deep ocean. Changes in the values of key parameters have a greater effect in more productive regions than in less productive areas. The most sensitive parameters are generally found to be those controlling well-established ocean ecosystem parameterisations widely used in many NPZD-type models. The air-sea CO2 flux is most influenced by variation in the parameters that control phytoplankton growth, detrital sinking and carbonate production by phytoplankton (the rain ratio. Primary production is most sensitive to the parameters that define the shape of the photosynthesis-irradiance curve. Export production is most sensitive to the parameters that control the rate of detrital sinking and the remineralisation of detritus.

  9. EVALUATION OF SWATH-MS BASED QUANTIFICATION FOR ITS ACCURACY AND CONSISTENCY ACROSS CONCENTRATIONS OF SPIKED-IN PEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Bhat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry based proteomics have emerged as an important tool for studying different aspects of biological networks. However, the major challenges in this field are reproducibility, accuracy and sensitivity for detecting and quantifying low abundant proteins. We have previously reported that sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH–MS holds the ability to quantitate larger number of low abundant proteins as compared to isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. Here we provide a detailed evaluation of the quantification performance of SWATH-MS for its precision and reproducibility in quantifying peptides of different abundance using β-galactosidase as a reference protein. This study demonstrates that SWATH-MS can reproducibly quantitate peptides as low as 2.5 fmoles. The coefficient of variation was below 13% at 2.5 fmoles while it was < 8% for concentrations above 25 fmoles clearly indicating good reproducibility between replicates. Thus, our analysis further supports the strength of this method to quantitate low abundant proteins.

  10. The beauty of being (label)-free: sample preparation methods for SWATH-MS and next-generation targeted proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowinckel, Jakob; Capuano, Floriana; Campbell, Kate; Deery, Michael J; Lilley, Kathryn S; Ralser, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The combination of qualitative analysis with label-free quantification has greatly facilitated the throughput and flexibility of novel proteomic techniques. However, such methods rely heavily on robust and reproducible sample preparation procedures. Here, we benchmark a selection of in gel, on filter, and in solution digestion workflows for their application in label-free proteomics. Each procedure was associated with differing advantages and disadvantages. The in gel methods interrogated were cost effective, but were limited in throughput and digest efficiency. Filter-aided sample preparations facilitated reasonable processing times and yielded a balanced representation of membrane proteins, but led to a high signal variation in quantification experiments. Two in solution digest protocols, however, gave optimal performance for label-free proteomics. A protocol based on the detergent RapiGest led to the highest number of detected proteins at second-best signal stability, while a protocol based on acetonitrile-digestion, RapidACN, scored best in throughput and signal stability but came second in protein identification. In addition, we compared label-free data dependent (DDA) and data independent (SWATH) acquisition on a TripleTOF 5600 instrument. While largely similar in protein detection, SWATH outperformed DDA in quantification, reducing signal variation and markedly increasing the number of precisely quantified peptides.

  11. Neural network-based estimates of Southern Ocean net community production from in situ O2 / Ar and satellite observation: a methodological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.-H.; Johnson, N. C.; Cassar, N.

    2014-06-01

    Southern Ocean organic carbon export plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, yet its basin-scale climatology and variability are uncertain due to limited coverage of in situ observations. In this study, a neural network approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) is adopted to construct weekly gridded (1° × 1°) maps of organic carbon export for the Southern Ocean from 1998 to 2009. The SOM is trained with in situ measurements of O2 / Ar-derived net community production (NCP) that are tightly linked to the carbon export in the mixed layer on timescales of one to two weeks and with six potential NCP predictors: photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll (Chl), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and mixed layer depth (MLD). This nonparametric approach is based entirely on the observed statistical relationships between NCP and the predictors and, therefore, is strongly constrained by observations. A thorough cross-validation yields three retained NCP predictors, Chl, PAR, and MLD. Our constructed NCP is further validated by good agreement with previously published, independent in situ derived NCP of weekly or longer temporal resolution through real-time and climatological comparisons at various sampling sites. The resulting November-March NCP climatology reveals a pronounced zonal band of high NCP roughly following the Subtropical Front in the Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific sectors, and turns southeastward shortly after the dateline. Other regions of elevated NCP include the upwelling zones off Chile and Namibia, the Patagonian Shelf, the Antarctic coast, and areas surrounding the Islands of Kerguelen, South Georgia, and Crozet. This basin-scale NCP climatology closely resembles that of the satellite POC field and observed air-sea CO2 flux. The long-term mean area-integrated NCP south of 50° S from our dataset, 17.9 mmol C m-2 d-1, falls within the range of 8.3 to 24 mmol

  12. Neural network-based estimates of Southern Ocean net community production from in-situ O2 / Ar and satellite observation: a methodological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.-H.; Johnson, N. C.; Cassar, N.

    2013-10-01

    Southern Ocean organic carbon export plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, yet its basin-scale climatology and variability are uncertain due to limited coverage of in situ observations. In this study, a neural network approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) is adopted to construct weekly gridded (1° × 1°) maps of organic carbon export for the Southern Ocean from 1998 to 2009. The SOM is trained with in situ measurements of O2 / Ar-derived net community production (NCP) that are tightly linked to the carbon export in the mixed layer on timescales of 1-2 weeks, and six potential NCP predictors: photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll (Chl), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and mixed layer depth (MLD). This non-parametric approach is based entirely on the observed statistical relationships between NCP and the predictors, and therefore is strongly constrained by observations. A thorough cross-validation yields three retained NCP predictors, Chl, PAR, and MLD. Our constructed NCP is further validated by good agreement with previously published independent in situ derived NCP of weekly or longer temporal resolution through real-time and climatological comparisons at various sampling sites. The resulting November-March NCP climatology reveals a pronounced zonal band of high NCP roughly following the subtropical front in the Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific sectors, and turns southeastward shortly after the dateline. Other regions of elevated NCP include the upwelling zones off Chile and Namibia, Patagonian Shelf, Antarctic coast, and areas surrounding the Islands of Kerguelen, South Georgia, and Crozet. This basin-scale NCP climatology closely resembles that of the satellite POC field and observed air-sea CO2 flux. The long-term mean area-integrated NCP south of 50° S from our dataset, 14 mmol C m-2 d-1, falls within the range of 8.3-24 mmol C m-2 d-1 from other model

  13. Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean, supplement to: Holding, Johnna; Duarte, Carlos M; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Mesa, E; Arrieta, J M; Chierici, Melissa; Hendriks, Iris; García-Corral, L S; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A; Delgado, A; Reigstad, M; Wassmann, P; Agustí, Susana (2015): Temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production in the European Arctic Ocean. Nature Climate Change, 5(12), 1079-1082

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, Johnna

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is warming at two to three times the global rate and is perceived to be a bellwether for ocean acidification. Increased CO2 concentrations are expected to have a fertilization effect on marine autotrophs, and higher temperatures should lead to increased rates of planktonic primary production. Yet, simultaneous assessment of warming and increased CO2 on primary production in the Arctic has not been conducted. Here we test the expectation that CO2-enhanced gross primary production (GPP) may be temperature dependent, using data from several oceanographic cruises and experiments from both spring and summer in the European sector of the Arctic Ocean. Results confirm that CO2 enhances GPP (by a factor of up to ten) over a range of 145-2,099?µatm; however, the greatest effects are observed only at lower temperatures and are constrained by nutrient and light availability to the spring period. The temperature dependence of CO2-enhanced primary production has significant implications for metabolic balance in a warmer, CO2-enriched Arctic Ocean in the future. In particular, it indicates that a twofold increase in primary production during the spring is likely in the Arctic.

  14. Archive of Side Scan Sonar and Swath Bathymetry Data collected during USGS Cruise 10CCT02 Offshore of Petit Bois Island Including Petit Bois Pass, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, William R.; Flocks, James G.; DeWitt, Nancy T.; Forde, Arnell S.; Kelso, Kyle; Thompson, Phillip R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys offshore of Petit Bois Island, Mississippi, and Dauphin Island, Alabama (fig. 1). These efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geologic stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorphological changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts on Ship Island, Mississippi. For more information please refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, seabed backscatter images, and ASCII x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  15. Preferential remineralization of dissolved organic phosphorus and non-Redfield DOM dynamics in the global ocean: Impacts on marine productivity, nitrogen fixation, and carbon export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2015-03-01

    Selective removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool has been reported in several regional studies. Because DOM is an important advective/mixing pathway of carbon (C) export from the ocean surface layer and its non-Redfieldian stoichiometry would affect estimates of marine export production per unit N and P, we investigated the stoichiometry of marine DOM and its remineralization globally using a compiled DOM data set. Marine DOM is enriched in C and N compared to Redfield stoichiometry, averaging 317:39:1 and 810:48:1 for C:N:P within the degradable and total bulk pools, respectively. Dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) is found to be preferentially remineralized about twice as rapidly with respect to the enriched C:N stoichiometry of marine DOM. Biogeochemical simulations with the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling model using Redfield and variable DOM stoichiometry corroborate the need for non-Redfield dynamics to match the observed DOM stoichiometry. From our model simulations, preferential DOP remineralization is found to increase the strength of the biological pump by ~9% versus the case of Redfield DOM cycling. Global net primary productivity increases ~10% including an increase in marine nitrogen fixation of ~26% when preferential DOP remineralization and direct utilization of DOP by phytoplankton are included. The largest increases in marine nitrogen fixation, net primary productivity, and carbon export are observed within the western subtropical gyres, suggesting the lateral transfer of P in the form of DOP from the productive eastern and poleward gyre margins may be important for sustaining these processes downstream in the subtropical gyres.

  16. Decadal changes in carbon fluxes at the East Siberian continental margin: interactions of ice cover, ocean productivity, particle sedimentation and benthic life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetius, A.; Bienhold, C.; Felden, J.; Fernandez Mendez, M.; Gusky, M.; Rossel, P. E.; Vedenin, A.; Wenzhoefer, F.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and predicted Climate-Carbon-Cryosphere interactions in the Arctic Ocean are likely to alter productivity and carbon fluxes of the Siberian continental margin and adjacent basins. Here, we compare field observations and samples obtained in the nineties, and recently in 2012 during the sea ice minimum, to assess decadal changes in the productivity, export and recycling of organic matter at the outer East Siberian margin. In the 90s, the Laptev Sea margin was still largely ice-covered throughout the year, and the samples and measurements obtained represent an ecological baseline against which current and future ecosystem shifts can be assessed. The POLARSTERN expedition IceArc (ARK-XXVII/3) returned in September 2012 to resample the same transects between 60 and 3400 m water depth as well as stations in the adjacent deep basins. Our results suggest that environmental changes in the past two decades, foremost sea ice thinning and retreat, have led to a substantial increase in phytodetritus sedimentation to the seafloor, especially at the lower margin and adjacent basins. This is reflected in increased benthic microbial activities, leading to higher carbon remineralization rates, especially deeper than 3000 m. Besides a relative increase in typical particle degrading bacterial types in surface sediments, bacterial community composition showed little variation between the two years, suggesting that local microbial communities can cope with changing food input. First assessments of faunal abundances suggest an increase in polychaetes,holothurians and bivalves at depth, which fits the prediction of higher productivity and particle deposition rates upon sea ice retreat. The presentation also discusses the controversial issue whether there is evidence for an Arctic-wide increase in carbon flux, or whether we are looking at a spatial shift of the productive marginal ice zone as the main factor to enhance carbon flux to the deep Siberian margin.

  17. Comparison of Retrieved L2 Products from Four Successive Versions of L1B Spectra in the Thermal Infrared Band of TANSO-FTS over the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Payan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the calibration/validation of the Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO–Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS spectra in the thermal infrared (TIR spectral region (B4 band over the Arctic Ocean. We have performed inter-comparisons of the retrieved L2 products from four successive versions of L1B products (V150, V160, V201, V203 to check the differences and the improvement in the spectral and radiometric calibration of TANSO-FTS spectra in the narrow spectral domain of 940–980 cm−1 covering CO2 lines of the so-called laser band in the rather clear 10.4 μm atmospheric window, allowing sounding down to the lowest atmospheric layers. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to retrieve XCO2 from this spectral region. The period covered is the summer months (July, August, September and the years from 2009 to 2015. Internal comparisons of L1B TANSO-FTS spectra, as well as comparisons of retrieved L2 products, i.e., Tsurf (sea surface temperature or SST and the retrieved column-averaged dry air volume mixing ratio XCO2 derived with the same algorithm are presented. The overall trend in the CO2 column-averaged VMR is well captured over the six year period for Green-house Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT, but calibration issues are still hindering the use of TANSO-FTS TIR spectra for accurate and stable XCO2 and Tsurf products. However, an internal comparison of the successive L1B versions is possible and helpful to make progress with respect to the radiometric and spectral calibration TIR spectra collected by TANSO-FTS on GOSAT.

  18. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 1km and 5km 5-Min L2 Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC06S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  19. MODIS/Aqua CLD Mask Spect. Results 250m and 1km 5-Min L2 Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC35S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  20. MODIS/Aqua CLD Mask Spect. Results 250m and 1km 5-Min L2 Wide Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC35S1) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the wide-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the wide-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...