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Sample records for swat ii effect

  1. Hydrologic Response Unit Routing in SWAT to Simulate Effects of Vegetated Filter Strip for South-Korean Conditions Based on VFSMOD

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    Kyoung Jae Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model has been used worldwide for many hydrologic and Non-Point Source (NPS Pollution analyses on a watershed scale. However, it has many limitations in simulating the Vegetative Filter Strip (VFS because it considers only ‘filter strip width’ when the model estimates sediment trapping efficiency and does not consider the routing of sediment with overland flow which is expected to maximize the sediment trapping efficiency from upper agricultural subwatersheds to lower spatially-explicit filter strips. Therefore, the SWAT overland flow option between landuse-subwatersheds with sediment routing capability was enhanced by modifying the SWAT watershed configuration and SWAT engine based on the numerical model VFSMOD applied to South-Korean conditions. The enhanced SWAT can simulate the VFS sediment trapping efficiency for South-Korean conditions in a manner similar to the desktop VFSMOD-w system. Due to this enhancement, SWAT is applicable to simulate the effects of overland flow from upper subwatersheds to reflect increased runoff volume at the lower subwatershed, which occurs in the field if no diversion channel is installed. In this study, the enhanced SWAT model was applied to small watersheds located at Jaun-ri in South-Korea to simulate a diversion channel and spatially-explicit VFS. Sediment can be reduced by 31%, 65%, and 68%, with a diversion channel, the VFS, and the VFS with diversion channel, respectively. The enhanced SWAT should be used in estimating site-specific effects on sediment reduction with diversion channels and VFS, instead of the currently available SWAT, which does not simulate sediment routing in overland flow and does not consider other sensitive factors affecting sediment reduction with VFS.

  2. Process-based hydrological modeling using SWAT: The effect of permafrost on water resources in the large-scale river catchment Kharaa / Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsmann, L.; Geyer, T.; Karthe, D.; Priess, J.; Schweitzer, C.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to obtain a better understanding of hydrological processes in the semi-arid catchment of the Kharaa River in Northern Mongolia. The transient, physical-based model SWAT was set up using spatial datasets on soil, land use, climate, and stream network provided by the project "IWRM-MoMo" to (i.) simulate the water balance components of the basin and (ii.) to identify potential gaps in the input data. We found that the SWAT model satisfactorily reflects the hydrological processes in the catchment and simulates river runoff as a response to strong rainfall events as well as to snow and ice melt. To obtain correct runoff volumes during spring, permafrost has to be considered. Permafrost-influenced soils constrain water flow in the frozen layer, so that percolation out of the active layer is hampered (Woo 2011). This effect is reproduced in SWAT by assigning an impermeable layer in the subsurface to the areas dominated by permafrost. The simulations indicate that in these regions groundwater resources are limited as a consequence of impermeable ground ice. In addition, groundwater recharge rates in the catchment are generally low due to high evaporation rates (80-90 %). Consequently the base flow contribution is small. Further studies on the estimation of groundwater recharge rates should be carried out, since groundwater is an important resource for water supply. Model results indicate that the non-uniformity of the precipitation distribution was not sufficiently covered by the interpolated input data, so that precipitation and runoff volumes are partially over- or underestimated. Since precipitation defines the overall water availability in river catchments (Baumgartner 1982), additional climate records would considerably improve model outputs. As a consequence of large evapotranspiration losses, discharge as well as groundwater recharge estimates were identified to be highly sensitive to

  3. Hydrological effects of the increased CO2 and climate change in the Upper Mississippi River Basin using a modified SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2012-01-01

    Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change may significantly impact the hydrological and meteorological processes of a watershed system. Quantifying and understanding hydrological responses to elevated ambient CO2 and climate change is, therefore, critical for formulating adaptive strategies for an appropriate management of water resources. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to assess the effects of increased CO2 concentration and climate change in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). The standard SWAT model was modified to represent more mechanistic vegetation type specific responses of stomatal conductance reduction and leaf area increase to elevated CO2 based on physiological studies. For estimating the historical impacts of increased CO2 in the recent past decades, the incremental (i.e., dynamic) rises of CO2 concentration at a monthly time-scale were also introduced into the model. Our study results indicated that about 1–4% of the streamflow in the UMRB during 1986 through 2008 could be attributed to the elevated CO2 concentration. In addition to evaluating a range of future climate sensitivity scenarios, the climate projections by four General Circulation Models (GCMs) under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios were used to predict the hydrological effects in the late twenty-first century (2071–2100). Our simulations demonstrated that the water yield would increase in spring and substantially decrease in summer, while soil moisture would rise in spring and decline in summer. Such an uneven distribution of water with higher variability compared to the baseline level (1961–1990) may cause an increased risk of both flooding and drought events in the basin.

  4. Algorithm Theory - SWAT 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    issues of theoretical algorithmics and applications in various fields including graph algorithms, computational geometry, scheduling, approximation algorithms, network algorithms, data storage and manipulation, combinatorics, sorting, searching, online algorithms, optimization, etc.......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th Scandinavian Workshop on Algorithm Theory, SWAT 2006, held in Riga, Latvia, in July 2006. The 36 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 154 submissions. The papers address all...

  5. Quantifying the Uncertainty in Streamflow Predictions Using Swat for Brazos-Colorado Coastal Watershed, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, D.; Bhatia, N.; Srivastav, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is one of the most comprehensive hydrologic models to simulate streamflow for a watershed. The two major inputs for a SWAT model are: (i) Digital Elevation Models (DEM), and (ii) Land Use and Land Cover Maps (LULC). This study aims to quantify the uncertainty in streamflow predictions using SWAT for San Bernard River in Brazos-Colorado coastal watershed, Texas, by incorporating the respective datasets from different sources: (i) DEM data will be obtained from ASTER GDEM V2, GMTED2010, NHD DEM, and SRTM DEM datasets with ranging resolution from 1/3 arc-second to 30 arc-second, and (ii) LULC data will be obtained from GLCC V2, MRLC NLCD2011, NOAA's C-CAP, USGS GAP, and TCEQ databases. Weather variables (Precipitation and Max-Min Temperature at daily scale) will be obtained from National Climatic Data Centre (NCDC) and SWAT in-built STASGO tool will be used to obtain the soil maps. The SWAT model will be calibrated using SWAT-CUP SUFI-2 approach and its performance will be evaluated using the statistical indices of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), ratio of Root-Mean-Square-Error to standard deviation of observed streamflow (RSR), and Percent-Bias Error (PBIAS). The study will help understand the performance of SWAT model with varying data sources and eventually aid the regional state water boards in planning, designing, and managing hydrologic systems.

  6. Effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertilizers and mung bean residues on some microbiological properties of eroded soil in district Swat

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    M. Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic fertilizers and mung bean residues on improving microbiological properties of eroded lands of District Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP Pakistan under wheat-mung bean-wheat cropping system during 2006 to 2008. The experiment was laid out in RCBD split-plot arrangement. Mung bean was grown and a basal dose of 25-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. After mung bean harvest, three residues management practices, i.e., R+ (mung bean residues incorporated into soil, R- (mung bean residues removed and F (fallow were performed in the main-plots. Sub-plot factor consisted of six fertilizer treatments for wheat crop i.e., T1 (control, T2 (120 kg N ha-1, T3 (120-90-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T4 (120-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T5 (90-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O + 10 t FYM ha-1 and T6 (60-90-60 kg N-P2O5- K2O + 20 t FYM ha-1. The results showed that microbial activity, microbial biomass-C and-N, mineralizable C and N were highest with T6 as well as with the incorporation of mung bean residues (R+. Compared with control, T6 increased microbial biomass C, N, mineralizable C and N by 33.8, 164.1, 35.5 and 110.6% at surface and 38.4, 237.5, 38.7 and 124.1% at sub-surface soil, respectively, while R+ compared with fallow increased these properties by 33.7, 47.4, 21.4 and 32.2% at surface and 36.8, 51, 21.9 and 35.4% at sub-surface soil, respectively. Inclusion of mung bean with its residues incorporated and application of 20 t FYM ha-1 and reducing inorganic N fertilizer to 60 kg N ha-1 for wheat is recommended for improving microbiological properties of slightly eroded lands

  7. Analysing the Effects of Forest Cover and Irrigation Farm Dams on Streamflows of Water-Scarce Catchments in South Australia through the SWAT Model

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    Hong Hanh Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To assist water resource managers with future land use planning efforts, the eco-hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was applied to three catchments in South Australia that experience extreme low flow conditions. Particular land uses and management issues of interest included forest covers, known to affect water yields, and farm dams, known to intercept and change the hydrological dynamics in a catchment. The study achieved a satisfactory daily calibration when irrigation farm dams were incorporated in the model. For the catchment dominated by extreme low flows, a better daily simulation across a range of qualitative and quantitative metrics was gained using the base-flow static threshold optimization technique. Scenario analysis on effects of forest cover indicated an increase of surface flow and a reduction of base-flow when native eucalyptus lands were replaced by pastures and vice versa. A decreasing trend was observed for the overall water yield of catchments with more forest plantation due to the higher evapotranspiration (ET rate and the decline in surface flow. With regards to effects of irrigation farm dams, assessment on a daily time step suggested that a significant volume of water is stored in these systems with the water loss rate highest in June and July. On an annual basis, the model indicated that approximately 13.1% to 22.0% of water has been captured by farm dams for irrigation. However, the scenario analysis revealed that the purposes of use of farm dams rather than their volumetric capacities in the catchment determined the magnitude of effects on streamflows. Water extracted from farm dams for irrigation of orchards and vineyards are more likely to diminish streamflows than other land uses. Outputs from this study suggest that the water use restrictions from farm dams during recent drought periods were an effective tool to minimize impacts on streamflows.

  8. SWAT Modeling for Depression-Dominated Areas: How Do Depressions Manipulate Hydrologic Modeling?

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    Mohsen Tahmasebi Nasab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling hydrologic processes for depression-dominated areas such as the North American Prairie Pothole Region is complex and reliant on a clear understanding of dynamic filling-spilling-merging-splitting processes of numerous depressions over the surface. Puddles are spatially distributed over a watershed and their sizes, storages, and interactions vary over time. However, most hydrologic models fail to account for these dynamic processes. Like other traditional methods, depressions are filled as a required preprocessing step in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. The objective of this study was to facilitate hydrologic modeling for depression-dominated areas by coupling SWAT with a Puddle Delineation (PD algorithm. In the coupled PD-SWAT model, the PD algorithm was utilized to quantify topographic details, including the characteristics, distribution, and hierarchical relationships of depressions, which were incorporated into SWAT at the hydrologic response unit (HRU scale. The new PD-SWAT model was tested for a large watershed in North Dakota under real precipitation events. In addition, hydrologic modeling of a small watershed was conducted under two extreme high and low synthetic precipitation conditions. In particular, the PD-SWAT was compared against the regular SWAT based on depressionless DEMs. The impact of depressions on the hydrologic modeling of the large and small watersheds was evaluated. The simulation results for the large watershed indicated that SWAT systematically overestimated the outlet discharge, which can be attributed to the failure to account for the hydrologic effects of depressions. It was found from the PD-SWAT modeling results that at the HRU scale surface runoff initiation was significantly delayed due to the threshold control of depressions. Under the high precipitation scenario, depressions increased the surface runoff peak. However, the low precipitation scenario could not fully fill depressions to reach

  9. Assessing Thermally Stressful Events in a Rhode Island Coldwater Fish Habitat Using the SWAT Model

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    Britta Chambers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly important to recognize historical water quality trends so that the future impacts of climate change may be better understood. Climate studies have suggested that inland stream temperatures and average streamflow will increase over the next century in New England, thereby putting aquatic species sustained by coldwater habitats at risk. In this study we evaluated two different approaches for modeling historical streamflow and stream temperature in a Rhode Island, USA, watershed with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, using (i original SWAT and (ii SWAT plus a hydroclimatological model component that considers both hydrological inputs and air temperature. Based on daily calibration results with six years of measured streamflow and four years of stream temperature data, we examined occurrences of stressful conditions for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis using the hydroclimatological model. SWAT with the hydroclimatological component improved modestly during calibration (NSE of 0.93, R2 of 0.95 compared to the original SWAT (NSE of 0.83, R2 of 0.93. Between 1980–2009, the number of stressful events, a moment in time where high or low flows occur simultaneously with stream temperatures exceeding 21 °C, increased by 55% and average streamflow increased by 60%. This study supports using the hydroclimatological SWAT component and provides an example method for assessing stressful conditions in southern New England’s coldwater habitats.

  10. Assessing the impacts of future climate conditions on the effectiveness of winter cover crops in reducing nitrate loads into the Chesapeake Bay Watershed using SWAT model

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    Lee, Sangchul; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Yeo, In-Young; McCarty, Gregory W.; Hively, W. Dean

    2017-01-01

    Winter cover crops (WCCs) have been widely implemented in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW) due to their high effectiveness at reducing nitrate loads. However, future climate conditions (FCCs) are expected to exacerbate water quality degradation in the CBW by increasing nitrate loads from agriculture. Accordingly, the question remains whether WCCs are sufficient to mitigate increased nutrient loads caused by FCCs. In this study, we assessed the impacts of FCCs on WCC nitrate reduction efficiency on the Coastal Plain of the CBW using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Three FCC scenarios (2085 – 2098) were prepared using General Circulation Models (GCMs), considering three Intergovernmnental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) greenhouse gas emission scenarios. We also developed six representative WCC implementation scenarios based on the most commonly used planting dates and species of WCCs in this region. Simulation results showed that WCC biomass increased by ~ 58 % under FCC scenarios, due to climate conditions conducive to the WCC growth. Prior to implementing WCCs, annual nitrate loads increased by ~ 43 % under FCC scenarios compared to the baseline scenario (2001 – 2014). When WCCs were planted, annual nitrate loads were substantially reduced by ~ 48 % and WCC nitrate reduction efficiency water ~ 5 % higher under FCC scenarios relative to the baseline. The increase rate of WCC nitrate reduction efficiency varied by FCC scenarios and WCC planting methods. As CO2 concentration was higher and winters were warmer under FCC scenarios, WCCs had greater biomass and therefore showed higher nitrate reduction efficiency. In response to FCC scenarios, the performance of less effective WCC practices (e.g., barley, wheat, and late planting) under the baseline indicated ~ 14 % higher increase rate of nitrate reduction efficiency compared to ones with better effectiveness under the baseline (e

  11. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of BMPs in controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China based on the SWAT model.

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    Liu, Ruimin; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used in managing agricultural nonpoint source pollution (ANSP) at the watershed level. Most BMPs are related to land use, tillage management, and fertilizer levels. In total, seven BMP scenarios (Reforest1, Reforest2, No Tillage, Contour tillage, and fertilizer level 1-4) that are related to these three factors were estimated in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of these BMPs on ANSP reduction in a large tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, which are based on the simulation results of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The results indicated that reforestation was the most economically efficient of all BMPs, and its net benefits were up to CNY 4.36×10(7) years(-1) (about USD 7.08×10(6) years(-1)). Regarding tillage practices, no tillage practice was more environmentally friendly than other tillage practices, and contour tillage was more economically efficient. Reducing the local fertilizer level to 0.8-fold less than that of 2010 can yield a satisfactory environmental and economic efficiency. Reforestation and fertilizer management were more effective in reducing total phosphorus (TP), whereas tillage management was more effective in reducing total nitrogen (TN). When CNY 10,000 (about USD 162) was applied to reforestation, no tillage, contour tillage, and an 0.8-fold reduction in the fertilizer level, then annual TN load can be reduced by 0.08, 0.16, 0.11, and 0.04 t and annual TP load can be reduced by 0.04, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.03 t, respectively. The cost-benefit (CB) ratios of the BMPs were as follows: reforestation (207 %) > contour tillage (129 %) > no tillage (114 %) > fertilizer management (96 and 89 %). The most economical and effective BMPs can be designated as follows: BMP1 (returning arable land with slopes greater than 25° to forests and those lands with slopes of 15-25° to orchards), BMP2 (implementing no tillage

  12. Advances in the application of the SWAT model for water resources management

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    Jayakrishnan, R.; Srinivasan, R.; Santhi, C.; Arnold, J. G.

    2005-02-01

    Developments in computer technology have revolutionized the study of hydrologic systems and water resources management. Several computer-based hydrologic/water quality models have been developed for applications in hydrologic modelling and water resources studies. Distributed parameter models, necessary for basin-scale studies, have large input data requirements. Geographic information systems (GIS) and model-GIS interfaces aid the efficient creation of input data files required by such models. One such model available for the water resources professional is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a distributed parameter model developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. This paper describes some recent advances made in the application of SWAT and the SWAT-GIS interface for water resources management. Four case studies are presented. The Hydrologic Unit Model for the United States (HUMUS) project used SWAT to conduct a national-scale analysis of the effect of management scenarios on water quantity and quality. Integration of the SWAT model with rainfall data available from the WSR-88D radar network helps us to incorporate the spatial variability of rainfall into the modelling process. This study demonstrates the usefulness of radar rainfall data in distributed hydrologic studies and the potential of SWAT for application in flood analysis and prediction. A hydrologic modelling study of the Sondu river basin in Kenya using SWAT indicates the potential for application of the model in African watersheds and points to the need for development of better model input data sets in Africa, which are critical for detailed water resources studies. The application of SWAT for water quality analysis in the Bosque river basin, Texas demonstrates the strength of the model for analysing different management scenarios to minimize point and non-point pollution, and its potential for application in total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies.

  13. The effect of reforestation on stream flow in Upper Nan river basin using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model

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    Winai Wangpimool

    2013-09-01

    The simulation was performed using three reforestation scenarios to assess stream flow:(1 improved disturbed forest, (2 field crops and range grass, and (3 both disturbed forest and field crops. The results of reforestation from scenarios 1 and 3 can increase stream flow in the drought season and can also reduce the flow in the wet season in the main stream and its tributaries. For scenario 2 Reforestation had no significant effect on the main stream.

  14. Grid based calibration of SWAT hydrological models

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    D. Gorgan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The calibration and execution of large hydrological models, such as SWAT (soil and water assessment tool, developed for large areas, high resolution, and huge input data, need not only quite a long execution time but also high computation resources. SWAT hydrological model supports studies and predictions of the impact of land management practices on water, sediment, and agricultural chemical yields in complex watersheds. The paper presents the gSWAT application as a web practical solution for environmental specialists to calibrate extensive hydrological models and to run scenarios, by hiding the complex control of processes and heterogeneous resources across the grid based high computation infrastructure. The paper highlights the basic functionalities of the gSWAT platform, and the features of the graphical user interface. The presentation is concerned with the development of working sessions, interactive control of calibration, direct and basic editing of parameters, process monitoring, and graphical and interactive visualization of the results. The experiments performed on different SWAT models and the obtained results argue the benefits brought by the grid parallel and distributed environment as a solution for the processing platform. All the instances of SWAT models used in the reported experiments have been developed through the enviroGRIDS project, targeting the Black Sea catchment area.

  15. Impact of Spatial Scale on Calibration and Model Output for a Grid-based SWAT Model

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    Pignotti, G.; Vema, V. K.; Rathjens, H.; Raj, C.; Her, Y.; Chaubey, I.; Crawford, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The traditional implementation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model utilizes common landscape characteristics known as hydrologic response units (HRUs). Discretization into HRUs provides a simple, computationally efficient framework for simulation, but also represents a significant limitation of the model as spatial connectivity between HRUs is ignored. SWATgrid, a newly developed, distributed version of SWAT, provides modified landscape routing via a grid, overcoming these limitations. However, the current implementation of SWATgrid has significant computational overhead, which effectively precludes traditional calibration and limits the total number of grid cells in a given modeling scenario. Moreover, as SWATgrid is a relatively new modeling approach, it remains largely untested with little understanding of the impact of spatial resolution on model output. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of user-defined input resolution on SWATgrid predictions in the Upper Cedar Creek Watershed (near Auburn, IN, USA). Original input data, nominally at 30 m resolution, was rescaled for a range of resolutions between 30 and 4,000 m. A 30 m traditional SWAT model was developed as the baseline for model comparison. Monthly calibration was performed, and the calibrated parameter set was then transferred to all other SWAT and SWATgrid models to focus the effects of resolution on prediction uncertainty relative to the baseline. Model output was evaluated with respect to stream flow at the outlet and water quality parameters. Additionally, output of SWATgrid models were compared to output of traditional SWAT models at each resolution, utilizing the same scaled input data. A secondary objective considered the effect of scale on calibrated parameter values, where each standard SWAT model was calibrated independently, and parameters were transferred to SWATgrid models at equivalent scales. For each model, computational requirements were evaluated

  16. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulation of lateral flow with SWAT

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    Calibration of the SWAT model for the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) showed that percolation through the restrictive claypan layer, lateral flow above that layer, and redistribution of excess moisture up to the ground surface were not correctly simulated. In addition, surface runoff a...

  18. Prediction of phosphorus loads in an artificially drained lowland catchment using a modified SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwe, Andreas; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Lennartz, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Eutrophication is still one of the main environmental problems in the Baltic Sea. Currently, agricultural diffuse sources constitute the major portion of phosphorus (P) fluxes to the Baltic Sea and have to be reduced to achieve the HELCOM targets and improve the ecological status. Eco-hydrological models are suitable tools to identify sources of nutrients and possible measures aiming at reducing nutrient loads into surface waters. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the Warnow river basin (3300 km2), the second largest watershed in Germany discharging into the Baltic Sea. The Warnow river basin is located in northeastern Germany and characterized by lowlands with a high proportion of artificially drained areas. The aim of this study were (i) to estimate P loadings for individual flow fractions (point sources, surface runoff, tile flow, groundwater flow), spatially distributed on sub-basin scale. Since the official version of SWAT does not allow for the modeling of P in tile drains, we tested (ii) two different approaches of simulating P in tile drains by changing the SWAT source code. The SWAT source code was modified so that (i) the soluble P concentration of the groundwater was transferred to the tile water and (ii) the soluble P in the soil was transferred to the tiles. The SWAT model was first calibrated (2002-2011) and validated (1992-2001) for stream flow at 7 headwater catchments at a daily time scale. Based on this, the stream flow at the outlet of the Warnow river basin was simulated. Performance statistics indicated at least satisfactory model results for each sub-basin. Breaking down the discharge into flow constituents, it becomes visible that stream flow is mainly governed by groundwater and tile flow. Due to the topographic situation with gentle slopes, surface runoff played only a minor role. Results further indicate that the prediction of soluble P loads was improved by the modified SWAT versions. Major sources of

  19. Case Study: Effect of Climatic Characterization on River Discharge in an Alpine-Prealpine Catchment of the Spanish Pyrenees Using the SWAT Model

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    Leticia Palazón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges in assessment of water resources demand new approaches and tools, such as the use of hydrologic models, which could serve to assist managers in the prediction, planning and management of catchment water supplies in view of increased demand of water for irrigation and climatic change. Good characterization of the spatial patterns of climate variables is of paramount importance in hydrological modelling. This is especially so when modelling mountain environments which are characterized by strong altitudinal climate gradients. However, very often there is a poor distribution of climatic stations in these areas, which in many cases, results in under representation of high altitude areas with respect to climatic data. This results in the poor performance of the models. In the present study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Barasona reservoir catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees in order to assess the influence of different climatic characterizations in the monthly river discharges. Four simulations with different input data were assessed, using only the available climate data (A1; the former plus one synthetic dataset at a higher altitude (B1; and both plus the altitudinal climate gradient (A2 and B2. The model’s performance was evaluated against the river discharges for the representative periods of 2003–2005 and 1994–1996 by means of commonly used statistical measures. The best results were obtained using the altitudinal climate gradient alone (scenario A2. This study provided insight into the importance of taking into account the sources and the spatial distribution of weather data in modelling water resources in mountainous catchments.

  20. Occlusion effects, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    The present report studies the mechanism of the occlusion effect by means of literature studies, experiments and model estimates. A mathematical model of the occlusion effect is developed. The model includes the mechanical properties of the earmould and the airborne sound as well as the body...... conducted sound from own voice. These aspects are new in the sense that previous studies disregard the earmould mechanics and includes only one sound source placed in the ear canal....

  1. Evaluation of existing and modified wetland equations in the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The drainage significantly alters flow and nutrient pathways in small watersheds and reliable simulation at this scale is needed for effective planning of nutrient reduction strategies. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been widely utilized for prediction of flow and nutrient loads, but...

  2. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds

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    Indrajeet Chaubey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ≤ NS ≤ 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

  3. A simple rule based model for scheduling farm management operations in SWAT

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    Schürz, Christoph; Mehdi, Bano; Schulz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    For many interdisciplinary questions at the watershed scale, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT; Arnold et al., 1998) has become an accepted and widely used tool. Despite its flexibility, the model is highly demanding when it comes to input data. At SWAT's core the water balance and the modeled nutrient cycles are plant growth driven (implemented with the EPIC crop growth model). Therefore, land use and crop data with high spatial and thematic resolution, as well as detailed information on cultivation and farm management practices are required. For many applications of the model however, these data are unavailable. In order to meet these requirements, SWAT offers the option to trigger scheduled farm management operations by applying the Potential Heat Unit (PHU) concept. The PHU concept solely takes into account the accumulation of daily mean temperature for management scheduling. Hence, it contradicts several farming strategies that take place in reality; such as: i) Planting and harvesting dates are set much too early or too late, as the PHU concept is strongly sensitivity to inter-annual temperature fluctuations; ii) The timing of fertilizer application, in SWAT this often occurs simultaneously on the same date in in each field; iii) and can also coincide with precipitation events. Particularly, the latter two can lead to strong peaks in modeled nutrient loads. To cope with these shortcomings we propose a simple rule based model (RBM) to schedule management operations according to realistic farmer management practices in SWAT. The RBM involves simple strategies requiring only data that are input into the SWAT model initially, such as temperature and precipitation data. The user provides boundaries of time periods for operation schedules to take place for all crops in the model. These data are readily available from the literature or from crop variety trials. The RBM applies the dates by complying with the following rules: i) Operations scheduled in the

  4. Impacts of manure application on SWAT model outputs in the Xiangxi River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Wang, Qingrui; Xu, Fei; Men, Cong; Guo, Lijia

    2017-12-01

    SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model has been widely used to simulate agricultural non-point source (ANPS) pollution; however, the impacts of livestock manure application on SWAT model outputs have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental effects of livestock manure application based on the SWAT model in the Xiangxi River watershed, which is one of the largest tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China. Three newly-built manure databases (NB) were created and applied to different subbasins based on the actual livestock manure discharging amount. The calibration and validation values of SWAT model outputs obtained from the NB manure application and the original mixed (OM) manure were compared. The study results are as follows: (1) The livestock industry of Xingshan County developed quickly between 2005 and 2015. The downstream of the Xiangxi River (Huangliang, Shuiyuesi and Xiakou) had the largest livestock amount, and largely accounted for manure, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) production (>50%). (2) The NB manure application resulted in less phosphorus pollution (1686.35 kg for ORGP and 31.70 kg for MINP) than the OM manure application. Compared with the upstream, the downstream was influenced more by the manure application. (3) The SWAT results obtained from the NB manure had a better calibration and validation values than those from the OM manure. For ORGP, R2 and NSE values were 0.77 and 0.65 for the NB manure calibration; and the same values for the OM manure were 0.72 and 0.61, respectively. For MINP, R2 values were 0.65 and 0.62 for the NB manure and the OM manure, and the NSE values were 0.60 and 0.58, respectively. The results indicated that the built-in fertilizer database in SWAT has its limitation because it is set up for the simulation in the USA. Thus, when livestock manure is considered in a SWAT simulation, a newly built fertilizer database needs to be set up to represent

  5. Application of SWAT-HS, a lumped hillslope model to simulate hydrology in the Cannonsville Reservoir watershed, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Linh; Schneiderman, Elliot; Mukundan, Rajith; Moore, Karen; Owens, Emmet; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2017-04-01

    Surface runoff is the primary mechanism transporting substances such as sediments, agricultural chemicals, and pathogens to receiving waters. In order to predict runoff and pollutant fluxes, and to evaluate management practices, it is essential to accurately predict the areas generating surface runoff, which depend on the type of runoff: infiltration-excess runoff and saturation-excess runoff. The watershed of Cannonsville reservoir is part of the New York City water supply system that provides high quality drinking water to nine million people in New York City (NYC) and nearby communities. Previous research identified saturation-excess runoff as the dominant runoff mechanism in this region. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a promising tool to simulate the NYC watershed given its broad application and good performance in many watersheds with different scales worldwide, for its ability to model water quality responses, and to evaluate the effect of management practices on water quality at the watershed scale. However, SWAT predicts runoff based mainly on soil and land use characteristics, and implicitly considers only infiltration-excess runoff. Therefore, we developed a modified version of SWAT, referred to as SWAT-Hillslope (SWAT-HS), which explicitly simulates saturation-excess runoff by redefining Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) based on wetness classes with varying soil water storage capacities, and by introducing a surface aquifer with the ability to route interflow from "drier" to "wetter" wetness classes. SWAT-HS was first tested at Town Brook, a 37 km2 headwater watershed draining to the Cannonsville reservoir using a single sub-basin for the whole watershed. SWAT-HS performed well, and predicted streamflow yielded Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.68 and 0.87 at the daily and monthly time steps, respectively. More importantly, it predicted the spatial distribution of saturated areas accurately. Based on the good performance in the Town Brook

  6. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhang Minghua, E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.ed [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

  7. Modelling of hydrologic processes and potential response to climate change through the use of a multisite SWAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gül, G.O.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Hydrologic models that use components for integrated modelling of surface water and groundwater systems help conveniently simulate the dynamically linked hydrologic and hydraulic processes that govern flow conditions in watersheds. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is one such model...... that allows continuous simulations over long time periods in the land phase of the hydrologic cycle by incorporating surface water and groundwater interactions. This study provides a verified structure for the SWAT to evaluate existing flow regimes in a small-sized catchment in Denmark and examines a simple...... simulation to help quantify the effects of climate change on regional water quantities. SWAT can be regarded among the alternative hydrologic simulation tools applicable for catchments with similar characteristics and of similar sizes in Denmark. However, the modellers would be required to determine a proper...

  8. Development of a Hydrologic Connectivity Dataset for SWAT Assessments in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. White

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Model-based water quality assessments are an important informer of conservation and environmental policy in the U.S. The recently completed national scale Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP is being replicated using an improved model populated with new and higher resolution data. National assessments are particularly difficult as models must operate with both a very large spatial extent (the contiguous U.S. while maintaining a level of granularity required to capture important small scale processes. In this research, we developed datasets to describe the hydrologic connectivity at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS 12-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC-12 level. Connectivity between 86,000 HUC-12s as provided by the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD was evaluated and corrected. We also detailed a method to resolve the highly detailed National Hydrography Dataset (NHD stream segments within each HUC-12 into vastly simplified representative channel schemes suitable for use in the recently developed Soil and Water Assessment Tool + (SWAT+ model. This representative channel approach strikes a balance between computational complexity and accurate representation of the hydrologic system. These data will be tested in the upcoming CEAP II national assessment. Until then, all the WBD corrections and NHDPlus representative channel data are provided via the web for other researchers to evaluate and utilize.

  9. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  10. Sensitivity of different satellites gridded data over Brahmaputra Basin byusing Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S.; Pradhanang, S. M.; Islam, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    More than half a billion people of India, China, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan are dependent on the water resources of the Brahmaputra river. With climatic and anthropogenic change of this basin region is becoming a cause of concern for future water management and sharing with transboundary riparian nations. To address such issues, robust watershed runoff modeling of the basin is essential. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a widely used semi-distributed watershed model that is capable of analyzing surface runoff, stream flow, water yield, sediment and nutrient transport in a large river basin such as Brahmaputra, but the performance of runoff the model depends on the accuracy of input precipitation datasets. But for a transboundary basin like Brahmaputra, precipitation gauge data from upstream areas is either not available or not accessible to the scientific communities. Satellite rainfall products are very effective where radar datasets are absent and conventional rain gauges are sparse. However, the sensitivity of the SWAT model to different satellite data products as well as hydrologic parameters for the Brahmaputra Basin are largely unknown. Thus in this study, a comparative analysis with different satellite data product has been made to assess the runoff using SWAT model. Here, datafrom three sources: TRMM, APHRDOTIE and GPCP were used as input precipitation satellite data set and ERA-Interim was used as input temperature dataset from 1998 to 2009. The main methods used in modeling the hydrologic processes in SWAT were curve number method for runoff estimating, Penman-Monteith method for PET and Muskingum method for channel routing. Our preliminary results have revealed thatthe TRMM data product is more accurate than APHRODITE and GPCP for runoff analysis. The coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies for both calibration and validation period from TRMM data are 0.83 and 0.72, respectively.

  11. Improving streamflow simulations and forecasting performance of SWAT model by assimilating remotely sensed soil moisture observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amol; Ramsankaran, RAAJ

    2017-12-01

    This article presents a study carried out using EnKF based assimilation of coarser-scale SMOS soil moisture retrievals to improve the streamflow simulations and forecasting performance of SWAT model in a large catchment. This study has been carried out in Munneru river catchment, India, which is about 10,156 km2. In this study, an EnkF based new approach is proposed for improving the inherent vertical coupling of soil layers of SWAT hydrological model during soil moisture data assimilation. Evaluation of the vertical error correlation obtained between surface and subsurface layers indicates that the vertical coupling can be improved significantly using ensemble of soil storages compared to the traditional static soil storages based EnKF approach. However, the improvements in the simulated streamflow are moderate, which is due to the limitations in SWAT model in reflecting the profile soil moisture updates in surface runoff computations. Further, it is observed that the durability of streamflow improvements is longer when the assimilation system effectively updates the subsurface flow component. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that the passive microwave-based coarser-scale soil moisture products like SMOS hold significant potential to improve the streamflow estimates when assimilating into large-scale distributed hydrological models operating at a daily time step.

  12. Introducing a new open source GIS user interface for the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is a robust watershed modelling tool. It typically uses the ArcSWAT interface to create its inputs. ArcSWAT is public domain software which works in the licensed ArcGIS environment. The aim of this paper was to develop an open source user interface ...

  13. Calibration and Validation of the SWAT2000 Watershed Model for Phosphorus Loading to the Cannonsville Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, B. A.; Shoemaker, C. A.

    2002-12-01

    A comprehensive modeling effort was undertaken to simulate phosphorus (P) loading to the Cannonsville Reservoir in upstate New York. The Cannonsville Reservoir is one of the City of New York's drinking water supply reservoirs and drains an 1178 km2 watershed that is predominantly agricultural (dairy farming) and forested. The occurrence of eutrophic conditions in the reservoir, due to excessive P loading, resulted in the reservoir being classified as `phosphorus restricted'. This classification restricts future economic growth in the watershed when the growth directly or indirectly increases P loadings. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2000) was used to model the P loading to the reservoir in order to help investigate the effectiveness of proposed management options for reducing P loading. SWAT2000 is a distributed watershed model developed by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. This study is the first to apply SWAT2000 for P loading predictions in the Northeast US. SWAT2000 model development with respect to P focused initially on developing Cannonsville Watershed specific P inputs. Agricultural practices in the watershed were generalized, initial soil P levels were determined using aggregated watershed-wide soil P test results, manure spreading was based on the available manure masses as projected from local cattle population estimates and manure production characteristics were based on local manure studies. Ten years of daily P loading data were available for calibration and validation of the model. Additional bi-weekly sampling data of surface water P concentrations across the watershed were also utilized to test the spatial performance of the model. Comparison with measured data and further analysis of model equations showed that the model equations for sediment generation under snow melt conditions required modifications. In addition a number of P model parameters required calibration. Calibration results

  14. Development of stream-subsurface flow module in sub-daily simulation of Escherichia coli using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Boithias, Laurie; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Silvera, Norbert; Thammahacksa, Chanthamousone; Latsachack, Keooudone; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Pierret, Alain; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Water contaminated with pathogenic bacteria poses a large threat to public health, especially in the rural areas in the tropics where sanitation and drinking water facilities are often lacking. Several studies have used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the export of in-stream bacteria at a watershed-scale. However, SWAT is limited to in-stream processes, such as die-off, resuspension and, deposition; and it is usually implemented on a daily time step using the SCS Curve Number method, making it difficult to explore the dynamic fate and transport of bacteria during short but intense events such as flash floods in tropical humid montane headwaters. To address these issues, this study implemented SWAT on an hourly time step using the Green-Ampt infiltration method, and tested the effects of subsurface flow (LATQ+GWQ in SWAT) on bacterial dynamics. We applied the modified SWAT model to the 60-ha Houay Pano catchment in Northern Laos, using sub-daily rainfall and discharge measurements, electric conductivity-derived fractions of overland and subsurface flows, suspended sediments concentrations, and the number of fecal indicator organism Escherichia coli monitored at the catchment outlet from 2011 to 2013. We also took into account land use change by delineating the watershed with the 3-year composite land use map. The results show that low subsurface flow of less than 1 mm recovered the underestimation of E. coli numbers during the dry season, while high subsurface flow caused an overestimation during the wet season. We also found that it is more reasonable to apply the stream-subsurface flow interaction to simulate low in-stream bacteria counts. Using fecal bacteria to identify and understand the possible interactions between overland and subsurface flows may well also provide some insight into the fate of other bacteria, such as those involved in biogeochemical fluxes both in-stream and in the adjacent soils and hyporheic zones.

  15. Impact Assessment of Morphological Features on Watersheds Using SWAT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Kutukcu, A.

    2016-12-01

    Defining the morphological characteristics of a basin enables carrying out numerous hydrological assessments such as flow value of the basin. In this study the impacts of morphological features designated for the basins on the flow were analyzed. Related to the basin flow shape, drainage density, bifurcation ratio and texture ratio were evaluated using morphological parameters. In the study, Büyük Menderes River Basin and Gediz River Basin which extend across a long valley and flow into the Aegean Sea, were selected as the study area. In the calculation of morphometric parameters regarding the basins, DTM which has 10 m spatial resolution was used. DTM was used as input data for the Soil and Water Assessment Tool - SWAT model which makes significant contributions to the modelling of big basins for hydrologists. The flow value obtained as a result of operating the model facilitates to verify the conducted morphological analyses. On account of operating the model, hydrological parameters on the basis of sub basins were also obtained, which in return makes it possible to understand the hydrological reactions within the basin. The results of the conducted study can be effectively used for integrated watershed management which requires detailed hydrological parameters can be obtained using modern tools such as numerical models.

  16. Impact of Uncertainty in SWAT Model Simulations on Consequent Decisions on Optimal Crop Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, N.; Sudheer, K. P.; Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.

    2015-12-01

    The diminishing quantities of non-renewable forms of energy have caused an increasing interest in the renewable sources of energy, such as biofuel, in the recent years. However, the demand for biofuel has created a concern for allocating grain between the fuel and food industry. Consequently, appropriate regulations that limit grain based ethanol production have been developed and are put to practice, which resulted in cultivating perennial grasses like Switch grass and Miscanthus to meet the additional cellulose demand. A change in cropping and management practice, therefore, is essential to cater the conflicting requirement for food and biofuel, which has a long-term impact on the downstream water quality. Therefore it is essential to implement optimal cropping practices to reduce the pollutant loadings. Simulation models in conjunction with optimization procedures are useful in developing efficient cropping practices in such situations. One such model is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which can simulate both the water and the nutrient cycle, as well as quantify long-term impacts of changes in management practice in the watershed. It is envisaged that the SWAT model, along with an optimization algorithm, can be used to identify the optimal cropping pattern that achieves the minimum guaranteed grain production with less downstream pollution, while maximizing the biomass production for biofuel generation. However, the SWAT simulations do have a certain level of uncertainty that needs to be accounted for before making decisions. Therefore, the objectives of this study are twofold: (i) to understand how model uncertainties influence decision-making, and (ii) to develop appropriate management scenarios that account the uncertainty. The simulation uncertainty of the SWAT model is assessed using Shuffled Complex Evolutionary Metropolis Algorithm (SCEM). With the data collected from St. Joseph basin, IN, USA, the preliminary results indicate that model

  17. Sediment management modelling in the Blue Nile Basin using SWAT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Betrie

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion/sedimentation is an immense problem that has threatened water resources development in the Nile river basin, particularly in the Eastern Nile (Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt. An insight into soil erosion/sedimentation mechanisms and mitigation methods plays an imperative role for the sustainable water resources development in the region. This paper presents daily sediment yield simulations in the Upper Blue Nile under different Best Management Practice (BMP scenarios. Scenarios applied in this paper are (i maintaining existing conditions, (ii introducing filter strips, (iii applying stone bunds (parallel terraces, and (iv reforestation. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to model soil erosion, identify soil erosion prone areas and assess the impact of BMPs on sediment reduction. For the existing conditions scenario, the model results showed a satisfactory agreement between daily observed and simulated sediment concentrations as indicated by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency greater than 0.83. The simulation results showed that applying filter strips, stone bunds and reforestation scenarios reduced the current sediment yields both at the subbasins and the basin outlets. However, a precise interpretation of the quantitative results may not be appropriate because some physical processes are not well represented in the SWAT model.

  18. SWATS: Diurnal Trends in the Soil Temperature Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Theisen, Adam [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-06-30

    During the processing of data for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARMBE2D Value-Added Product (VAP), the developers noticed that the SWATS soil temperatures did not show a decreased temporal variability with increased depth with the new E30+ Extended Facilities (EFs), unlike the older EFs at ARM’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The instrument mentor analyzed the data and reported that all SWATS locations have shown this behavior but that the magnitude of the problem was greatest at EFs E31-E38. The data were analyzed to verify the initial assessments of: 1. 5 cm SWATS data were valid for all EFs and 15 cm soil temperature measurements were valid at all EFs other than E31-E38, 2. Use only nighttime SWATS soil temperature measurements to calculate daily average soil temperatures, 3. Since it seems likely that the soil temperature measurements below 15cm were affected by the solar heating of the enclosure at all but E31-38, and at all depths below 5cm at E31-38, individual measurements of soil temperature at these depths during daylight hours, and daily averages of the same, can ot be trusted on most (particularly sunny) days.

  19. Residues of cypermethrin and endosulfan in soils of Swat valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nafees

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Swat Valley was studied for two widely used pesticides; cypermethrin and endosulfan. A total of 63 soil samples were collected from 27 villages selected for this purpose. The collected soil samples were extracted with n-hexane, pesticides were separated, identified and quantified by a GC-ECD system. Endosulfan was 0.24 - 1.51 mg kg-1 and 0.13 - 12.67 mg kg-1 in rainfed and irrigated areas, respectively. The residual level of cypermethrin was comparatively high with a level of0.14 to 27.62 mg kg-1 and 0.05 to 73.75 mg kg-1 in rainfed and irrigated areas, respectively. For assessing the possible causes of pesticide residues in soil, 360 farmers were interviewed. It was found that both, cypermethrin and endosulfan, apart from agriculture were also widely misused for fishing in the entire stretch of River Swat and its tributaries. River Swat is used for irrigation in Swat Valley and this wide misuse of pesticides can also contribute to pesticide residue in soil.

  20. Malnutrition amongst Under-Five Years Children in Swat, Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... The incidence of malnutrition is about the same for both male and female children. Risk factors for malnutrition in the children include lack of education, teenage pregnancy, lack of immunization, and large family size. Keywords: Malnutrition, Gomezfs classification, Weaning time, Risk factors, Teenage pregnancy, Swat ...

  1. Fecal bacteria source characterization and sensitivity analysis of SWAT 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) version 2005 includes a microbial sub-model to simulate fecal bacteria transport at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate methods to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) source loads and to assess the model sensitivity t...

  2. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Global Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, J.; Srinivasan, R; Neitsch, S. (ed.); George, C.; Abbaspour, K.; Hao, F.H.; van Griensven, A.; Gosain, A.; Debels, P.; N.W. Kim; Somura, H.; Ella, Victor B.; Leon, L.; Jintrawet, A.; Manuel R. Reyes

    2009-01-01

    Summary: SWAT,the Soil and Water Assessment Tool is a river basin, or watershed, scale model developed to predict the impact of land management practices on water, sediment and agricultural chemical yields in large complex watersheds with varying soils, land use and management conditions over long periods of time. [from the editors' preamble] LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  3. Environmental gamma radiation measurement in district Swat, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, T; Khan, K; Subhani, M S; Akhter, P; Jabbar, A

    2008-01-01

    External exposure to environmental gamma ray sources is an important component of exposure to the public. A survey was carried out to determine activity concentration levels and associated doses from (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs by means of high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry in the Swat district, famous for tourism. The mean concentrations for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 50.4 +/- 0.7, 34.8 +/- 0.7 and 434.5 +/- 7.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in soil samples, which are slightly more than the world average values. However, (137)Cs was only found in the soil sample of Barikot with an activity concentration of 34 +/- 1.2 Bq kg(-1). Only (40)K was determined in vegetation samples with an average activity of 172.2 +/- 1.7 Bq kg(-1), whereas in water samples, all radionuclides were found below lower limits of detection. The radium equivalent activity in all soil samples is lower than the limit set in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development report (370 Bq kg(-1)). The value of the external exposure dose has been determined from the content of these radionuclides in soil. The average terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate was observed to be 62.4 nGy h(-1), which yields an annual effective dose of 0.08 mSv. The average value of the annual effective dose lies close to the global range of outdoor radiation exposure given in United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. However, the main component of the radiation dose to the population residing in the study area arises from cosmic ray due to high altitude.

  4. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  5. OpenMP-accelerated SWAT simulation using Intel C and FORTRAN compilers: Development and benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Sugimura, Tak; Kim, Albert S.

    2015-02-01

    We developed a practical method to accelerate execution of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using open (free) computational resources. The SWAT source code (rev 622) was recompiled using a non-commercial Intel FORTRAN compiler in Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Linux platform, and newly named iOMP-SWAT in this study. GNU utilities of make, gprof, and diff were used to develop the iOMP-SWAT package, profile memory usage, and check identicalness of parallel and serial simulations. Among 302 SWAT subroutines, the slowest routines were identified using GNU gprof, and later modified using Open Multiple Processing (OpenMP) library in an 8-core shared memory system. In addition, a C wrapping function was used to rapidly set large arrays to zero by cross compiling with the original SWAT FORTRAN package. A universal speedup ratio of 2.3 was achieved using input data sets of a large number of hydrological response units. As we specifically focus on acceleration of a single SWAT run, the use of iOMP-SWAT for parameter calibrations will significantly improve the performance of SWAT optimization.

  6. An improved SWAT vegetation growth module and its evaluation for four tropical ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Tadesse; van Griensven, Ann; Taddesse Woldegiorgis, Befekadu; Bauwens, Willy

    2017-09-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a globally applied river basin ecohydrological model used in a wide spectrum of studies, ranging from land use change and climate change impacts studies to research for the development of the best water management practices. However, SWAT has limitations in simulating the seasonal growth cycles for trees and perennial vegetation in the tropics, where rainfall rather than temperature is the dominant plant growth controlling factor. Our goal is to improve the vegetation growth module of SWAT for simulating the vegetation variables - such as the leaf area index (LAI) - for tropical ecosystems. Therefore, we present a modified SWAT version for the tropics (SWAT-T) that uses a straightforward but robust soil moisture index (SMI) - a quotient of rainfall (P) and reference evapotranspiration (ETr) - to dynamically initiate a new growth cycle within a predefined period. Our results for the Mara Basin (Kenya/Tanzania) show that the SWAT-T-simulated LAI corresponds well with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI for evergreen forest, savanna grassland and shrubland. This indicates that the SMI is reliable for triggering a new annual growth cycle. The water balance components (evapotranspiration and streamflow) simulated by the SWAT-T exhibit a good agreement with remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration (ET-RS) and observed streamflow. The SWAT-T model, with the proposed vegetation growth module for tropical ecosystems, can be a robust tool for simulating the vegetation growth dynamics in hydrologic models in tropical regions.

  7. SWATMOD-PREP: Graphical user interface for preparing coupled SWAT-modflow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents SWATMOD-Prep, a graphical user interface that couples a SWAT watershed model with a MODFLOW groundwater flow model. The interface is based on a recently published SWAT-MODFLOW code that couples the models via mapping schemes. The spatial layout of SWATMOD-Prep guides the user t...

  8. Pesticide transport to tile-drained fields in SWAT model – macropore flow and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Shenglan; Trolle, Dennis; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    as a fraction of effective rainfall and transported to the tile drains directly. Macropore sediment transport is calculated similarly to the MACRO model (Jarvis et al., 1999). Mobile pesticide transport is calculated with a decay function with the flow, whereas sorbed pesticides transport is associated......Preferential flow and colloidal facilitated transport via macopores connected to tile drains are the main pathways for pesticide transport from agricultural areas to surface waters in some area. We developed a macropore flow module and a sediment transport module for the Soil and Water Assessment...... Tool (SWAT) to simulate transport of both mobile (e.g. Bentazon) and strongly sorbed (e.g. Diuron) pesticides in tile drains. Macropore flow is initiated when soil water content exceeds a threshold and rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration capacity. The amount of macropore flow is calculated...

  9. Assessing ways to combat eutrophication in a Chinese drinking water reservoir using SWAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Me, W

    2013-01-01

    Across China, nutrient losses associated with agricultural production and domestic sewage have triggered eutrophication, and local managers are challenged to comply with drinking water quality requirements. Evidently, the improvement of water quality should be targeted holistically and encompass...... both point sources and surface activities within the watershed of a reservoir. We expanded the ordinary Soil Water Assessment Tool – (SWAT) with a widely used empirical equation to estimate total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in lakes and reservoirs. Subsequently, we examined the effects of changes...... in land and livestock management and sewage treatment on nutrient export and derived consequences for water quality in the Chinese subtropical Kaiping (Dashahe) drinking water reservoir (supplying 0.4 million people). The critical load of TP was estimated to 13.5 tonnes yr–1 in order to comply...

  10. Effect of triptolide on proliferation and apoptosis of angiotensin II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The effect of triptolide (TPL) on cardiac fibroblasts (CFbs) and cardiac fibrosis remain unknown till now. This study was conducted to explore the effects of TPL on proliferation and apoptosis of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced CFbs. Materials and Methods: Ang II was used to promote proliferation of CFbs.

  11. Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model ecosystem services: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Wendy; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Pérez-Miñana, Elena; Willcock, Simon P.; Quintero, Marcela

    2016-04-01

    SWAT, a watershed modeling tool has been proposed to help quantify ecosystem services. The concept of ecosystem services incorporates the collective benefits natural systems provide primarily to human beings. It is becoming increasingly important to track the impact that human activities have on the environment in order to determine its resilience and sustainability. The objectives of this paper are to provide an overview of efforts using SWAT to quantify ecosystem services, to determine the model's capability examining various types of services, and to describe the approach used by various researchers. A literature review was conducted to identify studies in which SWAT was explicitly used for quantifying ecosystem services in terms of provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural aspects. A total of 44 peer reviewed publications were identified. Most of these used SWAT to quantify provisioning services (34%), regulating services (27%), or a combination of both (25%). While studies using SWAT for evaluating ecosystem services are limited (approximately 1% of SWAT's peered review publications), and usage (vs. potential) of services by beneficiaries is a current model limitation, the available literature sets the stage for the continuous development and potential of SWAT as a methodological framework for quantifying ecosystem services to assist in decision-making.

  12. Type-II superlattice hole effective masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2017-08-01

    A long wavelength infrared (LWIR) type-II superlattice (T2SL) is typically characterized by a very large valence-band-edge curvature effective mass, which is often assumed to lead to poor hole mobility. A detailed examination of the LWIR T2SL heavy-hole 1 (hh1) band structure reveals that a hole with non-zero in-plane momentum (k‖ ≠ 0) can move with a much larger group velocity component along the growth direction than one at the band edge (k‖ = 0), and that the hh1 miniband width can exhibit a very strong dependence on the in-plane wavevector k‖ . To distill the band structure effects relevant to hole transport into a simple quantity, we describe a formulation for computing the thermally averaged conductivity effective mass. We show that the LWIR T2SL hole conductivity effective masses along the growth direction can be orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding band-edge curvature effective masses. We compare the conductivities effective masses of InAs/GaSb T2SL and InAs/InAsSb T2SL grown pseudomorphically on GaSb substrate, as well as the metamorphic bulk InAsSb and InAs/InAsSb T2SL.

  13. A GUIDED SWAT MODEL APPLICATION ON SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING IN PANGANI RIVER BASIN: LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preksedis M. Ndomba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to report on the lessons learnt from applying Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT in a well guided sediment yield modelling study. The study area is the upstream of Pangani River Basin (PRB, the Nyumba Ya Mungu (NYM reservoir catchment, located in the North Eastern part of Tanzania. It should be noted that, previous modeling exercises in the region applied SWAT with preassumption that inter-rill or sheet erosion was the dominant erosion type. In contrast, in this study SWAT model application was guided by results of analysis of high temporal resolution of sediment flow data and hydro-meteorological data. The runoff component of the SWAT model was calibrated from six-years (i.e. 1977¿1982 of historical daily streamflow data. The sediment component of the model was calibrated using one-year (1977-1988 daily sediment loads estimated from one hydrological year sampling programme (between March and November, 2005 rating curve. A long-term period over 37 years (i.e. 1969-2005 simulation results of the SWAT model was validated to downstream NYM reservoir sediment accumulation information. The SWAT model captured 56 percent of the variance (CE and underestimated the observed daily sediment loads by 0.9 percent according to Total Mass Control (TMC performance indices during a normal wet hydrological year, i.e., between November 1, 1977 and October 31, 1978, as the calibration period. SWAT model predicted satisfactorily the long-term sediment catchment yield with a relative error of 2.6 percent. Also, the model has identified erosion sources spatially and has replicated some erosion processes as determined in other studies and field observations in the PRB. This result suggests that for catchments where sheet erosion is dominant SWAT model may substitute the sediment-rating curve. However, the SWAT model could not capture the dynamics of sediment load delivery in some seasons to the catchment outlet.

  14. Assessment of Flood Frequency Alteration by Dam Construction via SWAT Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Eun Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of the upstream Soyanggang and Chungju multi-purpose dams on the frequency of downstream floods in the Han River basin, South Korea. A continuous hydrological model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, was used to individually simulate regulated and unregulated daily streamflows entering the Paldang Dam, which is located at the outlet of the basin of interest. The simulation of the regulated flows by the Soyanggang and Chungju dams was calibrated with observed inflow data to the Paldang Dam. The estimated daily flood peaks were used for a frequency analysis, using the extreme Type-I distribution, for which the parameters were estimated via the L-moment method. This novel approach was applied to the study area to assess the effects of the dams on downstream floods. From the results, the two upstream dams were found to be able to reduce downstream floods by approximately 31% compared to naturally occurring floods without dam regulation. Furthermore, an approach to estimate the flood frequency based on the hourly extreme peak flow data, obtained by combining SWAT simulation and Sangal’s method, was proposed and then verified by comparison with the observation-based results. The increased percentage of floods estimated with hourly simulated data for the three scenarios of dam regulation ranged from 16.1% to 44.1%. The reduced percentages were a little higher than those for the daily-based flood frequency estimates. The developed approach allowed for better understanding of flood frequency, as influenced by dam regulation on a relatively large watershed scale.

  15. Improving SWAT for simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Xuesong

    2016-11-01

    As a widely used watershed model for assessing impacts of anthropogenic and natural disturbances on water quantity and quality, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has not been extensively tested in simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems. Here, we examine SWAT simulations of evapotranspiration (ET), net primary productivity (NPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and plant biomass at ten AmeriFlux forest sites across the U.S. We identify unrealistic radiation use efficiency (Bio_E), large leaf to biomass fraction (Bio_LEAF), and missing phosphorus supply from parent material weathering as the primary causes for the inadequate performance of the default SWAT model in simulating forest dynamics. By further revising the relevant parameters and processes, SWAT’s performance is substantially improved. Based on the comparison between the improved SWAT simulations and flux tower observations, we discuss future research directions for further enhancing model parameterization and representation of water and carbon cycling for forests.

  16. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  17. Ethnobotanical Study of Tehsil Kabal, Swat District, KPK, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 140 plants have been reported ethnobotanically from Tehsil Kabal, Swat District. These include the 133 plants (95% of angiosperms, 3 (2.14% of gymnosperms, and 2 (1.42% each of pteridophytes and fungi. The largest family is Lamiaceae represented by 11 species followed by Rosaceae represented by 9 species. Among angiosperms 76 (55.63% were herbs, 17 (12.78% were shrubs, and 40 (30.07% were trees; 127 plants (95.48% were dicot while 6 plants (4.51% were monocot. Most of the plants were used for more than one purpose. Generally the plants were used for medicinal, fuel, timber wood, food, and fodder for cattle purposes.

  18. An improved SWAT vegetation growth module and its evaluation for four tropical ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alemayehu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is a globally applied river basin ecohydrological model used in a wide spectrum of studies, ranging from land use change and climate change impacts studies to research for the development of the best water management practices. However, SWAT has limitations in simulating the seasonal growth cycles for trees and perennial vegetation in the tropics, where rainfall rather than temperature is the dominant plant growth controlling factor. Our goal is to improve the vegetation growth module of SWAT for simulating the vegetation variables – such as the leaf area index (LAI – for tropical ecosystems. Therefore, we present a modified SWAT version for the tropics (SWAT-T that uses a straightforward but robust soil moisture index (SMI – a quotient of rainfall (P and reference evapotranspiration (ETr – to dynamically initiate a new growth cycle within a predefined period. Our results for the Mara Basin (Kenya/Tanzania show that the SWAT-T-simulated LAI corresponds well with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS LAI for evergreen forest, savanna grassland and shrubland. This indicates that the SMI is reliable for triggering a new annual growth cycle. The water balance components (evapotranspiration and streamflow simulated by the SWAT-T exhibit a good agreement with remote-sensing-based evapotranspiration (ET-RS and observed streamflow. The SWAT-T model, with the proposed vegetation growth module for tropical ecosystems, can be a robust tool for simulating the vegetation growth dynamics in hydrologic models in tropical regions.

  19. Heterogeneous effect at FRM-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Yu.V.; Onegin, M.S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina (Russian Federation). Theoretical Dept.; Boening, K.; Nuding, M. [ZBE FRM-II-Bau, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The cores of modern research reactors (RR) are characterized by a relatively small volume and a high neutron leakage in order to yield an efficient production of thermal neutrons in the outside moderator. Many RR have fuel elements with aluminum-clad fuel plates cooled by light water. Due to a large difference of the mean free paths of the neutrons in H{sub 2}O and Al a relatively large so called ''heterogeneous effect'' (HE) arises in such cores. By definition the HE is the difference between the results for the reactivity obtained from a detailed calculation considering the realistic ''heterogeneous'' geometry of the core and from a simplified calculation using a ''homogeneous'' core model in which the fuel plate lattice is homogenized: {delta}{rho}{sub HE} = {rho}{sup het} - {rho}{sup hom}. For the first time this negative HE has been found for an aluminum-clad core in the course of calculations performed for the research reactor WWR-M at Gatchina. In the work as described in this paper the HE was calculated for the FRM-II. The ''heterogeneous'' calculation has been performed using two different Monte Carlo codes: MCU-RFFI and MCNP-4B with the ENDF/B-VI library. The fuel element of the FRM-II was modeled in detail: the involute shape of all 113 fuel plates, the cladding, the coolant channels etc. were exactly reproduced. The involute shape of each 1.36 mm thick fuel plate was modeled with an accuracy better than 3 {mu}m. Very important is the adequate reproduction of the energy dependence of the Al cross section. The ''homogeneous'' calculations used for reference were older Monte Carlo code calculations in which the core structure was homogenized from the beginning (i.e. without a special cell calculation). In the calculations performed with the code MCNP the HE is equal to {delta}{rho}{sub HE} = -0.5(1)% to -0.9(1)% depending on the position of the central

  20. Evaluation of non-point source pollution reduction by applying best management practices using a SWAT model and QuickBird high resolution satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, MiSeon; Park, GeunAe; Park, MinJi; Park, JongYoon; Lee, JiWan; Kim, SeongJoon

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the reduction effect of non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs) to a 1.21 km2 small agricultural watershed using a SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. Two meter QuickBird land use data were prepared for the watershed. The SWAT was calibrated and validated using daily streamflow and monthly water quality (total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and suspended solids (SS)) records from 1999 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2002. The average Nash and Sutcliffe model efficiency was 0.63 for the streamflow and the coefficients of determination were 0.88, 0.72, and 0.68 for SS, TN, and TP, respectively. Four BMP scenarios viz. the application of vegetation filter strip and riparian buffer system, the regulation of Universal Soil Loss Equation P factor, and the fertilizing control amount for crops were applied and analyzed.

  1. Phosphate effects on copper(II) and lead(II) sorption to ferrihydrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberg, Charlotta; Sjöstedt, Carin; Persson, Ingmar; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2013-11-01

    Transport of lead(II) and copper(II) ions in soil is affected by the soil phosphorus status. Part of the explanation may be that phosphate increases the adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to iron (hydr)oxides in soil, but the details of these interactions are poorly known. Knowledge about such mechanisms is important, for example, in risk assessments of contaminated sites and development of remediation methods. We used a combination of batch experiments, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and surface complexation modeling with the three-plane CD-MUSIC model to study the effect of phosphate on sorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to ferrihydrite. The aim was to identify the surface complexes formed and to derive constants for the surface complexation reactions. In the batch experiments phosphate greatly enhanced the adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to ferrihydrite at pH < 6. The largest effects were seen for lead(II).

  2. Performance of salsnes water to algae treatment (swat) technology in a continuous mode for high algae recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Barragán, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology. *KAR OK,.KONF MAI 2016* Many researchers consider efficient harvesting is the major bottleneck in cost efficient production of microalgae, contributing 20 – 30 % to total production cost. This thesis is the conclusion of a two years research project to develop Salsnes Water to Algae Treatment (SWAT) harvesting technology. SWAT uses two main processes: flocculation and filtration. The SWAT objectives were achieved, 95 % algae removal and p...

  3. Calibration and validation of SWAT model for estimating water balance and nitrogen losses in a small agricultural watershed in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarzyńska Karolina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT ver. 2005 was applied to study water balance and nitrogen load pathways in a small agricultural watershed in the lowlands of central Poland. The natural flow regime of the Zgłowiączka River was strongly modified by human activity (deforestation and installation of a subsurface drainage system to facilitate stable crop production. SWAT was calibrated for daily and monthly discharge and monthly nitrate nitrogen load. Model efficiency was tested using manual techniques (subjective and evaluation statistics (objective. Values of Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE, coefficient of determination (R2 and percentage of bias for daily/monthly discharge simulations and monthly load indicated good or very good fit of simulated discharge and nitrate nitrogen load to the observed data set. Model precision and accuracy of fit was proved in validation. The calibrated and validated SWAT was used to assess water balance and nitrogen fluxes in the watershed. According to the results, the share of tile drainage in water yield is equal to 78%. The model analysis indicated the most significant pathway of NO3-N to surface waters in the study area, namely the tile drainage combined with lateral flow. Its share in total NO3-N load amounted to 89%. Identification of nitrogen fluxes in the watershed is crucial for decision makers in order to manage water resources and to implement the most effective measures to limit diffuse pollution from arable land to surface waters.

  4. Modelling water-harvesting systems in the arid south of Tunisia using SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ouessar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In many arid countries, runoff water-harvesting systems support the livelihood of the rural population. Little is known, however, about the effect of these systems on the water balance components of arid watersheds. The objective of this study was to adapt and evaluate the GIS-based watershed model SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool for simulating the main hydrologic processes in arid environments. The model was applied to the 270-km2 watershed of wadi Koutine in southeast Tunisia, which receives about 200 mm annual rain. The main adjustment for adapting the model to this dry Mediterranean environment was the inclusion of water-harvesting systems, which capture and use surface runoff for crop production in upstream subbasins, and a modification of the crop growth processes. The adjusted version of the model was named SWAT-WH. Model evaluation was performed based on 38 runoff events recorded at the Koutine station between 1973 and 1985. The model predicted that the average annual watershed rainfall of the 12-year evaluation period (209 mm was split into ET (72%, groundwater recharge (22% and outflow (6%. The evaluation coefficients for calibration and validation were, respectively, R2 (coefficient of determination 0.77 and 0.44; E (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient 0.73 and 0.43; and MAE (Mean Absolute Error 2.6 mm and 3.0 mm, indicating that the model could reproduce the observed events reasonably well. However, the runoff record was dominated by two extreme events, which had a strong effect on the evaluation criteria. Discrepancies remained mainly due to uncertainties in the observed daily rainfall and runoff data. Recommendations for future research include the installation of additional rainfall and runoff gauges with continuous data logging and the collection of more field data to represent the soils and land use. In addition, crop growth and yield monitoring is needed for a proper evaluation of crop production, to

  5. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation to Flow of Swat River and Glaciers in Hindu Kush Ranges, Swat District, Pakistan (2003-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah Khan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at the climate change impacts and adaptation to surface flow of Swat river and glacier resources in Swat river catchments area, Hindu Kush ranges, Northwest Pakistan. The data about temperature and precipitation have been collected from the Pakistan Meteorological Department, Karachi, whereas the Swat River flow data from the Irrigation Department, Peshawar, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. Two types of climate that is humid and undifferentiated highlands prevail over the area. The total precipitation recorded has been 41.8inches (1061.7 millimeters with mean monthly precipitation of 3.5 inches (88.9 millimeters having a decrease of -0.1 inch (-2.8 millimeters. The area has been humid during 2004 and currently at the threshold of the sub-humid climates (20-40 inches. Kalam valley experiences cold long winters (7 months and short warm summers (5 months. The mean temperature reveals an increase of 0.90C, maximum temperature 0.40C and mean minimum temperature 0.50Celsius. This increase in the temperature of the area has caused water stress and retreat of glaciers and affected the permafrost condition at higher altitudes in the area. The annual flow of the Swat river is 192.2 cubic meter/seconds with a decline of -0.03 cubic m/sec from 2003 to 2013. The annual trend of water flow is directly proportional to precipitation and contrary to maximum temperature during 2003 to 2012 and shows converse condition till 2013. The decrease in the flow of Swat river seems both in winter and summer season. The glaciers and snow covered area of the Kalam valley decreases with passage of time and required mitigation. The vulnerability of the study area to climate change can be minimized by the construction of small reservoirs, river embankments, improvement in sewerage and sanitation, planning for flood water, and revision of the water management policy, implementation, and establishment of research and development funds.

  6. Simulating Flash Floods at Hourly Time-Step Using the SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Boithias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods are natural phenomena with environmental, social and economic impacts. To date, few numerical models are able to simulate hydrological processes at catchment scale at a reasonable time scale to describe flash events with accurate details. Considering a ~810 km2 Mediterranean river coastal basin (southwestern France as a study case, the objective of the present study was to assess the ability of the sub-daily module of the lumped Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to simulate discharge (1 time-continuously, by testing two sub-basin delineation schemes, two catchment sizes, and two output time-steps; and (2 at flood time-scale, by comparing the performances of SWAT to the performances of the event-based fully distributed MARINE model when simulating flash flood events. We showed that there was no benefit of decreasing the size of the minimum drainage area (e.g., from ~15 km2 down to ~1 km2 when delineating sub-basins in SWAT. We also showed that both the MARINE and SWAT models were equally able to reproduce peak discharge, flood timing and volume, and that they were both limited by rainfall and soil data. Hence, the SWAT model appears to be a reliable modelling tool to predict discharge over long periods of time in large flash-flood-prone basins.

  7. Development and application of SWAT to paddy rice district at watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuzhi; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Huicheng

    2010-05-01

    In irrigation district, especially in paddy rice fields, agricultural irrigation water use has a great influence on the natural water cycle process at watershed scale. In this study, SWAT model was modified to simulate irrigation water demand and quantify the irrigation return flow coefficient and the irrigation impact coefficient in paddy rice fields. Due to the lack of irrigation observed data, a multi-water source module was add to SWAT to build several feasible extraction scenarios, and a new algorithm of automatic irrigation application was implemented too. According to the simulation accuracy, the optimal scenario was selected to use in the new SWAT model, and then was applied to Changge Irrigation District in Hulan River Basin, northeast China. Comparisons between the enhanced model and old one were conducted at outlet cite, sifangtai. The results showed that the proposed SWAT has higher precision during calibration and validation periods, Nash coefficient of the simulated monthly flow was from 0.74 and 0.69 to 0.88 and 0.80 respectively. in addition, the annual averaged irrigation water and return water were 78 million m3 and 41 million m3, the irrigation return flow coefficient was 0.52, average consumption of irrigation water accounted for 10% of the total runoff. In general, the developed model had been greatly improved as compared to original model. Keywords: SWAT model, hydrological modeling, rice, irrigation return flow coefficient, irrigation impact coefficient

  8. Synthesis and cytotoxic effect on RD cell line of Pd(II and Cu(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasin Alias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Cr(III, Cd(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Cu(II with new ligand sodium [5-(p-nitro phenyl-/4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-dithiocarbamato hydrazide] (TRZ.DTC have been prepared and characterized in solid state by using flame atomic absorption, elemental analysis C.H.N.S, FT-IR, UV–vis spectrophotometry, thermal analysis TGA, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The ratio of M:L and logK was determined by molar ratio method. From the spectral studies, an octahedral monomer structure was proposed for all complexes except copper(II which has a dimeric structure. Cadmium(II has tetrahedral geometry. Structural geometries of these compounds were also suggested in gas phase by using hyper chem-8 program. The heat of formation, binding energy, and dipole moment were calculated by PM3 and ZINDO/1 methods. ZINDO/1 was used to evaluate the vibration spectra of the (TRZ.DTC ligand and starting material as authentic compound. Cytotoxic effect of Pd, Cu and ligand was evaluated against Rhabdomyosarcoma cell line by using four different concentrations (500, 250, 125 & 62.5 μg/ml in three exposure times 24, 48 and 72 h and compared this effect with control positive Cis-Pt. The efficiency of these new compounds on RD cell line may be attributed to blocking the protein synthesis of the cells.

  9. Behavioral effects of urotensin-II centrally administered in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do-Rego, Jean-Claude; Chatenet, David; Orta, Marie-Hélène; Naudin, Bertrand; Le Cudennec, Camille; Leprince, Jérôme; Scalbert, Elizabeth; Vaudry, Hubert; Costentin, Jean

    2005-11-01

    Urotensin-II (U-II) receptors are widely distributed in the central nervous system. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of U-II causes hypertension and bradycardia and stimulates prolactin and thyrotropin secretion. However, the behavioral effects of centrally administered U-II have received little attention. In the present study, we tested the effects of i.c.v. injections of U-II on behavioral, metabolic, and endocrine responses in mice. Administration of graded doses of U-II (1-10,000 ng/mouse) provoked: (1) a dose-dependent reduction in the number of head dips in the hole-board test; (2) a dose-dependent reduction in the number of entries in the white chamber in the black-and-white compartment test, and in the number of entries in the central platform and open arms in the plus-maze test; and (3) a dose-dependent increase in the duration of immobility in the forced-swimming test and tail suspension test. Intracerebroventricular injection of U-II also caused an increase in: food intake at doses of 100 and 1,000 ng/mouse, water intake at doses of 100-10,000 ng/mouse, and horizontal locomotion activity at a dose of 10,000 ng/mouse. Whatever was the dose, the central administration of U-II had no effect on body temperature, nociception, apomorphine-induced penile erection and climbing behavior, and stress-induced plasma corticosterone level. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that the central injection of U-II at doses of 1-10,000 ng/mouse induces anxiogenic- and depressant-like effects in mouse. These data suggest that U-II may be involved in some aspects of psychiatric disorders.

  10. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II on class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 35 patients with class II div I malocclusion were selected. These samples were under treatment with Fa II appliance for 11 months. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. Combination analysis was used to determine skeletal and dental effects. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences of mean value pre and post treatment. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: There was significant difference between pre and post treatment in respect to posterior and anterior facial height, eruption of upper and lower posterior teeth, eruption of upper anterior teeth, mandibular body length, ANB angle, IMPA and 1 to SN. No significant difference was observed between pre and post treatment regarding facial growth.Conclusion: Treatment with Fa II functional appliance leads to significant alterations in dental and skeletal elements of craniofacial complex and improvement of dental and jaws relationship.

  11. Warburg effect, hexokinase-II, and radioresistance of laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiang-Tao; Zhou, Shui-Hong

    2017-02-21

    Radiotherapy is now widely used as a part of multidisciplinary treatment approaches for advanced laryngeal carcinoma and preservation of laryngeal function. However, the mechanism of the radioresistance is still unclear. Some studies have revealed that the Warburg effect promotes the radioresistance of various malignant tumors, including laryngeal carcinoma. Among the regulators involved in the Warburg effect, hexokinase-II (HK-II) is a crucial glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the first essential step of glucose metabolism. HK-II is reportedly highly expressed in some human solid carcinomas by many studies. But for laryngeal carcinoma, there is only one. Till now, no studies have directly targeted inhibited HK-II and enhanced the radiosensitivity of laryngeal carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has shown that dysregulated signaling pathways often result in HK-II overexpression. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the association among the Warburg effect, HK-II, and the radioresistance of laryngeal carcinoma. We speculate on the feasibility of enhancing radiosensitivity by targeted inhibiting HK-II signaling pathways in laryngeal carcinoma, which may provide a novel anticancer therapy.

  12. Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) by hematite nanoparticles: effect of sorbent concentration, pH, temperature, and exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Heather J; Engates, Karen E; Grover, Valerie A

    2013-03-01

    Nanoparticles offer the potential to improve environmental treatment technologies due to their unique properties. Adsorption of metal ions (Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)) to nanohematite was examined as a function of sorbent concentration, pH, temperature, and exhaustion. Adsorption experiments were conducted with 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/L nanoparticles in a pH 8 solution and in spiked San Antonio tap water. The adsorption data showed the ability of nanohematite to remove Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn species from solution with adsorption increasing as the nanoparticle concentration increased. At 0.5 g/L nanohematite, 100 % Pb species adsorbed, 94 % Cd species adsorbed, 89 % Cu species adsorbed and 100 % Zn species adsorbed. Adsorption kinetics for all metals tested was described by a pseudo second-order rate equation with lead having the fastest rate of adsorption. The effect of temperature on adsorption showed that Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) underwent an endothermic reaction, while Zn(II) underwent an exothermic reaction. The nanoparticles were able to simultaneously remove multiple metals species (Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu) from both a pH 8 solution and spiked San Antonio tap water. Exhaustion experiments showed that at pH 8, exhaustion did not occur for the nanoparticles but adsorption does decrease for Cd, Cu, and Zn species but not Pb species. The strong adsorption coupled with the ability to simultaneously remove multiple metal ions offers a potential remediation method for the removal of metals from water.

  13. Hydrology and sediment yield calibration for the Barasona reservoir catchment (Spain) using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Hydrological and soil erosion models, as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), have become very useful tools and increasingly serve as vital components of integrated environmental assessments that provide information outside of direct field experiments and causal observation. The purpose of this study was to improve the calibration of SWAT model to use it in an alpine catchment as a simulator of processes related to water quality and soil erosion. SWAT is spatially semi-distributed, agro-hydrological model that operates on a daily time step (as a minimum) at basin scale. It is designed to predict the impact of management on water, sediment and agricultural chemical yields in ungaged catchments. SWAT provides physically based algorithms as an option to define many of the important components of the hydrologic cycle. The input requirements of the model are used to describe the climate, soil properties, topography, vegetation, and land management practices. SWAT analyzes small or large catchments by discretising into sub-basins, which are then further subdivided into hydrological response units (HRUs) with homogeneous land use, soil type and slope. SWAT model (SWAT2009) coupled with a GIS interface (ArcSWAT), was applied to the Barasona reservoir catchment located in the central Spanish Pyrenees. The 1509 km2 agro-forestry catchment presents a mountain type climate, an altitudinal range close to 3000 meters and a precipitation variation close to 1000 mm/km. The mountainous characteristics of the catchment, in addition to the scarcity of climate data in the region, require specific calibration for some processes. Snowfall and snowmelt are significant processes in the hydrologic regime of the area and were calibrated in a previous work. In this work some of the challenges of the catchment to model with SWAT which affected the hydrology and the sediment yield simulation were performed as improvement of the previous calibration. Two reservoirs, a karst system which

  14. Improvement of the R-SWAT-FME framework to support multiple variables and multi-objective functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Application of numerical models is a common practice in the environmental field for investigation and prediction of natural and anthropogenic processes. However, process knowledge, parameter identifiability, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses are still a challenge for large and complex mathematical models such as the hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In this study, the previously developed R program language-SWAT-Flexible Modeling Environment (R-SWAT-FME) was improved to support multiple model variables and objectives at multiple time steps (i.e., daily, monthly, and annually). This expansion is significant because there is usually more than one variable (e.g., water, nutrients, and pesticides) of interest for environmental models like SWAT. To further facilitate its easy use, we also simplified its application requirements without compromising its merits, such as the user-friendly interface. To evaluate the performance of the improved framework, we used a case study focusing on both streamflow and nitrate nitrogen in the Upper Iowa River Basin (above Marengo) in the United States. Results indicated that the R-SWAT-FME performs well and is comparable to the built-in auto-calibration tool in multi-objective model calibration. Overall, the enhanced R-SWAT-FME can be useful for the SWAT community, and the methods we used can also be valuable for wrapping potential R packages with other environmental models.

  15. Calibration and validation of the SWAT model for a forested watershed in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Elizabeth B. Haley; Norman S. Levine; Timothy J. Callahan; Artur Radecki-Pawlik; Manoj K. Jha

    2008-01-01

    Modeling the hydrology of low-gradient coastal watersheds on shallow, poorly drained soils is a challenging task due to the complexities in watershed delineation, runoff generation processes and pathways, flooding, and submergence caused by tropical storms. The objective of the study is to calibrate and validate a GIS-based spatially-distributed hydrologic model, SWAT...

  16. SWAT.nz: New-Zeland-based "Sand Waves and Turbulence" experimental programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Stephen; Nikora, Vladimir; Melville, Bruce; Goring, Derek; Clunie, Thomas; Friedrich, Heide

    2008-06-01

    The SWAT.nz ("New-Zealand-based Sand Waves and Turbulence") research programme was carried out to advance understanding of subaqueous sand waves. The programme was based around detailed measurements at varying scales of bed morphologies and associated flow fields as sand waves formed from plane-bed conditions and grew to equilibrium. This paper outlines the philosophy and details of the SWAT.nz programme, with the aim of providing insight into experiment and analysis design and methodologies for studies of highly-variable bed surfaces and flows. Example challenges addressed in the SWAT.nz programme include the measurement over large spatial domains of developing flow fields and three-dimensional bed morphology, including flow measurements below roughness (sand-wave) crests, and how to interpret the collected measurements. Insights into sand-wave dynamics that have arisen from the programme are presented to illustrate the values of the SWAT.nz programme and the developed methodologies. Results are presented in terms of mobile-bed processes, and flow-bed interaction and flow processes for fixed-bed roughness and erodible beds, respectively.

  17. Rainfall-runoff modelling of Ajay river catchment using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangsabanik, Subhadip; Murmu, Sneha

    2017-05-01

    The present study is based on SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) Model which integrates the GIS information with attribute database to estimate the runoff of Ajay River catchment. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a physically based distributed parameter model which has been developed to predict runoff, erosion, sediment and nutrient transport from agricultural watersheds under different management practices. The SWAT Model works in conjunction with Arc GIS. In the present study the catchment area has been delineated using the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and then divided into 19 sub-basins. For preparation of landuse map the IRS-P6 LISS-III image has been used and the soil map is extracted from HWSD (Harmonized World Soil Database) Raster world soil map. The sub basins are further divided into 223 HRUs which stands for Hydrological Response Unit. Then by using 30 years of daily rainfall data and daily maximum and minimum temperature data SWAT simulation is done for daily, monthly and yearly basis to find out Runoff for corresponding Rainfall. The coefficient of correlation (r) for rainfall in a period and the corresponding runoff is found to be 0.9419.

  18. Modeling crop water productivity using a coupled SWAT-MODSIM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the water productivity of irrigated wheat and maize yields in Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in the semi-arid region of Iran using a coupled modeling approach consisting of the hydrological model (SWAT) and the river basin water allocation model (MODSIM). Dynamic irrigation requireme...

  19. Flow forecast by SWAT model and ANN in Pracana basin, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.; Venancio, Anabela; Kahya, Ercan

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a unique opportunity to analyze the issue of flow forecast based on the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) and artificial neural network (ANN) models. In last two decades, the ANNs have been extensively applied to various water resources system problems. In this study, the

  20. Assimilating Remotely Sensed Surface Soil Moisture into SWAT using Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a 1-D Ensemble Kalman Filter has been used to update the soil moisture states of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Experiments were conducted for the Cobb Creek Watershed in southeastern Oklahoma for 2006-2008. Assimilation of in situ data proved limited success in the ...

  1. Modelling land use change across elevation gradients in district Swat, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qasim, M.; Termansen, M.; Hubacek, K.; Fleskens, L.

    2013-01-01

    District Swat is part of the high mountain Hindu-Kush Himalayan region of Pakistan. Documentation and analysis of land use change in this region is challenging due to very disparate accounts of the state of forest resources and limited accessible data. Such analysis is, however, important due to

  2. Anthropogenic factors as an element of uncertainty in hydrological modelling of water yield with SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Corobov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model was used as a basis for follow-up investigations of Moldova’s small rivers potential flow. The first step of the study included the validation of SWAT for local conditions. As an experimental area, the Cogilnic River watershed was selected. Interim steps included the watershed delineation aimed to identify the subwatersheds and the Hydrological Response Units (small entities with the same characteristics of hydrologic soil type, land use and slopes. To address these tasks, the land cover, soil and slope layers, based on the Digital Elevation Model, were integrated in the SWAT environment. These thematic layers, alongside with long-term information on local monthly maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation, enabled reflecting the differences in hydrological conditions and defining the watershed runoff. However, the validation of the modelling outputs, carried out through comparison of a simulated water yield from the studied watershed with actual Cogilnic streamflow measures, observed in 2010-2012, showed a great discrepancy between these parameters caused by anthropogenic loading on this small river. Thus, a ‘classical’ SWAT modelling needs to account for real environmental conditions and water use in the study area.

  3. Runoff Simulation in the Upper Reaches of Heihe River Basin Based on the RIEMS–SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songbing Zou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the distributed hydrological simulations for complex mountain areas, large amounts of meteorological input parameters with high spatial and temporal resolutions are necessary. However, the extreme scarcity and uneven distribution of the traditional meteorological observation stations in cold and arid regions of Northwest China makes it very difficult in meeting the requirements of hydrological simulations. Alternatively, regional climate models (RCMs, which can provide a variety of distributed meteorological data with high temporal and spatial resolution, have become an effective solution to improve hydrological simulation accuracy and to further study water resource responses to human activities and global climate change. In this study, abundant and evenly distributed virtual weather stations in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB of Northwest China were built for the optimization of the input data, and thus a regional integrated environmental model system (RIEMS based on RCM and a distributed hydrological model of soil and water assessment tool (SWAT were integrated as a coupled climate–hydrological RIEMS-SWAT model, which was applied to simulate monthly runoff from 1995 to 2010 in the region. Results show that the simulated and observed values are close; Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency is higher than 0.65; determination coefficient (R2 values are higher than 0.70; percent bias is controlled within ±20%; and root-mean-square-error-observation standard deviation ratio is less than 0.65. These results indicate that the coupled model can present basin hydrological processes properly, and provide scientific support for prediction and management of basin water resources.

  4. Quantifying the Contribution of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems to Stream Discharge Using the SWAT Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C W; Radcliffe, D E; Risse, L M; Habteselassie, M; Mukundan, R; Jeong, J; Hoghooghi, N

    2014-03-01

    In the southeastern United States, on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) are widely used for domestic wastewater treatment. The degree to which OWTSs represent consumptive water use has been questioned in Georgia. The goal of this study was to estimate the effect of OWTSs on streamflow in a gauged watershed in Gwinnett County, Georgia using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed-scale model, which includes a new OWTS algorithm. Streamflow was modeled with and without the presence of OWTSs. The model was calibrated using data from 1 Jan. 2003 to 31 Dec. 2006 and validated from 1 Jan. 2007 to 31 Dec. 2010 using the auto-calibration tool SWAT-CUP 4. The daily and monthly streamflow Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.49 and 0.71, respectively, for the calibration period and 0.37 and 0.68, respectively, for the validation period, indicating a satisfactory fit. Analysis of water balance output variables between simulations showed a 3.1% increase in total water yield at the watershed scale and a 5.9% increase at the subbasin scale for a high-density OWTS area. The percent change in water yield between simulations was the greatest in dry years, implying that the influence of OWTSs on the water yield is greatest under drought conditions. Mean OWTS water use was approximately 5.7% consumptive, contrary to common assumptions by water planning agencies in Georgia. Results from this study may be used by OWTS users and by watershed planners to understand the influence of OWTSs on water quantity within watersheds in this region. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Carp hemoglobin. II. The alkaline Bohr effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, J C; Mayo, K H

    1980-10-25

    The Bohr effect of carp hemoglobin has been determined by differential titration, by direct acid-base titration, and by calculation from precise oxygen equilibrium data over a wide pH variation. The results for the hemolysate and the two major components are essentially identical. At pH 6.9 in the vicinity of maximum cooperativity and maximum Bohr effect, the protein releases 3.7 protons in the absence of added ions. This Bohr curve above pH 7 is not changed by the presence of 0.05 M 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2',2"-nitrilotriethanol (bis-Tris) buffer, but is changed below the pK of the bis-Tris amine, giving a maximum of 4.3 protons at pH 6.65. In 0.1 M phosphate, the maximum is increased to 6.1 protons and is shifted to pH 7.25. Addition of 1.4 mM P6-inositol lowers the magnitude of the Bohr effect and shifts its maximum to an even higher pH. At the limit of high pH (9.02), without buffer or in bis-Tris, there is a net uptake of about 0.5 proton upon oxygenation. The average heat of ionization of the Bohr groups is 5500 +/- 800 cal. Even though chloride ion has a pronounced effect on the oxygenation properties of carp hemoglobin, it has a small influence on the Bohr effect up to 0.5 M NaCl. In 5 M NaCl, the magnitude of the Bohr effect is reduced by approximately 30%., Acid base titrations give three to four oxygen-linked groups for carp hemoglobin in water; this is increased to about six groups in 2.5 M NaCl. The results suggest that carp hemoglobin is functionally versatile and may provide one way to regulate its CO2 transport via heterotropic allosteric interactions. In phosphate buffer at the pH value where carp hemoglobin is strongly cooperative, the proton release is linear with respect to ligand saturation. Lowering the cooperativity by either an increase or decrease in pH results in nonlinear relationships.

  6. Operational Risk Management of Fatigue Effects II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    associated with narcolepsy , and very recently for treatment of shift-worker sleep deficit. Modafinil was approved for use in some AF operations by ACC/SG...Temazepam (Restoril®) Temazepam, a benzodiazepine compound, is approved by the FDA for short-term treatment of insomnia, providing symptomatic relief...Administration (FDA) for short-term treatment of insomnia. Studies document that zolpidem produces no rebound or withdrawal effects and study subjects

  7. II. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1948-05-24

    With the completion of the 184 inch cyclotron in Berkeley and the successful construction of a deflector system, it was possible to bring the 190 Mev deuteron and the 380 Mev alpha beams out into the air and to begin a study of the effects of high-energy deuteron beams by direct irradiation of biological specimens. The direct biological use of deuteron beams was attempted earlier in Berkeley by Marshak, MacLeish, and Walker in 1940. These and other investigators have been aware for some time of the potential usefulness of high energy particle beams for radio-biological studies and their suitability for biological investigations. R.R. Wilson advanced the idea of using fast proton beams to deliver radiation and intervening tissues. R.E. Zirkle pointed out that such particle beams may be focused or screened until a cross-section of the beam is small enough to study effects of irradiation under the microscope on single cells or on parts of single cells. This article gives an overview of the radiological use of high energy deuteron beams, including the following topics: potential uses of high energy particle beams; experiments on the physical properties of the beam; lethal effect of the deuteron beam on mice.

  8. Effectiveness of Simple Individual Psychoeducation for Bipolar II Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Saito-Tanji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have proven the effectiveness of psychoeducation in bipolar II disorder patients; however, simpler psychoeducation is needed in daily medical practice. Therefore, we devised a simple individual psychoeducation program, which involved 20-minute sessions spent reading a textbook aloud in the waiting time before examination. Here, we report a successful case of simple individual psychoeducation with a patient with bipolar II disorder, a 64-year-old woman who had misconceptions surrounding her mood due to 24 years of treatment for depression. Her perception of mood state, particularly mixed state, was dramatically changed, and her quality of life was improved after the simple individual psychoeducation. This case suggests that the simple individual psychoeducation could be effective for bipolar II disorder by improving understanding of the disease and by meeting different individual needs.

  9. Effect of animal manures on selected soil properties: II. Nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of animal manures on selected soil properties: II. Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus. AO Ano, JA Agwu. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science Vol. 16 (1) 2006: pp. 145-150. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  10. The morpho-agronomic characterization study of Lens culinaris germplasm under salt marsh habitat in Swat, Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabia Noor; Shujaul Mulk Khan; Fayaz Ahmad; Murtaza Hussain; Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah; Abdulaziz A. Alqarawi; Abeer Hashem; Abdullah Aldubise

    2017-01-01

    The present research study evaluate and identify the most suitable and high yielding genotypes of Lens culinaris for the salt marsh habitat of Swat in moist temperate sort of agro climatic environment of Pakistan...

  11. Critical review of the application of SWAT in the upper Nile Basin countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, A.; Ndomba, P.; Yalew, S.; Kilonzo, F.

    2012-03-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a hydrological simulation tool that is widely applied within the Nile basin. Up to date, more than 20 peer reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT for a variety of problems in the upper Nile basin countries, such as erosion modeling, land use modeling, climate change impact modeling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are clustered in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. The popularity of SWAT is attributed to the fact that the tool is freely available and that it is readily applicable through the development of Geographic Information System (GIS) based interfaces and its easy linkage to sensitivity, calibration and uncertainty analysis tools. The online and free availability of basic GIS data that are required for SWAT made its applicability more straight forward even in data scarce areas. However, the easy use of SWAT may not always lead to knowledgeable models. In this paper, we aim at critically reviewing the use of SWAT in the context of the modeling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile Basin countries. A number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, model performances, physical representation of the model parameters, and the correctness of the hydrological model balance. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained losses that might not be justified. Several papers also reported unrealistic parameter values. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For this reason, it is difficult to give an overall positive evaluation to most of the reported SWAT models. An important gap is the lack of attention that is given to the vegetation and crop processes. None of the papers reported any adaptation to the crop parameters, or any crop related

  12. Critical review of SWAT applications in the upper Nile basin countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van Griensven

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is an integrated river basin model that is widely applied within the Nile basin. Up to date, more than 20 peer-reviewed papers describe the use of SWAT for a variety of problems in the upper Nile basin countries, such as erosion modelling, land use and climate change impact modelling and water resources management. The majority of the studies are focused on locations in the tropical highlands in Ethiopia and around Lake Victoria. The popularity of SWAT is attributed to the fact that the tool is freely available and that it is readily applicable through the development of geographic information system (GIS based interfaces and its easy linkage to sensitivity, calibration and uncertainty analysis tools. The online and free availability of basic GIS data that are required for SWAT made its applicability more straightforward even in data-scarce areas. However, the easy use of SWAT may not always lead to appropriate models which is also a consequence of the quality of the available free databases in these regions. In this paper, we aim at critically reviewing the use of SWAT in the context of the modelling purpose and problem descriptions in the tropical highlands of the Nile basin countries. To evaluate the models that are described in journal papers, a number of criteria are used to evaluate the model set-up, model performances, physical representation of the model parameters, and the correctness of the hydrological model balance. On the basis of performance indicators, the majority of the SWAT models were classified as giving satisfactory to very good results. Nevertheless, the hydrological mass balances as reported in several papers contained losses that might not be justified. Several papers also reported the use of unrealistic parameter values. More worrying is that many papers lack this information. For this reason, most of the reported SWAT models have to be evaluated critically. An important gap is

  13. Baseflow simulation using SWAT model in an inland river basin in Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Luo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Baseflow is an important component in hydrological modeling. The complex streamflow recession process complicates the baseflow simulation. In order to simulate the snow and/or glacier melt dominated streamflow receding quickly during the high-flow period but very slowly during the low-flow period in rivers in arid and cold northwest China, the current one-reservoir baseflow approach in SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool model was extended by adding a slow- reacting reservoir and applying it to the Manas River basin in the Tianshan Mountains. Meanwhile, a digital filter program was employed to separate baseflow from streamflow records for comparisons. Results indicated that the two-reservoir method yielded much better results than the one-reservoir one in reproducing streamflow processes, and the low-flow estimation was improved markedly. Nash-Sutcliff efficiency values at the calibration and validation stages are 0.68 and 0.62 for the one-reservoir case, and 0.76 and 0.69 for the two-reservoir case. The filter-based method estimated the baseflow index as 0.60, while the model-based as 0.45. The filter-based baseflow responded almost immediately to surface runoff occurrence at onset of rising limb, while the model-based responded with a delay. In consideration of watershed surface storage retention and soil freezing/thawing effects on infiltration and recharge during initial snowmelt season, a delay response is considered to be more reasonable. However, a more detailed description of freezing/thawing processes should be included in soil modules so as to determine recharge to aquifer during these processes, and thus an accurate onset point of rising limb of the simulated baseflow.

  14. Skeletal effects in Angle Class II/1 patients treated with the functional regulator type II : Cephalometric and tensor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Simone; Koos, Bernd; Duske, Kathrin; Stahl, Franka

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to employ both cephalometric and tensor analysis in characterizing the skeletal changes experienced by patients with Angle Class II/1 malocclusion during functional orthodontic treatment with the functional regulator type II. A total of 23 patients with Class II/1 malocclusion based on lateral cephalograms obtained before and after treatment with the functional regulator type II were analyzed. Another 23 patients with Angle Class II/1 malocclusion who had not undergone treatment were included as controls. Our cephalometric data attest to significant therapeutic effects of the functional regulator type II on the skeletal mandibular system, including significant advancement of the mandible, increases in effective mandibular length with enhancement of the chin profile, and reduction of growth-related bite deepening. No treatment-related effects were observed at the cranial-base and midface levels. In addition, tensor analysis revealed significant stimulation of mandibular growth in sagittal directions, without indications of growth effects on the maxilla. Its growth-pattern findings differed from those of cephalometric analysis by indicating that the appliance did promote horizontal development, which supports the functional orthodontic treatment effect in Angle Class II/1 cases. Tensor analysis yielded additional insights into sagittal and vertical growth changes not identifiable by strictly cephalometric means. The functional regulator type II was an effective treatment modality for Angle Class II/1 malocclusion and influenced the skeletal development of these patients in favorable ways.

  15. Advancing computational methods for calibration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT): Application for modeling climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Neuse Watershed of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Mehmet Bulent

    -Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). This tool was demonstrated through an application for the Upper Neuse Watershed in North Carolina, USA. The objective functions used for the calibration were Nash-Sutcliffe (E) and Percent Bias (PB), and the objective sites were the Flat, Little, and Eno watershed outlets. The results show that the use of multi-objective calibration algorithms for SWAT calibration improved model performance especially in terms of minimizing PB compared to the single objective model calibration. The third study builds upon the first two studies by leveraging the new calibration methods and tools to study future climate impacts on the Upper Neuse watershed. Statistically downscaled outputs from eight Global Circulation Models (GCMs) were used for both low and high emission scenarios to drive a well calibrated SWAT model of the Upper Neuse watershed. The objective of the study was to understand the potential hydrologic response of the watershed, which serves as a public water supply for the growing Research Triangle Park region of North Carolina, under projected climate change scenarios. The future climate change scenarios, in general, indicate an increase in precipitation and temperature for the watershed in coming decades. The SWAT simulations using the future climate scenarios, in general, suggest an increase in soil water and water yield, and a decrease in evapotranspiration within the Upper Neuse watershed. In summary, this dissertation advances the field of watershed-scale hydrologic modeling by (i) providing some of the first work to apply cloud computing for the computationally-demanding task of model calibration; (ii) providing a new, open source library that can be used by SWAT modelers to perform multi-objective calibration of their models; and (iii) advancing understanding of climate change impacts on water resources for an important watershed in the Research Triangle Park region of North Carolina. The third study leveraged the

  16. Neuroprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Curcumin–Cu(II and –Zn(II Complexes Systems and Their Pharmacological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Shun Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the main form of dementia and has a steadily increasing prevalence. As both oxidative stress and metal homeostasis are involved in the pathogenesis of AD, it would be interesting to develop a dual function agent, targeting the two factors. Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is an antioxidant and can also chelate metal ions. Whether the complexes of curcumin with metal ions possess neuroprotective effects has not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the complexes of curcumin with Cu(II or Zn(II on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The use of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells, a widely used neuronal cell model system, was adopted. It was revealed that curcumin–Cu(II complexes systems possessed enhanced O2·–-scavenging activities compared to unchelated curcumin. In comparison with unchelated curcumin, the protective effects of curcumin–Cu(II complexes systems were stronger than curcumin–Zn(II system. Curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities and attenuated the increase of malondialdehyde levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities, in a dose-dependent manner. The curcumin–Cu(II complex system with a 2:1 ratio exhibited the most significant effect. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems inhibited cell apoptosis via downregulating the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB pathway and upregulating Bcl-2/Bax pathway. In summary, the present study found that curcumin–Cu(II or –Zn(II complexes systems, especially the former, possess significant neuroprotective effects, which indicates the potential advantage of curcumin as a promising agent against AD and deserves further study.

  17. Effective temperature of ionizing stars of extragalactic H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dors, O. L.; Hägele, G. F.; Cardaci, M. V.; Krabbe, A. C.

    2017-04-01

    The effective temperature (Teff) of the radiation field of the ionizing star(s) of a large sample of extragalactic H II regions was estimated using the R = log([O II] (λλ3726 + 29)/[O III] λ5007) index. We used a grid of photoionization models to calibrate the Teff-R relation finding that it has a strong dependence with the ionizing parameter, while it shows a weak direct dependence with the metallicity (variations in Z imply variations in U) of both the stellar atmosphere of the ionizing star and the gas phase of the H II region. Since the R index varies slightly with the Teff for values larger than 40 kK, the R index can be used to derive the Teff in the 30-40 kK range. A large fraction of the ionization parameter variation is due to differences in the temperature of the ionizing stars and then the use of the (relatively) low Teff dependent S2 = [S II] (λλ6717 + 31)/Hα emission-line ratio to derive the ionization parameter is preferable over others in the literature. We propose linear metallicity dependent relationships between S2 and U. Teff and metallicity estimations for a sample of 865 H II regions, whose emission-line intensities were compiled from the literature, do not show any Teff-Z correlation. On the other hand, it seems to be hints of the presence of an anticorrelation between Teff-U. We found that the majority of the studied H II regions (˜87 per cent) present Teff values in the range between 37 and 40 kK, with an average value of 38.5(±1) kK. We also studied the variation of Teff as a function of the galactocentric distance for 14 spiral galaxies. Our results are in agreement with the idea of the existence of positive Teff gradients along the disc of spiral galaxies.

  18. Impacts of Climate and Land Use/Cover Change on Streamflow Using SWAT and a Separation Method for the Xiying River Basin in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the effects of climate change and land use/cover change (LUCC on streamflow promotes the long-term water planning and management in the arid regions of northwestern China. In this paper, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and a separation approach were used to evaluate and separate the effects of climate change and LUCC on streamflow in the Xiying River basin. The SWAT model was calibrated by the hydro-meteorological data from 1980–1989 to obtain the optimum parameters, which were validated by the subsequent application to the period between 1990–2008. Moreover, streamflow under several scenarios with different climate change and land use conditions in 1990–2008 and 2010–2069 were further investigated. Results indicate that, in the period of 1990–2008, the streamflow was dominated by climate change (i.e., changes in precipitation and temperature, which led to a 102.8% increase in the mean annual streamflow, whereas LUCC produced a decrease of 2.8%. Furthermore, in the future period of 2010–2039, the mean annual streamflow will decrease by 5.4% and 4.5% compared with the data of 1961–1990 under scenarios A2 and B2, respectively, while it will decrease by 21.2% and 16.9% in the period of 2040–2069, respectively.

  19. Semantic Web applications and tools for the life sciences: SWAT4LS 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott; Splendiani, Andrea

    2012-01-25

    As Semantic Web technologies mature and new releases of key elements, such as SPARQL 1.1 and OWL 2.0, become available, the Life Sciences continue to push the boundaries of these technologies with ever more sophisticated tools and applications. Unsurprisingly, therefore, interest in the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for the Life Sciences) activities have remained high, as was evident during the third international SWAT4LS workshop held in Berlin in December 2010. Contributors to this workshop were invited to submit extended versions of their papers, the best of which are now made available in the special supplement of BMC Bioinformatics. The papers reflect the wide range of work in this area, covering the storage and querying of Life Sciences data in RDF triple stores, tools for the development of biomedical ontologies and the semantics-based integration of Life Sciences as well as clinicial data.

  20. Modelling streamflow from two small South African experimental catchments using the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, M.; Everson, C. S.

    2005-02-01

    Increasing demand for timber products results in the expansion of commercial afforestation in South Africa. The conversion of indigenous seasonally dormant grassland to evergreen forests results in increased transpiration and ultimately a reduction in catchment runoff, creating a negative impact on the country's scarce water supplies. In order to assist managers in the decision-making processes it is important to be able to accurately assess and predict hydrological processes, and the impact that land use change will have on water resources. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) provides a means of performing these assessments. One of the key strengths of the SWAT model lies in its ability to model the relative impacts of changes in management practices, climate and vegetation on water quantity and quality.The aim of this study was to determine if the SWAT model could reasonably simulate hydrological processes in daily time steps from two small South African catchments. To verify the SWAT model a grassland (C VIgrass) and Pinus patula afforested catchment (C IIpine) were selected from the Cathedral Peak hydrological research station in the KwaZulu Natal Drakensberg mountains. These catchments were chosen because of the availability of detailed hydrological records and suitable land use.Observed and simulated streamflow for C VIgrass and C IIpine were compared. When model fits of observed and simulated streamflow for C VIgrass were acceptable, this parameter set was then used in the configuration of C IIpine. Results show that the model performs well for C VIgrass with reasonable agreement between modelled and observed data (R2 = 0.68). Comparisons for C IIpine show a total oversimulation of streamflow for the period 1950 to 1965, with deviations between observed and modelled data increasing from 1959 to 1965, due to the model not accounting for the increase in ET brought about by the maturing pine plantation.

  1. SWAT Model Prediction of Phosphorus Loading in a South Carolina Karst Watershed with a Downstream Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Manoj K. Jha; Thomas M. Williams; Amy E. Edwards; Daniel R.. Hitchcock

    2013-01-01

    The SWAT model was used to predict total phosphorus (TP) loadings for a 1555-ha karst watershed—Chapel Branch Creek (CBC)—which drains to a lake via a reservoir-like embayment (R-E). The model was first tested for monthly streamflow predictions from tributaries draining three potential source areas as well as the downstream R-E, followed by TP loadings using data...

  2. Losartan and its interaction with copper(II): biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Susana B; Ferrer, Evelina G; Naso, Luciana; Barrio, Daniel A; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teófilo; Williams, Patricia A M

    2007-10-01

    Losartan, the potassium salt of 2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]imidazol, is an efficient antihypertensive drug. The vibrational FTIR and Raman spectra of Losartan (its anionic and protonated forms) are discussed. In addition, the copper(II) complex of Losartan was obtained and characterized as a microcrystalline powder. The metal center is bound to the ligand through the nitrogen atoms of the tetrazolate moiety as determined by vibrational spectroscopy. The compound is a dimer with the metal centers in a tetragonal distorted environment but the presence of a monomeric impurity has been determined by EPR spectroscopy. The antioxidant properties of the complex (superoxide dismutase mimetic activity) and its effect on the proliferation and morphology of two osteoblast-like cells in culture are reported. The new compound exerted more toxic effects on tumoral cells than the copper(II) ion and Losartan.

  3. Modeling nitrate-nitrogen load reduction strategies for the des moines river, iowa using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    The Des Moines River that drains a watershed of 16,175 km2 in portions of Iowa and Minnesota is impaired for nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) due to concentrations that exceed regulatory limits for public water supplies. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to model streamflow and nitrate loads and evaluate a suite of basin-wide changes and targeting configurations to potentially reduce nitrate loads in the river. The SWAT model comprised 173 subbasins and 2,516 hydrologic response units and included point and nonpoint nitrogen sources. The model was calibrated for an 11-year period and three basin-wide and four targeting strategies were evaluated. Results indicated that nonpoint sources accounted for 95% of the total nitrate export. Reduction in fertilizer applications from 170 to 50 kg/ha achieved the 38% reduction in nitrate loads, exceeding the 34% reduction required. In terms of targeting, the most efficient load reductions occurred when fertilizer applications were reduced in subbasins nearest the watershed outlet. The greatest load reduction for the area of land treated was associated with reducing loads from 55 subbasins with the highest nitrate loads, achieving a 14% reduction in nitrate loads achieved by reducing applications on 30% of the land area. SWAT model results provide much needed guidance on how to begin implementing load reduction strategies most efficiently in the Des Moines River watershed. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Assessment of soil erosion risk in Komering watershed, South Sumatera, using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsabilla, A.; Kusratmoko, E.

    2017-07-01

    Changes in land use watershed led to environmental degradation. Estimated loss of soil erosion is often difficult due to some factors such as topography, land use, climate and human activities. This study aims to predict soil erosion hazard and sediment yield using the Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) hydrological model. The SWAT was chosen because it can simulate the model with limited data. The study area is Komering watershed (806,001 Ha) in South Sumatera Province. There are two factors land management intervention: 1) land with agriculture, and 2) land with cultivation. These factors selected in accordance with the regulations of spatial plan area. Application of the SWAT demonstrated that the model can predict surface runoff, soil erosion loss and sediment yield. The erosion risk for each watershed can be classified and predicted its changes based on the scenarios which arranged. In this paper, we also discussed the relationship between the distribution of erosion risk and watershed's characteristics in a spatial perspective.

  5. Assessing the Efficacy of the SWAT Auto-Irrigation Function to Simulate Irrigation, Evapotranspiration, and Crop Response to Management Strategies of the Texas High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the semi-arid Texas High Plains, the underlying Ogallala Aquifer is experiencing continuing decline due to long-term pumping for irrigation with limited recharge. Accurate simulation of irrigation and other associated water balance components are critical for meaningful evaluation of the effects of irrigation management strategies. Modelers often employ auto-irrigation functions within models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. However, some studies have raised concerns as to whether the function is able to adequately simulate representative irrigation practices. In this study, observations of climate, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET, leaf area index (LAI, and crop yield derived from an irrigated lysimeter field at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory at Bushland, Texas were used to evaluate the efficacy of the SWAT auto-irrigation functions. Results indicated good agreement between simulated and observed daily ET during both model calibration (2001–2005 and validation (2006–2010 periods for the baseline scenario (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency; NSE ≥ 0.80. The auto-irrigation scenarios resulted in reasonable ET simulations under all the thresholds of soil water deficit (SWD triggers as indicated by NSE values > 0.5. However, the auto-irrigation function did not adequately represent field practices, due to the continuation of irrigation after crop maturity and excessive irrigation when SWD triggers were less than the static irrigation amount.

  6. Effects of angiotensin II and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade on neointimal formation after stent implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Hendrik C.; van der Harst, Pim; Roks, Anton J. M.; Buikema, Hendrik; Zijlstra, Felix; van Gilst, Wiek H.; de Smet, Bart J. G. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the effect of supraphysiological levels of angiotensin II and selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor ( AT1-receptor) blockade on neointimal formation and systemic endothelial function after stent implantation in the rat abdominal aorta. Methods: Male Wistar rats were

  7. SWAT-MODSIM-PSO optimization of multi-crop planning in the Karkheh River Basin, Iran, under the impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidoon, Majid; Koch, Manfred

    2018-02-24

    Agriculture is one of the environmental/economic sectors that may adversely be affected by climate change, especially, in already nowadays water-scarce regions, like the Middle East. One way to cope with future changes in absolute as well as seasonal (irrigation) water amounts can be the adaptation of the agricultural crop pattern in a region, i.e. by planting crops which still provide high yields and so economic benefits to farmers under such varying climate conditions. To do this properly, the whole cascade starting from climate change, effects on hydrology and surface water availability, subsequent effects on crop yield, agricultural areas available, and, finally, economic value of a multi-crop cultivation pattern must be known. To that avail, a complex coupled simulation-optimization tool SWAT-LINGO-MODSIM-PSO (SLMP) has been developed here and used to find the future optimum cultivation area of crops for the maximization of the economic benefits in five irrigation-fed agricultural plains in the south of the Karkheh River Basin (KRB) southwest Iran. Starting with the SWAT distributed hydrological model, the KR-streamflow as well as the inflow into the Karkheh-reservoir, as the major storage of irrigation water, is calibrated and validated, based on 1985-2004 observed discharge data. In the subsequent step, the SWAT-predicted streamflow is fed into the MODSIM river basin Decision Support System to simulate and optimize the water allocation between different water users (agricultural, environmental, municipal and industrial) under standard operating policy (SOP) rules. The final step is the maximization of the economic benefit in the five agricultural plains through constrained PSO (particle swarm optimization) by adjusting the cultivation areas (decision variables) of different crops (wheat, barley, maize and "others"), taking into account their specific prizes and optimal crop yields under water deficiency, with the latter computed in the LINGO

  8. Application of WRF - SWAT OpenMI 2.0 based models integration for real time hydrological modelling and forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaets, Andrey; Gonchukov, Leonid

    2014-05-01

    Intake of deterministic distributed hydrological models into operational water management requires intensive collection and inputting of spatial distributed climatic information in a timely manner that is both time consuming and laborious. The lead time of the data pre-processing stage could be essentially reduced by coupling of hydrological and numerical weather prediction models. This is especially important for the regions such as the South of the Russian Far East where its geographical position combined with a monsoon climate affected by typhoons and extreme heavy rains caused rapid rising of the mountain rivers water level and led to the flash flooding and enormous damage. The objective of this study is development of end-to-end workflow that executes, in a loosely coupled mode, an integrated modeling system comprised of Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) atmospheric model and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT 2012) hydrological model using OpenMI 2.0 and web-service technologies. Migration SWAT into OpenMI compliant involves reorganization of the model into a separate initialization, performing timestep and finalization functions that can be accessed from outside. To save SWAT normal behavior, the source code was separated from OpenMI-specific implementation into the static library. Modified code was assembled into dynamic library and wrapped into C# class implemented the OpenMI ILinkableComponent interface. Development of WRF OpenMI-compliant component based on the idea of the wrapping web-service clients into a linkable component and seamlessly access to output netCDF files without actual models connection. The weather state variables (precipitation, wind, solar radiation, air temperature and relative humidity) are processed by automatic input selection algorithm to single out the most relevant values used by SWAT model to yield climatic data at the subbasin scale. Spatial interpolation between the WRF regular grid and SWAT subbasins centroid (which are

  9. Comparison of streamflow prediction skills from NOAH-MP/RAPID, VIC/RAPID and SWAT toward an ensemble flood forecasting framework over large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajib, M. A.; Tavakoly, A. A.; Du, L.; Merwade, V.; Lin, P.

    2015-12-01

    Considering the differences in how individual models represent physical processes for runoff generation and streamflow routing, use of ensemble output is desirable in an operational streamflow estimation and flood forecasting framework. To enable the use of ensemble streamflow, comparison of multiple hydrologic models at finer spatial resolution over a large domain is yet to be explored. The objective of this work is to compare streamflow prediction skills from three different land surface/hydrologic modeling frameworks: NOAH-MP/RAPID, VIC/RAPID and SWAT, over the Ohio River Basin with a drainage area of 491,000 km2. For a uniform comparison, all the three modeling frameworks share the same setup with common weather inputs, spatial resolution, and gauge stations being employed in the calibration procedure. The runoff output from NOAH-MP and VIC land surface models is routed through a vector-based river routing model named RAPID, that is set up on the high resolution NHDPlus reaches and catchments. SWAT model is used with its default tightly coupled surface-subsurface hydrology and channel routing components to obtain streamflow for each NHDPlus reach. Model simulations are performed in two modes, including: (i) hindcasting/calibration mode in which the models are calibrated against USGS daily streamflow observations at multiple locations, and (ii) validation mode in which the calibrated models are executed at 3-hourly time interval for historical flood events. In order to have a relative assessment on the model-specific nature of biases during storm events as well as dry periods, time-series of surface runoff and baseflow components at the specific USGS gauging locations are extracted from corresponding observed/simulated streamflow data using a recursive digital filter. The multi-model comparison presented here provides insights toward future model improvements and also serves as the first step in implementing an operational ensemble flood forecasting framework

  10. A multi basin SWAT model analysis of runoff and sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Easton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin. The model simulates saturation excess runoff from the landscape using a simple daily water balance coupled to a topographic wetness index in ways that are consistent with observed runoff processes in the basin. The spatial distribution of landscape erosion is thus simulated more correctly. The model was parameterized in a nested design for flow at eight and sediment at three locations in the basin. Subbasins ranged in size from 1.3 to 174 000 km2, and interestingly, the partitioning of runoff and infiltrating flow could be predicted by topographic information. Model predictions showed reasonable accuracy (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies ranged from 0.53–0.92 with measured data across all sites except Kessie, where the water budget could not be closed; however, the timing of flow was well captured. Runoff losses increased with rainfall during the monsoonal season and were greatest from areas with shallow soils and large contributing areas. Analysis of model results indicate that upland landscape erosion dominated sediment delivery to the main stem of the Blue Nile in the early part of the growing season when tillage occurs and before the soil was wetted up and plant cover was established. Once plant cover was established in mid August landscape erosion was negligible and sediment export was dominated by channel processes and re-suspension of landscape sediment deposited early in the growing season. These results imply that targeting small

  11. Future integrated aquifer vulnerability assessment considering land use / land cover and climate change using DRASTIC and SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, W.; Engel, B.; Chaubey, I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change causes significant changes to temperature regimes and precipitation patterns across the world. Such alterations in climate pose serious risks for not only inland freshwater ecosystems but also groundwater systems, and may adversely affect numerous critical services they provide to humans. All groundwater results from precipitation, and precipitation is affected by climate change. Climate change is also influenced by land use / land cover (LULC) change and vice versa. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports, climate change is caused by global warming which is generated by the increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere. LULC change is a major driving factor causing an increase in GHG emissions. LULC change data (years 2006-2100) will be produced by the Land Transformation Model (LTM) which simulates spatial patterns of LULC change over time. MIROC5 (years 2006-2100) will be obtained considering GCMs and ensemble characteristics such as resolution and trend of temperature and precipitation which is a consistency check with observed data from local weather stations and historical data from GCMs output data. Thus, MIROC5 will be used to account for future climate change scenarios and relationship between future climate change and alteration of groundwater quality in this study. For efficient groundwater resources management, integrated aquifer vulnerability assessments (= intrinsic vulnerability + hazard potential assessment) are required. DRASTIC will be used to evaluate intrinsic vulnerability, and aquifer hazard potential will be evaluated by Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) which can simulate pollution potential from surface and transport properties of contaminants. Thus, for effective integrated aquifer vulnerability assessment for LULC and climate change in the Midwestern United States, future projected LULC and climate data from the LTM and GCMs will be incorporated with DRASTIC and SWAT. It is

  12. Differential Effect of Solution Conditions on the Conformation of the Actinoporins Sticholysin II and Equinatoxin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSON V.F. FAUTH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinoporins are a family of pore-forming proteins with hemolytic activity. The structural basis for such activity appears to depend on their correct folding. Such folding encompasses a phosphocholine binding site, a tryptophan-rich region and the activity-related N-terminus segment. Additionally, different solution conditions are known to be able to influence the pore formation by actinoporins, as for Sticholysin II (StnII and Equinatoxin II (EqtxII. In this context, the current work intends to characterize the influence of distinct solution conditions in the conformational behavior of these proteins through molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The obtained data offer structural insights into actinoporins dynamics in solution, characterizing its conformational behavior at the atomic level, in accordance with previous experimental data on StnII and EqtxII hemolytic activities.

  13. Study of Beam-Beam Effects at PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narsky, I

    2004-06-29

    Using a self-consistent three-dimensional simulation running on parallel supercomputers, we have modeled the beam-beam interaction at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -}collider. To provide guidance for luminosity improvement, we scanned the tunes and currents in both rings and computed their impact on the luminosity and transverse beam sizes. We also studied the effects of colliding the beams with a small crossing angle. Where possible, the code was benchmarked against experimental measurements of luminosity and beam sizes, yielding an acceptable agreement.

  14. Guidelines for using sensitivity analysis and auto-calibration tools for multi-gage or multi-step calibration in SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autocalibration of a water quality model such as SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) can be a powerful, labor-saving tool. When multi-gage or multi-pollutant calibration is desired, autocalibration is essential because the time involved in manual calibration becomes prohibitive. The ArcSWAT Interf...

  15. STREAM II-V5: REVISION OF STREAM II-V4 TO ACCOUNT FOR THE EFFECTS OF RAINFALL EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.

    2010-02-01

    STREAM II-V4 is the aqueous transport module currently used by the Savannah River Site emergency response Weather Information Display (WIND) system. The transport model of the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was used by STREAM II to perform contaminant transport calculations. WASP5 is a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water quality analysis program that simulates contaminant transport and fate through surface water. STREAM II-V4 predicts peak concentration and peak concentration arrival time at downstream locations for releases from the SRS facilities to the Savannah River. The input flows for STREAM II-V4 are derived from the historical flow records measured by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The stream flow for STREAM II-V4 is fixed and the flow only varies with the month in which the releases are taking place. Therefore, the effects of flow surge due to a severe storm are not accounted for by STREAM II-V4. STREAM II-V4 has been revised to account for the effects of a storm event. The steps used in this method are: (1) generate rainfall hyetographs as a function of total rainfall in inches (or millimeters) and rainfall duration in hours; (2) generate watershed runoff flow based on the rainfall hyetographs from step 1; (3) calculate the variation of stream segment volume (cross section) as a function of flow from step 2; (4) implement the results from steps 2 and 3 into the STREAM II model. The revised model (STREAM II-V5) will find the proper stream inlet flow based on the total rainfall and rainfall duration as input by the user. STREAM II-V5 adjusts the stream segment volumes (cross sections) based on the stream inlet flow. The rainfall based stream flow and the adjusted stream segment volumes are then used for contaminant transport calculations.

  16. Protective effects of carvedilol on systemic vascular damage induced by angiotensin II: organ-specific effects independent of antihypertensive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati, Maria do Carmo Fernandez; Rocha, Noeme Souza; Matsubara, Luiz Shiguero; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Schwartz, Denise Saretta; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

    2010-01-01

    The protective effect of carvedilol on multiple organ damage induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of carvedilol on the heart, liver, and kidney in rats infused with Ang II. Wistar rats were randomly distributed into three groups: control (no treatment), continuously infused with Ang II (150 etag/min for 72 hr), and treated with Ang II + carvedilol (90 mg/kg/d). Histological sections of the myocardium, kidney, and liver were analyzed for the presence of necrosis. Ang II induced arterial hypertension which was not affected by carvedilol treatment (tail-cuff blood pressures, control: 125+/-13.6, Ang II: 163+/-27.3, Ang II + CV: 178+/-39.8 mmHg, p<0.05). Also, there were perivascular inflammation and necrosis in the myocardium, kidney, and hepatocytes necrosis around the terminal vein. Carvedilol treatment fully prevented damage to the heart and kidney and attenuated liver lesions induced by the Ang II infusion. The protective effect of carvedilol on perivascular damage induced by Ang II infusion depended on the target organ. The prevention of heart damage occurred independently of the antihypertensive effects of carvedilol.

  17. Effects of Osmolality on Paracellular Transport in MDCK II Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Hirai, Toyohiro; Furuse, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia separate apical and basal compartments, and movement of substances via the paracellular pathway is regulated by tight junctions. Claudins are major constituents of tight junctions and involved in the regulation of tight junction permeability. On the other hand, the osmolality in the extracellular environment fluctuates in association with life activity. However, effects of osmotic changes on the permeaibility of claudins are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of osmotic changes on the paracellular transport in MDCK II cells. Interestingly, apical hyposmolality decreased cation selectivity in the paracellular pathway gradually with time, and the elimination of the osmotic gradient promptly restored the cation selectivity. Apical hyposmolality also induced bleb formation at cell-cell contacts and changed the shape of cell-cell contacts from a jagged pattern to a slightly linear pattern. In claudin-2 knockout MDCK II cells, the decrease of cation selectivity, the bleb formation, nor the changes in the shape of cell-cell contacts was observed under the apical hyposmolality. Our findings in this study indicate that osmotic gradient between apical and basal sides is involved in the acute regulation of the cation selective property of claudin-2 channels.

  18. Squad Weapons Analytical Trainer (SWAT) M-16 Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    td d- - -- L - - , iL- I" ’ f ’ I L...SHOIWWU.RST j8C3H SYM BA(.WO) tD ;e:4H SYM BADNEWS 0I76AH 5yII HOW6AL’ 0- 7Cŕ H S’ymI HUJNTWCPS T 0498H LIN 6 049EH UIN 8 04EŚH LIN 9 0i48𔄁H LUN _-1...DECLARE PORTI LITELLY ’ O4H ’, PORT2 LITE.LY ’Mr4’, PORT3 LI1LLY ’SEGA’, PORT6 LI1IM.LY ’SEM’ i4 I DECL IOBATA i 65 1 IOTEST: PROCEDIU PIULIC;

  19. Combine the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) with sediment geochemistry to evaluate diffuse heavy metal loadings at watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Shan, Yushu; Geng, Xiaojun

    2014-09-15

    Assessing the diffuse pollutant loadings at watershed scale has become increasingly important when formulating effective watershed water management strategies, but the process was seldom achieved for heavy metals. In this study, the overall temporal-spatial variability of particulate Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni losses within an agricultural watershed was quantitatively evaluated by combining SWAT with sediment geochemistry. Results showed that the watershed particulate heavy metal loadings displayed strong variability in the simulation period 1981-2010, with an obvious increasing trend in recent years. The simulated annual average loadings were 20.21 g/ha, 21.75 g/ha, 47.35 g/ha and 21.27 g/ha for Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni, respectively. By comparison, these annual average values generally matched the estimated particulate heavy metal loadings at field scale. With spatial interpolation of field loadings, it was found that the diffuse heavy metal pollution mainly came from the sub-basins dominated with cultivated lands, accounting for over 70% of total watershed loadings. The watershed distribution of particulate heavy metal losses was very similar to that of soil loss but contrary to that of heavy metal concentrations in soil, highlighting the important role of sediment yield in controlling the diffuse heavy metal loadings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Zarrinehrud Basin Using SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mansouri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluate impacts of climate change on temperature, rainfall and runoff in the future Using statistical model, LARS-WG, and conceptual hydrological model, SWAT. In order to the Zarrinehrud river basin, as the biggest catchment of the Lake Urmia basin was selected as a case study. At first, for the generation of future weather data in the basin, LARS-WG model was calibrated using meteorological data and then 14 models of AOGCM were applied and results of these models were downscaled using LARS-WG model in 6 synoptic stations for period of 2015 to 2030. SWAT model was used for evaluation of climate change impacts on runoff in the basin. In order to, the model was calibrated and validated using 6 gauging stations for period of 1987-2007 and the value of R2 was between 0.49 and 0.71 for calibration and between 0.54 and 0.77 for validation. Then by introducing average of downscaled results of AOGCM models to the SWAT, runoff changes of the basin were simulated during 2015-2030. Average of results of LARS-WG model indicated that the monthly mean of minimum and maximum temperatures will increase compared to the baseline period. Also monthly average of precipitation will decrease in spring season but will increase in summer and autumn. The results showed that in addition to the amount of precipitation, its pattern will change in the future period, too. The results of runoff simulation showed that the amount of inflow to the Zarrinehrud reservoir will reduce 28.4 percent compared to the baseline period.

  1. Enabling Large Scale Fine Resolution Flood Modeling Using SWAT and LISFLOOD-FP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Rajib, A.; Merwade, V.

    2016-12-01

    Due to computational burden, most large scale hydrologic models are not created to generate streamflow hydrographs for lower order ungauged streams. Similarly, most flood inundation mapping studies are performed at major stream reaches. As a result, it is not possible to get reliable flow estimates and flood extents for vast majority of the areas where no stream gauging stations are available. The objective of this study is to loosely couple spatially distributed hydrologic model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), with a 1D/2D hydrodynamic model, LISFLOOD-FP, for large scale fine resolution flood inundation modeling. The model setup is created for the 491,000 km2 drainage area of the Ohio River Basin in the United States. In the current framework, SWAT model is calibrated with historical streamflow data over the past 80 years (1935-2014) to provide streamflow time-series for more than 100,000 NHDPlus stream reaches in the basin. The post-calibration evaluation shows that the simulated daily streamflow has a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency in the range of 0.4-0.7 against observed records across the basin. Streamflow outputs from the calibrated SWAT are subsequently used to drive LISFLOOD-FP and routed along the streams/floodplain using the built-in subgrid solver. LISFLOOD-FP is set up for the Ohio River Basin using 90m digital elevation model, and is executed on high performance computing resources at Purdue University. The flood extents produced by LISFLOOD-FP show good agreement with observed inundation. The current modeling framework lays foundation for near real-time streamflow forecasting and prediction of time-varying flood inundation maps along the NHDPlus network.

  2. An Assessment of Mean Areal Precipitation Methods on Simulated Stream Flow: A SWAT Model Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Zeiger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate mean areal precipitation (MAP estimates are essential input forcings for hydrologic models. However, the selection of the most accurate method to estimate MAP can be daunting because there are numerous methods to choose from (e.g., proximate gauge, direct weighted average, surface-fitting, and remotely sensed methods. Multiple methods (n = 19 were used to estimate MAP with precipitation data from 11 distributed monitoring sites, and 4 remotely sensed data sets. Each method was validated against the hydrologic model simulated stream flow using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. SWAT was validated using a split-site method and the observed stream flow data from five nested-scale gauging sites in a mixed-land-use watershed of the central USA. Cross-validation results showed the error associated with surface-fitting and remotely sensed methods ranging from −4.5 to −5.1%, and −9.8 to −14.7%, respectively. Split-site validation results showed the percent bias (PBIAS values that ranged from −4.5 to −160%. Second order polynomial functions especially overestimated precipitation and subsequent stream flow simulations (PBIAS = −160 in the headwaters. The results indicated that using an inverse-distance weighted, linear polynomial interpolation or multiquadric function method to estimate MAP may improve SWAT model simulations. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of spatially distributed observed hydroclimate data for precipitation and subsequent steam flow estimations. The MAP methods demonstrated in the current work can be used to reduce hydrologic model uncertainty caused by watershed physiographic differences.

  3. D-effects in Toroidally Compactified Type II String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, B

    1999-01-01

    We review exact results obtained for R^4 couplings in maximally supersymmetric type II string theories. These couplings offer a privileged scene to understand the rules of semiclassical calculus in string theory. Upon expansion in weak string coupling, they reveal an infinite sum of non-perturbative e^{-1/g} effects that can be imputed to euclidean D-branes wrapped on cycles of the compactification manifolds. They also shed light on the relation between Dp-branes and D-(p-2)branes, D-strings and (p,q) strings, instanton sums and soliton loops. The latter interpretation takes over in D<=6 in order to account for the e^{-1/g^2} effects, still mysterious from the point of view of instanton calculus. [To appear in the proceedings of the conference "Quantum Aspects of Gauge Theories, Supersymmetry and Unification" held at Neuchatel University, Switzerland, 18-23 September 1997.

  4. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Ecohydrological Model Circa 2015: Global Application Trends, Insights and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, P. W.; Arnold, J. G.; Srinivasan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is one of the most widely used watershed-scale water quality models in the world. Over 2,000 peer-reviewed SWAT-related journal articles have been published and hundreds of other studies have been published in conference proceedings and other formats. The use of SWAT was initially concentrated in North America and Europe but has also expanded dramatically in other countries and regions during the past decade including Brazil, China, India, Iran, South Korea, Southeast Asia and eastern Africa. The SWAT model has proven to be a very flexible tool for investigating a broad range of hydrologic and water quality problems at different watershed scales and environmental conditions, and has proven very adaptable for applications requiring improved hydrologic and other enhanced simulation needs. We investigate here the various technological, networking, and other factors that have supported the expanded use of SWAT, and also highlight current worldwide simulation trends and possible impediments to future increased usage of the model. Examples of technological advances include easy access to web-based documentation, user-support groups, and SWAT literature, a variety of Geographic Information System (GIS) interface tools, pre- and post-processing calibration software and other software, and an open source code which has served as a model development catalyst for multiple user groups. Extensive networking regarding the use of SWAT has further occurred via internet-based user support groups, model training workshops, regional working groups, regional and international conferences, and targeted development workshops. We further highlight several important model development trends that have emerged during the past decade including improved hydrologic, cropping system, best management practice (BMP) and pollutant transport simulation methods. In addition, several current SWAT weaknesses will be addressed and key development needs will be

  5. Cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of a hexadentate pyridine amide ligand. Effect of donor atom (ether vs. thioether) on coordination geometry, spin-state of cobalt and M(III)-M(II) redox potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sharmila; Das, Partha Pratim; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Mukherjee, Rabindranath

    2011-10-28

    Using an acyclic hexadentate pyridine amide ligand, containing a -OCH(2)CH(2)O- spacer between two pyridine-2-carboxamide units (1,4-bis[o-(pyrydine-2-carboxamidophenyl)]-1,4-dioxabutane (H(2)L(9)), in its deprotonated form), four new complexes, [Co(II)(L(9))] (1) and its one-electron oxidized counterpart [Co(III)(L(9))][NO(3)]·2H(2)O (2), [Ni(II)(L(9))] (3) and [Cu(II)(L(9))] (4), have been synthesized. Structural analyses revealed that the Co(II) centre in 1 and the Ni(II) centre in 3 are six-coordinate, utilizing all the available donor sites and the Cu(II) centre in 4 is effectively five-coordinated (one of the ether O atoms does not participate in coordination). The structural parameters associated with the change in the metal coordination environment have been compared with corresponding complexes of thioether-containing hexadentate ligands. The μ(eff) values at 298 K of 1-4 correspond to S = 3/2, S = 0, S = 1 and S = 1/2, respectively. Absorption spectra for all the complexes have been investigated. EPR spectral properties of the copper(II) complex 4 have been investigated, simulated and analyzed. Cyclic voltammetric experiments in CH(2)Cl(2) reveal quasireversible Co(III)-Co(II), Ni(III)-Ni(II) and Cu(II)-Cu(I) redox processes. In going from ether O to thioether S coordination, the effect of the metal coordination environment on the redox potential values of Co(III)-Co(II) (here the effect of spin-state as well), Ni(III)-Ni(II) and Cu(II)-Cu(I) processes have been systematically analyzed.

  6. Effect of Phosphorylation and Copper(II or Iron(II Ions Enrichment on Some Physicochemical Properties of Spelt Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rożnowski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper provides an assessment of the effect of saturation of spelt starch and monostarch phosphate with copper or iron ions on selected physicochemical properties of the resulting modified starches. Native and modified spelt starch samples were analyzed for selected mineral element content using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Thermodynamic properties were measured using DSC, and pasting properties by RVA. Flow curves of 5% pastes were plotted and described using the Herschel-Bulkley model. The structure recovery ratio was measured. AAS analysis established the presence of iron(II and copper(II ions in the samples of modified starches and that potassium and magnesium ions had leached from them. In comparison to unfortified samples, enriching native starch with copper(II ions decreases value of all temperatures of phase transformation about 1.3-2.7 °C, but in case of monostarch phosphates bigger changes (2.8-3.7 °C were observed. Fortified native spelt starch with copper(II ions caused increasing the final viscosity of paste from 362 to 429 mPa·s. However, presence iron(II ions in samples caused reduced its final viscosity by 170 (spelt starch and 103 mPa·s (monostarch phosphate. Furthermore, enriching monostarch phosphate contributed to reduce degree of structure recovery of pastes from 70.9% to 66.6% in case of copper(II ions and to 59.9% in case of iron(II ions.

  7. Joint toxicity of tetracycline with copper(II) and cadmium(II) to Vibrio fischeri: effect of complexation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fei; Zhao, Yanping; Gu, Xueyuan; Gu, Cheng; Lee, Charles C C

    2015-03-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotic and heavy metals commonly occurs in the environment. Tetracycline (TC), a common antibiotic, can behave as an efficient organic ligand to complex with cations. In this paper, the joint toxicity of TC with two commonly existing metals, copper(II) and cadmium(II), towards a luminescent bacteria, Vibrio fischeri, are investigated. Results showed that coexistence of TC and Cu(II) showed a significant antagonistic effect, while TC and Cd(II) showed a synergistic effect. The aqueous speciation of TC with two metal cations was calculated using a chemical equilibrium software Visual MINTEQ and results indicated that a strong complexation exist between TC and Cu(II), while much weaker interaction between TC and Cd(II). Traditional joint toxicity prediction model based on independent action failed to predict the combined toxicity of TC with metals. A new method based on speciation calculation was used to evaluate the joint toxicity of ligands and cations. It is assumed that the metal-ligand complexes are non-toxic to V. fischeri and the joint toxicity is determined by the sum of toxic unit of free metal-ions and free organic ligands. It explained the joint toxicity of the mixed systems reasonably well. Meanwhile, citric acid (CA) and fulvic acid (FA) were also introduced in this study to provide a benchmark comparison with TC. Results showed it is also valid for mixed systems of CA and FA with metals except for the Cd-CA mixture.

  8. Modeling seasonal variability of fecal coliform in natural surface waters using the modified SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Kim, Minjeong; Pyo, JongCheol; Park, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Young Mo; Kim, Jung-Woo; Kim, Joon Ha

    2016-04-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators of pathogens and thereby, understanding of their fate and transport in surface waters is important to protect drinking water sources and public health. We compiled fecal coliform observations from four different sites in the USA and Korea and found a seasonal variability with a significant connection to temperature levels. In all observations, fecal coliform concentrations were relatively higher in summer and lower during the winter season. This could be explained by the seasonal dominance of growth or die-off of bacteria in soil and in-stream. Existing hydrologic models, however, have limitations in simulating the seasonal variability of fecal coliform. Soil and in-stream bacterial modules of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model are oversimplified in that they exclude simulations of alternating bacterial growth. This study develops a new bacteria subroutine for the SWAT in an attempt to improve its prediction accuracy. We introduced critical temperatures as a parameter to simulate the onset of bacterial growth/die-off and to reproduce the seasonal variability of bacteria. The module developed in this study will improve modeling for environmental management schemes.

  9. User's guide for simulation of waste treatment (SWAT) model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macal, C.M.

    1979-04-01

    This document is a user's guide for the Simulation of Waste Treatment (SWAT) model computer code. (A detailed description of the logic and assumptions of the model was published previously.) A flow diagram depicting the logic of the SWAT computer code is included. Several river basins or regions can be simulated in a single computer run, with each region having numerous treatment plants. Treatment plants are simulated sequentially to reduce computer storage requirements. All input to the model is in the form of cards and all output is to a line printer. The code is written in FORTRAN IV and consists of approximately 3000 statements. Using the IBM 370/195 under OS, a Gl compiler requires a region of 220K. Execution time is under two minutes for a typical run for a river basin with 23 treatment plants, with each plant having an average of one technology modification over a simulation period of 25 years. In the first section of this report a brief description of the subroutines in the model is given along with an explanation of how the subroutines function in the context of the whole program. The third section indicates formatting for input data; sample input data for a test problem are also presented. Section 4 describes the output resulting from the sample input data. A program listing appears in the appendix.

  10. Quantification of spatial temporal variability of snow cover and hydro-climatic variables based on multi-source remote sensing data in the Swat watershed, Hindukush Mountains, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Muhammad Naveed; Ding, Yongjian; Shangguan, Donghui; Liu, Junguo; Ahmad, Ijaz; Ijaz, Muhammad Wajid; Khan, Muhammad Imran

    2018-02-01

    The northern part of Hindukush Mountains has a perplexing environment due to the influence of adjacent mountains of Himalaya, Karakoram, and Tibetan Plateau. Although reliable evidences of climate change are available; however, a clear knowledge of snow cover dynamics in the context of climate change is missing for this region. In this study, we used various remotely sensed (TRMM precipitation product, while MODIS temperature and snow cover products) and gauge-based datasets to quantify the spatiotemporal variability of climatic variables and their turn effects over the snow cover area (SCA) and river discharge in the Swat watershed, northern Hindukush Mountains, Pakistan. The Mann-Kendall method and Sen's slope estimator were used to estimate the trends in SCA and hydro-climatic variables, at 5% significant level (P = 0.05). Results show that the winter and springs temperatures have increased (at the rate of 0.079 and 0.059 °C year-1, respectively), while decreasing in the summer and autumn (at the rate of 0.049 and 0.070 °C year-1, respectively). Basin-wide increasing tendency of precipitation was identified with a highest increasing rate of 3.563 mm year-1 in the spring season. A decreasing trend in the winter SCA (at the rate of -0.275% year-1) and increasing trends in other seasons were identified. An increasing tendency of river discharge on annual and seasonal scales was also witnessed. The seasonal variations in discharge showed significant positive and negative relationships with temperature and SCA, respectively. We conclude that the future variations in the temperature and SCA in the higher altitudes of the Swat watershed could substantially affect the seasonality of the river discharge. Moreover, it implies that the effect of ongoing global warming on the SCA in the snowmelt-dominated river basins needs to be considered for sustainable regional planning and management of water resources, hydropower production, and downstream irrigation scheduling.

  11. Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Inverted Type II Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chaoxing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hughes, Taylor L.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wang, Kang; /UCLA; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically non-trivial state of quantum matter which preserves time-reversal symmetry; it has an energy gap in the bulk, but topologically robust gapless states at the edge. Recently, this novel effect has been predicted and observed in HgTe quantum wells. In this work we predict a similar effect arising in Type-II semiconductor quantum wells made from InAs/GaSb/AlSb. Because of a rare band alignment the quantum well band structure exhibits an 'inverted' phase similar to CdTe/HgTe quantum wells, which is a QSH state when the Fermi level lies inside the gap. Due to the asymmetric structure of this quantum well, the effects of inversion symmetry breaking and inter-layer charge transfer are essential. By standard self-consistent calculations, we show that the QSH state persists when these corrections are included, and a quantum phase transition between the normal insulator and the QSH phase can be electrically tuned by the gate voltage.

  12. Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT): A User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The effects of supervisor experience and the presence of a shift technical advisor on the performance of two-man crews in a nuclear power plant...et de Recherches de Medecine Acrospatiale, Laboratoire d’Etudes Medicophysiologiques 16/330). S 110 Potter, S. S., 1986, Subjective workload assessment

  13. Macrophyte growth module for the SWAT model – impact of climate change and management on stream ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Shenglan; Trolle, Dennis; Erfurt, Jytte

    To access how multiple stressors affect the water quantity and quality and stream ecology at catchment scale under various management and climate change scenarios, we implemented macrophyte growth modules for the Soil and Water Assessment Tool version 2012 (SWAT). The macrophyte growth module ori...

  14. Evalution of Long-Term Impacts of Conservation Practice Within the Little River Watershed Using the SWAT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SWAT model was used to simulate the long-term impacts of conservation practices implemented within the South Georgia Little River Watershed on streamflow hydrology and water quality. Typical practices which have been implemented within the watershed include nutrient management, residue manageme...

  15. Macrocyclic effects upon isomeric Cu II Mii and Mii Cu II cores ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The macrocycles have dissimilar N(amine)2O2 and N(imine)2O2 metal-binding sites sharing the phenolic oxygens. The reaction of the mononuclear CuII precursors, [Cu(L2;2)], [Cu(L2;2)] and [Cu(L2;2)], with a MII perchlorate and a MII acetate salt formed (acetato)MII CuII complexes:[CoCu(L2;2)(AcO)]ClO4 0 5H2O] (1), ...

  16. Neurological AdverseEffects after Radiation Therapyfor Stage II Seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Ebbeskov Lauritsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT. They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost against the tumour bed with a conventional fractionation of2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and/or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic.

  17. Ion Effects in the DARHT-II Downstream Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Kwok-Chi D; Ekdahl, Carl; Genoni, Thomas C; Hughes, Thomas P; Schulze, Martin E

    2005-01-01

    The DARHT-II accelerator produces an 18-MeV, 2-kA, 2-μs electron beam pulse. After the accelerator, the pulse is delivered to the final focus on an x-ray producing target via a beam transport section called the Downstream Transport. Ions produced due to beam ionization of residual gases in the Downstream Transport can affect the beam dynamics. Ions generated by the head of the pulse will cause modification of space-charge forces at the tail of the pulse so that the beam head and tail will have different beam envelopes. They may also induce ion-hose instability at the tail of the pulse. If these effects are significant, the focusing requirements of beam head and tail at the final focus will become very different. The focusing of the complete beam pulse will be time dependent and difficult to achieve, leading to less efficient x-ray production. In this paper, we will describe the results of our calculations of these ion effects at different residual-gas pressure levels. Our goal is to determine the ma...

  18. The effect of serum angiotensin II and angiotensin II type 1 receptor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To measure serum Ang II and the frequency of AT1 receptor CC genotype among a group of Egyptian patients with pediatric onset lupus nephritis (pLN). Methods: This is a case-control cross sectional study which included 24 patients with pLN and 24 age and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. Clinical ...

  19. Comparison of model performance and simulated water balance using NASIM and SWAT for the Wupper River Basin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorza, Paula; Nottebohm, Martin; Scheibel, Marc; aus der Beek, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Under the framework of the Horizon 2020 project BINGO (Bringing INnovation to onGOing water management), climate change impacts on the water cycle in the Wupper catchment area are being studied. With this purpose, a set of hydrological models in NASIM and SWAT have been set up, calibrated, and validated for past conditions using available data. NASIM is a physically-based, lumped, hydrological model based on the water balance equation. For the upper part of the Dhünn catchment area - Wupper River's main tributary - a SWAT model was also implemented. Observed and simulated discharge by NASIM and SWAT for the drainage area upstream of Neumühle hydrometric station (close to Große Dhünn reservoir's inlet) are compared. Comparison of simulated water balance for several hydrological years between the two models is also carried out. While NASIM offers high level of detail for modelling of complex urban areas and the possibility of entering precipitation time series at fine temporal resolution (e.g. minutely data), SWAT enables to study long-term impacts offering a huge variety of input and output variables including different soil properties, vegetation and land management practices. Beside runoff, also sediment and nutrient transport can be simulated. For most calculations, SWAT operates on a daily time step. The objective of this and future work is to determine catchment responses on different meteorological events and to study parameter sensitivity of stationary inputs such as soil parameters, vegetation or land use. Model performance is assessed with different statistical metrics (relative volume error, coefficient of determination, and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency).

  20. Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of Swat, North Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Rashid, Abdur; Murad, Waheed; Bergmeier, Erwin

    2013-04-15

    Due to its diverse geographical and habitat conditions, northern Pakistan harbors a wealth of medicinal plants. The plants and their traditional use are part of the natural and cultural heritage of the region. This study was carried out to document which medicinal plant species and which plant parts are used in the region of Swat, which syndrome categories are particularly concerned, and which habitat spectrum is frequented by collectors. Finally, we assessed to which extent medicinal plants are vulnerable due to collection and habitat destruction. An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in the Miandam area of Swat, North Pakistan. Data were collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and locals by means of personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 106 ethno-medicinal plant species belonging to 54 plant families were recorded. The most common growth forms were perennial (43%) and short-lived herbs (23%), shrubs (16%), and trees (15%). Most frequently used plant parts were leaves (24%), fruits (18%) and subterranean parts (15%). A considerable proportion of the ethno-medicinal plant species and remedies concerns gastro-intestinal disorders. The remedies were mostly prepared in the form of decoction or powder and were mainly taken orally. Eighty out of 106 ethno-medicinal plants were indigenous. Almost 50% of the plants occurred in synanthropic vegetation while slightly more than 50% were found in semi-natural, though extensively grazed, woodland and grassland vegetation. Three species (Aconitum violaceum, Colchicum luteum, Jasminum humile) must be considered vulnerable due to excessive collection. Woodlands are the main source for non-synanthropic indigenous medicinal plants. The latter include many range-restricted taxa and plants of which rhizomes and other subterranean parts are dug out for further processing as medicine. Medicinal plants are still widely used for treatment in the area of Swat. Some species of

  1. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor and angiotensin II on rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ai-Lan [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Ou, Cai-Wen [The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); He, Zhao-Chu [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Qi-Cai [Experimental Medical Research Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Dong, Qi [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Min-Sheng [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-10-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The combined effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Ang II on cardiomyocytes is unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effect of HGF on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and to explore the combined effect of HGF and Ang II on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat hearts and cultured in vitro. Cells were treated with Ang II (1 µM) alone, HGF (10 ng/mL) alone, and Ang II (1 µM) plus HGF (10 ng/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The amount of [{sup 3}H]-leucine incorporation was then measured to evaluate protein synthesis. The mRNA levels of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic factor were determined by real-time PCR to evaluate the presence of fetal phenotypes of gene expression. The cell size of cardiomyocytes was also studied. Ang II (1 µM) increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Similar to Ang II, treatment with 1 µM HGF promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Moreover, the combination of 1 µM Ang II and 10 ng/mL HGF clearly induced a combined pro-hypertrophy effect on cardiomyocytes. The present study demonstrates for the first time a novel, combined effect of HGF and Ang II in promoting cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

  2. Micellar effect on metal-ligand complexes of Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II with citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageswara Rao Gollapalli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of citric acid complexes of Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II was investigated pH-metrically in 0.0-2.5% anionic, cationic and neutral micellar media. The primary alkalimetric data were pruned with SCPHD program. The existence of different binary species was established from modeling studies using the computer program MINIQUAD75. Alkalimetric titrations were carried out in different relative concentrations (M:L:X = 1:2:5, 1:3:5, 1:5:3 of metal (M to citric acid. The selection of best chemical models was based on statistical parameters and residual analysis. The species detected were MLH, ML2, ML2H and ML2H2. The trend in variation of stability constants with change in mole fraction of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces. Distributions of the species with pH at different compositions of micellar media are also presented.

  3. Radiation effects on II-VI compound-based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallini, A; Dusi, W; Auricchio, N; Chirco, P; Zanarini, M; Siffert, P; Fougeres, P

    2002-01-01

    The performance of room temperature CdTe and CdZnTe detectors exposed to a radiation source can be strongly altered by the interaction of the ionizing particles and the material. Up to now, few experimental data are available on the response of II-VI compound detectors to different types of radiation sources. We have carried out a thorough investigation on the effects of gamma-rays, neutrons and electron irradiation both on CdTe : Cl and Cd sub 0 sub . sub 9 Zn sub 0 sub . sub 1 Te detectors. We have studied the detector response after radiation exposure by means of dark current measurements and of quantitative spectroscopic analyses at low and medium energies. The deep traps present in the material have been characterized by means of PICTS (photo-induced current transient spectroscopy) analyses, which allow to determine the trap apparent activation energy and capture cross-section. The evolution of the trap parameters with increasing irradiation doses has been monitored for all the different types of radiati...

  4. Adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) by dead Avena fatua biomass and the effect of these metals on their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areco, María Mar; Saleh-Medina, Leila; Trinelli, María Alcira; Marco-Brown, Jose Luis; Dos Santos Afonso, María

    2013-10-01

    The biosorption of copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and lead(II) from aqueous solutions by dead Avena fatua biomass and the effect of these metals on the growth of this wild oat were investigated. Pseudo-first- and second-order and intra-particle diffusion models were applied to describe the kinetic data and to evaluate the rate constants. The adsorption kinetics of all the metals follows a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption capacity was determined, and the Freundlich and Langmuir models were applied. The experimental data obtained for all the metals are best described by the Langmuir model. A. fatua was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and zeta potential. The results obtained evidence the presence of Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) or Pb(II) on the surface of the weed. The growth of A. fatua was affected by the presence of all metals. The decrease in the growth rate with increasing metal concentration was more noticeable for zinc. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metals in agricultural soils and crops and their health risks in Swat District, northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kifayatullah; Lu, Yonglong; Khan, Hizbullah; Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Khan, Sardar; Waqas, Muhammad; Wei, Luo; Wang, Tieyu

    2013-08-01

    This study assessed the concentrations of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in agricultural soils and crops (fruits, grains and vegetable) and their possible human health risk in Swat District, northern Pakistan. Cd concentration was found higher than the limit (0.05 mg/kg) set by world health organization in 95% fruit and 100% vegetable samples. Moreover, the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn in the soils were shown significant correlations with those in the crops. The metal transfer factor (MTF) was found highest for Cd followed by Cr>Ni>Zn>Cu>Mn, while the health risk assessment revealed that there was no health risk for most of the heavy metals except Cd, which showed a high level of health risk index (HRI⩾10E-1) that would pose a potential health risk to the consumers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Global sensitivity analysis of a SWAT model: comparison of the variance-based and moment-independent approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorashadi Zadeh, Farkhondeh; Sarrazin, Fanny; Nossent, Jiri; Pianosi, Francesca; van Griensven, Ann; Wagener, Thorsten; Bauwens, Willy

    2015-04-01

    Uncertainty in parameters is a well-known reason of model output uncertainty which, undermines model reliability and restricts model application. A large number of parameters, in addition to the lack of data, limits calibration efficiency and also leads to higher parameter uncertainty. Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is a set of mathematical techniques that provides quantitative information about the contribution of different sources of uncertainties (e.g. model parameters) to the model output uncertainty. Therefore, identifying influential and non-influential parameters using GSA can improve model calibration efficiency and consequently reduce model uncertainty. In this paper, moment-independent density-based GSA methods that consider the entire model output distribution - i.e. Probability Density Function (PDF) or Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) - are compared with the widely-used variance-based method and their differences are discussed. Moreover, the effect of model output definition on parameter ranking results is investigated using Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and model bias as example outputs. To this end, 26 flow parameters of a SWAT model of the River Zenne (Belgium) are analysed. In order to assess the robustness of the sensitivity indices, bootstrapping is applied and 95% confidence intervals are estimated. The results show that, although the variance-based method is easy to implement and interpret, it provides wider confidence intervals, especially for non-influential parameters, compared to the density-based methods. Therefore, density-based methods may be a useful complement to variance-based methods for identifying non-influential parameters.

  7. Calibration of SWAT model for woody plant encroachment using paired experimental watershed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lei; Zou, Chris B.; Will, Rodney E.; Stebler, Elaine

    2015-04-01

    Globally, rangeland has been undergoing a transition from herbaceous dominated grasslands into tree or shrub dominated woodlands with great uncertainty of associated changes in water budget. Previous modeling studies simulated the impact of woody plant encroachment on hydrological processes using models calibrated and constrained primarily by historic streamflow from intermediate sized watersheds. In this study, we calibrated the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model), a widely used model for cropping and grazing systems, for a prolifically encroaching juniper species, eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), in the south-central Great Plains using species-specific biophysical and hydrological parameters and in situ meteorological forcing from three pairs of experimental watersheds (grassland versus eastern redcedar woodland) for a period of 3-years covering a dry-to-wet cycle. The multiple paired watersheds eliminated the potentially confounding edaphic and topographic influences from changes in hydrological processes related to woody encroachment. The SWAT model was optimized with the Shuffled complexes with Principal component analysis (SP-UCI) algorithm developed from the Shuffled Complexes Evolution (SCE_UA). The mean Nash-Sutcliff coefficient (NSCE) values of the calibrated model for daily and monthly runoff from experimental watersheds reached 0.96 and 0.97 for grassland, respectively, and 0.90 and 0.84 for eastern redcedar woodland, respectively. We then validated the calibrated model with a nearby, larger watershed undergoing rapid eastern redcedar encroachment. The NSCE value for monthly streamflow over a period of 22 years was 0.79. We provide detailed biophysical and hydrological parameters for tallgrass prairie under moderate grazing and eastern redcedar, which can be used to calibrate any model for further validation and application by the hydrologic modeling community.

  8. Effects of skeletally anchored Class II elastics: A pilot study and new approach for treating Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbilek, Selin; Gungor, Ahmet Yalcin; Celik, Salih

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue effects of skeletally anchored Class II elastics and compare them with a matched control group treated by a monobloc appliance for the correction of skeletal Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrusion. Twelve patients (6 girls, 6 boys) were randomly divided into two groups. In the elastics group, six patients (12.9 ± 1.5 years of age; 3 boys, 3 girls) were treated with skeletally anchored Class II elastics. Two miniplates were placed bilaterally at the ramus of the mandible and the other two miniplates were placed at the aperture piriformis area of the maxilla. In the monobloc group (3 boys and 3 girls; mean age, 12.3 ± 1.6 years), patients used the monobloc appliance. The changes observed in each phase of treatment were evaluated using the Wilcoxon matched-pair sign test. Intergroup comparisons at the initial phase of treatment were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. There were statistically significant group differences in Co-Gn, B-VRL, U1-PP, U1-VRL, Ls-VRL, with significant increases in these parameters in the elastics group (P mandibular incisors were protruded in the monobloc group (5.45 ± 1.23°), whereas they were retruded in the elastics group (-3.01 ± 1.66°; P anchorage. Favorable skeletal outcomes can be achieved by skeletal anchorage therapies which could be an alternative to treat skeletal Class II patients with mandibular deficiency.

  9. Effects of the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata toxin II on skeletal muscle and on neuromuscular transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erxleben, C; Rathmayer, W

    1984-01-01

    Effects of anemone toxin II (ATX II) have been analysed on the neuromuscular junction of the frog and different twitch muscles. Amplitudes of evoked endplate potentials and endplate currents are increased by ATX II, without effects on the amplitudes of miniature endplate potentials and endplate currents resulting from ionophoretically applied transmitter. The increase in evoked transmitter release is due to an increase in quantal content caused by an effect of the toxin on the presynaptic action potentials. ATX II is also effective on muscle fibers. The action potentials of frog twitch muscles are reversibly prolonged by ATX II. Their rate of rise and amplitudes are increased, while there is no effect on resting membrane potential. Similarly, action potentials of fast twitch muscle (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) of the mouse are reversibly prolonged by ATX II. In slow twitch muscle (soleus, SOL) of the mouse the toxin induces repetitive action potentials following the generation of a single action potential. Tetrodotoxin resistant action potentials of both denervated EDL and SOL are greatly and irreversibly prolonged by ATX II. The effects on muscle are due to a Na+ channel specific action of ATX II. Na+ current inactivation is slowed with the time constant tau h increasing towards positive membrane potentials. The steady state inactivation curve hoo was shifted to more positive potentials and its slope reduced.

  10. HPAC (Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability) jSWAT (Joint Seminar Wargaming Adjudication Tool) Integration; A Technical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Tool is an LOD developed software package (programmed in Java) that aims to facilitate the seminar wargaming process that Army currently uses to...For display, the jSWAT package name has been truncated from “com.classforge.jswat”. Similarly, the actual client and server classes...The above example places a sulphur hexafluoride sensor in the continental US. To place Sarin samplers on Kangaroo Island we might use the

  11. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Applicability on Nutrients Loadings Prediction in Mountainous Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) Watershed, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salha, A. A.; Stevens, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The application of watershed simulation models is indispensable when pollution is generated by a nonpoint source. These models should be able to simulate large complex watersheds with varying soils, land use and management conditions over long periods of time. This study presents the application of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate, manage, and research the transport and fate of nutrients in (Subbasin HUC 16010204) Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) watershed, Box elder County, Utah. Water quality problems arise primarily from high phosphorus and total suspended sediment concentrations that were caused by increasing agricultural and farming activities and complex network of canals and ducts of varying sizes and carrying capacities that transport water (for farming and agriculture uses). Using the available input data (Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use/Land cover (LULC), soil map and weather and climate data for 20 years (1990-2010) to predict the water quantity and quality of the LBMR watershed using a spatially distributed model version of hydrological ArcSWAT model (ArcSWAT 2012.10_1.14). No previous studies have been found in the literature regarding an in-depth simulation study of the Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) watershed to simulate stream flow and to quantify the associated movement of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment. It is expected that the model mainly will predict monthly mean total phosphorus (TP) concentration and loadings in a mountainous LBRM watershed (steep Wellsville mountain range with peak of (2,857 m)) having into consideration the snow and runoff variables affecting the prediction process. The simulated nutrient concentrations were properly consistent with observations based on the R2 and Nash- Sutcliffe fitness factors. Further, the model will be able to manage and assess the land application in that area with corresponding to proper BMPs regarding water quality management. Keywords: Water Quality Modeling; Soil and

  12. [Effects of basic orange II on proliferation and differentiation of limb bud cells in rat embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lixin; Feng, Jiawang; Tian, Shimin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of basic orange II on proliferation and differentiation of limb bud cells. Limb bud cell were separated from SD rat embryo at 13-day gestational age, limb bud cell were exposed to basic orange II at concentrations of 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0, 100.0, 200, 0 and 400.0 mg/L in the culture medium. The effect of basic orange II on limb bud cell proliferation was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8, the effect of basic orange II on limb bud cell differentiation was assessed by Alcian Blue 8GX. With the increasing of basic orange II concentration, the proliferation and differentiation of embryo limb bud cells were poorer and poorer in vitro, and there was the dose-effect relationship. The pID50 and dLD50 of basic orange II on limb bud cells were 240.6 mg/L and 69.3 mg/L respectively. The inhibition of basic orange II on cell differentiation might exceed that on cell proliferation. Basic orange II could inhibit proliferation and differentiation of embryo limb bud cells. It might be a potential developmental toxic substance in rat embryo.

  13. Maxillary first molar extraction in Class II malocclusion : Follow-up studies on treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research investigated treatment effects of extraction of one and two maxillary first molars in Class II subdivision and Class II/1 malocclusion cases respectively from a longer time perspective. Private practice records were scrutinized to evaluate aspects of a treatment technique combining

  14. Studies on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (ll), nickel (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (ll), nickel (II), lead (II) and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple ( Chrysophyllum albidium ) shell. ... The cleaning of our environment should be carried out with the use of natural products instead of chemicals so as to reduce pollution.

  15. Application of SWAT99.2 to sensitivity analysis of water balance components in unique plots in a hilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-feng Dai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although many sensitivity analyses using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT in a complex watershed have been conducted, little attention has been paid to the application potential of the model in unique plots. In addition, sensitivity analysis of percolation and evapotranspiration with SWAT has seldom been undertaken. In this study, SWAT99.2 was calibrated to simulate water balance components for unique plots in Southern China from 2000 to 2001, which included surface runoff, percolation, and evapotranspiration. Twenty-one parameters classified into four categories, including meteorological conditions, topographical characteristics, soil properties, and vegetation attributes, were used for sensitivity analysis through one-at-a-time (OAT sampling to identify the factor that contributed most to the variance in water balance components. The results were shown to be different for different plots, with parameter sensitivity indices and ranks varying for different water balance components. Water balance components in the broad-leaved forest and natural grass plots were most sensitive to meteorological conditions, less sensitive to vegetation attributes and soil properties, and least sensitive to topographical characteristics. Compared to those in the natural grass plot, water balance components in the broad-leaved forest plot demonstrated higher sensitivity to the maximum stomatal conductance (GSI and maximum leaf area index (BLAI.

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) diclofenac sodium complexes as anti-inflammatory drug and their protective effects on renal functions impairment and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Hamza, Reham Z.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2015-01-01

    The main task of our present study is the preparation of newly complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac which succeeded to great extent in alleviating the side effects of diclofenac alone and ameliorating the kidney function parameters and antioxidant capacities with respect to diclofenac treated group alone. The Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and 1H NMR spectral, thermogravimetric and conductivity measurements. The diclofenac ligand has been found to act as bidentate chelating agent. Diclofenac complexes coordinate through the oxygen's of the carboxyl group. The molar ratio chelation is 1:2 (M2+-dic) with general formula [M(dic)2(H2O)2]ṡnH2O. Antibacterial screening of the alkaline earth metal complexes against Escherichia coli (Gram - ve), Bacillus subtilis (Gram + ve) and anti-fungal (Asperagillus oryzae, Asperagillus niger, Asperagillus flavus) were investigated. The kidney functions in male albino rats were ameliorated upon treatment with metal complexes of dic, which are represented by decreasing the levels of urea and uric acid to be located within normal values. The other looks bright spot in this article is the assessment of antioxidant defense system including SOD, CAT and MDA with the help of Sr2+, Mg2+ and Ca2+-dic complexes. The hormones related to kidney functions and stresses have been greatly ameliorated in groups treated with dic complexes in comparable with dic treated group.

  17. Effect of lysyl oxidase inhibition on angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension, remodeling, and stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance S Eberson

    Full Text Available It is well accepted that angiotensin II (Ang II induces altered vascular stiffness through responses including both structural and material remodeling. Concurrent with remodeling is the induction of the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX through which ECM proteins are cross-linked. The study objective was to determine the effect of LOX mediated cross-linking on vascular mechanical properties. Three-month old mice were chronically treated with Ang II with or without the LOX blocker, β -aminopropionitrile (BAPN, for 14 days. Pulse wave velocity (PWV from Doppler measurements of the aortic flow wave was used to quantify in vivo vascular stiffness in terms of an effective Young's modulus. The increase in effective Young's modulus with Ang II administration was abolished with the addition of BAPN, suggesting that the material properties are a major controlling element in vascular stiffness. BAPN inhibited the Ang II induced collagen cross-link formation by 2-fold and PWV by 44% (P<0.05. Consistent with this observation, morphometric analysis showed that BAPN did not affect the Ang II mediated increase in medial thickness but significantly reduced the adventitial thickness. Since the hypertensive state contributes to the measured in vivo PWV stiffness, we removed the Ang II infusion pumps on Day 14 and achieved normal arterial blood pressures. With pump removal we observed a decrease of the PWV in the Ang II group to 25% above that of the control values (P=0.002, with a complete return to control values in the Ang II plus BAPN group. In conclusion, we have shown that the increase in vascular stiffness with 14 day Ang II administration results from a combination of hypertension-induced wall strain, adventitial wall thickening and Ang II mediated LOX ECM cross-linking, which is a major material source of vascular stiffening, and that the increased PWV was significantly inhibited with co-administration of BAPN.

  18. A Comprehensive Entomological, Serological and Molecular Study of 2013 Dengue Outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehangir Khan

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan.Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500 of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools.The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum. The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth. About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%, tires (20% & 18% and discarded containers (10% & 6%. Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26% by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%. The maximum infection was observed in the age group of 45 (25% years and was more in males (55.3% as compare to females (44.7%. The

  19. Mishal: A Case Study of a Deradicalization and Emancipation Program in SWAT Valley, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Azam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nestled in the SWAT valley lies Pakistan’s earliest known deradicalization initiative for former militants, the Mishal Deradicalization and Emancipation Program (DREP. The Deradicalization program was launched following a military operation in 2009 against the Pakistan wing of the Taliban, namely, the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP. The program aimed to deradicalize and rehabilitate arrested militants, with what officials claim is a 99 percent success rate and with more than 2,500 former Taliban fighters now ‘reformed’. The program abides by a ‘no blood on hand’ policy, whereby it only takes in militants who have not caused any bodily harm to others. In this paper, we analyze the deradicalization program and highlight the limits and challenges it faces. The paper also highlights the common individual and environmental factors among the beneficiary population of the deradicalization program. This study finds that most participants of the program belonged to large or broken families with weak socio-economic profiles. Additionally, these individuals had very little technical knowledge of religion. This study also finds that the program is more oriented towards re-integration rather than deradicalization due to its policy of inducting only low and mid-level cadre militants. The program also has other severe limitations including lack of credible religious scholars, limited financial and human resources.

  20. Economically and ecologically important plant communities in high altitude coniferous forest of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Al Yemeni, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    A study on the economically important plant communities was carried out during summer 2008 in various parts of Malam Jabba valley, Swat. The principal aim of the study was phytosociological evaluation with special reference to the occurrence of commercially important medicinal plant species in coniferous forest of the study area. Secondly to prepare ethnobotanical inventory of the plant resources of the area, as well as to evaluate the conservation status of important medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) through rapid vulnerable assessment (RVA) procedure. The study documented 90 species of ethnobotanical importance, out of these 71 spp used as medicinal plant, 20 spp fodder plant, 10 spp vegetables, 14 spp wild fruit, 18 spp fuel wood, 9 spp furniture and agricultural tools, 9 spp thatching, fencing and hedges, 4 spp honey bee, 2 spp evil eyes, 2 spp religious and 3 spp as poison. Phytosociologically six plant communities were found, comprising five herbs-shrubs-trees communities and one meadow community. Further study is, therefore, required to quantify the availability of species and to suggest suitable method for their production and conservation. Recommendations are also given in the spheres of training in identification, sustainable collection, value addition, trade monitoring and cooperative system of marketing.

  1. Sediment trapping analysis of flood control reservoirs in Upstream Ciliwung River using SWAT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiq Ginanjar, Mirwan; Putra, Santosa Sandy

    2017-06-01

    The plans of Sukamahi dam and Ciawi dam construction for Jakarta flood risk reduction purpose had been proposed as feasible solutions to be implemented. However, the risk of the dam outlets clogging, caused by the sediment, is important to be anticipated. The prediction of the max sediment concentration in the reservoir is crucial for the dam operation planning. It is important to avoid the flood outlet tunnel clogging. This paper present a hydrologic sediment budget model of The Upstream Ciliwung River Basin, with flood control dam existence scenarios. The model was constructed within SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tools) plugin and run inside the QGIS framework. The free hydrological data from CFSR, soil data from FAO, and topographical data from CGIAR-CSI were implemented as the model input. The model resulted the sediment concentration dynamics of the Sukamahi and Ciawi reservoirs, on some suspended sediment parameter ranges. The sediment trapping efficiency was also computed by different possible dam capacity alternatives. The research findings will give a scientific decision making base for the river authority, in term of flood control dam planning, especially in The Upstream Ciliwung River Basin.

  2. Melanotan-II: Investigation of the inducer and facilitator effects on penile erection in anaesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, F; Clément, P; Droupy, S; Alexandre, L; Bernabé, J

    2006-01-01

    The effects of melanotan-II, a non-specific agonist of melanocortin receptors, on erection and its possible sites of action were investigated in anesthetized rats. Delivered i.v. (0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg) or within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (0.1 and 1 microg), melanotan-II exerted a dose-dependent inducer activity on erection by eliciting erectile events and shortening latency of the first erectile event to occur. Erectile events were of higher amplitude in rats treated with melanotan-II i.t. (0.2 microg) delivered at the L6-S1 level than in animals treated with the vehicle i.t. delivered. Erectile responses elicited by cavernous nerve stimulation were increased after i.v. melanotan-II (1 mg/kg), thereby exerting facilitator effect on erection. In contrast, melanotan-II injected within the corpus cavernosum (1 microg) did not display any facilitator activity. To investigate the neural pathways involved in the facilitator effect of melanotan-II, we performed acute spinalization (T8 level) and differential selective nerve transections. Neither spinalization nor bilateral transection of pelvic nerves or dorsal penile nerves impaired facilitator activity of i.v. melanotan-II (1 mg/kg). Conversely, the facilitator effect of melanotan-II was abolished after acute removal of the lumbar paravertebral sympathetic chain. These results lead to the conclusion that central and peripheral melanocortin pathways are recruited by melanotan-II, depending on its route of delivery, to exert both inducer and facilitator activities on erection.

  3. The Effect of World War II on Women in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anne M.

    The field of engineering has been one of the most difficult for women to enter. Even with an increase in the proportion of women in the engineering workforce from 0.3% before the 1970s to 9.5% in 1999, women are still seriously underrepresented. This article examines the history of women in engineering in the United States during World War II. Women were actively recruited as engineering aides by the federal government, which saw them as a temporary substitute for men who were in the military. Yet this crisis did not break down the barriers to and prejudices against women in engineering, nor did it give them a real opportunity to become professional engineers equal to men. After the war, calls for a return to normalcy were used to reestablish social norms, which kept women at home and reserved desirable places in the workforce, including in engineering, for men.

  4. Plant species and communities assessment in interaction with edaphic and topographic factors; an ecological study of the mount Eelum District Swat, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current analyses of vegetation were aimed to study the different effects of environmental variables and plant species and communities interaction to these variables, identified threats to local vegetation and suggestion for remedial measures in the Mount Eelum, Swat, Pakistan. For assessment of environmental variability quantitative ecological techniques were used through quadrats having sizes of 2 × 2, 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 m2 for herbs, shrubs and trees respectively. Result of the present study revealed 124 plant species in the study area. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was used to analyze the ecological gradient of vegetation. The environmental data and species abundance were used in CANOCO software version 4.5. The presence absence data of plant species were elaborated with Cluster and Two Way Cluster Analysis techniques using PC-ORD version 5 to show different species composition that resulted in five plant communities. Findings indicate that elevation, aspect and soil texture are the strongest variables that have significant effect on species composition and distribution of various communities shown with P value 0.0500. It is recommended to protect and use sensibly whole of the Flora normally and rare species particularly in the region.

  5. Dimensions of Public Library Effectiveness II: Library Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van House, Nancy A.; Childers, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Public Library Effectiveness Study (PLES), which was designed to apply models and methods of organizational effectiveness research to public libraries. Indicators of public library effectiveness are described, factor analysis results are presented, implications for evaluating library performance are discussed, and further research is…

  6. Effect of Cement Asphalt Mortar Debonding on Dynamic Properties of CRTS II Slab Ballastless Track

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Hao Xu; Rong Chen

    2014-01-01

    The debonding of cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar) is one of the main damage types in China railway track system II slab ballastless track. In order to analyze the influence of mortar debonding on the dynamic properties of CRTS II slab ballastless track, a vertical coupling vibration model for a vehicle-track-subgrade system was established on the base of wheel/rail coupling dynamics theory. The effects of different debonding lengths on dynamic response of vehicle and track system...

  7. Effects of Urotensin II and Its Specific Receptor Antagonist Urantide on Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of urantide, a receptor antagonist of urotensin II (U-II, on the expression of U-II and its receptor GPR14 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Vascular smooth muscle cells from rat thoracic aorta were cultured by explant method. Subjects in this experiment were divided into eight groups: normal control group (group C, U-II group (group M, positive control group (Flu group and urantide-treated groups (10-10, 10-9, 10-8, 10-7 and 10-6 mol/L. Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro were studied by immunocytochemistry, biochemistry, and flow cytometry. U-II (10-8 mol/L promoted the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells at each time point, influenced cell cycle, increased proliferation index and S-phase cell fraction, and dramatically promoted the expression of U-II and GPR14. In the concentration range from 10-10 to 10-6 mol/L, urantide dramatically inhibited the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and the protein expression of U-II and GPR14, especially at a concentration of 10-6 mol/L. U-II, binding with its receptor GPR14, promotes vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration, which can be inhibited by urantide. This study provides an evidence for understanding the effects of U-II and its receptor GPR14 on vascular smooth muscle cells.

  8. On the connection between mode II and mode III effective thresholds in metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vojtek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available . Closure-free long cracks under the remote mode III loading grow in a more complicated way than those under the remote mode II. For bcc metals, a coplanar in-plane spreading of tongues driven by the local mode II loading components at crack-front asperities prevails while twisting of crack-front segments to mode I, often leading to factory-roof morphology, is typical for other materials. In bcc metals, therefore, the formulation of a quantitative relationship connecting effective thresholds in modes II and III demands to calculate the local mode II components of stress intensity factors at typical asperities of a crack front loaded in the remote mode III. Therefore, a numerical model of a serrated crack front was created and the results were compared with experimentally determined ratio of mode II and III effective thresholds for the ARMCO iron. Although the calculated crack-front roughness needs an experimental verification, the preliminary results indicate that the model can provide a quantitative explanation of the experimentally observed ratio of mode II and mode III effective thresholds in bcc metals.

  9. The "Mozart Effect II" and Other Communication/Learning Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Victor; Selman, Ruth Corey; Selman, Jerry; Selman, Elsie

    2007-01-01

    While exploring the development of Communication and Learning Aids in all venues, particularly the effect of music on learning, several different tracks were followed. The therapeutic use of music is for relaxation and stress reduction, which apparently helps the body to access and discharge deeply locked-in material. The Mozart Effect track which…

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of confocal scan laser ophthalmoscope (HRT II) versus GDX for diagnosing glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari-Payam, Mahdi; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Moradijou, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of confocal scan laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT II) and compare it with scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) for diagnosing glaucoma. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed at two eye hospitals in Iran. The outcome was measured as the proportion of correctly diagnosed patients based on systematic review and Meta analysis. Costs were estimated at two hospitals that used the HRT II (Noor Hospital) and current diagnostic testing technology GDx (Farabi Hospital) from the perspective of the healthcare provider. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated on the base scenario. Annual average costs were estimated as 12.70 USD and 13.59 USD per HRT II and GDx test in 2012, respectively. It was assumed that 80% of the maximum feasible annual tests in a work shift would be performed using HRT II and GDx and that the glaucoma-positive (Gl+) proportion would be 56% in the referred eyes; the estimated diagnostic accuracies were 0.753 and 0.737 for GDx and HRT II, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated at USD44.18 per additional test accuracy. In a base sensitivity sampling analysis, we considered different proportions of Gl+ patients (30%-85%), one or two work shifts, and efficiency rate (60%-100%), and found that the ICER ranged from USD29.45to USD480.26, the lower and upper values in all scenarios. Based on ICER, HRT II as newer diagnostic technology is cost-effective according to the World Health Organization threshold of <1 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in Iran in 2012 (USD7228). Although GDx is more accurate and costly, the average cost-effectiveness ratio shows that HRT II provided diagnostic accuracy at a lower cost than GDx.

  11. Comparison of performance of tile drainage routines in SWAT 2009 and 2012 in an extensively tile-drained watershed in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian; Gitau, Margaret; Merwade, Venkatesh; Arnold, Jeffrey; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Hirschi, Michael; Engel, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Subsurface tile drainage systems are widely used in agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern US and enable the Midwest area to become highly productive agricultural lands, but can also create environmental problems, for example nitrate-N contamination associated with drainage waters. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been used to model watersheds with tile drainage. SWAT2012 revisions 615 and 645 provide new tile drainage routines. However, few studies have used these revisions to study tile drainage impacts at both field and watershed scales. Moreover, SWAT2012 revision 645 improved the soil moisture based curve number calculation method, which has not been fully tested. This study used long-term (1991-2003) field site and river station data from the Little Vermilion River (LVR) watershed to evaluate performance of tile drainage routines in SWAT2009 revision 528 (the old routine) and SWAT2012 revisions 615 and 645 (the new routine). Both the old and new routines provided reasonable but unsatisfactory (NSE sediment and annual corn and soybean yield results from SWAT with the old and new tile drainage routines were compared with observed values. Generally, the new routine provided acceptable simulated tile flow (NSE = 0.48-0.65) and nitrate in tile flow (NSE = 0.48-0.68) for field sites with random pattern tile and constant tile spacing, while the old routine simulated tile flow and nitrate in tile flow results for the field site with constant tile spacing were unacceptable (NSE = 0.00-0.32 and -0.29-0.06, respectively). The new modified curve number calculation method in revision 645 (NSE = 0.50-0.81) better simulated surface runoff than revision 615 (NSE = -0.11-0.49). The calibration provided reasonable parameter sets for the old and new routines in the LVR watershed, and the validation results showed that the new routine has the potential to accurately simulate hydrologic processes in mildly sloped watersheds.

  12. Long-Term Agroecosystem Research in the Central Mississippi River Basin: SWAT Simulation of Flow and Water Quality in the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffaut, Claire; John Sadler, E; Ghidey, Fessehaie; Anderson, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Starting in 1971, stream flow and climatologic data have been collected in the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed, which is part of the Central Mississippi River Basin (CMRB) Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) site. Since 1992, water quality and socio-economic data have complemented these data sets. Previous modeling efforts highlighted the challenges created by the presence of a claypan. Specific changes were introduced in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) (i) to better simulate percolation through and saturation above the claypan and (ii) to simulate the spatial and temporal distributions of the timing of field operations throughout the watershed. Our objectives were to document the changes introduced into the code, demonstrate that these changes improved simulation results, describe the model's parameterization, calibration, and validation, and assess atrazine [6-chloro--ethyl-'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] management practices in the hydrologic context of claypan soils. Model calibration was achieved for 1993 to 2010 at a daily time step for flow and at a monthly time step for water quality constituents. The new percolation routines ensured correct balance between surface runoff and groundwater. The temporal heterogeneity of atrazine application ensured the correct frequency of daily atrazine loads. Atrazine incorporation by field cultivation resulted in a 17% simulated reduction in atrazine load without a significant increase in sediment yields. Reduced atrazine rates produced proportional reductions in simulated atrazine transport. The model can be used to estimate the impact of other drivers, e.g., changing aspects of climate, land use, cropping systems, tillage, or management practices, in this context. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Analysis of the spatial variation in the parameters of the SWAT model with application in Flanders, Northern Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heuvelmans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational applications of a hydrological model often require the prediction of stream flow in (future time periods without stream flow observations or in ungauged catchments. Data for a case-specific optimisation of model parameters are not available for such applications, so parameters have to be derived from other catchments or time periods. It has been demonstrated that for applications of the SWAT in Northern Belgium, temporal transfers of the parameters have less influence than spatial transfers on the performance of the model. This study examines the spatial variation in parameter optima in more detail. The aim was to delineate zones wherein model parameters can be transferred without a significant loss of model performance. SWAT was calibrated for 25 catchments that are part of eight larger sub-basins of the Scheldt river basin. Two approaches are discussed for grouping these units in zones with a uniform set of parameters: a single parameter approach considering each parameter separately and a parameter set approach evaluating the parameterisation as a whole. For every catchment, the SWAT model was run with the local parameter optima, with the average parameter values for the entire study region (Flanders, with the zones delineated with the single parameter approach and with the zones obtained by the parameter set approach. Comparison of the model performances of these four parameterisation strategies indicates that both the single parameter and the parameter set zones lead to stream flow predictions that are more accurate than if the entire study region were treated as one single zone. On the other hand, the use of zonal average parameter values results in a considerably worse model fit compared to local parameter optima. Clustering of parameter sets gives a more accurate result than the single parameter approach and is, therefore, the preferred technique for use in the parameterisation of ungauged sub-catchments as part of the

  14. Improving SWAT model performance in the upper Blue Nile Basin using meteorological data integration and subcatchment discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Erwin Isaac; Fleifle, Amr; Ludwig, Ralf; Disse, Markus

    2017-09-01

    The Blue Nile Basin is confronted by land degradation problems, insufficient agricultural production, and a limited number of developed energy sources. Hydrological models provide useful tools to better understand such complex systems and improve water resources and land management practices. In this study, SWAT was used to model the hydrological processes in the upper Blue Nile Basin. Comparisons between a Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and a conventional ground weather dataset were done under two sub-basin discretization levels (30 and 87 sub-basins) to create an integrated dataset to improve the spatial and temporal limitations of both datasets. A SWAT error index (SEI) was also proposed to compare the reliability of the models under different discretization levels and weather datasets. This index offers an assessment of the model quality based on precipitation and evapotranspiration. SEI demonstrates to be a reliable additional and useful method to measure the level of error of SWAT. The results showed the discrepancies of using different weather datasets with different sub-basin discretization levels. Datasets under 30 sub-basins achieved Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) values of -0.51, 0.74, and 0.84; p factors of 0.53, 0.66, and 0.70; and r factors of 1.11, 0.83, and 0.67 for the CFSR, ground, and integrated datasets, respectively. Meanwhile, models under 87 sub-basins achieved NS values of -1.54, 0.43, and 0.80; p factors of 0.36, 0.67, and 0.77; r factors of 0.93, 0.68, and 0.54 for the CFSR, ground, and integrated datasets, respectively. Based on the obtained statistical results, the integrated dataset provides a better model of the upper Blue Nile Basin.

  15. Antiproliferative effect of novel platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes on hepatic tumor stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklášová, Natalia; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Lönnecke, Peter; Tomuleasa, Ciprian Ionuţ; Virag, Piroska; Schrepler, Maria Perde; Mikláš, Roman; Dumitrescu, Luminiţa Silaghi; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2012-03-01

    Novel platinum and palladium complexes with (2-isopropoxyphenyl)dicyclohexylarsine and (2-methoxyphenyl)dicyclohexylarsine ligands were synthesized and tested on different tumor cells. Adducts with general formula MX(2)L(2) (M = Pt(II), Pd(II); X = Cl or I; L = organoarsenic ligand) were fully characterized. According to the crystallographic data, in all complexes the organoarsenic ligands coordinate the metal center through the arsenic atom only, in a trans arrangement with the halogen atoms. The antiproliferative potential of complexes 1-4 was evaluated in vitro on human tumor cell lines. A markedly biological activity was observed against the chemoresistant hepatic tumor stem cell line, the normal hepatic stem cells and towards the hepatocellular carcinoma (non-stem) cells. The new compounds toxicity is selectively limited in normal liver cells, unlikeness with the oxaliplatin, which displays a more intense effect in normal cells, compared with the two tumor cell lines. The stem cells treatment with compounds 1-4 causes DNA damages; the antimitotic effect of these compounds is based on their genotoxicity and on the capacity to form crosslinks with the DNA interstrand. In the case of platinum complexes 1 and 3 this mechanism gives rise to specific lesions on DNA that induces apoptosis in stem cells, influencing their selectivity in tumor cell growth inhibition. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 display higher activity against tumor stem cells. The novel platinum complexes 1 and 3 are more efficient against tumor stem cells than oxaliplatin, and if used in combination with sorafenib-based monoclonal anticancer therapy, complexes 1, 3 and 4 have the ability to induce superior chemosensitivity relative to sorafenib than the standard platinum-based drug, making them promising candidates for prodrug development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibitory effects of benzyl benzoate and its derivatives on angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Osamu; Ye, Mao; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga; Mura, Emi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Ichino, Takao; Yamada, Kaoru; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Ishida, Junji; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Daisuke

    2008-08-15

    Hypertension is a lifestyle-related disease which often leads to serious conditions such as heart disease and cerebral hemorrhage. Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in regulating cardiovascular homeostasis. Consequently, antagonists that block the interaction of Ang II with its receptors are thought to be effective in the suppression of hypertension. In this study, we searched for plant compounds that had antagonist-like activity toward Ang II receptors. From among 435 plant samples, we found that EtOH extract from the resin of sweet gum Liquidambar styraciflua strongly inhibited Ang II signaling. We isolated benzyl benzoate and benzyl cinnamate from this extract and found that those compounds inhibited the function of Ang II in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. An in vivo study showed that benzyl benzoate significantly suppressed Ang II-induced hypertension in mice. In addition, we synthesized more than 40 derivatives of benzyl benzoate and found that the meta-methyl and 3-methylbenzyl 2'-nitrobenzoate derivatives showed about 10-fold higher activity than benzyl benzoate itself. Thus, benzyl benzoate, its derivatives, and benzyl cinnamate may be useful for reducing hypertension.

  17. Anti-proliferative effects of copper(II) complexes with hydroxyquinoline-thiosemicarbazone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogolino, Dominga; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Gatti, Anna; Tegoni, Matteo; Pelosi, Giorgio; Verdolino, Vincenzo; Fumarola, Claudia; Cretella, Daniele; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Carcelli, Mauro

    2017-03-10

    The possibility to influence the physiological concentration of copper ions through the careful choice of ligands is emerging as a novel intriguing strategy in the treatment of pathologies such as cancer and Alzheimer. Thiosemicarbazones play an important role in this field, because they offer a wide variety of potential functionalizations and different kinds of coordination modes. Here we report the synthesis of some 8-hydroxyquinoline thiosemicarbazone ligands containing an ONN'S donor set and their Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The metal complexes were characterized in solution and in the solid state and the X-ray structure of one of the copper(II) complex is reported. The Cu(II) complexes were characterized also by means of quantum mechanical calculations. The Cu(II) complexes displayed cytostatic activity in different cancer cell models. In particular, the most active Cu(II) complex significantly inhibited cell proliferation with an IC50 value lower than 1 μM; this effect was associated with a block of the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. This Cu(II) complex induced neither the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) nor the accumulation of p53 protein, suggesting the lack of DNA damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving the reliability of clinical practice guideline appraisals: effects of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Moo-Kyung; Jo, Heuisug; Lee, You Kyoung

    2014-06-01

    The Korean translated Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (Korean AGREE II) instrument was distributed into Korean medical societies in 2011. However, inter-rater disagreement issues still exist. The Korean AGREE II scoring guide was therefore developed to reduce inter-rater differences. This study examines the effects of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide to reduce inter-rater differences. Appraisers were randomly assigned to two groups (Scoring Guide group and Non-Scoring Guide group). The Korean AGREE II instrument was provided to both groups. However, the scoring guide was offered to Scoring Guide group only. Total 14 appraisers were participated and each guideline was assessed by 8 appraisers. To evaluate the reliability of the Korean AGREE II scoring guide, correlation of scores among appraisers and domain-specific intra-class correlation (ICC) were compared. Most scores of two groups were comparable. Scoring Guide group showed higher reliability at all guidelines. They showed higher correlation among appraisers and higher ICC values at almost all domains. The scoring guide reduces the inter-rater disagreement and improves the overall reliability of the Korean-AGREE II instrument.

  19. SWAT use of gridded observations for simulating runoff – a Vietnam river basin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Vu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies that focus on basin hydrology have applied the SWAT model using station data to simulate runoff. But over regions lacking robust station data, there is a problem of applying the model to study the hydrological responses. For some countries and remote areas, the rainfall data availability might be a constraint due to many different reasons such as lacking of technology, war time and financial limitation that lead to difficulty in constructing the runoff data. To overcome such a limitation, this research study uses some of the available globally gridded high resolution precipitation datasets to simulate runoff. Five popular gridded observation precipitation datasets: (1 Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE, (2 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, (3 Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN, (4 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, (5 a modified version of Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN2 and one reanalysis dataset, National Centers for Environment Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR are used to simulate runoff over the Dak Bla river (a small tributary of the Mekong River in Vietnam. Wherever possible, available station data are also used for comparison. Bilinear interpolation of these gridded datasets is used to input the precipitation data at the closest grid points to the station locations. Sensitivity Analysis and Auto-calibration are performed for the SWAT model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE and Coefficient of Determination (R2 indices are used to benchmark the model performance. Results indicate that the APHRODITE dataset performed very well on a daily scale simulation of discharge having a good NSE of 0.54 and R2 of 0.55, when compared to the discharge simulation using station data (0

  20. Dual effectiveness of Alternaria but not Fusarium mycotoxins against human topoisomerase II and bacterial gyrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarolim, Katharina; Del Favero, Giorgia; Ellmer, Doris; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Sulyok, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Marko, Doris

    2017-04-01

    Type II DNA-topoisomerases (topo II) play a crucial role in the maintenance of DNA topology. Previously, fungi of the Alternaria genus were found to produce mycotoxins that target human topo II. These results implied the question why a fungus should produce secondary metabolites that target a human enzyme. In the current work, the homology between human topo II and its bacterial equivalent, gyrase, served as basis to study a potential dual inhibition of both enzymes by mycotoxins. A total of 15 secondary metabolites produced by fungi of the genera Alternaria and Fusarium were assessed for their impact on topo II of human and bacterial origin in the decatenation and the supercoiling assay, respectively. In line with the theory of dual topo II inhibition, six of the tested Alternaria mycotoxins were active against both enzymes, the dibenzo-α-pyrones alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), as well as the perylene-quinones altertoxin I (ATX I) and II (ATX II), alterperylenol (ALP) and stemphyltoxin III (STTX III). The Alternaria metabolites altersetin (ALN), macrosporin (MAC), altenusine (ALS) and pyrenophorol (PYR) impaired the function of human topo II, but did not show any effect on gyrase. The potency to inhibit topo II activity declined in the row STTX III (initial inhibitory concentration 10 µM) > AOH (25 µM) = AME (25 µM) = ALS (25 µM) = ATX II (25 µM) > ALN (50 µM) = ATX I (50 µM) > ALP (75 µM) = PYR (75 µM) > MAC (150 µM). Inhibition of gyrase activity was most pronounced for AOH and AME (initial inhibitory concentration 10 µM) followed by ATX II (25 µM) > ATX I = ALP = STTX III (50 µM). In contrast, none of the investigated Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1, fusarin C and moniliformin, as well as the Alternaria metabolite tentoxin, had any impact on the activity of neither human nor bacterial topo II.

  1. Experimental murine amyloidosis II: effect of penicillamine therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, A; Hinton, C.; Tribe, C R

    1980-01-01

    D-penicillamine was used in 2 different doses to treat experimental amyloidosis in mice. No beneficial effect, as measured by duration of survival or amount of amyloid in the liver, could be demonstrated.

  2. Community Participation, Dengue Fever Prevention and Control Practices in Swat, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Abdul; Ullah, Asad; Shah, Mussawar; Mussawar, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of community participation in prevention of dengue fever in The Swat district located in the Northern area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, which experienced a dengue fever outbreak in August, 2013. A total number of 8,963 dengue cases with 0.4% case fatality ratio were registered during the outbreak. A sample size of 354 respondents were proportionally allocated to each residential colony and then randomly selected. The association of independent variable (Community participation) and dependent variable (practices for control) were tested by using Chi Square test. Results regarding perception of practices for dengue control with community participation showed that: practices for control had significant association with organization of people to eradicate dengue mosquitoes (p=0.00), community leaders (p=0.04), community efforts (p≤0.01), use of insecticides by community people (p=0.00) and involvement of community people in awareness campaign (p=0.00). Similarly, significant associations were found between practices for control and community shared information during dengue outbreak (p=0.00), community link with health department, NGO, Other agencies (p=0.02). We conclude that the spread of dengue epidemic was aided by the ignorance, laziness of the community people and government agencies. However, the people, religious scholars, leaders and government agencies were not organized to participate in dengue prevention and eradication, hence, the chances of dengue infection increased in community. The study recommends mobilizing local communities and activating local leadership with active participation of Government and non-government organizations for initiation of preventive strategies.

  3. Effectiveness of urban shelter-in-place—II: Residential districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    In the event of a short-term, large-scale toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) may be used as an emergency response to protect public health. We modeled hypothetical releases using realistic, empirical parameters to explore how key factors influence SIP effectiveness for single-family dwellings in a residential district. Four classes of factors were evaluated in this case study: (a) time scales associated with release duration, SIP implementation delay, and SIP termination; (b) building air-exchange rates, including air infiltration and ventilation; (c) the degree of sorption of toxic chemicals to indoor surfaces; and (d) the shape of the dose-response relationship for acute adverse health effects. Houses with lower air leakage are more effective shelters, and thus variability in the air leakage of dwellings is associated with varying degrees of SIP protection in a community. Sorption on indoor surfaces improves SIP effectiveness by lowering the peak indoor concentrations and reducing the amount of contamination in the indoor air. Nonlinear dose-response relationships imply substantial reduction in adverse health effects from lowering the peak exposure concentration. However, if the scenario is unfavorable for indefinite sheltering (e.g. sheltering in leaky houses for protection against a nonsorbing chemical with a linear dose-response), the community must implement SIP without delay and exit from shelter when it first becomes safe to do so. Otherwise, the community can be subjected to even greater risk than if they did not take shelter indoors.

  4. Effects of nano-copper(II) oxide and nanomagnesium oxide particles on activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Wang, Jianmin

    2012-07-01

    Effects of nano-copper(II) oxide (nano-CuO) and nanomagnesium oxide (nano-MgO) particles on activated sludge endogenous respiration (aerobic digestion), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biodegradation, and nitrification were investigated through respiration rate measurement. For comparison, the effects of Cu(II) and Mg(II) ions on activated sludge were also studied. Results indicated that soluble Cu(II) has half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 19, 5.5, 53, and 117 mg Cu/L for endogenous respiration, BOD biodegradation, ammonium oxidation, and nitrite oxidation, respectively. However, nano-CuO only inhibited BOD biodegradation at 240 mg Cu/L or more, and its associated toxicity was primarily caused by soluble Cu(II). In contrast, soluble Mg(II) was not toxic to activated sludge in the experimental concentration range, but nano-MgO inhibited BOD biodegradation and nitrification with IC50 values of 70 and 143 mg Mg/L, respectively. Further study indicated that the toxicity of nano-MgO resulted primarily from increased pH following MgO hydrolysis.

  5. Training Effectiveness Assessment. Volume II. Problems, Concepts, and Evaluation Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    revisions . Evalua tion design must be based on satisfaction of particular information needs . To determine training effectiveness , the information needed...may not be able to comunicate accuratel y enouoh to 28 — — -----——- ——----. --~~~~— --‘ e- ’---.- .a

  6. Size effects in ductile cellular solids. Part II : experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, E.W.; Gioux, G.; Onck, P.; Gibson, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of metallic foams in a variety of applications, including lightweight structural sandwich panels and energy absorption devices. In such applications, the mechanical response of the foams is of critical importance. In this study, we have investigated the effect

  7. Fertilization of Earth Ponds. II: Effects on Plankton Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the effects of slurry inorganic and organic of fertilizers on the production of phyto-and zooplankton in earth ponds was conducted in Central Scotland, U.K. over a period of one year. For the inorganic fertilization, replicate ponds were treated with low and high phosphorus (LP, HP), high phosphorus and nitrogen ...

  8. The effects of psyllium on lipoproteins in type II diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, G; Reitano, R; Barison, A; Magnanini, P; Cosma, C; Burlina, S; Manzato, E; Fedele, D; Lapolla, A

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of 2 months of psyllium treatment in optimizing metabolic control and lipoprotein profile, and its postprandial effects on lipids in type II diabetes. We recruited 40 type II diabetic patients who were on sulfonylureas and a controlled diet, sequentially assigning them to psyllium treatment (G1) or to a control group (G2) treated with dietary measures alone. After 2 months of treatment, body mass index, waist circumference, HbA1c (hemoglobin A1c) and fasting plasma glucose levels had significantly decreased in both groups. There were no postprandial differences in the lipoprotein profile between the two groups. Triglycerides were significantly lower in G1, but not in G2. Our study contributes toward elucidating the effects of psyllium on serum lipids, and suggests that psyllium treatment may help in reducing triglycerides (a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease) in type II diabetic patients.

  9. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    against the tumour bed) with a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and....../or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate...... their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic....

  10. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies. Part II: Empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    2003-01-01

    in the concentration of fellow countrymen and decreasing in the regional unemployment rate, the size of the local population and the percentage of immigrants in the local population. The two latter findings support dispersal policies. The two former findings emphasize that refugees should be dispersed in big clusters......How do dispersal policies affect labour market integration of refugee immigrants subjected to such policy? To investigate this, we estimate the effects of location characteristics and the average effect of geographical mobility on the hazard rate into first job of refugee immigrants subjected...... to the Danish Dispersal Policy 1986-1998. We correct for selection into relocation to another municipality by joint estimation of the duration of the first non-employment spell and time until relocation. The main estimation results are as follows: First, the hazard rate into first job is increasing...

  11. Effects of a moderate evening alcohol dose. II: performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Tracy L; Acebo, Christine; Seifer, Ronald; Carskadon, Mary A

    2007-08-01

    This second of a pair of papers investigates the effects of a moderate dose of alcohol and staying up late on driving simulation performance and simple visual reaction time (RT) at a known circadian phase in well-rested young adults. Twenty-nine adults (9 males), ages 21 to 25 years, spent 1 week on an at-home stabilization schedule of 8.5 to 9 hours, followed by 3 nonconsecutive nights in-lab: adaptation, placebo, and alcohol. Performance task practice occurred on 3 occasions before the study. Alcohol (vodka; 0.54 g/kg men; 0.49 g/kg women mixed with tonic) was consumed over 30 minutes ending 1 hour before normal bedtime; the same quantity of beverage was given on placebo. Driving simulation (with drive-only and dual-task drive and subtract components) and psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) testing occurred before and after alcohol/placebo ingestion. Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) readings were taken before all test sessions. Saliva samples were taken approximately every 30 minutes to determine circadian phase. Driving simulation and PVT variables significantly deteriorated with increasing time awake. Driving simulator lane variability was worse with alcohol compared with placebo at 15.5 hours awake. No PVT variable showed an effect of alcohol. Driving simulation performance deteriorated with extended waking and with alcohol; driving was most impaired at the peak alcohol level. The PVT, less complex than the driving simulation, did not show effects of alcohol, a finding consistent with previous literature that disruptive effects of low alcohol concentrations increase with task complexity. Overall, simulated driving performance is significantly impaired late at night when even a moderate dose of alcohol is consumed.

  12. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume II, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    unclassified ~ .~~~I4 I~~I~O Security CIas,iac.tioft A - 1140S BiOLOGiCA L. EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION A Digest of Current Lite rature and a... arma , il. M . (Em — The control was heated to the same temperature. Environ. F.ng. Sci., Howard Univ., Washington , B. C.) Both samples were then

  13. Aplicación del modelo hidrológico-swat-en una microcuenca agrícola de La Pampa ondulada Application of the hydrologic model - swat - on a micro agricultural basin of the rolling Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Behrends Kraemer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El modelado hidrológico es a menudo el primer paso en el desarrollo de sistemas de decisión espacial para identificaráreas vulnerables a la contaminación por nutrientes, pesticidas así como también a contaminantes biológicos. En este sentido el SWAT (Soil and Water Assesment Tool fue desarrollado para predecir impactos de las prácticas de manejo de las tierras en las aguas, sedimentos y agroquímicos en cuencas hidrográficas con diferentes suelos, usos y prácticas en largos períodos de tiempo. Aunque el mismo está siendo aplicado en todo el mundo, todavía no esta difundido su uso en la Argentina, no encontrándose al momento reportes al respecto. Este modelo se utilizó en una microcuenca agrícola de la Pampa Ondulada (Argentina y fue calibrado y validado utilizando los valores de escurrimientos medidos in situ. Se encontraron buenas eficiencias a escala diaria (R²: 0,55; R² ENS: 0,52 y pobres a escala mensual (R²: 0,34; R² ENS: 0,04. En la calibración, los escurrimientos fueron sobreestimados en un 31,8% y 32,6% para la escala mensual y diaria respectivamente, mientras que en la validación se sobreestimó un 42,5% para los valores mensuales y un 41,2% para los diarios. La aplicación del SWAT en esta microcuenca agrícola resultó auspiciosa y conduce a la inclusión de dicho modelo en futuros trabajos.A hydrological model is often the first step for the development of spatial decision systems in order to identify vulnerable areas to the pollution by nutrients, pesticides as well as biological contaminants. The SWAT model was developed to predict the impact of land management on water, agrochemicals and sediments in hydrographical basins with different soils, land uses and practices for long time periods. This model is being used all over the world but it has not been applied in Argentina until present. The SWAT model was used in an agricultural microbasin in the Rolling Pampa (Argentina and was calibrated and validated

  14. Orbital analysis of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II laser ranged satellites: relativistic effects and geophysical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Roberto

    2005-03-01

    We present here the results of a recent analysis of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II laser range data. The higher accuracy in determining the orbits of these satellites makes it possible to see very tiny relativistic effects like frame-dragging and a wide variety of other phenomena at work. In particular, it is apparent the need of better understanding some effects of non-gravitational origin. The importance of these orbital fits as a geophysical probe is also stressed with a particular example. The analysis is carried out with GEODYN II Software, whose broad structure and use is described.

  15. The effective field theory of nonsingular cosmology: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong; Li, Hai-Guang; Qiu, Taotao; Piao, Yun-Song

    2017-06-01

    Based on the effective field theory (EFT) of cosmological perturbations, we explicitly clarify the pathology in nonsingular cubic Galileon models and show how to cure it in EFT with new insights into this issue. With the least set of EFT operators that are capable to avoid instabilities in nonsingular cosmologies, we construct a nonsingular model dubbed the Genesis-inflation model, in which a slowly expanding phase (namely, Genesis) with increasing energy density is followed by slow-roll inflation. The spectrum of the primordial perturbation may be simulated numerically, which shows itself a large-scale cutoff, as the large-scale anomalies in CMB might be a hint for.

  16. The effective field theory of nonsingular cosmology: II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yong; Li, Hai-Guang [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Qiu, Taotao [Central China Normal University, Institute of Astrophysics, Wuhan (China); Piao, Yun-Song [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    Based on the effective field theory (EFT) of cosmological perturbations, we explicitly clarify the pathology in nonsingular cubic Galileon models and show how to cure it in EFT with new insights into this issue. With the least set of EFT operators that are capable to avoid instabilities in nonsingular cosmologies, we construct a nonsingular model dubbed the Genesis-inflation model, in which a slowly expanding phase (namely, Genesis) with increasing energy density is followed by slow-roll inflation. The spectrum of the primordial perturbation may be simulated numerically, which shows itself a large-scale cutoff, as the large-scale anomalies in CMB might be a hint for. (orig.)

  17. NuSTAR on-ground calibration II: Effective area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai; Christensen, Finn Erland; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2012-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) was launched in June 2012 carrying the first focusing hard X-ray (5−80keV) optics to orbit. The multilayer coating was carried out at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Space). In this article we introduce the NuSTAR multilayer reference...... database and its implementation in the NuSTAR optic response model. The database and its implementation is validated using on-ground effective area calibration data and used to estimate in-orbit performance....

  18. Morphometric analysis of treatment effects of the Balters bionator in growing Class II patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Carina Ferlin; Bigliazzi, Renato; Bertoz, Francisco Antonio; Ortolani, Cristina Lúcia Feijó; Franchi, Lorenzo; Faltin, Kurt

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effects of the standard (Class II) Balters bionator in growing patients with Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion by using morphometrics (thin-plate spline [TPS] analysis). Thirty-one Class II patients (17 male and 14 female) were treated with the Balters bionator (bionator group). Mean age at the start of treatment (T0) was 10.3 years, while it was 13 years at the end of treatment (T1). Mean treatment time was 2 years and 2 months. The control group consisted of 22 subjects (14 male and 8 female) with untreated Class II malocclusion. Mean age at T0 was 10.2 years, while it was 12.2 years at T1. The observation period lasted 2 years on average. TPS analysis evaluated statistical (permutation tests) differences in the craniofacial shape and size between the bionator and control groups. Through TPS analysis (deformation grids) the bionator group showed significant shape changes in the mandible that could be described as a mandibular forward and downward displacement. The control group showed no statistically significant differences in the correction of Class II malocclusion. Bionator appliance is able to induce significant mandibular shape changes that lead to the correction of Class II dentoskeletal disharmony.

  19. The effects of Anemonia sulcata toxin II on vertebrate skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J B; Pollard, S; Tesseraux, I

    1985-09-01

    Some effects of the sea anemone toxin, ATX-II, on vertebrate skeletal muscle have been described. At a concentration of 1 X 10(-7)-1 X 10(-6)M, ATX-II caused a sodium-dependent depolarization of the muscle fibres of the rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus, of the mouse soleus and extensor digitorum longus and of the chicken posterior latissimus dorsi. The muscle fibres of the frog sartorius were insensitive to the toxin. Action potentials generated by direct stimulation were prolonged by ATX-II, but the degree of prolongation was variable. Chicken posterior latissimus dorsi muscle fibres were most sensitive in this regard, and mouse extensor digitorum longus were least sensitive. Both denervated and immature muscle fibres were more sensitive to ATX-II than mature innervated muscle fibres. The sensitivity to ATX-II declined rapidly as muscle fibres matured. In some muscles, the prolongation of the action potential was enhanced by repetitive stimulation, but not by the passive depolarization or hyperpolarization of the muscle fibres. The actions of ATX-II could be reversed by washing in all but the innervated soleus of the mature rat.

  20. Dissipative effects in the expansion of the universe. I, II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzner, R. A.; Misner, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of dissipative processes in anisotropic homogeneous world models, showing that dissipation reduces the anisotropy. The viscosity approximation and its range of applicability is discussed. Examples are presented which have been calculated by the use of a simple approximation to the collision-time method, using the cross section appropriate to weak interaction neutrino scattering. It is found that such dissipation is quite effective except for one particular cosmological model which is axisymmetric and in which the entire expansion of the model is taken up by expansion along the axis. A detailed multicomponent model is developed for dissipative processes in Euclidean homogeneous cosmological models. These processes involve neutrinos which might have long mean free times in interaction with other constituents which are thermalized by electromagnetic interactions, and whose weak interactions produce thermal neutrinos.

  1. The morpho-agronomic characterization study of Lens culinaris germplasm under salt marsh habitat in Swat, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Rabia; Mulk Khan, Shujaul; Ahmad, Fayaz; Hussain, Murtaza; Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A; Hashem, Abeer; Aldubise, Abdullah

    2017-11-01

    The present research study evaluate and identify the most suitable and high yielding genotypes of Lens culinaris for the salt marsh habitat of Swat in moist temperate sort of agro climatic environment of Pakistan. A total of fourteen genotypes were cultivated and analyzed through Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). These genotypes were AZRC-4, NL-2, NL4, NL-5, NL-6, NARC-11-1, NARC-11-2, NARC-11-3, NARC-11-4, 09503, 09505, 09506, P.Masoor-09 and Markaz-09. Different parameters i.e., germination rate, flowering, physiological maturity, plant height, biological grain yield, seed weight, pods formation and its height, pods per plants and protein content were focused specially throughout the study. Preliminary the Lentil genotypes have significant variability in all the major morpho-agronomic traits. The days to germination, 50% flowering and 100 seed weight ranged from 7 to 9, 110 to 116 days, and from 5.4 to 7.3 gm respectively. Biological yield and grain yield ranged from 5333 to 9777 kg ha-1 and 1933 to 3655 kg ha-1 respectively. Whereas, protein contents ranged from 23.21% to 28.45%. It was concluded that the genotype AZRC-4 is better varity in terms of grain yield plus in 100 seed weight and moreover, 09506 genotype was significant under salt marsh habitat in early maturing for the Swat Valley, Pakistan.

  2. Assessment of land-use change on streamflow using GIS, remote sensing and a physically-based model, SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. G. Dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the impact of the land-use changes between the periods 1967−1974 and 1997−2008 on the streamflow of Tapacurá catchment (northeastern Brazil using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model. The results show that the most sensitive parameters were the baseflow, Manning factor, time of concentration and soil evaporation compensation factor, which affect the catchment hydrology. The model calibration and validation were performed on a monthly basis, and the streamflow simulation showed a good level of accuracy for both periods. The obtained R2 and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency values for each period were respectively 0.82 and 0.81 for 1967−1974, and 0.93 and 0.92 for the period 1997−2008. The evaluation of the SWAT model response to the land cover has shown that the mean monthly flow, during the rainy seasons for 1967−1974, decreased when compared to 1997−2008.

  3. Investigations of the Ligand Electronic Effects on α-Diimine Nickel(II Catalyzed Ethylene Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of a series of dibenzhydryl-based α-diimine Ni(II complexes bearing a range of electron-donating or -withdrawing groups are described. Polymerization with ethylene is investigated in detail, involving the activator effect, influence of polymerization conditions on catalyst activity, thermal stability, polymer molecular weight and melting point. All of these Ni(II complexes show great activity (up to 6 × 106 g of PE (mol of Ni−1·h−1, exceptional thermal stability (stable at up to 100 °C and generate polyethylene with very high molecular weight (Mn up to 1.6 × 106 and very narrow molecular weight distribution. In the dibromo Ni(II system, the electronic perturbations exhibit little variation on the ethylene polymerization. In the Ni(acac system, dramatic ligand electronic effects are observed in terms of catalytic activity and polyethylene molecular weight.

  4. EFFECT OF CADMIUM(II) ON FREE RADICALS IN DOPA-MELANIN TESTED BY EPR SPECTROSCOPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdybel, Magdalena; Pilawa, Barbara; Chodurek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy may be applied to examine interactions of melanin with metal ions and drugs. In this work EPR method was used to examination of changes in free radical system of DOPA-melanin--the model eumelanin after complexing with diamagnetic cadmium(II) ions. Cadmium(II) may affect free radicals in melanin and drugs binding by this polymer, so the knowledge of modification of properties and free radical concentration in melanin is important to pharmacy. The effect of cadmium(II) in different concentrations on free radicals in DOPA-melanin was determined. EPR spectra of DOPA-melanin, and DOPA-melanin complexes with cadmium(II) were measured by an X-band (9.3 GHz) EPR spectrometer produced by Radiopan (Poznań, Poland) and the Rapid Scan Unit from Jagmar (Krak6w, Poland). The DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) to metal ions molar ratios in the reaction mixtures were 2:1, 1:1, and 1: 2. High concentrations of o-semiquinone (g ~2.0040) free radicals (~10(21)-10(22) spin/g) characterize DOPA-melanin and its complexes with cadmium(II). Formation of melanin complexes with cadmium(II) increase free radical concentration in DOPA-melanin. The highest free radical concentration was obtained for DOPA-melanin-cadmium(II) (1:1) complexes. Broad EPR lines with linewidths: 0.37-0.73 mT, were measured. Linewidths increase after binding of cadmium(II) to melanin. Changes of integral intensities and linewidths with increasing microwave power indicate the homogeneous broadening of EPR lines, independently on the metal ion concentration. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes existed in all the tested samples, their EPR lines saturated at low microwave powers. Cadmium(II) causes fastening of spin-lattice relaxation processes in DOPA-melanin. The EPR results bring to light the effect of cadmium(II) on free radicals in melanin, and probably as the consequence on drug binding to eumelanin.

  5. The Thermal Proximity Effect: A New Probe of the He II Reionization History and Quasar Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrykin, I. S.; Hennawi, J. F.; McQuinn, M.

    2017-04-01

    Despite decades of effort, the timing and duration of He II reionization and the properties of the quasars believed to drive it are still not well constrained. We present a new method to study both via the thermal proximity effect—the heating of the intergalactic medium (IGM) around quasars when their radiation doubly ionizes helium. We post-process hydrodynamical simulations with 1D radiative transfer and study how the thermal proximity effect depends on the He II fraction, {x}{He{{II}},0}, which prevailed in the IGM before the quasar turned on, and the quasar lifetime {t}{{Q}}. We find that the amplitude of the temperature boost in the quasar environment depends on {x}{He{{II}},0}, with a characteristic value of {{Δ }}T≃ {10}4 {{K}} for {x}{He{{II}},0}=1.0, whereas the size of the thermal proximity zone is sensitive to {t}{{Q}}, with typical sizes of ≃ 100 {cMpc} for {t}{{Q}}={10}8 {yr}. This temperature boost increases the thermal broadening of H I absorption lines near the quasar. We introduce a new Bayesian statistical method based on measuring the Lyα forest power spectrum as a function of distance from the quasar, and demonstrate that the thermal proximity effect should be easily detectable. For a mock data set of 50 quasars at z≃ 4, we predict that one can measure {x}{He{{II}},0} to an (absolute) precision ≈ 0.04 and {t}{{Q}} to a precision of ≈ 0.1 dex. By applying our formalism to existing high-resolution Lyα forest spectra, one should be able to reconstruct the He II reionization history, providing a global census of hard photons in the high-z universe.

  6. Nonconventional Emulsion Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate. Effect of Cu(II)/Histidine Complex Catalyst and Different Peroxo-Salts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Sahu, Gobinda Chandra; Swain, Sarat Kumar

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of nonconventional (soap-free) aqueous emulsion polymerization reactions of methyl methacrylate were evaluated by the catalytic effect of in situ developed different transition metal (II...

  7. SWAT Model Application to Assess the Impact of Intensive Corn‐farming on Runoff, Sediments and Phosphorous loss from an Agricultural Watershed in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential future increase in corn-based biofuel may be expected to have a negative impact on water quality in streams and lakes of the Midwestern US due to increased agricultural chemicals usage. This study used the SWAT model to assess the impact of continuous-corn farming o...

  8. Assessing the efficacy of the SWAT auto-irrigation function to simulate Irrigation, evapotranspiration and crop response to irrigation management strategies of the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is widely used for simulation of hydrologic processes at various temporal and spatial scales. Less common are long-term simulation analyses of water balance components including agricultural management practices such as irrigation management. In the se...

  9. A Guideline for Successful Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis for Soil and Water Assessment: A Review of Papers from the 2016 International SWAT Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim C. Abbaspour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of integrated hydrological models to manage a watershed’s water resources are increasingly finding their way into the decision-making processes. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is a multi-process model integrating hydrology, ecology, agriculture, and water quality. SWAT is a continuation of nearly 40 years of modeling efforts conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS. A large number of SWAT-related papers have appeared in ISI journals, building a world-wide consensus around the model’s stability and usefulness. The current issue is a collection of the latest research using SWAT as the modeling tool. Most models must undergo calibration/validation and uncertainty analysis. Unfortunately, these sciences are not formal subjects of teaching in most universities and the students are often left to their own resources to calibrate their model. In this paper, we focus on calibration and uncertainty analysis highlighting some serious issues in the calibration of distributed models. A protocol for calibration is also highlighted to guide the users to obtain better modeling results. Finally, a summary of the papers published in this special issue is provided in the Appendix.

  10. Spatial multiobjective optimization of agricultural conservation practices using a SWAT model and an evolutionary algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabotyagov, Sergey; Campbell, Todd; Valcu, Adriana; Gassman, Philip; Jha, Manoj; Schilling, Keith; Wolter, Calvin; Kling, Catherine

    2012-12-09

    Finding the cost-efficient (i.e., lowest-cost) ways of targeting conservation practice investments for the achievement of specific water quality goals across the landscape is of primary importance in watershed management. Traditional economics methods of finding the lowest-cost solution in the watershed context (e.g.,(5,12,20)) assume that off-site impacts can be accurately described as a proportion of on-site pollution generated. Such approaches are unlikely to be representative of the actual pollution process in a watershed, where the impacts of polluting sources are often determined by complex biophysical processes. The use of modern physically-based, spatially distributed hydrologic simulation models allows for a greater degree of realism in terms of process representation but requires a development of a simulation-optimization framework where the model becomes an integral part of optimization. Evolutionary algorithms appear to be a particularly useful optimization tool, able to deal with the combinatorial nature of a watershed simulation-optimization problem and allowing the use of the full water quality model. Evolutionary algorithms treat a particular spatial allocation of conservation practices in a watershed as a candidate solution and utilize sets (populations) of candidate solutions iteratively applying stochastic operators of selection, recombination, and mutation to find improvements with respect to the optimization objectives. The optimization objectives in this case are to minimize nonpoint-source pollution in the watershed, simultaneously minimizing the cost of conservation practices. A recent and expanding set of research is attempting to use similar methods and integrates water quality models with broadly defined evolutionary optimization methods(3,4,9,10,13-15,17-19,22,23,25). In this application, we demonstrate a program which follows Rabotyagov et al.'s approach and integrates a modern and commonly used SWAT water quality model(7) with a

  11. LAGEOS II perigee rate and eccentricity vector excitations residuals and the Yarkovsky-Schach effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, David M.; Ciufolini, Ignazio; Andrés, José I.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Peron, Roberto; Noomen, Ron; Currie, Douglas G.

    2004-07-01

    We have analysed LAGEOS II perigee rate and eccentricity vector excitation residuals over a period of about 7.8 years, adjusting and computing the satellite orbit with the full set of dynamical models included in the GEODYN II software code. The long-term behaviour of these orbital residuals appears to be characterised by several distinct frequencies which are a clear signature of the Yarkovsky-Schach perturbing effect. This non-gravitational perturbation is not included in the GEODYN II models for the orbit determination and analysis. Through an independent numerical analysis, and using the new LOSSAM model to represent the spin-axis behaviour of the satellite, we propagated the Yarkovsky-Schach effect on LAGEOS II perigee rate and compared the results obtained with the orbital residuals. We have thus been able to satisfactorily fit the amplitude of the Yarkovsky-Schach effect to the observed residuals. Our approach here has proven very successful with very positive results. We have been able to obtain a fractional reduction of about 40% of the post-fit rms with respect to the pre-fit value. When analysing the eccentricity vector residuals, we have been able to obtain a better result in the case of the real component, with a fractional reduction of the post-fit rms of about 49% of the initial value. The analysis of the effect's imaginary component in the eccentricity vector rate is more complicated and deserves additional scrutiny. In this case we need a deeper study which includes the analysis of other unmodelled and mismodelled effects acting on the imaginary component. The study performed in this paper will be of significant relevance not only for the geophysical applications involving LAGEOS II orbit analysis, but also for a refined re-analysis of the general relativistic precession produced by the Earth angular momentum, i.e., the Lense-Thirring effect.

  12. Effects of Jigsaw II Technique on Academic Achievement and Attitudes to Written Expression Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of a cooperative technique Jigsaw II (experimental group, n=42) and instructional teacher-centered teaching method (control group, n=38) on Turkish language teacher education department students' attitudes to written expression course (a course in which writing skills were taught), their academic achievement,…

  13. Neuroprotective Effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-II on 1- Methyl-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the receptor-mediated neuroprotective effect of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGFII) on 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP) induced oxidative damage in adult cortical neuronal cultures. Methods: Adult rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Cortical neurons were prepared from rats. The cells were ...

  14. Effects of traditional Chinese medicine on rats with Type II diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine metabolic changes in a rat model of type II diabetes and explore mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in this model. 120 rats were divided into four groups, including a control group, a high-fat diet group (high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection), a TCM ...

  15. Hall effects on hydromagnetic Couette flow of Class-II in a rotating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hall effects on steady hydromagnetic Couette flow of class-II of a viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid with non-conducting walls in a rotating system in the presence of an inclined magnetic field is investigated. Exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in closed form. Expressions for the shear ...

  16. Effect of participation in the Fadama–II project on Participants' socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general objective of the study was to investigate the effects of Fadama – II project on socio-economic impact of Fadama users in Ibarapa North Local Government Area of Oyo State. One hundred and ten respondents were randomly selected from participating communities. The data collected through a validated and ...

  17. Effect of Astragaloside II combined with 5-fluorouracil treatment on liver cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Qing Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of astragaloside II combined with 5-fluorouracil treatment on liver cell proliferation and analyze the specific molecular mechanisms. Methods: Liver cancer cell lines HepG2 were cultured, cells of logphase growth were collected and treated with different conditions, blank control group were treated with DMEM without serum, 5-Fu treatment group were treated with 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μmol/L 5-Fu, and 5-Fu combined with astragaloside II treatment group were treated with 10 μmol/L 5-Fu combined with 20, 40 and 80 μmol/L astragaloside II. 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, MTS kit was used to determine the cell viability; 24 h after treatment, ELISA kit was used to determine the content of apoptosis protein in cells. Results: Compared with blank control group, 5-Fu treatment could reduce the survival rate of liver cancer cells in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner; compared with 10 μmol/L 5-Fu single drug treatment group, 10 μmol/L 5-Fu combined with astragaloside II treatment could reduce the survival rate of liver cancer cells in time-dependent and dosedependent manner; Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 expression levels after 10 μmol/L 5-Fu treatment were significantly higher than those of blank control group, and Fas, FasL, Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 expression levels after 10 μmol/L 5-Fu combined with 40 μmol/L astragaloside II treatment were significantly higher than those of 10 μmol/L 5-Fu treatment group. Conclusions: Astragaloside II combined with 5-fluorouracil treatment can enhance the inhibitory effect of 5-fluorouracil on liver cancer cell proliferation, and the apoptosis proteins mediating the effect are Fas/FasL and Bax.

  18. The protective effect of picroside II against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Ji; Hou, Zhi-Wen; Li, Yang; Yang, Ying; Yu, Bo

    2012-10-01

    Picroside II, an iridoid glucoside found in the root of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell (Scrophulariaceae), has been demonstrated to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, whether picroside II has a protective effect against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte injury is poorly understood. To explore the cardioprotective role of picroside II against oxidative stress induced by H/R injury in neonatal rat cardiacmyocytes. The viability and cellular damage of cardiomyocytes were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolim bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), the levels of reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by a colorimetric method. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. We analyzed the effective half-maximal concentration for protection from the dose-response curves and obtained the concentration of 50 µg/mL as EC(50). Pretreated cardiomyocytes with picroside II (50-200 µg/mL), prior to H/R exposure, inhibited LDH activity in culture media and increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. This protective effect was accompanied by significantly increasing reduced GSH contents and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px and attenuating MDA and GSSG contents in response to H/R injury. Furthermore, treatment with picroside II also inhibited ROS production and calcium accumulation in cardiomyocytes. The present study demonstrates that picroside II protects cardiomyocytes against oxidative-stress injury induced by H/R through reduction of ROS production and calcium accumulation and enhancement of the activity of antioxidant defense.

  19. Effects of fulvic acid on Fe(II) oxidation by hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, B.M.; Sulzberger, B. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG), Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    1996-04-01

    Iron redox cycling can catalyze the oxidation of humic substances and increase the rate of oxygen consumption in surface waters rich in iron and organic carbon. This study examines the role of Fenton`s reaction [oxidation of Fe(II) by hydrogen peroxide] in this catalytic cycle. A number of competing processes were observed in model systems containing dissolved Fe, hydrogen peroxide, and Suwannee River fulvic acid. First, the effective rate constant of Fenton`s reaction increased with increasing fulvic acid concentration, indicating the formation Fe(II)-fulvate complexes that react more rapidly with hydrogen peroxide than Fe(II)-aquo complexes. This effect was significant at pH 5 but negligible at pH 3. A second effect was scavenging of the HO{sup .} radical produced in Fenton`s reaction by fulvic acid, forming an organic radical. The organic radical reduced oxygen to HO{sub 2}{sup .}/O{sub 2}{sup .-}, which then regenerated hydrogen peroxide by reaction with Fe(II). Finally, Fe(III) was reduced by a dark reaction with fulvic acid, characterized by an initially fast reduction followed by slower processes. The behavior of Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide over time in the presence of fulvic acid and oxygen could be described by a kinetic model taking all of these reactions into account. The net result was an iron redox cycle in which hydrogen peroxide as well as oxygen were consumed (even though direct oxidation of Fe(II) by oxygen was not significant), and the oxidation of fulvic acid was accelerated. 56 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Different effects of eubacterial and eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors on chloroplasts ofEuglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajčovič, Juraj; Ebringer, Libor

    1990-03-01

    Inhibitors of eubacterial and eukaryotic DNA topoisomerases type II exhibited different effects on chloroplasts of the flagellateEuglena gracilis. Antibacterial agents (cinoxacin, nalidixic and oxolinic acids, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin) from the group of quinolones and coumarins (coumermycin A1, clorobiocin and novobiocin) — all inhibitors of prokaryotic DNA topoisomerase II — were very potent eliminators of chloroplasts fromE. gracilis. In contrast, antitumor drugs (adriamycin, etoposide, teniposide and mitoxantrone) — antagonists of the eukaryotic counterpart — did not affect these semiautonomous photosynthetic organelles. These findings point out again the close evolutionary relationships between eubacteria and chloroplasts and are in agreement with the hypothesis of an endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts.

  1. Effect of oxygen on free radicals in DOPA-melanin complexes with netilmicin, diamagnetic Zn(II), and paramagnetic Cu(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdybel, Magdalena; Pilawa, Barbara; Buszman, Ewa; Wrześniok, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to examine interactions between molecules of oxygen O2 and free radicals of DOPA-melanin and its complexes with netilmicin, Zn(II) and Cu(II). EPR spectra were measured for evacuated samples and then compared to earlier data for the samples in air. The concentrations of free radicals in the evacuated samples were higher than for samples in air. The strongest effect was observed for DOPA-melanin and melanin samples containing Cu(II). Evacuation of DOPA-melanin and DOPA-melanin-Cu(II) samples causes high EPR line broadening. Faster spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in evacuated melanin samples than in samples in air.

  2. Effects of Orange II and Sudan III azo dyes and their metabolites on Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongmiao; Feng, Jinhui; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2011-10-01

    Azo dyes are widely used in the plastic, paper, cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Some metabolites of these dyes are potentially genotoxic. The toxic effects of azo dyes and their potential reduction metabolites on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA 1556 were studied. When the cultures were incubated with 6, 18, and 36 μg/ml of Orange II and Sudan III for 48 h, 76.3, 68.5, and 61.7% of Orange II and 97.8, 93.9, and 75.8% of Sudan III were reduced by the bacterium, respectively. In the presence of 36 μg/ml Sudan III, the cell viability of the bacterium decreased to 61.9% after 48 h of incubation, whereas the cell viability of the control culture without the dye was 71.5%. Moreover, the optical density of the bacterial cultures at 10 h decreased from 0.74 to 0.55, indicating that Sudan III is able to inhibit growth of the bacterium. However, Orange II had no significant effects on either cell growth or cell viability of the bacterium at the tested concentrations. 1-Amino-2-naphthol, a metabolite common to Orange II and Sudan III, was capable of inhibiting cell growth of the bacterium at 1 μg/ml and completely stopped bacterial cell growth at 24-48 μg/ml. On the other hand, the other metabolites of Orange II and Sudan III, namely sulfanilic acid, p-phenylenediamine, and aniline, showed no significant effects on cell growth. p-Phenylenediamine exhibited a synergistic effect with 1-amino-2-naphthol on cell growth inhibition. All of the dye metabolites had no significant effects on cell viability of the bacterium.

  3. Effect of preterm birth and antenatal corticosteroid treatment on lactogenesis II in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jennifer J; Hartmann, Peter E; Newnham, John P; Simmer, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The onset of copious milk secretion after birth is known as lactogenesis II. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preterm birth and antenatal corticosteroids on the timing of lactogenesis II after birth. Women who had received antenatal betamethasone treatment and were expressing for a preterm infant whose gestational age was lactogenesis II. The volume of milk was reduced further when antenatal corticosteroids were administered between 28 and 34 weeks' gestation and delivery occurred 3 to 9 days later. In view of the advantages of mothers' own milk, additional support with lactation is recommended for mothers of preterm infants, particularly those who have been treated with corticosteroids before the delivery.

  4. Effect of Cyclosporin A and Angiotensin II on cytosolic calcium levels in primary human gingival fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajitkumar Supraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the effect of Cyclosporin A (CsA and angiotensin II (Ang II on cytosolic calcium levels in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs. Materials and Methods: Healthy gingival samples from six volunteers were obtained, and primary HGFs were cultured. Cell viability and proliferation assay were performed to identify the ideal concentrations of CsA and Ang II. Cytosolic calcium levels in cultured gingival fibroblasts treated with CsA and Ang II were studied using colorimetric assay, confocal and fluorescence imaging. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software and GraphPad Prism. Results: Higher levels of cytosolic levels were evident in cells treated with CsA and Ang II when compared to control group and was statistically significant (P < 0.05 in both colorimetric assay and confocal imaging. Fluorescent images of the cultured HGFs revealed the same. Conclusion: Thus calcium being a key player in major cellular functions, plays a major role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

  5. Does protein binding modulate the effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc P Maillard

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAngiotensin II AT 1-receptor antagonists are highly bound to plasma proteins (≥ 99%. With some antagonists, such as DuP-532, the protein binding was such that no efficacy of the drug could be demonstrated clinically. Whether protein binding interferes with the efficacy of other antagonists is not known. We have therefore investigated in vitro how plasma proteins may affect the antagonistic effect of different AT1-receptor antagonists.MethodsA radio-receptor binding assay was used to analyse the interaction between proteins and the ability of various angiotensin II (Ang II antagonists to block AT1-receptors. In addition, the Biacore technology, a new technique which enables the real-time monitoring of binding events between two molecules, was used to evaluate the dissociation rate constants of five AT1-receptor antagonists from human serum albumin.ResultsThe in vitro AT 1-antagonistic effects of different Ang II receptor antagonists were differentially affected by the presence of human plasma, with rightward shifts of the IC50 ranging from one to several orders of magnitude. The importance of the shift correlates with the dissociation rate constants of these drugs from albumin. Our experiments also show that the way that AT1-receptor antagonists bind to proteins differs from one compound to another. These results suggest that the interaction with plasma proteins appears to modulate the efficacy of some Ang II antagonists.ConclusionAlthough the high binding level of Ang II receptor antagonist to plasma proteins appears to be a feature common to this class of compounds, the kinetics and characteristics of this binding is of great importance. With some antagonists, protein binding interferes markedly with their efficacy to block AT1-receptors.

  6. Effect of Oral Voriconazole on Fungal Keratitis in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial II (MUTT II): A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajna, N Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Rajaraman, Revathi; Patel, Sushila; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Das, Manoranjan; Ray, Kathryn J; O'Brien, Kieran S; Oldenburg, Catherine E; McLeod, Stephen D; Zegans, Michael E; Porco, Travis C; Acharya, Nisha R; Lietman, Thomas M; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    To compare oral voriconazole with placebo in addition to topical antifungals in the treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis. The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial II (MUTT II), a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, was conducted in India and Nepal, with 2133 individuals screened for inclusion. Patients with smear-positive filamentous fungal ulcers and visual acuity of 20/400 (logMAR 1.3) or worse were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs oral placebo; all participants received topical antifungal eyedrops. The study was conducted from May 24, 2010, to November 23, 2015. All trial end points were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. Study participants were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs oral placebo; a voriconazole loading dose of 400 mg was administered twice daily for 24 hours, followed by a maintenance dose of 200 mg twice daily for 20 days, with dosing altered to weight based during the trial. All participants received topical voriconazole, 1%, and natamycin, 5%. The primary outcome of the trial was rate of corneal perforation or the need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK) within 3 months. Secondary outcomes included microbiologic cure at 6 days, rate of re-epithelialization, best-corrected visual acuity and infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 weeks and 3 months, and complication rates associated with voriconazole use. A total of 2133 patients in India and Nepal with smear-positive ulcers were screened; of the 787 who were eligible, 240 (30.5%) were enrolled. Of the 119 patients (49.6%) in the oral voriconazole treatment group, 65 were male (54.6%), and the median age was 54 years (interquartile range, 42-62 years). Overall, no difference in the rate of corneal perforation or the need for TPK was determined for oral voriconazole vs placebo (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.57-1.18; P = .29). In prespecified subgroup analyses comparing treatment effects among organism subgroups, there was some

  7. Effects of icariside II on improving erectile function in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Xin, Hua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guang-Yong; Gao, Zhe-Zhu; Liu, Jing; Li, Wei-Ren; Cui, Wan-Shou; Bai, Guang-Yi; Park, Nam Cheol; Xin, Zhong Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Icariin and icariside II (ICA II), 2 active components isolated from herba epimedii, have a closely structural relationship. There is evidence that icariin may be useful in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED); however, the study on the therapeutic efficacy of ICA II on ED is currently scant. We investigated the effects of ICA II on improving erectile function of rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes. Fifty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into normal control and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (60 mg/kg). Three days later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including a saline-treated placebo arm and 3 ICA II-treated models (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg/d). After 3 months, penile hemodynamics was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation (CNE) with real time intracorporal pressure assessment. Penises were harvested with subsequent histological examination (picrosirius red stain, Hart elastin stain, and immunohistochemical stain) and Western blots to explore the expression of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)/Smad2 signaling pathways. Diabetes significantly attenuated erectile responses to CNE. Diabetic rats had decreased corpus cavernosum smooth muscle/collagen ratio and endothelial cell content relative to the control group. The ratio of collagen I to III was significantly lower in the corpora of diabetic rats; furthermore, cavernous elastic fibers were fragmented in the diabetic animals. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and vascular endothelial growth factor were expressed at lower levels in the diabetic group; ICA II-treated diabetic rats had higher expression in the penis relative to placebo-treated diabetic animals. Both the TGFβ1/Smad2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) signaling pathway and apoptosis were down-regulated in the penis from

  8. Avaliação da carga mental de trabalho e do desempenho de medidas de mensuração: NASA TLX e SWAT Evaluation of mental workload and performance measurement: NASA TLX and SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Souza Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a carga mental para atividades desempenhadas em empresa catarinense de soluções em energia e busca comparar os resultados da carga mental de trabalho encontrada a partir de dois métodos de mensuração atualmente mais usados - NASA TLX e SWAT. Por meio deste estudo avaliou-se a carga mental exigida tanto pela atividade de montagem manual, quanto de montagem automática de placas eletrônicas. Os resultados da avaliação da carga mental evidenciaram que entre as duas formas de execução da atividade, as exigências mentais mostram-se maiores na atividade de montagem manual. Os métodos de avaliação da carga mental aplicados em estudos da ergonomia possibilitam conhecer as capacidades e limitações do trabalhador, características da organização do trabalho e facilitam a apresentação quantitativa e qualitativa dos resultados. A comparação do desempenho entre os dois métodos de avaliação da carga mental, também se mostrou como uma investigação pertinente para o campo da ergonomia, já que são poucos os estudos comparativos em relação ao desempenho dos métodos. Na comparação do desempenho geral entre os dois métodos, o método NASA TLX possibilita avaliar a carga mental analisando diversas dimensões da situação de trabalho e apresenta vantagens quando comparado ao SWAT, pois pode ser facilmente aplicado e mostrou-se com maior aceitação por parte dos avaliados.This study evaluates the mental workload in some activities in an electricity generation company in Santa Catarina, Brazil and compares the mental workload measurements obtained using two commonly used measurement methods- NASA TLX and SWAT. The mental workload required by both manual and automated assembly of circuit boards was evaluated. The evaluation of the mental workload showed that comparing these two types of activities, the mental requirements appear to be higher during manual assembly tasks. The methods for assessing the mental

  9. Effect of Schiff base Cu(II) complexes on signaling pathways in HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koňariková, Katarína; Perdikaris, Georgios A; Gbelcova, Helena; Andrezálová, Lucia; Švéda, Martin; Ruml, Tomáš; Laubertová, Lucia; Žitňanová, Ingrid

    2016-11-01

    Schiff base copper (II) complexes are known for their anticancer, antifungal, antiviral and anti‑inflammatory activities. The aim of the current study was to investigate biological effects of Schiff base Cu (II) complexes (0.001‑100 µmol/l)‑[Cu2(sal‑D, L‑glu)2(isoquinoline)2]·2C2H5OH (1), [Cu(sal‑5‑met‑L‑glu)(H2O)].H2O (2), [Cu(ethanol)2(imidazole)4][Cu2(sal‑D, L-glu)2(imidazole)2] (3), [Cu(sal‑D,L‑glu)(2‑methylimidazole)] (4) on the human colon carcinoma cells HT‑29, the mouse noncancerous cell line NIH‑3T3 and the human noncancerous fibroblast cell line VH10. The results suggested that Cu (II) complexes exhibit cytotoxic effects against the HT‑29 cell line, while complexes 3 and 4 were the most effective. Subsequent to 72 h of incubation, apoptosis was observed in the HT‑29 cells induced by Cu (II) complexes 1 (0.1, 1, 10 and 50 µmol/l), 2 (1, 10, 50 and 100 µmol/l), 3 (0.01, 1, 10 and 50 µmol/l) and 4 (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µmol/l). The apoptotic pathways activated by the Cu (II) complexes were identified. The results indicated that complexes 2, 3 and 4 were able to induce the mitochondria‑dependent pathway of apoptosis in HT‑29 cells, while complex 1 was obsered to activate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The levels of the anti‑apoptotic protein Bcl‑2 were reduced and those of the pro‑apoptotic protein Bax increased following treatment with complexes 2, 3 and 4. Complex 1 had no effect on Bax protein expression. Complexes 2 and 3 induced elevation of cytochrome c (cyt c), while complex 4 induced a time‑dependent elevation of cyt c levels. No cyt c was detected in HT‑29 cells exposed to complex 1, suggesting that Cu (II) complexes activated the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The results from the current study in addition to previous studies suggest that Schiff base Cu (II) complexes have potential as novel anticancer drugs.

  10. Analysis of the Wakefield Effects in the PEP-II SLAC B-FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, A; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2009-07-06

    We present the history and analysis of different wake field effects throughout the operational life of the PEP-II SLAC B-factory. Although the impedance of the high and low energy rings is small, the intense high current beams generated a lot of power. The effects from these wake fields are: heating and damage of vacuum beam chamber elements like RF seals, vacuum valves , shielded bellows, BPM buttons and ceramic tiles; vacuum spikes, vacuum instabilities and high detector background; beam longitudinal and transverse instabilities. We also discuss the methods used to eliminate these effects. Results of this analysis and the PEP-II experience may be very useful in the design of new storage rings and light sources.

  11. Effect of copper (II) ion against elongation behavior of amyloid {beta} fibrils on liposome membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimanouchi, T.; Onishi, R.; Kitaura, N.; Umakoshi, H.; Kuboi, R. [Division of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    The fibril growth behavior of amyloid {beta} protein (A{beta}) on cell membranes is relating to the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This growth behavior of A{beta} fibrils is sensitively affected by the metal ions, neurotransmitters, or bioreactive substrate. The inhibitory effect of those materials was quantitatively estimated from the viewpoints of ''crystal growth''. In a bulk aqueous solution, copper (II) ion showed the strong inhibitory effect on the growth of A{beta} fibrils. Meanwhile, the addition of a closed-phospholipid bilayer membrane (liposome) could reduce the above inhibitory effect of copper (II) ion. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the increase in type II collagen accumulation in cartilage-like MSC sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keigo; Mera, Hisashi; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2017-06-01

    With the aim to increase type II collagen content in the scaffold-free cartilage-like cell sheet using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, we examined the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) addition to the chondrogenic medium for the cell sheet culture. The addition of EGCG (10 μM) increased the content of type II collagen 2-fold, while the addition did not markedly change the expression level of the genes encoding type II collagen and Sox 9. The reactive oxygen species level in the cells in cell sheets was thought to be too low to suppress the accumulation of type II collagen. On the other hand, the addition of EGCG markedly decreased both the matrix metalloproteinase-13 concentration in the supernatant of cell sheet culture and the type II collagen degradation activity in that supernatant. Taken together, EGCG may enhance the accumulation of type II collagen by suppressing type II collagen degradation.

  13. Soft tissue effects of three different Class II/1-camouflage treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Ezgi; Akarsu-Guven, Bengisu; Kocadereli, Ilken

    2017-03-01

    Aim of this retrospective study was to compare soft tissue effects of Class II treatments with the forsus fatigue resistant device (FRD), the pendulum appliance, and the extraction of two maxillary premolars, all of which were combined with pre-adjusted fixed appliances. The sample of 54 patients with Class II malocclusions was divided in three groups: group I patients (mean age = 15.91 years) were treated with the FRD concurrently used with fixed appliances; group II patients (mean age = 16.08 years) were treated with the pendulum appliance combined with a Nance and headgear followed by fixed appliances; and group III patients (mean age = 19.04 years) were treated with the extraction of two maxillary premolars with miniscrew anchorage. Soft tissue and dentoskeletal parameters were measured on pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) lateral cephalograms. The changes from T1 to T2 were compared between the groups using Kruskal-Wallis test, and treatment differences were evaluated with the Wilcoxon test at p II than in group III (p II and III. Lower incisor measurement changes were significantly different between groups I and III and groups II and III (p < 0.05). Pendulum and extraction treatment groups showed significant differences in relation with the upper and lower lip positional changes, which were significantly greater in the pendulum group. Treatment time with the extraction treatment was statistically shorter than with the nonextraction protocols.

  14. Effects of Class II activator and Class II activator high-pull headgear combination on the mandible: a 3-dimensional finite element stress analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Cağri; Darendeliler, Nilüfer

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Class II activator and the Class II activator high-pull headgear (HG) combination on the mandible with 3-dimensional (3D) finite element stress analysis. A 3D finite element model of the mandible was constructed from a dry human mandible. To investigate the effects of the Class II activator, a 3D model of the lower part of this appliance was constructed and fixed on the mandibular model. The Class II activator high-pull headgear model was established as described, and an extraoral traction force of 350 g was directed from the middle of the Class II activator to the top of the mandibular condyle. The stress regions were studied with the finite element method. The regions near the muscle attachment areas were affected the most. The inner part of the coronoid process and the gonial area had the maximum stress values. Both functional appliances can cause morphologic changes on the mandible by activating the masticatory muscles to change the growth direction.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, computational studies, antimicrobial activities and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor effects of 2-hydroxy acetophenone-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone and its Co(II), Pd(II), Pt(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Neslihan; Alyar, Saliha; Memmi, Burcu Koçak; Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Bahçeci, Zafer; Alyar, Hamit

    2017-01-01

    2-Hydroxyacetophenone-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone (afptsmh) derived from p-toluenesulfonicacid-1-methylhydrazide (ptsmh) and its Co(II), Pd(II), Pt(II) complexes were synthesized for the first time. Synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, 1Hsbnd 13C NMR, LC-MS, UV-vis), magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. 1H and 13C shielding tensors for crystal structure of ligand were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods in CDCl3. The vibrational band assignments were performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) theory level combined with scaled quantum mechanics force field (SQMFF) methodology. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against some Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by using microdilution and disc diffusion methods. In vitro enzyme inhibitory effects of the compounds were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The enzyme activities against human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) were evaluated as IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) values. It was found that afptsmh and its metal complexes have inhibitory effects on hCA II isoenzyme. General esterase activities were determined using alpha and beta naphtyl acetate substrates (α- and β-NAs) of Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Activity results show that afptsmh does not strongly affect the bacteria strains and also shows poor inhibitory activity against hCAII isoenzyme whereas all complexes posses higher biological activities.

  16. Effects of prostaglandins and nitric oxide on the renal effects of angiotensin II in the anaesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, J S; Clark, K L; Johns, E J; Drew, G M

    1998-08-01

    1. The potential influences of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins on the renal effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) have been investigated in the captopril-treated anaesthetized rat by examining the effect of indomethacin or the NO synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on the renal responses obtained during infusion of Ang II directly into the renal circulation. 2. Intrarenal artery (i.r.a.) infusion of Ang II (1-30 ng kg(-1) min(-1)) elicited a dose-dependent decrease in renal vascular conductance (RVC; -38+/-3% at 30 ng kg(-1) min(-1); P < 0.01) and increase in filtration fraction (FF; +49+/-8%; P < 0.05) in the absence of any change in carotid mean arterial blood pressure (MBP). Urine output (Uv), absolute (UNaV) and fractional sodium excretion (FENa), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were unchanged during infusion of Ang II 1-30 ng kg(-1) min(-1) (+6+/-17%, +11+/-17%, +22+/-23%, and -5+/-9%, respectively, at 30 ng kg(-1) min(-1)). At higher doses, Ang II (100 and 300 ng kg(-1) min(-1)) induced further decreases in RVC, but with associated increases in MBP, Uv and UNaV. 3. Pretreatment with indomethacin (10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) had no significant effect on basal renal function, or on the Ang II-induced reduction in RVC (-25+/-7% vs -38+/-3% at Ang II 30 ng kg(-1) min(-1)). In the presence of indomethacin, Ang II tended to cause a dose-dependent decrease in GFR (-38+/-10% at 30 ng kg(-1) min(-1)); however, this effect was not statistically significant (P=0.078) when evaluated over the dose range of 1-30 ng kg(-1) min(-1), and was not accompanied by any significant changes in Uv, UNaV or FENa (-21+/-12%, -18+/-16% and +36+/-38%, respectively). 4. Pretreatment with L-NAME (10 microg kg(-1) min(-1) i.v.) tended to reduce basal RVC (control -11.8+/-1.4, +L-NAME -7.9+/-1.8 ml min(-1) mmHg(-1) x 10(-2)), and significantly increased basal FF (control +15.9+/-0.8, +L-NAME +31.0+/-3.7%). In the presence of L-NAME, renal vasoconstrictor

  17. Virus inactivation under the photodynamic effect of phthalocyanine zinc(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remichkova, Mimi; Mukova, Luchia; Nikolaeva-Glomb, Lubomira; Nikolova, Nadya; Doumanova, Lubka; Mantareva, Vanya; Angelov, Ivan; Kussovski, Veselin; Galabov, Angel S

    2017-03-01

    Various metal phthalocyanines have been studied for their capacity for photodynamic effects on viruses. Two newly synthesized water-soluble phthalocyanine Zn(II) complexes with different charges, cationic methylpyridyloxy-substituted Zn(II)- phthalocyanine (ZnPcMe) and anionic sulfophenoxy-substituted Zn(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS), were used for photoinactivation of two DNA-containing enveloped viruses (herpes simplex virus type 1 and vaccinia virus), two RNA-containing enveloped viruses (bovine viral diarrhea virus and Newcastle disease virus) and two nude viruses (the enterovirus Coxsackie B1, a RNA-containing virus, and human adenovirus 5, a DNA virus). These two differently charged phthalocyanine complexes showed an identical marked virucidal effect against herpes simplex virus type 1, which was one and the same at an irradiation lasting 5 or 20 min (Δlog=3.0 and 4.0, respectively). Towards vaccinia virus this effect was lower, Δlog=1.8 under the effect of ZnPcMe and 2.0 for ZnPcS. Bovine viral diarrhea virus manifested a moderate sensitivity to ZnPcMe (Δlog=1.8) and a pronounced one to ZnPcS at 5- and 20-min irradiation (Δlog=5.8 and 5.3, respectively). The complexes were unable to inactivate Newcastle disease virus, Coxsackievirus B1 and human adenovirus type 5.

  18. Simulating Crop Evapotranspiration Response under Different Planting Scenarios by Modified SWAT Model in an Irrigation District, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    Full Text Available Modelling crop evapotranspiration (ET response to different planting scenarios in an irrigation district plays a significant role in optimizing crop planting patterns, resolving agricultural water scarcity and facilitating the sustainable use of water resources. In this study, the SWAT model was improved by transforming the evapotranspiration module. Then, the improved model was applied in Qingyuan Irrigation District of northwest China as a case study. Land use, soil, meteorology, irrigation scheduling and crop coefficient were considered as input data, and the irrigation district was divided into subdivisions based on the DEM and local canal systems. On the basis of model calibration and verification, the improved model showed better simulation efficiency than did the original model. Therefore, the improved model was used to simulate the crop evapotranspiration response under different planting scenarios in the irrigation district. Results indicated that crop evapotranspiration decreased by 2.94% and 6.01% under the scenarios of reducing the planting proportion of spring wheat (scenario 1 and summer maize (scenario 2 by keeping the total cultivated area unchanged. However, the total net output values presented an opposite trend under different scenarios. The values decreased by 3.28% under scenario 1, while it increased by 7.79% under scenario 2, compared with the current situation. This study presents a novel method to estimate crop evapotranspiration response under different planting scenarios using the SWAT model, and makes recommendations for strategic agricultural water management planning for the rational utilization of water resources and development of local economy by studying the impact of planting scenario changes on crop evapotranspiration and output values in the irrigation district of northwest China.

  19. Classification and ordination of understory vegetation using multivariate techniques in the Pinus wallichiana forests of Swat Valley, northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Inayat Ur; Khan, Nasrullah; Ali, Kishwar

    2017-04-01

    An understory vegetation survey of the Pinus wallichiana-dominated temperate forests of Swat District was carried out to inspect the structure, composition and ecological associations of the forest vegetation. A quadrat method of sampling was used to record the floristic and phytosociological data necessary for the analysis using 300 quadrats of 10 × 10 m each. Some vegetation parameters viz. frequency and density for trees (overstory vegetation) as well as for the understory vegetation were recorded. The results revealed that in total, 92 species belonging to 77 different genera and 45 families existed in the area. The largest families were Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Lamiaceae with 12, ten and nine species, respectively. Ward's agglomerative cluster analysis for tree species resulted in three floristically and ecologically distinct community types along different topographic and soil variables. Importance value indices (IVI) were also calculated for understory vegetation and were subjected to ordination techniques, i.e. canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). DCA bi-plots for stands show that most of the stands were scattered around the centre of the DCA bi-plot, identified by two slightly scattered clusters. DCA for species bi-plot clearly identified three clusters of species revealing three types of understory communities in the study area. Results of the CCA were somewhat different from the DCA showing the impact of environmental variables on the understory species. CCA results reveal that three environmental variables, i.e. altitude, slope and P (mg/kg), have a strong influence on distribution of stands and species. Impact of tree species on the understory vegetation was also tested by CCA which showed that four tree species, i.e. P. wallichiana A.B. Jackson, Juglans regia Linn., Quercus dilatata Lindl. ex Royle and Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex Lamb.) G. Don, have strong influences on associated understory vegetation. It

  20. Assessing the Water-Resources Potential of Istanbul by Using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Hydrological Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Cuceloglu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties due to climate change and population growth have created a critical situation for many megacities. Investigating spatio-temporal variability of water resources is, therefore, a critical initial step for water-resource management. This paper is a first study on the evaluation of water-budget components of water resources in Istanbul using a high-resolution hydrological model. In this work, the water resources of Istanbul and surrounding watersheds were modeled using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, which is a continuous-time, semi-distributed, process-based model. The SWAT-CUP program was used for calibration/validation of the model with uncertainty analysis using the SUFI-2 algorithm over the period 1977–2013 at 25 gauge stations. The results reveal that the annual blue-water potential of Istanbul is 3.5 billion m3, whereas the green-water flow and storage are 2.9 billion m3 and 0.7 billion m3, respectively. Watersheds located on the Asian side of the Istanbul megacity yield more blue-water resources compared to the European side, and constitute 75% of the total potential water resources. The model highlights the water potential of the city under current circumstances and gives an insight into its spatial distribution over the region. This study provides a strong basis for forthcoming studies concerning better water-resources management practices, climate change and water-quality studies, as well as other socio-economic scenario analyses in the region.

  1. Upper airway dimensions in Class II malocclusion. Effects of headgear treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjavainen, Mirja; Kirjavainen, Turkka

    2007-11-01

    To study the effects of cervical headgear treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion on upper airway structures in children. Forty children aged 9.1 (7.2-11.5) years with Class II division 1 malocclusion were treated using a cervical headgear as the only treatment appliance. The headgear consisted of a long outer bow bent 15 degrees upward and a large inner bow expanded 10 mm larger than the intermolar distance. Lateral cephalograms were taken before and after the treatment. Upper airway structures were estimated from the cephalograms. The results were compared to cross-sectional data of 80 age-matched controls with a Class I molar relationship. A Class I molar relationship was achieved in all treated children. The mean treatment time was 1.6 (0.3-3.1) years. The Class II malocclusion was accompanied by a similar or wider nasopharyngeal space than in the controls but narrower oro- and hypopharyngeal spaces. The retropalatal area was widened by the treatment (P Class II division 1 malocclusion is associated with a narrower upper airway structure even without retrognathia. Headgear treatment is associated with an increase in the retropalatal airway space.

  2. The effect of Cu{sup II} ions in L-asparagine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Ricardo C., E-mail: santana@ufg.br; Gontijo, Henrique O.; Menezes, Arthur F.; Martins, José A.; Carvalho, Jesiel F., E-mail: carvalho@ufg.br

    2016-11-15

    We report the synthesis, crystal growth, and spectroscopic characterization of L-asparagine monohydrate (LAM) single crystals doped with CuII. The crystals were successfully grown by slow cooling from a supersaturated aqueous solution up to size of 16×12×2 mm{sup 3};the effect of copper impurities in the crystals morphology was discussed. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) was used to calculate the g and hyperfine coupling (A) tensors of the CuII ions (g{sub 1}=2.044, g{sub 2}=2.105, g{sub 3}=2.383and A{sub 1}≈0, A{sub 2}=35, A{sub 3}=108 Gauss). The EPR spectra for certain orientations of the magnetic field suggest that CuII ions are coordinated to two {sup 14}N atoms. Correlating the EPR and optical absorption results, the crystal field and the Cu{sup II} orbital bond parameters were calculated. The results indicate that the paramagnetic center occupies interstitial rhombic distorted site and the ground orbital state for the unpaired electron is the d(x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}).

  3. Effective prediction of preeclampsia by measuring serum angiotensin II, urinary angiotensinogen and urinary transforming growth factor ?1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lihong; Zhou, Yunjiao; Wu, Qing; Fan, Weifeng; Ye, Jun; Chen, Yaping; Wu, Yun; Niu, Jianying; Gu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze serum angiotensin II (Ang II), urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) and urinary transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1) levels in relation to the clinical manifestation of preeclampsia, and to explore the effects of circulating and renal renin angiotensin system (RAS) in preeclampsia patients. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate serum Ang II, urinary AGT and urinary TGF?1 in preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and normotensive ...

  4. Comparison of performance of tile drainage routines in SWAT 2009 and 2012 in an extensively tile-drained watershed in the Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface tile drainage systems are widely used in agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern US and enable the Midwest area to become highly productive agricultural lands, but can also create environmental problems, for example nitrate-N contamination associated with drainage waters. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT has been used to model watersheds with tile drainage. SWAT2012 revisions 615 and 645 provide new tile drainage routines. However, few studies have used these revisions to study tile drainage impacts at both field and watershed scales. Moreover, SWAT2012 revision 645 improved the soil moisture based curve number calculation method, which has not been fully tested. This study used long-term (1991–2003 field site and river station data from the Little Vermilion River (LVR watershed to evaluate performance of tile drainage routines in SWAT2009 revision 528 (the old routine and SWAT2012 revisions 615 and 645 (the new routine. Both the old and new routines provided reasonable but unsatisfactory (NSE  <  0.5 uncalibrated flow and nitrate loss results for a mildly sloped watershed with low runoff. The calibrated monthly tile flow, surface flow, nitrate-N in tile and surface flow, sediment and annual corn and soybean yield results from SWAT with the old and new tile drainage routines were compared with observed values. Generally, the new routine provided acceptable simulated tile flow (NSE  =  0.48–0.65 and nitrate in tile flow (NSE  =  0.48–0.68 for field sites with random pattern tile and constant tile spacing, while the old routine simulated tile flow and nitrate in tile flow results for the field site with constant tile spacing were unacceptable (NSE  =  0.00–0.32 and −0.29–0.06, respectively. The new modified curve number calculation method in revision 645 (NSE  =  0.50–0.81 better simulated surface runoff than revision 615 (NSE  =  −0.11–0.49. The calibration

  5. Effect of picroside II on hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kılıç Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yiğit Kılıç,1 Abdullah Özer,1 Tolga Tatar,1 Mustafa Hakan Zor,1 Mehmet Kirişçi,2 Hakan Kartal,3 Ali Doğan Dursun,4 Deniz Billur,5 Mustafa Arslan,6 Ayşegül Küçük7 1Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara, 2Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam Medical Faculty, Kahramanmaras, 3Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Ardahan State Hospital, Ardahan, 4Department of Physiology, Ankara University Medical Faculty, 5Department of Histology and Embryology, Ankara University Medical Faculty, 6Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara, 7Department of Physiology, Dumlupinar University Medical Faculty, Kütahya, Turkey Introduction: Many structural and functional damages are observed in cells and tissues after reperfusion of previously viable ischemic tissues. Acute ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury of lower extremities occurs especially when a temporary cross-clamp is applied to the abdominal aorta during aortic surgery. Research regarding the treatment of I/R injury has been increasing day-by-day. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of picroside II on skeletal muscle of rats experiencing simulated I/R.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats weighing between 210 and 300 g were used in this study. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each (control, I/R, control + picroside II, and I/R + picroside II. The infrarenal section of the abdominal aorta was occluded with an atraumatic microvascular clamp in I/R group. The clamp was removed after 120 minutes and reperfusion was provided for a further 120 minutes. Picroside II (10 mg kg–1 was administered intraperitoneally to the animals in control + picroside II and I/R + picroside II groups. At the end of the study, skeletal muscle tissue was obtained for the determination of total oxidant status (TOS and total antioxidant status (TAS levels

  6. THERMAL EFFECT OF COCONUT CREAMS ABILITY TO ADSORB CALCIUM(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmawati Tahir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of thermal effect of coconut cream's ability to adsorb Ca (II has been done at various temperatures of 49 oC,  59 oC and 80 oC. The adsorption study was performed to check capacity, energy and rate of adsorption by varying the number of initial concentration of CaCl2 bounded on coconut protein. This research was also done to determine number of Ca (II in the coconut protein using the salt addition and elicits reaction methods. The result showed that adsorption ability tends to increased with the increase of temperature. Coconut cream heated at 59 oC adsorb Ca(II with the highest adsorption capacity of 3.98 mg/g and K = 3.48x104  mol-1. The salt addition method on the coconut cream gives more Ca (II than elicit reaction method. The first method gives 0.01137 mol/L and the second was 0.02845 mol/L. Based on the energy of adsorption, cream without heating had 20.59 kJ/mol as a physical adsorption and heating effect at temperatures 49 oC, 59 oC and 80 oC had 24.95; 28.87 and 24.87 kJ/mol respectively as a chemical adsoprtion with the rate of adsorptions of 0,0054;  0,0510 dan  0,3. 10-4 minute-1, respectively.   Keywords: coconut cream, adsorption, thermal effect.

  7. Encapsulation of lactase in Ca(II)-alginate beads: Effect of stabilizers and drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traffano-Schiffo, Maria Victoria; Castro-Giraldez, Marta; Fito, Pedro J; Santagapita, Patricio R

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present work was to analyze the effect of trehalose, arabic and guar gums on the preservation of β-galactosidase activity in freeze-dried and vacuum dried Ca(II)-alginate beads. Freezing process was also studied as a first step of freeze-drying. Trehalose was critical for β-galactosidase conservation, and guar gum as a second excipient showed the highest conservation effect (close to 95%). Systems with Tg values ~40°C which were stables at ambient temperature were obtained, being trehalose the main responsible of the formation of an amorphous matrix. Vacuum dried beads showed smaller size (with Feret's diameter below 1.08±0.09mm), higher circularity (reaching 0.78±0.06) and large cracks in their surface than freeze-dried beads, which were more spongy and voluminous. Ice crystallization of the beads revealed that the crystallization of Ca(II)-alginate system follows the Avrami kinetics of nucleation and growth. Particularly, Ca(II)-alginate showed an Avrami index of 2.03±0.07, which means that crystal growing is bidimensional. Neither the addition of trehalose nor gums affected the dimension of the ice growing or its rate. These results open an opportunity in the development of new lactic products able to be consumed by lactose intolerance people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Renoprotective effects of angiotensin II receptor blockade in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P

    2000-01-01

    and hemodynamic effects of specific intervention in the renin-angiotensin system by blockade of the angiotensin II subtype-1 receptor to the effect of ACE inhibition. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial was performed in 16 type 1 diabetic patients (10 men), age 42 +/- 2 years (mean +/- SEM...... inhibition is primarily caused by interference in the renin-angiotensin system. Our study suggest that losartan represents a valuable new drug in the treatment of hypertension and proteinuria in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy....

  9. Materials science in microelectronics II the effects of structure on properties in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Machlin, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The subject matter of thin-films - which play a key role in microelectronics - divides naturally into two headings: the processing / structure relationship, and the structure / properties relationship. Part II of 'Materials Science in Microelectronics' focuses on the latter of these relationships, examining the effect of structure on the following: Electrical properties Magnetic properties Optical properties Mechanical properties Mass transport properties Interface and junction properties Defects and properties Captures the importance of thin films to microelectronic development Examines the cause / effect relationship of structure on thin film properties.

  10. Effect of metformin on insulin receptor binding and glycaemic control in type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, J M; White, S I; Bailey, C J; Atkins, T W; Fletcher, R F; Taylor, K G

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the effect of metformin on insulin receptor binding and diabetic control, eight obese type II diabetic patients were studied before treatment, after one and four weeks of taking metformin (500 mg thrice daily), and four weeks after withdrawal of the drug. After one and four weeks of treatment the number of erythrocyte insulin receptors had increased by 116% and 184% respectively. This was due almost entirely to an increase in the number of low affinity binding sites. The number of receptors was still raised four weeks after metformin had been withdrawn. Diabetic control as assessed by urinary glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1), and glucose tolerance values was significantly improved during metformin treatment, while plasma insulin concentrations were not altered. These results indicate that metformin produces a rapid and protracted increase in low affinity insulin receptors in type II diabetes, associated with greater insulin sensitivity and improved diabetic control. PMID:6403102

  11. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the Conditions of Work Effectiveness - Questionnaire-II instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bernardino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims at translating and validating the content of the instrument Conditions of Work Effectiveness - Questionnaire-II (CWEQ-II, developed by Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian and Wilk, modified from the original CWEQ for the Brazilian culture. METHOD: the methodological procedure consisted of the stages of translation of the instrument into the Portuguese language; back-translation; semantic, idiomatic and cultural equivalence and tests of the final version. The instrument in the Portuguese version was applied to a group of 40 nurses in two hospitals. RESULTS: the data resulted in a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.86 for the first hospital and 0.88 for the second one. The results of the factorial analysis are considered sufficiently satisfactory. CONCLUSION: It is to conclude that the instrument can be used in Brazil.

  12. The effective determination of Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) simultaneously based on an aluminum silicon carbide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yale; Yang, Tao; Chou, Kuo-Chih; Chen, Junhong; Su, Lei; Hou, Xinmei

    2017-07-24

    A platform for the simultaneous determination of Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) in aqueous solution has been applied based on an aluminum silicon carbide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite (Al4SiC4-RGO) modified bismuth film glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) for the first time. The Al4SiC4-RGO nanocomposite electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared with the Al4SiC4 modified GCE and bare GCE, the electrochemical performance of the Al4SiC4-RGO nanocomposite electrode is obviously enhanced resulting from the synergistic effects of Al4SiC4, RGO and bismuth film. The chemical and electrochemical parameters that exert an influence on the deposition and stripping of metal ions, such as supporting electrolytes, pH values, concentrations of Bi3+, deposition potentials and deposition times, were carefully studied. Under optimal conditions, a linear relationship exists between the currents and the concentrations of Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) in the range of 50 to 2700 μg L-1. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) are estimated to be 1.30 μg L-1 for Pb(ii) and 2.15 μg L-1 for Cd(ii). Compared with the related work reported in the literature, the analytical performance in this work has a lower determination limit and a wider detection linear range. In addition, this electrode also exhibits good stability and reproducibility. These results imply that the Al4SiC4-RGO nanocomposite might be a promising candidate for practical applications in the electrochemical detection of metal ions.

  13. Hydrological simulation in a basin of typical tropical climate and soil using the SWAT model part I: Calibration and validation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizete dos R. Pereira

    2016-09-01

    New hydrological insights: The SWAT model was qualified for simulating the Pomba River sub-basin in the sites where rainfall representation was reasonable to good. The model can be used in the simulation of maximum, average and minimum annual daily streamflow based on the paired t-test, contributing with the water resources management of region, although the model still needs to be improved, mainly in the representativeness of rainfall, to give better estimates of extreme values.

  14. Efficacy of hydralazine and valproate in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, a phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Zamora, Jose Ramiro; Labardini-Méndez, Juan; Sosa-Espinoza, Alejandro; López-González, Celia; Vieyra-García, Magnolia; Candelaria, Myrna; Lozano-Zavaleta, Valentin; Toledano-Cuevas, Diana Vanesa; Zapata-Canto, Nidia; Cervera, Eduardo; Dueñas-González, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the activity and safety of hydralazine and valproate (Transkrip) in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Previously untreated and progressive/refractory CTCL patients received hydralazine at 83 mg or 182 mg/day for slow and rapid acetylators respectively plus magnesium valproate at a total dose of 30 mg/Kg t.i.d daily in continuous 28-day cycles in this phase II study. The primary objective was overall response rate (ORR) measured by the modified severity weighted assessment tool (m-SWAT), secondary end-points were time to response (TTR), time to progression (TTP), duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety. Fourteen patients were enrolled (7 untreated and 7 pretreated). ORR was 71% with 50% complete and 21% partial. Two had stable disease and two progressed. At a median follow-up of 36 months (5-52), median TTR was 2 months (1-4); median DOR was 28 months (5-45); median PFS 36 and not reached for OS. There were no differences in median TTR, DOR, and PFS between treated and pretreated patients. Pruritus relieve was complete in 13 out of 14 patients. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. The combination of hydralazine and valproate is safe, very well tolerated and effective in CTCL.

  15. Streamflow in the upper Mississippi river basin as simulated by SWAT driven by 20{sup th} century contemporary results of global climate models and NARCCAP regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takle, Eugene S.; Jha, Manoj; Lu, Er; Arritt, Raymond W.; Gutowski, William J. [Iowa State Univ. Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-06-15

    We use Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) when driven by observations and results of climate models to evaluate hydrological quantities, including streamflow, in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) for 1981-2003 in comparison to observed streamflow. Daily meteorological conditions used as input to SWAT are taken from (1) observations at weather stations in the basin, (2) daily meteorological conditions simulated by a collection of regional climate models (RCMs) driven by reanalysis boundary conditions, and (3) daily meteorological conditions simulated by a collection of global climate models (GCMs). Regional models used are those whose data are archived by the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Results show that regional models correctly simulate the seasonal cycle of precipitation, temperature, and streamflow within the basin. Regional models also capture interannual extremes represented by the flood of 1993 and the dry conditions of 2000. The ensemble means of both the GCM-driven and RCM-driven simulations by SWAT capture both the timing and amplitude of the seasonal cycle of streamflow with neither demonstrating significant superiority at the basin level. (orig.)

  16. Prediction of positive food effect: Bioavailability enhancement of BCS class II drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Siddarth; Polli, James E

    2016-06-15

    High-throughput screening methods have increased the number of poorly water-soluble, highly permeable drug candidates. Many of these candidates have increased bioavailability when administered with food (i.e., exhibit a positive food effect). Food is known to impact drug bioavailability through a variety of mechanisms, including drug solubilization and prolonged gastric residence time. In vitro dissolution media that aim to mimic in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) conditions have been developed to lessen the need for fed human bioequivalence studies. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro lipolysis model to predict positive food effect of three BCS Class II drugs (i.e., danazol, amiodarone and ivermectin) in previously developed lipolysis media. This in vitro lipolysis model was comparatively benchmarked against FeSSIF and FaSSIF media that were modified for an in vitro lipolysis approach, as FeSSIF and FaSSIF are widely used in in vitro dissolution studies. The in vitro lipolysis model accurately predicted the in vivo positive food effect for three model BCS class II drugs. The in vitro lipolysis model has potential use as a screening test of drug candidates in early development to assess positive food effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of radiation pressure on spatial distribution of dust inside H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiki, Shohei; Okamoto, Takashi; Inoue, Akio K.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the impact of radiation pressure on spatial dust distribution inside H II regions using one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, which include absorption and re-emission of photons by dust. In order to investigate grain-size effects as well, we introduce two additional fluid components describing large and small dust grains in the simulations. Relative velocity between dust and gas strongly depends on the drag force. We include collisional drag force and coulomb drag force. We find that, in a compact H II region, a dust cavity region is formed by radiation pressure. Resulting dust cavity sizes (˜0.2 pc) agree with observational estimates reasonably well. Since dust inside an H II region is strongly charged, relative velocity between dust and gas is mainly determined by the coulomb drag force. Strength of the coulomb drag force is about 2 order of magnitude larger than that of the collisional drag force. In addition, in a cloud of mass 105 M⊙, we find that the radiation pressure changes the grain-size distribution inside H II regions. Since large (0.1 μm) dust grains are accelerated more efficiently than small (0.01 μm) grains, the large-to-small grain mass ratio becomes smaller by an order of magnitude compared with the initial one. Resulting dust-size distributions depend on the luminosity of the radiation source. The large and small grain segregation becomes weaker when we assume stronger radiation source, since dust grain charges become larger under stronger radiation and hence coulomb drag force becomes stronger.

  18. Effects of toxin II from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata on contractile and electrical responses of frog skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A R; Lemeignan, M; Molgo, J

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Anemonia sulcata toxin II (ATX-II) were studied on mechanical and electrical activities of frog muscle fibres isolated from semitendinosus or tibialis anterior muscles of Rana temporaria (2.8-7.7 degrees C). In concentrations ranging between 7.7 and 100 microM, ATX-II greatly potentiated the isometric twitch of single muscle fibres in a time-dependent manner. Increase in twitch amplitude by ATX-II was associated with an increase in time to peak tension and time from peak tension to half relaxation. ATX-II caused no change in maximum force production during fused tetanus, but the tension was maintained for several seconds after the cessation of stimulation. Such long tetanic contractions were also obtained in low-Na Ringer solution, but their duration was somewhat shorter. No specific action of ATX-II was detected on relaxation kinetics during a tetanus. The twitch potentiating effect of ATX-II was markedly increased by 3,4-diaminopyridine. Action potentials recorded from single muscle fibres in the presence of ATX-II showed a delayed onset of repolarization with a reduced rate of fall. In addition, ATX-II caused repetitive spontaneous firing of action potentials after the cessation of tetanic stimulation. ATX-II (3.3 - 10 microM) also increased action potential duration by reducing the rate of repolarization in surface fibres of formamide-treated sartorius or cutaneous pectoris muscles (20 degrees C) stimulated indirectly or directly. The potentiation of twitch force and the prolongation of contractions caused by tetanic stimulation can be attributed to the membrane action of ATX-II, which leads to prolongation of action potentials, to repetitive muscle firing and to the appearance of plateau potentials.

  19. The Effects of Hydroalchoholic Extract of Teucrium polium L. on Hypertension Induced by Angiotensin II in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mahmoudabady

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: It seems TP extract could be effective in preventing of high blood pressure induced by Ang II pathway activation but could not have remarkable efficacy for improving the created tachycardia.

  20. Effects of the Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATX II) on intracellular sodium and contractility in rat and guinea-pig myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, A; Harrison, S M; Boyett, M R; Ravens, U

    1994-12-01

    The effects of the Anemonia sulcata toxin ATX II on action potentials and contractility of isolated papillary muscles and single myocytes from rat and guinea-pig hearts have been studied. ATX II prolonged the action potential in both rat and guinea-pig papillary muscle. Although it produced a positive inotropic effect in guinea-pig papillary muscle, it failed to do so in rat papillary muscle. However, in single rat and guinea-pig ventricular cells, it both prolonged the action potential and had a positive inotropic effect. We suggest that ATX II does not cause a positive inotropic effect in rat papillary muscle, because it induces Ca2+ overload. In single cells the positive inotropic effect was reduced by approximately 50% when the contractions were triggered by voltage clamp pulses of constant duration rather than by action potentials. This suggests that the inotropic effect of ATX II is in part the result of the prolongation of the action potential. The intracellular Na+ activity (a(i)Na) in single ventricular cells was measured with the Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent dye SBFI. After exposure of the cells to ATX II, a(i)Na was increased by a maximum of 1.9 +/- 0.3 and 2.2 +/- 0.3 mM in rat and guinea-pig cells, respectively. It is suggested that the positive inotropic effect of ATX II is also in part the result of the rise in a(i)Na.

  1. Cost Effectiveness of Operative vs. Non-operative Treatment of Geriatric Type-II Odontoid Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Daniel R.; Higgins, Brendan T.; Ozanne, Elissa M.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Pearson, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cost Effectiveness Analysis Objective To examine the cost-effectiveness of operative vs. non-operative treatment of type-II odontoid fractures in patients over 64 years old. Summary of Background Data Significant controversy exists regarding the optimum treatment of geriatric patients with type-II odontoid fractures. Operative treatment leads to lower rates of non-union but carries surgical risks. Non-operative treatment does not carry surgical risks but has higher non-union rates. Methods A decision-analytic model was created to compare operative and non-operative treatment of type-II odontoid fractures among three age cohorts (65–74, 75–84, over-84) based on expected costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per QALY gained). Age-specific mortality rates for both treatments, costs for treatment, and complication rates were taken from the literature, and data from 2010 US life tables was used for age-specific life expectancy. Costs of complications were estimated using data obtained at a Level-I trauma center using micro-costing. Sensitivity analyses of all model parameters were conducted. Results Among the 65–74 year old cohort, operative treatment was more costly ($53,407 vs. $30,553) and more effective (12.00 vs. 10.11 QALY), with an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $12,078/QALY. Among the 75–84 year old cohort, operative treatment was more costly ($51,308 vs. $29,789) and more effective (6.85 vs. 6.31 QALY), with an ICER of $40,467/QALY. Among the over-84 cohort, operative treatment was dominated by non-operative treatment as it was both more costly ($45,978 vs. $28,872) and less effective (2.48 vs 3.73 QALY). The model was robust to sensitivity analysis across reasonable ranges for utility of union, disutility of complications and delayed surgery, and probabilities of non-union and complications. Conclusions Operative treatment is cost-effective in patients age 65–84 when

  2. Effects of lead(II) on the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and colony formation of cultured Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Shu-lin; Dai, Wei; Xing, Ke-zhing; Yang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lead(II) on the production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), including bound extracellular polysaccharides (bEPS) and soluble extracellular polysaccharides (sEPS), and the colony formation of Microcystis aeruginosa, cultures of M. aeruginosa were exposed to four concentrations (5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg/L) of lead(II) for 10 d under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L lead(II) stimulated M. aeruginosa growth throughout the experiment while 20.0 and 40.0 mg/L lead(II) inhibited M. aeruginosa growth in the first 2 d exposure and then stimulated it. As compared to the control group, significant increases in the bEPS and sEPS production were observed in 20.0 and 40.0 mg/L lead(II) treatments (P lead(II) could significantly promote the formation of small and middle colonies after 10 d exposure (P lead(II) had the best stimulatory effect. Lead(II) could stimulate bEPS production, which conversely promoted colony formation, suggesting that heavy metals might be contributing to the bloom-forming of M. aeruginosa in natural conditions.

  3. The effects of the Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATX II) on membrane currents of isolated mammalian myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, G; Ravens, U

    1984-12-01

    The effects of Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATX II) on action potentials and membrane currents were studied in single myocytes isolated from guinea-pig or bovine ventricles. Addition of ATX II (2-20 nM) prolonged the action potential duration without a significant change in resting membrane potential. Concentrations of 40 nM-ATX II or more induced after-depolarizations and triggered automaticity. The effects were reversible after washing or upon addition of 60 microM-tetrodotoxin (TTX). 5 mM-Ni did not modify the effects. The single patch-electrode voltage-clamp technique of Hamill, Marty, Neher, Sakmann & Sigworth (1981) was applied to record membrane currents in response to 8.4 S long depolarizations starting from a holding potential of -90 mV. Currents flowing later than 5 ms after the depolarizing step were analysed. The fast events could not be considered because of insufficient voltage homogeneity. After 2 min of exposure to ATX II (20 nM) the changes in net membrane currents were measured. The difference between the currents in the presence of ATX II and during control was defined as the 'ATX-II-induced current' (iATX). After 4 min of wash iATX disappeared. Within 10 S of exposure to 60 microM-TTX, iATX was blocked completely. At potentials positive to -60 mV, iATX was inwardly directed and decayed slowly but incompletely during the 8.4 S long depolarizing pulse. The rate of decay was faster during clamp pulses to more positive potentials. A high amplitude noise was superimposed on the current trace; its amplitude decreased with more positive potentials. We analysed the voltage dependence of iATX with 'isochronous' current-voltage relations. The 0.1 S isochrone of iATX was characterized by a 'threshold' for negative currents at -60 mV, a branch with a negative slope (k = -7 mV, potential of half-maximal activation (V0.5) = -38 mV, bovine cells) leading to a maximum inward current at -20 mV, and an ascending branch which led to an apparent reversal potential (Erev

  4. Effects of mercury (II) species on cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L. (Hangzhou Univ. (China)); Cullen, W.R. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada))

    1994-11-01

    Mercury has received considerable attention because of its high toxicity. Widespread contamination with mercury poses severe environmental problems despite our extensive knowledge of its toxicity in living systems. It is generally accepted that the toxicity of mercury is related to its oxidation states and species, the organic forms being more toxic than the inorganic forms. In the aquatic environment, the toxicity of mercury depends on the aqueous speciation of the mercuric ion (Hg[sup 2+]). Because of the complex coordination chemistry of mercury in aqueous systems, the nature of the Hg[sup 2+] species present in aquatic environments is influenced greatly by water chemistry (e. g, pH, inorganic ion composition, and dissolved organics). Consequently, the influence of environmental factors on the aqueous speciation of mercury has been the focus of much attention. However, there is very little information available regarding the effects of the species and speciation on Hg (II) toxicity in plant-tissue cultures. Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus), commonly called the Madagascar Periwinkle, is a member of the alkaloid rich family Apocynaceae. The present investigation was concerned with the toxicity of mercury on the growth of C. roseus cell suspension cultures as influenced by mercury (II) species and speciation. The specific objectives of the study were to (a) study the effects of mercury species on the growth of C. roseus cultures from the point of view of environmental biology and toxicology; (b) evaluate the effects of selenate, selenite and selected ligands such as chloride, 1-cysteine in the media on the acute toxicity of mercuric oxide; (c) determine the impact of the initial pH of the culture media on the toxicities of mercuric compounds; (d) discuss the dependence of the toxicity on the chemical species and speciation of Hg (II). 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  6. Hierarchical competition models with the Allee effect II: the case of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assas, Laila; Dennis, Brian; Elaydi, Saber; Kwessi, Eddy; Livadiotis, George

    2015-01-01

    This is part II of an earlier paper that dealt with hierarchical models with the Allee effect but with no immigration. In this paper, we greatly simplify the proofs in part I and provide a proof of the global dynamics of the non-hyperbolic cases that were previously conjectured. Then, we show how immigration to one of the species or to both would, drastically, change the dynamics of the system. It is shown that if the level of immigration to one or to both species is above a specified level, then there will be no extinction region where both species go to extinction.

  7. Effect of oleic acid modified polymeric bilayered nanoparticles on percutaneous delivery of spantide II and ketoprofen

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Punit; Desai, Pinaki; Singh, Mandip

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study was to evaluate the effect of oleic acid modified polymeric bilayered nanoparticles (NPS) on combined delivery of two anti-inflammatory drugs, spantide II (SP) and ketoprofen (KP) on the skin permeation. NPS were prepared using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan. SP and KP were encapsulated in different layers alone or/and in combination (KP-NPS, SP-NPS and SP+KP-NPS). The surface of NPS was modified with oleic acid (OA) (`Nanoease' technology) us...

  8. Analyzing the effect of ion exchange on flexural strength of cermaco II and colorlogic veneer porcelains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rashidan

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   The major foible of dental ceramics is their brittle nature. Therefore, the producers of these materials have focused on the “strength” issue. A method of increasing strength is ion exchange on porcelain surface which leads to formation of a compressive crust that opposing forces should overcome before developing a crack. In current study, ion exchange in two types of porcelain, Ceramco II which is used in PFM restorations and Colorloic veneer which is used for laminates, veneers, inlays and onlays, are evaluated. Additionally, laminate porcelains, etching effect on strength of porcelain and interaction of acid etching and ion exchange have been studied.

  9. Constraining top quark effective theory in the LHC Run II era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Andy; Englert, Christoph; Ferrando, James; Miller, David J.; Moore, Liam; Russell, Michael; White, Chris D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Glasgow,Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Collaboration: The TopFitter collaboration

    2016-04-04

    We perform an up-to-date global fit of top quark effective theory to experimental data from the Tevatron, and from LHC Runs I and II. Experimental data includes total cross-sections up to 13 TeV, as well as differential distributions, for both single top and pair production. We also include the top quark width, charge asymmetries, and polarisation information from top decay products. We present bounds on the coefficients of dimension six operators, and examine the interplay between inclusive and differential measurements, and Tevatron/LHC data. All results are currently in good agreement with the Standard Model.

  10. Search for Quasi-isodynamic Effects in TJ-II; Busqueda de efectos quasi-isodinamicos en el TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The possibility of quasi-isodynamics effects (QID) in the TJ-II helical axis Stellarator has been explored maintaining the present setting for the toroidal field coils (TFC). In order to do this it has been necessary to implement a new method of calculation, using real space coordinates to follow the particle trajectories, instated the Boozer coordinates as was usual formerly. The result for the exploration of the flexibility diagram of TJ-II, including magnetic axis a shift effects, has been negative. It seems that there are not useful QID regions in TJ-II with the present setting of TFC carrying equal currents in all coils. Nevertheless, in spite of this negative result, the calculation in real space and, mainly, the grater number of configurations analysed, have produced a series of new important results, some of them unexpected. The influence of rational surfaces is very important. Optima and minima of confinement alternate at both sides of the rational values (mainly for the 1/2 by period) in a way very similar to the radial electric field resonance cases. This effect originates in the peculiar orbit topology in the presence of diffusion. Some lines of study are proposed to deal with this problem. Finally, the negative result of the QID search suggests the convenience to start a similar search without the restriction of equal currents on all the TEC. (Author) 18 refs.

  11. Highly efficient visual detection of trace copper(II) and protein by the quantum photoelectric effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Lei, Jianping; Su, Mengqi; Liu, Yueting; Hao, Qing; Ju, Huangxian

    2013-09-17

    This work presented a photocurrent response mechanism of quantum dots (QDs) under illumination with the concept of a quantum photoelectric effect. Upon irradiation, the photoelectron could directly escape from QDs. By using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) to capture the photoelectron, a new visual system was proposed due to the formation of an insoluble reduction product, purple formazan, which could be used to visualize the quantum photoelectric effect. The interaction of copper(II) with QDs could form trapping sites to interfere with the quantum confinement and thus blocked the escape of photoelectron, leading to a "signal off" visual method for sensitive copper(II) detection. Meanwhile, by using QDs as a signal tag to label antibody, a "signal on" visual method was also proposed for immunoassay of corresponding protein. With meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic-capped CdTe QDs and carcino-embryonic antigen as models, the proposed visual detection methods showed high sensitivity, low detection limit, and wide detectable concentration ranges. The visualization of quantum photoelectric effect could be simply extended for the detection of other targets. This work opens a new visual detection way and provides a highly efficient tool for bioanalysis.

  12. Comparative analyses of hydrological responses of two adjacent watersheds to climate variability and change using the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangchul; Yeo, In-Young; Sadeghi, Ali M.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Hively, Wells D.; Lang, Megan W.; Sharifi, Amir

    2018-01-01

    Water quality problems in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW) are expected to be exacerbated by climate variability and change. However, climate impacts on agricultural lands and resultant nutrient loads into surface water resources are largely unknown. This study evaluated the impacts of climate variability and change on two adjacent watersheds in the Coastal Plain of the CBW, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. We prepared six climate sensitivity scenarios to assess the individual impacts of variations in CO2 concentration (590 and 850 ppm), precipitation increase (11 and 21 %), and temperature increase (2.9 and 5.0 °C), based on regional general circulation model (GCM) projections. Further, we considered the ensemble of five GCM projections (2085-2098) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario to evaluate simultaneous changes in CO2, precipitation, and temperature. Using SWAT model simulations from 2001 to 2014 as a baseline scenario, predicted hydrologic outputs (water and nitrate budgets) and crop growth were analyzed. Compared to the baseline scenario, a precipitation increase of 21 % and elevated CO2 concentration of 850 ppm significantly increased streamflow and nitrate loads by 50 and 52 %, respectively, while a temperature increase of 5.0 °C reduced streamflow and nitrate loads by 12 and 13 %, respectively. Crop biomass increased with elevated CO2 concentrations due to enhanced radiation- and water-use efficiency, while it decreased with precipitation and temperature increases. Over the GCM ensemble mean, annual streamflow and nitrate loads showed an increase of ˜ 70 % relative to the baseline scenario, due to elevated CO2 concentrations and precipitation increase. Different hydrological responses to climate change were observed from the two watersheds, due to contrasting land use and soil characteristics. The watershed with a larger percent of croplands demonstrated a greater increased rate of 5.2 kg N ha-1 in

  13. Comparative analyses of hydrological responses of two adjacent watersheds to climate variability and change using the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangchul; Yeo, In-Young; Sadeghi, Ali M.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Hively, Wells; Lang, Megan W.; Sharifi, Amir

    2018-01-01

    Water quality problems in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW) are expected to be exacerbated by climate variability and change. However, climate impacts on agricultural lands and resultant nutrient loads into surface water resources are largely unknown. This study evaluated the impacts of climate variability and change on two adjacent watersheds in the Coastal Plain of the CBW, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. We prepared six climate sensitivity scenarios to assess the individual impacts of variations in CO2concentration (590 and 850 ppm), precipitation increase (11 and 21 %), and temperature increase (2.9 and 5.0 °C), based on regional general circulation model (GCM) projections. Further, we considered the ensemble of five GCM projections (2085–2098) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario to evaluate simultaneous changes in CO2, precipitation, and temperature. Using SWAT model simulations from 2001 to 2014 as a baseline scenario, predicted hydrologic outputs (water and nitrate budgets) and crop growth were analyzed. Compared to the baseline scenario, a precipitation increase of 21 % and elevated CO2 concentration of 850 ppm significantly increased streamflow and nitrate loads by 50 and 52 %, respectively, while a temperature increase of 5.0 °C reduced streamflow and nitrate loads by 12 and 13 %, respectively. Crop biomass increased with elevated CO2 concentrations due to enhanced radiation- and water-use efficiency, while it decreased with precipitation and temperature increases. Over the GCM ensemble mean, annual streamflow and nitrate loads showed an increase of  ∼  70 % relative to the baseline scenario, due to elevated CO2 concentrations and precipitation increase. Different hydrological responses to climate change were observed from the two watersheds, due to contrasting land use and soil characteristics. The watershed with a larger percent of croplands demonstrated a greater

  14. 3D effects on transport and plasma control in the TJ-II stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, F.; Alegre, D.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Ascasíbar, E.; Baciero, A.; de Bustos, A.; Baiao, D.; Barcala, J. M.; Blanco, E.; Borchardt, M.; Botija, J.; Cabrera, S.; de la Cal, E.; Calvo, I.; Cappa, A.; Carrasco, R.; Castro, R.; De Castro, A.; Catalán, G.; Chmyga, A. A.; Chamorro, M.; Dinklage, A.; Eliseev, L.; Estrada, T.; Fernández-Marina, F.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; García, L.; García-Cortés, I.; García-Gómez, R.; García-Regaña, J. M.; Guasp, J.; Hatzky, R.; Hernanz, J.; Hernández, J.; Herranz, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Hollmann, E.; Jiménez-Denche, A.; Kirpitchev, I.; Kleiber, R.; Komarov, A. D.; Kozachoek, A. S.; Krupnik, L.; Lapayese, F.; Liniers, M.; Liu, B.; López-Bruna, D.; López-Fraguas, A.; López-Miranda, B.; López-Razola, J.; Losada, U.; de la Luna, E.; Martín de Aguilera, A.; Martín-Díaz, F.; Martínez, M.; Martín-Gómez, G.; Martín-Hernández, F.; Martín-Rojo, A. B.; Martínez-Fernández, J.; McCarthy, K. J.; Medina, F.; Medrano, M.; Melón, L.; Melnikov, A. V.; Méndez, P.; Merino, R.; Miguel, F. J.; van Milligen, B.; Molinero, A.; Momo, B.; Monreal, P.; Moreno, R.; Navarro, M.; Narushima, Y.; Nedzelskiy, I. S.; Ochando, M. A.; Olivares, J.; Oyarzábal, E.; de Pablos, J. L.; Pacios, L.; Panadero, N.; Pastor, I.; Pedrosa, M. A.; de la Peña, A.; Pereira, A.; Petrov, A.; Petrov, S.; Portas, A. B.; Poveda, E.; Rattá, G. A.; Rincón, E.; Ríos, L.; Rodríguez, C.; Rojo, B.; Ros, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sánchez, M.; Sánchez, E.; Sánchez-Sarabia, E.; Sarksian, K.; Satake, S.; Sebastián, J. A.; Silva, C.; Solano, E. R.; Soleto, A.; Sun, B. J.; Tabarés, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Tallents, S.; Tolkachev, A.; Vega, J.; Velasco, G.; Velasco, J. L.; Wolfers, G.; Yokoyama, M.; Zurro, B.

    2017-10-01

    The effects of 3D geometry are explored in TJ-II from two relevant points of view: neoclassical transport and modification of stability and dispersion relation of waves. Particle fuelling and impurity transport are studied considering the 3D transport properties, paying attention to both neoclassical transport and other possible mechanisms. The effects of the 3D magnetic topology on stability, confinement and Alfvén Eigenmodes properties are also explored, showing the possibility of controlling Alfvén modes by modifying the configuration; the onset of modes similar to geodesic acoustic modes are driven by fast electrons or fast ions; and the weak effect of magnetic well on confinement. Finally, we show innovative power exhaust scenarios using liquid metals.

  15. Anti-Leishmania activity of new ruthenium(II) complexes: Effect on parasite-host interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mônica S; Gonçalves, Yasmim G; Nunes, Débora C O; Napolitano, Danielle R; Maia, Pedro I S; Rodrigues, Renata S; Rodrigues, Veridiana M; Von Poelhsitz, Gustavo; Yoneyama, Kelly A G

    2017-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The many complications presented by the current treatment - including high toxicity, high cost and parasite resistance - make the development of new therapeutic agents indispensable. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-Leishmania potential of new ruthenium(II) complexes, cis‑[RuII(η2-O2CR)(dppm)2]PF6, with dppm=bis(diphenylphosphino)methane and R=4-butylbenzoate (bbato) 1, 4-(methylthio)benzoate (mtbato) 2 and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (hmxbato) 3, in promastigote cytotoxicity and their effect on parasite-host interaction. The cytotoxicity of complexes was analyzed by MTT assay against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes and the murine macrophage (RAW 264.7). The effect of complexes on parasite-host interaction was evaluated by in vitro infectivity assay performed in the presence of two different concentrations of each complex: the promastigote IC50 value and the concentration nontoxic to 90% of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Complexes 1-3 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against all Leishmania species assayed. The IC50 values ranged from 7.52-12.59μM (complex 1); 0.70-3.28μM (complex 2) and 0.52-1.75μM (complex 3). All complexes significantly inhibited the infectivity index at both tested concentrations. The infectivity inhibitions ranged from 37 to 85%. Interestingly, the infectivity inhibitions due to complex action did not differ significantly at either of the tested concentrations, except for the complex 1 against Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. The infectivity inhibitions resulted from reductions in both percentage of infected macrophages and number of parasites per macrophage. Taken together the results suggest remarkable leishmanicidal activity in vitro by these new ruthenium(II) complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Cinnamon on Glucose of Type II Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Hasanzade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of type II diabetes is increasing across the world. Dietary modifications help the patients to control blood glucose. Traditional herbs and spices are commonly used for control of glucose among which cinnamon (肉桂 Ròu Guì; Cinnamomum cassia has the greatest effect. Research has shown that adding cinnamon to diet can help to lower the glucose level. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon on the glucose level in blood. This was a Randomized clinical trial in which 70 Patients with type II diabetes were assigned randomly two groups (35 in cinnamon and 35 in placebo group. The groups were matched in terms of body mass index (BMI, HbAlc and fasting blood sugar (FBS. Patients were treated with cinnamon and the placebo group was treated with placebo in addition to their routine treatment for 60 days. FBG levels and glycosylated hemoglobin of patients on the first day, and 1 and 2 months after treatment were measured. Data were analyzed using t-test and paired t-test in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS.16 software. The mean levels of FBS before, and 1 and 2 months after the intervention were 174±59, 169±43 and 177±45; respectively. The levels of HbAlc before and after the intervention in the cinnamon group were (8.9±1.7 and 8.9±1.6. There was no significant difference in FBS and glycosylated hemoglobin levels between the two groups (P=0.738 and P=0.87, respectively. Results showed that using certain amount of cinnamon for 60 days did not change the glucose level of diabetic patients. So, using cinnamon to type II diabetes patients cannot be recommended and more studies are needed in future.

  17. Effect of testosterone on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of cardiac fibroblasts induced by angiotensin II in neonatal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaocun; Wang, Ying; Yan, Shuxun; Sun, Lina; Yang, Guojie; Li, Yuan; Yu, Chaonan

    2017-01-02

    The objective is to explore the effect of testosterone on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (CF) induced by Angiotensin II (Ang II) and the underlying mechanisms. Derived from neonatal rats, the CFs were divided into 4 groups: the control group, Ang II group, testosterone group, and testosterone + Ang II group in vitro. Cell cycle distribution, collagen counts, and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) (p - ERK1/2) expression were assessed by flow cytometry, VG staining, and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The Ang II group had a much higher proportion of cells in the S-phase, higher collagen contents, and a higher p - ERK1/2 expression level than either the control or testosterone group. However, these factors were significantly reduced in the testosterone + Ang II group as compared to the Ang II group. In terms of cells in the S-phase and the collagen contents, there was not a significant difference between the testosterone group and the control. However, the protein expression of p-ERK1/2 was significantly increased in the testosterone group as compared to the control. Testosterone inhibits the proliferation and collagen synthesis of CF induced by Ang II. The underlying mechanism may involve the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

  18. Hypoglycemic effect of hawthorn in type II diabetes mellitus rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aierken, Aili; Buchholz, Tina; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiaoying; Melzig, Matthias F

    2017-10-01

    Hawthorn is a popular herb in many different traditional medicine systems, including traditional Chinese medicine, where it has long been used for the treatment of hyperglycemia. However, most of its varied biological activities remain unexplored. This study investigated the hypoglycemic effect of hawthorn extracts in type II diabetic (T2DM) rat model. A total of 54 rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control group; type II diabetic model group (T2DM; these rats were induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin); high, middle and low concentrations of hawthorn treatment (HTH , HTM and HTL T2DM rats were given hawthorn extract at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively); and positive control group (orlistat 40 mg kg-1 body weight). Triglyceride and total cholesterol serum levels were lower in the hawthorn extract-treated groups than in the T2DM control group (P hawthorn extracts decreased blood glucose level and increased plasma insulin release from pancreas. Positive effects of hawthorn against streptozotocin-induced T2DM were demonstrated. This study suggests that hawthorn extract represents a useful agent for the prevention or treatment of T2DM. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effect of substituents on prediction of TLC retention of tetra-dentate Schiff bases and their Copper(II) and Nickel(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Nikola R; Perušković, Danica S; Gašić, Uroš M; Antunović, Vesna R; Lolić, Aleksandar Đ; Baošić, Rada M

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to gain insights into structure-retention relationships and to propose the model to estimating their retention. Chromatographic investigation of series of 36 Schiff bases and their copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes was performed under both normal- and reverse-phase conditions. Chemical structures of the compounds were characterized by molecular descriptors which are calculated from the structure and related to the chromatographic retention parameters by multiple linear regression analysis. Effects of chelation on retention parameters of investigated compounds, under normal- and reverse-phase chromatographic conditions, were analyzed by principal component analysis, quantitative structure-retention relationship and quantitative structure-activity relationship models were developed on the basis of theoretical molecular descriptors, calculated exclusively from molecular structure, and parameters of retention and lipophilicity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. G protein-independent effects of the Angiotensin II type I receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte Lund

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptoren (AT1R) er en syv transmembranreceptor (7TMR) og et vigtigt terapeutisk target indenfor kardiovaskulær medicin. AT1R er gennem de seneste år blevet en model for det concept, at 7TMRer kan signalere via andre og mindre velbeskrevne signalveje end de G protein...... SII Angiotensin II (SII Ang II). På baggrund af massespektrometrianalyse fremlægger vi data som giver ny indsigt i Angotensin II’s (Ang II) signaltransduktion og som samtidig viser forskellen mellem fuld AT1R aktivering med Ang II og G protein uafhængig aktivering med SII Ang II. Resultaterne viser...

  1. Statistical Detection of the He ii Transverse Proximity Effect: Evidence for Sustained Quasar Activity for >25 Million Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias M. Schmidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The reionization of helium at z ~ 3 is the final phase transition of the intergalactic medium and supposed to be driven purely by quasars. The He ii transverse proximity effect—enhanced He ii transmission in a background sightline caused by the ionizing radiation of a foreground quasar—therefore offers a unique opportunity to probe the morphology of He ii reionization and to investigate the emission properties of quasars, e.g., ionizing emissivity, lifetime and beaming geometry. We use the most-recent HST/COS far-UV dataset of 22 He ii absorption spectra and conduct our own dedicated optical spectroscopic survey to find foreground quasars around these He ii sightlines. Based on a set of 66 foreground quasars, we perform the first statistical analysis of the He ii transverse proximity effect. Despite a large object-to-object variance, our stacking analysis reveals an excess in the average He ii transmission near the foreground quasars at 3σ significance. This statistical evidence for the transverse proximity effect is corroborated by a clear dependence of the signal strength on the inferred He ii ionization rate at the background sightline. Our detection places, based on the transverse light crossing time, a geometrical limit on the quasar lifetime of tQ > 25 Myr. This evidence for sustained activity of luminous quasars is relevant for the morphology of H i and He ii reionization and helps to constrain AGN triggering mechanisms, accretion physics and models of black hole mass assembly. We show how future modeling of the transverse proximity effect can additionally constrain quasar emission geometries and e.g., clarify if the large observed object-to-object variance can be explained by current models of quasar obscuration.

  2. Cytotoxic effects of palladium (II) and platinum (II) complexes with O,O'-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(4-methyl) pentanoic acid on human colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volarevic, V; Vujic, J M; Milovanovic, M; Kanjevac, T; Volarevic, A; Trifunovic, S R; Arsenijevic, N

    2013-01-01

    As novel therapeutic agents relevant to colon cancer therapy are explored continuously, we tested 4 R2edda-type ligand precursors O,O'-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(4-methyl)pentanoic acid (L1.2HCl-L4.2HCl) and corresponding palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes against the human colon cancer cell lines CaCo-2, SW480 and HCT116. The effects of the tested compounds on cell viability were determined using MTT colorimetric technique. Analysis of cancer cell viability showed that all tested ligand precursors, palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes were cytotoxic on human colon cancer cells in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic activity of all palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes toward selected cancer cells was significantly higher in comparison to cisplatin. Among the tested platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes the lowest activity was observed for the compounds with the shortest ester chain and the highest activity was noted for palladium(II) complex No.2 with the n-Pr group in ester chain and for platinum(II) complex No.7 with the n-Bu group in ester chain. Palladium(II) complex No.2 and platinum(II) complex No.7 seem to be good candidates for future pharmacological evaluation in the field of colon cancer research and treatment.

  3. Protective effects of coenzyme Q10 against angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Tokai, Emi; Suzuki, Takashi; Seki, Takayuki; Okubo, Kyosuke; Wada, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Tadashi; Koya, Sakuji; Kimura, Ikuko; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2013-02-15

    Angiotensin II is the major effector in the renin-angiotensin system, and angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are profoundly implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an antioxidant reagent, coenzyme Q10, on angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to assess its potential usefulness for antioxidant therapy. Treatment of HUVEC with coenzyme Q10 (1-10μM) increased its intracellular levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Coenzyme Q10 (10μM) prevented the actions of angiotensin II (100nM): overproduction of reactive oxygen species, increases in expression of p22(phox) and Nox2 subunits of NADPH oxidase, and inhibition of insulin-induced nitric oxide production. In addition, coenzyme Q10 prevented angiotensin II-induced upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in HUVEC, and inhibited their adhesion to U937 monocytic cells. Moreover, treatment of HUVEC with coenzyme Q10 effectively ameliorated angiotensin II-induced increases in expression of Nox2 subunit of NADPH oxidase, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. These results provide the first in vitro evidence that coenzyme Q10 is an efficient antioxidant reagent to improve angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, possibly relevant to the causes of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sulfide and pH effects on variable fluorescence of photosystem II in two strains of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria amphigranulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, W K; Castenholz, R W

    1990-06-01

    Changes in fluorescence of photosystem II (PS II) chlorophyll were used to monitor the in vivo effects of sulfide and pH on photosynthesis by the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria amphigranulata. O. amphigranulata is capable of both oxygenic photosynthesis and sulfide dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis. A genetic variant of O. amphigranulata which photosynthesizes oxygenically at normal rates, but is incapable of anoxygenic photosynthesis and cannot tolerate sulfide, was also used to explore the mode of action of sulfide. In vivo fluorescence responses of PS II chlorophyll in the first few seconds of exposure to light (Kautsky transients) reflected the electrochemical states of PS II and associated electron donors and acceptors. Kautsky transients showed a distinct difference between PS II of the wild type and the variant, but sulfide lowered fluorescence in both. Kautsky transients with sulfide were similar to transients with addition of NH2OH, NH4 (+) or HCN, indicating sulfide interacts with a protein on the donor side of PS II. The fluorescence steady-state (after 2 min) was measured in the presence of sulfide, cyanide and ammonium with pH ranging from 7.2-8.7. Sulfide and cyanide had the most impact at pH 7.2, ammonium at pH 8.7. This suggests that the uncharged forms (HCN, NH3 and H2S) had the strongest effect on PS II, possibly because of increased membrane permeability.

  5. Evaluation of drought impact on groundwater recharge rate using SWAT and Hydrus models on an agricultural island in western Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Clarifying the variations of groundwater recharge response to a changing non-stationary hydrological process is important for efficiently managing groundwater resources, particularly in regions with limited precipitation that face the risk of water shortage. However, the rate of aquifer recharge is difficult to evaluate in terms of large annual-variations and frequency of flood events. In our research, we attempt to simulate related groundwater recharge processes under variable climate conditions using the SWAT Model, and validate the groundwater recharge using the Hydrus Model. The results show that annual average groundwater recharge comprised approximately 33% of total precipitation, however, larger variation was found for groundwater recharge and surface runoff compared to evapotranspiration, which fluctuated with annual precipitation variations. The annual variation of groundwater resources is shown to be related to precipitation. In spatial variations, the upstream is the main surface water discharge area; the middle and downstream areas are the main groundwater recharge areas. Validation by the Hydrus Model shows that the estimated and simulated groundwater levels are consistent in our research area. The groundwater level shows a quick response to the groundwater recharge rate. The rainfall intensity had a great impact on the changes of the groundwater level. Consequently, it was estimated that large spatial and temporal variation of the groundwater recharge rate would be affected by precipitation uncertainty in future.

  6. Temporal-spatial distribution of non-point source pollution in a drinking water source reservoir watershed based on SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of drinking water source reservoirs has a close relationship between regional economic development and people’s livelihood. Research on the non-point pollution characteristics in its watershed is crucial for reservoir security. Tang Pu Reservoir watershed was selected as the study area. The non-point pollution model of Tang Pu Reservoir was established based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model. The model was adjusted to analyse the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP. The results showed that the loss of TN and TP in the reservoir watershed were related to precipitation in flood season. And the annual changes showed an "M" shape. It was found that the contribution of loss of TN and TP accounted for 84.5% and 85.3% in high flow years, and for 70.3% and 69.7% in low flow years, respectively. The contributions in normal flow years were 62.9% and 63.3%, respectively. The TN and TP mainly arise from Wangtan town, Gulai town, and Wangyuan town, etc. In addition, it was found that the source of TN and TP showed consistency in space.

  7. Assessing the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices for water quality improvements in the Vouga catchment (Portugal) using the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Rial-Rivas, María Ermitas

    2015-12-01

    The extensive use of fertilizers has become one of the most challenging environmental issues in agricultural catchment areas. In order to reduce the negative impacts from agricultural activities and to accomplish the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive we must consider the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we assess sustainable agricultural practices based on reductions in N-fertilizer application rates (from 100% to 0%) and N-application methods (single, split and slow-release) across key agricultural land use classes in the Vouga catchment, Portugal. The SWAT model was used to relate sustainable agricultural practices, agricultural yields and N-NO3 water pollution deliveries. Results show that crop yields as well as N-NO3 exportation rates decrease with reductions in N-application rates and single N-application methods lead to lower crop yields and higher N-NO3 exportation rates as compared to split and slow-release N-application methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of future climate change impacts on nonpoint source pollution in snowmelt period for a cold area using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bian, Jianmin; Zhao, Yongsheng; Tang, Jie; Jia, Zhuo

    2018-02-05

    The source area of Liao River is a typical cold region in northeastern China, which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS), it is important to understand future climate change impacts on NPS in the watershed. This issue has been investigated by coupling semi distributed hydrological model (SWAT), statistical downscaling model (SDSM) and global circulation model (GCMs). The results show that annual average temperature would rise by 2.1 °C (1.3 °C) in the 2080 s under scenario RCP8.5 (RCP4.5), and annual precipitation would increase by 67 mm (33 mm). The change in winter temperature and precipitation is most significant with an increase by 0.23 °C/10a (0.17 °C/10a) and 1.94 mm/10a (2.78 mm/10a). The future streamflow, TN and TP loads would decrease by 19.05% (10.59%), 12.27% (8.81%) and 10.63% (6.11%), respectively. Monthly average streamflow, TN and TP loads would decrease from March to November, and increase from December to February. This is because the increased precipitation and temperature in winter, which made the spring snowpack melting earlier. These study indicate the trends of nonpoint source pollution during the snowmelt period under climate change conditions, accordingly adaptation measures will be necessary.

  9. Studies on the mechanism of the positive inotropic effect of ATX II (Anemonia sulcata) on isolated guinea pig atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsen, C; Peters, T; Scheufler, E

    1982-01-01

    The basic polypeptide ATX II (MW 4,770) isolated from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata evokes a pronounced and dose-dependent positive inotropic effect in different mammalian heart preparations. The mechanism of this effect is so far unknown. (a) Investigations on isolated guinea pig atria indicate that changes of the steady state cellular Na, K and Ca concentrations cannot account for the positive inotropic effect. (b) An increase of the surface pressure of phospholipid monolayers was observed only at cardiotoxic ATX II concentrations. However, the 45Ca binding to phosphatidylserine, as the essential Ca-binding phospholipid, was not changed even at cardiotoxic ATX II concentrations. (c) Neither the enzymatic activity nor the ouabain inhibition kinetic of an isolated Na/K-ATPase preparation was affected by ATX II. (d) In intact electrically stimulated (1 Hz) guinea pig atria the binding of [3H]ouabain increases by about 50% at a positive inotropic ATX II concentration. The results suggest that the positive inotropic effect of ATX II is not caused by an unspecific membrane damaging action or by a direct interaction with the Na/K-ATPase. The increased binding of [3H]ouabain to intact heart muscles indirectly reflects an increased pump activity of the Na/K-ATPase, which is caused by an elevated Na transient due to the electrophysiologically well-established mechanism of the ATX II action on fast Na channel, i.e., delayed inactivation of the fast Na flux. However, the exact mechanism of the ATX II induced positive inotropic effect remains unknown.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Inhibitors Targeting Jak and Ikk Have An Anabolic Effect on Type II Collagen Turnover ex Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelgaard-Petersen, Cecilie Freja; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Karsdal, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tofacitinib and TPCA-1 had an increased anabolic effect on type II collagen turnover. The anabolic effect from Tofacitinib and TPCA-1 on top of the anti-catabolic effect indicates that the chondrocytes can repair the cartilage during treatment opposite to the p38 inhibitor that inhibits the catabolic...... and the anabolic response....

  11. Cephalometric effects of the use of 10-hour Force Theory for Class II treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise de Castro Cabrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric effects promoted by the orthodontic treatment of Class II malocclusion patients with the use of the 10-Hour Force Theory, that consists in the use of fixed appliances with 8 hours a day using a cervical headgear appliance and 16 hours a day using Class II elastics, 8 hours on the first mandibular molar and 8 hours in the second mandibular molar. METHODS: Sample comprised 31 patients with mean initial age of 14.90 years, final mean age of 17.25 years and mean treatment time of 2.35 years. The lateral cephalograms in pre-treatment and post-treatment stages were evaluated. Evaluation of cephalometric changes between initial and final treatment phases was performed by paired t test. RESULTS: The cases treated with the 10-Hour Force Theory presented a slight restriction of anterior displacement of the maxilla, increase in the effective length of the mandible, significant improvement of the maxillomandibular relationship, significant increase in anterior lower face height, distal tipping of the maxillary premolar crowns, extrusion and distal tipping of the roots of maxillary molars, significant proclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors, significant extrusion and mesialization of mandibular molars, besides a significant correction of the molar relationship, overjet and overbite. CONCLUSION: The use of the 10-Hour Force Theory in treatment of Class II malocclusion provided satisfactory results.OBJETIVO: esse estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cefalométricos promovidos pelo tratamento ortodôntico de pacientes com má oclusão de Classe II com o uso da Teoria de Força das 10 Horas, que consiste no uso de aparelho ortodôntico fixo, 8 horas diárias de uso de aparelho extrabucal cervical e 16 horas de uso de elásticos de Classe II, sendo 8 horas com apoio no primeiro molar inferior e 8 horas com apoio no segundo molar inferior. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 31 pacientes, com idade m

  12. Cu(II), Fe(III) and Mn(II) combinations as environmental stress factors have distinguishing effects on Enterococcus hirae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanyan, Zaruhi; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-02-01

    Pollution by various heavy metals as environmental stress factors might affect bacteria. It was established that iron (Fe(III)), manganese (Mn(II)) and copper (Cu(II)) ion combinations caused effects on Enterococcus hirae that differed from the sum of the effects when the metals were added separately. It was shown that the Cu2+-Fe3+ combination decreased the growth and ATPase activity of membrane vesicles of wild-type E. hirae ATCC9790 and atpD mutant (with defective FoF1-ATPase) MS116. Addition of Mn2+-Fe3+ combinations within the same concentration range had no effects on growth compared to control (without heavy metals). ATPase activity was increased in the presence of Mn2+-Fe3+, while together with 0.2 mmol/L N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), ATPase activity was decreased compared to control (when only 0.2 mmol/L DCCD was present). These results indicate that heavy metals ion combinations probably affect the FOF1-ATPase, leading to conformational changes. Moreover the action may be direct or be mediated by environment redox potential. The effects observed when Fe3+ was added separately disappeared in both cases, which might be a result of competing processes between Fe3+ and other heavy metals. These findings are novel and improve the understanding of heavy metals ions effects on bacteria, and could be applied for regulation of stress response patterns in the environment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effect of synbiotic supplementation on weight, body mass index and blood sugar in type II diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Kooshki; Tahereh Tofighian; Roya Akbarzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Obesity disrupts glucose homeostasis by metabolic disorders. Probiotics are nutritional and medicinal potential to control obesity and its related disorders. This study was aimed to investigate effects of synbiotic supplementation on weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) and blood sugar in type II diabetic patients. This clinical double-blind trial study was done on 43 (15 males and 28 females) type II diabetic patients who reffered to diabetes clinic in Sabzevar. The patients in the study were rando...

  14. Inhibitory effects of losartan and azelnidipine on augmentation of blood pressure variability induced by angiotensin II in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danfeng; Kawagoe, Yukiko; Kuwasako, Kenji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2017-07-05

    Increased blood pressure variability has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recently we reported that continuous infusion of angiotensin II not only elevated blood pressure level, but also increased blood pressure variability in a manner assumed to be independent of blood pressure elevation in rats. In the present study, the effects of the angiotensin type I receptor blocker losartan and the calcium channel blocker azelnidipine on angiotensin II-induced blood pressure variability were examined and compared with that of the vasodilator hydralazine in rats. Nine-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously infused with 240 pmol/kg/min angiotensin II for two weeks without or with oral administration of losartan, azelnidipine, or hydralazine. Blood pressure variability was evaluated using a coefficient of variation of blood pressure recorded every 15min under an unrestrained condition via an abdominal aortic catheter by a radiotelemetry system. Treatment with losartan suppressed both blood pressure elevation and augmentation of systolic blood pressure variability in rats infused with angiotensin II at 7 and 14 days. Azelnidipine also inhibited angiotensin II-induced blood pressure elevation and augmentation of blood pressure variability; meanwhile, hydralazine attenuated the pressor effect of angiotensin II, but had no effect on blood pressure variability. In conclusion, angiotensin II augmented blood pressure variability in an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent manner, and azelnidipine suppressed angiotensin II-induced augmentation of blood pressure variability, an effect mediated by the mechanism independent of the blood pressure-lowering action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, Lee E

    1997-01-01

    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...

  16. In vitro combinatory effects of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol and altertoxin II and potentially involved miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdovszky, Katharina; Sack, Matej; Jarolim, Katharina; Aichinger, Georg; Somoza, Mark M; Marko, Doris

    2017-02-05

    Alternariol (AOH) and altertoxin II (ATX II) are mycotoxins formed by Alternaria spp. Since they are expected to co-occur in Alternaria-infested food and feed, we addressed the question of combinatory effects. In addition, potentially involved regulatory microRNAs were surveyed in an exploratory approach. Cytotoxicity measurements in constant ratio combinations of 1:10 or 1:1 (ATX II: AOH) mainly revealed additive effects in HepG2, HT29 and HCEC-1CT cells. Yet, in specific high doses antagonism was found. Microarray analysis of miRNA expression profiles in HepG2 cells indicated different patterns of miRNA regulation by AOH and ATX II, including several miRNA species for which no distinct functions are currently known. Among others, miR-4654, miR-4715_3p and miR-6720_3p were up-regulated by AOH and miR-5583_5p was down-regulated by ATX II. Additionally, miR-1323, involved in hindering DNA repair mechanisms, was decreased by ATX II. Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) analysis of selected miRNAs indicated regulation of miR-29a by AOH, which might play a role in AOH-induced apoptosis. miR-192 and miR-224 regulation was associated with antagonistic cytotoxic effects of AOH and ATX II combinations. Our study represents the first evaluation on combinatory effects of AOH and ATX II. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. EFFECTS OF BETAHISTINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE AS ADJUVANT TO ENALAPRIL THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE CLASS II-II (NYHA SUFFERING FROM GIDDINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study adjuvant effect of betahistine dihydrochloride to ACE inhibitors in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF class II-III suffering from giddiness.Material and methods. 61 patients with CHF class II-III, ejection fraction ≤45% (Simpson suffering from giddiness were involved into randomized open parallel study. Patients were randomized to Betahistine dihydrochloride plus basic CHF therapy or only basic therapy groups. Enalapril dose titration was performed in all patients. Quality of life and giddiness severity evaluation, electrocardiogram was performed initially and after treatment. Clinical examination results, drug therapy and adverse event were registered at each visit.Results. The target ACE inhibitor dose (≥20 mg daily was reached in 97 % of patients. It led to significant reduction of dyspnea, edemas, CHF class reduction and life quality increase. Significant differences between investigated groups were not found. Reduction of giddiness severity was shown in both groups. There was a trend to more prominent improvement of life quality (р=0,08 and more frequent achievement of target ACE inhibitor dose in patients treated with betahistine dihydrochloride.Conclusion. The target ACE inhibitor dose can be achieved more than in 90% of patients with CHF class II-III without hypotension symptoms. Adjuvant usage of betahistine dihydrochloride is necessary in patients with CHF still suffering from giddiness after achievement of target ACE inhibitor dose.

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-II on 1- Methyl-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    II) on 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP)-induced oxidative damage in adult cortical neuronal cultures. ... development. However, in adults, there is a decrease in its synthesis, although IGF-II remains the most abundant insulin-like peptide in the adult brain, primarily expressed in ..... doses of IGF-II in aging rats, J. Transl.

  19. The effect of Mn(II) on the autoinducing growth inhibition factor in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Yu; Wong, Tit-Yee; Kuo, Jimmy; Liu, Jong-Kang

    2014-10-03

    Decreases in cell division at the stationary phase in bacterial cultures are often due to the depletion of nutrients and/or accumulation of toxic waste products. Yet, during the stationary phase, the highly radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans undergoes new rounds of cell division when Mn(II) is added to the medium in a phenomenon known as manganese-induced cell division (MnCD). When cells were cultured in medium without Mn(II)-enrichment, a heat-resistant, proteinase K-resistant factor (or factors) with a molecular mass less than 10 kD accumulated in the spent medium. Inclusion of the concentrated spent medium in fresh medium could inhibit the growth of D. radiodurans significantly, and the degree of inhibition was dose dependent. However, the relative stimulatory effect of MnCD was also dose dependent-the higher the inhibition, the stronger was the MnCD response. Previous studies have shown that nutrients were not limiting and deinococcal cells would continue metabolizing its nutrients at stationary phase. Cells became more sensitive to radiation when nutrients in the medium eventually became depleted. We speculated that D. radiodurans might produce this factor in the medium to control its population density. The reduction in cell population would conserve the nutrients that in turn might enhance the survival of the species.

  20. Effect of Cement Asphalt Mortar Debonding on Dynamic Properties of CRTS II Slab Ballastless Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The debonding of cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar is one of the main damage types in China railway track system II slab ballastless track. In order to analyze the influence of mortar debonding on the dynamic properties of CRTS II slab ballastless track, a vertical coupling vibration model for a vehicle-track-subgrade system was established on the base of wheel/rail coupling dynamics theory. The effects of different debonding lengths on dynamic response of vehicle and track system were analyzed by using the finite element software. The results show that the debonding of CA mortar layer will increase the dynamic response of track. If the length of debonding exceeds 1.95 m, the inflection point will appear on the vertical displacement curve of track. The vertical vibration acceleration of slab increases 4.95 times and the vertical dynamic compressive stress of CA mortar near the debonding region increases 15 times when the debonding length reaches 3.9 m. Considering the durability of ballastless track, once the length of debonding reaches 1.95 m, the mortar debonding should be repaired.

  1. A novel technique for compensation of space charge effects in the LUPIN-II detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, C.; Ferrarini, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Caresana, M.

    2015-12-01

    A new method for improving REM counter performance in Pulsed Neutron Fields (PNFs) has been developed. This method uses an analysis of the build-up of space charge in the counter to compensate for an underestimation of Ambient Dose Equivalent (H*(10)) in intense pulsed fields. It was applied to three sets of experimental data acquired using the LUPIN-II REM counter device, which is designed for use in PNFs. The data was acquired using the cyclotron at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), at the HiRadMat facility at CERN and at the 'Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste' (ELETTRA), Italy. A comparison of the data with and without this compensation method is used to highlight its effectiveness. The LUPIN-II performance, which has already been shown to be able to cope with fields of up to hundreds of nSv/burst, is improved by at least one order of magnitude, with further potential for improvement.

  2. Effects of pulp capping materials on fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Yasa, Bilal; Akcay, Merve; Savas, Selcuk; Kavrik, Fevzi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cavity design and the type of pulp capping materials on the fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations. Sixty freshly extracted, sound molar teeth were selected for the study. A dovetail cavity on the mesio-occlusal and a slot cavity on disto-occlusal surfaces of each tooth were prepared, and the teeth were divided 4 groups which one of them as a control group. The pulp capping materials (TheraCal LC, Calcimol LC, Dycal) applied on pulpo-axial wall of each cavity, and the restoration was completed with composite resin. The teeth were subjected to a compressive load in a universal mechanical testing machine. The surfaces of the tooth and restoration were examined under a stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using factorial analysis of variance and Tukey's test. For pulp capping materials, the highest fracture load (931.15 ± 203.81 N) and the lowest fracture load (832.28 ± 245.75 N) were calculated for Control and Dycal group, respectively. However, there were no statistically significant differences among all groups (P > 0.05). The fracture load of the dovetail groups was significantly higher than those of the slot cavity groups (P resistance in Class II composite restorations, independent of used or not used pulp capping materials.

  3. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  4. Exogenous L-Arginine Attenuates the Effects of Angiotensin II on Renal Hemodynamics and the Pressure Natriuresis-Diuresis Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Satarupa; Mattson, David L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Administration of exogenous L-Arginine (L-Arg) attenuates Angiotensin II (AngII)-mediated hypertension and kidney disease in rats. The present study assessed renal hemodynamics and pressure-diuresis-natriuresis in anesthetized rats infused with vehicle, AngII (20 ng/kg/min, iv) or AngII + L-Arg (300 µg/kg/min, iv). Increasing renal perfusion pressure (RPP) from approximately 100 to 140 mmHg resulted in a 9–10 fold increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate in control animals. In comparison, AngII infusion significantly reduced renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by 40–42% and blunted the pressure-dependent increase in urine flow and sodium excretion rate by 54–58% at elevated RPP. Supplementation of L-Arg reversed the vasoconstrictor effects of AngII and restored pressure-dependent diuresis to levels not significantly different from control rats. Experiments in isolated aortic rings were performed to assess L-Arg effects on the vasculature. Dose-dependent contraction to AngII (10−10M to 10−7M) was observed with a maximal force equal to 27±3% of the response to 10−5M phenylephrine. Contraction to 10−7M AngII was blunted by 75±3% with 10−4M L-Arg. The influence of L-Arg to blunt AngII mediated contraction was eliminated by endothelial denudation or incubation with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Moreover, the addition of 10−3M cationic or neutral amino acids, which compete with L-Arg for cellular uptake, blocked the effect of L-Arg. Anionic amino acids did not influence the effects of L-Arg on AngII-mediated contraction. These studies indicate that L-Arg blunts AngII-mediated vascular contraction by an endothelial- and NOS-dependent mechanism involving cellular uptake of L-Arg. PMID:24472006

  5. Investigation of detergent effects on the solution structure of spinach Light Harvesting Complex II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Mateus B; Smolensky, Dmitriy; Heller, William T; O' Neill, Hugh, E-mail: hellerwt@ornl.gov, E-mail: oneillhm@ornl.gov [Center for Structural Molecular Biology, Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The properties of spinach light harvesting complex II (LHC II), stabilized in the detergents Triton X-100 (TX100) and n-Octyl-{beta}-D-Glucoside (BOG), were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The LHC II-BOG scattering curve overlaid well with the theoretical scattering curve generated from the crystal structure of LHC II indicating that the protein preparation was in its native functional state. On the other hand, the simulated LHC II curve deviated significantly from the LHC II-TX100 experimental data. Analysis by circular dichroism spectroscopy supported the SANS analysis and showed that LHC II-TX100 is inactivated. This investigation has implications for extracting and stabilizing photosynthetic membrane proteins for the development of biohybrid photoconversion devices.

  6. Investigation of Detergent Effects on the Solution Structure of Spinach Light Harvesting Complex II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Mateus B [ORNL; Smolensky, Dmitriy [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL; O' Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The properties of spinach light harvesting complex II (LHC II), stabilized in the detergents Triton X-100 (TX100) and n-Octyl-{beta}-D-Glucoside (BOG), were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The LHC II-BOG scattering curve overlaid well with the theoretical scattering curve generated from the crystal structure of LHC II indicating that the protein preparation was in its native functional state. On the other hand, the simulated LHC II curve deviated significantly from the LHC II-TX100 experimental data. Analysis by circular dichroism spectroscopy supported the SANS analysis and showed that LHC II-TX100 is inactivated. This investigation has implications for extracting and stabilizing photosynthetic membrane proteins for the development of biohybrid photoconversion devices.

  7. Studies on the Effect pH on the Sorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pH on the sorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ ion onto Nypa fruticans Wurmb biomass was investigated. Initial pH value of 2, 5, 7, 9, and 12 were used for this study with varying initial concentrations of metal ions. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Flory-Huggins isotherms.

  8. Effects of Stitching on Delamination of Satin Weave Carbon-Epoxy Laminates Under Mode I, Mode II and Mixed-Mode I/II Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Walid; Michel, Laurent; Othomene, Renaud

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to characterize the effect of modified chain stitching on the delamination growth under mixed-mode I/II loading conditions. Delamination toughness under mode I is experimentally determined, for unstitched and stitched laminates, by using untabbed and tabbed double cantilever beam (TDCB) tests. The effect of the reinforcing tabs on mode I toughness is investigated. Stitching improves the energy release rate (ERR) up to 4 times in mode I. Mode II delamination toughness is evaluated in end-notched flexure (ENF) tests. Different geometries of stitched specimens are tested. Crack propagation occurs without any failure of stitching yarns. The final crack length attains the mid-span or it stops before and the specimen breaks in bending. The ERR is initially low and gradually increases with crack length to very high values. The mixed-mode delamination behaviour is investigated using a mixed-mode bending (MMB) test. For unstitched specimens, a simple mixed-mode criterion is identified. For stitched specimens, stitching yarns do not break during 25% of mode I ratio tests and the ERR increase is relatively small compared to unstitched values. For 70% and 50% of mode I ratios, failures of yarns are observed during crack propagation and tests are able to capture correctly the effect of the stitching: it clearly improves the ERR for these two mixed modes, as much as threefold.

  9. Effect of iron II on hydroxyapatite dissolution and precipitation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbem, A C B; Alves, K M R P; Sassaki, K T; Moraes, J C S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of iron II on the dissolution and precipitation of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA). HA powder was suspended in solutions of iron (0.84 µg/ml, Fe0.84; 18.0 µg/ml, Fe18; 70.0 µg/ml, Fe70), fluoride (1,100 µg/ml, F1,100), and deionized water and submitted to pH cycling. After pH cycling, the samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The concentrations of fluoride, calcium, phosphorus, and iron were also analyzed. The data were submitted to ANOVA, and analyzed by Tukey's test (p 0.05). There was an increase in Fe concentration in the HA directly related to the Fe concentration of the treatment solutions. Results show that the presence of Fe causes the precipitation of apatite with high solubility. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Effect of substituent of terpyridines on the DNA-interaction of polypyridyl ruthenium(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mohan N.; Gandhi, Deepen S.; Parmar, Pradhuman A.

    2011-12-01

    An octahedral complexes of ruthenium with 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmphen) and substituted terpyridine have been synthesized. The Ru II complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses, magnetic moment measurements, FT-IR, electronic, 1H NMR and FAB mass spectra. The binding strength and mode of interaction of the complexes with Herring Sperm DNA has been investigated using absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. Results suggest that the substituent on terpyridine ligand affects the binding mode and binding ability of the complexes. Effect of time and ionic strength on DNA cleavage ability of complex has also been studied by gel electrophoresis. Results suggest that more than 200 mM concentration of NaCl decreases the cleavage ability of complex.

  11. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Paim Patel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. METHODS: The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1, post-distalization (T2 and final phases of treatment (T3. For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. RESULTS: Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  12. Effects of citrate on hexavalent chromium reduction by structural Fe(II) in nontronite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Dong, Hailiang; Yang, Xuewei; Kovarik, Libor; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Iron-bearing clay minerals and organic matter are two important components in natural environments that influence hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction. Previous studies have shown that organic ligands could influence Cr(VI) reduction by aqueous Fe2+ and pyrite. However, the effects of organic ligands on Cr(VI) reduction by structural Fe(II) in clays are not well understood. In this study, the effects of citrate on Cr(VI) reduction by nontronite (NAu-2) were investigated under near neutral pH condition (pH=6). Our results showed that the presence of citrate decreased the rate but increased the amount of Cr(VI) reduction by structural Fe(II) in NAu-2. The decreased reaction rate was likely due to competitive sorption of citrate and polyanionic dichromate (Cr2O7- ), because sorption of dichromate appeared to be the first step for subsequent Cr(VI) reduction. The increased amount of Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of citrate was likely because citrate provided additional reducing power through ligand-metal electron transfer in the presence of soluble Fe 3+ derived from dissolution of reduced NAu-2. Soluble Cr(III)-citrate complex was the possible form of reduced chromium when citrate was present. In contrast, nanometer-sized Cr2O3 particles were the product of Cr(VI) reduction by reduced NAu-2 without citrate. Our study highlights the importance of organic ligands on Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization when iron-bearing clay minerals are applied to treat Cr(VI) contaminant in organic matter rich environments.

  13. Radiation reaction for spinning bodies in effective field theory. II. Spin-spin effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Natália T.; Galley, Chad R.; Leibovich, Adam K.; Porto, Rafael A.

    2017-10-01

    We compute the leading post-Newtonian (PN) contributions at quadratic order in the spins to the radiation-reaction acceleration and spin evolution for binary systems, entering at four-and-a-half PN order. Our calculation includes the backreaction from finite-size spin effects, which is presented for the first time. The computation is carried out, from first principles, using the effective field theory framework for spinning extended objects. At this order, nonconservative effects in the spin-spin sector are independent of the spin supplementary conditions. A nontrivial consistency check is performed by showing that the energy loss induced by the resulting radiation-reaction force is equivalent to the total emitted power in the far zone. We find that, in contrast to the spin-orbit contributions (reported in a companion paper), the radiation reaction affects the evolution of the spin vectors once spin-spin effects are incorporated.

  14. Protective effect of niacinamide on interleukin-1beta-induced annulus fibrosus type II collagen degeneration in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Deyu; Yang, Shuhua; Shao, Zengwu; Wang, Hong; Xiong, Xiaoqian

    2007-02-01

    The protective effect of niacinamide on interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-induced annulus fibrosus (AF) type II collagen degeneration in vitro and the mechanism were investigated. Chiba's intervertebral disc (IVD) culture models in rabbits were established and 48 IVDs from 12 adult Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, niacinamide-treated group, type II collagen degneration group (IL-1beta) and treatment group (niacinamide+IL-1beta). After culture for one week, AFs were collected for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cysteine containing aspartate specific protease-3 (Caspase-3) and type II collagen immunohistochemical examination, and type II collagen reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that rate of iNOS positive staining AF cells in the 4 groups was 17.6%, 10.9%, 73.9% and 19.3% respectively. The positive rate in treatment group was significantly lower than in the type II collagen degeneration group (Pniacinamide could effectively inhibit IL-1beta stimulated increase of iNOS and Caspase-3 in AF, and alleviate IL-1beta-caused destruction and synthesis inhibition of type II collagen. Niacinamide is of potential for clinical treatment of IVD degeneration.

  15. The Effect of Some Fluoroquinolone Family Members on Biospeciation of Copper(II, Nickel(II and Zinc(II Ions in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Djurdjevic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions in the presence of the fluoroquinolones (FQs moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, in human blood plasma was studied under physiological conditions by computer simulation. The speciation was calculated using an updated model of human blood plasma including over 6,000 species with the aid of the program Hyss2009. The identity and stability of metal-FQ complexes were determined by potentiometric (310 K, 0.15 mol/L NaCl, spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, ESI-MS and 1H-NMR measurements. In the case of Cu2+ ion the concentration of main low molecular weight (LMW plasma complex (Cu(CisHis is very slightly influenced by all examined FQs. FQs show much higher influence on main plasma Ni2+ and Zn2+ complexes: (Ni(His2 and Zn(CysCit, respectively. Levofloxacin exhibits the highest influence on the fraction of the main nickel complex, Ni(His2, even at a concentration level of 3 × 10−5 mol/L. The same effect is seen on the main zinc complex, Zn(CysCit. Calculated plasma mobilizing indexes indicate that ciprofloxacin possesses the highest mobilizing power from plasma proteins, toward copper ion, while levofloxacin is the most influential on nickel and zinc ions. The results obtained indicate that the drugs studied are safe in relation to mobilization of essential metal ions under physiological conditions. The observed effects were explained in terms of competitive equilibrium reactions between the FQs and the main LMW complexes of the metal ions.

  16. Selective accumulation and strong photodynamic effects of a new photosensitizer, ATX-S10.Na (II), in experimental malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Hirano, Toru; Li, Shaoyi; Koide, Masayo; Kohno, Eiji; Inenaga, Chikanori; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Yokota, Naoki; Yamamoto, Seiji; Terakawa, Susumu; Namba, Hiroki

    2005-11-01

    We investigated the feasibility of a novel photosensitizer, ATX-S10.Na (II), in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for glioma. First, PDT was performed in various brain tumor cell lines in vitro. Cytotoxicity depended upon both drug concentration and laser energy and the 50% inhibitory concentration ranged from 3.5 to 20 microg/ml. Next, PDT was performed in the subcutaneous and intracranial 9L tumor models in Fischer rats using ATX-S10.Na (II) and light from a 670-nm diode laser delivered by intratumoral insertion of an optical fiber. The effect of PDT on brain tumors was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Sequential changes of the ATX-S10.Na (II) concentrations were also measured quantitatively by fluorospectrometry up to 12 h after intravenous administration in rats with intracranial and subcutaneous tumors. The concentration of ATX-S10.Na (II) in the brain tumor reached a maximum at 2 h after administration and the tumor/normal brain concentration ratio was as high as 131 at 8 h. Intratumoral PDT for intracranial tumors irradiated at this timing showed an obvious anti-tumor effect without severe side effects. The present study demonstrated the highly selective accumulation of ATX-S10.Na (II) in tumor tissue and its potent photodynamic effect in an experimental malignant glioma model.

  17. Point-particle effective field theory II: relativistic effects and Coulomb/inverse-square competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, C. P.; Hayman, Peter; Rummel, Markus; Williams, Matt; Zalavári, László

    2017-07-01

    We apply point-particle effective field theory (PPEFT) to compute the leading shifts due to finite-sized source effects in the Coulomb bound energy levels of a relativistic spinless charged particle. This is the analogue for spinless electrons of calculating the contribution of the charge-radius of the source to these levels, and our calculation disagrees with standard calculations in several ways. Most notably we find there are two effective interactions with the same dimension that contribute to leading order in the nuclear size, one of which captures the standard charge-radius contribution. The other effective operator is a contact interaction whose leading contribution to δE arises linearly (rather than quadratically) in the small length scale, ɛ, characterizing the finite-size effects, and is suppressed by ( Zα)5. We argue that standard calculations miss the contributions of this second operator because they err in their choice of boundary conditions at the source for the wave-function of the orbiting particle. PPEFT predicts how this boundary condition depends on the source's charge radius, as well as on the orbiting particle's mass. Its contribution turns out to be crucial if the charge radius satisfies ɛ ≲ ( Zα)2 a B , where a B is the Bohr radius, because then relativistic effects become important for the boundary condition. We show how the problem is equivalent to solving the Schrödinger equation with competing Coulomb, inverse-square and delta-function potentials, which we solve explicitly. A similar enhancement is not predicted for the hyperfine structure, due to its spin-dependence. We show how the charge-radius effectively runs due to classical renormalization effects, and why the resulting RG flow is central to predicting the size of the energy shifts (and is responsible for its being linear in the source size). We discuss how this flow is relevant to systems having much larger-than-geometric cross sections, such as those with large

  18. Integrated modeling approach using SELECT and SWAT models to simulate source loading and in-stream conditions of fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranatunga, T.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of fate and transport of fecal bacteria in a watershed is generally a processed based approach that considers releases from manure, point sources, and septic systems. Overland transport with water and sediments, infiltration into soils, transport in the vadose zone and groundwater, die-off and growth processes, and in-stream transport are considered as the other major processes in bacteria simulation. This presentation will discuss a simulation of fecal indicator bacteria (E.coli) source loading and in-stream conditions of a non-tidal watershed (Cedar Bayou Watershed) in South Central Texas using two models; Spatially Explicit Load Enrichment Calculation Tool (SELECT) and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Furthermore, it will discuss a probable approach of bacteria source load reduction in order to meet the water quality standards in the streams. The selected watershed is listed as having levels of fecal indicator bacteria that posed a risk for contact recreation and wading by the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The SELECT modeling approach was used in estimating the bacteria source loading from land categories. Major bacteria sources considered were, failing septic systems, discharges from wastewater treatment facilities, excreta from livestock (Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Goat), excreta from Wildlife (Feral Hogs, and Deer), Pet waste (mainly from Dogs), and runoff from urban surfaces. The estimated source loads were input to the SWAT model in order to simulate the transport through the land and in-stream conditions. The calibrated SWAT model was then used to estimate the indicator bacteria in-stream concentrations for future years based on H-GAC's regional land use, population and household projections (up to 2040). Based on the in-stream reductions required to meet the water quality standards, the corresponding required source load reductions were estimated.

  19. Mechanism of the flame ionization detector. II. Isotope effects and heteroatom effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1997-01-01

    of 2%. The reason for the small or non-existent isotope effects is that H/2H exchange takes place in the pre-combustion hydrogenolysis in the flame. This was shown by taking samples from the lower part of the flame by means of a fused silica capillary probe. By the same technique the hydrogenolytic......The relative molar flame ionization detecton (FID) response (RMR) for a hydrocarbon does not change when deuterium is substituted for hydrogen. The exception is methane for which an inverse deuterium effect of 3..5% is observed for tetradeuteriomethane. [13C]Methane shows an inverse isotope effect...... reactions in the hydrogen flame of compounds added to the hydrogen gas in low concentrations were followed. Alcohols, ethers, ketones, and esters all produced methane and carbon monoxide, while amines produced methane and hydrogen cyanide, halogen compounds methane and hydrogen halide, etc. The FID response...

  20. Effects of excited state mixing on transient absorption spectra in dimers Application to photosynthetic light-harvesting complex II

    CERN Document Server

    Valkunas, L; Trinkunas, G; Müller, M G; Holzwarth, A R

    1999-01-01

    The excited state mixing effect is taken into account considering the difference spectra of dimers. Both the degenerate (homo) dimer as well as the nondegenerate (hetero) dimer are considered. Due to the higher excited state mixing with the two-exciton states in the homodimer, the excited state absorption (or the difference spectrum) can be strongly affected in comparison with the results obtained in the Heitler-London approximation. The difference spectrum of the heterodimer is influenced by two resonance effects (i) mixing of the ground state optical transitions of both monomers in the dimer and (ii) mixing of the excited state absorption of the excited monomer with the ground state optical transition in the nonexcited monomer. These effects have been tested by simulating the difference absorption spectra of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC II) experimentally obtained with the 60 fs excitation pulses at zero delay times and various excitation wavelengths. The pairs of coupled chlorophylls...

  1. Effective simultaneous removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions by a new magnetic zeolite prepared from stem sweep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safinejad, A.; Goudarzi, N.; Arab Chamjangali, M.; Bagherian, G.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we prepared a new magnetic zeolite (MZ), as a sorbent, from stem sweep and used for the removal of lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. Then the effective parameters involved in the removal efficiency of the studied ions were investigated. The synthetic MZ was characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The best conditions for the preparation of MZ were found to be as follow: %Fe3O4 loaded  =  25, Si/Al  =  1.5, Na2O/SiO2  =  2.0, H2O/Na2O  =  75.0, crystallization time  =  20.0 h, and crystallization temperature  =  110 °C. The magnetic adsorbent was obtained by coating the zeolite with iron oxide nanoparticles. To study the sorption performance of the synthetic adsorbent, the single and binary systems including Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were used. The effects of various parameters such as the solution pH, initial metal ion concentrations, amount of adsorbent, and contact time on the removal efficiency of the metal ions were studied. The results obtained showed that the adsorption isotherm data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm, and that the adsorption kinetics of the metal ions in a binary system followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model.

  2. Enhanced effect of HAH on citric acid-chelated Fe(II)-catalyzed percarbonate for trichloroethene degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaori; Brusseau, Mark L; Zang, Xueke; Lu, Shuguang; Zhang, Xiang; Farooq, Usman; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian

    2017-11-01

    This work demonstrates the impact of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HAH) addition on enhancing the degradation of trichloroethene (TCE) by the citric acid (CA)-chelated Fe(II)-catalyzed percarbonate (SPC) system. The results of a series of batch-reactor experiments show that TCE removal with HAH addition was increased from approximately 57 to 79% for a CA concentration of 0.1 mM and from 89 to 99.6% for a 0.5 mM concentration. Free-radical probe tests elucidated the existence of hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) and superoxide anion radical (O2(•-)) in both CA/Fe(II)/SPC and HAH/CA/Fe(II)/SPC systems. However, higher removal rates of radical probe compounds were observed in the HAH/CA/Fe(II)/SPC system, indicating that HAH addition enhanced the generation of both free radicals. In addition, increased contribution of O2(•-) in the HAH/CA/Fe(II)/SPC system compared to the CA/Fe(II)/SPC system was verified by free-radical scavengers tests. Complete TCE dechlorination was confirmed based on the total mass balance of the released Cl(-) species. Lower concentrations of formic acid were produced in the later stages of the reaction for the HAH/CA/Fe(II)/SPC system, suggesting that HAH addition favors complete TCE mineralization. Studies of the impact of selected groundwater matrix constituents indicate that TCE removal in the HAH/CA/Fe(II)/SPC system is slightly affected by initial solution pH, with higher removal rates under acidic and near neutral conditions. Although HCO3(-) was observed to have an adverse impact on TCE removal for the HAH/CA/Fe(II)/SPC system, the addition of HAH reduced its inhibitory effect compared to the CA/Fe(II)/SPC system. Finally, TCE removal in actual groundwater was much significant with the addition of HAH to the CA/Fe(II)/SPC system. The study results indicate that HAH amendment has potential to enhance effective remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater.

  3. Preventive Effects of Lamotrigine in Bipolar II Versus Bipolar I Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Takeshi; Ishida, Atsuko; Kimura, Toshifumi; Yarita, Masao; Hara, Terufumi

    2017-08-15

    The preventive effects of mood stabilizers on recurrence/relapse in bipolar disorders have been investigated mostly in bipolar I disorder (BPI) patients, with limited reports on bipolar II disorder (BPII) patients. Here, we conducted an explorative data analysis to investigate whether the preventive effect of lamotrigine on recurrence /relapse in BPII is better than in BPI. Data from Japanese patients with a diagnosis of BPI or BPII according to DSM-IV-TR were analyzed in an open-label, noninterventional, naturalistic, prospective postmarketing surveillance study of lamotrigine. This study was carried out from October 2011 to November 2014, and each patient was observed for 1 year. The time to recurrence/relapse of mood episodes after commencement of lamotrigine treatment was evaluated as a primary endpoint. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to compare the time to recurrence/relapse of mood episodes in BPI with in BPII using a log-rank test. Lamotrigine was associated with a significantly longer time to recurrence/relapse of mood episodes in BPII than in BPI (log-rank test, P = .0103). Lamotrigine also prolonged time to recurrence/relapse of mania-related episodes, including hypomanic episodes, more in BPII than in BPI (P = .0110). Although the preventive effect of lamotrigine on recurrence/relapse of mood episodes in BPI has been established in a variety of clinical studies, the present study suggests that lamotrigine may be more suitable for maintenance treatment in BPII than in BPI.

  4. Analyses of PWR spent fuel composition using SCALE and SWAT code systems to find correction factors for criticality safety applications adopting burnup credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Sung; Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki; Okuno, Hiroshi; Nomura, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    The isotopic composition calculations were performed for 26 spent fuel samples from the Obrigheim PWR reactor and 55 spent fuel samples from 7 PWR reactors using the SAS2H module of the SCALE4.4 code system with 27, 44 and 238 group cross-section libraries and the SWAT code system with the 107 group cross-section library. For the analyses of samples from the Obrigheim PWR reactor, geometrical models were constructed for each of SCALE4.4/SAS2H and SWAT. For the analyses of samples from 7 PWR reactors, the geometrical model already adopted in the SCALE/SAS2H was directly converted to the model of SWAT. The four kinds of calculation results were compared with the measured data. For convenience, the ratio of the measured to calculated values was used as a parameter. When the ratio is less than unity, the calculation overestimates the measurement, and the ratio becomes closer to unity, they have a better agreement. For many important nuclides for burnup credit criticality safety evaluation, the four methods applied in this study showed good coincidence with measurements in general. More precise observations showed, however: (1) Less unity ratios were found for Pu-239 and -241 for selected 16 samples out of the 26 samples from the Obrigheim reactor (10 samples were deselected because their burnups were measured with Cs-137 non-destructive method, less reliable than Nd-148 method the rest 16 samples were measured with); (2) Larger than unity ratios were found for Am-241 and Cm-242 for both the 16 and 55 samples; (3) Larger than unity ratios were found for Sm-149 for the 55 samples; (4) SWAT was generally accompanied by larger ratios than those of SAS2H with some exceptions. Based on the measured-to-calculated ratios for 71 samples of a combined set in which 16 selected samples and 55 samples were included, the correction factors that should be multiplied to the calculated isotopic compositions were generated for a conservative estimate of the neutron multiplication factor

  5. Ceramic materials for porcelain veneers: part II. Effect of material, shade, and thickness on translucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barizon, Karine T L; Bergeron, Cathia; Vargas, Marcos A; Qian, Fang; Cobb, Deborah S; Gratton, David G; Geraldeli, Saulo

    2014-10-01

    Information regarding the differences in translucency among new ceramic systems is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative translucency of the different types of ceramic systems indicated for porcelain veneers and to evaluate the effect of shade and thickness on translucency. Disk specimens 13 mm in diameter and 0.7-mm thick were fabricated for the following 9 materials (n=5): VITA VM9, IPS Empress Esthetic, VITA PM9, Vitablocks Mark II, Kavo Everest G-Blank, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, IPS e.maxPress, and Lava Zirconia. VITA VM9 served as the positive control and Lava as the negative control. The disks were fabricated with the shade that corresponds to A1. For IPS e.maxPress, additional disks were made with different shades (BL2, BL4, A1, B1, O1, O2, V1, V2, V3), thickness (0.3 mm), and translucencies (high translucency, low translucency). Color coordinates (CIE L∗ a∗ b∗) were measured with a tristimulus colorimeter. The translucency parameter was calculated from the color difference of the material on a black versus a white background. One-way ANOVA, the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference, and the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range tests were used to analyze the data (α=.05). Statistically significant differences in the translucency parameter were found among porcelains (PPM9, Empress Esthetic>Empress CAD>Mark II, Everest, e.max CAD>e.max Press>Lava. Significant differences also were noted when different shades and thickness were compared (Pveneers present varying degrees of translucency. The thickness and shade of lithium disilicate ceramic affect its translucency. Shade affects translucency parameter less than thickness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Different effects of copper (II), cadmium (II) and phosphate on the sorption of phenanthrene on the biomass of cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Yuqiang, E-mail: yqtao@niglas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Wei [Delaware Environmental Institute and Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19717-1303 (United States); Xue, Bin; Zhong, Jicheng; Yao, Shuchun; Wu, Qinglong [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Low level of Cu{sup 2+} inhibited but high level of Cu{sup 2+} facilitated the sorption of Phe. • Cation–π interaction between Cu{sup 2+} and PAH facilitated the sorption of Phe. • Phenanthrene sorption rebounding did not occur in the presence of high level Cd{sup 2+}. • Both Cd{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} inhibited the sorption of Phe, but had various mechanisms. -- Abstract: Due to the large surface area and high organic carbon content of cyanobacteria, organic contaminants can be readily sorbed on cyanobacteria during algal blooms, and then be transferred to the food web. This process is likely to be affected by the coexisting metals and nutrients, however, the possible impacts remain unclear. Effects of Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and phosphate on the sorption of phenanthrene on cyanobacterial biomass collected from an algal bloom were therefore studied. Continuous decrease in phenanthrene sorption was observed in the presence of low concentrations of Cu{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+} (<0.04 mmol L{sup −1}), because Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} were coadsorbed with phenanthrene on the surface of cyanobacteria as suggested by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses. Phenanthrene sorption began to increase with the further increase in Cu{sup 2+} concentration, but remained lower than that in the absence of Cu{sup 2+}. This increase in sorption was ascribed to the cation–π interaction between Cu{sup 2+} and phenanthrene, as suggested by the enhanced ultraviolet absorbance at 251 nm. In contrast, sorption rebounding of phenanthrene did not occur in the presence of higher concentrations of Cd{sup 2+}. The different effects of Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} on phenanthrene sorption were attributed to that Cd{sup 2+} required much more energy than Cu{sup 2+} to form cation–π complexes with phenanthrene in the solutions. Phenanthrene sorption decreased continuously with the increase

  7. Inhibition effects in the partial oxidation of cyclohexane on polymer supported Co(II catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA ODOVIC

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer supported catalysts with different contents of metal ions where synthesized by wet impregnation of the degassed support from ethanolic solutions of cobalt(II nitrate. Amacroreticular copolymer of poly-4-vinylpyridine with divinylbenzene was used as the support. The prepared catalysts were tested in the partial oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. Activity tests were performed in a stainless steel, laboratory scale, stirred autoclave, in the semi batch regime under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Isothermal experiments where performed at 170 °C for 120 min. In the non-isothermal conditions. isothermal experiments where performed at 170 °C for 120 min. In the non-isothermal experiments, a constant heating rate of 0.3 degree/min was used in the range between 110 °C and 170 °C. Non-linear, least-squares analysis with the simplex optimization method and numerical simulation of the reaction model in each iterative step was used for the kinetic characterization of the process in a non-stationary, semi-batch regime. Apparent rate constants were obtained as an invariant measure of the catalytic system. Anon-linear effect of the content of metal ions on the reaction rate and on the ratio of the yield of the products was observed, which is attributed to a complex interactions between the reaction medium and the heterogeneous catalyst, including a catalyst-inhibition effect.

  8. Effects of urotensin-II on cytokines in early acute liver failure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ming; Zhao, Liang; Liang, Dong-Yu; Yu, Fang-Ping; Ye, Chang-Gen; Tu, Wen-Juan; Zhu, Tong

    2015-03-21

    To investigate urotensin-II (UII) and its effects on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in early acute liver failure (ALF). We investigated the time-dependent alteration in UII levels and its effects on TNF-α and IL-1β in liver and blood in the early stage of lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced ALF. After lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine challenge, UII rose very rapidly and reached a maximal level 0.5 h, and the level remained significantly elevated after 2 h (P liver and blood at 6 h after challenge (P liver and blood TNF-α increased from 1 to 6 h, and reached a peak at 1 and 2 h, respectively; however, IL-1β did not rise until 6 h after challenge. Urantide pretreatment inhibited the degree of TNF-α and IL-1β increase following downregulation of UII post-challenge (all P < 0.05). UII plays a role in the pathogenesis and priming of ALF by triggering an inflammatory cascade and driving the early release of cytokines in mice.

  9. The effect of empagliflozin on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jens; Tank, Jens; Heusser, Karsten; Heise, Tim; Wanner, Christoph; Heer, Martina; Macha, Sreeraj; Mattheus, Michaela; Lund, Søren S; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C

    2017-09-01

    Inhibition of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 with empagliflozin results in caloric loss by increasing urinary glucose excretion and has a mild diuretic effect. Diuretic effects are usually associated with reflex-mediated increases in sympathetic tone, whereas caloric loss is associated with decreased sympathetic tone. In an open-label trial, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) (burst frequency, burst incidence, and total MSNA) was assessed using microneurography performed off-treatment and on day 4 of treatment with empagliflozin 25 mg once daily in 22 metformin-treated patients with type II diabetes (mean [range] age 54 [40-65] years). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, urine volume, and body weight were assessed before and on day 4 (BP, heart rate), day 5 (urine volume), or day 6 (body weight) of treatment with empagliflozin. After 4 days of treatment with empagliflozin, no significant changes in MSNA were apparent despite a numerical increase in urine volume, numerical reductions in BP, and significant weight loss. There were no clinically relevant changes in heart rate. Empagliflozin is not associated with clinically relevant reflex-mediated sympathetic activation in contrast to increases observed with diuretics in other studies. Our study suggests a novel mechanism through which sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition affects human autonomic cardiovascular regulation. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of inhalation exposure to SRC-II heavy and middle distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.L.; Miller, R.A.; Weimer, W.C.; Ragan, H.A.; Buschbom, R.L.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1984-11-01

    To expand the data base on potential health effects of coal liquefaction materials, we have performed studies with both solvent refined coal (SRC)-II heavy distillate (HD) and middle distillate (MD). Weight gain for exposed animals was less than that of controls and was dose-related, ranging from no significant difference for animals in the low-exposure group to failure to gain in the high-dose animals. Liver weights increased significantly over controls, and thymus weights decreased for animals sacrificed at 5 and 13 weeks. After both exposure periods, there were significant treatment-related decreases in erythrocyte parameters and in certain types of white blood cells (WBC). Bone marrow cellularity, and numbers of megakaryocytes consistently decreased, suggesting that bone marrow is a target tissue for high-boiling coal liquids. Microscopic evaluation of tissue indicated exposure-related changes is listed. In contrast to the reported mutagenic and carcinogenic effects observed for the high-boiling coal liquids, middle-boiling-range materials lacked such activity in these assays. These data demonstrate a great deal of similarity in the kinds of effects observed following exposure to middle- and high-boiling-range coal liquids. However, the significance of changes in organ weights and peripheral blood parameters are not always readily apparent following a subchronic study. Because of this, we exposed animals to HD in a manner similar to that for the subchronic experiment and have followed these animals throughout their lives for the development of adverse effects such as reduced longevity and the appearance of tumors. Results from this study will be available for mice in FY 1985 and for rats in FY 1986.

  11. The effects of some compounds of Mn(II and Zn(II on the multiplication of wine yeast and biosynthesis of carbohydrates in the biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agafia USATÎI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of investigation was to establish the influence of sulphates, acetates and coordination compounds of Mn(II and Zn(II as stimulators of the multiplication and growth of wine yeasts strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-20 and inducers of carbohydrate biosynthesis in biomass with the following elaboration of new procedures for directed carbohydrate biosynthesis. The study has been revealed that compounds MnSO4•4H2O, [Mn2Ac(2PyTCH-1,5-Bis(piridintiocarbohidrazid-dimanganese-acetate] and ZnLP-2 in optimal concentrations can be recommended as effective regulators of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-20 multiplications, as well as compounds [Mn(Gly2]Cl2, (CH3COO2Zn and ZnLP-2 in established concentrations - of the carbohydrates biosynthesis in the biomass of studied wine yeast strain. Stimulatory properties of studied compounds of Mn2+ and Zn2+ on carbohydrate biosynthesis in biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNMN-Y-20 can be explained both by the action of metal and by the nature of the ligand. The obtained biomass of wine yeast strain with high content of carbohydrates can be utilized for the obtaining of new bioproducts with the following application in the field of medicine and cosmetology.

  12. The Mathematics Education I and II Courses' Effect on Teacher Candidates' Development of Number Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the number sense performance of the classroom teacher candidates taking the Mathematics Education I and II courses. Moreover, it investigates whether there is a change in the number sense performance of the teacher candidates following the Mathematics Education I and II courses. Embedded experimental…

  13. The Effect of MHC Class II Transactivator on the Growth and Metastasis of Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    F. Manca, and R. S. Accolla. 1998. HLA class II expression in uninducible hepatocarcinoma cells after transfection of AIR-1 gene product CIITA...Cestari, A. D’Agostino, ’ A M Megiovanni, F. Manca, and R. S. Accolla. 1998. HLA class II expression in uninducible hepatocarcinoma cells after

  14. The effect of interaction between Lipoprotein Lipase and ApoVLDL-II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SNP in apoVLDL-II and lipoprotein lipase genes significantly (P < 0.05) affected total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein. More likely, the interaction of apoVLDL-II and lipoprotein lipase significantly affect total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein.

  15. Effects of Anemonia sulcata toxin II on presynaptic currents and evoked transmitter release at neuromuscular junctions of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgó, J; Mallart, A

    1985-12-01

    The effect of Anemonia sulcata toxin II (ATX-II) on the amount of transmitter released by nerve impulses was investigated in motor end-plates of the mouse. ATX-II (80 nM) caused repetitive end-plate potentials in response to a single nerve stimulus and a 3- to 4-fold increase in the quantal content of the phasic end-plate potential. This increase is less than what would be expected if ATX-II induced plateau action potentials at the motor endings. To solve this discrepancy presynaptic currents were recorded by focal extracellular electrodes. It was found that the K current present at the endings is strong enough to prevent the development of presynaptic plateau action potentials, in contrast to what has been observed in other excitable membranes (unmyelinated axons, nodes of Ranvier and skeletal muscle fibres). By using tetraethylammonium and 3,4-diaminopyridine to block K channels and Co2+ to block Ca channels, ATX-II allowed the development of prolonged plateau responses at the endings upon motor nerve stimulation. These results suggest that the mouse motor endings are endowed with a relatively powerful K channel system, which effectively controls the amount of presynaptic depolarization.

  16. Color stability and colorant effect on maxillofacial elastomers. Part II: weathering effect on physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, S P; Moore, B K; Andres, C J

    1999-04-01

    The clinical life of a maxillofacial prosthesis averages about 6 months, before it needs to be refabricated. Degradation of the color and physical properties of the prosthesis are the principle reasons for replacement. This second part of a 3-part in vitro investigation evaluated the change in physical properties of popular colorant-elastomer combinations as a result of weather exposure. Fifteen dumbbell-shaped and 15 trouser-shaped specimens were fabricated for each of the 3 elastomers (Silastic medical adhesive type A, Silastic 4-4210, and Silicone A-2186) and 6 colorant combinations (dry earth pigments, rayon fiber flocking, artist's oil paints, kaolin, liquid cosmetics, and no-colorants) for a total of 540 specimens. The 15 dumbbell-shaped and trouser-shaped specimens of each elastomer colorant combination were separated into 5 of each shape among 3 test condition groups (control, time passage, and natural weathering). Control specimens were evaluated within 1 month of fabrication. The time passage group was sealed in glass containers and kept in the dark for 6 months before testing. The natural-weathering groups were placed on the roof of the dental school for 6 months and exposed to sunlight and weathering. Evaluations of hardness and tear strength were made on trouser-shaped specimens, and evaluations of the ultimate tensile strength and percentage elongation on dumbbell-shaped specimens. Physical property data for each elastomer-colorant combination were subjected to a 1-way analysis of variance to examine effects among the test conditions. When significant differences were observed, the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test was performed to identify differences in elastomer-colorant combinations among each test condition at a significance level of .05. Exposure to weathering and time changes of the physical properties of many colorant-elastomer combinations indicated that properties of a clinical prosthesis can change with time. The addition of

  17. Effect of Dunaliella tertiolecta organic exudates on the Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A G; Santana-Casiano, J M; González-Dávila, M; Pérez-Almeida, N; Suárez de Tangil, M

    2014-07-15

    The role played by the natural organic ligands excreted by the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta on the Fe(II) oxidation rate constants was studied at different stages of growth. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon increased from 2.1 to 7.1 mg L(-1) over time of culture. The oxidation kinetics of Fe(II) was studied at nanomolar levels and under different physicochemical conditions of pH (7.2-8.2), temperature (5-35 °C), salinity (10-37), and dissolved organic carbon produced by cells (2.1-7.1 mg L(-1)). The experimental rate always decreased in the presence of organic exudates with respect to that in the control seawater. The Fe(II) oxidation rate constant was also studied in the context of Marcus theory, where ΔG° was 39.31-51.48 kJ mol(-1). A kinetic modeling approach was applied for computing the equilibrium and rate constants for Fe(II) and exudates present in solution, the Fe(II) speciation, and the contribution of each Fe(II) species to the overall oxidation rate constant. The best fit model took into account two acidity equilibrium constants for the Fe(II) complexing ligands with pKa,1=9.45 and pKa,2=4.9. The Fe(II) complexing constants were KFe(II)-LH=3×10(10) and KFe(II)-L=10(7), and the corresponding computed oxidation rates were 68±2 and 36±8 M(-1) min(-1), respectively.

  18. Improving Class II malocclusion as a side-effect of rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Susan S; McNamara, James A; Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the dentoalveolar and skeletal effects induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy in mixed dentition patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion compared with a matched untreated Class II Division 1 control group. The treatment sample consisted of cephalometric records of 50 patients with Class II malocclusion (19 boys, 31 girls) treated with an RME protocol including an acrylic splint expander. Some patients also had a removable mandibular Schwarz appliance or maxillary incisor bracketing as part of their treatment protocol. Postexpansion, the patients were stabilized with a removable maintenance plate or a transpalatal arch. The mean age at the start of treatment of the RME group was 8.8 years (T1), with a prephase 2 treatment cephalogram (T2) taken 4.0 years later. The control sample, derived from the records of 3 longitudinal growth studies, consisted of the cephalometric records of 50 Class II subjects (28 boys, 22 girls). The mean age of initial observation for the control group was 8.9 years, and the mean interval of observation was 4.1 years. All subjects in both groups were prepubertal at T1 and showed comparable prevalence rates for prepubertal or postpubertal stages at T2. Independent-sample Student t tests were used to examine between-group differences. Class II patients treated with the described bonded RME protocol showed statistically significant increases in mandibular length and advancement of pogonion relative to nasion perpendicular. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible, as shown by the improvements toward Class I in the maxillomandibular differential value, the Wits appraisal value, and the ANB angle. Patients treated with the bonded RME showed the greatest effects of therapy at the occlusal level, specifically highly significant improvement of Class II molar relationship and decrease in

  19. Development of a hydrologic connectivity dataset for SWAT assessments in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model based water quality assessments are as important informer of conservation and environmental policy in the US. The recently completed national scale Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is being repeated using newer data, greater resolution, and enhanced models. National assessment...

  20. Inhibition of (prorenin Receptor Contributes to Renoprotective Effects of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Angiotensin II (Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R blockade elevates (prorenin, which may bind to (prorenin receptor (PRR and exert receptor-mediated, angiotensin-independent profibrotic effects. We therefore investigated whether PRR activation leads to the limited anti-fibrotic effects of AT1R blockade on DN, and whether PRR inhibition might ameliorate progression of DN.Methods: To address the issue, the expression of RAS components was tested in different stages of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats (6, 12, and 24 weeks and 6-week AT1R blockade (losartan treated diabetic rats. Using the blocker for PRR, the handle region peptide (HRP of prorenin, the effects of PRR on high glucose or Ang II-induced proliferative and profibrotic actions were evaluated by measurement of cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 activity, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 expression in rat mesangial cells (MCs.Results: PRR was downregulated in the kidneys of different stages of diabetic rats (6, 12, and 24 weeks. Moreover, 6-week losartan treatment further suppressed PRR expression via upregulating AT2R, and ameliorated diabetic renal injury. HRP inhibited high glucose and Ang II-induced proliferative and profibrotic effects in MCs through suppressing TGF-β1 expression and activating MMP-2. Meanwhile, HRP enhanced losartan's anti-fibrotic effects through further inhibiting phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and TGF-β1 expression. Moreover, the inhibitive effect of HRP on Ang II-induced TGF-β1 expression depended on the regulation of PRR expression by AT2R.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that inhibition of PRR contributes to renoprotection against diabetic nephropathy by AT1R blockade.

  1. Effectiveness of Mutual Learning Approach in the Academic Achievement of B.Ed Students in Learning Optional II English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulselvi, Evangelin

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at finding out the effectiveness of Mutual learning approach over the conventional method in learning English optional II among B.Ed students. The randomized pre-test, post test, control group and experimental group design was employed. The B.Ed students of the same college formed the control and experimental groups. Each…

  2. Photo-electric effects on chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem II in vivo. Kinetics in absence and presence of valinomycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredenberg, W.J.; Bulychev, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence induction curves (F(t)) in low intensity 1s light pulses have been measured in leaf discs in the presence and absence of valinomycin (VMC). Addition of VMC causes: (i) no effect on the initial fluorescence level Fo and the initial (O-J) phase of F(t) in the 0.01-1 ms time range. (ii) An

  3. Effect of Jigsaw II, Reading-Writing-Presentation, and Computer Animations on the Teaching of "Light" Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Yasemin; Yildiz, Emre; Çaliklar, Seyma; Simsek, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Jigsaw II technique, reading-writing-presentation method, and computer animation on students' academic achievements, epistemological beliefs, attitudes towards science lesson, and the retention of knowledge in the "Light" unit covered in the 7th grade. The sample of the study consists…

  4. Solvent deuterium isotope effects in the catalysis of oxygen-18 exchange by human carbonic anhydrase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, C K; Silverman, D N

    1982-12-07

    By measuring the rate of exchange at chemical equilibrium of 18O between HCO3- and H2O catalyzed by human carbonic anhydrase II in the absence of buffers, we have determined the rate of release from the enzyme of water bearing substrate oxygen. The ratio of this rate measured in H2O to the rate measured in D2O, the solvent deuterium isotope effect, is between 4 and 9 in the range of pH(D) from 5.8 to 8.0, with a value of 8.0 +/- 0.7 at pH(D) 6.6 (uncorrected pH meter reading). The magnitude of this isotope effect at pH(D) 6.6 has an exponential dependence on the atom fraction of deuterium in solvent water. We conclude that an intramolecular proton transfer between a proton shuttle group on the enzyme and the active site is rate limiting for the release from the enzyme of water bearing substrate oxygen and involves a change in bonding of more than one proton. In contrast, the solvent deuterium isotope effect on the intermolecular proton transfer between the external buffer imidazole and the active site (or proton shuttle group) of the enzyme is small, 2.3 at pH(D) 7.0, as determined from initial velocity experiments. With a rate constant near 9 X 10(8) M-1 s-1, this intermolecular transfer is limited to a significant extent by diffusion processes.

  5. Effects of hypobaric pressure on human skin: implications for cryogen spray cooling (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Franco, Walfre; Liu, Jie; Svaasand, Lars O; Nelson, J Stuart

    2005-02-01

    Clinical results have demonstrated that dark purple port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks respond favorably to laser induced photothermolysis after the first three to five treatments. Nevertheless, complete blanching is rarely achieved and the lesions stabilize at a red-pink color. In a feasibility study (Part I), we showed that local hypobaric pressure on PWS human skin prior to laser irradiation induced significant lesion blanching. The objective of the present study (Part II) is to investigate the effects of hypobaric pressures on the efficiency of cryogen spray cooling (CSC), a technique that assists laser therapy of PWS and other dermatoses. Experiments were carried out within a suction cup and vacuum chamber to study the effect of hypobaric pressure on the: (1) interaction of cryogen sprays with human skin; (2) spray atomization; and (3) thermal response of a model skin phantom. A high-speed camera was used to acquire digital images of spray impingement on in vivo human skin and spray cones generated at different hypobaric pressures. Subsequently, liquid cryogen was sprayed onto a skin phantom at atmospheric and 17, 34, 51, and 68 kPa (5, 10, 15, and 20 in Hg) hypobaric pressures. A fast-response temperature sensor measured sub-surface phantom temperature as a function of time. Measurements were used to solve an inverse heat conduction problem to calculate surface temperatures, heat flux, and overall heat extraction at the skin phantom surface. Under hypobaric pressures, cryogen spurts did not produce skin indentation and only minimal frost formation. Sprays also showed shorter jet lengths and better atomization. Lower minimum surface temperatures and higher overall heat extraction from skin phantoms were reached. The combined effects of hypobaric pressure result in more efficient cryogen evaporation that enhances heat extraction and, therefore, improves the epidermal protection provided by CSC. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. APLICAÇÃO DO MODELO SWAT PARA ESTUDO DE CENÁRIOS HIPOTÉTICOS NA BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DO RIACHO DOS NAMORADOS NO CARIRI PARAIBANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guimarães de Carvalho Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizam-se modelos hidrossedimentológicos para aquisição de informações pertinentes para o planejamento eo gerenciamento de recursos hídricos. A elaboração de cenários, sejam realistas ou hipotéticos, sem alto custoe tornando possível o estudo das diferentes respostas dos processos hidrológicos são uma grande vantagemdos modelos computacionais. O modelo hidrossedimentológico SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool foiutilizado na simulação da bacia hidrográfica do Riacho dos Namorados proporcionando a investigação dequatro diferentes cenários. Os cenários vislumbravam toda a área com a cobertura análoga a caatinga,algaroba, milho e solo exposto. A simulação do quadro atual, com diversas coberturas do solo e a presença dequatro açudes, é exibida para fins de comparação. A simulação com o modelo SWAT ofereceu resultadoscoerentes nos processos de escoamento superficial e aporte de sedimentos, assegurando a sua eficiência eenaltecendo a importância do estudo de cenários nos processos decisórios.

  7. Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess land use impact on water resources in an East African watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tracy J.; Miller, Scott N.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryLand cover and land use changes in Kenya's Rift Valley have altered the hydrologic response of the River Njoro watershed by changing the partitioning of excess rainfall into surface discharge and groundwater recharge. The watershed contributes a significant amount of water to Lake Nakuru National Park, an internationally recognized Ramsar site, as well as groundwater supplies for local communities and the city of Nakuru. Three land use maps representing a 17-year period when the region underwent significant transitions served as inputs for hydrologic modeling using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool, a GIS-based hydrologic modeling system. AGWA was used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a hydrologic model suitable for assessing the relative impact of land cover change on hydrologic response. The SWAT model was calibrated using observation data taken during the 1990s with high annual concordance. Simulation results showed that land use changes have resulted in corresponding increases in surface runoff and decreases in groundwater recharge. Hydrologic changes were highly variable both spatially and temporally, and the uppermost reaches of the forested highlands were most significantly affected. These changes have negative implications for the ecological health of the river system as well as Lake Nakuru and local communities.

  8. Using SWAT and Fuzzy TOPSIS to Assess the Impact of Climate Change in the Headwaters of the Segura River Basin (SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Senent-Aparicio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Segura River Basin is one of the most water-stressed basins in Mediterranean Europe. If we add to the actual situation that most climate change projections forecast important decreases in water resource availability in the Mediterranean region, the situation will become totally unsustainable. This study assessed the impact of climate change in the headwaters of the Segura River Basin using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT with bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data from two Regional Climate Models (RCMs for the medium term (2041–2070 and the long term (2071–2100 under two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Bias correction was performed using the distribution mapping approach. The fuzzy TOPSIS technique was applied to rank a set of nine GCM–RCM combinations, choosing the climate models with a higher relative closeness. The study results show that the SWAT performed satisfactorily for both calibration (NSE = 0.80 and validation (NSE = 0.77 periods. Comparing the long-term and baseline (1971–2000 periods, precipitation showed a negative trend between 6% and 32%, whereas projected annual mean temperatures demonstrated an estimated increase of 1.5–3.3 °C. Water resources were estimated to experience a decrease of 2%–54%. These findings provide local water management authorities with very useful information in the face of climate change.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the desoxyribonuclease II activity of isolated mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OKADA, S; PEACHY, L D

    1957-03-25

    1. Exposure of isolated liver mitochondria to high doses of gamma rays from a Co(60) source causes the level of DNase II activity to increase. Treatment of the mitochondria with sonic vibration causes a further elevation of the activity to a level which is independent of the prior radiation dose. 2. Such increased mitochondrial DNase II activity appears to be due to the "structural damage" of the subcellular particulates caused by the ionizing radiation. Other methods of disrupting the mitochondrial structure also cause increased DNase II activity. A causal relationship between the structural alteration and the increased enzymatic activity is postulated. 3. The DNase II activity appears to be closely associated with the structural elements of the mitochondria and remains associated with the fragments after irradiation. 4. Upon irradiation, the mitochondrial suspension releases ultraviolet-absorbing materials which are probably nucleotide in nature. 5. The possibility of localization of DNase activity in the lysosome fraction of de Duve (15) is discussed. It is felt that DNase II is at least in part a mitochondrial enzyme and that probably the conclusions drawn here would be applicable to any DNase II present in the lysosomes as well. 6. Irradiation of whole liver homogenate causes no increased DNase II activity. The experiments do not provide any information on the presence or action of protective substances in the homogenate.

  10. Investigation in vitro Effects of Rivastigmine and Galantamine Used to Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease on CA Isozymes I and II

    OpenAIRE

    DİLEK, Esra; ÇANKAYA, Murat; EZMECİ, Talat; SUNAR, Mukadder; ÇOBAN, T. Abdulkadir

    2017-01-01

    The carbonicanhydrases (CA, EC. 4.2.1.1) are an expanding family of zinc-containing enzymescatalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 in a two-step reaction toyield HCO3-and H+. These enzymes playimportant roles in several physiological/pathological processes. The aim ofthis study is to evaluate in vitrothe effects of these drug active substances which use which use for treatmentof Alzheimer disease on CA I and II isoenzyme. CA I and II isoenzymes fromhuman blood have been purified using Seph...

  11. Recovery Effect and Life Prolong Effect of Long Term Low-Dose Rate Irradiation on Type II Diabetes Model Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, T.; Makino, N.; Oda, T.; Suzuki, I.; Sakai, K

    2004-07-01

    The effects of low-dose rate gamma-irradiation were investigated on model mice for type II diabetes mellitus, C57BL/KsJ-db/db. The mice develop the type II diabetes by 10 weeks of age due to obesity and are characterized by hyperinsulinemia. Female 10-week old mice, a group of 12 mice, were irradiated at 0.65 mGy/hr from 137-Cs (370 GBq). The urine glucose levels of all of the mice were strongly positive at the beginning of the irradiation. In the irradiated group, the decrease in the glucose level was observed in 3 mice. Such recovery from the diabetes was never observed in 12 mice of non-irradiated control group. There is no systematic difference in the change of body weight, food assumption, and amount of drinking water, between the irradiated group and the non-irradiated group or between the recovered mice and the non-recovered mice. The survival was better in the irradiated group: the surviving fraction at the age of 90 weeks was 75% in the irradiated group, while 40% in the non-irradiated. Marked difference was also observed in the appearance of the coat hair, skin, and tail; better condition was kept in the irradiated group. In the irradiated mice mortality was delayed and the healthy appearance was prolonged in the irradiated mice by about 20 ? 30 weeks compared with the non-irradiated mice. These results suggest that the low-dose irradiation modified the condition of the diabetic mice, which lead not only to the recovery of the diabetes, but also to the suppression of the aging process. (Author)

  12. Effects of Icariside II on Corpus Cavernosum and Major Pelvic Ganglion Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yi Bai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic erectile dysfunction is associated with penile dorsal nerve bundle neuropathy in the corpus cavernosum and the mechanism is not well understood. We investigated the neuropathy changes in the corpus cavernosum of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the effects of Icariside II (ICA II on improving neuropathy. Thirty-six 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into normal control group, diabetic group and ICA-II treated group. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Three days later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 2 groups including a saline treated placebo group and an ICA II-treated group (5 mg/kg/day, by intragastric administration daily. Twelve weeks later, erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation with real time intracorporal pressure assessment. The penis was harvested for the histological examination (immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy detecting. Diabetic animals exhibited a decreased density of dorsal nerve bundle in penis. The neurofilament of the dorsal nerve bundle was fragmented in the diabetic rats. There was a decreased expression of nNOS and NGF in the diabetic group. The ICA II group had higher density of dorsal nerve bundle, higher expression of NGF and nNOS in the penis. The pathological change of major pelvic nerve ganglion (including the microstructure by transmission electron microscope and the neurite outgrowth length of major pelvic nerve ganglion tissue cultured in vitro was greatly attenuated in the ICA II-treated group (p < 0.01. ICA II treatment attenuates the diabetes-related impairment of corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion neuropathy in rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

  13. Effects of Icariside II on corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Guang-Yi; Zhou, Feng; Hui, Yu; Xu, Yong-De; Lei, Hong-En; Pu, Jin-Xian; Xin, Zhong-Cheng

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic erectile dysfunction is associated with penile dorsal nerve bundle neuropathy in the corpus cavernosum and the mechanism is not well understood. We investigated the neuropathy changes in the corpus cavernosum of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the effects of Icariside II (ICA II) on improving neuropathy. Thirty-six 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into normal control group, diabetic group and ICA-II treated group. Diabetes was induced by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Three days later, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 2 groups including a saline treated placebo group and an ICA II-treated group (5 mg/kg/day, by intragastric administration daily). Twelve weeks later, erectile function was measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation with real time intracorporal pressure assessment. The penis was harvested for the histological examination (immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining) and transmission electron microscopy detecting. Diabetic animals exhibited a decreased density of dorsal nerve bundle in penis. The neurofilament of the dorsal nerve bundle was fragmented in the diabetic rats. There was a decreased expression of nNOS and NGF in the diabetic group. The ICA II group had higher density of dorsal nerve bundle, higher expression of NGF and nNOS in the penis. The pathological change of major pelvic nerve ganglion (including the microstructure by transmission electron microscope and the neurite outgrowth length of major pelvic nerve ganglion tissue cultured in vitro) was greatly attenuated in the ICA II-treated group (p < 0.01). ICA II treatment attenuates the diabetes-related impairment of corpus cavernosum and major pelvic ganglion neuropathy in rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

  14. EFFECT OF DIATOMEAOUS EARTH TREATMENT USING HYDROGEN CHLORIDE AND SULFURIC ACID ON KINETICS OF CADMIUM(II ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryono Nuryono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, treatment of diatomaceous earth, Sangiran, Central Java using hydrogen chloride (HCl and sulfuric acid (H2SO4 on kinetics of Cd(II adsorption in aqueous solution has been carried out. The work was conducted by mixing an amount of grounded diatomaceous earth (200 mesh in size with HCl or H2SO4 solution in various concentrations for two hours at temperature range of 100 - 150oC. The mixture was then filtered and washed with water until the filtrate pH is approximately 7 and then the residue was dried for four hours at a temperature of 70oC. The product was used as an adsorbent to adsorb Cd(II in aqueous solution with various concentrations. The Cd(II adsorbed was determined by analyzing the rest of Cd(II in the solution using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effect of treatment was evaluated from kinetic parameter of adsorption rate constant calculated based on the simple kinetic model. Results showed  that before equilibrium condition reached, adsorpstion of Cd(II occurred through two steps, i.e. a step tends to follow a reaction of irreversible first order  (step I followed by reaction of reversible first order (step II. Treatment with acids, either hydrogen chloride or sulfuric acid, decreased adsorption rate constant for the step I from 15.2/min to a range of 6.4 - 9.4/min.  However, increasing concentration of acid (in a range of concentration investigated did not give significant and constant change of adsorption rate constant. For step II process,  adsorption involved physical interaction with the sufficient low adsorption energy (in a range of 311.3 - 1001 J/mol.     Keywords: adsorption, cdmium, diatomaceous earth, kinetics.

  15. The Effect of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Depression in Women With Type II Diabetes

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    Jooj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of psychological disorders and symptoms. Objectives This research investigated the effect of group reminiscence therapy on depression among women with type II diabetes. Patients and Methods The present study was a clinical trial study. Twenty-four patients referring to the diabetic clinic of Golestan hospital in Ahvaz, Iran were selected through simple random sampling and were divided in two groups. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. Group reminiscence therapy was held over eight biweekly sessions, each lasting 90 minutes. Finally, data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Chi-Square tests, using SPSS version 20. Results A significant difference was observed between the two groups after the intervention (P = 0.001. The rating for depression decreased significantly in the experimental group. Before the group reminiscence therapy, the highest rating for depression obtained by the experimental group was “need for consultation” (50%, whereas after the intervention, the highest rating was “no depression” (50%. One month after the intervention, the highest rating obtained for depression was “low” (50%. Conclusions Reminiscence therapy decreased depression among diabetic female patients after the intervention and one month after the intervention. It can be said that, through the reminiscence therapy, patients’ past memories were reviewed and emphasis on the positive aspects thereof in the group setting was followed by an increased sense of self-worth and a decrease in depression.

  16. [The effect of vitamin C on the lipolytic activity in type-II diabetics with angiopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana Mantilla, M E; Simón Carballo, R; Fernández Montequín, J I; Lima Santana, B; Cardona Alvarez, M E; Morejón Reinoso, O

    1991-01-01

    Effects produced by different doses of Vit C (2, 3 and 4 gr/day) on lipoprotein and hepatic lipase activities were studied between a group of 35 ambulatory patients, men and women, affected by diabetes mellitus type II with macroangiopathy at lower limbs and/or food. The medium age of patients was 62 years, ranging from 44 to 82 years. Patients were aleatory divided into four groups. One from those four groups was treated with placebo, the other three received Vit C. In the group treated with 3 gr./day of Vit C we found a significant reduction and increase (p less than 0.05) of lipoprotein and hepatic lipase activities, respectively, when we compared outcomes before and after eight weeks of treatment with Vit C. By other hand, when we compared the different groups, we found a significant increase in the hepatic lipase activity in the same group, particularly between the patients whose plasmatic Vit C levels before treatment were reduced. We didn't found any significant change in the rest of parameters.

  17. The Chemical and Biological Effects of cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum (II), an Antitumor Agent, on DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchausen, Linda L.

    1974-01-01

    cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum (II) binds irreversibly to the bases in DNA; the amount of platinum complex bound can be determined from changes in the ultraviolet absorption spectrum. As the ratio of platinum to phosphate is increased, an increasing inactivation of bacterial transforming DNA is observed. At a ratio that corresponds to spectrometric saturation, transforming activity is inactivated >105-fold. The trans isomer of the platinum complex, which is not effective against tumors, induces a similar inactivation of transforming DNA but with half the efficiency, indicating a different mode of binding. The sensitivity to inactivation by cis isomer varies slightly with the genetic marker assayed but is not dependent on the excision repair system. Uptake of DNA by competent cells is unaffected by bound platinum complex; however, integration of platinum-bound transforming DNA into the host genome decreases as the mole fraction of platinum increases. This loss of integration parallels the decreased transforming activity of the DNA. Although the drug induces interstrand crosslinks in DNA in vitro, these crosslinks are relatively rare events and cannot account for the observed inactivation. PMID:4548188

  18. Effects of citrate on hexavalent chromium reduction by structural Fe(II) in nontronite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolei; Dong, Hailiang; Yang, Xuewei; Kovarik, Libor; Chen, Yu; Zeng, Qiang

    2018-02-05

    Previous studies have shown that organic ligands could influence Cr(VI) reduction by aqueous Fe(2+) and pyrite. In this study, the effects of citrate on Cr(VI) reduction by structural Fe(II) in nontronite (NAu-2) were investigated at pH 6. Our results showed that the presence of citrate decreased the rate but increased the amount of Cr(VI) reduction. The decreased rate was likely due to competitive sorption of citrate and anionic dichromate (Cr2O7(-)) to NAu-2 surface sites, because sorption of dichromate appeared to be the first step for subsequent Cr(VI) reduction. The increased amount of Cr(VI) reduction was likely because citrate served as an additional electron donor to reduce Cr(VI) through ligand-metal electron transfer in the presence of soluble Fe(3+), which was possibly derived from dissolution of reduced NAu-2. Soluble Cr(III)-citrate complex was a possible form of reduced Cr(VI) when citrate was present. Without citrate, nanometer-sized Cr2O3 particles were the product of Cr(VI) reduction. Our study highlights the importance of citrate on Cr(VI) reduction and immobilization when iron-rich smectite is applied to treat Cr(VI) contaminant in organic carbon rich environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of resistance training on binge eating, body composition and blood variables in type II diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Simão Santa Rosa de Sousa

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on binge eating, body composition and blood variables and their correlations in 34 sedentary adults with type II diabetes. The participants aged 58.94 ± 10.66, had body weight of 71.62 ± 11.85 and BMI of 29.64 ± 4.27. Blood samples were collected for analysis of serum leptin, glucose, insulin, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride. The binge eating was assessed by the binge eating scale and the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. The training included three weekly sessions for 12 weeks, with three sets from 12 to 15 repetitions for the main muscle groups, and interval from 1 to 2 minutes between the sets. A significant decrease was found for the binge eating, body weight, BMI, fat percentage, and fat weight. As for the blood variables, there was a significant reduction in leptin; non-significant reductions in glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides; as well a significant increase in HDL and non-significant increase in insulin. In conclusion the 12 weeks of RT proved to be enough to decrease the binge eating, to positively adjust the body composition and to modify the blood profile, demonstrating an association at a lower or higher level between these variables.

  20. Confining the sodium pump in a phosphoenzyme form: the effect of lead(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolommei, Gianluca; Gramigni, Elisa; Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Santini, Giacomo; Moncelli, Maria Rosa

    2010-10-06

    The effect of Pb(2+) ions on the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was investigated in detail by means of steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. Experiments were performed by using the electrochromic styryl dye RH421. It is shown that Pb(2+) ions can bind reversibly to the protein and do not affect the Na(+) and K(+) binding affinities in the E(1) and P-E(2) conformations of the enzyme. The pH titrations indicate that lead(II) favors binding of one H(+) to the P-E(2) conformation in the absence of K(+). A model scheme is proposed that accounts for the experimental results obtained for backdoor phosphorylation of the enzyme in the presence of Pb(2+) ions. Taken together, our results clearly indicate that Pb(2+) bound to the enzyme stabilizes an E(2)-type conformation. In particular, under conditions that promote enzyme phosphorylation, Pb(2+) ions are able to confine the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase into a phosphorylated E(2) state. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of stressed economic conditions on credit risk in Basel II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja'nel Esterhuysen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The robustness of the Basel II accord in protecting banks during volatile economic periods has been challenged in the ongoing credit crisis. In particular, advanced approaches to measuring and managing credit risk have drawn criticism for being both irrelevant and too complex. Despite accusations that the accord was largely responsible for the crisis, this article explores which of Basel II's credit risk approaches were more successful in allocating capital. It was found that, in general, compliance with Basel II actually protected banks during the crisis, with simpler approaches enjoying greater success than more advanced ones in protecting banks against credit risk.

  2. Copper (II and 2,2'-bipyridine complexation improves chemopreventive effects of naringenin against breast tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Conceição Filho

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and there is epidemiological evidence that demonstrates this tendency is emerging. Naringenin (NGEN is a trihydroxyflavanone that shows various biological effects such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. It belongs to flavanone class, which represents flavonoids with a C6-C3-C6 skeleton. Flavonoids do not exhibit sufficient activity to be used for chemotherapy, however they can be chemically modified by complexation with metals such as copper (Cu (II for instance, in order to be applied for adjuvant therapy. This study investigated the effects of Cu(II and 2,2'-bipyridine complexation with naringenin on MDA-MB-231 cells. We demonstrated that naringenin complexed with Cu(II and 2,2'-bipyridine (NGENCuB was more efficient inhibiting colony formation, proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 tumor cells, than naringenin (NGEN itself. Furthermore, we verified that NGENCuB was more effective than NGEN inhibiting pro-MMP9 activity by zymography assays. Finally, through flow cytometry, we showed that NGENCuB is more efficient than NGEN inducing apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results were confirmed by gene expression analysis in real time PCR. We observed that NGENCuB upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic gene caspase-9, but did not change the expression of caspase-8 or anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. There are only few works investigating the effects of Cu(II complexation with naringenin on tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work describing the effects of Cu(II complexation of a flavonoid on MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells.

  3. High Y-chromosomal differentiation among ethnic groups of Dir and Swat districts, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Inam; Olofsson, Jill K.; Margaryan, Ashot

    2017-01-01

    , these five ethnic groups fall mostly outside the previously characterized Y-chromosomal gene pools of the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent. Male founder effects, coupled with culturally and topographically based constraints upon marriage and movement, are likely responsible for the high degree of genetic...

  4. [Effect of curcumin on the learning, memory and hippocampal Ca+/CaMK II level in senescence-accelerated mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen-you; Qi, Shuang-shuang; Sun, Shu-hong

    2011-03-01

    To explore effect of curcumin in different concentrations on learning and memory of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) and their possible mechanisms. Mice were randomly divided into six groups: the SAMR1 normal control group, the SAMP8 model control group, the SAMP8 + solvent (the peanut oil) control group, SAMP8 + low, middle and high dose curcumin groups. Mice were gastrogavage for 25 successive days. On the next day of ending the experiment, changes of learning and memory in mice of each group were observed by Morris water maze. The hippocampal [Ca2+] was determined. Expressions of hippocampal calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) and Calmodulin (CaM) mRNA were detected using Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) respectively. The latency to find the hidden platform was remarkably prolonged, the hippocampal [Ca2+]i was markedly increased, the expression of CaMK II in the hippocampal membrane and the level of hippocampal CaM mRNA were significantly reduced in the SAMP8-model control group (P CaMK II in the hippocampal membrane and the level of hippocampal CaM mRNA obviously increased in the SAMP8 + low, middle and high dose curcumin groups (P CaMK II expression in the hippocampal dose-dependently.

  5. Insight into the short- and long-term effects of Cu(II) on denitrifying biogranules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hui; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jiang, Xiao-Yan [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Key Laboratory of Hangzhou City for Ecosystem Protection and Restoration, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Hu, Hai-Yan; Shi, Man-Ling [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Jin, Ren-Cun, E-mail: jrczju@aliyun.com [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Key Laboratory of Hangzhou City for Ecosystem Protection and Restoration, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • It is the first time to evaluate the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on denitrifying biogranules. • A high level of Cu(II) was investigated during batch assays and continuous tests. • Mechanisms of the effects of Cu{sup 2+} on denitrifying biogranules were discussed. • Effects of pre-exposure to Cu{sup 2+} and starvation treatments were investigated. - Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the short- and long-term effects of Cu{sup 2+} on the activity and performance of denitrifying bacteria. The short-term effects of various concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} on the denitrifying bacteria were evaluated using batch assays. The specific denitrifying activity (SDA) decreased from 14.3 ± 2.2 (without Cu{sup 2+}) to 6.1 ± 0.1 mg N h{sup −1} g{sup −1} VSS (100 mgCu{sup 2+} L{sup −1}) when Cu{sup 2+} increased from 0 to 100 mg L{sup −1} with an increment of 10 mgCu{sup 2+} L{sup −1}. A non-competitive inhibition model was used to calculate the 50% inhibition concentration (IC{sub 50}) of Cu{sup 2+} on denitrifying sludge (30.6 ± 2.5 mg L{sup −1}). Monod and Luong models were applied to investigate the influence of the initial substrate concentration, and the results suggested that the maximum substrate removal rate would be reduced with Cu{sup 2+} supplementation. Pre-exposure to Cu{sup 2+} could lead to an 18.2–46.2% decrease in the SDA and decreasing percentage of the SDA increased with both exposure time and concentration. In the continuous-flow test, Cu{sup 2+} concentration varied from 1 to 75 mg L{sup −1}; however, no clear deterioration was observed in the reactor, and the reactor was kept stable, with the total nitrogen removal efficiency and total organic carbon efficiency greater than 89.0 and 85.0%, respectively. The results demonstrated the short-term inhibition of Cu{sup 2+} upon denitrification, and no notable adversity was observed during the continuous-flow test after long-term acclimation.

  6. Effects of β-Carotene and Its Cleavage Products in Primary Pneumocyte Type II Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Haider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available β-Carotene has been shown to increase the risk of developing lung cancer in smokers and asbestos workers in two large scale trails, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET and the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Trial (ATBC. Based on this observation, it was proposed that genotoxic oxidative breakdown products may cause this effect. In support of this assumption, increased levels of sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, and chromosomal aberrations were found in primary hepatocyte cultures treated with a mixture of cleavage products (CPs and the major product apo-8′carotenal. However, because these findings cannot directly be transferred to the lung due to the exceptional biotransformation capacity of the liver, potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of β-carotene under oxidative stress and its CPs were investigated in primary pneumocyte type II cells. The results indicate that increased concentrations of β-carotene in the presence of the redox cycling quinone dimethoxynaphthoquinone (DMNQ exhibit a cytotoxic potential, as evidenced by an increase of apoptotic cells and loss of cell density at concentrations > 10 µM. On the other hand, the analysis of micronucleated cells gave no clear picture due to the cytotoxicity related reduction of mitotic cells. Last, although CPs induced significant levels of DNA strand breaks even at concentrations ≥ 1 µM and 5 µM, respectively, β-carotene in the presence of DMNQ did not cause DNA damage. Instead, β-carotene appeared to act as an antioxidant. These findings are in contrast with what was demonstrated for primary hepatocytes and may reflect different sensitivities to and different metabolism of β-carotene in the two cell types.

  7. Combined effects of extracellular matrix and growth factors on NBT-II rat bladder carcinoma cell dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G C; Boyer, B; Valles, A M; Thiery, J P

    1991-10-01

    Using the rat bladder carcinoma cell line NBT-II we showed that collagens but not laminin and fibronectin were able to induce cell scattering. Acidic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha also promoted NBT-II cell dispersion on glass or tissue culture plastic. We have now further analysed the scatter response to these two growth factors in the presence of extracellular matrix molecules. In the presence of growth factors, no peripheral single-cell dispersion occurred on fibronectin and laminin, although time-lapse video analyses revealed intense cell mingling and motility inside the monolayer forming around NBT-II aggregates. Patterns of strings or files of cells protruding from the monolayer were often observed. The presence of a scattering activity in the complex acellular extracellular matrix deposited by NBT-II cells themselves strongly suggested that substratum conditioning was responsible for this effect. On the other hand, the two growth factors accelerated collagen-mediated NBT-II individual cell dispersion and locomotion in a reversible way. As a marker of cell dissociation, we studied desmosome distribution in aggregate cultures: desmosomes were present in aggregates formed in suspension even in the presence of growth factors, whereas internalization occurred after cell-to-substratum contact. On laminin or fibronectin and in the presence of growth factors, peripheral cells inside the halo of NBT-II aggregates did not exhibit desmosome linkages. These observations suggest that scatter effects per se are dependent on the composition of the extracellular matrix. In particular, on a substratum nonpermissive for direct cell translocation, individual cell dispersion can be replaced by en bloc patterns of migration following substratum conditioning by the cells.

  8. Effects of Mn(II) on the sorption and mobilization of As(V) in the presence of hematite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai-Tao; Jia, Shao-Yi; Liu, Yong; Wu, Song-Hai; Han, Xu

    2012-05-30

    In this study, the effects of Mn(II) on the sorption and mobilization of As(V) by synthetic hematite were investigated. Our results showed that As(V) removal by hematite was evidently dependent on pH, and simultaneous addition of Mn(II) and As(V) into hematite suspension resulted in more removal of As(V) via electrostatic attraction at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 8.3. However, in Mn(II) pre-loaded system, the removal percentages of As(V) at pH 8.3 decreased by 17.0%, 20.7% and 26.7% after 24h at the aging time of 2, 12 and 36 h, respectively. The concentrations of the released As(V) after the addition of 1mM Mn(II) were 23.6, 12.9 and 7.0 μM at pH 8.5 in 2, 3 and 4 g L(-1) hematite suspension, respectively. But Ca(2+) did not show such an effect under similar experimental conditions. Abiotic oxidation of Mn(II) on hematite played an important role in As(V) mobilization. The growing thin layer of Mn(III, IV) (hydr)oxides (MnO(x)) formed on hematite would take up the sorption sites pre-occupied by As(V) and resulted in the release of the adsorbed As(V) back into solution. This study enriched our understanding on As(V) fate in the coexistence of iron oxides and Mn(II). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of arginase II on L-arginine depletion and cell growth in murine cell lines of renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson John R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-arginine is the common substrate for the two isoforms of arginase. Arginase I, highly expressed in the liver and arginase II mainly expressed in the kidney. Arginase I-producing myeloid derived suppressor cells have been shown to inhibit T-cell function by the depletion of L-arginine. On the other hand, arginase II has been detected in patients with cancer and is thought to metabolize L-arginine to L-ornithine needed to sustain rapid tumor growth; however its role in L-arginine depletion is unclear. Thus, in tumor biology, L-arginine metabolism may play a dual role in tumor growth and in the induction of T cell dysfunction. Therefore, we studied in murine renal cell carcinoma (RCC cell lines, the effect of arginase II on tumor cell proliferation and L-arginine depletion. The effect of arginase inhibitors on cell proliferation was also tested. Methods Three murine renal cell carcinoma (mRCC cell lines were tested for the presence of arginase. nor-NOHA, an arginase inhibitor was used to substantiate the effect of arginase on cell growth and L-arginine depletion. Amino acid levels were tested by HPLC. Results Our results show that mRCC cell lines express only arginase II and were able to deplete L-arginine from the medium. Cell growth was independent of the amount of arginase activity expressed by the cells. nor-NOHA significantly (P = 0.01 reduced arginase II activity and suppressed cell growth in cells exhibiting high arginase activity. The depletion of L-arginine by mRCC induced the decrease expression of CD3ζ a key element for T-cell function. Conclusion The results of this study show for the first time that arginase II produced by RCC cell lines depletes L-arginine resulting in decreased expression of CD3ζ. These results indicate that RCC cell lines expressing arginase II can modulate the L-arginine metabolic pathway to regulate both cell growth and T-cell function. Blocking arginase may lead to a decrease in RCC cell

  10. The Effects of Japan's Apology for World War II Atrocities on Regional Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cathey, Emily A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the impact of atrocities that Japan committed against its neighbors during and prior to World War II on Japan's relationships with its neighbors, China and the Republic of Korea...

  11. Skeletal versus conventional intraoral anchorage for the treatment of class II malocclusion: dentoalveolar and skeletal effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariani, Lisa; Maino, Giuliano; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    ... systems used in patients with class II malocclusion: the MGBM system (skeletal anchorage) and Pendulum (intraoral anchorage).The sample comprised 57 patients who were assigned to one of the two treatments...

  12. Nasometer 6200 Versus Nasometer II 6400: Effect on Measures of Nasalance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Awan, Shaheen N; Virani, Aneesha

    2013-01-01

    Objective :  This study compared measures of nasalance obtained using the Nasometer 6200 versus the Nasometer II 6400 in typically speaking young adult males and females for the nonnasal Zoo Passage...

  13. Effect of timing on the outcomes of 1-phase nonextraction therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Kim, Ludia H

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this cephalometric study was to evaluate the role of timing in relation to skeletal maturity on the outcomes of nonextraction comprehensive Class II therapy. Three samples of patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion were treated with headgear combined with fixed appliances and Class II elastics. Lateral cephalograms were taken of all subjects before therapy (T1) and at an average interval of 6 months after therapy (T2). The first sample (23 subjects) was treated before the pubertal growth spurt, the second sample (24 subjects) received therapy during the pubertal growth spurt, and the third sample (13 subjects) was treated at a postpubertal stage of development. The average T1 to T2 interval was approximately 30 months for all patients, with an average treatment duration of 24 months. Longitudinal observations of a group of 17 subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions were compared with the treated groups at the 3 skeletal maturation intervals with nonparametric statistics. Class II treatment before or during the pubertal growth spurt induced significant favorable skeletal changes (restricted maxillary advancement in prepubertal patients and enhanced mandibular growth in pubertal patients). Patients treated after the pubertal growth spurt had only significant dentoalveolar changes. The greatest amount of dentoskeletal correction of Class II malocclusion with 1-phase nonextraction treatment occurred in patients treated during the pubertal growth spurt.

  14. An investigation into the effect of type I and type II diabetes duration on employment and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Travis

    2013-12-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, the current study examines the effect of type I and type II diabetes on employment status and wages. The results suggest that both the probability of employment and wages are negatively related to the number of years since the initial diagnosis of diabetes. Moreover, the effect of diabetes duration on the probability of employment appears to be nonlinear, peaking around 16 years for females and 10 years for males. A similar negative effect on wages is found only in male diabetics. Finally, the results suggest that failure to distinguish between type I and type II diabetics may lead to some counterintuitive results. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. ONCOLOGICAL RESULTS OF SURGICAL TREATMENT EFFECTIVENESS OF STAGE I AND II ORAL CAVITY CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Karpenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical intervention is the main method of treatment of oral cavity cancer, and at early stages it»s a monomodal treatment. The study objective is to determine oncological effectiveness based on an analysis of surgical treatment of stage I and II oral cancer.Materials and methods. In the period from April 2009 to December 2014, 52 patients (37 men and 15 women aged 39–85 (mean age was 60.2 years with confirmed diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (36 patients, the floor of the mouth (15, and the retromolar trigone (1 underwent surgery. Half of the patients were stage I, the other half – stage II. Removal of the primary tumor was accompanied by neck dissection in 35 cases (67 %. Dissection was two-sided in 8 patients. Twenty (20 modified radical dissections and 23 selective neck dissections were performed. In the majority of cases (42 patients, 80.8 %, tumors were removed transorally. Primary reconstruction was performed in 31 patients; in others, additional plastic material was used: infrahyoid flap (14 cases, submental flap (1, radial forearm flap (5, anterolateral femoral flap (1. Survival was evaluated using the Kaplan–Meier estimator incorporating patient’ dates of last visits or death. Progression-free survival took into account time to diagnosis of disease relapse in the form of local or regional recurrence. Statistical data analysis was performed using the SPSS v. 23 software.Results. Mean follow up duration was 37.4 months (1–91  months, and 27 patients (52 % were monitored for 3 and more years, 34 (65.4 % patients after surgery for 2 years and longer, and 46 (88.5 % patients for more than a year. During this time, 8 patients died, and 3-year overall survival was 84.7 %. In 6 patients, disease recurrence was diagnosed, in 2 of them this event was registered twice (local recurrence in 3 cases, regional recurrence in 4 cases, locoregional recurrence in 1 case. Therefore, locoregional control was 88

  16. Genetic silencing of Nox2 and Nox4 reveals differential roles of these NADPH oxidase homologues in the vasopressor and dipsogenic effects of brain angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeffrey R; Burmeister, Melissa A; Tian, Xin; Zhou, Yi; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R; Stupinski, John A; Sharma, Ram V; Davisson, Robin L

    2009-11-01

    The renin-angiotensin system exerts a tremendous influence over fluid balance and arterial pressure. Angiotensin II (Ang-II), the effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, acts in the central nervous system to regulate neurohumoral outflow and thirst. Dysregulation of Ang-II signaling in the central nervous system is implicated in cardiovascular diseases; however, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently we established that NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide acting in the forebrain subfornical organ is critical in the physiological responses to central Ang-II. In addition, we have found that Nox2 and Nox4 are the most abundantly expressed Nox homologues within Ang-II-sensitive sites in the forebrain. To dissect out the functional importance and unique roles of these Nox enzymes in the pressor and dipsogenic effects of central Ang-II, we developed adenoviral vectors expressing small interfering RNA to selectively silence Nox2 or Nox4 expression in the subfornical organ. Our results demonstrate that both Nox2 and Nox4 are required for the full vasopressor effects of brain Ang-II but that only Nox2 is coupled to the Ang-II-induced water intake response. These studies establish the importance of both Nox2- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidases in the actions of Ang-II in the central nervous system and are the first to reveal differential involvement of these Nox enzymes in the various physiological effects of central Ang-II.

  17. Genetic silencing of Nox2 and Nox4 reveals differential roles of these NADPH oxidase homologues in the vasopressor and dipsogenic effects of brain angiotensin-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Burmeister, Melissa A.; Tian, Xin; Zhou, Yi; Guruju, Mallikarjuna R.; Stupinski, John A.; Sharma, Ram V.; Davisson, Robin L.

    2009-01-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) exerts a tremendous influence over fluid balance and arterial pressure. Angiotensin II (Ang-II), the effector peptide of the RAS, acts in the CNS to regulate neurohumoral outflow and thirst. Dysregulation of Ang-II signaling in the CNS is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, however the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently we established that NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide acting in the forebrain subfornical organ (SFO) is critical in the physiologic responses to central Ang-II. In addition, we have found that Nox2 and Nox4 are the most abundantly expressed Nox homologues within Ang-II-sensitive sites in the forebrain. To dissect out the functional importance and unique roles of these Nox enzymes in the pressor and dipsogenic effects of central Ang-II, we developed adenoviral vectors expressing siRNA to selectively silence Nox2 or Nox4 expression in the SFO. Our results demonstrate that both Nox2 and Nox4 are required for the full vasopressor effects of brain Ang-II, but that only Nox2 is coupled to the Ang-II-induced water intake response. These studies establish the importance of both Nox2- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidases in the actions of Ang-II in the CNS, and are the first to reveal differential involvement of these Nox enzymes in the various physiologic effects of central Ang-II. PMID:19805637

  18. I. Fission Probabilities, Fission Barriers, and Shell Effects. II. Particle Structure Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Kexing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    In Part I, fission excitation functions of osmium isotopes 185,186, 187, 189 Os produced in 3He +182,183, 184, 186W reactions, and of polonium isotopes 209,210, 211, 212Po produced in 3He/4He + 206, 207, 208Pb reactions, were measured with high precision. These excitation functions have been analyzed in detail based upon the transition state formalism. The fission barriers, and shell effects for the corresponding nuclei are extracted from the detailed analyses. A novel approach has been developed to determine upper limits of the transient time of the fission process. The upper limits are constrained by the fission probabilities of neighboring isotopes. The upper limits for the transient time set with this new method are 15x 10–21 sec and 25x 10–21 sec for 0s and Po compound nuclei, respectively. In Part II, we report on a search for evidence of the optical modulations in the energy spectra of alpha particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. The optical modulations are expected to arise from the ~-particle interaction with the rest of the nucleus as the particle prepares to exit. Some evidence for the modulations has been observed in the alpha spectra measured in the 3He-induced reactions, 3He + natAg in particular. The identification of the modulations involves a technique that subtracts the bulk statistical background from the measured alpha spectra, in order for the modulations to become visible in the residuals. Due to insufficient knowledge of the background spectra, however, the presented evidence should only be regarded as preliminary and tentative.

  19. The Effect of Host Galaxies on Type Ia Supernovae in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampeitl, Hubert; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U. /Portsmouth U., ICG; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Bassett, Bruce; /South African Astron. Observ. /Cape Town U.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Foley, Ryan J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC; Im, Myungshin; /Seoul Natl. U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2010-05-01

    We present an analysis of the host galaxy dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the full three year sample of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. We re-discover, to high significance, the strong correlation between host galaxy type and the width of the observed SN light curve, i.e., fainter, quickly declining SNe Ia favor passive host galaxies, while brighter, slowly declining Ia's favor star-forming galaxies. We also find evidence (at between 2 to 3{sigma}) that SNe Ia are {approx_equal} 0.1 magnitudes brighter in passive host galaxies, than in star-forming hosts, after the SN Ia light curves have been standardized using the light curve shape and color variations: This difference in brightness is present in both the SALT2 and MCLS2k2 light curve fitting methodologies. We see evidence for differences in the SN Ia color relationship between passive and star-forming host galaxies, e.g., for the MLCS2k2 technique, we see that SNe Ia in passive hosts favor a dust law of R{sub V} {approx_equal} 1, while SNe Ia in star-forming hosts require R{sub V} {approx} 2. The significance of these trends depends on the range of SN colors considered. We demonstrate that these effects can be parameterized using the stellar mass of the host galaxy (with a confidence of > 4{sigma}) and including this extra parameter provides a better statistical fit to our data. Our results suggest that future cosmological analyses of SN Ia samples should include host galaxy information.

  20. The effects of angiotensin II receptor antagonist (candesartan on rat renal vascular resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatraviwat, J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the action of angiotensin II (AII on renal perfusion pressure and renal vascular resistance using noncompetitive AT1-receptor antagonist (candesartan or CV 11974. Experiments were performed in isolated kidney of adult male Wistar rats. Kreb's Henseleit solution was perfused into the renal artery at the rate of 3.5 ml/min. This flow rate was designed in order to maintain renal perfusion pressure between 80-120 mm Hg. Dose-response relationship between perfusion flow rate and AII concentration were studied. Renal perfusion pressure in response to 1, 10 and 100 nM AII were increased from basal perfusion pressure of 94±8 mm Hg to 127±6, 157±12 and 190±16 mm Hg, respectively. Administration of perfusate containing 11.4 μM candesartan for 30 min had no effect on the basal perfusion pressure. However, this significantly reduced renal perfusion pressure in the presence of AII (1, 10 and 100 nM by 39%, 47% and 61%, (n=7, P<0.05 respectively. At the basal perfusion pressure, calculated renal vascular resistance was 27±2 mm Hg · min · ml-1. However, the vascular resistance were found to be 41±1, 45±2 and 47±2 mm Hg · min · ml-1 when 1, 10 and 100 nM AII were added. Moreover, this dose of candesartan also showed a significant decrease in renal vascular resistance at the corresponding doses of AII by 38%, 48% and 43%, (n=7, P<0.05 respectively. The higher dose of candesartan (22.7 μM completely inhibited the action of 1, 10 and 100 nM AII on renal vasoconstriction. These results may indicate that the action of AII on renal vascular resistance is via AT1-receptor, at least in rat isolated perfusion kidney.

  1. Spectrochemical study the effect of high energetic ionization radiation on Ru(III, Pd(II and Hg(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar A. Aly

    2017-04-01

    Thermal studies of these chelates before and after γ-irradiation stable that the complexes of Ru(III and Pd (II after γ-irradiation are more thermal show than Hg(II complexes before and after γ-irradiation.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibitor effects of salicilaldehyde-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone and its Palladium(II), Cobalt(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyar, Saliha; Adem, Şevki

    2014-10-01

    We report the synthesis of the ligand, salicilaldehyde-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone (salptsmh) derived from p-toluenesulfonicacid-1-methylhydrazide (ptsmh) and its Pd(II) and Co(II) metal complexes were synthesized for the first time. The structure of the ligand and their complexes were investigated using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance and spectral (IR, NMR and LC-MS) measurements. Salptsmh has also been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 1H and 13C shielding tensors for crystal structure were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods in CDCl3. The complexes were found to have general composition [ML2]. The results of elemental analysis showed 1:2 (metal/ligand) stoichiometry for all the complex. Magnetic and spectral data indicate a square planar geometry for Pd(II) complex and a distorted tetrahedral geometry for Co(II) complexes. The ligand and its metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities using the disk diffusion method against the selected Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Gram negative bacteria: Eschericha coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and carbonic anhydrase I (CA I) have been investigated by comparing IC50 and Ki values and it has been found that Pd(II) complex have more enzyme inhibition efficiency than salptsmh and Co(II) complex.

  3. Effect of type II diabetes mellitus on outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Abhishek; Turner, Paul; Pendurthi, Madhu Kalyan; Agrawal, Vrinda; Modrykamien, Ariel

    2014-02-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition, whereas the presence of diabetes has been shown to be protective in its development. We undertook this study to assess the association of type II diabetes mellitus with clinical outcomes in patients with ARDS. We retrospectively examined the medical records of consecutive series of patients with ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation from January 2008 to March 2011. Patients with type I diabetes were excluded from the study. Clinical outcomes such as ventilator-free days, mortality, length of stay in the hospital and intensive care unit (ICU), and reintubations were compared based on the presence of diabetes. Multivariate regression model was used to find if the presence of type II diabetes mellitus predicts ventilator-free days at day 28. Two hundred forty-nine patients with ARDS were admitted to the ICU during the study period. Fifty (20%) subjects had type II diabetes mellitus. Differences in ventilator-free days, in-hospital mortality, reintubation rate, and length of stay in the hospital or ICU were not statistically significant between diabetic and nondiabetic patients with ARDS. Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II, ICU specialty, use of vasopressors, and the need for reintubation were predictors of ventilator-free days at day 28. The presence of type II diabetes mellitus and its adjustment by body mass index did not show association with ventilator-free days at day 28. The presence of type II diabetes mellitus is not associated with clinical outcomes in ARDS, even when its presence is adjusted by body mass index. © 2013.

  4. Effect of fast electrons on the stability of resistive interchange modes in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, L. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Ochando, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.; Milligen, B. Ph. van [CIEMAT - Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B. A. [BACV Solutions, 110 Mohawk Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Carralero, D. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, we report on electromagnetic phenomena in low-β plasmas at the TJ-II stellarator, controlled by external heating. To understand the observations qualitatively, we introduce a simple modification of the standard resistive MHD equations, to include the potential impact of fast electrons on instabilities. The dominant instabilities of the modeling regime are resistive interchange modes, and calculations are performed in a configuration with similar characteristics as the TJ-II stellarator. The main effect of the trapping of fast electrons by magnetic islands induced by MHD instabilities is to increase the magnetic component of the fluctuations, changing the character of the instability to tearing-like and modifying the frequency of the modes. These effects seem to be consistent with some of the experimental observations.

  5. Effect of fast electrons on the stability of resistive interchange modes in the TJ-II stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, L.; Ochando, M. A.; Carreras, B. A.; Carralero, D.; Hidalgo, C.; van Milligen, B. Ph.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on electromagnetic phenomena in low-β plasmas at the TJ-II stellarator, controlled by external heating. To understand the observations qualitatively, we introduce a simple modification of the standard resistive MHD equations, to include the potential impact of fast electrons on instabilities. The dominant instabilities of the modeling regime are resistive interchange modes, and calculations are performed in a configuration with similar characteristics as the TJ-II stellarator. The main effect of the trapping of fast electrons by magnetic islands induced by MHD instabilities is to increase the magnetic component of the fluctuations, changing the character of the instability to tearing-like and modifying the frequency of the modes. These effects seem to be consistent with some of the experimental observations.

  6. Angiotensin II and ischemic preconditioning synergize to improve mitochondrial function while showing additive effects on ventricular post-ischemic recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Rebeca E.; Castro, Miriam; Javadov, Sabzali; Escobales, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the cardioprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) against sustained ischemia/reperfusion (IR) can be replicated by angiotensin II (Ang II). However, it is not clear whether IPC and Ang II-induced preconditioning (APC) act through similar mechanisms or synergize to enhance cardioprotection. In this study, Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were subjected to IPC, APC or their combination (IPC/APC) followed by IR. IPC and less potently APC, significantly increased the percent recovery of the left ventricular developed-pressure, the first derivative of developed pressure and the rate pressure product compared to control. Furthermore, the post-ischemic recovery of the heart was significantly higher for IPC/APC compared to IPC or APC. The improvements in cardiac function by IPC, APC and IPC/APC were associated with similar reductions in LDH release and infarct size. However, a significant improvement in mitochondrial respiration was observed with IPC/APC. The post-ischemic recovery observed with APC and IPC/APC was inhibited by treatment with losartan, an Ang II type-1 receptor blocker, during the preconditioning phase but not by chelerythrine, a pan-PKC inhibitor. Both drugs, however, abolished the enhanced mitochondrial respiration by IPC/APC. Altogether, these results indicate that APC and IPC interact through mechanisms that enhance cardioprotection by affecting cardiac function and mitochondrial respiration. PMID:24705171

  7. NMNAT3 is involved in the protective effect of SIRT3 in Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhongbao; Ma, Yunzi; You, Jia; Li, Zhuoming; Ding, Yanqing; He, Ping; Lu, Xia; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Shaorui; Liu, Peiqing

    2016-10-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a maladaptive response in a variety of organic heart disease (OHD), which is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction that results from disturbed energy metabolism. SIRT3, a mitochondria-localized sirtuin, regulates global mitochondrial lysine acetylation and preserves mitochondrial function. However, the mechanisms by which SIRT3 regulates cardiac hypertrophy remains to be further elucidated. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that expression of SIRT3 was decreased in Angiotension II (Ang II)-treated cardiomyocytes and in hearts of Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophic mice. In addition, SIRT3 overexpression protected myocytes from hypertrophy, whereas SIRT3 silencing exacerbated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In particular, SIRT3-KO mice exhibited significant cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, we identified NMNAT3 (nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 3), the rate-limiting enzyme for mitochondrial NAD biosynthesis, as a new target and binding partner of SIRT3. Specifically, SIRT3 physically interacts with and deacetylates NMNAT3, thereby enhancing the enzyme activity of NMNAT3 and contributing to SIRT3-mediated anti-hypertrophic effects. Moreover, NMNAT3 regulates the activity of SIRT3 via synthesis of mitochondria NAD. Taken together, these findings provide mechanistic insights into the negative regulatory role of SIRT3 in cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The Renal Protective Effect of Jiangya Tongluo Formula, through Regulation of Adrenomedullin and Angiotensin II, in Rats with Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of Jiangya Tongluo (JYTL formula on renal function in rats with hypertensive nephrosclerosis. A total of 21 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were randomized into 3 groups: valsartan (10 mg/kg/d valsartan, JYTL (14.2 g/kg/d JYTL, and a model group (5 mL/kg/d distilled water; Wistar Kyoto rats comprised the control group (n = 7, 5 mL/kg/d distilled water. Treatments were administered by gavage every day for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, 24-h urine protein, pathological changes in the kidney, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN levels were estimated. The contents of adrenomedullin (ADM and angiotensin II (Ang II in both the kidney and plasma were evaluated. JYTL lowered BP, 24-h urine protein, serum creatinine, and BUN. ADM content in kidneys increased and negatively correlated with BP, while Ang II decreased and negatively correlated with ADM, but there was no statistically significant difference of plasma ADM between the model and the treatment groups. Possibly, activated intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS plays an important role in hypertensive nephrosclerosis and the protective function of ADM via local paracrine. JYTL may upregulate endogenous ADM level in the kidneys and antagonize Ang II during vascular injury by dilating renal blood vessels.

  9. Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... absorption spectrometer equipped with an air acetylene flame. The analytical wavelength for Zn(II) determination was set at 213.856 nm (Javed et al., 2008). ..... Trace element accumulation in selected bioindicators exposed to emissions along the industrial facilities of Danube lowland. Turk. J. Chem.

  10. Comparison of Diabetes Type II Patients Life Style Effective Factors With That of Healthy People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mostafaei

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Diabetes is a significant and expensive health problem which had influenced all the ages in almost all the countries. Increasing prevalence of this disease has been caused by continued changes in lifestyle such as unsuitable nutrition, lack of physical activities and fatness which is often related to modern city life, mechanization and industrialization. It is an expensive disease, both for patients and the health and hygienic care systems. This research tried to examine the relationship between lifestyle risk factors and type II diabetes. Methods: This research was a case-control type by random sampling and studying140 diabetes type II patients as case group and 140 healthy people accompanying some other patients as the control group at Tonekabon Shahid Rajaei hospital. People were of both sexes, between 30 and 64 years of age and Tonekabon residents. The questionnaire used included demographic, nutritional, physical activities, stress tolerance and smoking status information. The SPSS 11.5 and excel software were used for statistic calculation and for analysis of data, T and Chi-Square tests were applied. Results: By analyzing the data collected, there was a meaningful statistical relationship between physical activities, stress residence, nutrition, smoking and the diabetes type II disease (P-value0.05. Conclusion: Results imply that some risk factors important in diabetes type II include unsuitable nutrition such as having too much of sweets and sugar,lack of fruits, vegetables, fish, proteins and also lack of physical activities, stress tolerance and control.

  11. Complexation Effect on Redox Potential of Iron(III)-Iron(II) Couple: A Simple Potentiometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Syed, Raashid Maqsood; Khan, Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    A titration curve with multiple inflection points results when a mixture of two or more reducing agents with sufficiently different reduction potentials are titrated. In this experiment iron(II) complexes are combined into a mixture of reducing agents and are oxidized to the corresponding iron(III) complexes. As all of the complexes involve the…

  12. The megaproject effect. Entrepreneurship during the decision-making process of Maasvlakte II (1993-2008).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Koppenol (Dirk)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1969, the Municipal Port Management of Rotterdam (hereinafter: the Port Management) proposed the first concrete ideas for an expansion of the port by Maasvlakte II. This Port Management is a department of the Municipality of Rotterdam and, as a result, decisions

  13. Nasometer 6200 Versus Nasometer II 6400: Effect on Measures of Nasalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N; Virani, Aneesha

    2013-05-01

    Objective :  This study compared measures of nasalance obtained using the Nasometer 6200 versus the Nasometer II 6400 in typically speaking young adult males and females for the nonnasal Zoo Passage, the phonetically balanced Rainbow Passage, and the Nasal Sentences. Design :  Participants read passages at a comfortable pitch and loudness twice while wearing Nasometer 6200 or Nasometer II 6400 headgear. The order of Nasometer system was counterbalanced across participants, and the order of the reading passage was randomized. Participants :  Participants consisted of 25 males (mean age = 21.22 years) and 25 females (mean age = 23.83 years). Main Outcome Measures :  The main outcomes measures were nasalance scores (%) obtained for each system × passage per participant. Results :  Results showed that the Nasometer 6200 and the Nasometer II 6400 differed significantly on mean nasalance for the Zoo Passage (mean difference = 7.15%) and the Rainbow Passage (mean difference = 3.05%) but not for the Nasal Sentences (mean difference = 0.77%). Intersystem correlations and measures of predictive accuracy indicated that the ability to predict Nasometer 6200 nasalance scores from Nasometer II 6400 scores was relatively weak. Conclusions :  In addition to such factors as age, gender, and regional dialect, normative nasalance expectations and normal versus disordered nasalance cutoff scores must be considered with full knowledge of the specific system that was used to acquire the nasalance data. Intrasubject changes in nasalance can only be validly assessed when test versus retest measurements have been acquired using the same nasalance system.

  14. Neuroprotective Effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-II on 1- Methyl-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial functional markers were analyzed in the. MPP-treated neuronal ... Keywords: Insulin-like growth factor-II, Neuronal cells, 1-Methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium, Mitochondrial markers, Oxidative stress ..... processes, such as memory [17], and neuro- protection against ...

  15. The effect of proximal contour on marginal ridge fracture of Class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Kuijs, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the marginal ridge fracture strength of Class II composite resin restorations placed with a straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity. METHODS: In 60 artificial first molars standardized MO-preparations were ground. Two

  16. Effects of mirror distortion by thermal deformation in an interferometry beam size monitor system at PLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji-Gwang [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4, Gongneung-dong, Nowon-t, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@korea.ac.kr [Department of Accelerator Science, Graduate School, Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong 30019, Republica of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changbum; Huang, Jung-Yun; Kim, Dotae [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 135-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-11

    Extraction mirrors installed at the most upstream position of interferometry beam size monitor are frequently used for measuring the beam size in storage rings. These mirrors receive the high power synchrotron radiation and are distorted owing to the heat distribution that depends on the position on the mirror surface. The distortion of the mirror changes the effective separation of the slit in the interferometry beam size monitor. Estimation of the effects of the front-end mirror distortion is important for measuring the beam size accurately. In this paper, we present the result of the numerical simulation of the temperature distribution and thermal expansion of the front-end mirror using ANSYS code, the theoretical basis of the effects of mirror distortion and compare with experimental results from Pohang Light Source II (PLS-II) at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL). The equipment in the beam diagnosis line in PLS-II and experimental set-up for measuring the distortion of the front-end mirror using a multi-hole square array Hartmann screen are described.

  17. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus Type II on Long Bones Fractures Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadighi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fracture healing is a complex process where synthesis and activation of a cascade of cells and molecules collaborate and participate in regeneration of the fractured bones. There are several factors involved in nonunion of fractured bones. Endocrine and metabolic diseases are regarded as factors causing nonunion of fractured bones. The present study aims at evaluating effect of diabetes type II, as an important and prevalent metabolic disease, on results of surgical treatment of long bones fractures. Method: This case-control study was conducted on 74 patients with isolated fracture of tibia and femur shafts resulting from low-energy trauma. In this study, 50 patients with definite diagnosis of diabetes were compared with 24 metabolically health persons considering age, gender, type of fracture, and treatment method. The diabetic patients were classified in two groups considering their insulin or oral agent. Level of hs-CRP inflammatory marker was also determined in these patients. Union rate and duration as well as relation between inflammatory marker and union rate were studied. Results: Prevalence of nonunion and delayed union were seen in 8 (32% and 2 (8% patients with orally-treated diabetes, respectively. It was 3 (12% in diabetes patients treated with insulin. However, there was not any case of nonunion in the health group. There was a statistically significant difference between these groups. According to the regression model, hs-CRP level played a significant role considering nonunion prediction (P=0.001, Odd’s Ratio=3.4, CI95%:1.4-4.8. Also, type of diabetes treatment had a significant role in predicting nonunion (P=0.04, Odd’s Ratio=0.6, CI95%:0.3-1.4. Duration of being affected by diabetes did not play any important role in nonunion prediction. Conclusion: Prevalence of nonunion in patients with diabetes suffering from fracture and undergoing orthopedic surgery is higher than healthy people. It seems that increase

  18. Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Myhre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models have estimated the radiative forcing (RF of the anthropogenic DAE, and have taken into account anthropogenic sulphate, black carbon (BC and organic aerosols (OA from fossil fuel, biofuel, and biomass burning emissions. In addition several models have simulated the DAE of anthropogenic nitrate and anthropogenic influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA. The model simulated all-sky RF of the DAE from total anthropogenic aerosols has a range from −0.58 to −0.02 Wm−2, with a mean of −0.27 Wm−2 for the 16 models. Several models did not include nitrate or SOA and modifying the estimate by accounting for this with information from the other AeroCom models reduces the range and slightly strengthens the mean. Modifying the model estimates for missing aerosol components and for the time period 1750 to 2010 results in a mean RF for the DAE of −0.35 Wm−2. Compared to AeroCom Phase I (Schulz et al., 2006 we find very similar spreads in both total DAE and aerosol component RF. However, the RF of the total DAE is stronger negative and RF from BC from fossil fuel and biofuel emissions are stronger positive in the present study than in the previous AeroCom study. We find a tendency for models having a strong (positive BC RF to also have strong (negative sulphate or OA RF. This relationship leads to smaller uncertainty in the total RF of the DAE compared to the RF of the sum of the individual aerosol components. The spread in results for the individual aerosol components is substantial, and can be divided into diversities in burden, mass extinction coefficient (MEC, and normalized RF with respect to AOD. We find that these three factors give similar contributions to the spread in results.

  19. Purvalanol A, olomoucine II and roscovitine inhibit ABCB1 transporter and synergistically potentiate cytotoxic effects of daunorubicin in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cihalova

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKi have high potential applicability in anticancer therapy, but various aspects of their pharmacokinetics, especially their interactions with drug efflux transporters, have not yet been evaluated in detail. Thus, we investigated interactions of five CDKi (purvalanol A, olomoucine II, roscovitine, flavopiridol and SNS-032 with the ABCB1 transporter. Four of the compounds inhibited efflux of two ABCB1 substrates, Hoechst 33342 and daunorubicin, in MDCKII-ABCB1 cells: Olomoucine II most strongly, followed by roscovitine, purvalanol A, and flavopiridol. SNS-032 inhibited ABCB1-mediated efflux of Hoechst 33342 but not daunorubicin. In addition, purvalanol A, SNS-032 and flavopiridol lowered the stimulated ATPase activity in ABCB1 membrane preparations, while olomoucine II and roscovitine not only inhibited the stimulated ATPase but also significantly activated the basal ABCB1 ATPase, suggesting that these two CDKi are ABCB1 substrates. We further revealed that the strongest ABCB1 inhibitors (purvalanol A, olomoucine II and roscovitine synergistically potentiate the antiproliferative effect of daunorubicin, a commonly used anticancer drug and ABCB1 substrate, in MDCKII-ABCB1 cells as well as in human carcinoma HCT-8 and HepG2 cells. We suggest that this pronounced synergism is at least partly caused by (i CDKi-mediated inhibition of ABCB1 transporter leading to increased intracellular retention of daunorubicin and (ii native cytotoxic activity of the CDKi. Our results indicate that co-administration of the tested CDKi with anticancer drugs that are ABCB1 substrates may allow significant dose reduction in the treatment of ABCB1-expressing tumors.

  20. Structural and Kinetic Effects on Changes in the CO2 Binding Pocket of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Dayne; Kim, Chae Un; Tu, Chingkuang; Robbins, Arthur H.; Gruner, Sol M.; Silverman, David N.; McKenna, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This work examines the effect on catalysis of perturbing the position of bound CO2 in the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). Variants of HCA II replacing Val143 with hydrophobic residues, Ile, Leu, and Ala, were examined. The efficiency of catalysis in the hydration of CO2 for these variants was characterized by 18O exchange mass spectrometry, and their structures determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 to 1.5 Å resolution. The most hydrophobic substitutions V143I and V143L showed decreases in catalysis, as much as 20-fold, while the replacement by the smaller V143A showed only a moderate two-fold decrease in activity. Structural data for all three variants show no significant change in overall position of amino-acid side chains in the active site compared with wild type. However, V143A HCA II showed additional ordered water molecules in the active site compared to wild type. To further investigate the decrease in catalytic efficiency of V143I HCA II, an X-ray crystallographic CO2 entrapment experiment was performed to 0.93 Å resolution. This structure revealed an unexpected shift of the CO2 substrate towards the zinc bound solvent, placing it ~0.3 Ǻ closer than previously observed in wild type in conjunction with the observed dual occupancy of the product bicarbonate, presumably formed during the data acquisition. These data suggest that the Ile substitution at position 143 reduced catalytic efficiency is likely due to steric crowding resulting in destabilization of the transition state for conversion of CO2 into bicarbonate and a decreased product dissociation rate. PMID:23098192

  1. Growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest effects of epigallocatechin gallate in the NBT-II bladder tumour cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J J; Ye, Z-Q; Koo, M W L

    2004-05-01

    To examine the growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major constituent of green tea polyphenols, on the NBT-II bladder tumour cell line. Growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest effects of EGCG were evaluated by the tetrazolium assay, flow cytometry and apoptotic DNA ladder tests. The cell cycle-related oncogene and protein expressions in NBT-II bladder tumour cells, when incubated with EGCG, were detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. EGCG inhibited growth of the NBT-II bladder tumour cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed a G0/G1 arrest in cells when cultured with EGCG at doses of 10, 20 or 40 micro mol/L for 48 or 72 h. The apoptotic DNA ladder test showed that EGCG at 10 micro mol/L induced early apoptosis after 48 h of incubation. A down-regulation of cyclin D1 was detected by RT-PCR when the cells were incubated with EGCG (20 micro mol/L for 48 h. EGCG also down-regulated protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, in both a time- and dose-dependent manner, when detected by Western blot. EGCG had growth inhibition and cell-cycle arrest effects in NBT-II bladder tumour cells by down-regulating the cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 and retinoblastoma protein machinery for regulating cell-cycle progression.

  2. Reciprocal Roles of Angiotensin II and Angiotensin II Receptors Blockade (ARB in Regulating Cbfa1/RANKL via cAMP Signaling Pathway: Possible Mechanism for Hypertension-Related Osteoporosis and Antagonistic Effect of ARB on Hypertension-Related Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yao Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Animal and epidemiological studies demonstrate that high blood pressure is associated with increased calcium loss, elevated parathyroid hormone, and increased calcium movement from bone. However, the mechanism responsible for hypertension-related osteoporosis remains elusive. Recent epidemiological studies indicate the benefits of Angiotensin II Receptors Blockade (ARB on decreasing fracture risks. Since receptors for angiotensin II, the targets of ARB, are expressed in both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, we postulated that angiotensin II plays an important role in hypertension-related osteoporosis. Cbfa1 and RANKL, the important factors for maintaining bone homeostasis and key mediators in controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, are both regulated by cAMP-dependent signaling. Angiotensin II along with factors such as LDL, HDL, NO and homocysteine that are commonly altered both in hypertension and osteoporosis, can down-regulate the expression of Cbfa1 but up-regulate RANKL expression via the cAMP signaling pathway. We thus hypothesized that, by altering the ratio of Cbfa1/RANKL expression via the cAMP-dependent pathway, angiotensin II differently regulates osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation leading to enhanced bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Since ARB can antagonize the adverse effect of angiotensin II on bone by lowering cAMP levels and modifying other downstream targets, including LDL, HDL, NO and Cbfa1/RANKL, we propose the hypothesis that the antagonistic effects of ARB may also be exerted via cAMP signaling pathway.

  3. The effectiveness of the APACHE II, SAPS II and SOFA prognostic scoring systems in patients with haematological malignancies in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, Wioletta; Owczuk, Radosław; Wujtewicz, Magdalena Anna; Wujtewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-related mortality remains the second most common cause of death in Poland. In many cases, the occurrence of treatment-related complications requires admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to assess the clinical application of the APACHE II, SAPS II and SOFA scales to evaluate the risk of death in patients with haematological malignancies treated in the ICU. This study's analysis included 99 patients, who were each assigned to one of the following two groups: surviving patients who were discharged from the ICU (n = 24); and patients who died in the ICU (n = 75). Analysis was performed using demographic, clinical and laboratory data obtained during the patient's admission to the ICU and also during the first 24 hours of intensive therapy. Patient assessment was performed using the APACHE II, SAPS II and SOFA scoring systems as well as other clinical variables. Univariate logistic regression identified the following risk factors of death in patients with haematological malignancies: systolic (P = 0.006), diastolic (P = 0.01) and mean arterial pressure values (P = 0.009); occurrence of acute kidney injury; neutrophil (P = 0.009) and platelet count in the peripheral blood (P = 0.001); and the SAPS II (P = 0.00005), SOFA (P = 0.00009) and APACHE II (P = 0.0007) scores. SAPS II score was the only independent risk factor of patient death in multivariate analysis (P = 0.0004; unitary OR 1.052 [95% CI: 1.022-1.082]). Of all the applied patient assessment scales, only the SAPS II score was found to be useful in subjects with haematological malignancies hospitalised in the ICU.

  4. Effects of background electrolytes and ionic strength on enrichment of Cd(II) ions with magnetic graphene oxide-supported sulfanilic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin-jiang; Liu, Yun-guo; Zeng, Guang-ming; You, Shao-hong; Wang, Hui; Hu, Xi; Guo, Yi-ming; Tan, Xiao-fei; Guo, Fang-ying

    2014-12-01

    To elucidate the influence mechanisms of background electrolytes and ionic strength on Cd(II) removal, the adsorption of Cd(II) onto magnetic graphene oxide-supported sulfanilic acid (MGO-SA) in aqueous solutions containing different types and concentrations of background electrolytes was studied. The results indicate that Cd(II) adsorption was strongly dependent on pH and could be strongly affected by background electrolytes and ionic strength. The Cd(II) removal was decreased with the presence of background electrolyte cations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+)), and the divalent cations exerted more obvious influences on the Cd(II) uptake than the monovalent cations at pH 6. Both Cl(-) and NO3(-) had negative effects on Cd(II) adsorption because they can form water-soluble metal-anion complexes with Cd(II) ions. The presence of 0.01molL(-1) Na3PO4 reduced the removal percentage of Cd(II) at pH5. The Cd(II) adsorption was sensitive to changes in the concentration of NaCl, NaNO3, NaClO4, and Na3PO4. Besides, the adsorption isotherm of Cd(II) onto MGO-SA could be well described by the Freundlich model and was also influenced by the type of background electrolyte ions and the ionic strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the Mn(II) speciation in Deinococcus radiodurans and the potential role of Mn(II)-orthophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, E M; de Groot, A; Un, S; Tabares, L C

    2015-05-01

    D. radiodurans accumulates large quantities of Mn(II), which is believed to form low molecular weight complexes with phosphate and metabolites that protect D. radiodurans from radiation damage. The concentration of Mn(II) species in D. radiodurans during the exponential and stationary phase was determined using high-field EPR and biochemical techniques. In the exponential growth phase cells a large fraction of the manganese was in the form of Mn(II)-orthophosphate complexes. By contrast, the intracellular concentration of these compounds in stationary phase cells was less than 16 μM, while that of Mn superoxide dismutase was 320 μM and that of another, yet unidentified, Mn(II) protein was 250 μM. Stationary cells were found to be equally resistant to irradiation as the exponential cells in spite of having significant lower Mn(II)-orthophosphate concentrations. Gamma irradiation induced no changes in the Mn(II) speciation. During stationary growth phase D. radiodurans favours the production of the two Mn-proteins over low molecular weight complexes suggesting that the latter were not essential for radio-resistance at this stage of growth.

  6. Person Heterogeneity of the BDI-II-C and Its Effects on Dimensionality and Construct Validity: Using Mixture Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chen; Huang, Tsai-Wei

    2010-01-01

    This study was to apply the mixed Rasch model to investigate person heterogeneity of Beck Depression Inventory-II-Chinese version (BDI-II-C) and its effects on dimensionality and construct validity. Person heterogeneity was reflected by two latent classes that differ qualitatively. Additionally, person heterogeneity adversely affected the…

  7. The effects of proteoglycan and type II collagen on T1rho relaxation time of articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won Seok; Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja Young [Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of proteoglycan and type II collagen within articular cartilage on T1rho relaxation time of articular cartilage. This study was exempted by the institutional and animal review boards, and informed consent was not required. Twelve porcine patellae were assigned to three groups of control, trypsin-treated (proteoglycan-degraded), or collagenase-treated (collagen-degraded). The T1rho images were obtained with a 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a single loop coil. Statistical differences were detected by analysis of variance to evaluate the effects of the enzyme on T1rho relaxation time. Safranin-O was used to stain proteoglycan in the articular cartilage and immunohistochemical staining was performed for type II collagen. Mean T1rho values of the control, trypsin-treated, and collagenase-treated groups were 37.72 +/- 5.82, 57.53 +/- 8.24, and 45.08 +/- 5.31 msec, respectively (p < 0.001). Histology confirmed a loss of proteoglycan and type II collagen in the trypsin- and collagenase-treated groups. Degradation of proteoglycans and collagen fibers in the articular cartilage increased the articular cartilage T1rho value.

  8. Effects of laser immunotherapy on late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients in a Phase II clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Xiaosong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Alleruzzo, Luciano; Chen, Wei R.

    2014-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT), a novel technique with a local intervention to induce systemic antitumor effects, was developed to treat metastatic cancers. The pre-clinical studies of LIT have shown its unique characteristics in generating a specific antitumor immunity in treating metastatic tumors in rats and mice. For late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients, who were considered to be out of other available treatment options, we conducted a small Phase II clinical trial using LIT starting in 2009 in Lima, Peru. This Phase II study was closed in December of 2012, as acknowldged by the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Peur letter 438-2014-OGITT/INS dated March 5th, 2014. Ten patients were enrolled and received LIT in one or multiple 4-week treatment cycles. At the study closing date, four patients were alive and two of them remained cancer free. Here, following the successful conclusion of our Phase II study, we report the clinical effects of LIT on metastatic breast cancer patients. Specifically, we present the overall status of all the patients three years after the treatment and also the outcomes of two long-term surviving patients.

  9. Strain effects in the common-cation II-VI heterostructures: case of ZnS/ZnSe superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Tit, N

    2003-01-01

    The electronic band-structures of the strained-layer ZnS/ZnSe (001) superlattices (SLs) have been investigated using the sp sup 3 s* tight-binding method, which includes the strain and spin-orbit effects. The SL band-structures are studied versus the biaxial strain, layer thickness, and band offsets. The results suggest that the common-cation II-VI heterojunction exhibit a vanishingly small conduction-band offset (CBO). It is shown that the SL valence-band top state is always a heavy-hole localized within ZnSe slabs; whereas the conduction-band edge state (electron) is sensitive to the biaxial strain (or VBO). To assess the strain effects, we considered three differently strained SLs corresponding to the three substrates: (i) ZnSe; (ii) ZnS sub 0 sub . sub 5 Se sub 0 sub . sub 5; and (iii) ZnS. The results show that all the studied SLs are of type-I except those strained to ZnS (case iii), that may exhibit type-I to type-II transition. One striking result obtained here is the existence of a critical VBO (V su...

  10. Effects of thermal aging on the microstructure of Type-II boundaries in dissimilar metal weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, 63-gil, Geumjeong-Gu, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Hoon; Kim, Ju Young [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun, E-mail: kimjh@unist.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In order to investigate the effects of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution of Type-II boundary regions in the weld metal of Alloy 152, a representative dissimilar metal weld was fabricated from Alloy 690, Alloy 152, and A533 Gr.B. This mock-up was thermally aged at 450 °C to accelerate the effects of thermal aging in a nuclear power plant operation condition (320 °C). The microstructure of the Type-II boundary region of the weld root, which is parallel to and within 100 μm of the fusion boundary and known to be more susceptible to material degradation, was then characterized after different aging times using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope for micro-compositional analysis, electron backscattered diffraction detector for grain and grain boundary orientation analysis, and a nanoindenter for measurement of mechanical properties. Through this, it was found that a steep compositional gradient and high grain average misorientation is created in the narrow zone between the Type-II and fusion boundaries, while the concentration of chromium and number of low-angle grain boundaries increases with aging time. A high average hardness was also observed in the same region of the dissimilar metal welds, with hardness peaking with thermal aging simulating an operational time of 15 years.

  11. Effects of thermal aging on the microstructure of Type-II boundaries in dissimilar metal weld joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Chang; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Si Hoon; Kim, Ju Young; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the effects of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution of Type-II boundary regions in the weld metal of Alloy 152, a representative dissimilar metal weld was fabricated from Alloy 690, Alloy 152, and A533 Gr.B. This mock-up was thermally aged at 450 °C to accelerate the effects of thermal aging in a nuclear power plant operation condition (320 °C). The microstructure of the Type-II boundary region of the weld root, which is parallel to and within 100 μm of the fusion boundary and known to be more susceptible to material degradation, was then characterized after different aging times using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope for micro-compositional analysis, electron backscattered diffraction detector for grain and grain boundary orientation analysis, and a nanoindenter for measurement of mechanical properties. Through this, it was found that a steep compositional gradient and high grain average misorientation is created in the narrow zone between the Type-II and fusion boundaries, while the concentration of chromium and number of low-angle grain boundaries increases with aging time. A high average hardness was also observed in the same region of the dissimilar metal welds, with hardness peaking with thermal aging simulating an operational time of 15 years.

  12. The effects of a toxin (ATX II) from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata on the electrical and mechanical activity of the denervated hemidiaphragm of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravens, U; Schöllhorn, E

    1983-01-01

    Isolated strips of rat diaphragm denervated 9-21 days prior to experimentation were used to study the effects of the sea anemone toxin ATX II on electrical and mechanical activity in mammalian skeletal muscle. ATX II increased twitch tension transiently and induced a concentration-dependent rise in muscle tone. The resting membrane potential was increased to more negative values by low concentrations of ATX II (greater than or equal to 2 x 10(-7)M). ATX II at 10(-7)M prolonged the action potential duration, however, individual fibres exhibited a large variation in response. Lidocaine (5 x 10(-5)M) reversed the toxin-induced contracture, but did not inhibit the ATX II-induced prolongation of action potential duration. ATX II increased the incidence of spontaneous action potentials which occur in denervated skeletal muscle. This effect was partially reversed by tetrodotoxin (10(-6)M), which also partially abolished the ATX II-induced contracture. Reduction in toxin-induced spontaneous activity was also observed in the presence of lidocaine (5 x 10(-5)M) or acetylcholine (10(-5)M). Both agents diminished ATX II-induced contracture. It is concluded that the increased muscle tone observed with ATX II may reflect a summation of increased fibrillatory activity.

  13. Spatiotemporal stability and sensitivity analysis of a holling type-II prey predator system with Allee effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basava Kumar, G.; Srinivas, M. N.

    2017-11-01

    In this article, an analytical investigation is carried out on two species prey predator model having Holling type II interaction with Allee effect. We analysed the local and global behaviour of the interior equilibrium point.The theoretical aspects such as the investigation of the existence and stability of the equilibriums as well as the oscillatory and sensitivity behaviours of the corresponding diffusive system have been pursued. Also, analysed the effect of white noise and diffusion analysis of the proposed system. Finally, all the analytical results are interpreted ecologically and compared with the numerical results generated by MATLAB.

  14. Study of an instability of the PEP-II positron beam (Ohmi effect and Multipactoring)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, S.A. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The processes defining the density distribution of the photoelectrons are quite complicated. In this study, a simplified model of the instability was used to get a quick estimate of the growth rate of the instability and the relative importance of the parameters, as has been done in Ohmi`s paper. The production rate and dynamics of the photoelectrons are studied for the PEP-II parameters. The growth rate of the transverse instability driven by the primary photoelectrons is of the order of 0.7 msec for the PEP-II parameters. The multipactoring at resonance currents cannot produce large electron density due to the final energy spread caused by the finite bunch length and the intrinsic energy spread of the secondary electrons. Production of the secondary electrons may lead to large average densities. The ion can be produced in electron collisions with the residual gas with density of the order of the electron density. (G.K.)

  15. Effect of silicification on the water sorption properties of microcrystalline cellulose II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rojas Camargo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the water sorption behavior of cellulose II:SiO2 composites and to determine the influence of silicification on this property. These composites were prepared by spray-drying at a cellulose II:SiO2 ratio of 98:2, 95:5, 90:10 and 80:20. The nonlinear models of Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB, Generalized D'Arcy and Watt (GDW and Hailwood & Horrobin (HH, were used for the characterization and analysis of the isotherms. The infrared and powder X-rays characterization showed no signs of chemical modification or change in the polymorphic form of cellulose II by SiO2. The parameters derived from these models indicated that only a 20% level of silicification was able to hinder the water sorption properties of cellulose. Silicon dioxide was the most hydrophobic material since it had a lower ability to form hydrogen bonds with water than cellulose II. This finding was reflected in a delayed compact disintegration time when high levels of silicification (20% and compression pressures higher than 120 MPa were used.O objetivo deste estudo é investigar o comportamento de sorção de água a partir de misturas de celulose II e SiO2 e determinar a influência da silicificação nesse processo. Estas misturas foram preparadas por nebulização (spray-drying usando misturas de celulose II e SiO2 nas proporções de 98:2, 95:5, 90:10 e 80:20. Os modelos não-lineares de Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB, "Generalized" D'Arcy e Watt (GDW e Hailwood & Horrobin (HH foram utilizados para caracterização e análise das isotermas. As misturas foram caracterizadas por infravermelho e raio-X e os resultados não mostraram indicativo de modificação química ou polimórfica da celulose II em combinação com SiO2. Os parâmetros derivados desses modelos indicaram que as propriedades de sorção de água da celulose foram prejudicadas apenas quando empregado um nível de silicificação de 20%. O dióxido de silício foi o

  16. Electronic Effects in PCP-Pincer Ru(II)-Based Hydrogen Transfer Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagliardo, M.; Chase, P.A.; Brouwer, S.; van Klink, G.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/170637964; van Koten, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073839191

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes [RuCl(PCPOMe)(PPh3)] and [RuCl(PCPCF3)(PPh3)] containing monoanionic, tridentate coordinating PCP-pincer ligands [C6H3{CH2P(p-MeOC6H4)2}2-2,6]- (PCPOMe) and [C6H3{CH2P(p-CF3C6H4)2}2-2,6]- (PCPCF3) are reported. These

  17. Analyzing the effect of ion exchange on flexural strength of cermaco II and colorlogic veneer porcelains

    OpenAIRE

    N. Rashidan; HA. Mahgoli

    1998-01-01

      The major foible of dental ceramics is their brittle nature. Therefore, the producers of these materials have focused on the “strength” issue. A method of increasing strength is ion exchange on porcelain surface which leads to formation of a compressive crust that opposing forces should overcome before developing a crack. In current study, ion exchange in two types of porcelain, Ceramco II which is used in PFM restorations and Colorloic veneer which is used for laminates, veneers, inlays an...

  18. Hydrologic modelling of the effect of snowmelt and temperature on a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, a distributed hydrologic model is used to explore the orographic effects on the snowmelt-runoff using the snowfall-snowmelt routine in Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Three parameters, namely maximum snowmelt factor, minimum snowmelt factor, and snowpack temperature lag were analysed during ...

  19. Effects of daytime versus night-time cesarean deliveries on Stage II lactogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, Gülşah; Atmaca, Fatma V; Çümen, Ayşenur; Zebitay, Ali G; Güngör, Emre S; Karasu, Ayşe F G

    2018-01-05

    The circadian timing system has a rhythm and one of the roles of this system is the mediation of hormonal and metabolic adaptations to lactation. This study was conducted to determine whether the time to stage II lactogenesis differed in women who underwent cesarean section (CS) in the daytime (DT) or night-time (NT). This study was conducted at Süleymaniye Research and Education Hospital between June and December 2016. Two hundred and eighty-eight mothers who had a cesarean delivery and their healthy singleton neonates were included. Clinical and demographic data of the mothers and neonates, time of initiation of breastfeeding and time to stage II lactogenesis were analyzed according to DT or NT CS groups. There were no statistically significant differences in age, gravida, parity, body mass index, week of gestation at birth, postoperative hemoglobin level, cesarean indications, anesthesia type, previous history of breastfeeding, transfusion need, Apgar scores or birth weight-height of neonates between the DT and NT CS groups. While the time of initiation of breastfeeding did not differ statistically in terms of DT or NT CS groups, the time to stage II lactogenesis was significantly longer in the NT CS group. NT cesarean delivery is a risk factor for the delayed onset of lactogenesis. The results of this study may be useful to clinical practitioners counseling mothers who undergo NT cesarean delivery. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Comparative effects of angiotensin II and angiotensin-(4-8) on blood pressure and ANP secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Hoang Thi Ai; Yu, Lamei; Park, Byung Mun; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2017-11-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is metabolized from N-terminal by aminopeptidases and from C-terminal by Ang converting enzyme (ACE) to generate several truncated angiotensin peptides (Angs). The truncated Angs have different biological effects but it remains unknown whether Ang-(4-8) is an active peptide. The present study was to investigate the effects of Ang-(4-8) on hemodynamics and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion using isolated beating rat atria. Atrial stretch caused increases in atrial contractility by 60% and in ANP secretion by 70%. Ang-(4-8) (0.01, 0.1, and 1 µM) suppressed high stretch-induced ANP secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Ang-(4-8) (0.1 µM)-induced suppression of ANP secretion was attenuated by the pretreatment with an antagonist of Ang type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) but not by an antagonist of AT 2 R or AT 4 R. Ang-(4-8)-induced suppression of ANP secretion was attenuated by the pretreatment with inhibitor of phospholipase (PLC), inositol triphosphate (IP 3 ) receptor, or nonspecific protein kinase C (PKC). The potency of Ang-(4-8) to inhibit ANP secretion was similar to Ang II. However, Ang-(4-8) 10 µM caused an increased mean arterial pressure which was similar to that by 1 nM Ang II. Therefore, we suggest that Ang-(4-8) suppresses high stretch-induced ANP secretion through the AT 1 R and PLC/IP 3 /PKC pathway. Ang-(4-8) is a biologically active peptide which functions as an inhibition mechanism of ANP secretion and an increment of blood pressure.

  1. Effects of intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure on microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effects of intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure on microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes by comparing the therapeutic effects of intensive and standard treatment in patients with type II diabetes.METHODS: A total of 107 patients with type II diabetes were randomly assigned into intensive and standard treatment groups. Patients in the intensive treatment group received preterax (perindopril/ indapamide to control blood pressure, and gliclazide (diamicron MR to control blood glucose. Patients in the standard treatment group received routine medications or placebo. Urinary microalbumin (UMA, urinary creatinine (UCR, the UMA/UCR ratio, and visual acuity were monitored according to the study design of the ADVANCE trial. Direct ophthalmoscopy and seven-field stereoscopic retinal photography were used to examine the fundi at baseline, and repeated after 5 years of treatment.RESULTS: The characteristics of patients in both groups were well balanced at baseline. After 5 years of treatment, visual acuity was found to be decreased in the standard group (P=0.04, but remained stable in the intensive group. The severity of diabetic retinopathy had not progressed in patients in the intensive group, but had deteriorated in the standard group (P=0.0006. The UMA/UCR ratio was not obviously changed in patients in the intensive group, whereas it was significantly increased in the standard group (P=0.00.CONCLUSION: Intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure can decrease the incidence or slow the progression of microvascular complications in patients with type II diabetes, and maintain stable vision.

  2. Enhancement effects of reducing agents on the degradation of tetrachloroethene in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) catalyzed percarbonate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zhouwei [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Soil, Water and Environmental Science Department, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Arizona, 429 Shantz Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gu, Xiaogang [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lu, Shuguang, E-mail: lvshuguang@ecust.edu.cn [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Brusseau, Mark L. [Soil, Water and Environmental Science Department, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Arizona, 429 Shantz Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yan, Ni [Hydrology and Water Resources Department, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Arizona, 429 Shantz Building, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • PCE degradation by reducing-agent modified Fe-catalyzed percarbonate was studied. • The addition of reducing agents significantly increased PCE degradation. • Hydroxylamine hydrochloride showed the best effect on enhancing PCE degradation. • The primary PCE degradation mechanism was oxidation by hydroxyl radical. • O{sub 2}·{sup −} participated in the degradation of PCE in reducing-agent modified system. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of reducing agents on the degradation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) were investigated in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC) system. The addition of reducing agents, including hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium sulfite, ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate, accelerated the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox cycle, leading to a relatively steady Fe(II) concentration and higher production of free radicals. This, in turn, resulted in enhanced PCE oxidation by SPC, with almost complete PCE removal obtained for appropriate Fe and SPC concentrations. The chemical probe tests, using nitrobenzene and carbon tetrachloride, demonstrated that HO· was the predominant radical in the system and that O{sub 2}·{sup −} played a minor role, which was further confirmed by the results of electron spin resonance measurements. PCE degradation decreased significantly with the addition of isopropanol, a HO· scavenger, supporting the hypothesis that HO· was primarily responsible for PCE degradation. It is noteworthy that Cl{sup −} release was slightly delayed in the first 20 min, indicating that intermediate products were produced. However, these intermediates were further degraded, resulting in the complete conversion of PCE to CO{sub 2}. In conclusion, the use of reducing agents to enhance Fe(II)/Fe(III) catalyzed SPC oxidation appears to be a promising approach for the rapid degradation of organic contaminants in groundwater.

  3. Effects of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extracts and Their Constituents on Phase II Drug-metabolizing Enzymes Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Nurul Afifah Mohd; Ismail, Sabariah; Ab Halim, Mohd Rohaimi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Curcuma xanthorrhiza is a native Indonesian plant and traditionally utilized for a range of illness including liver damage, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. Objective: The study determined the effects of C. xanthorrhiza extracts (ethanol and aqueous) and their constituents (curcumene and xanthorrhizol) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities. Materials and Methods: The inhibition studies were evaluated both in rat liver microsomes and in human recombinant UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 enzymes. p-nitrophenol and beetle luciferin were used as the probe substrates for UGT assay while 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as the probe for GST assay. The concentrations of extracts studied ranged from 0.1 to 1000 μg/mL while for constituents ranged from 0.01 to 500 μM. Results: In rat liver microsomes, UGT activity was inhibited by the ethanol extract (IC50 =279.74 ± 16.33 μg/mL). Both UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 were inhibited by the ethanol and aqueous extracts with IC50 values ranging between 9.59–22.76 μg/mL and 110.71–526.65 μg/Ml, respectively. Rat liver GST and human GST Pi-1 were inhibited by ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively (IC50 =255.00 ± 13.06 μg/mL and 580.80 ± 18.56 μg/mL). Xanthorrhizol was the better inhibitor of UGT1A1 (IC50 11.30 ± 0.27 μM) as compared to UGT2B7 while curcumene did not show any inhibition. For GST, both constituents did not show any inhibition. Conclusion: These findings suggest that C. xanthorrhiza have the potential to cause herb-drug interaction with drugs that are primarily metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. SUMMARY Findings from this study would suggest which of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and constituents that would have potential interactions with drugs which are highly metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. Further clinical studies can then be designed if needed to evaluate the in vivo pharmacokinetic relevance of these interactions Abbreviations Used: BSA: Bovine serum albumin

  4. Effects of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extracts and Their Constituents on Phase II Drug-metabolizing Enzymes Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Nurul Afifah Mohd; Ismail, Sabariah; Ab Halim, Mohd Rohaimi

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma xanthorrhiza is a native Indonesian plant and traditionally utilized for a range of illness including liver damage, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. The study determined the effects of C. xanthorrhiza extracts (ethanol and aqueous) and their constituents (curcumene and xanthorrhizol) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities. The inhibition studies were evaluated both in rat liver microsomes and in human recombinant UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 enzymes. p-nitrophenol and beetle luciferin were used as the probe substrates for UGT assay while 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as the probe for GST assay. The concentrations of extracts studied ranged from 0.1 to 1000 μg/mL while for constituents ranged from 0.01 to 500 μM. In rat liver microsomes, UGT activity was inhibited by the ethanol extract (IC50 =279.74 ± 16.33 μg/mL). Both UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 were inhibited by the ethanol and aqueous extracts with IC50 values ranging between 9.59-22.76 μg/mL and 110.71-526.65 μg/Ml, respectively. Rat liver GST and human GST Pi-1 were inhibited by ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively (IC50 =255.00 ± 13.06 μg/mL and 580.80 ± 18.56 μg/mL). Xanthorrhizol was the better inhibitor of UGT1A1 (IC50 11.30 ± 0.27 μM) as compared to UGT2B7 while curcumene did not show any inhibition. For GST, both constituents did not show any inhibition. These findings suggest that C. xanthorrhiza have the potential to cause herb-drug interaction with drugs that are primarily metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. Findings from this study would suggest which of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and constituents that would have potential interactions with drugs which are highly metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. Further clinical studies can then be designed if needed to evaluate the in vivo pharmacokinetic relevance of these interactions Abbreviations Used: BSA: Bovine serum albumin, CAM: Complementary and alternative medicine, cDNA: Complementary

  5. [Effect of iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism on the protein expressions of CaMK II in the hippocampus of pups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Dong, Jing; Liu, Wanyang; Wang, Yi; Chen, Jie

    2010-03-01

    To observe the effect of iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism on the protein expressions of CaMK II in the hippocampus of pups. Female Wistar rats (n=28) after pregnancy were randomly divided into control group, hypothyroid group and iodine deficient group. According to the dose of PTU in fed water, hypothyroid group was divided into 5 mg/L group and 15 mg/L group (7 in each). 5 pups from each group were sacrificed and perfused intracardially in PN7, PN14 and PN21. Brains were removed, fixed and sectioned coronally. All sections were observed and analyzed the protein exression of CaMK II by immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus CA1, CA3 and DG regions. Control group in CA1, CA3 and DG regions of the hippocampus had strong positive staining and the cytoplasm of neurons were filled with CaMK II. The distribution of the immune reaction product in hippocampus of 5 mg/L, 15 mg/L and iodine groups were in line with the control group, but the staining intensity as compared with the control group gradually decreased. In PN21 and PN14, integrated optical density average of CaMK II in CA1, CA3 and DG regions of the hippocampus in iodine deficient group [PN21: (26.05 +/- 4.98), (30.79 +/- 3.22), (26.40 +/- 2.63); PN14:(25.48 +/- 4.87), (44.17 +/- 5.91), (26.41 +/- 3.01)] and 15 mg/L groups [PN21: (17.02 +/- 2.68), (24.57 +/- 6.62), (20.18 +/- 4.05); PN14:(20.66 +/- 3.51), (34.94 +/- 5.09), (27.32 +/- 4.97)] were significantly lower than those of controls [PN21: (57.75 +/- 13.22), (65.03 +/- 6.20), (49.39 +/- 8.41), P CaMK II in CA1 region of the hippocampus in iodine deficient group (25.74 +/- 3.33) and 15 mg/L groups (26.89 +/- 5.25) were significantly lower than those of controls(40.53 +/- 3.65), P CaMK II.

  6. Solvent Effects on the Electrochemical Behavior of TAPD-Based Redox-Responsive Probes for Cadmium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Sahli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two tetralkylated phenylenediamines (TAPD 1 and 2 have been prepared by reductive alkylation of para-dimethylaminoaniline with furfural or thiophene 2-carboxaldehyde, respectively. Their chelation ability has been evaluated as electrochemical guest-responsive chemosensors for Cd(II in acetonitrile (ACN, dimethylformamide (DMF, propylene carbonate (PC, and nitromethane (NM. The voltamperometric studies showed that these compounds are able to bind the Cd(II cation with strong affinities except in DMF. The redox features of the chemosensors changed drastically when they are bounded to Cd(II to undergo important anodic potential peak shifts comprised between ca. 500 and ca. 900 mV depending on the solvent. The addition of ∼4–10% molar triflic acid (TfOH was found to be necessary to achieve rapidly the cation chelation which is slow without the acid. The electrochemical investigations suggested the formation of 1 : 2 stoichiometry complexes [Cd(L2]2+. The results are discussed in terms of solvent effects as a competitive electron donating ligand to the cation. The reaction coupling efficiency (RCE values were determined and were also found to be solvent-dependent.

  7. Effects of intensive arm training with the rehabilitation robot ARMin II in chronic stroke patients: four single-cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubli, Patricia; Nef, Tobias; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Riener, Robert

    2009-12-17

    Robot-assisted therapy offers a promising approach to neurorehabilitation, particularly for severely to moderately impaired stroke patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intensive arm training on motor performance in four chronic stroke patients using the robot ARMin II. ARMin II is an exoskeleton robot with six degrees of freedom (DOF) moving shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. Four volunteers with chronic (>or= 12 months post-stroke) left side hemi-paresis and different levels of motor severity were enrolled in the study. They received robot-assisted therapy over a period of eight weeks, three to four therapy sessions per week, each session of one hour.Patients 1 and 4 had four one-hour training sessions per week and patients 2 and 3 had three one-hour training sessions per week. Primary outcome variable was the Fugl-Meyer Score of the upper extremity Assessment (FMA), secondary outcomes were the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS), the Maximal Voluntary Torques (MVTs) and a questionnaire about ADL-tasks, progress, changes, motivation etc. Three out of four patients showed significant improvements (p robot ARMin II can significantly improve motor function of the paretic arm in some stroke patients, even those in a chronic state. The findings of the study provide a basis for a subsequent controlled randomized clinical trial.

  8. [Pancherz's analysis in evaluating the treatment effects of headgear-activator on skeletal Class II divison 1 malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Mei; Chen, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Li

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of headgear-activator (HGAC) combination appliances on bone and dentition of juveniles with Class II division 1 malocclusion using Pancherz's analysis approach. Fifteen patients (8 males of 10-13 years old and 7 females of 9-12 years old, average age was 11.2 years old, ANB > or = 5 degrees, overjet > or =6 mm, Class II molar relation) were treated with HGAC appliance for more than 14 hours everyday and for total of 8-10 months cephalograms were taken before and after the treatment. The data was analyzed with Pancherz's analysis and pare t test (SPSS 11.5 software). After the therapy, SNA and ANB angles reduced, the change of SNB angle was trivial, pg/OLP was forward movement. The axial inclination of the lower incisors increased and of the upper incisor reduced. Overjet of the incisors was improved, in which skeletal factor was improved to 44.64% and dentition factor was 55.36%. The first molar on the mandible was forward movement. Molar relationship was also improved, in which skeletal factor was improved to 65.65%, and dentition factor was 34.35%. HGAC can efficaciously treat Class II division 1 malocclusion with maxillary protrusion, stimulate modification of the mandibular condyle and fossa, and promote the development of the mandibles. Dentition was improved more than skeletal on overjet, and skeletal was improved more than dentition on molar relationship.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abachizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Moghaddas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  11. Effects of intensive arm training with the rehabilitation robot ARMin II in chronic stroke patients: four single-cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nef Tobias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robot-assisted therapy offers a promising approach to neurorehabilitation, particularly for severely to moderately impaired stroke patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intensive arm training on motor performance in four chronic stroke patients using the robot ARMin II. Methods ARMin II is an exoskeleton robot with six degrees of freedom (DOF moving shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. Four volunteers with chronic (≥ 12 months post-stroke left side hemi-paresis and different levels of motor severity were enrolled in the study. They received robot-assisted therapy over a period of eight weeks, three to four therapy sessions per week, each session of one hour. Patients 1 and 4 had four one-hour training sessions per week and patients 2 and 3 had three one-hour training sessions per week. Primary outcome variable was the Fugl-Meyer Score of the upper extremity Assessment (FMA, secondary outcomes were the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT, the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS, the Maximal Voluntary Torques (MVTs and a questionnaire about ADL-tasks, progress, changes, motivation etc. Results Three out of four patients showed significant improvements (p Conclusion Data clearly indicate that intensive arm therapy with the robot ARMin II can significantly improve motor function of the paretic arm in some stroke patients, even those in a chronic state. The findings of the study provide a basis for a subsequent controlled randomized clinical trial.

  12. Effect of an avocado oil-rich diet over an angiotensin II-induced blood pressure response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, M J; El Hafidi, M; Pastelin, G; Ramírez-Ortega, M C; Sánchez-Mendoza, M A

    2005-04-26

    We studied the effect of an avocado oil-rich diet on (1) the blood pressure response to angiotensin II (AngII) and (2) the fatty acid composition of cardiac and renal membranes on male Wistar rats. The avocado oil-rich diet induced a slightly higher AngII-induced blood pressure response in the rats as compared to the control rats. In cardiac microsomes, avocado oil induced an increase in oleic acid content (13.18+/-0.33% versus 15.46+/-0.59%), while in renal microsomes, the oil decreased alpha-linolenic acid content (0.34+/-0.02% versus 0.16+/-0.12%), but increased the arachidonic acid proportion (24.02+/-0.54% versus 26.25+/-0.54%), compared to control. In conclusion, avocado oil-rich diet modifies the fatty acid content in cardiac and renal membranes in a tissue-specific manner. The rise in renal arachidonic acid suggests that diet content can be a key factor in vascular responses.

  13. New tridentate azo-azomethines and their copper(II) complexes: Synthesis, solvent effect on tautomerism, electrochemical and biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigul, Munire; Deveci, Pervin; Kose, Muhammet; Arslan, Ugur; Türk Dagi, Hatice; Kurtoglu, Mukerrem

    2015-09-01

    In this study, three azo-azomethines and their copper(II) complexes were prepared and characterized by analytical and spectroscopic methods. The complexes prepared were found to be mononuclear and the chelation of the ligands to the copper(II) ions occurs through two phenolic oxygens and a nitrogen atom of the azomethine group of the ligand. The tautomeric behaviors of the azo-azomethines in solution were studied by UV-Vis. spectra in three organic solvents with different polarity (CHCl3, DMSO and DMF) at room temperature. The redox behaviors of the azo-azomethines and their Cu(II) complexes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in DMSO solution containing 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBATFB) as supporting electrolyte. Additionally, the antibacterial activity was also evaluated by the broth microdilution methods against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The compounds were found to be less effective against all bacteria tested than two reference antibiotics (ampicillin and gentamicin).

  14. Effect of synbiotic supplementation on weight, body mass index and blood sugar in type II diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Kooshki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity disrupts glucose homeostasis by metabolic disorders. Probiotics are nutritional and medicinal potential to control obesity and its related disorders. This study was aimed to investigate effects of synbiotic supplementation on weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and blood sugar in type II diabetic patients. This clinical double-blind trial study was done on 43 (15 males and 28 females type II diabetic patients who reffered to diabetes clinic in Sabzevar. The patients in the study were randomly divided into two groups Synbiotic and the control. The synbiotic group received 1 tablet synbiotic and placebo group received 1placebo for 8 weeks. At the beginning and end of the study, all of patients' weight and height and fasting plasma glucose levels were measured according to standard protocols. Before and after study, 24-hour dietry recall was taken and food intake and calorie consumption were calculated throughout day. Mean age and duration of disease was 54.88 ± 11.10 and 7.33 ± 5.4 years. Synbiotic supplementation leads to weight loss. BMI and blood sugar in intervention groups patients in comparison of control group. The results showed that Synbiotic supplementation reduced weight, BMI and blood glucose in type II diabetic patients and its intake can be usefull for diabetics.

  15. The effect of proximal contour on marginal ridge fracture of Class II composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomans, B A C; Roeters, F J M; Opdam, N J M; Kuijs, R H

    2008-10-01

    To compare the marginal ridge fracture strength of Class II composite resin restorations placed with a straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity. In 60 artificial first molars standardized MO-preparations were ground. Two matrix systems were used: (1) A straight matrix (Standard Tofflemire Matrix, KerrHawe) in Tofflemire retainer (Produits Dentaire). (2) A contoured matrix (Standard matrix, Palodent, Dentsply). In both groups, a wooden wedge and separation ring (Composi-Tight Gold, GDS) were placed and the matrix was burnished against the adjacent tooth. Three composite resins together were used (Filtek Supreme: e-modulus 13.3 GPa (3M ESPE), Clearfil AP-X: 16.6 GPa (Kuraray) and Clearfil Majesty Posterior: 22.0 GPa (Kuraray)), resulting in six groups (n=10). Teeth were mounted into a MTS servo hydraulic testing machine (Mini Bionix II, MTS, USA) with stylus placed on the marginal ridge. Samples were loaded at a crosshead speed of 1.0mm/min until fracture occurred. Fracture resistance data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffé's post hoc test for multiple comparison of groups (p<0.05). Contoured proximal surfaces (365.5+/-87.6N) resulted in significant stronger marginal ridges compared to straight surfaces (290.5+/-64.2N) (p<0.001). Clearfil AP-X (378.1+/-94.63N) provided a higher resistance to fracture than Filtek Supreme (301.4+/-67.3N) (p=0.001) and Clearfil Majesty Posterior (304.5+/-70.6N) (p=0.002). No differences were found between Filtek Supreme and Clearfil Majesty Posterior (p=0.890). Within the limitations of this in vitro study it was shown that use of a contoured matrix results in a stronger marginal ridge of a Class II composite resin restoration.

  16. Formation of a mixed Fe(II)-Zn-Al layered hydroxide: Effects of Zn co-sorption on Fe(II) layered hydroxide formation and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starcher, Autumn N.; Elzinga, Evert J.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2017-08-01

    Previous research demonstrated the formation of single divalent metal (Co, Ni, and ZnAl) and mixed divalent metal (NiZnAl) layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases from reactions of the divalent metal with Al-bearing substrates and soils in both laboratory experiments and in the natural environment. Recently Fe(II)-Al-LDH phases have been found in laboratory batch reaction studies, and although they have yet to be found in the natural environment. Potential locations of Fe(II)-Al-LDH phases in nature include areas with suboxic and anoxic conditions. Because these areas can be environments of significant contaminant accumulation, it is important to understand the possible interactions and impacts of contaminant elements on LDH phase formation. One such contaminant, Zn, can also form as an LDH and has been found to form as a mixed divalent layered hydroxide phase. To understand how Zn impacts the formation of Fe(II)-Al-LDH phase formation and kinetics, 3 mM or 0.8 mM Fe(II) and 0.8 mM Zn were batch reacted with either 10 g/L pyrophyllite or 7.5 g/L γ-Al2O3 for up to three months under anoxic conditions. Aqueous samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and solid samples were analyzed with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Shell-by-shell fits of Fe(II) and co-sorption samples with pyrophyllite show the formation of a mixed divalent metal (Fe(II)-Zn-Al) layered hydroxide phase, while Fe(II) and Zn co-sorption samples with γ-Al2O3 produce Fe(II)-Al-LDH phases and Zn in inner-sphere complexation with the γ-Al2O3. This study demonstrates the formation of a mixed divalent metal layered hydroxide and further iterates the importance of sorbent reactivity on LDH phase formation.

  17. Arthroscopic discopexy is effective in managing temporomandibular joint internal derangement in patients with Wilkes stage II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Joseph P; Hossameldin, Reem H; Srouji, Samer; Maher, Amr

    2015-03-01

    Disc repositioning for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement (ID) is a well-established surgical technique with variable success. The purpose of the present study was to assess the outcomes after arthroscopic disc repositioning (discopexy) for TMJ ID. This was a prospective, cohort, single-institutional clinical study. The study included patients with TMJ ID in whom diagnostic arthroscopy had failed. These patients were presented and treated at Miami Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Baptist Hospital (Miami FL). The predictive variable was the Wilkes diagnostic categories, presented in 2 groups: II and III versus IV and V. The primary outcome variable was the absence of joint pain at 12 months postoperatively. The secondary outcome variables included joint function, maximum interincisal opening, medication use, joint loading sign, and muscle pain. The patients were followed for 1 year postoperatively. The statistical analyses included paired and independent sample Student's t test, χ(2) test, and logistic regression analysis. A total of 32 subjects (42 joints), with a mean age of 31 years, were included in the present study; 28 (87.5%) were women. Of the 42 joints, 71.4% were classified as Wilkes stage II and III. A successful outcome was seen in 69% of the studied subjects and in 86.7% of the Wilkes II and III group versus 25% of the Wilkes IV and V group (P = .001). The results of the present study have shown that TMJ arthroscopic discopexy is an effective and predictable treatment of patients with TMJ ID in whom primary TMJ arthroscopy failed. Our results have also shown that patients with Wilkes II or III TMD will have the most successful outcome. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of copper(II) on natural organic matter removal during drinking water coagulation using aluminum-based coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guojing; Zhang, Xiangru; Talley, Jeffrey W

    2007-06-01

    Coagulation has been proposed as a best available technology for controlling natural organic matter (NOM) during drinking water treatment. The presence of heavy metals such as copper(II) in source water, which may form copper-NOM complexes and/or interact with a coagulant, may pose a potential challenge on the coagulation of NOM. In this work, the effect of copper(II) on NOM removal by coagulation using alum or PAX-18 (a commercial polymerized aluminum chloride from Kemiron Inc., Bartow, Florida) was examined. The results show that the presence of 1 to 10 mg/L of copper(H) in the simulated waters improved the total organic carbon (TOC) removal by up to 25% for alum coagulation and by up to 22% for PAX-18 coagulation. The increased NOM removal with the presence of copper(II) in the waters can most likely be ascribed to the formation copper-NOM complexes that may be more adsorbable on aluminum precipitates and to the formation of copper(II) co-precipitates that may also adsorb NOM. The presence of 1 to 5 mg/L of copper(I) in the waters containing 3 mg/L NOM as carbon was reduced below the maximum contaminant level goal (1.3 mg/L as copper) using either coagulant. The results suggest that the presence of copper(H) in source water may not adversely affect the NOM removal by coagulation. A good linear correlation was observed between the TOC removal efficiency and the log-total moles of the precipitated metals, which include the metal ion from a coagulant and the divalent metal ion(s) in source water.

  19. Psychophysiological Effects of Aging - Developing a Functional Age Index for Pilots. II Taxonomy of Psychological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    variables. The dimeneion Patterns of chan7e in variability. Changes in factorial structure; emergence of factors; develop- wentul transformations . 8...84 MieWJede apsed orI0 FoWap., ash.. 12’ Ii’ lase. sm. Is" 14 viand seas v7 3 IS Selected woog acurse U1Ds eia li of satia. SiP 215’ Fmxbd2 I 54 Dely...in the perceptual-motor area. Here, information Is sensed, recognized, and transformed into actions. Under certain conditions, particularly under

  20. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses. Part I. Trinitroglycerin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-25

    and degeneration and hemosiderosis . Some re- covery occurred despite zontinued dosing, before the 13th week. Mice fed 11 or 100 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks...addition, both the male and female rats fed TNG had hemosiderosis in the spleen and/or the liver. Feeding of 25% lactose did not cause any adverse signs, any...nephritls or mononuclear cell infiltration of the kidney. In addition, one female control had hemosiderosis in the spleen and iI mesinteric lymph node

  1. Exciton storage in type-II quantum dots using the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Climente, Juan I.; Planelles, Josep, E-mail: josep.planelles@uji.es [Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12080 Castelló (Spain)

    2014-05-12

    We investigate the bright-to-dark exciton conversion efficiency in type-II quantum dots subject to a perpendicular magnetic field. To this end, we take the exciton storage protocol recently proposed by Simonin and co-workers [Phys. Rev. B 89, 075304 (2014)] and simulate its coherent dynamics. We confirm the storage is efficient in perfectly circular structures subject to weak external electric fields, where adiabatic evolution is dominant. In practice, however, the efficiency rapidly degrades with symmetry lowering. Besides, the use of excited states is likely unfeasible owing to the fast decay rates. We then propose an adaptation of the protocol which does not suffer from these limitations.

  2. [Effects of estrogen on ACE-Ang II-AT1 axis in ovariectomy and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqi; Duan, Zheng; Sun, Yanli; Yuan, Yadong

    2014-06-10

    To explore the effects of estrogen (E2) on angiotensin converting enzyme-angiotensin II-angiotensin type 1 receptor (ACE-Ang II-AT1) axis in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats. A total of 60 healthy female Sprague-Dawdley (SD) rats were divided randomly into 6 groups (n = 10 each) of sham operation, pure ovariectomy (OVX), pure hypoxia,OVX+hypoxia,OVX+E2 and OVX+hypoxia+E2. Abdominal cavity was opened for sham operation group and bilateral ovaries were left intact without any other procedure. The pure OVX group underwent oophorectomy. The pure hypoxia group were placed into a low-oxygen environment (24 hour, 8 weeks). The OVX+hypoxia group were placed into a low-oxygen environment after bilateral oophorectomy. The OVX+E2 group received a subcutaneous injection of E2 (20 µg×kg(-1)×d(-1)) after bilateral oophorectomy. The OVX+hypoxia+E2 group had an injection of E2 and was placed into a low-oxygen environment after bilateral oophorectomy. The rats were feed continuously for 8 weeks to establish hypoxic pulmonary hypertension model. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was measured after bloodletting. Then right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI) and hematoxylin-eosin pulmonary artery remodeling (HPSR) were observed. And electron microscope was employed to observe pulmonary arteriolar ultrastructure. The methods of radio-immunity assay, ultraviolet spectroscopy, Western blot and reverse transcription PCR were used to measure the levels of CE,Ang II and AT1 in sera, lung and pulmonary artery. The vascular walls of pure hypoxia and OVX+hypoxia groups became thickened and lumen narrowed.mPAP and RVHI were (32.4 ± 2.2) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa),0.331 ± 0.032 and (37.9 ± 1.6) mmHg,0.433 ± 0.033. Both were significantly higher than those of Sham operation group ((12.6 ± 1.8) mmHg,0.233 ± 0.029) (both P 0.05). Compared with Sham operation group, the expression levels of ACE,Ang II and AT1 in pure OVX, pure hypoxia and OVX+ hypoxia groups rose markedly (all P 0

  3. The Effect of Probiotic Yogurt on Blood Glucose and cardiovascular Biomarkers in Patients with Type II Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahin Rezaei; Akram Sanagoo; Leila Jouybari; Naser Behnampoo; Ali Kavosi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Given the high prevalence of type II diabetes and its complications, the evidence regarding the beneficial effects of probiotic yogurt on some cardiovascular biomarkers in diabetic patients is worthy of investigation. Aim...

  4. Tissue distribution of a new photosensitizer ATX-S10Na(II) and effect of a diode laser (670 nm) in photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, K; Yamada, I; Tanaka, H; Fujise, Y; Hashimoto, K

    2003-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to analyse the quantitative tissue distribution of ATX-S10Na(II) and to investigate the maximal effect of a diode laser and the irradiation conditions required to obtain this effect in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with ATX-S10Na(II). Spectrofluorometry was used to obtain quantitative tissue distribution of ATX-S10Na(II) in Colon 26 carcinoma-bearing mice as a function of time following administration. Next, transplanted tumours of mice with or without ATX-S10Na(II) were treated with the diode laser under conditions in which power density and irradiation time were varied. Tumour tissue concentrations of ATX-S10Na(II) were higher than in all tissues at all intervals following administration. The uptake of ATX-S10Na(II) by most tissues was rapid, with maximal concentrations occurring 1 h after i.v. injection, and ATX-S10Na(II) was almost excreted within 24 h after administration. The maximal depth of necrosis induced by PDT in the treated tumour was 7.9 mm under conditions in which power density was 160 mW/cm2 and total dose was above 100 J/cm2. PDT with ATX-S10Na(II) and the diode laser is useful for the treatment of superficial cancers.

  5. Effects of activator and activator headgear treatment: comparison with untreated Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkkahraman, Hakan; Sayin, M Ozgür

    2006-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether the activator and activator headgear encourage mandibular growth, and whether there is any superiority of one appliance over the other or if the resultant changes are due to normal growth. Forty-nine skeletal Class II division 1 patients were selected. Thirty-three (13 females, 20 males; mean age 12.52 +/- 1.42 years) were treated with an Andresen activator and the remaining 16 (7 females, 9 males; mean age 13.04 +/- 1.47 years) with an activator headgear combination. Twenty Class II subjects (9 females, 11 males; mean age 12.57 +/- 1.11 years) who had previously refused treatment served as a control group. Cephalometric landmarks were marked and digitized by one author to avoid inter-observer variability. Nine angular and 12 linear measurements were established and measured using Vistadent AT software. A paired-sample t-test and an ANOVA test were used to statistically evaluate the findings. The results revealed that both the activator and the activator headgear combination significantly (P headgear combination group. The resultant skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes differed significantly from those due to growth.

  6. Transient Conformational Changes of Sensory Rhodopsin II Investigated by Vibrational Stark Effect Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrmann, Hendrik; Kube, Ines; Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A; Engelhard, Martin; Heberle, Joachim

    2016-05-19

    Sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) is the primary light sensor in the photophobic reaction of the halobacterium Natronomonas pharaonis. Photoactivation of SRII results in a movement of helices F and G of this seven-helical transmembrane protein. This conformational change is conveyed to the transducer protein (HtrII). Global changes in the protein backbone have been monitored by IR difference spectroscopy by recording frequency shifts in the amide bands. Here we investigate local structural changes by judiciously inserting thiocyanides at different locations of SRII. These vibrational Stark probes absorb in a frequency range devoid of any protein vibrations and respond to local changes in the dielectric, electrostatics, and hydrogen bonding. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate the use of Stark probes to test the conformational changes occurring in SRII 12 ms after photoexcitation and later. Thus, a methodology is provided to trace local conformational changes in membrane proteins by a minimal invasive probe at the high temporal resolution inherent to IR spectroscopy.

  7. The effects of chilling-light stress on photosystems I and II in three Paphiopedilum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Jie; Chang, Wei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Hu, Hong

    2017-11-25

    Low temperatures pose a critical limitation to the physiology and survival of chilling-sensitive plants. One example is the genus Paphiopedilum (Orchidaceae), which is mainly native to tropical and subtropical areas from Asia to the Pacific islands. However, little is known about the physiological mechanism(s) underlying its sensitivity to chilling temperature. We examined how chilling-light stress influences the activities of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) in three species: P. armeniacum, P. micranthum, and P. purpuratum. All originate from different distribution zones that cover a range of temperatures. Photosystem II of three Paphiopedilum species was remarkable sensitivity to chilling stress. After 8 h chilling stress, the maximum quantum yield of PSII of three species of Paphiopedilum was significantly decreased, especially in P. purpuratum. The quantity of efficient PSI complex (P m ) value did not significantly differ after 8 h chilling treatment compared to the original value in three species. The stronger PSII photoinhibition and significantly less capacity for cyclic electron flow (CEF) were observed in P. purpuratum. In conclusion, the three species of Paphiopedilum showed significant PSII photoinhibition when exposed to 4 °C chilling treatment. However, their PSI activities were not susceptible to chilling-light stress during 8 h. The CEF was important for the photoprotection of PSI and PSII in P. armeniacum and P. micranthum under chilling conditions. Our findings suggested that the photosynthetic characteristics of Paphiopedilum were well adapted to their habitat.

  8. In vitro effects of estrogen and progesterone containing drugs on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I and II isozymes in women smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Islimye Taskin

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of the current study provide important information to clinicians about how to consider the possible adverse effects of these drugs which are produced as a result of inhibition of CA I and CA II enzyme. Clinicians should take into consideration the side effects caused by CA I and CA II enzyme inhibition when prescribing these drugs in the treatment of different clinical conditions, especially in women who smoke.

  9. Effects of LY354740, a selective agonist of Glutamate metabotropic group II receptors, on aggressive behavior in mice

    OpenAIRE

    De Castro, Vanessa; Universidad de Málaga; Martín-López, Mercedes; Universidad de Málaga; Navarro, José Francisco; Universidad de Málaga

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that glutamate metabotropic receptors mGlu1 and mGlu5 are involved in the regulation of aggressive behaviour. This study examines the effect of the administration of LY354740 (4-16 mg/kg i.p.), a selective group II metabotropic receptors agonist (mGlu2/3), using an isolation-induced aggression model. Individually housed mice were exposed to anosmic opponents 30 min after drug administration. Ten min of diadic interactions were staged between a singly housed an...

  10. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activities and carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibitor effects of new arylsulfonylhydrazone and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ümmühan Özmen; Arslan, Fatma; Hamurcu, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Ethane sulfonic acide hydrazide ( esh: CH 3CH 2SO 2NHNH 2) derivatives as 5-methylsalicyl-aldehydeethanesulfonylhydrazone ( 5msalesh), 5-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenoneethane sulfonylhydrazone ( 5mafesh) and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes have been synthesized for the first time. The structure of these compounds has been investigated by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LC/MS, UV-vis spectrophotometric method, magnetic susceptibility, thermal studies and conductivity measurements. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus magaterium and Gram negative bacteria; Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli by using the microdilution broth method. The biological activity screening showed that ligands have more activity than complexes against the tested bacteria. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) have been investigated by comparing IC 50 and Ki values and it has been found that 5msalesh and its complexes have more enzyme inhibition efficiency than other compounds.

  11. [Comparative study on the effects of LEEP and laser CO(2) vaporization in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu-Lu; Cao, Dong-Yan; Bian, Mei-Lu; Wei, Li-Hui; Yang, Jia-Xin; Yang, Li; Cheng, Ning-Hai; Wang, You-Fang; Cheng, Xue-Mei; Hu, Li-Jun; Lang, Jing-He; Shen, Keng

    2010-11-23

    to compare the effect and complications of loop electro-surgical excision procedure (LEEP) and laser CO(2) vaporization in the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II. a total of 338 CINII women were recruited into this multi-center comparative study. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination for cervical epithelial cell abnormalities. And colposcopic examination was submitted to LEEP (n = 195) or laser CO(2) vaporization (n = 143) respectively. A post-treatment follow-up of 3, 6 and 12 months was carried out to compare the effect of two methods. among 195 women undergoing LEEP, the frequency of cure, persistent and recurrent CIN was 89.2% (n = 174), 4.1% (n = 8) and 3.6% (n = 7) respectively. And among 143 women receiving laser CO(2) vaporization, the frequency of cure, persistent and recurrent CIN was 86.7% (n = 124), 4.9% (n = 7) and 0.70% (n = 1) respectively. There was no statistical difference in cure rates, persistence or recurrence of CIN (P > 0.05). The recovery time, the operative frequency and intra-operative blood loss were significantly different in two groups. both LEEP and CO(2) vaporization are both effective and reliable for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II. However, pathological specimens may be harvested during LEEP. It is of vital importance to conduct preoperative colposcopic assessment and standard postoperative follow-ups.

  12. Combined effect of genetic polymorphisms in phase I and II biotransformation enzymes on head and neck cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Martin; Voogd, Adri C; Roelofs, Hennie M J; te Morsche, Rene H M; Oude Ophuis, Michel B; Peters, Wilbert H M; Manni, Johannes J

    2013-06-01

    Combinations of genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes might modify the individual risk for head and neck cancer. Blood from 432 patients with head and neck cancer and 437 controls was investigated for genetic polymorphisms in 9 different phase I and II biotransformation enzymes. Analysis of the risk-modifying effect was performed according to predicted enzyme activities, based on genetic polymorphisms in the corresponding genes. Combination of polymorphisms in COX-2 or EPHX1 with high activity polymorphisms in UGT1A1, UGT1A6, or UGT1A7 showed a risk-modulating effect in head and neck carcinogenesis, especially among heavy smokers and patients with laryngeal cancer. However, no additional effect for the combination of these polymorphisms was discovered when compared to the impact of polymorphism in UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and UGT1A7 individually. Predicted high activity polymorphisms in the phase II enzymes UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and UGT1A7 are associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Preventive Effect of Boiogito on Metabolic Disorders in the TSOD Mouse, a Model of Spontaneous Obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Shimada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Boiogito” is a Kampo preparation which has been used since ancient times in patients with obesity of the “asthenic constitution” type, so-called “watery obesity”, and its effect has been recognized clinically. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Boiogito in the TSOD (Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes mouse, a model of spontaneous obese type II diabetes mellitus. Boiogito showed a significant anti-obesity effect in TSOD mice by suppressing body weight gain in a dosage-dependent manner. In addition, Boiogito showed significant ameliorative effects on features of metabolic syndrome such as hyperinsulinemia, fasting hyperglycemia and abnormal lipid metabolism. Regarding lipid accumulation in TSOD mice, Boiogito showed a significant suppressive effect on accumulation of subcutaneous fat, but the effect on the visceral fat accumulation that constitutes the basis of metabolic syndrome was weak, and the suppressive effect on insulin resistance was also weak. Furthermore, Boiogito did not alleviate the abnormal glucose tolerance, the hypertension or the peripheral neuropathy characteristically developed in the TSOD mice. In contrast, in the TSNO (Tsumura Suzuki Non-Obesity mice used as controls, Boiogito suppressed body weight gain and accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The above results suggested that Boiogito is effective as an anti-obesity drug against obesity of the “asthenic constitution” type in which subcutaneous fat accumulates, but cannot be expected to exert a preventive effect against various symptoms of metabolic syndrome that are based on visceral fat accumulation.

  14. Adsorption/reduction of Hg(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by using bone ash/nZVI composite: effects of aging time, Fe loading quantity and co-existing ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Antonio; Amiri, Mohammad Javad; Abedi-Koupai, Jahangir; Eslamian, Saeid

    2017-11-15

    In this research, a versatile and highly efficient method for the stabilization of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) on the surface of ostrich bone ash (OBA) was presented as a novel inorganic adsorbent (OBA/nZVI) for the removal of Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions, even after 1 year of storage under room conditions. The removal behavior of the OBA/nZVI was assessed as a function of the initial pH, contact time, initial pollutants concentration, temperature, amount of adsorbent, effect of competitive metal ions, and ionic strength. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized by several techniques including N2 adsorption at - 196 °C, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and zeta potential. The results confirmed that the OBA is a good candidate as support of nZVI. The maxima adsorption capacity for Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions found from experimental results were 170 and 160 mg g(-1), when the loading quantities of Fe were 20%. The equilibrium sorption data obeyed a Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm type model. The kinetic data of the adsorption followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic experiments indicated that the removal of metal ions were feasible, endothermic, and spontaneous. It can be found that fresh and aged OBA/nZVI maintained its usability even after five cycles in the order: fresh (OBA/nZVI)-Hg(II) > fresh (OBA/nZVI)-Pb(II) > aged (OBA/nZVI)-Hg(II) > aged (OBA/nZVI)-Pb(II), which indicate that OBA/nZVI can be regenerated as adsorbent. The existence of Fe in the OBA/nZVI was proved by SEM-EDX results and X-ray diffraction analysis also confirmed adsorption/reduction of some of the Hg(II) to Hg(0) and Pb(II) to Pb(0).

  15. Modeling the effect of phase II conjugations on topoisomerase I poisoning: pilot study with luteolin and quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellafiora, Luca; Mena, Pedro; Del Rio, Daniele; Cozzini, Pietro

    2014-06-25

    Topoisomerases are targeted by several drugs in cancer chemotherapy acting as key enzymes in cell viability. Some flavonoids and their glycosides may exert health protective effects through the poisoning of topoisomerases. However, previous studies did not consider the substantial modifications taking place after ingestion neglecting that only metabolites can interact with the internal compartments of the human body. Since the high number of possible metabolites hinders their systematic analysis, an in silico approach can be a valuable tool to prioritize compounds by identifying candidates for further characterization. Specifically focusing on luteolin and quercetin, among the most ubiquitous flavonoids in the human diet, this work reports a computational procedure to model the effect of hepatic phase II conjugative metabolism on poisoning of human Topoisomerase I. As a general effect, glucuronidation and sulphation might enhance and quench poisoning activity, respectively. Among all, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide represents a promising candidate to be analyzed more thoroughly.

  16. Effects of stitch density and stitch thread thickness on mode II delamination properties of Vectran stitched composites

    KAUST Repository

    Herwan, J.

    2014-11-01

    © Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining 2014. Mode II delamination properties of Vectran stitched composites were investigated, and tabbed end notch flexural specimen testing was used to prevent premature failure. The effects of stitch density and stitch thread thickness were explored, and fibre compaction due to the stitching process was also verified. The results show that, in moderately stitched laminates (low stitch density), the improvement in GIIC was negligible. Crack bridging by the stitch threads at the crack zone were mostly compensated for the effect of fibre compaction, which reduced the GIIC values. Conversely, in densely stitched laminates (high stitch density), GIIC values were improved significantly (2·4 times higher than those of unstitched laminates). The effects of stitch thread thickness appeared to be negligible in moderately stitched laminates. For densely stitched laminates, thicker stitch thread (500 denier) possessed GIIC values that were 45·7% higher than thinner stitch thread (200 denier).

  17. Synthesis of silica gel supported salicylaldehyde modified PAMAM dendrimers for the effective removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Yuzhong, E-mail: niuyuzhong@126.com; Qu, Rongjun, E-mail: rongjunqu@sohu.com; Chen, Hou; Mu, Lei; Liu, Xiguang; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Yue; Sun, Changmei

    2014-08-15

    adsorbents indicates SiO{sub 2}-G0-SA∼SiO{sub 2}-G2.0-SA are favorable and useful for the uptake of Hg (II), and can be potentially used as promising adsorbents for the effective removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution.

  18. Procedures for checking the effectiveness of the Security System of Radiological Facilities Cyclotrons category II (IAEA); Procedimentos para verificacao da eficacia do sistema de Seguranca Radiologica de Instalacoes Ciclotrons ategoria II (AIEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videira, Heber S.; Abe, Rubens; Buchpiguel, Carlos A., E-mail: Heber.videira@hcnet.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC/FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2011-07-01

    According to the recommendation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 107, the particle accelerator facilities category II must comply with some key requirements to ensure compliance with the goals of the Radiological Safety. The IAEA recommendation is accepted by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) the regulator of the use of nuclear energy in Brazil and investigated in their audits. The aim of this paper is to present procedures to ascertain the effectiveness of the Radiological Safety Facility cyclotrons category II. (author)

  19. The influence of the rate of electrical stimulation on the effects of the Anemonia sulcata Toxin ATX II in guinea pig papillary muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beress, L; Ritter, R; Ravens, U

    1982-04-23

    In guinea pig papillary muscle, the rate of electrical stimulation (0.1-2 Hz) strongly influenced the effects of the Anemonia sulcata toxin ATX II on action potential duration (APD) and contractile force. In the concentration range studied (10-8-10-7 M), ATX II always produced a larger prolongation in APD at low rates of stimulation. At 0.1 Hz there was a temporal dissociation between the onset of the APD-prolonging and the positive inotropic effect. However, under equilibrium conditions there was a positive relationship between the APD expressed as a fraction of the time during which the membrane was depolarized, and the contractile force irrespective of the change in experimental conditions being variation of stimulation frequency or the addition of ATX II. The results suggest that the positive inotropic effects of both ATX II and increased stimulation frequency could be induced by a similar mechanism, e.g. an increase in sodium of the heart muscle.

  20. Dentoskeletal effects of Twin Block and Herbst appliances in patients with Class II division 1 mandibular retrognathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Aslı; Uysal, Tancan

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate dentoskeletal effects of Herbst and Twin Block (TB) appliance therapies in Skeletal Class II malocclusion. Herbst group consisted of 11 girls and 9 boys (mean age = 12.74 ± 1.43 years), TB group comprised of 10 girls and 10 boys (mean age = 13.0 ± 1.32 years), and control group included 9 girls and 11 boys (mean age = 12.17 ± 1.47 years). Mean treatment/observation times were 15.81 ± 5.96 months for Herbst, 16.20 ± 7.54 months for TB, and 15.58 ± 3.13 months for control group. Pre-treatment (T0) and post-treatment (T1) lateral cephalograms were traced using a modified Pancherz's cephalometric analysis. Inter-group differences were evaluated with one-way analysis of variance, and intra-group differences were assessed with paired samples t-test at the P mandibular skeletal measurements compared with those in control group. Upper dental arch distalization and lower incisor protrusion were significant in Herbst group, compared with control. All face height measurements increased after functional appliance therapy. In TB group, the treatment effects were mainly due to mandibular skeletal changes. Both skeletal and dental changes contribute to Class II correction with Herbst appliance therapy. Herbst appliance may be especially useful in Skeletal Class II patients with maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion and mandibular dentoalveolar retrusion, whereas TB appliance may be preferred for skeletal mandibular retrognathy patients.

  1. Effective mercury(II) bioremoval from aqueous solution, and its electrochemical determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario; Rodríguez-Sevilla, Erika; Esparza-Schulz, Juan Marcos; Juárez-Gómez, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    This work proposed mercury elimination using agricultural waste (Allium Cepa L.). The biomass removed 99.4% of mercury, following a pseudo-second order kinetics (r(2) = 0.9999). The Langmuir model was adequately fitted to the adsorption isotherm, thereby obtaining the maximum mercury adsorption capacity of 111.1 ± 0.3 mg g(-1). The biomass showed high density of strong mercury chelating groups, thus making it economically attractive. Also, the implementation of a mercury-selective electrode for continuous determination in real time is proposed; this electrode replaces techniques like atomic absorption spectroscopy, thus it can be applied to real time studies. This work therefore presents a new perspective for removing mercury(II) from contaminated water for environmental remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on proximal tubular fluid reabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Karlsen, F M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1997-01-01

    convolution of halothane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Four parameters that depend on the rate of proximal fluid reabsorption were measured: proximal intratubular pressure (Pprox), early and late proximal flow rate, and early distal NaCl concentration. Pprox decreased by 0.5 +/- 0.1 mmHg, late proximal...... flow rate decreased by 2.0 +/- 0.8 nl/min, and early distal NaCl concentration decreased by 4.3 +/- 0.8 mM (mean +/- SE). No changes were observed after microperfusion with saline. Because the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was operating in the closed-loop mode, the decreased NaCl load...... the early and late proximal convolutions was estimated to be 7.8 nl/min (approximately 36%). It is concluded that a decrease in local luminal angiotensin II levels and/or AT1 receptor activity under free flow conditions increases the rate of proximal tubular fluid reabsorption....

  3. Conformational effects on the circular dichroism of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II: a multilevel computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G Karabencheva-Christova

    Full Text Available Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy is a powerful method for investigating conformational changes in proteins and therefore has numerous applications in structural and molecular biology. Here a computational investigation of the CD spectrum of the Human Carbonic Anhydrase II (HCAII, with main focus on the near-UV CD spectra of the wild-type enzyme and it seven tryptophan mutant forms, is presented and compared to experimental studies. Multilevel computational methods (Molecular Dynamics, Semiempirical Quantum Mechanics, Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory were applied in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of interaction between the aromatic chromophores within the protein environment and understand how the conformational flexibility of the protein influences these mechanisms. The analysis suggests that combining CD semi empirical calculations, crystal structures and molecular dynamics (MD could help in achieving a better agreement between the computed and experimental protein spectra and provide some unique insight into the dynamic nature of the mechanisms of chromophore interactions.

  4. Physical activity in type II Diabetes Mellitus, an effective therapeutic element: review of the clinical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Iván Arias-Vázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted in databases (PubMed, PEDro of type studies clinical trial, cohort study, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and clinical practice guidelines based on evidence they have studied the benefits of physical activity in the prevention , treatment and decreased risk of complications and death in patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Realization regular physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of developing Diabetes Mellitus; likewise was associated with decrease in glycated hemoglobin percentage A1C values. Diabetic patients undergoing high levels of physical activity had decreased risk of complications and death from cardiovascular disease and all causes. At present the scientific evidence on the impact of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of Diabetes Mellitus is solid, so it must be emphasized promoting physical activity as a fundamental part of the therapeutic regimens for this disease.

  5. Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

    1983-12-01

    Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

  6. Temperature influence on silver nanoparticles inhibitory effect on photosystem II photochemistry in two green algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; Polchtchikov, Stephanie; Perreault, François; Popovic, Radovan

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the photosynthetic performance of two green algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta, was investigated at 25°C and 31°C. To induce AgNPs effect, algal cells were exposed for 24 h to concentrations varying from 0 to 10 mg/L. The polyphasic OJIP fluorescence transient was used to evaluate photosystem II (PSII). We show that growth media and temperature had different effects in AgNPs agglomerates formation and Zeta potential. When temperature conditions change, inhibitory effect of AgNPs also undergoes changes. Increase of temperature induced higher altering effects to PSII quantum yield, primary photosynthetic electron transport, and consequently higher decrease of total photosynthetic performance if compared to AgNPs effect alone. AgNPs has a negative effect on D. tertiolecta compared to C. vulgaris. We conclude that temperature tends to enhance the toxic effects on aquatic alga and these alterations might have serious consequences on ecosystem equilibrium and aquatic plant communities.

  7. Cloud point extraction of Cu(II) using a mixture of Triton X-100 and dithizone with a salting-out effect and its application to visual determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuko; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2013-12-15

    A method for the separation and concentration of trace copper(II) ion (Cu(II)) via cloud point extraction (CPE) using a nonionic surfactant with a salting-out effect was developed and applied as a technique for the visual determination of Cu(II). Triton X-100 (TX-100), which has a cloud point at 64-67 °C in aqueous solutions, was used as the nonionic surfactant for the CPE of Cu(II). Although CPE with TX-100 requires heating of the solution to separate the surfactant-rich phase from the aqueous phase, the new method achieves phase separation at 15-30 °C owing to the addition of a large amount of salt to the solution, which lowers the cloud point. The compound 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) was selected as the chelating agent for complexation and transfer of Cu(II) to the surfactant-rich phase. The extractability of Cu(II) (initial concentration: 10 μM) was 96.6±2.1% when Na2SO4 was added to a 20% TX-100/4 μM dithizone solution (pH 2). Using this method, the visual determination of Cu(II) was possible for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 μM. In addition, the extraction system was successfully applied to the visual determination of Cu(II) in a river water sample. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonuniform Effect of Carrier Separation Efficiency and Light Absorption in Type-II Perovskite Nanowire Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; He, Jialun; Cao, Yiyan; Kong, Lijing; Zheng, Xuanli; Wu, Yaping; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Shuping; Wu, Zhiming; Kang, Junyong

    2017-03-01

    Coaxial structures exhibit great potential for the application of high-efficiency solar cells due to the novel mechanism of radial charge separation. Here, we intensively investigate the nonuniform effect of carrier separation efficiency (CSE) and light absorption in perovskite-based type-II coaxial nanowire solar cells (ZnO/CH3NH3PbI3). Results show that the CSE rapidly decreases along the radial direction in the shell, and the value at the outer side becomes extremely low for the thick shell. Besides, the position of the main light absorption gradually moves to the outer side with the increase of the shell thickness. As a result, the external quantum efficiency shows a positional dependence with a maximal value close to the border of the nanowire. Eventually, in our case, it is found that the maximal power conversion efficiency of the solar cells reduces from 19.5 to 17.9% under the effect of the nonuniformity of CSE and light absorption. This work provides a basis for the design of high-efficiency solar cells, especially type-II nanowire solar cells.

  9. Nonuniform Effect of Carrier Separation Efficiency and Light Absorption in Type-II Perovskite Nanowire Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; He, Jialun; Cao, Yiyan; Kong, Lijing; Zheng, Xuanli; Wu, Yaping; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Shuping; Wu, Zhiming; Kang, Junyong

    2017-12-01

    Coaxial structures exhibit great potential for the application of high-efficiency solar cells due to the novel mechanism of radial charge separation. Here, we intensively investigate the nonuniform effect of carrier separation efficiency (CSE) and light absorption in perovskite-based type-II coaxial nanowire solar cells (ZnO/CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 ). Results show that the CSE rapidly decreases along the radial direction in the shell, and the value at the outer side becomes extremely low for the thick shell. Besides, the position of the main light absorption gradually moves to the outer side with the increase of the shell thickness. As a result, the external quantum efficiency shows a positional dependence with a maximal value close to the border of the nanowire. Eventually, in our case, it is found that the maximal power conversion efficiency of the solar cells reduces from 19.5 to 17.9% under the effect of the nonuniformity of CSE and light absorption. This work provides a basis for the design of high-efficiency solar cells, especially type-II nanowire solar cells.

  10. Short-term anteroposterior treatment effects of functional appliances and extraoral traction on class II malocclusion. A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Gregory Stylianos; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the anteroposterior short-term skeletal and dental effects on Class II malocclusion in growing patients following treatment with functional appliances (activators or twin block), extraoral traction, or combination appliances (appliances with both functional and extraoral traction components), based on published data. A literature search was carried out identifying a total of nine prospective clinical trials. The data provided in the publications underwent meta-analysis using the random effects model with regard to SNA, SNB, ANB, and overjet. All appliance groups showed an improvement in sagittal intermaxillary relationships (decrease in ANB) when compared to untreated subjects. Activators and twin block appliances accomplish this mainly by acting on the mandible (increases in SNB) while twin block appliances also seem to act on the maxilla (decrease in SNA). Extraoral traction appliances achieve this by acting on the maxilla (decreases in SNA). Combination appliances mainly act on the mandible (increase in SNB). Activators, twin block, and combination appliances also reveal a decrease in overjet, which is not the case in the singular use of extraoral traction. Intermaxillary changes being present in all appliance groups, anteroposterior treatment response following the use of functional appliances and/or extraoral traction in growing class II malocclusion patients is most evident in one of the two jaws (mandible for activators and combination appliances and maxilla for extraoral traction) except for the twin block group, which shows changes on both jaws.

  11. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Maria R.G.; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Echevarria, Aurea [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: echevarr@ufrrj.br; Vieira, Ivo J.C.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2007-07-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-{beta}- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  12. Exogenous surfactant application in a rat lung ischemia reperfusion injury model: effects on edema formation and alveolar type II cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic exogenous surfactant therapy is a promising way to attenuate the ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury associated with lung transplantation and thereby to decrease the clinical occurrence of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, there is little information on the mode by which exogenous surfactant attenuates I/R injury of the lung. We hypothesized that exogenous surfactant may act by limiting pulmonary edema formation and by enhancing alveolar type II cell and lamellar body preservation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exogenous surfactant therapy on the formation of pulmonary edema in different lung compartments and on the ultrastructure of the surfactant producing alveolar epithelial type II cells. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to a control, Celsior (CE or Celsior + surfactant (CE+S group (n = 5 each. In both Celsior groups, the lungs were flush-perfused with Celsior and subsequently exposed to 4 h of extracorporeal ischemia at 4°C and 50 min of reperfusion at 37°C. The CE+S group received an intratracheal bolus of a modified natural bovine surfactant at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight before flush perfusion. After reperfusion (Celsior groups or immediately after sacrifice (Control, the lungs were fixed by vascular perfusion and processed for light and electron microscopy. Stereology was used to quantify edematous changes as well as alterations of the alveolar epithelial type II cells. Results Surfactant treatment decreased the intraalveolar edema formation (mean (coefficient of variation: CE: 160 mm3 (0.61 vs. CE+S: 4 mm3 (0.75; p 3 (0.90 vs. CE+S: 0 mm3; p 3 (0.39 vs. CE+S: 268 mm3 (0.43; p 3(0.10 and CE+S (481 μm3(0.10 compared with controls (323 μm3(0.07; p Conclusion Intratracheal surfactant application before I/R significantly reduces the intraalveolar edema formation and development of atelectases but leads to an increased development of

  13. Effect of solvent on the electronic absorption spectral properties of some mixed β-octasubstituted Zn(II)-tetraphenylporphyrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhyrappa, P.; Sankar, M.

    2018-01-01

    A series of mixed β-octasubstituted Zn(II)-porphyrins, 2,3,12,13-tetra(chloro/cyano/methyl)-5,7,8,10,15,17,18,20-octaphenylporphinato zinc(II), ZnTPP(Ph)4X4 (X = CN, Cl and CH3) have been examined by electronic absorption spectroscopy in various solvents. These Zn(II)-porphyrins exhibited varying degree of red-shift of absorption bands as high as 20-30 nm in 'B' band and 50-60 nm in longest wavelength band, 'Q(0,0)' band in polar solvents relative to that found in nonpolar solvents. The red-shift of B and Q(0,0) bands showed an unusual trend, ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4Cl4 but fails to follow an anticipated anodic shift in first porphyrin ring oxidation (vs Ag/AgCl) potential: ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 (1.02 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4Cl4 (0.74 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 (0.38 V). Such a trend suggests the combined effect of non-planarity of the macrocycle and electronic effect of the peripheral substituents. The equilibrium constants for the binding of nitrogenous bases with the Zn(II)-porphyrins showed as high as twenty fold increase for ZnTPP(Ph)4X4 (X = Br and CN) relative to ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 and follow the order: ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4Br4 > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4 ≤ ZnTPP which is approximately in line with an increase in anodic shift of their first ring redox potentials (ZnTPP(Ph)4(CN)4 (1.02 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4Br4 (0.72 V) > ZnTPP (0.84 V) > ZnTPP(Ph)4(CH3)4) (0.38 V).

  14. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  15. Organic-acid effect on the structures of a series of lead(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Ma, Jian-Fang; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Ji-Cheng; Batten, Stuart R

    2007-08-06

    An investigation into the dependence of coordination polymer architectures on organic-acid ligands is reported on the basis of the reaction of Pb(NO3)2 and eight structurally related organic-acid ligands in the presence or absence of N-donor chelating ligands. Eight novel lead(II)-organic architectures, [Pb(adip)(dpdp)]2 1, [Pb(glu)(dpdp)] 2, [Pb(suc)(dpdp)] 3, [Pb(fum)(dpdp)] . H2O 4, [Pb2(oba)(dpdp)2] . 2(dpdp).2(NO3).2H2O 5, [Pb2(1,4-bdc)2(dpdp)2] . H2O 6, [Pb(dpdc)(dpdp)] 7, and [Pb(1,3-bdc)(dpdp)] . H2O 8, where dpdp = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]-phenazine, H2adip = adipic acid, H2glu = glutaric acid, H2suc = succinic acid, H2fum = fumaric acid, H2oba = 4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid), 1,4-H2bdc = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, H2dpdc = 2,2'-diphenyldicarboxylic acid, and 1,3-H2bdc = benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, were successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions through varying the organic-acid linkers and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-8 crystallize in the presence of organic-acid linkers as well as secondary N-donor chelating ligands. Diverse structures were observed for these complexes. 1 and 5 have dinuclear structures, which are further stacked via strong pi-pi interactions to form 2D layers. 2-3 and 6-8 feature chain structures, which are connected by strong pi-pi interactions to result in 2D and 3D supramolecular architectures. Compound 4 contains 2D layers, which are further extended to a 3D structure by pi-pi interactions. A systematic structural comparison of these 8 complexes indicates that the organic-acid structures have essential roles in the framework formation of the Pb(II) complexes.

  16. Effects of [pi]-[pi] interactions on molecular structure and resonance Raman spectra of crystalline copper(II) octaethylporphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, L.D.; Shelnutt, J.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States) Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States)); Scheidt, W.R. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States))

    1992-05-27

    Single-crystal resonance Raman measurements were performed on two crystalline phases of copper(II) octaethylporphyrin (CuOEP): triclinic A and triclinic B forms. These are compared to previously acquired resonance Raman data on the triclinic A and triclinic B phases of nickel(II) octaethylporphyrin (NiOEP). The difference in crystal packing between the triclinic A and B structures allows for more extensive [pi]-[pi] interactions in the B form than in the A form. Differences in the single-crystal Raman spectra of the triclinic A and B forms of both Cu- and NiOEP are attributed to these [pi]-[pi] interactions. Specifically, the Raman core-size marker lines, [nu][sub 3], [nu][sub 2], and [nu][sub 10], and the oxidation-state marker line, [nu][sub 4], are affected by the different packing interactions in the two crystals, and the same Raman shifting patterns between the triclinic A and B phases are observed for both Cu- and NiOEP. The metal centers exert a slight influence over the packing-induced frequency shifts in the Raman modes. Spectral results on the CuOEP crystals are also compared to solution Raman data on [pi]-[pi] aggregated and monomeric copper(II) uroporphyrin (CuUroP). Similar to the A and B forms of NiOEP, the CuOEP triclinic A and B crystalline phases mimic the monomer and salt-induced aggregate of CuUroP in solution, as evidenced by similar magnitude upshifts in the Raman modes upon aggregation. A comparison of the structure calculated using molecular mechanics and the structure obtained from X-ray diffraction gives some insight into the effect that [pi]-[pi] interactions have on the structure of CuOEP in the triclinic B crystal.

  17. Effect of active-site mutation at Asn67 on the proton transfer mechanism of human carbonic anhydrase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, C Mark; Zheng, Jiayin; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N; Voth, Gregory A

    2009-08-25

    The rate-limiting proton transfer (PT) event in the site-specific mutant N67L of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) has been examined by kinetic, X-ray, and simulation approaches. The X-ray crystallography studies, which were previously reported, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that the proton shuttling residue, His64, predominantly resides in the outward orientation with a significant disruption of the ordered water in the active site for the dehydration pathway. While disorder is seen in the active-site water, water cluster analysis indicates that the N67L mutant may form water clusters similar to those seen in the wild-type (WT). For the hydration pathway of the enzyme, the active site water cluster analysis reveals an inability of the N67L mutant to stabilize water clusters when His64 is in the inward orientation, thereby favoring PT when His64 is in the outward orientation. The preference of the N67L mutant to carry out the PT when His64 is in the outward orientation for both the hydration and dehydration pathway is reasoned to be the main cause of the observed reduction in the overall rate. To probe the mechanism of PT, solvent H/D kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were experimentally studied with catalysis measured by the exchange of (18)O between CO(2) and water. The values obtained from the KIEs were determined as a function of the deuterium content of solvent, using the proton inventory method. No differences were detected in the overarching mechanism of PT between WT and N67L HCA II, despite changes in the active-site water structure and/or the orientation of His64.

  18. Synthesis of silica gel supported salicylaldehyde modified PAMAM dendrimers for the effective removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuzhong; Qu, Rongjun; Chen, Hou; Mu, Lei; Liu, Xiguang; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Yue; Sun, Changmei

    2014-08-15

    A series of silica gel supported salicylaldehyde modified PAMAM dendrimers (SiO2-G0-SA ∼ SiO2-G2.0-SA) were synthesized and their structures were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TGA, and porous structure analysis. The feasibility of these adsorbents for the removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution was first described and the adsorption mechanism was proposed. The adsorption was found to depend on solution pH, the generation number of salicylaldehyde modified PAMAM dendrimers, contact time, temperature, and initial concentration. Results showed that the optimal pH was about 6 and the adsorption capacity increased with the increasing of generation number. Density functional theory (DFT) method was used to investigate the coordination geometries and the chelating mechanism. Adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order model with film diffusion process as rate controlling step. Adsorption isotherms revealed that adsorption capacities increased with the increasing of temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models were employed to analyze the equilibrium data. The adsorption can be well described by Langmuir isotherm model and took place by chemical mechanism. The thermodynamics properties indicated the adsorption processes were spontaneous and endothermic nature. The maximum adsorption capacity of SiO2-G0-SA, SiO2-G1.0-SA, and SiO2-G2.0-SA were 0.91, 1.52, and 1.81 mmol g(-1), respectively. The considerable higher adsorption capacity compared with other adsorbents indicates SiO2-G0-SA ∼ SiO2-G2.0-SA are favorable and useful for the uptake of Hg (II), and can be potentially used as promising adsorbents for the effective removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL FACTORS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JUICE PURIFICATION IN THE PROCESS OF II SATURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The effect of reducing substances in the final stage of lime - carbon dioxide purification of raw juice is studied in the article. The presence of significant amounts of reducing substances in the juice of the I saturation increases chroma and calcium salts in the purified product. It is actu