WorldWideScience

Sample records for swash plate type

  1. Temperature measurement of tribological parts in swash-plate type axial piston pumps:

    OpenAIRE

    KAZAMA, Toshiharu; Tsuruno, Tadamasa; Sasaki, Hayato

    2011-01-01

    Temperatures of a swash plate, cylinder block, and a valve plate of swash-plate type axial piston pumps with a rotating cylinder block and a rotating swash plate were measured. Thermocouples were embedded underneath these parts. Hydraulic mineral oils with ISO VG22, 32, 46, and 68 and a water-glycol type hydraulic fluid with VG32 were used as test fluids. The maximum discharge pressure was 20 MPa and the maximum rotational speed was 28.3 rps. The inlet oil temperatures were specified as 293-3...

  2. Study on the CO2 electric driven fixed swash plate type compressor for eco-friendly vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Donglim; Kim, Kitae; Lee, Jehie; Kwon, Yunki; Lee, Geonho

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to experiment and to performance analysis about the electric-driven fixed swash plate compressor using alternate refrigerant(R744). Comprehensive simulation model for an electric driven compressor using CO2 for eco-friendly vehicle is presented. This model consists of compression model and dynamic model. The compression model included valve dynamics, leakage, and heat transfer models. And the dynamic model included frictional loss between piston ring and cylinder wall, frictional loss between shoe and swash plate, frictional loss of bearings, and electric efficiency. Especially, because the efficiency of an electric parts(motor and inverter) in the compressor affects the loss of the compressor, the dynamo test was performed. We made the designed compressor, and tested the performance of the compressor about the variety pressure conditions. Also we compared the performance analysis result and performance test result.

  3. Improvement of helicopter attitude stability by active control of the conventional swash plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Norman D.

    1993-01-01

    The Final Report on improvement of helicopter attitude stability by active control of the conventional swash plate covering the period from Nov. 1986 to Dec. 1993 is presented. A paper on the history, principles, and applications of helicopter individual-blade-control is included.

  4. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Swash-Plate Axial Piston Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Guangjun Liu; Zhaocheng Zhou; Xin Qian; Xiaofeng Wu; Weihai Pang

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an MDO (multidisciplinary design optimization) procedure for a swash-plate axial piston pump based on co-simulation and integrated optimization. The integrated hydraulic-mechanical model of the pump is built to reflect its actual performance, and a hydraulic-mechanical co-simulation is conducted through data exchange between different domains. The flow ripple of the pump is optimized by using a MDO procedure. A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation of the pump’s flo...

  5. Helicopter gust alleviation, attitude stabilization, and vibration alleviation using individual-blade-control through a conventional swash plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    The novel active control system presented for helicopter rotor aerodynamic and aeroelastic problems involves the individual control of each blade in the rotating frame over a wide range of frequencies (up to the sixth harmonic of rotor speed). This Individual Blade Control (IBC) system controls blade pitch by means of broadband electrohydraulic actuators attached to the swash plate (in the case of three blades) or individually to each blade, using acceleratometer signals to furnish control commands to the actuators. Attention is given to IBC's application to blade lag, flapping, and bending dynamics. It is shown that gust alleviation, attitude stabilization, vibration alleviation, and air/ground resonance suppression, are all achievable with a conventional helicopter swash plate.

  6. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Swash-Plate Axial Piston Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an MDO (multidisciplinary design optimization procedure for a swash-plate axial piston pump based on co-simulation and integrated optimization. The integrated hydraulic-mechanical model of the pump is built to reflect its actual performance, and a hydraulic-mechanical co-simulation is conducted through data exchange between different domains. The flow ripple of the pump is optimized by using a MDO procedure. A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of the pump’s flow field is done, which shows that the hydrodynamic shock of the pump is improved after optimization. To verify the MDO effect, an experimental system is established to test the optimized piston pump. Experimental results show that the simulated and experimental curves are similar. The flow ripple is improved by the MDO procedure. The peak of the pressure curve is lower than before optimization, and the pressure pulsation is reduced by 0.21 MPa, which shows that the pressure pulsation is improved with the decreasing of the flow ripple. Comparing the experimental and simulation results shows that MDO method is effective and feasible in the optimization design of the pump.

  7. Multi-objective optimization of swash plate forging process parameters for the die wear/service life improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. F.; Wang, L. G.; Wu, H.; Liu, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    For the forging process of the swash plate, the author designed a kind of multi-index orthogonal experiment. Based on the Archard wear model, the influences of billet temperature, die temperature, forming speed, top die hardness and friction coefficient on forming load and die wear were numerically simulated by DEFORM software. Through the analysis of experimental results, the best forging process parameters were optimized and determined, which could effectively reduce the die wear and prolong the die service life. It is significant to increase the practical production of enterprise, especially to reduce the production cost and to promote enterprise profit.

  8. Experimental and thermodynamic analysis of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) of gasoline engine using swash-plate expander

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, José,; Ruiz Rosales, Santiago; Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; ROYO PASCUAL, LUCÍA; Haller, R.; Nicolas, B.; Glavatskaya, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental testing of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) integrate in a 2 liter turbocharged gasoline engine using ethanol as working fluid. The main components of the cycle are a boiler, a condenser, a pump and a swash-plate expander. Five engine operating points have been tested, they correspond to a nominal heat input into the boiler of 5, 12, 20, 25 and 30 kW. With the available bill of material based on prototypes, power balances and cycles efficiencies were estim...

  9. Spectral signatures for swash on reflective, intermediate and dissipative beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Michael G; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we synthesise a large data set gathered from a wide variety of field deployments and integrate it with previously published results to identify the spectral signatures of swash from contrasting beach types. The field data set includes the full range of micro-tidal beach types (refle...

  10. Bores and Swash on Natural Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    scattei between theoretical and observed celerities which seemed to increase with bore strengh (with a cautionary note that this may be partly due to...4.1. A simplified breaker-swash sequence is shown in figure 4.3. In the absence of powerful backwash, high waves will plunge slightly seaward of. the...Sonu et al. (1974) and also noted in chapter 3 of this report. The T-.." periodic occurrence of powerful backwash which inhibits further swashes for

  11. SWASH ZONE BED LEVEL CHANGES AND SEDIMENT ENTRAINMENT AT THE SURF-SWASH BOUNDARY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Gro; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom

    2010-01-01

    concentrations at the outer boundary of the swash zone will improve the ability to explain the role of sediment advection from bore collapse. In relation to this, a method which consistently identify bores at the surf-swash boundary and quantifies the suspended sediment load carried by such bores prior...

  12. Modeled Swash and Runup on Natural Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    Runup position is commonly used to delineate the region that is affected by wave up-rush from the dry land. The earliest attempts at runup prediction were completely empirical and based on deep water wave conditions and beach slope. However, advances in technology and understanding have provided the opportunity for improved tools in estimation of swash characteristics and runup. Through the straight-forward integration of the phase-averaged energy and momentum equations in the surf zone, a rational prediction for the wave height, setup, and longshore current is developed. The computation of swash zone hydrodynamics, however, necessitates use of a probabilistic representation and additional assumptions before cross-shore integration of the equations of motion. As such, the model depends on empirical relations and comparison to data. While the formulation was based on small-scale laboratory experiments initially, we have recently collected high-quality measurements of swash and runup hydrodynamics on a natural beach. Use has been made of a permanently mounted laser scanner to detail the position of the swash zone free surface position over a wide range of wave and water level conditions. The present effort constitutes a detailed comparison of the field data and numerical results. The model, in present form, demonstrates reasonable predictive skill throughout the swash for most low and moderate wave conditions. For energetic seas, however, swash hydrodynamics and runup statistics are under-predicted. The deficiency may be due, in part, to our expectation that the low frequency components are a larger fraction of the overall energies for larger wave conditions, and the model lacks a dedicated low-frequency infragravity generation mechanism.

  13. Swash Zone Response under Various Wave Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Baldock, Tom; Contestabile, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    The modelling of swash zone (SZ) sediment transport and the resulting morphodynamics have been areas of active research over the last decade. However, many details are still to be understood, whose knowledge will be greatly advanced by the collection of high-quality data under the controlled larg...

  14. Investigations on the performance of chevron type plate heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Oruganti Yaga; Nageswara Rao, B.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents empirical relations for the chevron type plate heat exchangers (PHEs) and demonstrated their validity through comparison of test data of PHEs. In order to examine the performance of PHEs, the pressure drop(Δ P), the overall heat transfer coefficient ( U m ) and the effectiveness ( ɛ) are estimated by considering the properties of plate material and working fluid, number of plates ( N t ) and chevron angle( β). It is a known fact that, large surface area of the plate provides more rate of heat transfer ( \\dot{Q} ) thereby more effectiveness ( ɛ). However, there is a possibility to achieve the required performance by increasing the number of plates without altering the plate dimensions, which avoids the new design of the system. Application of the Taguchi's design of experiments is examined with less number of experiments and demonstrated by setting the levels for the parameters and compared the test data with the estimated output responses.

  15. Performance Tests of Shell and Plate Type Evaporator for OTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Tsutomu; Uehara, Haruo

    Performance tests on a shell and plate type evaporator (total surface area = 21.95m2, length = 1450mm, width = 235mm, plate number = 100) for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants. Freon 22 (R22) and ammonia (NH3) are used as working fluid. The empirical correlations are proporsed in order to predict the boiling heat transfer when using R22 and NH3 and water side heat transfer coefficients for a shell and plate type evaporator. The water side pressure drop is about 3 m at the warm water velocity of 0.7 m/s. The water side friction factor is obtained.

  16. Inner Surf/Swash Zone Morphodynamic Numerical Model Simulation of an Accreting Ridge during Low-Energy Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youn Kyung; Figlus, Jens; Chardón-Maldonado, Patricia; Puleo, Jack A.

    2017-04-01

    The inner surf/swash zone of a coastal beach is characterized as an intermittently wet and dry zone in the nearshore that often develops a variety of morphological features including intertidal bars and ridge-runnel (RR) systems. The cross-shore morphodynamic numerical model CSHORE is used to simulate the beach recovery observed during a field experiment carried out at South Bethany Beach, Delaware, a nourished, high-gradient meso-tidal sandy beach along the U. S. Coast. The field campaign was conducted from February 12 to February 25, 2014 to measure bed profile morphology change and sediment characteristics along with detailed hydrodynamic forcing parameters at six cross-shore stations, closely spaced over approximately 50 m in the inner surf and swash zone. On February 13, 2014 a Nor'easter eroded significant portions of the beach leading to formation of a pronounced RR system on the beach face that subsequently accreted in the recovery process after the storm. Bed profile changes, surf and swash velocity profiles, water free surface elevation and suspended sediment concentrations recorded during the recovery at the cross-shore measuring locations on the seaward face of the accreting ridge are compared with CSHORE simulation results. During post-storm recovery, CSHORE demonstrates shoreward migration of the ridge and slight accretion on the beach face by the end of the simulation period on February 25, 2014. This trend was also observed in the field, where accretion at the ridge crest was up to 1.0 m with respect to the post-storm profile. The CSHORE parameters critical to improving model performance in reproducing measured morphodynamics and hydrodynamics during the ridge accretion process are examined and calibrated. Initial results show promise in using this type of efficient, process-based model to reproduce morphological evolution and depth-averaged hydrodynamics as a result of the complex surf and swash zone dynamics associated with beach accretion and RR

  17. Measuring Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport in the Swash Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The swash zone is the most landward region of the nearshore where wave energy is ultimately dissipated or reflected. It is the most accessible region of the nearshore but is the most challenging for obtaining measurements and performing numerical modeling simulations. The challenging aspects are related to the moving shoreline, rapid changes in water depth, bed level fluctuations, swift, turbulent, direction-reversing flows, large suspended, bed and sheet flow sediment loads, large void fraction, and fluid infiltration and exfiltration from the beach. The major hurdle numerical modelers face is predicting sediment transport rates on a swash-by-swash basis as errors rapidly lead to inaccuracies in simulated morphological evolution. Recent advances in measurement capabilities are now helping to fill gaps in understanding of sediment transport processes and, in turn, improve predictive capability. Newly developed acoustic Doppler profiling velocimeters have allowed for the measurement of hydrodynamics in the direct vicinity of the bed including boundary layer development, bed shear stresses and turbulence dissipation. Bed shear stresses on natural beaches have been estimated at over 20 N/m2; an order of magnitude larger than in the surf zone. Vertical profiles of turbulence dissipation increase near the bed and near the water surface during uprush (shoreward-directed motion) indicating the simultaneous importance of bottom shear and bore-generated turbulence during this phase of motion. Dissipation during backwash (offshore-directed motion) originates at the bed with little influence from fluid motion near the water surface. Other sensors have enabled, for the first time, the measurement of time dependent sheet flow concentrations. Sheet flow thicknesses have been found to exceed 0.03 m under some natural swash zone conditions and concentrations within the mobile sheet flow layer approach the packed bed limit. Sheet flow sediment concentration profiles for varying

  18. Dowel Type Connections with Slotted-in Steel Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    In the Eurocode the strength of dowel type connectors is determined according to the theory of plasticity. When the loading is in the grain direction the strength is well predicted by the plasticity theory. However, when the loading is in the transverse direction splitting may supervene plastic...... failure, as is shown in test series on smaller specimens with slotted-in steel plates. The scope of the present investigation is to trace the effect of eccentric transverse loading of full scale connections with slotted-in steel plates primarily loaded in the grain direction....

  19. The study of plate-type electrostatic precipitators electrical supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel N. Popa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Stricter environmental legislation in many countries is producing standards governing the emission of fine particles to the atmosphere from all sources. The industrial separating particles from process streams have numerous methods with different principles. In electrostatic precipitators is used electrical charge of dust particles.There are many aspects of pollution control in both solid and liquid phase using electrostatic precipitators.The operation of plate-type electrostatic precipitators is closely related to its electrical energization, to obtain high collection efficiency with low electrical energization consumption. The paper analyze the traditional direct current energization, the intermittent energization, the pulse energization and the switched mode at high frequency power supplies of plate-type electrostatic precipitators sections.

  20. Modelling of wave propagation over a submerged sand bar using SWASH

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jishad, M.; Vu, T.T.T.; JayaKumar, S.

    A non-hydrostatic numerical model "SWASH" (Simulating WAves till SHore) is used to study the wave propagation over a submerged sand bar in a wave flume The SWASH model is calibrated and further used to validate the wave propagation for two different...

  1. The study of plate-type electrostatic precipitators electrical supplies

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel N. Popa; Corina Cunţan; Ovidiu Tirian; Dorin Roiban

    2005-01-01

    Stricter environmental legislation in many countries is producing standards governing the emission of fine particles to the atmosphere from all sources. The industrial separating particles from process streams have numerous methods with different principles. In electrostatic precipitators is used electrical charge of dust particles.There are many aspects of pollution control in both solid and liquid phase using electrostatic precipitators.The operation of plate-type electrostatic precipitator...

  2. Optimal design of plates with cell type hollow core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolovs, G.; Rocens, K.; Sliseris, J.

    2017-10-01

    This research relates to the composite sandwich plywood plates with skin layers of birch plywood and a core of straight and waved plywood cell-type ribs. This specific form of ribs allows to simplify manufacturing processes, to increase the glued area and the ways of load transferring paths and to tailor the stiffness in both (longitudinal and transversal) directions providing increased specific stiffness, strength or load bearing capacity (stiffness, strength or load bearing capacity to mass ratio). The various results depending on chosen variables (according to strength-stiffness criteria) were obtained for one span plate in bending. A various thicknesses of plywood sheets are taken for skins and straight rib parts while for waved part of ribs the 3 layer plywood was taken.

  3. [Treatment of Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic femoral fracture with locked plate and xenogenic bony plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Chen, Wei; Ding, Zhen-Qi; Liu, Guo-Jun; Gao, Jian-Ting; Liu, Yan

    2016-08-25

    To analyze the therapeutic effect of plate cable system and cortical strut bone graft in the prosthesis revision of the total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic femoral fracture. A total of 8 patients were selected from January 2006 to January 2013, including 6 males and 2 females, aged from 56 to 74 years old (62.52 years old on average). All the cases were treated by the long plate cable system and appropriate cortical strut bone graft. Harris score was used to evaluate the hip functions before and after the operation. Prosthesis stability and the bony union were assessed by the digital radiography. All the patients were followed up for 45 months on average ranging from 24 to 60 months after operation. All the fractures reached union, and there was no infection, stem loosening, nonunion and malunion. The Harris score was 28.45±5.78 before operation, which was improved to 83.46±10.21 after operation. X ray showed that the prosthesis was stable, and the host bone and bone graft achieved bony union in 7 patients;and the other 1 patient need further operation of revision around the loose stem. The prosthesis revision of the total hip arthroplasty with the locking plate and cortical strut bone graft used for the Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic proximal femur fractures has the advantages of simple manipulation, less complications, good recovery of the hip function and can improve bone quality to provide favorable conditions for operation of revision.

  4. Limitations of empirical sediment transport formulas for shallow water and their consequences for swash zone modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wei; Pähtz, Thomas; He, Zhiguo; Cao, Zhixian

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric sediment concentrations computed by phase-resolving swash morphodynamic models are shown to exceed unity minus porosity (i.e. the maximal physically possible concentration value) by up to factor of $10^5$ when using standard expressions to compute the sediment transport rate. An ad hoc limit of sediment concentration is introduced as a means to evaluate consequences of exceeding physically realistic concentration by standard expressions. We find that implementation of this ad hoc limit strongly changes the quantitative and qualitative predictions of phase-resolving swash morphodynamic models, suggesting that existing swash predictions are unreliable. This is because standard expressions inappropriately consider or ignore the fact that the shallow swash water depth limits the storage capacity of transported sediment.

  5. Turbulent coherent structure under dam-break driven swash - A 3D numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Hsu, T. J.; Puleo, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    It is well-known that in the surf zone, wave-breaking-induced turbulent coherent structures referred to as obliquely descending eddies (ODEs) can impinge the bed enhancing sediment suspension processes. However, the flow characteristics in swash zone are different from those in the surf zone due to shallow depth and inundation intermittency. Sediment transport in the swash zone is dominated by bore turbulence (swash front) during the uprush, and by the growing boundary layer during the backwash. The evolution and impact of wave-breaking-induced turbulent coherent structures in the swash zone, particularly their characteristics during uprush and backwash, are investigated in this study through 3D large-eddy simulation. As a first step, the numerical model is validated using the measured data of O'Donoghue et al. (2010, Coastal Eng., 57(5), 513-530) for swash flow generated by dam-break waves. The model is validated with measured evolution of free surface, flow velocity profiles, statistics of turbulent velocity fluctuation and shoreline position. Simulation results demonstrate that turbulent coherent structures during uprush are different than the ODEs observed in the surf zone. However, these structures can still impinge the bed frequently and induce large bottom stress and near bed turbulence. On the other hand, turbulent coherent structures during backwash interact less frequently with the bed. However, the contour of bottom shear stress show interesting finger pattern aligned with onshore/offshore direction.

  6. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    the Project in Language Assessment for Teaching in English (PLATE) language professionals from CBS’s Language Center observe teachers and provide feedback using evaluation criteria from the Common European Framework for Reference (CEFR) supplemented by some additional criteria which take the LSP nature......’s level of English is sufficient for the increasing number of courses offered in English each semester. This paper addresses these concerns and describes a pilot project initiated in 2003 at CBS to gauge the overall English language proficiency of those teaching content courses in English. Through...

  7. A PROBLEM OF CUTTING OFF THE LAMINATED SEMIS TYPE PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Ciofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem often coped on many domains such as wood manufacturing, glass, plastics and metallic platework industry, is the shaping or cutting off a big plate in many pieces. With this purpose there are algorithms of optimizing for positioning the parts following to be cut off from a row plate. From mathematical point of view, in positioning the parts on a raw plate the number of solutions increase four times evrey time a new part is added, and in case of finding the best solution for about few hundreds of pieces or parts would require years of processing on the most performant computers nowadays – for an analogy remember the famous story with the rice beads which the King had to pay to the master teaching him the chess: twice more for each square of the chessboard; for the total quantity assessment, King ascertained that the crops in his whole life wouldn’t have been enough.

  8. Remote sensing of the correlation between breakpoint oscillations and infragravity waves in the surf and swash zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, T.; Baldock, T. E.

    2017-04-01

    A novel remote sensing methodology to determine the dominant infragravity mechanism in the inner surf and swash zone in the field is presented. Video observations of the breakpoint motion are correlated with the shoreline motion and inner surf zone water levels to determine the relationship between the time-varying breakpoint oscillations and the shoreline motion. The results of 13 field data sets collected from three different beaches indicate that, inside the surf zone, the dominance of bound wave or breakpoint forcing is strongly dependent on the surf zone width and the type of short wave breaking. Infragravity generation by bound wave release was stronger for conditions with relatively narrow surf zones and plunging waves; breakpoint forcing was dominant for wider surf zones and spilling breaker conditions.

  9. Evaporation Heat Transfer of Ammonia and Pressure Drop of Warm Water for Plate Type Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushibe, Mitsuteru; Lkegami, Yasuyuki; Monde, Masanori; Uehara, Haruo

    The performance test of three types of plate type evaporators for spring thermal energy conversion and ocean thermal energy conversion carried out. Ammonia is utilized as working fluid and warm water is utilized as heat source. An empirical correlation is proposed in order to predict the mean evaporation heat transfer coefficient of ammonia and heat transfer coefficient of warm water for plate type evaporators. The mean heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of warm water were compared with other researches.

  10. Free Vibration Analysis of a Rectangular Plate with Kelvin Type Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kırışık

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transverse vibrations of a rectangular plate with the Kelvin type boundary conditions at four corners are investigated. The plate is modeled as being attached to four lumped spring-damper systems at the corners. An analytical procedure is proposed based on the modal analysis. The completely free case of the plate is first studied. The expressions for the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of the plate are obtained by utilizing the separation of variables. Then, the case in which the stiffness and the viscous damping as external forces acting at the corners of the plate is studied. Following the modal analysis procedure, the general solution for the equation of motion of the rectangular plate is derived. Some numerical results are presented.

  11. Simulation of parameters of hydraulic drive with volumetric type controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyukin, V. L.; Boldyrev, A. V.; Karelin, D. L.; Belousov, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of volumetric type hydraulic drive controller that allows to calculate the parameters of forward and reverse motion. According to the results of simulation static characteristics of rod’s speed and the force of the hydraulic cylinder rod were built and the influence of the angle of swash plate of the controller at the characteristics profile is shown. The results analysis showed that the proposed controller allows steplessly adjust the speed□ц of hydraulic cylinder’s rod motion and the force developed on the rod without the use of flow throttling.

  12. Structural assessments of plate type support system for APR1400 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Anh Tung; Namgung, Ihn, E-mail: inamgung@kings.ac.kr

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • This paper investigates plate-type support structure for the reactor vessel of the APR 1400. • The tall column supports of APR1400 reactor challenges in seismic and severe accident events. • A plate-type support of reactor vessel was proposed and evaluated based on ASME code. • The plate-type support was assessed to show its higher rigidity than column-type. - Abstract: This paper investigates an alternative form of support structure for the reactor vessel of the APR 1400. The current reactor vessel adopts a four-column support arrangement locating on the cold legs of the vessel. Although having been successfully designed, the tall column structure challenges in seismic events. In addition, for the mitigation of severe accident consequences, the columns inhibit ex-vessel coolant flow, hence the elimination of the support columns proposes extra safety advantages. A plate-type support was proposed and evaluated for the adequacy of meeting the structural stiffness by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) approach. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code was used to verify the design. The results, which cover thermal and static structural analysis, show stresses are within allowable limits in accordance with the design code. Even the heat conduction area is increased for the plate-type of support system, the results showed that the thermal stresses are within allowable limits. A comparison of natural frequencies and mode shapes for column support and plate-type support were presented as well which showed higher fundamental frequencies for the plate-type support system resulting in greater rigidity of the support system. From the outcome of this research, the plate-type support is proven to be an alternative to current APR column type support design.

  13. SWASH Manual 5.3 : user’s guide version 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den F.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Jong, de A.; Roller, te J.A.

    2015-01-01

    SWASH (Surface WAter Scenarios Help) assists the user in calculating pesticide exposure concentration in the EU FOCUS surface water scenarios. It is part of the exposure calculation procedure, being part of the obligatory evaluation procedure to place an active substance on List 1 according to EU

  14. FOCUS surface water scenario help (SWASH) Version 1.1; user's guide Version 1.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den F.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Roller, te J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The user-friendly shell SWASH, acronym for Surface WAter Scenarios Help, assists the user in calculating pesticide exposure concentrations in the EU FOCUS surface water scenarios. It is part of the exposure calculation procedure developed by the FOCUS Surface Water Scenarios Working Group, which has

  15. Large eddy simulation of dam-break-driven swash on a rough-planar beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeulwoo; Zhou, Zheyu; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Puleo, Jack A.

    2017-02-01

    Turbulence characteristics in the swash zone are investigated using a 3-D large eddy simulation model. The numerical model is implemented based on OpenFOAM which solves the filtered Navier-Stokes equations for two immiscible fluids with a standard Smagorinsky subgrid-scale closure. The numerical model is validated with laboratory data for swash flow driven by a dam-break apparatus. The model results demonstrate that the main characteristics of turbulence in the swash zone are different from those in the surf zone, which are mainly induced by surface wave breaking. During uprush phase, bore-generated turbulence has 2-D turbulence characteristics because of limited water depth. Near-bed-generated turbulence is mainly observed during backwash. Turbulence production and turbulent dissipation rate estimated from the model results indicate an imbalance, possibly due to advection at swash front and large roughness used. Touching down of turbulent coherent structure (TCS) is observed during uprush, which drives intense bed shear stress. During the backwash, interaction between TCS and bed is less clear. However, finger-like patterns in the spatial extent of bed shear stress and vertical components of vorticity are predicted during the backwash. The location of the strongest finger patterns in the vertical direction is collocated with that of maximum turbulence production. These finger patterns are likely caused by boundary layer instabilities injected vertically from the bed.

  16. The role of beach morphodynamic state on infragravity swash on beaches: field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Paula; González, Mauricio; Medina, Raul

    2017-04-01

    The runup generated by waves can be defined as the maximum height above sea water level on the coastline and is an important criterion for costal structures/nourishment design and erosion/flooding risk analysis. Given the complexity of nonlinear processes involved in the runup generation, its prediction is commonly made by means of empirical formulations that relate wave and beach parameters. The most accepted parametrization presented till the moment was proposed by Stockdon et al. (2006), in which the runup exceeded by 2 percent of the waves (R2) is described in terms of setup (η - the steady superelevation of the mean water level caused by breaking waves) and incident and infragravity swash (Sinc and Sig- time-varying fluctuations around the setup caused by non-breaking waves). Such formulation has been widely accepted and its efficiency was appraised in many works. Nevertheless, although empirical parametrization of infragravity swash using incident wave's parameters shows reasonable skill, the correlation can still present considerable scatter. The amount of infragravity energy on swash is directly related to the morphodynamic beach state, in a way that beach profiles classified as reflective (low wave energy, coarse sediment and higher beach slope) tend to show lower Sig values than dissipative ones (high wave energy, fine sediment and lower beach slope). However, since Stockdon's formula for predicting infragravity swash consider only wave parameters, its use implies that beaches receiving the same wave energy but with different grain size and beach slope would present the same Sig values. This work assumed the hypothesis that the scatter verified on the predictions of the infragravity swash is mainly related to the lack of information about the beach state in Stockdon formula. Based on that, a field campaign was designed and carried out in Somo-El Puntal beach, north Spain, with the aim of generating data to be analyzed in terms of infragravity swash. An

  17. Bicolumnar 90–90 plating of AO 13C type fractures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cemal Kural; Ersin Ercin; Mehmet Erkilinc; Evren Karaali; Mustafa Gokhan Bilgili; Suleyman Altun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate functional results and complication rate of patients who underwent medial-dorsolateral plating for intra-articular distal humeral fracture (Müller AO type 13C). Methods...

  18. 78 FR 33132 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test... Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors.'' This guide... plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs). ADDRESSES: Please...

  19. A New Type of Inscribed Copper Plate from Indus Valley (Harappan Civilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant Shinde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A group of nine Indus Valley copper plates (c. 2600–2000 BC, discovered from private collections in Pakistan, appear to be of an important type not previously described. The plates are significantly larger and more robust than those comprising the corpus of known copper plates or tablets, and most significantly differ in being inscribed with mirrored characters. One of the plates bears 34 characters, which is the longest known single Indus script inscription. Examination of the plates with x-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrophotometry indicates metal compositions, including arsenical copper, consistent with Indus Valley technology. Microscopy of the metal surface and internal structure reveals detail such as pitting, microcrystalline structure, and corrosion, consistent with ancient cast copper artifacts. Given the relative fineness of the engraving, it is hypothesised that the copper plates were not used as seals, but have characteristics consistent with use in copper plate printing. As such, it is possible that these copper plates are by far the earliest known printing devices, being at least 4000 years old.

  20. [Treatment of fresh tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocations and neer type II distal clavicle fractures with clavicular hook plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Honglue; Wang, Shengjie; Zhao, Jinkun; Qian, Chen; Zhou, Qi; Shi, Yan

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy, complications and necessity of removing internal fixation in treatment of fresh Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocations and Neer type II distal clavicle fractures with clavicular hook plate. From June 2005 to June 2008, 24 patients with fresh Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocations and 20 patients with fresh Neer type II distal clavicle fractures were treated. There were 32 males and 12 females with an age range of 18-66 years (38.5 years on average), involving 18 left shoulders and 26 right shoulders. The injury was caused by traffic accident in 31 cases and by falling in 13 cases. The mean time from injury to operation was 4 days (range, 2-8 days). All patients were treated by reduction with clavicular hook plate fixation. The coracoclavicular ligaments were not sutured. The shoulder functions were evaluated according to University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) score system and analysed before and after removing internal fixation. Wound infection occurred in 2 cases 1 week after operation and healed after symptomatic management, the other incisions healed by first intention. One case accepted hook plate fixation again because of loosening hooking-up 1 week after operation. One case accepted hook plate removal and Kirschner wire fixation because of severe shoulder's pain on the postoperative third day. Thirty-eight patients were followed up for 8-32 months (18 months on average), there was no plate breakage. Clavicle fractures got bony union after 3-6 months (4.2 months on average). At last follow-up (before plate removal), according to UCLA shoulder function score system, the results were excellent in 11 cases, good in 22 cases, and fair in 5 cases; the excellent and good rate was 86.8%. Because of shoulder's pain, plates were removed in 20 patients 3-16 months (10 months on average) after operation. The cases were followed up 3-8 months (5 months on average) after removing plate. No dislocation and

  1. Periprosthetic Vancouver type B1 and C fractures treated by locking-plate osteosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froberg, Lonnie; Troelsen, Anders; Brix, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the treatment of periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFFs) has been associated with a high frequency of complications and reoperations. The preferred treatment is internal fixation, a revision of the femoral stem, or a combination of both. An improved understanding of plate use during...... internal fixation, and the introduction of locking-plate osteosynthesis may lead to improved outcome. We evaluated the outcome of Vancouver type B1 and C PFFs treated by locking-plate osteosynthesis, by assessing rates of fracture union and reoperations and by analyzing failure cases....

  2. ON HAMILTONIAN FORMULATIONS AND CONSERVATION LAWS FOR PLATE THEORIES OF VEKUA-AMOSOV TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Zhavoronok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Some variants of the generalized Hamiltonian formulation of the plate theory of I. N. Vekua – A. A. Amosov type are presented. The infinite dimensional formulation with one evolution variable, or an “instantaneous” formalism, as well as the de Donder – Weyl one are considered, and their application to the numerical simulation of shell and plate dynamics is briefly discussed. The main conservation laws are formulated for the general plate theory of Nth order, and the possible motion integrals are introduced

  3. Modification of Neutron Kinetic Code for Plate Type Fuel Nuclear Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Ud-Din Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted on the modification of neutron kinetic code for the plate type fuel nuclear reactor. REMARK is a neutron kinetic code that works only for the cylindrical type fuel nuclear reactor. In this research, our main emphasis is on the modification of this code in order to be applicable for the plate type fuel nuclear reactor. For this purpose, detailed mathematical studies have been performed and are subjected to write the program in Fortran language. Since REMARK code is written in Fortran language, so we have developed the program in Fortran and then inserted it into the source library of the code. The main emphasis is on the modification of subroutine in the source library of the code for hexagonal fuel assemblies with plate type fuel elements in it. The number of steps involved in the modification of the code has been included in the paper. The verification studies were performed by considering the small modular reactor with hexagonal assemblies and plate type fuel in it to find out the power distribution of the reactor core. The purpose of the research is to make the code work for the hexagonal fuel assemblies with plate type fuel element.

  4. Numerical simulation of surf–swash zone motions and turbulent flow

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtyar R.; Barry D.A.; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary A.; Ghaheri A.

    2009-01-01

    A two dimensional numerical model was presented for the simulation of wave breaking runup and turbulence in the surf and swash zones. The main components of the model are the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations describing the average motion of a turbulent flow a k epsilon turbulence closure model describing the transformation and dissipation processes of turbulence and a Volume Of Fluid technique for tracking the free surface motion. Nearshore wave evolution on a sloping bed the velocit...

  5. Novel foraging in the swash zone on Pacific sand crabs (Emerita analoga, Hippidae) by mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been observed foraging on intertidal Pacific sand crabs (Hippidae, Emerita analoga) in the swash zone of sandy beaches around Coal Oil Point Reserve, California, and several other beaches on the west coast since at least November 2010. Unlike foraging shorebirds, Mallards do not avoid incoming swashes. Instead, the incoming swash lifts and deposits them down the beach. Shorebirds and diving ducks commonly feed on sand crabs, but sand crabs appear to be a novel behavior and food source for Mallards. Previous surveys of beaches did not report foraging Mallards on regional beaches, whereas foraging Mallards were common in contemporary (recent) surveys and anecdotal reports. Observations of this potentially new behavior were separated by as much as 1,300 km, indicating that this was not a local phenomenon. Mallards foraged singly, in pairs, and in flocks. An expansion of diet to sand crabs carries risks of exposure to surf, human disturbance, high salt intake, and transmission of acanthocephalan and trematode parasites for Mallards but has the benefit of providing a dependable source of animal protein.

  6. Low-cost zinc-plated photoanode for fabric-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingfeng; Bao, Yunna; Guo, Wanwan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Liu, Renlong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Wang, Yundong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, State Key Lab of Chemical Engineering, Beijing 100084 (China); Fan, Xing, E-mail: foxcqdx@cqu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Tao, Changyuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been assembled on Zn-plated wires and meshes. • Metal Zn can improve the carriers transfer over the metal/ZnO nanoarrays interface. • A current increase by ∼6 mA/cm{sup 2} was realized by plating Zn on various metal substrates. • All-solid fabric-type DSSC was also assembled on Zn-plated metal wires. - Abstract: Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been recently proposed as a very promising power source for wearable electronics. To increase the photocurrent of fabric-type flexible solar cells, low-cost zinc-plated wire and mesh photoanodes are assembled for the first time through a mild wet process. Given the protection of the compact protection layer, the DSSC device could benefit from the low work function of Zn and self-repairing behavior on the Zn/ZnO interface. An evident current increase by ∼6 mA/cm{sup 2} could be observed after coating a layer of metal Zn on various metal substrates, such as traditional stainless steel wire. Given the self-repairing behavior on Zn/ZnO interface, the Zn layer can help to improve the interfacial carrier transfer, leading to better photovoltaic performance, for both liquid-type and solid-type cells.

  7. Reinforcement of a plate weakened by multiple holes with several patches for different types of plate-patch attachment

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A.

    2014-01-24

    The most general situation of the reinforcement of a plate with multiple holes by several patches is considered. There is no restriction on the number and the location of the patches. Two types of patch attachment are considered: only along the boundary of the patch or both along the boundary of the patch and the boundaries of the holes which this patch covers. The unattached boundaries of the holes may be loaded with given in-plane stresses. The mechanical problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations which can be further reduced to a system of Fredholm equations. A new numerical procedure for the solution of the system of singular integral equations is proposed in this paper. It is demonstrated on numerical examples that this procedure has advantages in the case of multiple patches and holes and allows achievement of better numerical convergence with less computational effort.

  8. Plate-type metamaterials for extremely broadband low-frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Guo, Xinwei; Chen, Tianning; Yao, Ge

    2018-01-01

    A novel plate-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) in the low-frequency range ( ≤1000 Hz) is designed, theoretically proven and then experimentally verified. The thin plates with large modulus used in this paper mean that we do not need to apply tension to the plates, which is more applicable to practical engineering, the achievement of noise reduction is better and the installation of plates is more user-friendly than that of the membranes. The effects of different structural parameters of the plates on the sound-proofed performance at low-frequencies were also investigated by experiment and finite element method (FEM). The results showed that the STL can be modulated effectively and predictably using vibration theory by changing the structural parameters, such as the radius and thickness of the plate. Furthermore, using unit cells of different geometric sizes which are responsible for different frequency regions, the stacked panels with thickness ≤16 mm and weight ≤5 kg/m2 showed high STL below 2000 Hz. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  9. 77 FR 16868 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors,'' is temporarily identified... verifying the quality of plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs...

  10. First general solutions for unidirectional motions of rate type fluids over an infinite plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Fetecau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a simple but important remark regarding the governing equation for the non-trivial shear stress corresponding to the motion of a fluid over an infinite plate, exact solutions are established for the motion of Oldroyd-B fluids due to the plate that applies an arbitrary time-dependent shear stress to the fluid. These solutions, that allow us to provide the first exact solutions for motions of rate type fluids produced by an infinite plate that applies constant, constantly accelerating or oscillating shears stresses to the fluid, can easily be reduced to the similar solutions for Maxwell, second grade or Newtonian fluids performing the same motion. Furthermore, the obtained solutions are used to develop general solutions for the motion induced by a moving plate and to correct or recover as special cases different known results from the existing literature. Consequently, the motion problem of such fluids over an infinite plate that is moving in its plane or applies a shear stress to the fluid is completely solved.

  11. Hydrogen Recombination Rates of Plate-type Passive Auto-catalytic Recombiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun Hong [Kyungwon E-C Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The hydrogen mitigation system may include igniters, passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR), and venting or dilution system. Recently PAR is commonly used as a main component of HMS in a NPP containment because of its passive nature. PARs are categorized by the shape and material of catalytic surface. Catalytic surface coated by platinum is mostly used for the hydrogen recombiners. The shapes of the catalytic surface can be grouped into plate type, honeycomb type and porous media type. Among them, the plate-type PAR is well tested by many experiments. PAR performance analysis can be approached by a multi-scale method which is composed of micro, meso and macro scales. The criterion of the scaling is the ratio of thickness of boundary layer developed on a catalytic surface to representative length of a computational domain. Mass diffusion in the boundary layer must be resolved in the micro scale analysis. In a lumped parameter (LP) analysis using a system code such as MAAP or MELCOR, the chamber of the PAR is much smaller than a computational node. The hydrogen depletion by a PAR is modeled as a source of mass and energy conservation equations. Te catalytic surface reaction of hydrogen must be modeled by a volume-averaged correlation. In this study, a micro scale analysis method is developed using libraries in OpenFOAM to evaluate a hydrogen depletion rate depending on parameters such as size and number of plates and plate arrangement. The analysis code is validated by simulating REKO-3 experiment. And hydrogen depletion analysis is conducted by changing the plate arrangement as a trial of the performance enhancement of a PAR. In this study, a numerical code for an analysis of a PAR performance in a micro scale has been developed by using OpenFOAM libraries. The physical and numerical models were validated by simulating the REKO-3 experiment. As a try to enhance the performance of the plate-type PAR, it was proposed to apply a staggered two-layer arrangement of the

  12. Plate fixation in periprosthetic femur fractures Vancouver type B1-Trochanteric hook plate or subtrochanterical bicortical locking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Mark; Stoffel, Karl; Kielstein, Heike; Mayo, Keith; Hofmann, Gunther O; Gueorguiev, Boyko

    2016-12-01

    Proximal plate fixation in periprosthetic femur fractures can be improved by plate anchorage in the greater trochanter (lateral tension band principle) or bicortical locking screw placement beside the prosthesis stem in an embracement configuration. Both concepts were compared in a biomechanical test using a femoral hook plate (hook) or a locking attachment plate (LAP). After bone mineral density (BMD) measurement in the greater trochanter, six pairs of fresh frozen human femora were assigned to two groups and instrumented with cemented hip endoprostheses. A transverse osteotomy was set distal to the tip of the prosthesis, simulating a Vancouver B1 fracture. Each pair was instrumented using a plate tensioner with either hook or LAP construct. Cyclic testing (2Hz) with physiologic profile and monotonically increasing load was performed until catastrophic failure. Plate stiffness was compared in a four-point-bending-test. Paired student's-t-test was used for statistical evaluation (p<0.05). Mean BMD was 250mgHA/ccm±47. The hook construct exhibited a significantly (p=0.015) lower number of cycles and load to failure (26'177cycles±2777; 3'118N±778) correlating significantly with BMD (R2=0.83; p=0.04) compared to the LAP construct (37'423cycles±5'299; 4'242N±1'030) (R2=0.71;p=0.11). BMD was a significant covariate (p=0.01). Plate stiffness was in a comparable range (hook Plate 468N/mm±7; LCP 445N/mm±6). Subtrochanterically placed LAP provides an increased fixation strength under repetitive loading compared to hook plate fixation in the greater trochanter. Trochanteric fixation is highly BMD dependent and may be restricted to major greater trochanteric involvement requiring stabilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaporation Heat Transfer of Ammonia/Water Mixtures for Plate Type Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushibe, Mitsuteru; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Monde, Masanori

    The performance test of plate type evaporators was carried out. Ammonia/Water mixtures were utilized as working fluid and warm water was utilized as heat source. Five kinds of ammonia mass fraction are tested. The overall heat transfer coefficient of ammonia/water mixtures was lower than the pure ammonia in the same experimental condition. In the convection dominant region, the mean evaporation heat transfer of ammonia/water mixtures was almost the same as ammonia by considering thermophysical properties. In the region where nucleate boiling contributes to the heat transfer, the mean evaporation heat transfer coefficient was influenced of mass fraction. An empirical correlation was proposed in order to predict the mean evaporation heat transfer coefficient of ammonia/water mixtures for plate type evaporators.

  14. Functional outcome of Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures treated with dual plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Thiruvengita Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual plate fixation in comminuted bicondylar tibial plateau fractures remains controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation, specifically through compromised soft tissues, has historically been associated with major wound complications. Alternate methods of treatment have been described, each with its own merits and demerits. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the functional outcome of lateral and medial plate fixation of Schatzker type V and VI fractures through an anterolateral approach, and a medial minimally invasive approach or a posteromedial approach. Materials and Methods: We treated 46 tibial plateau fractures Schatzker type V and VI with lateral and medial plates through an anterolateral approach and a medial minimal invasive approach over an 8 years period. Six patients were lost to followup. Radiographs in two planes were taken in all cases. Immediate postoperative radiographs were assessed for quality of reduction and fixation. The functional outcome was evaluated according to the Oxford Knee Score criteria on followup. Results: Forty patients (33 men and 7 women who completed the followup were included in the study. There were 20 Schatzker type V fractures and 20 Schatzker type VI fractures. The mean duration of followup was 4 years (range 1-8 years. All patients had a satisfactory articular reduction defined as ≤2 mm step-off or gap as assessed on followup. All patients had a good coronal and sagittal plane alignment, and articular width as assessed on supine X-rays of the knee in the anteroposterior (AP and lateral views. The functional outcome, as assessed by the Oxford Knee Score, was excellent in 30 patients and good in 10 patients. All patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity and employment. There were no instances of deep infection. Conclusions: Dual plate fixation of severe bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is an excellent treatment option as it provides rigid fixation and

  15. Weldability of titanium sheet for plate type heat exchanger by Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Do; Song, Moo Keun [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Myung Sub [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo [Donghwa Entec, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Pure titanium and its alloys have excellent corrosion resistance in seawater, high specific strength and creep properties in high temperature. For these reasons, the application is expanded into the field of marine as the heat exchanger plate, marine plant, and so on. Conventional plate type heat exchanger has prevented fluid leakage with gaskets between the plates by mechanical joining method, but gaskets are hardened in high temperature and pressure. Thus, LPG re-condenser which is always in high temperature and pressure, is jointed its plates by welding. Arc weldment has large HAZ and possibility of distortion because of large heat input. And EBW and diffusion bonding make high quality welds, but it should be done in vacuum conditions. Hence, laser welding is applied to get sound beads with small heat input and high aspect ratio in the air. In this study, weld properties of CP titanium were investigated by pulsed and CW Nd:YAG lasers. And welds without porosity, humping, crack, spatter and oxidation were accepted and the best welding conditions were applied to LPG reliquifaction system.

  16. Bi-layer plate-type acoustic metamaterials with Willis coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Huang, Meng; Xu, Yicai; Wu, Jiu Hui

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic effective negative parameters are principal to the representation of the physical properties of metamaterials. In this paper, a bi-layer plate-type unit was proposed with both a negative mass density and a negative bulk modulus; moreover, through analysis of these bi-layer structures, some important problems about acoustic metamaterials were studied. First, dynamic effective mass densities and the bulk modulus of the bi-layer plate-type acoustic structure were clarified through both the direct and the retrieval methods, and, in addition, the intrinsic relationship between the sound transmission (absorption) characteristics and the effective parameters was analyzed. Furthermore, the properties of dynamic effective parameters for an asymmetric bi-layer acoustic structure were further considered through an analysis of experimental data, and the modified effective parameters were then obtained through consideration of the Willis coupling in the asymmetric passive system. In addition, by taking both the clamped and the periodic boundary conditions into consideration in the bi-layer plate-type acoustic system, new perspectives were presented for study on the effective parameters and sound insulation properties in the range below the cut-off frequency. The special acoustic properties established by these effective parameters could enrich our knowledge and provide guidance for the design and installation of acoustic metamaterial structures in future sound engineering practice.

  17. [Triple-Endobutton plates for the treatment of rockwood type III to V acromioclavicular joint dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ji-Heng

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of Triple-Endobutton plates for the treatment of Rockwood type III to V acromioclavicular joint dislocation. From March 2008 to June 2010,28 patients with Rockwood type II to V acromioclavicular joint dislocations were treated with Triple-Endobutton plates. There were 18 males and 10 females,ranging in age from 20 to 60 years old (averaged 38 years old). Twenty patients had dislocations in the left and 8 patients had dislocations in the right. All the patients had close injury. The Constant criterion was used to evaluate shoulder joint function. All the patients were followed up,and the duration ranged from 18 to 24 months,with an average of 20 months. All the patients got good shoulder joint function,and no re-dislocation and pain occurred. The X-ray showed all acromioclavicular joints got good reduction. According to Constant criterion,preoperative score was 25.4 +/- 2.0, postoperative scores were 65.9 +/- 3.0, 87.2 +/- 3.2 and 95.7+/- 1.6 at 1 month,3 months and 6 months separately. Treatment of Rockwood type III to V acromioclavicular joint dislocation with Triple-Endobutton plates has satisfactory clinical outcome, simple operation, few complications, without secondary operation and early functional exercise postoperatively.

  18. Clavicle hook plate fixation for displaced lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II): a functional outcome study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2012-08-01

    Controversy exists with the use of the acromioclavicular hook plate for the treatment of lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II). This is thought to stem from problems associated with the hook plate causing impingement symptoms, which can cause long-term limitation of movement and pain. Our aim was to evaluate the functional outcomes of patients with lateral-third clavicle fractures treated with the hook plate.

  19. A numerical study of the supercritical CO2 plate heat exchanger subject to U-type, Z-type, and multi-pass arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen-Xi; Wang, Chi-Chuan

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a numerical model for plate heat exchanger that is capable of handling supercritical CO2 fluid. The plate heat exchangers under investigation include Z-type (1-pass), U-type (1-pass), and 1-2 pass configurations. The plate spacing is 2.9 mm with a plate thickness of 0.8 mm, and the size of the plate is 600 mm wide and 218 mm in height with 60 degrees chevron angle. The proposed model takes into account the influence of gigantic change of CO2 properties. The simulation is first compared with some existing data for water-to-water plate heat exchangers with good agreements. The flow distribution, pressure drop, and heat transfer performance subject to the supercritical CO2 in plate heat exchangers are then investigated. It is found that the flow velocity increases consecutively from the entrance plate toward the last plate for the Z-type arrangement, and this is applicable for either water side or CO2 side. However, the flow distribution of the U-type arrangement in the water side shows opposite trend. Conversely, the flow distribution for U-type arrangement of CO2 depends on the specific flow ratio (C*). A lower C* like 0.1 may reverse the distribution, i.e. the flow velocity increases moderately alongside the plate channel like Z-type while a large C* of 1 would resemble the typical distribution in water channel. The flow distribution of CO2 side at the first and last plate shows a pronounced drop/surge phenomenon while the channels in water side does not reveal this kind of behavior. The performance of 2-pass plate heat exchanger, in terms of heat transfer rate, is better than that of 1-pass design only when C* is comparatively small (C* < 0.5). Multi-pass design is more effective when the dominant thermal resistance falls in the CO2 side.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of plate type nuclear fuel elements during manufacturing stage using ultrasonic test method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Mucio Jose Drumond de; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Alencar, Donizete Anderson de; Silva Junior, Silverio Ferreira da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia do Combustivel], e-mail: mjdb@cdtn.br, e-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.br, e-mail: daa@cdtn.br, e-mail: silvasf@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Structural discontinuities, such as cracks and bonding lacks at the core/cladding interface can be introduced in plate type nuclear fuel elements during the manufacturing stages, due to the mechanical and thermal processing conditions. They can reduce the performance of the nuclear fuel during its operational life or contribute to its premature failure. Plate type nuclear fuels (PTNF) consist of a core formed by a dispersion of UO{sub 2} into a metallic matrix, involved by a metallic cladding. Nondestructive testing methods such as eddy current, radiography and ultrasonic have been used to detect and monitoring discontinuities generated in the fuel's manufacturing stage, each one presenting advantages and limitations. The use of ultrasonic testing for this purpose presents two main difficulties: the small thickness of the plates as well as the presence of materials with different characteristics. The study described in this paper presents the methodology used in the evaluation of a prototype of PTNF by ultrasonic testing method, using different test techniques and transducers. The main results obtained and the next steps to be developed in this activity are discussed. (author)

  1. Type C distal radial fractures treated with conventional AO plates: an easy and cost-saving solution in a locking plate era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigt, Bas; Bemelman, Michael; Lansink, Koen; Leenen, Loek

    2013-03-01

    C-type distal radial fractures remain challenging fractures. Currently locking plates are very popular because of their length preserving, stability. A considerable drawback is the high cost. Since 2003 we have been using mini AO plates (2.7 mm) as an alternative. We analysed our results and performed a cost analysis. Retrospective analysis was performed of all patients operated upon between 2003 and 2008 for C type distal radius fractures. Reduction was achieved with mini AO plates, applied in a buttress fashion, with ligamentotaxis. Rehabilitation consisted of immediate mobilisation. Pre- and postoperative X-rays, operative results and patient charts were reviewed. Furthermore, we prospectively evaluated the functional results using VAS, DASH and Mayo wrist scores. Lastly, we assessed the implant costs and compared them to locking plates. Thirty-four patients were treated with a mean age of 49 years. Mean radial shortening improved 2 mm; dorsal and radial angulation improved 23 and 4°, respectively. At consolidation (eight weeks) the average radial shortening was 0.75 mm, a volar angulation of 3°, and 21° of radial angulation. Functional results were excellent, demonstrated by a mean VAS score less than 1, a DASH score of 12 and a Mayo wrist score of 87. Compared to locking plates, there was an overall reduction in material costs of 15,300 Euro. Our technique has excellent biomechanical stability, enabling immediate functional rehabilitation, good anatomical and functional outcome with significantly lower costs.

  2. Variation in Campylobacter Multilocus Sequence Typing Subtypes from Chickens as Detected on Three Plating Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Ladely, S R; Meinersmann, R J; Line, J E; Oakley, B B; Cox, N A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli detected on three selective Campylobacter plating media to determine whether each medium selected for different subtypes. Fifty ceca and 50 carcasses (representing 50 flocks) were collected from the evisceration line in a commercial broiler processing plant. Campylobacter was cultured and isolated from cecal contents and carcass rinses on Campy-Cefex, Campy Line, and RF Campylobacter jejuni/coli agars. When a positive result was obtained with all three media, one colony of the most prevalent morphology on each medium was selected for further analysis by full genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. Sequence types were assigned according to PubMLST. A total of 49 samples were positive for Campylobacter on all three media. Forty samples contained only C. jejuni , three had only C. coli , and both species were detected in six samples. From 71% of samples, Campylobacter isolates of the same sequence type were recovered on all three media. From 81.6% of samples, isolates were all from the same clonal complex. From significantly fewer samples (26%, P Campylobacter jejuni/coli . From one sample, three sequence types were detected. In most cases, all three plating media allowed detection of the same type of Campylobacter from complex naturally contaminated chicken samples.

  3. Analytical coupled vibroacoustic modeling of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials: Plate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangyang; Huang, Guoliang; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai; Sun, Chin-Teh

    2014-12-01

    By considering the membrane's dissipation, the membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) has been demonstrated as a super absorber for low-frequency sound. In the paper, a theoretical vibroacoustic plate model is developed to reveal sound energy absorption mechanism within the MAM under a plane normal incidence. Based on the plate model in conjunction with the point matching method, the in-plane strain energy of the membrane due to the resonant and antiresonant motion of the attached masses can be accurately captured by solving the coupled vibroacoustic integrodifferential equation. Therefore, the sound absorption of the MAM is obtained and discussed, which is also in good agreement with the prediction from the finite element method. In particular, microstructure effects including eccentricity of the attached masses, the depth, thickness and loss factor of the membrane on sound absorption peak values are quantitatively investigated.

  4. Characteristic of Local Boiling Heat Transfer of Ammonia / Water Binary Mixture on the Plate Type Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Akio; Arima, Hirofumi; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Akiyama, Hirokuni; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Monde, Masanori

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and discharged thermal energy conversion (DTEC) are expected to be the next generation energy production systems. Both systems use a plate type evaporator, and ammonia or ammonia/water mixture as a working fluid. It is important to clarify heat transfer characteristic for designing efficient power generation systems. Measurements of local boiling heat transfer coefficients and visualization were performed for ammonia /water mixture (z = 0.9) on a vertical flat plate heat exchanger in a range of mass flux (7.5 - 15 kg/m2s), heat flux (15 - 23 kW/m2), and pressure (0.7 - 0.9 MPa). The result shows that in the case of ammonia /water mixture, the local heat transfer coefficients increase with an increase of vapor quality and mass flux, and decrease with an increase of heat flux, and the influence of the flow pattern on the local heat transfer coefficient is observed.

  5. Growth plate alteration precedes cam-type deformity in elite basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenrock, Klaus A; Behning, Anna; Mamisch, T Charles; Schwab, Joseph M

    2013-04-01

    Vigorous sporting activity during the growth years is associated with an increased risk of having a cam-type deformity develop. The underlying cause of this osseous deformity is unclear. One may speculate whether this is caused by reactive bone apposition in the region of the anterosuperior head-neck junction or whether sports activity alters the shape of and growth in the growth plate. If the latter is true, then one would expect athletes to show an abnormal shape of the capital growth plate (specifically, the epiphyseal extension) before and/or after physeal closure. We therefore raised three questions: (1) Do adolescent basketball players show abnormal epiphyseal extension? (2) Does the epiphyseal extension differ before and after physeal closure? (3) Is abnormal epiphyseal extension associated with high alpha angles? We performed a case-control comparative analysis of young (age range, 9-22 years) male elite basketball athletes with age-matched nonathletes, substratified by whether they had open or closed physes. We measured epiphyseal extension on radial-sequence MRI cuts throughout the cranial hemisphere from 9 o'clock (posterior) to 3 o'clock (anterior). Epiphyseal extension was correlated to alpha angle measurements at the same points. Epiphyseal extension was increased in all positions in the athletes compared with the control group. On average, athletes showed epiphyseal extension of 0.67 to 0.83 versus 0.53 to 0.71 in control subjects. In the control group epiphyseal extension was increased at all measurement points in hips after physeal closure compared with before physeal closure. In contrast, the subgroup of athletes with a closed growth plate only had increased epiphyseal extension at the 3 o'clock position compared with the athletes with an open [corrected] growth plate (0.64-0.70). We observed a correlation between an alpha angle greater than 55° and greater epiphyseal extension in the anterosuperior femoral head quadrant: the corresponding

  6. A retrospective study of tibial plateau translation following tibial plateau levelling osteotomy stabilisation using three different plate types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbridge, N; Corr, S A; Grierson, J; Arthurs, G

    2011-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate mediolateral translation of the proximal tibial segment (tibial plateau) after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO), stabilised with three types of plate. Pre- and postoperative radiographs of 79 dogs that had TPLO surgery using three different types of plates were reviewed. Two plate types incorporated non-locking screws: Slocum (22 cases) and Orthomed Delta (33 cases) plates. The third plate type incorporated locking screws: Synthes TPLO Locking Compression Plate (LCP) (24 cases). The radiographs were viewed by three Diplomate surgeons who were blinded to the type of implant used. Medial or lateral translation of the proximal tibial plateau relative to the tibial diaphysis was assessed and measured at the lateral tibial cortex at the osteotomy site. Mean lateral translation of the tibial plateau was significantly greater when using the Synthes TPLO LCP with locking screws (+2.1 mm) compared to the non-locking Slocum (+0.4 mm) or Orthomed Delta (0.0 mm) plates. The use of the Synthes TPLO LCP will maintain a malalignment of the tibial plateau. Accurate alignment of the tibial plateau must be ensured prior to application of the Synthes TPLO LCP.

  7. Orthogonal plating of Vancouver B1 and C-type periprosthetic femur fracture nonunions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Christopher E; Blankstein, Michael; Chlebeck, Jesse D; Bartlett Rd, Craig S

    2017-11-21

    Periprosthetic femoral shaft fractures are a significant complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Plate osteosynthesis has been the mainstay of treatment around well-fixed stems. Nonunions are a rare and challenging complication of this fixation method. We report the outcomes of a novel orthogonal plating surgical technique for Vancouver B1 and C-type periprosthetic fractures that previously failed open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). A retrospective review identified all patients with Vancouver B1/C THA periprosthetic femoral nonunions from 2010 to 2015. Exclusion criteria included open fractures and periprosthetic infections. The technique utilised a mechanobiologic strategy of atraumatic exposure, resection of necrotic tissue, bone grafting with adjuvant bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and revision open reduction internal fixation with orthogonal plate osteosynthesis. 6 Vancouver B1/C periprosthetic femoral nonunions were treated. 5 patients were female with an average age of 80.3 years (range 72-91 years). The fractures occurred at a mean of 5.8 years (range 1-10 years) from their initial arthroplasty procedure. No patients underwent further revision surgery; there were no perioperative complications. All patients had a minimum of 11 months follow-up (mean 18.6, range 11-36 months). All fractures achieved osseous union, defined as solid bridging callus over at least 2 cortices and pain free, independent ambulation, at an average of 24.4 weeks (range 6.1-39.7 weeks). This is the 1st series describing orthogonal locked compression plating using modern implants for periprosthetic femoral nonunions. This technique should be considered in periprosthetic femur fracture nonunions around a well-fixed stem.

  8. [Treatment of type C3 distal femoral fractures with double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Jian; Huang, Chun-Xia; Zhao, Zhan-Fu; Wang, Gang; Qin, Cong-Cong

    2012-12-01

    To investigate clinical efficacy and feasibility of double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach in treating type C3 distal femoral fractures. From August 2008 to August 2011, 12 cases with type C3 distal femoral fractures were treated, including 5 open fractures and 7 closed fractures. Among them, there were 8 males, 4 females with an average of 40 years (ranged, 25 to 55 years). There were 7 in left side, 5 in right side. Nine cases were caused by car accident, 3 cases by falling down. The duration from injury to hospital was form 20 minutes to 5 days (mean 135 min). After tibia bone traction for 5 to 8 days, the operation were performed by double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach, and autograft of iliac bone or allograft bone grafting were given to bone defect. Knee joint function was evaluated according to Merchanetal criteria. The operation time was from 110 to 160 min, with an average of 135 min, the blood loss was from 300 ml to 500 ml,with an average of 400 ml. Post-operative wound were stage I healing. All patients were followed up from 16 to 36 months (mean 24 months). No infection, reduction loss, nonunion, deep vein thrombosis occurred. Bone healing time was for 18 to 24 weeks with an average of 21 weeks. According to the Merchanetal criteria, 4 cases got excellent results, 6 good, 1 fair and 1 poor. Double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach for type C3 distal femoral fractures is an effective way, which has advantages of obvious exposure, simple manipulation, anatomical reduction, stable fixation. However,operation indications and operating instructions should be strictly followed.

  9. Sediment Particle Velocities in the Sheet Layer of Dam Break Driven Swash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, J. A.; Krafft, D.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Swash zone sediment transport consists of two components: suspended sediment transport and near bed transport in a region known as the sheet layer. Sensors such as conductivity concentration meters and conductivity concentration profilers exist to quantify sediment concentrations in the sheet layer. Quantifying velocities in the sheet layer are more difficult to obtain because of the high concentration invalidating the use of light or laser sheets for natural grains and attenuation of acoustic signals. Velocities in the sheet layer are needed to estimate sediment transport rates and determine the importance of net sediment transport in the sheet layer relative to that higher in the water column. A laboratory study over a 1:7 mobile-coarse beach was conducted by forcing swash flows using a dam break scenario. The dam break is activated by lifting a retaining gate at high speed thereby releasing a volume of water that evolves into a bore impinging on the beach. High speed (301 Hz) imagery of the sheet flow evolution were recorded through the glass flume wall, near the intersection of the initial still water with the beach slope. Timestack images were created by extracting pixel intesities parallel to the planar slope. Timestacks were generated at numerous elevations from below the at rest bed to roughly 0.02 m into the water column. Velocities were obtained using a 2D Fourier Transform technique (previously applied to longshore currents and riverine velocities) applied to subwindows of each timestack. Velocities in the lower water column are compared to those obtained with a co-located Acoustic Doppler Profiling Velocimeter (ADPV). Velocity profiles are compared to theoretical formulations that suggest the velocity decays roughly linearly throughout the sheet layer.

  10. On the use of plate-type normal pressure cells in silos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Alvaro; Nielsen, Jørgen; Ayuga, F.

    2010-01-01

    Pressure cells are measuring devices commonly used in silo research to study loads exerted by a granular material stored against a silo wall. The design of normal pressure cells for use in an experimental silo research project is critical, mainly because measuring errors complicate the interpreta......Pressure cells are measuring devices commonly used in silo research to study loads exerted by a granular material stored against a silo wall. The design of normal pressure cells for use in an experimental silo research project is critical, mainly because measuring errors complicate...... the interpretation of results. Once the cells have been delivered from the manufacturer to the researcher, they should be calibrated and validated with reference to the measurement of pressure from a granular material against a silo wall. Two related papers deal with a specific plate-type normal pressure cell...... at a solid basis for the interpretation of the pressure measurements in the silo installation aforementioned. This paper presents calibration results from three investigated methods as well as results from a finite element analysis of the plate deflection of the pressure cell which were performed to evaluate...

  11. Ultrathin lightweight plate-type acoustic metamaterials with positive lumped coupling resonant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Huang, Meng; Wu, Jiu Hui

    2017-01-01

    The experimental realization and theoretical understanding of a two-dimensional multiple cells lumped ultrathin lightweight plate-type acoustic metamaterials structures have been presented, wherein broadband excellent sound attenuation ability at low frequencies is realized by employing a lumped element coupling resonant effect. The basic unit cell of the metamaterials consists of an ultrathin stiff nylon plate clamped by two elastic ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene frames. The strong sound attenuation (up to nearly 99%) at low frequencies is experimentally revealed by the precisely designed metamaterials, for which the physical mechanism of the sound attenuation could be explicitly understood using the finite element simulations. As to the designed samples, the lumped effect from the frame compliance leads to a coupling flexural resonance at designable low frequencies. As a result, the whole composite structure become strongly anti-resonant with the incident sound waves, followed by a higher sound attenuation, i.e., the lumped resonant effect has been effectively reversed to be positive from negative for sound attenuation, and the acoustic metamaterial design could be extended to the lumped element containing multiple cells, rather than confined to a single cell.

  12. Benefits and harms of locking plate osteosynthesis in intraarticular (OTA Type C) fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Rasmussen, Jeppe Vejlgaard; Frich, Lars Henrik

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Locking plate osteosynthesis of proximal humeral fractures are widely recommended and used, even in complex intraarticular fracture patterns such as AO/OTA Type C fractures. We systematically reviewed clinical studies assessing the benefits and harms of osteosynthesis with angle...... stable plates in AO/OTA Type C fractures of the proximal humerus. METHODS: We conducted an iterative search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Cinahl, and PEDro in all languages from 1999 to November 2010. Eligible studies should study the outcome for Type C fractures after primary...... osteosynthesis with locking plate within two weeks of injury, and a follow-up period of six months or more. Patients should be evaluated with the Constant-Murley Score (CS). Two observers extracted data independently. RESULTS: Twelve studies and 282 Type C fractures were included. Results were categorised...

  13. The Influence of Incision Type on Patient Satisfaction After Plate Fixation of Clavicle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dave R; Rubenstein, William J; Barnes, Leslie A; Klion, Mark J; Gladstone, James N; Kim, Jaehon M; Cleeman, Edmond; Forsh, David A; Parsons, Bradford O

    2017-06-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of the clavicle is a common procedure that has been shown to have improved outcomes over nonoperative treatment. Several incisions can be used to approach clavicle fractures, the decision of which is variable among surgeons. To compare patient satisfaction and subjective outcomes between patients with a longitudinal incision versus those with a necklace incision for the treatment of diaphyseal clavicle fractures. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Thirty-six patients with a diaphyseal clavicle fracture (Orthopaedic Trauma Association type 15-B) were treated by 1 of 7 orthopaedic surgeons. The intervention was ORIF with anatomic contoured plates. Patients were divided into a necklace incision group and a longitudinal incision group depending on the surgical approach used. Medical records were reviewed, and participants completed an online survey with questions related to pain, numbness, scar appearance, and satisfaction. Function was assessed using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. Statistical significance was determined with P < .05. There were 16 patients in the necklace incision group and 20 in the longitudinal incision group. Patients in the necklace incision group were significantly more satisfied with the appearance of their scars (P = .01), which correlated with overall satisfaction (P = .05). There were no differences in overall satisfaction, pain, numbness, or reoperation rates for hardware removal between the necklace (6%) and longitudinal groups (15%). Patients undergoing clavicle ORIF with a necklace incision are more satisfied with their scar appearance than those with a longitudinal incision. The overall satisfaction, rate of numbness, and plate removal were similar in both groups.

  14. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for proximal humeral fractures: clinical and radiologic outcomes according to fracture type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hoon-Sang; Shin, Sang-Jin

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the clinical and radiologic outcomes, according to fracture type, of proximal humeral fractures treated by the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique. Of 85 patients with proximal humeral fractures who were treated by the MIPO technique, 62 were evaluated: 27 with 2-part fractures, 24 with 3-part fractures, and 11 with 4-part fractures. An additional inferomedial screw or fibular allograft was used when severe medial cortical comminution was found in the proximal humerus. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated during the follow-up of 37 months. There was a significant difference in the Constant scores of patients with 4-part fractures compared with those with 3-part fractures (P = .039). The neck-shaft angle in 4-part fractures (121° ± 3°) at final follow-up was significantly lower compared with other fracture types (2-part: 129° ± 9°, P = .036; 3-part: 129° ± 2°, P = .031). Complication rates (72.7%) of 4-part fractures were significantly higher than with other fracture types (2-part, 7.4%; 3-part, 20.8%; P = .001). Sixteen fractures were fixed with an additional inferomedial screw, and 3 patients had insertion of a fibular allograft. Satisfactory clinical and radiologic outcomes were obtained by the MIPO technique in proximal humeral fractures. In addition, medial cortical support can be performed with an inferomedial screw or fibular allograft in the MIPO technique. However, the MIPO technique for 4-part fractures showed relatively inferior outcomes compared with 2- and 3-part fractures. Conversion to open plating is also considered if adequate reduction, that is, a neck-shaft angle >120°, is not able to be obtained in the MIPO technique for 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Research on Design of Plate-type Electromagnetic Coupler in Underwater Inductive Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Li-yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic coupler has a good application in the field of underwater sensor. Magnetic coupler at work, interference by underwater complex situation, stability and efficiency of charging device of the gap is larger fluctuations. The traditional electromagnetic coupling is charging for the stability of the clearance to demand higher. Charging for underwater, as a result of the existence of ocean currents, electromagnetic coupling clearance may not remain very stable. When there is deviation gap, a larger electromagnetic coupling performance deviation. On this particular problem, it puts forward the design method of a new type of plate type electromagnetic coupling. First of all, the leakage inductance of the finite element method to calculate system and excitation inductance, establish electromagnetic coupler with compensation capacitor equivalent circuit, and the primary circuit and secondary circuit was designed. On the basis, the voltage gain and efficiency of the system are carrying on the theoretical derivation and calculation. The simulation experimental results show that the magnetic coupler has a stable voltage gain and charging efficiency, when the partial core within 10 mm, voltage gain remains steady at 5.8%, efficiency remain at around 90%.

  16. Complex AO type C3 distal femur fractures: Results after fixation with a lateral locked plate using modified swashbuckler approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complex AO type C3 fractures of the distal femur are challenging injuries, fraught with complications such as malunion and stiffness. We prospectively evaluated a consecutive series of patients with complex AO type C3 distal femur fractures to determine the clinicoradiological outcome after fixation with a single locked plate using modified swashbuckler approach. Materials and Methods: 12 patients with C3 type distal femur fractures treated with a lateral locked plate, using a modified swashbuckler approach, were included in the study. The extraarticular component was managed either by compression plating or bridge plating (transarticular approach and retrograde plate osteosynthesis depending on the fracture pattern. Primary bone grafting was not done in any case. The clinical outcome at 1 year was determined using the Knee Society Score (KSS. The presence of any secondary osteoarthritis in the knee joint was noted at final followup. Results: All fractures united at a mean of 14.3 ± 4.7 weeks (range 6-26 weeks. There were no significant complications such as nonunion, deep infection, and implant failure. One of the patients underwent secondary bone grafting at 3 months. The mean range of motion of the knee was 120° ± 14.8° (range 105°-150°. Seven patients had excellent, three patients had good and two patients had a fair outcome according to the KSS at 1 year. At a mean followup of 17.6 months, three patients showed radiological evidence of secondary osteoarthritis of the knee joint. However, only one of these patients was symptomatic. Conclusion: The results of complex C3 type distal femur fractures, fixed with a single lateral locked plate using a modified swashbuckler approach, are encouraging, with a majority of patients achieving good to excellent outcome at 1 year.

  17. Palmar and dorsal fixed-angle plates in AO C-type fractures of the distal radius: is there an advantage of palmar plates in the long term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubietz, Michael G; Gruenert, Joerg G; Jakubietz, Rafael G

    2012-02-17

    Current surgical approaches to the distal radius include dorsal and palmar plate fixation. While palmar plates have gained widespread popularity, few reports have provided data on long term clinical outcomes in comparison. This paper reports the result of a randomised clinical study comparing dorsal Pi plates and palmar, angle-stable plates for treatment of comminuted, intraarticular fractures of the distal radius over the course of twelve months. 42 patients with unilateral, intraarticular fractures of the distal radius were included and randomised to 2 groups, 22 were treated with a palmar plate, 20 received a dorsal Pi-plate. Results were evaluated after 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively focussing on functional recovery as well as radiological results. The palmar plate group demonstrated significantly better results regarding range of motion and grip strength over the course of 12 months. While a comparable increase in function was observed in both groups, the better results from the early postoperative period in the palmar plate group prevailed over the whole course. Radiological results showed a significantly increased palmar tilt and carpal sag in dorsal plates, with other radiological parameters being comparable. Pain levels were decreased in dorsal plates after hardware removal and failed to show significant differences after 12 months. However, complications such as tendon ruptures were more frequent in the dorsal plate group. Functional advantage of palmar plates gained within the first 6 weeks prevails over the course of a year. Both groups demonstrate further gradual increase of function after 6 months, although dorsal plates did not catch up completely. Improved early postoperative function seems to be the cornerstone for the best possible results. Patients with dorsal plates benefit from hardware removal more than palmar plates in terms of reduction of pain levels. The advantage of palmar plates is a faster functional recovery with lower

  18. ANALYSIS OF GAMMA HEATING AT TRIGA MARK REACTOR CORE BANDUNG USING PLATE TYPE FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyanto Setiyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In accordance with the discontinuation of TRIGA fuel element production by its producer, the operation of all TRIGA type reactor of at all over the word will be disturbed, as well as TRIGA reactor in Bandung. In order to support the continuous operation of Bandung TRIGA reactor, a study on utilization of fuel plate mode, as used at RSG-GAS reactor, to replace the cylindrical model has been done. Various assessments have been done, including core design calculation and its safety aspects. Based on the neutronic calculation, utilization of fuel plate shows that Bandung TRIGA reactor can be operated by 20 fuel elements only. Compared with the original core, the new reactor core configuration is smaller and it results in some empty space that can be used for in-core irradiation facilities. Due to the existing of in-core irradiation facilities, the gamma heating value became a new factor that should be evaluated for safety analysis. For this reason, the gamma heating for TRIGA Bandung reactor using fuel plate was calculated by Gamset computer code. The calculations based on linear attenuation equations, line sources and gamma propagation on space. Calculations were also done for reflector positions (Lazy Susan irradiation facilities and central irradiation position (CIP, especially for any material samples. The calculation results show that gamma heating for CIP is significantly important (0,87 W/g, but very low value for Lazy Susan position (lest then 0,11 W/g. Based on this results, it can be concluded that the utilization of CIP as irradiation facilities need to consider of gamma heating as data for safety analysis report. Keywords: gamma heating, nuclear reactor, research reactor, reactor safety.   ABSTRAK Dengan dihentikannya produksi elemen bakar reaktor jenis Triga oleh produsen, maka semua reaktor TRIGA di dunia terganggu operasinya, termasuk juga reaktor TRIGA 2000 di Bandung. Untuk mendukung pengoperasian reaktor TRIGA Bandung

  19. Two year study of swash zone suprabenthos of two Galician beaches (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Madrid, Rubén; Martínez-Vázquez, Juan M.; Viéitez, José M.; Junoy, Juan

    2013-10-01

    The suprabenthos is considered a major food resource for some fish and birds. Moreover, it plays a key role in the food chain and in nutrient regeneration in the surf zone. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that regulate this fauna and the differences between the suprabenthic groups, to study the possibility of seasonal variations and to compare these results with those of other studies conducted in Europe. A study and geographical comparison was conducted of the temporal patterns of the suprabenthos in the swash zone at two sandy beaches on the NE Atlantic coast (Altar and Ladeira beaches) in the NW of Spain. The study was carried out from September 2005 to August 2007 (24 months). To study the fauna, 60 m2 was sampled monthly with a suprabenthic sledge, and a total of 101 species belonging to Peracarida and Decapoda were recorded. Total densities ranged from 0.42 ind·m- 2 to 178.75 ind·m- 2. Ladeira beach showed higher densities and species richness than Altar beach, and the biocoenosis showed a different dynamic over the 24 months and between years and locations. These results indicate that there is no clear seasonality in the dynamic of suprabenthic species, although the variance of Peracarida orders was explained in diverse degree by environmental variables. The environmental models implemented explained between 27.7% and 93.8% of the faunal data, and hydrodynamic factors and daily global irradiance were selected as the best factors to explain the temporal variations.

  20. Palmar and dorsal fixed-angle plates in AO C-type fractures of the distal radius: is there an advantage of palmar plates in the long term?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakubietz, Michael G; Gruenert, Joerg G; Jakubietz, Rafael G

    2012-01-01

    .... This paper reports the result of a randomised clinical study comparing dorsal Pi plates and palmar, angle-stable plates for treatment of comminuted, intraarticular fractures of the distal radius over...

  1. Cosmetic Outcome of Tubularized Incised Plate Depends on The Type of Hypospadias: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Wirya Kusuma Duarsa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies show Tubularized Incised Plate (TIP urethroplasty, commonly used for distal hypospadias repair, can be used in proximal hypospadias with a decent success rate. It was contented that the age of the patient when undertook the surgery influences the outcome, with young age gaining more favourable outcome than the older. One the objectives of hypospadias repair is the cosmetic outcome, which can be evaluated using Hypospadias Objective Penile Evaluation (HOPE questionnaires. Our objective is to compare the proportion of the young and the older patients based on the cosmetic surgical outcome. Methods: In Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, 38 patients who had undergone a TIP urethroplasty from January 2012 until December 2015 were evaluated using HOPE questionnaires. Results: The sample are divided into two equally-numbered groups based on the HOPE total score. The median of the age of the subjects when they undergone the surgery is 4.8 years (1.89-18.10. The proportion of the over 5 year old in the cosmetically unsatisfying group (case is the same as the proportion in the cosmetically satisfying group (control, 52.63%, EOR=1 (p>0.05. The proportion based on the year of surgery are different, but not statistically significant (p>0.05. Based on the type of hypospadias, the proportion of subjects with proximal hypospadias in the case group is more than in the control group, EOR=14.95 (p<0.05. It shows proximal hypospadias is a risk factor for cosmetically unsatisfying result post TIP urethroplasty. Conclusions: It should be taken into account that TIP in proximal hypospadias has a greater risk to produce an unsatisfying cosmetical result.

  2. [Fracture of the great trochanter treated by dynamic hip screw plate: measure of impaction according to fracture type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oger, P; Katz, V; Lecorre, N; Beaufils, P

    1998-10-01

    The sliding plate has appeared to be a reliable answer for trochanteric fractures. However, impaction allowed by the material may, have an adverse effect (medialisation, shortening, jutting out of the lag screw). The aim of our study was to measure the sliding of the screw in order to assess the impaction in various types of fracture, according to the Ender classification. Hundred trochanteric fractures have been treated between 1991 and 1993. Eighty four have been analyzed with a follow-up of three months after surgery. The average age was 80.1 years with a 4.2 sex ratio (16 males). One hundred and thirty five degrees free sliding plates were employed for fracture fixation. Full weight bearing was allowed in 78.6 per cent of patients. According to Ender classification, 35 per cent of fractures were type 1, 4 or 5. This was the first group. The second group consisted of types 2 and 3 and the third group of types 6, 7 and 8. The results were assessed on AP and lateral X-rays. The ratio between screw thread length (constant) and screw outside the barrel length, was used to measure impaction on AP view. Osteoporosis was evaluated according to Singh. Despite two screw protrusions out of the femoral head and two failures of the plate, we have observed a healing rate of 100 per cent after three months. Sliding averaged 6.2 mm in group 1, 10.5 mm in group 2 and 16.4 mm in groupe 3. Weight bearing had a low influence on the amount of sliding. Group 1 consists of fractures (types 1, 4 and 5) which are two parts fractures considered as stable. Group 2 corresponds to types 2 and 3 considered as intermediate fractures with relative stability. In group 3 (types 6, 7 and 8) we have observed major fracture instability. Osteoporosis does not seem to be the major factor regarding screw sliding. The sliding plate is reliable. However, complex fractures healed in a wrong position which is definitely not acceptable, especially for young patients. Therefore, we advise to avoid the use

  3. Double plating in Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic proximal femur fractures: A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wähnert, Dirk; Grüneweller, Niklas; Gehweiler, Dominic; Brunn, Benjamin; Raschke, Michael J; Stange, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Periprosthetic hip fractures are an increasing problem in modern orthopedic and trauma surgery. Many options for the operative treatment are available to the surgeon ranging from modern variable angular systems to standard plates, screws, and cerclages. However, there is no gold standard and therefore, the aim of this study, was to investigate the biomechanical characteristics of double plating versus a lateral standard plate in a Vancouver B1 fracture model. Ten 4th generation composite femora were used to implant cementless total hip prosthesis and create Vancouver B1 periprosthetic fractures. Afterwards, the osteotomies were fixed using the locking compression plate in combination with the locking attachment plate (LCP, LAP, DePuy Synthes, Solothurn, Switzerland)-group I. Group II additionally achieved a 5-hole 4.5/5.0 mm LCP anteriorly. Each construct was cyclically loaded to failure in axial compression. Axial construct stiffness was 50.87 N/mm (SD 1.61) for group I compared to 738.68 N/mm (SD 94.8) for group II, this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.016). The number of cycles to failure was also significant higher for group II (2,375 vs. 13,000 cycles; p = 0.016). Double plating can significantly increase construct stiffness and stability, and thus, is an option in the treatment of complex periprosthetic fractures, in revision surgery and for patients with the inability to partial weight bear. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:234-239, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Palmar and dorsal fixed-angle plates in AO C-type fractures of the distal radius: is there an advantage of palmar plates in the long term?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubietz Michael G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current surgical approaches to the distal radius include dorsal and palmar plate fixation. While palmar plates have gained widespread popularity, few reports have provided data on long term clinical outcomes in comparison. This paper reports the result of a randomised clinical study comparing dorsal Pi plates and palmar, angle-stable plates for treatment of comminuted, intraarticular fractures of the distal radius over the course of twelve months. Methods 42 patients with unilateral, intraarticular fractures of the distal radius were included and randomised to 2 groups, 22 were treated with a palmar plate, 20 received a dorsal Pi-plate. Results were evaluated after 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively focussing on functional recovery as well as radiological results. Results The palmar plate group demonstrated significantly better results regarding range of motion and grip strength over the course of 12 months. While a comparable increase in function was observed in both groups, the better results from the early postoperative period in the palmar plate group prevailed over the whole course. Radiological results showed a significantly increased palmar tilt and carpal sag in dorsal plates, with other radiological parameters being comparable. Pain levels were decreased in dorsal plates after hardware removal and failed to show significant differences after 12 months. However, complications such as tendon ruptures were more frequent in the dorsal plate group. Conclusions Functional advantage of palmar plates gained within the first 6 weeks prevails over the course of a year. Both groups demonstrate further gradual increase of function after 6 months, although dorsal plates did not catch up completely. Improved early postoperative function seems to be the cornerstone for the best possible results. Patients with dorsal plates benefit from hardware removal more than palmar plates in terms of reduction of pain levels. The

  5. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 209 Plate Tectonics A. K. Chaubey National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 004. chaubey@nio.org Introduction The theory of continental drift, which paved the way for discovery... of plate tectonics, was put forward by Alfred Lother Wegener - a meteorologist from Germany - in 1912. The theory states that continents are not fixed, but have been slowly wandering during the course of Earth’s geological history. Although Wegener...

  6. Thermal-hydraulic analysis under partial loss of flow accident hypothesis of a plate-type fuel surrounded by two water channels using RELAP5 code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Iliuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-hydraulic analysis of plate-type fuel has great importance to the establishment of safety criteria, also to the licensing of the future nuclear reactor with the objective of propelling the Brazilian nuclear submarine. In this work, an analysis of a single plate-type fuel surrounding by two water channels was performed using the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic code. To realize the simulations, a plate-type fuel with the meat of uranium dioxide sandwiched between two Zircaloy-4 plates was proposed. A partial loss of flow accident was simulated to show the behavior of the model under this type of accident. The results show that the critical heat flux was detected in the central region along the axial direction of the plate when the right water channel was blocked.

  7. Magnetic imaging with a Zernike-type phase plate in a transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pollard, Shawn; Malac, Marek; Beleggia, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a hole-free phase plate (HFPP) for magnetic imaging in transmission electron microscopy by mapping the domain structure in PrDyFeB samples. The HFPP, a Zernike-like imaging method, allows for detecting magnetic signals in-focus to correlate the sample crystal structure a...

  8. Biomechanical comparison of polyaxial-type locking plates and a fixed-angle locking plate for internal fixation of distal femur fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Randall J; Moed, Berton R; Bledsoe, J Gary

    2009-10-01

    To test the stability to axial loading of 2 new polyaxial locking screw-plate designs and analyze different angles of screw insertion. The noncontact bridging (NCB) polyaxial locking plate (Zimmer) and the POLYAX plate (DePuy) were compared with a fixed-angle less invasive stabilization system (LISS; Synthes). Twenty-five synthetic femurs were divided into 5 groups and assigned fixation with the LISS plate (group I), POLYAX plate (groups IIA and IIB), or NCB plate (groups IIIA and IIIB). The polyaxial constructs were divided into parallel and crossed distal condylar screw configurations. Each construct was tested under axial loading and stressed to failure at a displacement rate of 5 mm/min with a preload of 100 N. Outcome measurements included stiffness, load to failure, peak force, and mode of failure. All LISS and POLYAX constructs failed by plastic deformation of the plate, whereas 9 of 10 NCB constructs failed by an intra-articular lateral condyle fracture. No failures occurred at the screw-plate interface in either polyaxial constructs. Load to failure of the LISS was 33% greater than the parallel POLYAX (P NCB (parallel and crossed) were 24% greater than the parallel POLYAX (P NCB. There was no difference between the LISS and NCB with regard to stiffness, load to failure, and peak force. Parallel and crossed polyaxial constructs showed no difference in stiffness or failure loads. There were no failures of either polyaxial screw-plate interface despite large forces and screw angle did not affect the overall strength of these constructs, supporting the biomechanical soundness of both polyaxial device designs under axial loading. However, the POLYAX supported smaller loads compared with the LISS and NCB while under axial loading. In addition, the mode of failure of the NCB plate, creating an intra-articular fracture propagating from the distal posterior screw hole, may be of some concern. Additional testing is needed to determine the clinical importance of the

  9. Type II olecranon fractures in patients over 65. Tension band or pre-formed plate? Analysis and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán-Padilla, A; Cáceres-Sánchez, L

    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of surgical treatment using tension band with needles and preformed plates in type ii olecranon fractures according to the Mayo classification in patients older than 65 years. A descriptive, retrospective study of 49 patients with a mean age of 75.1 years who underwent surgery olecranon fracture using 2 different fixing systems. The Mayo classification was used to define them, excluding type i and iii, and the VAS to assess postoperative pain. Patients were assessed functionally by the questionnaire Quick DASH. All measurement was performed with goniometer and joint balance serial radiographs at one month, 3, 6 and 12 months. Minimum follow-up was one year. In 26 patients the tension band was used and the preformed plates in 23. There were no statistically significant differences in functional outcomes, joint balance or postoperative VAS between the 2 groups. There were a greater proportion of patients who had to be operated because of problems related to osteosynthesis material in those in which preformed plates were used. Treatment of olecranon fractures with tension band with needles and cerclage remains the surgery of choice in patients older than 65 years. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodey, Isaac T [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent flow coupled with heat transfer is investigated for a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel plate. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models are used for fluid dynamics and the transfer of heat from a thermal nuclear fuel plate using the Multi-physics code COMSOL. Simulation outcomes are compared with experimental data from the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Test Loop. The computational results for the High Flux Isotope Reactor core system provide a more physically accurate simulation of this system by modeling the turbulent flow field in conjunction with the diffusion of thermal energy within the solid and fluid phases of the model domain. Recommendations are made regarding Nusselt number correlations and material properties for future thermal hydraulic modeling efforts

  11. Effect of nitrogen-rich cell culture surfaces on type X collagen expression by bovine growth plate chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wertheimer Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA may be a systemic disease since mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from OA patients express type X collagen, a marker of late stage chondrocyte hypertrophy (associated with endochondral ossification. We recently showed that the expression of type X collagen was suppressed when MSCs from OA patients were cultured on nitrogen (N-rich plasma polymer layers, which we call "PPE:N" (N-doped plasma-polymerized ethylene, containing up to 36 atomic percentage (at.% of N. Methods In the present study, we examined the expression of type X collagen in fetal bovine growth plate chondrocytes (containing hypertrophic chondrocytes cultured on PPE:N. We also studied the effect of PPE:N on the expression of matrix molecules such as type II collagen and aggrecan, as well as on proteases (matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13 and molecules implicated in cell division (cyclin B2. Two other culture surfaces, "hydrophilic" polystyrene (PS, regular culture dishes and nitrogen-containing cation polystyrene (Primaria®, were also investigated for comparison. Results Results showed that type X collagen mRNA levels were suppressed when cultured for 4 days on PPE:N, suggesting that type X collagen is regulated similarly in hypertrophic chondrocytes and in human MSCs from OA patients. However, the levels of type X collagen mRNA almost returned to control value after 20 days in culture on these surfaces. Culture on the various surfaces had no significant effects on type II collagen, aggrecan, MMP-13, and cyclin B2 mRNA levels. Conclusion Hypertrophy is diminished by culturing growth plate chondrocytes on nitrogen-rich surfaces, a mechanism that is beneficial for MSC chondrogenesis. Furthermore, one major advantage of such "intelligent surfaces" over recombinant growth factors for tissue engineering and cartilage repair is potentially large cost-saving.

  12. Effect of nitrogen-rich cell culture surfaces on type X collagen expression by bovine growth plate chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) may be a systemic disease since mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from OA patients express type X collagen, a marker of late stage chondrocyte hypertrophy (associated with endochondral ossification). We recently showed that the expression of type X collagen was suppressed when MSCs from OA patients were cultured on nitrogen (N)-rich plasma polymer layers, which we call "PPE:N" (N-doped plasma-polymerized ethylene, containing up to 36 atomic percentage (at.% ) of N. Methods In the present study, we examined the expression of type X collagen in fetal bovine growth plate chondrocytes (containing hypertrophic chondrocytes) cultured on PPE:N. We also studied the effect of PPE:N on the expression of matrix molecules such as type II collagen and aggrecan, as well as on proteases (matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and molecules implicated in cell division (cyclin B2). Two other culture surfaces, "hydrophilic" polystyrene (PS, regular culture dishes) and nitrogen-containing cation polystyrene (Primaria®), were also investigated for comparison. Results Results showed that type X collagen mRNA levels were suppressed when cultured for 4 days on PPE:N, suggesting that type X collagen is regulated similarly in hypertrophic chondrocytes and in human MSCs from OA patients. However, the levels of type X collagen mRNA almost returned to control value after 20 days in culture on these surfaces. Culture on the various surfaces had no significant effects on type II collagen, aggrecan, MMP-13, and cyclin B2 mRNA levels. Conclusion Hypertrophy is diminished by culturing growth plate chondrocytes on nitrogen-rich surfaces, a mechanism that is beneficial for MSC chondrogenesis. Furthermore, one major advantage of such "intelligent surfaces" over recombinant growth factors for tissue engineering and cartilage repair is potentially large cost-saving. PMID:21244651

  13. Surface epithelialization of the type I Boston keratoprosthesis front plate: immunohistochemical and high-definition optical coherence tomography characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lee; Rosenblatt, Mark I; Sartaj, Rachel; Fernandez, Ana G Alzaga; Kiss, Szilard; Radcliffe, Nathan M; D'Amico, Donald J; Sippel, Kimberly C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize a transparent tissue layer partially covering the anterior surface of the type I Boston permanent keratoprosthesis front plate in four patients. The tissue over the front plate was easily scrolled back as a single transparent layer using a sponge. In two cases, histopathologic analysis was undertaken and immunofluorescent staining with a cytokeratin 3-specific antibody was performed. The relationship of the tissue to the keratoprosthesis device was further characterized using spectral domain high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). Histopathologic analysis revealed the tissue to be non-keratinized squamous epithelium. No goblet cells were seen, suggesting the cells were of corneal, and not conjunctival, epithelial origin. Immunofluorescent staining of all cells was positive for cytokeratin 3, a protein strongly associated with corneal epithelium. The tissue was easily discerned by HD-OCT and was of substantial thickness near the external junction between the keratoprosthesis device and the carrier corneal tissue. In three cases, visual acuity was unaffected by the presence or absence of this tissue. In one case, a prominent tissue margin temporarily obscured the visual axis and reduced visual acuity; this resolved with mechanical central debridement and has not recurred. The transparent tissue layer covering the anterior surface of the type I Boston keratoprosthesis front plate was found to represent non-keratinized squamous epithelium, most likely of corneal epithelial origin. This potentially represents a further step in bio-integration of the keratoprosthesis device. In particular, epithelial coverage of the critical junction between the device and the carrier corneal tissue might serve an important barrier function and further reduce the incidence of infection and extrusion of the type I Boston permanent keratoprosthesis.

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ...

  15. X-ray Fourier transform holography by amplitude-division-type Fresnel zone plate interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyan, Minas; Haroutunyan, Levon

    2018-01-01

    A two-block X-ray Fresnel zone plate system forms two-beams - a plane wave and a spherical wave - which interfere at the focal distance of the virtual source of the spherical wave. An object placed in the path of the plane wave forms an object wave and the spherical wave is the reference wave. The recorded intensity distribution is the Fourier transform hologram of the object. Analytical and numerical calculations show the possibilities of this scheme to record the hologram and reconstruct the object image. Examples of recording holograms of a one-dimensional cosine-like grating and a two-dimensional grid object as well as reconstruction of the images are considered.

  16. PREPARATION OF ZEOLITE X COATINGS ON SODA-LIME TYPE GLASS PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tatlier

    Full Text Available Abstract The dissolution of glass in highly alkaline reaction mixtures and the impact of this phenomenon on zeolite coating formation were investigated. Coating samples were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM and thermogravimetry (TG. It was demonstrated that zeolite X coatings might be prepared on soda-lime glass. Glass dissolved to some degree, up to 2% of its original mass, in the reaction mixtures for the conditions investigated. This dissolution affected the zeolite synthesis taking place on the glass surface, resulting in phases different from those obtained on inert metal surfaces in some cases, especially for the use of reaction mixtures with relatively high Si/Al ratios. The percentage of dissolution of glass plates increased with their decreasing thickness, indicating a surface phenomenon for the dissolution. The stabilities of the coatings, which varied with the synthesis conditions, benefited from the addition of extra thin layers of polyacrylic acid.

  17. A method for acoustic source location in plate-type structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapour, Amir; Davoodi, Saman

    2017-09-01

    In this study an algorithm based on Shannon entropy, cross-time frequency spectrum (CTFS) and frequency varying velocities was proposed for structure health monitoring in two-layer plate. A linear array of two sensors is applied to capture the signals. By reducing the number of sensors we used a secondary pattern to get enough information for source locating. For this purpose a pattern for secondary points based on Shannon entropy and cost function was developed. Then to estimate the time delay of signals, cross-time frequency spectrum function was taken from captured signals. The time delay was calculated when CTFS function reached the maximum value. By taking short time Fourier transform of cross correlation function of captures signals and using dispersive curves, time delay and corresponding frequency dependent velocity are estimated. The experiments were carried out and the results showed high precision of presented algorithm.

  18. A new type of detector time of flight - multi-gap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; Eppley, G; Geurts, F J M; Huang, S; Li, C; Liu, H; Llope, W J; Ruan, L; Shao, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z; Wu, J; Xu, Z; Zhang, Z

    2004-01-01

    Multi-gap resistive plate chamber is a new detector technology. It was first developed by the LHC-ALICE group at CERN in the late 1990s. The MRPC is a ideal detector for time-of-flight measurement due to its small gaps and works in the proportional (avalanche) mode. The beam test of single module result shows that MRPC tuning resolution is better than 70ps and the detection efficiency is higher than 95%. It is also radiation hard. A time-of-flight tray with 28 on MRPC modules. was tested at AGS. The average timing resolution is about 75ps (including the 4cm of beam spread) and detection efficiency is better than 95%. This tray has been installed on STAR detector system in October 2002 and used on the 200GeV d+Au experiment.

  19. Analysis of the results of different types of diaphyseal tibial fractures with intraosseous and of plate osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pisarev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study - comparative assesment of treatment outcomes of different types of diaphyseal shin fractures in patients with bone and intraosteal lackable osteosynthesis. Material and methods. We examined 222 patients with fused diaphyseal shin fractures. In 122 patients close reduction and intraosteal lackable osteosynthesis of shin bones was performed, in 100 - open reduction and osteosynthesis of shin bones with plates LCDCP All patients were divided into subgroups according to АО/ASIF classification (fractures type А, В, С. The evaluation of the results was done in two years period after surgery with questionnaire SF36, outpatients clinic cards analysis, CITO cards study outcomes of fractures, rheovasography and X-ray examination. Results. We found that in patients with fractures types A and В these two types of osteosynthesis lead to similar results according to questionnaire SF36, comparable with control group. Bone osteosynthesis in treatment of fractures type С results in higher quality of life, comparable with control group, than intraosteal. Indicators of treatment outcomes in accordance with CITO card in bone osteosynthesis were higher than in intraosteal. In bone osteosynthesis of fractures type A the terms of temporary disability and fusion significantly lower than in intraosteal osteosynthesis of the similar fractures. Reduce of the tolerance to heavy physical stress in patients with fractures type С in intraosteal osteosynthesis determined by low blood flow in shin. Treatment of shin fractures with bone and intraosteal osteosynthesis follows by equal risks of complications.

  20. New Universal Tribometer as Pin or Ball-on-Disc and Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaleli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains a description of a new Universal Tribometer design which enables simulation of different contact and test types such as pin-on-disc, ball-on-disc and linear reciprocating tests. There are many models of wear Tribometer in the world market. These devices are manufactured by various companies abroad and are imported to our country. Cost of this devices start from 50.000 euros and goes to hundreds of thousands of euros. One of the most commonly used of this device is Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate Tribo Test Machine. This wear tester is produced at a low limited cost within the KAP (Scientifical Research Project Coordinator of Yıldız Technical University. The test machine can work including three types of Tribotest rigs (Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate, Pin-on-Disc and Ball-on-Disc. It is designed to operate also at high temperatures up to 500 ˚C. The new piece of equipment allows instrumented tribological testing of piston ring and cylinder liner samples at low and high temperatures and boundary lubrication conditions of any typical gasoline or Diesel engines. Some friction results were shown in boundary lubricating conditions between piston ring and cylinder liner sliding pairs describing Tribotest machine is driven by AC servo motor which is more accurate than DC motor.

  1. Macroinfauna and sediment data from swash zones of sandy beaches along the SE Gulf of Mexico and SE Florida coast, 2010-2011 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (NODC Accession 0083190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling for macroinfauna from swash zones of beaches along the SE Gulf of Mexico and SE coast of Florida was conducted from May 2010- July 2011. At each site,...

  2. Structure design and motion simulation of the pin-cycloid gear planetary reducer with ring-plate-type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongjie; Li, Lijun; Tao, Junyi

    2017-06-01

    The pin-cycloid gear planetary reducer with ring-plate-type is a new type of reducers. It has high transmission ratio range and high efficiency. In this paper the working principle of pin-cycloid gear planetary reducer is discussed, and the structure of the reducer is designed. Especially for the complexity and the difficulty in modelling of the cycloid gear tooth profile, the parametric design module of cycloid gear is developed to solve the cycloid gear modelling problem through the second development of Solid Works. At last, the speed schemes of the input shaft and output shaft of the reducer are obtained by the motion simulation. Through the analysis of the simulation curves, the rationality of the structure design is proved, which provides a theoretical basis for the design and manufacture of the reducer.

  3. High-performance etching of multilevel phase-type Fresnel zone plates with large apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengli; Zhang, Zhiyu; Xue, Donglin; Li, Longxiang; Wang, Ruoqiu; Zhou, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xuejun

    2018-01-01

    To ensure the etching depth uniformity of large-aperture Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) with controllable depths, a combination of a point source ion beam with a dwell-time algorithm has been proposed. According to the obtained distribution of the removal function, the latter can be used to optimize the etching time matrix by minimizing the root-mean-square error between the simulation results and the design value. Owing to the convolution operation in the utilized algorithm, the etching depth error is insensitive to the etching rate fluctuations of the ion beam, thereby reducing the requirement for the etching stability of the ion system. As a result, a 4-level FZP with a circular aperture of 300 mm was fabricated. The obtained results showed that the etching depth uniformity of the full aperture could be reduced to below 1%, which was sufficiently accurate for meeting the use requirements of FZPs. The proposed etching method may serve as an alternative way of etching high-precision diffractive optical elements with large apertures.

  4. Prediction of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Binary Refrigerant Mixtures in a Falling Film Type Plate-fin Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara, Tomoyasu; Koyama, Shigeru

    This paper deals with the characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop of R 22, R 134a pure refrigerant and R 134a/R123 refrigerant mixtures in a falling film type plate-fin evaporator. The refrigerants have been tested in the ranges of heat flux from 3 to 20 kW/m2 and mass velocity from 50 to 100 kg/m2s. It is clarified that heat transfer characteristics of evaporation in the present experimental range are not affected by shear stress. Taking the fin efficiency into consideration, a correlation equation of heat transfer coefficient is proposed. The characteristic of pressure drop is also proposed by modifying friction factor of Soliman's equation. Furthermore, a prediction model for evaporation of mixtures in a plate fin heat exchanger is developed based on the assumption that the phase equilibrium in a cross-section of the refrigerant path is established. The prediction results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Optimization of metals and plastics recovery from electric cable wastes using a plate-type electrostatic separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gontran; Touhami, Seddik; Zeghloul, Thami; Dascalescu, Lucien

    2017-02-01

    Plate-type electrostatic separators are commonly employed for the selective sorting of conductive and non-conductive granular materials. The aim of this work is to identify the optimal operating conditions of such equipment, when employed for separating copper and plastics from either flexible or rigid electric wire wastes. The experiments are performed according to the response surface methodology, on samples composed of either "calibrated" particles, obtained by manually cutting of electric wires at a predefined length (4mm), or actual machine-grinded scraps, characterized by a relatively-wide size distribution (1-4mm). The results point out the effect of particle size and shape on the effectiveness of the electrostatic separation. Different optimal operating conditions are found for flexible and rigid wires. A separate processing of the two classes of wire wastes is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phene Plate (PhP) biochemical fingerprinting. A screening method for epidemiological typing of enterococcal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, B; Tärnberg, M; Gill, H; Hällgren, A; Jonasson, J; Nilsson, L E; Isaksson, B; Kühn, I; Hanberger, H

    2005-09-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is currently considered the gold standard for genotyping of enterococci. However, PFGE is both expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the PhP system can be used as a reliable clinical screening method for detection of genetically related isolates of enterococci. If so, it should be possible to minimize the number of isolates subjected to PFGE typing, which would save time and money. Ninety-nine clinical enterococcal isolates were analysed by PhP (similarity levels 0.90-0.975) and PFGE (similarity levels PhP also belong to the same cluster according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE)=B(PFGE) * A(PhP)=B(PhP)), and the probability that a pair of isolates of different types according to PhP also belong to different clusters according to PFGE, i.e. p(A(PFGE) not equalB(PFGE) * A(PhP) not equalB(PhP)), was relatively high for E. faecalis (0.86 and 0.96, respectively), but was lower for E. faecium (0.51 and 0.77, respectively). The concordance which shows the probability that PhP and PFGE agree on match or mismatch was 86%-93% for E. faecalis and 54%-66% for E. faecium, which indicates that the PhP method may be useful for epidemiological typing of E. faecalis in the current settings but not for E. faecium.

  7. Plate-type acoustic metamaterial with cavities coupled via an orifice for enhanced sound transmission loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Linus Yinn Leng; Koh, Yong Khiang; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2018-01-01

    Membrane-type acoustic metamaterials generally involve a heavy platelet attached to a pretensioned membrane. Their acoustical performance is characterised solely based on the resonant behaviour of the membrane-platelet assembly. However, typical designs may pose manufacturing issues if extended in scale for industrial applications. Examples include the spatial consistency of the platelet(s), the uniformity of the membrane pretension, and the durability of the membrane—not to mention stress relaxation. As large-scale designs are recently gaining interest, it is imperative to address the shortcomings for manufacturability. This study presents a proof-of-concept design using tensionless membranes without any platelets. The results showed that the acoustical performance could be complemented by the coupling effect between two enclosed cavities via an orifice. The orifice diameter could serve as a tuning parameter for broadband or narrowband transmission loss at selected frequencies. Consequently, the proposed design could address the shortcomings of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials and complement their acoustical performance with the additional feature.

  8. Influence of End Plates on Lift and Flow Field of a Canard-type Control Surface at a Mach Number of 2.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, George A

    1953-01-01

    The influence of triangular-shaped end plates on the lift and the flow field of a canard-type control surface mounted on a symmetrical fuselage was investigated in the Lewis 8- by 6-foot supersonic wind tunnel at a Mach number of 2.00, body angle of attack of 2 degrees, and control-surface deflection angles of 3 degrees, 6 degrees, 8 degrees, and 10 degrees. The investigation demonstrated that the addition of end plates to a canard-type control surface increased its lift and rearranged the single vortex into a two-vortex system. Perforating the end plates reduced these effects and resulted in a decrease in lift and a change in the flow-field characteristics.

  9. Evaluation of plate type fuel options for small power reactors; Avaliacao de alternativas de combustivel tipo placa para reatores de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrzejewski, Claudio de Sa

    2005-07-01

    Plate type fuels are generally used in research reactor. The utilization of this kind of configuration improves significantly the overall performance fuel. The conception of new fuels for small power reactors based in plate-type configuration needs a complete review of the safety criteria originally used to conduce power and research reactor projects. In this work, a group of safety criteria is established for the utilization of plate-type fuels in small power reactors taking into consideration the characteristics of power and research reactors. The performance characteristics of fuel elements are strongly supported by its materials properties and the adopted configuration for its fissile particles. The present work makes an orientated bibliographic investigation searching the best material properties (structural materials and fuel compounds) related to the performance fuel. Looking for good parafermionic characteristics and manufacturing exequibility associated to existing facilities in national research centres, this work proposes several alternatives of plate type fuels, considering its utilization in small power reactors: dispersions of UO{sub 2} in stainless steel, of UO{sub 2} in zircaloy, and of U-Mo alloy in zircaloy, and monolithic plates of U-Mo cladded with zircaloy. Given the strong dependency of radiation damage with temperature increase, the safety criteria related to heat transfer were verified for all the alternatives, namely the DNBR; coolant temperature lower than saturation temperature; peak meat temperature to avoid swelling; peak fuel temperature to avoid meat-matrix reaction. It was found that all alternatives meet the safety criteria including the 0.5 mm monolithic U-Mo plate cladded with zircaloy. (author)

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  11. Preparation of porous n-type silicon sample plates for desorption/ionization on silicon mass spectrometry (DIOS-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, S; Huikko, K; Grigoras, K; Ostman, P; Kostiainen, R; Baumann, M; Abian, J; Kotiaho, T; Franssila, S

    2002-11-01

    This study focuses on porous silicon (pSi) fabrication methods and properties for desorption ionization on silicon mass spectrometry (DIOS-MS). PSi was prepared using electrochemical etching of n-type silicon in HF-ethanol solution. Porous areas were defined by a double-sided illumination arrangement: front-side porous areas were masked by a stencil mask, eliminating the need for standard photolithography, and backside illumination was used for the backside ohmic contact. Backside illumination improved the uniformity of the porosified areas. Porosification conditions, surface derivatizations and storage conditions were explored to optimize pSi area, pore size and pore depth. Chemical derivatization of the pSi surfaces improved the DIOS-MS performance providing better ionization efficiency and signal stability with lower laser energy. Droplet spreading and drying patterns on pSi were also examined. Pore sizes of 50-200 nm were found to be optimal for droplet evaporation and pore filling with the sample liquid, as measured by DIOS efficiency. With DIOS, significantly better detection sensitivity was obtained (e.g. 150 fmol for midazolam) than with desorption ionization from a standard MALDI steel plate without matrix addition (30 pmol for midazolam). Also the noise that disturbs the detection of low-molecular weight compounds at m/z MS spectra and good detection sensitivity at the 100-150 fmol level for pharmaceutical compounds were achieved with DIOS-MS.

  12. A Gustilo type IIIB open forearm fracture treated by negative pressure wound therapy and locking compression plates: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naohide; Mae, Takao; Hotokezaka, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kosuke; Matsushita, Akinobu; Miake, Go; Kuchiishi, Rintaro; Noguchi, Yasuo

    2011-10-01

    A 91-year-old female sustained injuries to her left forearm while walking across a crosswalk. X-rays showed left radial shaft and ulna shaft fractures, and the injury was a type IIIB open fracture. On the day of admission, irrigation and debridement of the open wound, and temporary fixation of the radius and ulna using an external fixator and a Kirschner wire were peformed. Six days after the surgery, we used negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) using the V.A.C.ATS system for the open wound. Thirteen days after the first surgery, definitive fixation was performed by using locking compression plates, and full thickness skin grafting was undertaken for the open wound. NPWT is a treatment that accelerates the wound healing process through the delivery of continuous subatmospheric pressure within a closed environment. In our case, we could reduce the healing period of the soft tissue and could convert to the definitive fixation in a timely fashion. NPWT is thought to be a useful adjunct in the management of the soft tissues of open fractures.

  13. Comparison of locking anatomic volar plate fixation and external fixation in the treatment of AO type C radius distal-end fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Guvenc

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Better functional and clinical results were obtained for patients with complex fractures associated with joint of radius distal-end fractures compared with the group treated with an external fixator. At further stages, there was no difference in terms of arthritic changes between the two fixation methods. This result shows that according to AO classification, in the case of type C radius distal-end fractures, except for very distal fractures not amenable to plate fixation, locked volar plating provides a safe and stable fixation and hence why it is the preferred method. [Hand Microsurg 2017; 6(1.000: 15-20

  14. Biomechanical evaluation of two types of short-stemmed hip prostheses compared to the trust plate prosthesis by three-dimensional measurement of micromotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottner, Andreas; Schmid, Markus; Birkenmaier, Christof; Mazoochian, Farhad; Plitz, Wolfgang; Volkmar, Jansson

    2009-06-01

    Stemless and short-stemmed hip prostheses have been developed to preserve femoral bone stock. While all these prostheses claim a more or less physiological load transfer, clinical long-term results are only available for the stemless thrust plate prosthesis. In this study, the in vitro primary stability of the thrust plate prosthesis was compared to two types of short-stemmed prostheses. In addition to the well-established Mayo prosthesis, the modular Metha prosthesis was tested using cone adapters with 130 degrees and 140 degrees neck-shaft-angles. The prostheses were implanted in composite femurs and loaded dynamically (300-1700 N). Three-dimensional micromotions at the bone-prosthesis interface were measured. In addition, the three-dimensional deformations at the surface of the composite femur were measured to gain data on the strain distribution. For all tested prostheses, the micromotions did not exceed 150 microm, the critical value for osteointegration. The thrust plate prosthesis revealed similar motions as the short-stemmed prostheses. The short-stemmed prosthesis with the 130 degrees cone tended to have the highest micromotions of all tested short-stemmed prostheses. The thrust plate prosthesis revealed the lowest alteration of bone surface deformation after implantation. The comparably low micromotions of the thrust plate prosthesis and the short-stemmed prostheses should be conducive to osseous integration. The higher alteration of load transmission after implantation reveals a higher risk of stress shielding for the short-stemmed prostheses.

  15. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the ... Help Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events ...

  16. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  17. Experimental Research on Seismic Performance of a New-Type of R/C Beam-Column Joints with End Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new-type of fabricated beam-column connections with end plates. The joint details are as follows: the concrete beams are connected to column by end plates and six high strength long bolts passing through the core area. In addition, in order to increase the stiffness and shear strength, stirrups are replaced by the steel plate hoop in the core zone. To examine the fail behavior of the fabricated beam-column connection specimens, a quasi-static test is conducted for nine full-scale models to obtain the hysteresis curves, skeleton curves, ductility, energy dissipation capacity, and other seismic indicators. The experimental results show that all specimens failed in bending in a malleable way with a beam plastic hinge and the hysteresis curves are excellently plump for the end plate connections. From the seismic indexes, the fabricated connection specimens exhibit better seismic performance, which can provide reference for the application of prefabricated frame structure in the earthquake area.

  18. Preliminary results for the Co-Rolling process fabrication of plate-type nuclear fuel based in U-10Mo monolithic meat and zircaloy-4 cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, Tercio A.; Brina, Jose Giovanni M.; Paula, Joao Bosco de; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Ferraz, Wilmar B., E-mail: tap@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The fabrication process of plate-type nuclear fuel with monolithic meat is under development at CDTN. The U-10Mo alloy was chosen as the meat material due to its high density, corrosion resistance and the higher dimensional stability proportioned by the metastable gamma phase, which presents a lesser extension of the breakaway swelling phenomena occurrence during irradiation tests. The monolithic meat was cut from an U-10Mo ingot, that was induction melted at CDTN. The co-rolling process was adopted due to the higher mechanical properties and melting point of the Zircalloy-4 cladding material, which presents a lesser discrepancy in relation to the meat material properties, when compared to the aluminum 6061 alloy. Preliminary plates were obtained by means of the co-rolling process, performed at 650, 800, 950 deg C with total thickness reduction of 80%, followed by a pickling step and cold co-rolling passes. The plates were characterized through bending tests, optical microscopy and radiography. The co-rolling temperature of 800 deg C presented the best results, with a homogeneous distribution of the total thickness reduction between the cover plates and the meat, and the absence of delamination in the bending test samples. It was observed the occurrence of meat thickening in its ends, according to its longitudinal axle, parallel to the rolling direction, that is known as the {sup d}og bone{sup ,} for the three co-rolling temperatures. (author)

  19. 1991 Volvo Award in basic sciences. Collagen types around the cells of the intervertebral disc and cartilage end plate: an immunolocalization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S; Menage, J; Duance, V; Wotton, S; Ayad, S

    1991-09-01

    Several types of collagen are known to exist in the intervertebral disc in addition to the fibrillar collagens, Types I and II. Although they constitute only a small percentage of the total collagen content, these minor collagens may have important functions. This study was designed to investigate the presence of Types I, II, III, IV, VI, and IX collagens in the intervertebral disc and cartilage end plate by immunohistochemistry, thereby establishing their location within the tissues. Types III and VI collagen have a pericellular distribution in animal and human tissue. No staining for Type IX collagen was present in normal human disc, but in rat and bovine intervertebral disc, it was also located pericellularly. These results show that cells of the intervertebral disc and cartilage end plate sit in fibrous capsules, forming chondrons similar to those described in articular cartilage. In pathologic tissue the amount and distribution of the collagen types, and the organization of the pericellular capsule, differ from that seen in control material.

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In ... way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with ...

  2. Effect of openings collectors and solar irradiance on the thermal efficiency of flat plate-finned collector for indirect-type passive solar dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Dina, Sari Farah; Klaudia Kathryn Y., M.; Turmuzi, M.; Siregar, Fitri; Panjaitan, Nora

    2017-06-01

    Research on the effect of openings solar collector and solar irradiance to thermal efficiency has been done. Solar collector by flat plate-finned type consists of 3 ply insulator namely wood, Styrofoam and Rockwool with thickness respectively are 10 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm. Absorber plate made of aluminum sheet with thickness of 0.30 mm, painted by black-doff. Installation of 19 units fins (length x height x thickness: 1000x20x10 mm) on the collector will increase surface area of absorber so it can receive much more solar energy. The solar collector cover is made of glass (thickness of 5 mm). During the research, the solar irradiance and temperature of collector are measured and recorded every five minutes. Temperature measurement performed on the surface of the absorber plate, inside of collector, surface cover and the outer side insulator (plywood). This data is used to calculate the heat loss due to conduction, convection and radiation on the collector. Openings of collectors vary as follows: 100%, 75%, 15% and 0% (total enclosed). The data collecting was conducted from 09.00 am to 17.00 pm and triplicates. The collector thermal efficiency calculated based on the ratio of the amount of heat received to the solar irradiance absorbed. The results show that each of openings solar collector has different solar irradiance (because it was done on a different day) which is in units of W/m2: 390 (100% open), 376 (75% open), 429 (15% open), and 359 (totally enclosed). The highest thermal efficiency is in openings variation of 15% opened. These results indicate that the efficiency of the collector is influenced by the solar irradiance received by the collector and the temperature on the collector plate. The highest thermal efficiency is in variation of openings 15%. These indicate that the efficiency of the collector was influenced by solar irradiance received by the collector and openings of the collector plate.

  3. The method used for justification of engineering solutions for multistage plate-type mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupov, V. B.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes technical and economic problems associated with the selection of designs of mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants. A method is suggested that makes it possible to determine the dimensions of each stage of plate-type mufflers on the basis of achieving the lowest total discounted costs in order to provide the required acoustical performance at a permissible aerodynamic resistance of a muffler. The condition of the lowest total discounted costs for a multistage muffler, which is valid for different types of mufflers, has been obtained.

  4. Irradiation Performance of U-Mo Alloy Based ‘Monolithic’ Plate-Type Fuel – Design Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. B. Robinson; G. S. Chang; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; D. M. Wachs; D. L. Porter

    2009-08-01

    A down-selection process has been applied to the U-Mo fuel alloy based monolithic plate fuel design, supported by irradiation testing of small fuel plates containing various design parameters. The irradiation testing provided data on fuel performance issues such as swelling, fuel-cladding interaction (interdiffusion), blister formation at elevated temperatures, and fuel/cladding bond quality and effectiveness. U-10Mo (wt%) was selected as the fuel alloy of choice, accepting a somewhat lower uranium density for the benefits of phase stability. U-7Mo could be used, with a barrier, where the trade-off for uranium density is critical to nuclear performance. A zirconium foil barrier between fuel and cladding was chosen to provide a predictable, well-bonded, fuel-cladding interface, allowing little or no fuel-cladding interaction. The fuel plate testing conducted to inform this selection was based on the use of U-10Mo foils fabricated by hot co-rolling with a Zr foil. The foils were subsequently bonded to Al-6061 cladding by hot isostatic pressing or friction stir bonding.

  5. Displaced Neer Type IIB distal-third clavicle fractures-Long-term clinical outcome after plate fixation and additional screw augmentation for coracoclavicular instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefenboeck, Thomas M; Boesmueller, Sandra; Binder, Harald; Bukaty, Adam; Tiefenboeck, Michael M; Joestl, Julian; Hofbauer, Marcus; Ostermann, Roman C

    2017-01-23

    Unstable Neer Type IIB fractures require meticulous surgical treatment. Thus, the aim of this study was to present long-term outcomes after plate fixation and minimally invasive coracoclavicular (CC) stabilization using screw fixation. A consecutive series of patients with unstable Neer Type IIB displaced clavicle fractures, treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with a plate and additional screw fixation for coracoclavicular ligament instability, was reviewed in order to determine long-term clinical and radiological outcome. Seven patients, six males and one female, with a mean age of 37 ± 8 years (median: 36 years; range, 28-51 years), were evaluated. At latest follow-up, after a mean of 67 months (range, 11-117 months), patients presented with the following mean scores: DASH: 0.57, ASES: 98.81, UCLA: 34.29, VAS: 0.43, Simple Shoulder Test: 11.57. However, two complications were observed: one case of implant loosening and one non-union. There were no differences observed between the CC distances comparing postoperative X-rays to those in final follow-up. In 25% of our patients early postoperative complications occurred. In all patients reoperation was necessary to remove the implanted screw. The results of the present study indicate that the treatment of Neer Type IIB lateral clavicle fractures with ORIF using a plate and additional CC screw fixation, leads to satisfying clinical and radiological outcomes in the long-term. However, considering an early postoperative complication rate of 25% and a 100% rate of secondary surgery due to removal of the CC screw does not seem to justify this technique anymore.

  6. Evaluation of Corrosion of the Dummy “EE” Plate 19 in YA Type ATR Fuel Element During Reactor PALM Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Jeffrey Owen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Glazoff, Michael Vasily [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Eiden, Thomas John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rezvoi, Aleksey Victor [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 153B-1 was a 14-day, high-power, powered axial locator mechanism (PALM) operating cycle that completed on April 12, 2013. Cycle 153B-1 was a typical operating cycle for the ATR and did not result in any unusual plant transients. ATR was started up and shut down as scheduled. The PALM drive physically moves the selected experiments into and out of the core to simulate reactor startup and heat up, and shutdown and cooldown transients, while the reactor remains in steady state conditions. However, after the cycle was over, several thousand of the flow-assisted corrosion pits and “horseshoeing” defects were readily observable on the surface of the several YA-type fuel elements (these are “dummy” plates that contain no fuel). In order understand these corrosion phenomena a thermal-hydraulic model of coolant channel 20 on a YA-M fuel element was generated. The boundaries of the model were the aluminum EE plate of a YA-M fuel element and a beryllium reflector block with 13 horizontal saw cuts which represented regions of zero flow. The heat generated in fuel plates 1 through 18 was modeled to be passing through the aluminum EE plate. The coolant channel 20 width was set at 0.058 in. (58 mils). It was established that the horizontal saw cuts had a significant effect on the temperature of the coolant. The flow, which was expected to vary linearly with gradual heating of the coolant as it passed through the channel, was extremely turbulent. The temperature rise, which was expected to be a smooth “S” curve, was represented by a series temperature rise “humps,” which occurred at each horizontal saw cut in the beryllium reflector block. Each of the 13 saw cuts had a chamfered edge which resulted in the coolant flow being re-directed as a jet across the coolant channel into the surface of the EE plate, which explained the temperature rise and the observed sscalloping and possibly pitting degradation on the YA-M fuel elements. In

  7. Characteristic of local boiling heat transfer of ammonia and ammonia / water binary mixture on the plate type evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Akio; Arima, Hirofumi; Ikegami, Yasuyuki

    2011-08-01

    Power generation using small temperature difference such as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) and discharged thermal energy conversion (DTEC) is expected to be the countermeasures against global warming problem. As ammonia and ammonia/water are used in evaporators for OTEC and DTEC as working fluids, the research of their local boiling heat transfer is important for improvement of the power generation efficiency. Measurements of local boiling heat transfer coefficients were performed for ammonia /water mixture ( z = 0.9-1) on a vertical flat plate heat exchanger in a range of mass flux (7.5-15 kg/m2 s), heat flux (15-23 kW/m2), and pressure (0.7-0.9 MPa). The result shows that in the case of ammonia /water mixture, the local heat transfer coefficients increase with an increase of mass flux and composition of ammonia, and decrease with an increase of heat flux.

  8. Locking compression plate versus revision-prosthesis for Vancouver type B2 periprosthetic femoral fractures after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joestl, Julian; Hofbauer, Marcus; Lang, Nikolaus; Tiefenboeck, Thomas; Hajdu, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Revision arthroplasty is currently the recommended treatment for periprosthetic femoral fractures after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and stem loosening (Vancouver B2). However, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) utilizing locking compression plate (LCP) might be an effective treatment with a reduced surgical time and less complex procedure in a typically elderly patient collective with multiple comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to compare the functional and radiographic outcomes in two cohorts with Vancouver B2 periprosthetic femoral fractures after primary THA, treated either by ORIF with LCP fixation, or by revision arthroplasty utilizing a non-cemented long femoral stem. 36 patients with Vancouver B2 periprosthetic femoral fractures following THA, who had been treated between 2000 and 2014, were reviewed. Eight fractures were treated with LCP fixation, fourteen fractures with the first-generation revision prosthesis (Helios), and fourteen fractures with the second-generation revision prosthesis (Hyperion). The patients were assessed clinically with the Parker mobility score and radiographically. A total of ten males and 26 females formed the basis of this report with an average age of 81 years (range, 64 to 96 years). All fractures treated with LCP fixation alone healed uneventfully and there were no signs of secondary stem migration, malalignement or plate breakage. The average surgical time was shorter in the ORIF cohort; however, the results were not statistically significant. The postoperative Parker mobility score at latest follow-up showed no difference between the groups. According to the results of the current study, we conclude that the use of LCP fixation can be a sufficient option for the treatment of Vancouver B2 periprosthetic femoral fractures correspondingly with femoral stem loosening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Erosion of the Dummy “EE” Plate 19 in YA Type ATR Fuel Element During Reactor PALM Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor; Glazoff, Michael V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor; Eiden, Thomas J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor; Rezvoi, Aleksey V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor

    2016-08-01

    Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 153B-1 was a 14-day, high-power, powered axial locator mechanism (PALM) operating cycle that completed on April 12, 2013. Cycle 153B-1 was a typical operating cycle for the ATR, and did not result in any unusual plant transients. ATR was started up and shut down as scheduled. The PALM drive physically moves the selected experiments into and out of the core to simulate reactor startup and heat up, and shutdown and cooldown transients, while the reactor remains in steady-state conditions. However, after the cycle was over, when the fuel elements were removed from the core and inspected, several thousand flow-assisted erosion pits and “horseshoeing” defects were readily observed on the surface of the several YA-type fuel elements (these are aluminum “dummy” plates that contain no fuel). In order to understand these erosion phenomena, a thermal-hydraulic model of coolant channel 20 on a YA-M fuel element was generated. The boundaries of the model were the aluminum EE plate of a YA-M fuel element and a beryllium reflector block with 13 horizontal saw cuts which represented regions of zero flow. The heat generated in fuel plates 1 through 18 was modeled to be passing through the aluminum EE plate. The coolant channel 20 width was set at 0.058 in. (58 mils). It was established that the horizontal saw cuts had a significant effect on the temperature of the coolant. The flow, which was expected to vary linearly with gradual heating of the coolant as it passed through the channel, was extremely turbulent. The temperature rise, which was expected to be a smooth “S” curve, was represented by a series temperature rise “humps,” which occurred at each horizontal saw cut in the beryllium reflector block. Each of the 13 saw cuts had a chamfered edge which resulted in the coolant flow being re-directed as a jet across the coolant channel into the surface of the EE plate, which explained the temperature rise and the observed

  10. Middle infrared hyperspectral imaging of adhesives, varnishes and inks on Al plate and papers by using a bolometer camera and an imaging type interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Shigeru; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Tsubasa; Nakayama, Yoshihiko; Tsutsui, Yasuyuki; Taniguchi, Hideya; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-10-01

    We built a hyperspectral imaging apparatus using middle-infrared light of 8-14 μm, which has a strong ability to identify organic materials, and attempted visualization of the distribution of organic materials that could not be identified by a naked eye. For this purpose, we utilized a low-cost bolometer camera (Nippon Avionics co., ltd. C100V, Japan) for its easy availability rather than an expensive mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) array sensor. To compensate for the low sensitivity of this bolometer, we adopted a Fourier-type spectroscopic system (Aoi Electronics co. ltd., Japan) using an imaging interferometer devised by the Kagawa University, Japan; this interferometer has higher light-utilization efficiency than Michelson interferometers, which are used in popular interferometry techniques. In this study, 4 types of adhesives, 9 types of varnishes and more than 50 types of inks were put on Al plates of size 10 cm × 10 cm and were used as samples. Glossy paper for printing photos with an inkjet printer was also used as a sample. A 300 °C black body of size 15 cm × 15 cm was used as a light source. Spectra of 320 × 240 points were measured at a wavelength resolution of approximately 9 cm-1. The mirror was scanned only once. The measurement time was approximately 30 s. Hyperspectral images of adhesives, varnishes and inks on Al plate and paper were successfully measured. Spectra over a 5 × 5-pixel neighborhoods were averaged, and the averaged spectra were compared with those measured by a commercially available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The averaged and measured spectra had absorption peaks at the same wavelengths. Furthermore, by analyzing the measured spectra, the distribution of substances invisible to the naked eye was visualized. Our results show that if low-absorbance organic materials are put on a high-reflectance surface such as an Al plate, the middle-infrared hyperspectral imaging could be measured using a bolometer

  11. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  12. A case report of Schatzker type VI tibial plateau fracture treated with double reverse traction closed reduction combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis technique: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dian-Qing; Song, De-Ye; Ni, Jiang-Dong; Ding, Mu-Liang; Huang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    The knee joint is an important weight-bearing joint, tibial plateau fractures affect knee function and stability. High-energy intra-articular fractures involving the tibial plateau can cause management-related problems such as wound dehiscence; severe comminution leading to malalignment; and delayed complications such as varus collapse, implant failure, and arthritis of the knee joint. The treatment of severe or complex tibial plateau fractures can be quite difficult. Traditional methods of open reduction and plating require extensive exposures, which may further compromise soft tissue and devascularize bone fragments, leading to infection. In this case, a novel device, double reverse traction combined with MIPPO technique, was used and provided the possibility of minimally invasive and personalized orthopedic surgery to treat severe comminuted Schatzker type VI tibial plateau fracture and tibial shaft fracture and got satisfactory results. A previously healthy 56-year-old man presented to the emergency room after a fall from a height, who lost the movement of the left knee with pain and swelling. X-rays showed a tibial plateau comminuted fracture, Schatzker type VI, and tibial shaft fracture. Applying less extensile exposure and the indirect reduction technique of double reverse traction and closed reduction combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) technique, we got satisfactory recovery of the severe comminuted Schatzker type VI tibial plateau fracture and tibial shaft fracture. This severe comminuted fracture and tibial shaft fracture were successfully reduced and got satisfactory recovery of knee joint function. Double reverse traction combined with MIPPO technique can reduce the risk of surgical complications, such as bleeding, oozing, and wound infection. It can be applied in patients with comorbidities such as cardiac disease, hypertension, and heart failure who may otherwise not be candidates for surgery. The cost burden is

  13. Histomorphometric Evaluation of Ridge Preservation With and Without Connective Tissue Graft Over Buccal Plate Using Different Types of Bone Substitute: An Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Azpur, Gerardo; Olaechea, Allinson; Pinazo, Marialuisa; Gomez, Cesar; Salinas, Elmer; de la Rosa, Manuel; Khouly, Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of using subepithelial connective tissue graft (CTG) over the buccal plate in conjunction with 2 different bone graft materials in fresh extraction sites. Five mongrel dogs were used. Bilateral third (P3) mandibular premolars were extracted atraumatically. Animals were randomly divided in the 4 experimental groups: no CT (NCT) + anorganic bovine bone (ABB), NCT + biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), CT + ABB, and CT + BCP. This study evaluated tissue healing at 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after socket preservation, using histologic and histomorphometric analyses. The main finding showed that all groups presented similar results with minor differences regardless of the use of CTG and type of bone substitute. A greater amount of residual graft particles was found when ABB was used. No differences in the histologic and histomorphometric analysis were found when comparing the use of CTG with NCTG for ridge preservation procedure. Within the limitations of this animal study, the use of CTG to overbuild the buccal plate at time of tooth extraction did not affect the quality of bone regeneration.

  14. [Limited open reduction and double plates internal fixation for treatment of Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic femoral fracture after hip arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Fan, Xinbin; Liu, Yue; Shao, Jin; Tang, Jiang'an; Liu, Shuyi; Yang, Tieyi; Zhang, Changqing

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of limited open reduction and double plates internal fixation in the treatment of Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic femoral fracture after hip arthroplasty. A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 12 patients with Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic femoral fracture after hip arthroplasty between May 2007 and October 2012, who underwent limited open reduction and double plates internal fixation. Of 12 patients, 4 were male and 8 were female, aged 76-85 years (mean, 81.6 years); the left side was involved in 5 patients and the right side in 7 patients. The cement prosthesis was used in 3 cases and cementless prosthesis in 9 cases; double acting head of hip arthroplasty was performed in 4 cases and total hip arthroplasty in 8 cases. The median time from first hip arthroplasty to re-fracture was 13 months (range, 5 months-5 years). The causes of injury were traffic accident in 2 cases and falling in 10 cases. Combined fractures included contralateral tibial and fibular fractures and ipsilateral distal humeral fracture (1 case), ipsilateral proximal humeral fracture (2 cases), ipsilateral distal radial fracture (1 case), and rib fracture (1 case). The time from injury to operation was 5.6 days on average (range, 3-10 days). The incisions all healed by first intention, and no infection or deep venous thrombosis of lower extremity occurred. Twelve cases were followed up 6-24 months (mean, 13.3 months). One female patient died of acute myocardial infarction at 16 months after operation. All the fractures were healed, with X-ray healing time of 12.5 weeks on average (range, 10-16 weeks). The time of full weight bearing was 13 weeks on average (range, 10-18 weeks). Ten cases could walk freely after operation, and 2 cases could walk by the aid of walking aid appliance. At last follow-up, the Harris score of hip function was 87.3 on average (range, 75-93). The method of limited open reduction and double plates internal fixation for

  15. An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalysts for multi-reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2014-05-01

    An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalyst was prepared by a two-step impregnation method. The trace amount 0.08 wt% of Pt doping efficiently suppressed the nickel particle sintering and improved the nickel oxides reducibility. The prepared Ni-Pt catalyst showed excellent performance during steam reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol under both 3000 h stationary and 500-time daily start-up and shut-down operation modes. Self-activation ability of this catalyst was evidenced, which was considered to be resulted from the hydrogen spillover effect over Ni-Pt alloy. In addition, an integrated combustion-reforming reactor was proposed in this study. However, the sintering of the alumina support is still a critical issue for the industrialization of Ni-Pt catalyst. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plate osteosynthesis of simple forearm fractures : LCP versus DC plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Charles Tjerk; Ten Duis, Henk Jan

    The aim of this study was to compare the time to radiological bony union of simple A-type fractures of the forearm, treated with either a locking compression plate (LCP) or a dynamic compression plate (DCP). For each fracture, the relation between the use of compression and radiological healing time

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  1. Water flow experiments and analyses on the cross-flow type mercury target model with the flow guide plates

    CERN Document Server

    Haga, K; Kaminaga, M; Hino, R

    2001-01-01

    A mercury target is used in the spallation neutron source driven by a high-intensity proton accelerator. In this study, the effectiveness of the cross-flow type mercury target structure was evaluated experimentally and analytically. Prior to the experiment, the mercury flow field and the temperature distribution in the target container were analyzed assuming a proton beam energy and power of 1.5 GeV and 5 MW, respectively, and the feasibility of the cross-flow type target was evaluated. Then the average water flow velocity field in the target mock-up model, which was fabricated from Plexiglass for a water experiment, was measured at room temperature using the PIV technique. Water flow analyses were conducted and the analytical results were compared with the experimental results. The experimental results showed that the cross-flow could be realized in most of the proton beam path area and the analytical result of the water flow velocity field showed good correspondence to the experimental results in the case w...

  2. Origin of hydrous alkali feldspar-silica intergrowth in spherulites from intra-plate A2-type rhyolites at the Jabal Shama, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surour, Adel A.; El-Nisr, Said A.; Bakhsh, Rami A.

    2016-03-01

    Miocene rhyolites (19.2 ± 0.9 Ma) at the Jabal Shama in western Saudi Arabia represent an example of rift-related silicic volcanism that took place during the formation of the Red Sea. They mostly consist of tuffaceous varieties with distinct flow banding, and pea-sized spherulites, obsidian and perlitized rhyolite tuffs. Although they have the geochemical signature of A2-type rhyolites, these silicic rocks are not typically alkaline but alkali-calcic to calc-alkaline. They developed in a within-plate regime and possibly derived from a recycled mafic subducted slab in depleted sub-continental mantle beneath the western Arabian plate. The Jabal Shama rhyolites are younger in age than their Miocene counterparts in Yemen and Ethiopia. The Jabal Shama spherulites consist of hydrous alkali feldspar-silica radial intergrowths with an occasional brown glass nucleus. Carbonate- and glass-free spherulites give up to 4.45 wt% L.O.I. The hydrous nature of these silicates and the absence of magnetite in the spherulites is a strong indication of oxidizing conditions. The spherulites contain hydrous feldspars with up to ∼6 wt% H2O, and they develop by diffusion and devitrification of glass in the rhyolite tuff at ∼800 °C. Owing to higher undercooling due to supersaturation, the radial hydrous phases within spherulites might grow faster and led to coagulation. The polygonal contacts between spherulites and the ∼120° dihedral angle suggest solid-state modification and recrystallization as the process of devitrification proceeds as low as ∼300 °C. The sum of FeO + MgO is positively correlated with total alkalies along with magnetite oxidation in the matrix to Fe-oxyhydroxides, and to the incorporation of OH- into silicates within the spehrulites themselves. Structural H2O in glass of the Jabal Shama perlite (obsidian) is considerable (∼9-12 wt%) with 3.72-5.6 wt% L.O.I. of the whole-rock. The presence of deleterious silica impurities would lower the ore grade due to

  3. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...... of nail row, edge distance, fixed nail-plate, bending direction, unloading, and grain direction, plate and load direction on the load-displacement curves are analysed. Mean load-displacement curves from all the tests are given....

  4. Detection of artificial occlusal caries in a phosphor imaging plate system with two types of LCD monitors versus three different films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgüy, Mehmet; Dinçer, Semanur; Ilgüy, Dilhan; Bayirli, Gündüz

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic performance of a storage phosphor plate system Digora Optime (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) with two types of LCD monitor in the detection of artificial caries when compared to Ultraspeed (D), Ektaspeed Plus (E), and Insight (F) radiographic films. Seventy extracted human molars-with artificial caries-were radiographed under identical standardized conditions using (1) a storage phosphor plate system Digora (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland), (2) Insight, (3) Ektaspeed Plus, and (4) Ultraspeed (Carestream Health Inc, Rochester, NY). All digital images and radiographs were examined by three observers for the presence or absence of artificial caries using a five-point confidence scale. Digital images were evaluated both on a LCD computer monitor (Philips 170S, Holland) and medical monitor-3 megapixel monochrome display (Me355i2, Totoku, Tokyo)-with brightness and contrast enhancement. Observer responses were evaluated using ROC analysis and other measurements for diagnostic accuracy. Storage phosphor images with medical monitor demonstrated higher mean A (z) values (0.70 +/- 0.08) than digital images with computer monitor and conventional films. Storage phosphor images with medical monitor presented the highest score, 0.97, 0.90, 0.94, for each observer, respectively. Also, true positive observations (0.82) and positive likelihood ratios (2.71) were higher in enhanced storage phosphor images with medical monitor. Caries detection of mechanically created lesions by experienced radiologists is roughly comparable when examining D-speed film images and Digora images on both the computer and medical LCD monitors, and appears to be poorer on E- and F-speed film images.

  5. A simulation model describing gap flow in swashplate-type axial piston engines; Ein Simulationsmodell zur Beschreibung der Spaltstroemung in Axialkolbenmaschinen der Schraegscheibenbauart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieczorek, U.

    2003-07-01

    The report describes a model for calculating non-isothermal flow in the lubricating gaps of axial piston engines on the basis of a numeric calculation of the pressure and temperature distribution after determining the gep geometry. The gap flow between the component determines the loss from friction and leakage. The model was integrated in the simulation program CASPAR (calculation of swashplate-type axial piston pump/motor) with the intention to support component design and enable an optimisation of the gap geometry. Test stand measurements served to verify the simulation model. [German] Diese Arbeit beschreibt ein Modell zur Berechnung der nicht-isothermen Stroemung in den Schmierspalten von Axialkolbenmaschinen. Grundlage des Simulationsmodells bildet die numerische Berechnung der Druck- und Temperaturverteilung in den Spalten. Voraussetzung fuer die Berechnung der Spaltstroemung ist die Bestimmung der Spaltgeometrie. Hierzu wird die Bauteilverlagerung der beweglichen Bauteile unter Beruecksichtigung der Kraeftebilanz aus Tragkraft des Schmierfilms und der aeusseren Belastung bestimmt. Ferner wird der Druckverlauf im Verdraengerraum bestimmt. Die Spaltstroemung, die sich zwischen den Bauteilen einstellt, bestimmt die Verluste, die durch Reibung und Leckage verursacht werden. Das entwickelte Modell ist im Simulationsprogramm CASPAR (calculation of swash-plate type axial piston pump/motor) umgesetzt worden, mit dem Ziel die Bauteilauslegung zu unterstuetzen und eine Optimierung der Spaltgeometrie zu ermoeglichen. Zur Verifizierung des Simulationsmodells wurden Messungen am Pruefstand durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  6. EFFECT OF POWER SUPPLY AND DUTY CONTROL IN CRANKCASE FLOW (CRANKCASE PRESSURE PORT OF ECV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. IQBAL MAHMUD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic control valve (ECV operated by solenoid in the external variable compressor with the swash plate type is the rising phenomenon. ECV controls the air conditioning compressor for automobile on the basis of the input signal of the pulse width modulation (PWM that supplied from the external controller. PWM technique is used to encode the information for transmission; its main use is to allow the control of the power to be supplied to electrical devices, especially to inertial loads. The mechanism changes the swash plate angle inside the compressor by increasing or reducing the pressure of swash plate chamber by use of the functions of different pressure port within the ECV. Increasing and reducing the swash plate angle finally depends on the solenoid force acting on the rate of supply of current. This research paper investigates the effect of power supply and duty control during the crankcase flowing at Pc pressure port of ECV.

  7. Effects of Cooling Fluid Flow Rate on the Critical Heat Flux and Flow Stability in the Plate Fuel Type 2 MW TRIGA Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Rahardjo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The conversion program of the 2 MW TRIGA reactor in Bandung consisted of the replacement of cylindrical fuel (produced by General Atomic with plate fuel (produced by BATAN. The replacement led into the change of core cooling process from upward natural convection type to downward forced convection type, and resulted in different thermohydraulic safety criteria, such as critical heat flux (CHF limit, boiling limit, and cooling fluid flow stability. In this paper, a thermohydraulic safety analysis of the converted TRIGA reactor is presented by considering the Dynamic Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR criterion, Onset Nucleate Boiling Ratio (ONBR limit, and cooling fluid flow stability at various cooling fluid flow rate.The numerical analyses were performed using the HEATHYD program on the hottest channels of reactor core.The combination of heat transfer and fluid flow analysis were conducted for reactor operation at 2 MW with 20 fuel element bundles and four control rod bundles. Incoming fluid flow to the cooling channel was fixed at 44.5 °C temperature and 1.9970 bar pressure, and its flow rate was varied from 1.25 to 3.5 m3/h. By inputting these values, as well as the total power of fuel elements per bundle, the wall temperature distribution of the plate fuel element, cooling fluid temperature distribution, and pressure losses in the channels were obtained for the analysis of CHF limit, boiling limit, and flow stability. It was shown that no boiling occurred for the cooling fluid flow rate range of 2.4 to 3.5 m3/h, and even at the cooling fluid flow rate of 1.25 m3/h where some bubbles occurred, the DNBR was higher than the critical limit (more than 23 while the flow stability criterion in some channels were slightly less than 1 (unstable. At the cooling fluid flow rate of 1.4 m3/h, however, the flow became stable in all channel. Create Your Plate

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  8. Influence of the silicon content on the core corrosion properties of dispersion type fuel plates; Influencia del Contenido en silicio sobre la corrosion acuosa de los nucleos de placas combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, C.; Saenz de Tejada, L. M.; Diaz Diaz, J.

    1969-07-01

    A new process to produce aluminium base dispersion type fuel plates has been developed at the Spanish JEN (Junta de Energia Nuclear). The dispersed fuel material is obtained by an aluminothermic process to render a stoichiometric cermet of UAI{sub 3} and AI{sub 2}O{sub 3} according to the reaction. (Author)

  9. Modic changes in lumbar spine: prevalence and distribution patterns of end plate oedema and end plate sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Chu, Bin; Feng, Yang; Xu, Feng; Zou, Yue-Fen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the distribution of end plate oedema in different types of Modic change especially in mixed type and to analyze the presence of end plate sclerosis in various types of Modic change. 276 patients with low back pain were scanned with 1.5-T MRI. Three radiologists assessed the MR images by T1 weighted, T2 weighted and fat-saturation T2 weighted sequences and classified them according to the Modic changes. Pure oedematous end plate signal changes were classified as Modic Type I; pure fatty end plate changes were classified as Modic Type II; and pure sclerotic end plate changes as Modic Type III. A mixed feature of both Types I and II with predominant oedematous signal change is classified as Modic I-II, and a mixture of Types I and II with predominant fatty change is classified as Modic II-I. Thus, the mixed types can further be subdivided into seven subtypes: Types I-II, Types II-I, Types I-III, Types III-I, Types II-III, Types III-II and Types I-III. During the same period, 52 of 276 patients who underwent CT and MRI were retrospectively reviewed to determine end plate sclerosis. (1) End plate oedema: of the 2760 end plates (276 patients) examined, 302 end plates showed Modic changes, of which 82 end plates showed mixed Modic changes. The mixed Modic changes contain 92.7% of oedematous changes. The mixed types especially Types I-II and Types II-I made up the majority of end plate oedematous changes. (2) End plate sclerosis: 52 of 276 patients were examined by both MRI and CT. Of the 520 end plates, 93 end plates showed Modic changes, of which 34 end plates have shown sclerotic changes in CT images. 11.8% of 34 end plates have shown Modic Type I, 20.6% of 34 end plates have shown Modic Type II, 2.9% of 34 end plates have shown Modic Type III and 64.7% of 34 end plates have shown mixed Modic type. End plate oedema makes up the majority of mixed types especially Types I-II and Types II-I. The end plate sclerosis on CT images may

  10. Measurement of the Residual Stresses and Investigation of Their Effects on a Hardfaced Grid Plate due to Thermal Cycling in a Pool Type Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balaguru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR, grid plate is a critical component which is made of 316 L(N SS. It is supported on core support structure. The grid plate supports the core subassemblies and maintains their verticality. Most of the components of SFR are made of 316 L(N/304 L(N SS and they are in contact with the liquid-metal sodium which acts as a coolant. The peak operating temperature in SFR is 550°C. However, the self-welding starts at 500°C. To avoid self-welding and galling, hardfacing of the grid plate has become necessary. Nickel based cobalt-free colmonoy 5 has been identified as the hardfacing material due to its lower dose rate by Plasma Transferred Arc Welding (PTAW. This paper is concerned with the measurement and investigations of the effects of the residual stress generated due to thermal cycling on a scale-down physical model of the grid plate. Finite element analysis of the hardfaced grid plate model is performed for obtaining residual stresses using elastoplastic analysis and hence the results are validated. The effects of the residual stresses due to thermal cycling on the hardfaced grid plate model are studied.

  11. Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Erin R

    2012-05-11

    Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating

  12. High performance flat plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  13. Create Your Plate

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  14. Growth Plate Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Growth Plate Fractures Page ( 1 ) The bones of children and adults share many of the same risks for ... also subject to a unique injury called a growth plate fracture. Growth plates are areas of cartilage ...

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  18. Histomorphometric Parameters of the Growth Plate and Trabecular Bone in Wild-Type and Trefoil Factor Family 3 (Tff3)-Deficient Mice Analyzed by Free and Open-Source Image Processing Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Stolnik, Dunja; Lovrić, Ivana; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2017-08-01

    Trefoil factor family 3 (Tff3) peptide is present during intrauterine endochondral ossification in mice, and its deficiency affects cancellous bone quality in secondary ossification centers of mouse tibiae. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze parameters describing the growth plate and primary ossification centers in tibiae of 1-month-old wild-type and Tff3 knock-out mice (n=5 per genotype) by using free and open-source software. Digital photographs of the growth plates and trabecular bone were processed by open-source computer programs GIMP and FIJI. Histomorphometric parameters were calculated using measurements made with FIJI. Tff3 knock-out mice had significantly smaller trabecular number and significantly larger trabecular separation. Trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surface, and trabecular thickness showed no significant difference between the two groups. Although such histomorphological differences were found in the cancellous bone structure, no significant differences were found in the epiphyseal plate histomorphology. Tff3 peptide probably has an effect on the formation and quality of the cancellous bone in the primary ossification centers, but not through disrupting the epiphyseal plate morphology. This work emphasizes the benefits of using free and open-source programs for morphological studies in life sciences.

  19. Culture on a fragmin/protamine-coated plate suppresses the collagen type IαI and TGF-β1 mRNA expression of rat hepatic stellate RI-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Hitomi; Hemmi, Natsuko; Maki, Takehiro; Ozawa, Aisa; Kadowaki, Erina; Kamiie, Junichi; Yamamoto, Masako; Arishima, Kazuyoshi; Sakaue, Motoharu

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) intracellularly preserve vitamin A in the normal liver. When the liver is damaged, HSCs transform into myofibroblast-like cells, and then proliferate and increase their expression of collagen. Cultured on a plastic plate, HSCs spontaneously activate. To maintain HSCs in a quiescent state with low expression of collagen, coating methods with extracellular matrixes (ECMs) such as Matrigel-coating or laminin-rich coating are commonly used for HSC cultivation. Kishimoto et al. [14] reported that Fragmin®/protamine microparticles (F/P-MPs) have the ability to absorb heparin-binding cytokines like ECMs. Therefore, we examined whether the cultivation on an F/P-MPs-coated plate maintains the quiescent state of RI-T cells (derived from rat HSCs) including the suppression of collagen expression. We found that the mRNA levels of collagen type IαI and TGF-β1 in RI-T cells were significantly suppressed in the cultivation on F/P-MPs-coated plates compared to cultures on noncoated and Matrigel-coated plates. We conclude that the F/P-MPs coating method is useful for maintaining with low expressions of collagen IαI and TGF-β 1 mRNA levels in HSCs.

  1. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  2. Current plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Argus, D. F.; Stein, S.

    1990-05-01

    A global plate motion model, named NUVEL-1, which describes current plate motions between 12 rigid plates is described, with special attention given to the method, data, and assumptions used. Tectonic implications of the patterns that emerged from the results are discussed. It is shown that wide plate boundary zones can form not only within the continental lithosphere but also within the oceanic lithosphere; e.g., between the Indian and Australian plates and between the North American and South American plates. Results of the model also suggest small but significant diffuse deformation of the oceanic lithosphere, which may be confined to small awkwardly shaped salients of major plates.

  3. Intermittent plate tectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Paul G; Behn, Mark D

    2008-01-04

    Although it is commonly assumed that subduction has operated continuously on Earth without interruption, subduction zones are routinely terminated by ocean closure and supercontinent assembly. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to a dramatic loss of subduction, globally. Closure of a Pacific-type basin, for example, would eliminate most subduction, unless this loss were compensated for by comparable subduction initiation elsewhere. Given the evidence for Pacific-type closure in Earth's past, the absence of a direct mechanism for termination/initiation compensation, and recent data supporting a minimum in subduction flux in the Mesoproterozoic, we hypothesize that dramatic reductions or temporary cessations of subduction have occurred in Earth's history. Such deviations in the continuity of plate tectonics have important consequences for Earth's thermal and continental evolution.

  4. A cellular automaton method to simulate the microstructure and evolution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) U–Mo/Al dispersion type fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drera, Saleem S., E-mail: saleem.drera@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hofman, Gerard L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL 60439 (United States); Kee, Robert J. [Mechanical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, Jeffrey C. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • This article presents a cellular automata (CA) algorithm to synthesize the growth of intermetallic interaction layers in U–Mo/Al dispersion fuel. • The method utilizes a 3D representation of the fuel, which is discretized into separate voxels that can change identy based on derived CA rules. • The CA model is compared to ILT measurements for RERTR experimental data. • The primary objective of the model is to synthesize three-dimensional microstructures that can be used in subsequent thermal and mechanical modeling. • The CA model can be used for predictive analysis. For example, it can be used to study the dependence of temperature on interaction layer growth. - Abstract: Low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel plates for high power materials test reactors (MTR) are composed of nominally spherical uranium–molybdenum (U–Mo) particles within an aluminum matrix. Fresh U–Mo particles typically range between 10 and 100 μm in diameter, with particle volume fractions up to 50%. As the fuel ages, reaction–diffusion processes cause the formation and growth of interaction layers that surround the fuel particles. The growth rate depends upon the temperature and radiation environment. The cellular automaton algorithm described in this paper can synthesize realistic random fuel-particle structures and simulate the growth of the intermetallic interaction layers. Examples in the present paper pack approximately 1000 particles into three-dimensional rectangular fuel structures that are approximately 1 mm on each side. The computational approach is designed to yield synthetic microstructures consistent with images from actual fuel plates and is validated by comparison with empirical data on actual fuel plates.

  5. MHD free convection flow of a visco-elastic (Kuvshiniski type dusty gas through a semi infinite plate moving with velocity decreasing exponentially with time and radiative heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the study of MHD free convective flow of a visco-elastic (Kuvshinski type dusty gas through a porous medium induced by the motion of a semi-infinite flat plate under the influence of radiative heat transfer moving with velocity decreasing exponentially with time. The expressions for velocity distribution of a dusty gas and dust particles, concentration profile and temperature field are obtained. The effect of Schmidt number (Sc, Magnetic field parameter (M and Radiation parameter (N on velocity distribution of dusty gas and dust particles, concentration and temperature distribution are discussed graphically.

  6. Culturing in serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I-coated plate increases expression of CD133 and retains original phenotype of HT-29 cancer stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab-Bafrani, Zahra; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Abbasian, Mehdi; Saberi, Alihossein; Fesharaki, Mehrafarin; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Manshaee, Samira

    2016-01-01

    A sub-population of tumor cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) has an important role in tumor initiation, progression, and recurrence. Selecting a suitable procedure for isolation and enrichment of CSCs is the biggest challenge in the study of CSCs. In the present study, the role of the combination of stem cell culture medium and collagen type-I was evaluated for successful isolation and enrichment of HT-29 CSCs. HT-29 cells were cultured in serum-containing medium (parental culture medium: Medium + 10% fetal bovine serum) and serum-free medium (stem cell culture medium); both on collagen-coated plates. Spheres forming ability and CD133 expression, as a potential marker of colorectal CSCs, were evaluated in two culture mediums. The results show spheroids usually give rise completely within 15 days in the stem cell culture medium on the collagen-coated plate. CD133 expression in spheroid cells (84%) is extensively higher than in parental cells (25%). Moreover, relative to parental cells, spheroid cells were more radioresistance. Finding of this study suggested that CSCs derived from colon cancer cell line (HT-29) can be propagated and form colonospheres in serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I. According to maintenance of their original phenotype in these conditions, it seems serum-free culture medium on collagen type-I is a suitable way to drug screening of HT-29 CSCs.

  7. Growth Plate Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plate injuries includes: Falling down. Competitive sports (like football). Recreational activities. Sometimes growth plate injuries happen when ... knee. For More Info U.S. Food and Drug Administration Toll free: 888-INFO-FDA (888-463-6332) ...

  8. Create Your Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  9. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  11. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this interactive tool. The healthy meal combinations are endless! Ready to try it at home? Just follow ... non-starchy vegetables and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections ...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  13. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to Give Become a Member Vehicle Donation Planned Giving ... Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for ...

  14. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  15. Using the Mesozoic History of the Canadian Cordillera as a Case Study in Teaching Plate Tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Valerie Elaine

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a model used in the teaching of plate tectonics which includes processes and concepts related to: terranes and the amalgamation of terranes, relative plate motion and oblique subduction, the effects of continent-continent collision, changes in plate motion, plate configuration, and the type of plate boundary. Diagrams are included.…

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy veggies ...

  17. Geologically current plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Argus, Donald F.

    2010-04-01

    We describe best-fitting angular velocities and MORVEL, a new closure-enforced set of angular velocities for the geologically current motions of 25 tectonic plates that collectively occupy 97 per cent of Earth's surface. Seafloor spreading rates and fault azimuths are used to determine the motions of 19 plates bordered by mid-ocean ridges, including all the major plates. Six smaller plates with little or no connection to the mid-ocean ridges are linked to MORVEL with GPS station velocities and azimuthal data. By design, almost no kinematic information is exchanged between the geologically determined and geodetically constrained subsets of the global circuit-MORVEL thus averages motion over geological intervals for all the major plates. Plate geometry changes relative to NUVEL-1A include the incorporation of Nubia, Lwandle and Somalia plates for the former Africa plate, Capricorn, Australia and Macquarie plates for the former Australia plate, and Sur and South America plates for the former South America plate. MORVEL also includes Amur, Philippine Sea, Sundaland and Yangtze plates, making it more useful than NUVEL-1A for studies of deformation in Asia and the western Pacific. Seafloor spreading rates are estimated over the past 0.78 Myr for intermediate and fast spreading centres and since 3.16 Ma for slow and ultraslow spreading centres. Rates are adjusted downward by 0.6-2.6mmyr-1 to compensate for the several kilometre width of magnetic reversal zones. Nearly all the NUVEL-1A angular velocities differ significantly from the MORVEL angular velocities. The many new data, revised plate geometries, and correction for outward displacement thus significantly modify our knowledge of geologically current plate motions. MORVEL indicates significantly slower 0.78-Myr-average motion across the Nazca-Antarctic and Nazca-Pacific boundaries than does NUVEL-1A, consistent with a progressive slowdown in the eastward component of Nazca plate motion since 3.16 Ma. It also

  18. Investigating the effect of remodelling signal type on the finite element based predictions of bone remodelling around the thrust plate prosthesis: a patient-specific comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M J; Clift, S E; Taylor, W R; Hertig, D; Warner, M D; Ploeg, H L; Bereiter, H

    2004-01-01

    The resorption of bone in the human femur following total hip arthroplasty is recognized to be related to the loading in the bone surrounding the prosthesis. However, the precise nature of the mechanical signal that influences the biological remodelling activity of the bone is not completely understood. In this study, a validated finite element modelling methodology was combined with a numerical algorithm to simulate the biological changes over time. This was used to produce bone remodelling predictions for an implanted thrust plate prosthesis (Centerpulse Orthopedics Limited) in a patient specific bone model. The analysis was then repeated using different mechanical signals to drive the remodelling algorithm. The results of these simulations were then compared to the patient-specific clinical data, to distinguish which of the candidate signals produced predictions consistent with the clinical evidence. Good agreement was found for a range of strain energy based signals and also deviatoric remodelling signals. The results, however, did not support the use of compressive dilatational strain as a candidate remodelling signal.

  19. Rapid HLA class I DNA typing using microtiter plate-reverse hybridization assay (MRHA) by simple thermoregulation: high-resolution subtyping of the HLA-A2 and -B40 antigen groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moribe, T; Kaneshige, T; Inagawa, A; Nakatani, S; Hirai, H; Morita, F; Ito, Y; Inoko, H

    1999-06-01

    We have established a precise, rapid, simple and economical subtyping method for alleles encoding the HLA-A2 and -B40 antigens using microtiter plate-reverse hybridization assay (MRHA), which is based on the general principle of HLA oligotyping by reverse dot blot hybridization. Amino-modified sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes were immobilized covalently onto a carboxylate-modified microtiter plate. In order to perform high-resolution subtyping of the HLA-A2 and -B40 antigen groups, the alpha1 and alpha2 domain regions were amplified using a pair of group-specific primers composed of an unlabeled sense primer and a biotinylated antisense primer. PCR-amplified products were hybridized with SSO probes in hybridization buffer containing formamide for 1 hour at 37 degrees C. After washing with 2 X SSC at room temperature, the bound PCR products were detected by alkaline phosphatase-conjugated streptavidine followed by color development. All of 8 HLA-B40 suballeles, all of 2 HLA-B47 suballeles (B40 group-specific primers used in this study allowed also B47 amplification) and 17 out of 21 HLA-A2 suballeles were discriminated. The remaining four HLA-A2 suballeles were determined by analysis after exon 4 amplification. HLA-DNA typing by this method was easily and exactly performed regardless of sample number. The greatest advantages of this technique are strong positive signals obtained, reproducibility and the ease of thermoregulation for hybridization and washing as compared to previously reported microtiter plate hybridization methods.

  20. 斜板式アキシアルピストンポンプの熱潤滑特性(斜板ならびにシリンダブロックの温度測定)

    OpenAIRE

    風間, 俊治; 鶴野, 正真

    2008-01-01

    Temperature of bearing/seal parts of axial piston pumps was measured. Both of a rotating cylinder-block type pump and a rotating swash-plate type pump were prepared ; five thermo-couples were embedded in the swash-plate and one thermistor was placed in the suction conduit for the former pump, and five thermo-couples were installed in the cylinder-block and one was at the casing for the latter pump. Hydraulic mineral oils with ISO VG22, 32, 46 and 68 and the waterglycol type hydraulic fluid wi...

  1. Space geodetic constraints on plate rigidity and global plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Giovanni Federico

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has emerged over the last 10 years as the premier space geodetic technique for geologic observation with the benefits of both accuracy and economy. GPS data from more than 260 stations were processed utilizing GIPSY-OASIS software, and all available RINEX files for these stations beginning on January 1, 1993. The uniform processing strategy, combined with a rigorous independent error estimate of site velocities and the broad geographical distribution of these sites resulted in a global high-precision surface velocity data set. This data set has been used to: (1) compare the effects of different GPS antenna and monument types on data noise; (2) examine in detail the rigidity of the North America plate; (3) constrain the rate of deformation in the northern Gulf of Mexico; (4) define a model for Recent (Holocene) time global plate motions. The weighted root mean square scatter about the best fit line through the daily position estimates are used to assess the effects of different antenna and monument types on North America. The data set is sensitive to glacial isostatic adjustment as indicated by the decrease in chinu 2 from 1.3 to 1.0 by excluding those sites on rigid North America within a radius of 1,800 km of Hudson Bay. The resulting 64 site solution for the angular velocity of North America give a mean rate residual of 1 mm/yr. GULFNET, a regional GPS network created in 1997 in the northern Gulf Coast to measure strain across this active "passive margin" is described. Preliminary results suggest that deformation is occurring as predicted by the regional paradigm for deformation, i.e. Gulfward motion along normal faults. A new model for Recent global plate velocities (REVEL) describes the relative velocities of 14 plates. For several plate pairs, statistically significant differences are observed between the geodetically and geologically determined velocities reflecting changes in plate velocity through time. Some of the rate

  2. MACMA: a Virtual Lab for Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigne, C.; Combes, M.; Tisseau, C.

    2013-12-01

    MACMA (Multi-Agent Convective MAntle) is a tool developed to simulate evolutive plate tectonics and mantle convection in a 2-D cylindrical geometry (Combes et al., 2012). The model relies mainly on a force balance to compute the velocity of each plate, and on empirical rules to determine how plate boundaries move and evolve. It includes first-order features of plate tectonics: (a) all plates on Earth do not have the same size, (b) subduction zones are asymmetric, (c) plates driven by subducting slabs and upper plates do not exhibit the same velocities, and (d) plate boundaries are mobile, can collide, merge and disappear, and new plate boundaries can be created. The MACMA interface was designed to be user-friendly and a simple use of the simulator can be achieved without any prerequisite knowledge in fluid dynamics, mantle rheology, nor in numerical methods. As a preliminary study, the simulator was used by a few students from bachelor's degree to master's degree levels. An initial configuration for plate tectonics has to be created before starting a simulation: the number and types of plate boundaries (ridge, subduction, passive margins) has to be defined and seafloor ages must be given. A simple but interesting exercise consists in letting students build such an initial configuration: they must analyze a map of tectonic plates, choose a 2-D section and examine carefully a map of seafloor ages. Students mentioned that the exercise made them realize that the 3-D spherical structure of plate tectonics does not translate directly in a simple 2-D section, as opposed to what is usually shown in books. Physical parameters: e.g. mantle viscosity, number of layers to consider in the mantle (upper and lower mantle, possible asthenosphere), initial time and mantle temperature, have to be chosen, and students can use this virtual lab to see how different scenarios emerge when parameters are varied. Very importantly, the direct visualization of the mobility of plate

  3. An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; Mason, Ashley E; Kim, Sarah; Goldman, Veronica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Bayandorian, Hovig; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Hecht, Frederick M; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2017-02-13

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease for which diet is an integral aspect of treatment. In our previous trial, we found that recommendations to follow a very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and to change lifestyle factors (physical activity, sleep, positive affect, mindfulness) helped overweight people with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes improve glycemic control and lose weight. This was an in-person intervention, which could be a barrier for people without the time, flexibility, transportation, social support, and/or financial resources to attend. The aim was to determine whether an online intervention based on our previous recommendations (an ad libitum very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet with lifestyle factors; "intervention") or an online diet program based on the American Diabetes Associations' "Create Your Plate" diet ("control") would improve glycemic control and other health outcomes among overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this pilot feasibility study, we randomized overweight adults (body mass index ≥25) with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin [HbA 1c ] 6.5%-9.0%) to a 32-week online intervention based on our previous recommendations (n=12) or an online diet program based around a plate method diet (n=13) to assess the impact of each intervention on glycemic control and other health outcomes. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed by mixed-effects linear regression to compare outcomes by group. At 32 weeks, participants in the intervention group reduced their HbA 1c levels more (estimated marginal mean [EMM] -0.8%, 95% CI -1.1% to -0.6%) than participants in the control group (EMM -0.3%, 95% CI -0.6% to 0.0%; P=.002). More than half of the participants in the intervention group (6/11, 55%) lowered their HbA 1c to less than 6.5% versus 0% (0/8) in the control group (P=.02). Participants in the intervention group lost more weight (EMM -12.7 kg, 95% CI -16.1 to -9.2 kg) than participants in the control group (EMM -3.0 kg

  4. mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Maize was milled either 'wet' or ''dry'' using locally-manufactured milling plates. Samples of milled maize were taken and analyzed for elemental iron (Fe). Results show that iron particles from milling plates contaminates the milled maize and that the level of contamination increases with the quantity of milled ...

  5. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday ... Foods donate en -- Limited Time MATCH Offer - limited- ...

  6. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  7. Stiffness Analysis of Nail-Plate Joints Subjected to Short-Term Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    with beams connected in joints with glue or a mechanical fastener. The types of mechanical fasteners are: nails, staples, bolts, dowels, screws and nail-plates. Bolts and dowels are generally applied to joints in solid structures, and the other fasteners are used in all kinds of light structures. Especially...... nail-plates are designed for trusses. For many years, joints were made of boards with nails, but the increasing industrialism and the need for quick and usable assembly had the result that today nearly all trusses are pre-fabricated with nail-plates. The word "nail-plate" has been used for different...... types of plates. There are two main types of nail-plates: steel plates perforated with holes in which separate nails are used and steel plates perforated by a stamping machine, so the nails are made from the plate, see figur 1.2 on page 7. This type is sometimes called "punching metal plate...

  8. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  9. Plating in Top Agar

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    1. Warm plates to room temperature before use. Cold plates causes the top agar to solidify irregularly. DO not warm plates to 37° as the top agar will take forever to solidify. - Prepare top agar as the appropriate liquid medium with 0.7% agar. Keeping 100 mL bottles is convenient. For phages, use λ top agar, which is less rich and yields bigger plaques. - Melt top agar in the microwave completely. Allow the agar to boil after liquification; incompletely melted agar looks liquid, but is...

  10. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    elsewhere, such as S.J. Shand (1933), E.B. Bailey (1939), and Arthur Holmes (1944), presented continental drift as a working hypothesis that could elegantly solve important geological problems. Americans were preconditioned to dislike continental drift theory, ever since James Dwight Dana taught in his Manual of Geology (1863...1895) that North America was the type continent of the world, and that it had stood alone since earliest time. Such beliefs sometimes trump geologic evidence. As noted by Stephen Jay Gould (1999) Sigmund Freud had much insight into the psychology of scientific revolutions: they involve a scientific development that shows humans to have lesser status than previously perceived. In the Copernican revolution (geocentrism vs. heliocentrism) humans no longer inhabited the center of the universe. In the Darwinian revolution (creationism vs. evolutionism) humans were no longer uniquely created. In the Wegenerian revolution (fixism vs. mobilism) North America was no longer uniquely created; it was just other fragment from Pangaea. North American geologists were pleased when Press & Siever gave them their own lithospheric plate. Being a global-tectonic killjoy, I would like to take away that small consolation as well. Or at least pose the question: Is there really a North American Plate?

  11. Weldability with Process Parameters During Fiber Laser Welding of a Titanium Plate (I) - Effect of Type and Flow Rate of Shielding Gases on Weldability -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Do; Kim, Ji Sung [Korea Maritime and Ocean Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this study, welding of pure titanium was carried out by using a continuous wave fiber laser with a maximum output of 6.3 kW. Because brittle regions form easily in titanium as a result of oxidation or nitriding, the weld must be protected from the atmosphere by using an appropriate shielding gas. Experiments were performed by changing the type and the flow rate of shielding gases to obtain the optimal shielding condition, and the weldability was then evaluated. The degree of oxidation and nitriding was distinguished by observing the color of beads, and weld microstructure was observed by using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The mechanical properties of the weld were examined by measuring hardness. When the weld was oxidized or nitrified, the bead color was gray or yellow, and the oxygen or nitrogen content in the bead surface and overall weld tended to be high, as a result of which the hardness of the weld was thrice that of the base metal. A sound silvery white bead was obtained by using Ar as the shielding gas.

  12. Developments of Mindlin-Reissner Plate Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960s, how to develop high-performance plate bending finite elements based on different plate theories has attracted a great deal of attention from finite element researchers, and numerous models have been successfully constructed. Among these elements, the most popular models are usually formulated by two theoretical bases: the Kirchhoff plate theory and the Mindlin-Reissener plate theory. Due to the advantages that only C0 continuity is required and the effect of transverse shear strain can be included, the latter one seems more rational and has obtained more attention. Through abundant works, different types of Mindlin-Reissener plate models emerged in many literatures and have been applied to solve various engineering problems. However, it also brings FEM users a puzzle of how to choose a “right” one. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the development history of the Mindlin-Reissner plate elements, exhibiting the state-of-art in this research field. At the end of the paper, a promising method for developing “shape-free” plate elements is recommended.

  13. A randomised clinical study comparing palmar and dorsal fixed-angle plates for the internal fixation of AO C-type fractures of the distal radius in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubietz, R G; Gruenert, J G; Kloss, D F; Schindele, S; Jakubietz, M G

    2008-10-01

    Current surgical treatments for distal radial fractures include dorsal and palmar plate fixation. We report results of a randomised study comparing these methods for AO C1-3 fractures. The emphasis was placed on the early postoperative functional recovery within the first 6 months as this interval is of decisive importance for elderly patients. Thirty patients with unilateral AO C1-3 fractures were enroled, 15 were treated with a palmar plate and 15 received a dorsal Pi-plate. Results were assessed 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively focusing on functional recovery. The palmar plate group demonstrated significantly better results in range of motion, grip strength and pain.

  14. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  15. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths Common Terms Research Resources ... to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy- ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. Fill the ...

  19. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. Fill the largest ... home, the office, or somewhere in between, you have an easy portion control solution that works. Last ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  2. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion ... dairy or both as your meal plan allows. Choose healthy fats in small amounts. For cooking, use ...

  3. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  4. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best-selling, sectioned to-go plate with easy-sealing ... Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice Resources Ways ...

  5. An updated digital model of plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Peter

    2003-03-01

    A global set of present plate boundaries on the Earth is presented in digital form. Most come from sources in the literature. A few boundaries are newly interpreted from topography, volcanism, and/or seismicity, taking into account relative plate velocities from magnetic anomalies, moment tensor solutions, and/or geodesy. In addition to the 14 large plates whose motion was described by the NUVEL-1A poles (Africa, Antarctica, Arabia, Australia, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasia, India, Juan de Fuca, Nazca, North America, Pacific, Philippine Sea, South America), model PB2002 includes 38 small plates (Okhotsk, Amur, Yangtze, Okinawa, Sunda, Burma, Molucca Sea, Banda Sea, Timor, Birds Head, Maoke, Caroline, Mariana, North Bismarck, Manus, South Bismarck, Solomon Sea, Woodlark, New Hebrides, Conway Reef, Balmoral Reef, Futuna, Niuafo'ou, Tonga, Kermadec, Rivera, Galapagos, Easter, Juan Fernandez, Panama, North Andes, Altiplano, Shetland, Scotia, Sandwich, Aegean Sea, Anatolia, Somalia), for a total of 52 plates. No attempt is made to divide the Alps-Persia-Tibet mountain belt, the Philippine Islands, the Peruvian Andes, the Sierras Pampeanas, or the California-Nevada zone of dextral transtension into plates; instead, they are designated as "orogens" in which this plate model is not expected to be accurate. The cumulative-number/area distribution for this model follows a power law for plates with areas between 0.002 and 1 steradian. Departure from this scaling at the small-plate end suggests that future work is very likely to define more very small plates within the orogens. The model is presented in four digital files: a set of plate boundary segments; a set of plate outlines; a set of outlines of the orogens; and a table of characteristics of each digitization step along plate boundaries, including estimated relative velocity vector and classification into one of 7 types (continental convergence zone, continental transform fault, continental rift, oceanic spreading ridge

  6. Design of Corrugated Plates for Optimal Fundamental Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Alshabatat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates shifting the fundamental frequency of plate structures by corrugation. Creating corrugations significantly improves the flexural rigidities of plate and hence increases its natural frequencies. Two types of corrugations are investigated: sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugations. The finite element method (FEM is used to model the corrugated plates and extract the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The effects of corrugation geometrical parameters on simply supported plate fundamental frequency are studied. To reduce the computation time, the corrugated plates are modeled as orthotropic flat plates with equivalent rigidities. To demonstrate the validity of modeling the corrugated plates as orthotropic flat plates in studying the free vibration characteristics, a comparison between the results of finite element model and equivalent orthotropic models is made. A correspondence between the results of orthotropic models and the FE models is observed. The optimal designs of sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates are obtained based on a genetic algorithm. The optimization results show that plate corrugations can efficiently maximize plate fundamental frequency. It is found that the trapezoidal corrugation can more efficiently enhance the fundamental frequency of simply supported plate than the sinusoidal corrugation.

  7. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  8. Evaluation of Shear Strength of Concrete Flat Plates Reinforced with GFRP Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sook Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The shear performance of concrete flat plates with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP plate shear reinforcement was investigated through punching shear tests. Each GFRP plate was embedded in the concrete and included openings to permit the flow of concrete during fabrication. Punching shear tests were conducted on a total of 8 specimens, and the resulting crack and fracture formations, strains, and load-displacement curves were analyzed and compared. The experimental variables considered were the types of shear reinforcement, including steel stirrups or GFRP plates, and the shear reinforcement spacing. The experimental results show that the GFRP shear reinforcement effectively increased the shear strengths of flat plates. Furthermore, the applicability of two formulas was investigated: a modified version of a shear strength formula from ACI 318-14 and the ACI 318-14 fracture prediction formula.

  9. Vibration and Buckling of Web Plate of the Plate Girder

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 和雄; 呉, 明強; 中澤, 聡志; 筑紫, 宏之

    1998-01-01

    The vibration and buckling of the web of the plate girder are studied in this paper. The small deflection theory of the thin plate is used. The finite strip method is employed to solve vibration and buckling of the plate girder. Natural frequenies of buckling properties are shown for various plate girder bridges.

  10. Ultimate strength of stiffened plates with pitting corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting residual strength of corroded plates is of crucial importance for service life estimation of aged structures. A series of nonlinear finite element method is employed for ultimate strength analysis of stiffened plates with pitting corrosion. Influential parameters, including plate thickness, type and size of stiffeners, pit depth and degree of pitting are varied and more than 208 finite element models are analyzed. It is found that ultimate strength is reduced by increasing pit depth to thickness ratio. Thin and intermediate plates have minimum and maximum reduction of ultimate strength with stronger stiffeners, respectively. In weak stiffener, reduction of ultimate strength in thin and intermediate plates depends on DOP. Reduction of ultimate strength in thick plates depends on thickness ofplate and DOP. For intermediate plates, reduction for all stiffeners regardless of shape and size are the same.

  11. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  12. Percutaneous plating of distal tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Amal; Liebergall, Meir; London, Eli; Mosheiff, Rami

    2002-09-01

    This article presents our experience with 24 patients who had distal tibial fractures and were treated by percutaneous plate fixation. Distribution of the fractures according to the AO/OTA classification was as follows: five patients suffered from a 43 A type fracture, six from a 43 B type fracture, and 13 from a 43 C type fractures. Four of the fractures were open. Exclusion criteria included 43 C3 fractures and Gustilo III open fractures. All fractures showed radiographic signs of union enough to enable full weightbearing within an average time of 12.3 weeks. All patients showed a good range of motion (average dorsiflexion 12 degrees and average plantiflexion 18 degrees). Two fractures united with mal-union: one with an 8 degrees valgus deformity and another with a 7 degrees varus deformity. Both cases, which had a metaphyseal component, were treated by means of a "soft" (flexible and manually adjustable) AO 3.5 mm reconstruction plate. Except for one case of superficial infection, no infections were detected in any of the patients. The biological percutaneous plate fixation of distal tibial fractures with no extensive intra-articular involvement is a good soft tissue preserving technique. It provides a rigid and anatomical fixation in most cases. We conclude that type B fractures with one intact column can be fixed with either "soft" or "rigid" plates, and type A and C fractures with a metaphyseal component should be fixed with "rigid" plates (AO 4.5 mm Dynamic Compression Plate). In these fractures the reduction should be performed cautiously due to the tendency of sagittal plane mal-reduction.

  13. Comparison of intramedullary nailing and minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis in the treatment of simple intra-articular fractures of the distal tibia (AO-OTA type 43 C1-C2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beytemür, Ozan; Barış, Alican; Albay, Cem; Yüksel, Serdar; Çağlar, Sever; Alagöz, Ender

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare midterm functional and radiographic results of minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) with intramedullary nailing (IMN) of simple intra-articular distal tibial fractures (AO-OTA type 43 C1-C2). Seventy-three simple intra-articular distal tibial fracture patients were evaluated retrospectively. All were treated between 2009 and 2014. The average age of the patients was 40.3 years. Thirty-seven patients were treated with IMN and 36 patients were treated with MIPO. Fibular plate osteosynthesis was applied in 5 cases (13.5%) in the IMN group and in 23 patients (63.9%) in the MIPO group. Functional results and complications of IMN and MIPO methods were assessed in 73 patients. The average union time was 16.4 ± 2.7 weeks in the IMN group and 15.2 ± 1.8 weeks in the MIPO group (p = 0.079). The average Olerud-Molander Ankle Score was 87.8 ± 8.1 in the IMN group and 81.5 ± 11.8 in the MIPO group (p = 0.013). Four patients in the IMN group experienced valgus malunion, while it was not observed in any patients in the MIPO group (p = 0.042). Recurvatum malunion was detected in 10 patients in the MIPO group and not seen in the IMN group (p = 0.001). Ankle dorsiflexion angle was 25.8 ± 4.5° in the IMN group and 33.3 ± 8.9° in the MIPO group (p = 0.000). Simple intra-articular distal tibial fractures are successfully treated with IMN and MIPO. Prevalence of valgus malunion was higher in the IMN group and recurvatum was more prevalent in the MIPO group. MIPO is the first preference according to the literature; however, successful results have been obtained with IMN in this fracture pattern. Level III, Therapeutic Study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The sound transmission of finite ribbed plates using a variational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Many lightweight structures consist of plates being stiffened by ribs. The rib stiffeners can significantly change the vibration field and the radiation behavior of the structure. These type of structures has thus often been studied in the past. However, there is a lack of simplified expressions...... for the sound transmission of these structures. Therefore, simplified expressions for the sound transmission of finite single leaf ribbed plates are derived, using a variational technique based on integral equations of the fluid loaded plate....

  15. Create Your Plate

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  16. The Plate Tectonics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  17. Create Your Plate

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  18. Create Your Plate

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  1. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food ...

  2. Create Your Plate

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  3. Thermoelastic waves without energy dissipation in an elastic plate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The linear theory of thermoelasticity without energy dissipation for isotropic and homogeneous materials is employed to study waves in an elastic plate. The waves are assumed to arise out of a ramp-type stress on the plate's boundary which is maintained at constant temperature. Laplace transforms are used to solve the ...

  4. Regular and Chaotic Dynamics of Flexible Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awrejcewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of flexible rectangular plates subjected to the action of longitudinal and time periodic load distributed on the plate perimeter is investigated. Applying both the classical Fourier and wavelet analysis we illustrate three different Feigenbaum type scenarios of transition from a regular to chaotic dynamics. We show that the system vibrations change with respect not only to the change of control parameters, but also to all fixed parameters (system dynamics changes when the independent variable, time, increases. In addition, we show that chaotic dynamics may appear also after the second Hopf bifurcation. Curves of equal deflections (isoclines lose their previous symmetry while transiting into chaotic vibrations.

  5. Ir-192 Plesiocurietherapy using silicone elastomer plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel-Langlet, P.; Housset, M.; Alapetite, C.; Boisserie, G.; Dessard-Diana, B.; Baillet, F.

    1989-01-01

    Corrective treatment of certain superficial lesions (permeation nodules, budding or ulcerated tumor recurrences, etc.) is sometimes difficult and may, in certain cases, benefit from plesiocurietherapy. A device intended for this purpose which is easy to handle, easy to use and inexpensive is presented: it consists of silicone elastomer plates in which are inserted vector plastic tubes which, like any type of curietherapy, can be used with estimated dosimetry and delayed loading (Ir 192). These flexible plates can be adapted to all anatomical variations and very accurately inserted.

  6. Petrologic implications of plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, H S

    1971-07-30

    Petrologists can make significant contributions to the plate tectonic concept. Fixing the stability fields of the principal rock types involved will provide the limits of pressure and temperature of the various environments. Experimental determination of the partition coefficients of the trace elements will be helpful. Studies of the partial melting behavior of possible parental materials in the absence and presence of water, especially the undersaturated region, will contribute to the understanding of magma production. Experimental observations on the rheological properties of the peridotites below and just above the solidus will lead to a better evaluation of the convective mechanism. Measurement of the fundamental properties of rocks, such as the density of solids and liquids at high pressures and temperatures, would contribute to understanding the concepts of diapiric rise, magma segregation, and the low-velocity zone. Broader rock sampling of the oceanic areas of all environments will do much to define the petrologic provinces. The field petrologist specializing in the Paleozoic regions and Precambrian shields can contribute by examining those regions for old plate boundaries and devising new criteria for their recognition.

  7. Wide-Field Plate Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, M. K.; Stavrev, K. Y.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Semkov, E. H.; Mutatov, A. S.

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) and the possibilities for its application as a research tool in observational astronomy are presented. Currently the WFPDB comprises the descriptive data for 400 000 archival wide field photographic plates obtained with 77 instruments, from a total of 1 850 000 photographs stored in 269 astronomical archives all over the world since the end of last century. The WFPDB is already accessible for the astronomical community, now only in batch mode through user requests sent by e-mail. We are working on on-line interactive access to the data via INTERNET from Sofia and parallel from the Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg. (Initial information can be found on World Wide Web homepage URL http://www.wfpa.acad.bg.) The WFPDB may be useful in studies of a variety of astronomical objects and phenomena, andespecially for long-term investigations of variable objects and for multi-wavelength research. We have analysed the data in the WFPDB in order to derive the overall characteristics of the totality of wide-field observations, such as the sky coverage, the distributions by observation time and date, by spectral band, and by object type. We have also examined the totality of wide-field observations from point of view of their quality, availability and digitisation. The usefulness of the WFPDB is demonstrated by the results of identification and investigation of the photometrical behaviour of optical analogues of gamma-ray bursts.

  8. Material properties of and tissue reaction to the Slocum TPLO plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrieau, Randy J; McCarthy, Robert J; Sprecher, Christoph M; Künzler, Tobias P; Keating, John H; Milz, Stefan

    2006-07-01

    To determine the material properties of Slocum TPLO plates and assess the soft tissue reaction adjacent to these plates in dogs that had undergone tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). 3 new TPLO plates, 8 retrieved TPLO plates, and 1 new Synthes dynamic compression plate. Metallurgic analyses were performed. Tissue samples were obtained from areas adjacent to retrieved plates and submitted for histologic examination. All of the TPLO plates had a 2-phase microstructure consisting of austenite and ferrite in various amounts. Residua, inclusions, and cavities were seen during microscopic examination of the plate surface. The major differences between new and retrieved TPLO plates were the presence of small gaps separating many inclusions from the surrounding matrix and the presence of various-sized pits on the surface of the retrieved plates. The dynamic compression plate had a nearly pure austenitic structure and was largely free from residua, inclusions, and cavities. Histologic examination of tissue samples obtained from areas adjacent to retrieved TPLO plates revealed intra- and extracellular particulate debris. Two types of particles (one consisting of chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and iron and the other consisting of aluminum and silicon) were seen. Results determined that new and retrieved TPLO plates were manufactured from 316L stainless steel and produced by a casting process, but not all plates met specifications for chemical composition of cast surgical implants (American Society for Testing Materials standard F745); tissues surrounding retrieved plates had evidence of adverse reactions, probably as a result of plate corrosion.

  9. Free vibrations of laminated composite elliptic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C. M.; Noor, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    The free vibrations are studied of laminated anisotropic elliptic plates with clamped edges. The analytical formulation is based on a Mindlin-Reissner type plate theory with the effects of transverse shear deformation, rotary inertia, and bending-extensional coupling included. The frequencies and mode shapes are obtained by using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique in conjunction with Hamilton's principle. A computerized symbolic integration approach is used to develop analytic expressions for the stiffness and mass coefficients and is shown to be particularly useful in evaluating the derivatives of the eigenvalues with respect to certain geometric and material parameters. Numerical results are presented for the case of angle-ply composite plates with skew-symmetric lamination.

  10. Combination cellulose plate (non-agar solid support) and agar plate method improves isolation of fungi from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kenichi; Todaka, Nemuri; Ōmura, Satoshi; Masuma, Rokuro

    2014-11-01

    This is the first report describing the improved isolation of common filamentous fungi via a method combining cellulose plate and agar plate system. A cellulose plate is a porous plate made of nanofibrous crystaline cellulose. Isolating fungi from soils using these types of media separately resulted in the number of fungal colonies appearing on cellulose plates being lower than that on agar plates. However, the number of actual fungal species isolated using cellulose plates alone was more or less the same as that found using agar plates. Significantly, the diversity of isolates using a combination of the two media was greater than using each media individually. As a result, numerous new or rare fungal species with potential, including previously proposed new species, were isolated successfully in this way. All fungal colonies, including the Penicillium species, that appeared on the cellulose plate penetrated in potato dextrose were either white or yellow. Cultivation on cellulose plates with added copper ion overcomes the change in coloration, the colonies appearing as they do following cultivation on potato dextrose agar.

  11. Inelastic buckling of plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, G.

    This paper concerns the inelastic stability of a thin plate under in-plane loading. In Love-Kirchhoffs approximation, using Hencky's relations and the Von Mises criterion, yield the particular stress distribution across the plate thickness for elastic and elastic-plastic prestress fields. The principle of virtual work is used to study the equilibrium of the bifurcated solution. This leads to the energy relations where explicit dependence between the stability equation coefficients and the solution is carried out. In the equilibrium equation, two nonquadratic additional terms are obtained which are neglected in the classical equation. Some applications are made using Ramberg-Osgood's formula to show the importance of the additional terms.

  12. Create Your Plate

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  13. Etude des hauts et bas topographiques dans les marges profondes de type « upper plate » :Exemple des unités du Briançonnais et du Prépiémontais dans les Alpes et comparaison avec des analogues modernes

    OpenAIRE

    Haupert, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The new data (geophysics and modelling) on rifted margins show evidence for poly-phase rifting, resulting in complex rift architectures with variable amount of magmatic additions that cannot be predicted by classical rift models. This study focused on magma-poor rifted margins, and more precisely on the formation, the characterization and delamination of so called “H-blocks” recorded in upper plate, magma-poor asymmetric conjugate margins. Understanding this type of structure and define its e...

  14. Create Your Plate

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  15. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  16. Noncontact plating technique in an open fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhanioğlu, Ümit; Oğur, Hasan Ulaş; Çiçek, Hakan; Seyfettinoğlu, Fırat; Çiloğlu, Osman; Kapukaya, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Aim In comparison with closed fractures, open fractures have an increased risk of infection, there are soft tissue-related problems, and difficulties are experienced in union. The aim of this study was to evaluate and discuss the results of osteosynthesis applied with a noncontact plate in Gustilo–Anderson Type 2, 3a, and 3b fractures. Method The study included 23 patients applied with debridement + noncontact plate osteosynthesis + soft tissue procedures in a single session for the treatment of an open fracture. A follow-up card was created to evaluate the patients in respect of age, gender, fracture level, fracture etiology, open fracture type, preoperative and postoperative sedimentation and C-reactive protein values, antibiotics used and duration of use, time to union, and complications. Results In all 23 patients, full bone union was obtained at mean 22.5 weeks (range: 16–36 weeks). Complications developed in 9 patients. Implant failure occurred in 3 patients. In 5 patients, infection developed which required repeated debridements. Conclusion In open fractures, noncontact plating following debridement seems to be a good alternative treatment method to intramedullar nailing, especially in metaphyseal and metaphyseo-diaphyseal fractures and in spiral oblique diafiz fractures. Noncontact plating may also be a good alternative to intramedullar nailing for open fracture treatment if the patients have additional pathologies such as contusion and thoracic injury. PMID:28652756

  17. Create Your Plate

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  1. Create Your Plate

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  2. Create Your Plate

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  3. Create Your Plate

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  4. Create Your Plate

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  5. Wave propagation in and sound transmission through sandwich plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A. C.

    1990-04-01

    Some dynamical and acoustical properties of sandwich plates are investigated. The types of sandwich elements discussed are three-layered plates with a thick lightweight core, with thin and comparatively stiff laminates bonded to each side of the core. In the model derived it is assumed that the laminates and core are isotropic. The laminates are treated as thin plates, whereas the deflection in the core is described by means of the general field equations. This means that bending shear and rotation, as well as longitudinal deflection, are considered in the core. Wavenumbers, loss factors and apparent bending stiffness for symmetric and asymmetric plates are derived. In addition, the sound transmission loss for sandwich plates is discussed. Measured and predicted results are compared. It is found that bending stiffness and loss factor not only depend on material parameters and plate geometries but also on frequency. The core thickness is very critical for the sound transmission loss of a sandwich plate. Sandwich plates are frequently used in the shipbuilding industry for light and fast passenger vessels. The effects of a fluid load on a sandwich plate is therefore also included.

  6. Fuel Cell Thermal Management Through Conductive Cooling Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Burke, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis was performed to evaluate the concept of utilizing conductive cooling plates to remove heat from a fuel cell stack, as opposed to a conventional internal cooling loop. The potential advantages of this type of cooling system are reduced stack complexity and weight and increased reliability through the reduction of the number of internal fluid seals. The conductive cooling plates would extract heat from the stack transferring it to an external coolant loop. The analysis was performed to determine the required thickness of these plates. The analysis was based on an energy balance between the thermal energy produced within the stack and the heat removal from the cooling plates. To accomplish the energy balance, the heat flow into and along the plates to the cooling fluid was modeled. Results were generated for various numbers of cells being cooled by a single cooling plate. The results provided cooling plate thickness, mass, and operating temperature of the plates. It was determined that utilizing high-conductivity pyrolitic graphite cooling plates can provide a specific cooling capacity (W/kg) equivalent to or potentially greater than a conventional internal cooling loop system.

  7. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  8. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...... additive. This method makes it possible to deposit nickel, cobalt, nickel or cobalt platings without internal stresses....

  9. Plate tectonics and sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yasuji

    1988-05-20

    The theory of continental drift which German meteorologist, Wegener had proposed was denied by the experts at that time and disappeared from the academy. However, scholars of UK measured palaeomagnetism at several parts of the world in 1950's and from this standpoint, the continental drift theory revived. Furthermore, the conditions of the ocean beds started to be discovered due to the development of oceanographic observations in 1950's and in the end of 1960's, the principle of plate tectonics was firmly established changing totally and dramatically then conventional solid earth science based upon the substantially immovable continents and ocean floors. Consequently, the geology up to that time was obliged to be reexamined in its entire fields. This article provides the general information on the above history up to the present time, states about where the sedimentary basins which formed strata do occupy its positions on the earth, and explains the concrete relationship between the geological facts which have been revealed and plate tectonics. (16 figs, 49 refs)

  10. Comparative study of locking plates in mandibular reconstruction after ablative tumor surgery: THORP versus UniLOCK system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Suarez-Cunqueiro, Maria Mercedes; Otero-Cepeda, Xose Luis; Schön, Ralf; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Gutwald, Ralf

    2004-02-01

    This retrospective study compared 2 types of rigid locking plates (THORP and UniLOCK; Stratec Medical, Oberdorf, Switzerland) in 107 patients undergoing reconstruction for bridging mandibular defects following ablative tumor surgery. From January 1993 to December 2000, 107 patients were reconstructed following ablative tumor surgery with 57 THORP plates and 50 UniLOCK plates. Study follow-up ranged from 18 to 87 months (average, 32 months). Complications were categorized into delayed wound healing, infection, plate exposure, and plate fracture, taking into account the type and timing of reconstruction. Overall type and number of complications show no statistically significant differences between THORP and UniLOCK groups. Infection was the most frequent type of complication (THORP, 30; UniLOCK, 32). Others included delayed wound healing (THORP, 13; UniLOCK, 12), plate exposure (THORP, 8; UniLOCK, 7), and plate fracture (THORP, 5; UniLOCK, 1). Plates were removed in 22 THORP and 11 UniLOCK plates. The most frequent reason for plate removal in both groups was infection. Other reasons for plate removal include tumor recurrence, plate fracture, plate exposure, or a combination of reasons. THORP and UniLOCK plates do not present statistically significant differences in the parameters studied. Nevertheless, the UniLOCK group had slightly better results. Considering that the THORP system is much bulkier and its screws bigger, our results lead to the conclusion that bridging osteosynthesis with a 2.4 UniLOCK system is adequate for plate reconstruction of mandibular defects.

  11. TEXTILE IMPACT PLATES FOR NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISILEANU Emilia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents textile materials with destination impact plates, having different surface architectures and active treatments for functionalization, with influence upon the aging process of nano-Ag and nano-CeO2. The woven and knitted samples from 100% cotton, cotton/PES blend and 100% PES were treated by impregnation on the laboratory padding machine, drying and condensing on the machine for drying-condensing-heat setting, with the following recipes: 50g/l RUCOSTAR EEE6+20 ml 5% nano-Ag dispersion, or 10% nano-CeO2 in ethylene glycol, respectively water and 0,5ml acetic acid 60% for products from 100% cotton and PES/cotton and 50g/l NUVA N 2114 liquid with the same percent of nanoparticles but with 1 ml/l acetic acid 60%, in case of 100% PES samples. The samples were treated in 2 steps – hydrophobic/ oleo phobic in the first stage and hydrophobic/ oleo phobic/ functionalization with nano-Ag and nano-CeO2 in the second stage. The complex characterization of both type of materials : hydrophobic and oleo phobic properties, color change, whitening degree, DCS, FT-IR, SEM and microbiology, evidenced through the obtained results the justness of the selection for: the raw materials (100% cotton, cotton/PES, 100% PES, the weave (plain, twill, rib, pique, the fabric tightness and fabric cover etc. These data allowed the elaboration of textile material’s specifications for impact plates.

  12. Noncontact plating technique in an open fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhanioğlu Ü

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ümit Tuhanioğlu, Hasan Ulaş Oğur, Hakan Çiçek, Fırat Seyfettinoğlu, Osman Çiloğlu, Ahmet Kapukaya Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Adana Numune Training and Research Hospital, Adana, Turkey Aim: In comparison with closed fractures, open fractures have an increased risk of infection, there are soft tissue-related problems, and difficulties are experienced in union. The aim of this study was to evaluate and discuss the results of osteosynthesis applied with a noncontact plate in Gustilo–Anderson Type 2, 3a, and 3b fractures.Method: The study included 23 patients applied with debridement + noncontact plate osteosynthesis + soft tissue procedures in a single session for the treatment of an open fracture. A follow-up card was created to evaluate the patients in respect of age, gender, fracture level, fracture etiology, open fracture type, preoperative and postoperative sedimentation and C-reactive protein values, antibiotics used and duration of use, time to union, and complications.Results: In all 23 patients, full bone union was obtained at mean 22.5 weeks (range: 16–36 weeks. Complications developed in 9 patients. Implant failure occurred in 3 patients. In 5 patients, infection developed which required repeated debridements.Conclusion: In open fractures, noncontact plating following debridement seems to be a good alternative treatment method to intramedullar nailing, especially in metaphyseal and metaphyseo-diaphyseal fractures and in spiral oblique diafiz fractures. Noncontact plating may also be a good alternative to intramedullar nailing for open fracture treatment if the patients have additional pathologies such as contusion and thoracic injury. Keywords: plating, open fracture, infection

  13. The impact of the orifice plate deformation on the differential pressure value

    OpenAIRE

    Jandačka J.; Malcho M.; Janovcová M.; Kiš R.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to determine the impact of orifice plate deformation on the differential pressure at the high-pressure natural gas pipelines. The article focuses on the differences of the pressure values, velocity values and flow directions between deformed and undeformed orifice plate. The article contains deformation analysis of the orifice plate and CFD simulations of flowing natural gas through the orifice plates. CFD simulations contain basic models of the turbulence for both types of ori...

  14. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  15. A refined nonlinear theory of plates with transverse shear deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    A higher-order shear deformation theory of plates accounting for the von Karman strains is presented. The theory contains the same dependent unknowns as in the Hencky-Mindlin type first-order shear deformation theory and accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains through the thickness of the plate. Exact solutions of simply supported plates are obtained using the linear theory and the results are compared with the exact solutions of three-dimensional elasticity theory, the first order shear deformation theory, and the classical plate theory. The present theory predicts the deflections, stresses, and frequencies more accurately when compared to the first-order theory and the classical plate theory.

  16. Aluminum Manganese Molten Salt Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    cyanide waste products are generated during all stages of the cadmium plating lifecycle . The cadmium plating process generates spent plating bath and...X Check caustic line and PVC circulation piping for leaks X Verify pH at laboratory X Measure conductivity X Replace rinse...tank, which is then routed to the rinse tank. At the rinse tank, the chemical will be injected via appropriate fittings into to a PVC pipe loop which

  17. Flexible plate and foundation modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the most common mathematical model for a moving load on a continuously- supported flexible plate, the plate is assumed thin and elastic. An exception is the inclusion of viscoelasticity in the theory for the response of a floating ice plate, where the deflexion at the critical load speed corresponding to the minimum phase speed of hybrid flexural-gravity waves consequently approaches a steady state. This is in contrast to the elastic theory, where the response is predi...

  18. Create Your Plate

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  12. Development of microtitre plates for electrokinetic assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, J. P. H.; Goater, A. D.; Menachery, A.; Pethig, R.; Rizvi, N. H.

    2007-02-01

    Electrokinetic processes have wide ranging applications in microsystems technology. Their optimum performance at micro and nano dimensions allows their use both as characterization and diagnostic tools and as a means of general particle manipulation. Within analytical studies, measurement of the electrokinesis of biological cells has the sensitivity and selectivity to distinguish subtle differences between cell types and cells undergoing changes and is gaining acceptance as a diagnostic tool in high throughput screening for drug discovery applications. In this work the development and manufacture of an electrokinetic-based microtitre plate is described. The plate is intended to be compatible with automated sample loading and handling systems. Manufacturing of the microtitre plate, which employs indium tin oxide microelectrodes, has been entirely undertaken using excimer and ultra-fast pulsed laser micromachining due to its flexibility in materials processing and accuracy in microstructuring. Laser micromachining has the ability to rapidly realize iterations in device prototype design while also having the capability to be scaled up for large scale manufacture. Device verification is achieved by the measurement of the electrorotation and dielectrophoretic properties of yeast cells while the flexibility of the developed microtitre plate is demonstrated by the selective separation of live yeast from polystyrene microbeads.

  13. VISAS AND GREEN PLATES

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    From 3 April 2000, all questions relating to visa requests for Switzerland, France, or Russia for a member of the personnel must be addressed to Ms. Agnita Querrou (telephone 72838, office 5-2-019, e-mail Agnita.Querrou@cern.ch).The Users' Office continues to deal with requests for letters of invitation and questions concerning visas for users in EP Division.Questions relating to removals, requests for green plates, to privileges of members of the personnel and to the importation of vehicles are still dealt with by Ms Zuzana Miller (telephone 79257, office 33-1-017, e-mail Zuzana.Muller@cern.ch) and Ms Joëlle Belleman (telephone 73962, office 33-1-019, e-mail Joelle.Belleman@cern.ch).

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  18. Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria oocytes' contact plate structure and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid S Adonin

    Full Text Available One of the A. aurita medusa main mesoglea polypeptides, mesoglein, has been described previously. Mesoglein belongs to ZP-domain protein family and therefore we focused on A.aurita oogenesis. Antibodies against mesoglein (AB RA47 stain the plate in the place where germinal epithelium contacts oocyte on the paraffin sections. According to its position, we named the structure found the "contact plate". Our main instrument was AB against mesoglein. ZP-domain occupies about half of the whole amino acid sequence of the mesoglein. Immunoblot after SDS-PAGE and AU-PAGE reveals two charged and high M(r bands among the female gonad germinal epithelium polypeptides. One of the gonads' polypeptides M(r corresponds to that of mesogleal cells, the other ones' M(r is higher. The morphological description of contact plate formation is the subject of the current work. Two types of AB RA47 positive granules were observed during progressive oogenesis stages. Granules form the contact plate in mature oocyte. Contact plate of A.aurita oocyte marks its animal pole and resembles Zona Pellucida by the following features: (1 it attracts spermatozoids; (2 the material of the contact plate is synthesized by oocyte and stored in granules; (3 these granules and the contact plate itself contain ZP domain protein(s; (4 contact plate is an extracellular structure made up of fiber bundles similar to those of conventional Zona Pellucida.

  19. Vehicle Plate Detection in Car Black Box Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjin Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet services that share vehicle black box videos need a way to obfuscate license plates in uploaded videos because of privacy issues. Thus, plate detection is one of the critical functions that such services rely on. Even though various types of detection methods are available, they are not suitable for black box videos because no assumption about size, number of plates, and lighting conditions can be made. We propose a method to detect Korean vehicle plates from black box videos. It works in two stages: the first stage aims to locate a set of candidate plate regions and the second stage identifies only actual plates from candidates by using a support vector machine classifier. The first stage consists of five sequential substeps. At first, it produces candidate regions by combining single character areas and then eliminates candidate regions that fail to meet plate conditions through the remaining substeps. For the second stage, we propose a feature vector that captures the characteristics of plates in texture and color. For performance evaluation, we compiled our dataset which contains 2,627 positive and negative images. The evaluation results show that the proposed method improves accuracy and sensitivity by at least 5% and is 30 times faster compared with an existing method.

  20. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  1. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.

  2. Flexural waves on narrow plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Andrew N

    2003-05-01

    Flexural wave speeds on beams or plates depend upon the bending stiffnesses which differ by the well-known factor (1 - nu2). A quantitative analysis of a plate of finite lateral width displays the plate-to-beam transition, and permits asymptotic analysis that shows the leading order dependence on the width. Orthotropic plates are analyzed using both the Kirchhoff and Kirchhoff-Rayleigh theories, and isotropic plates are considered for Mindlin's theory with and without rotational inertia. A frequency-dependent Young's modulus for beams or strips of finite width is suggested, although the form of the correction to the modulus is not unique and depends on the theory used. The sign of the correction for the Kirchhoff theory is opposite to that for the Mindlin theory. These results indicate that the different plate and beam theories can produce quite distinct behavior. This divergence in predictions is further illustrated by comparison of the speeds for antisymmetric flexural, or torsional, modes on narrow plates. The four classical theories predict limiting wave speeds as the plate width vanishes, but the values are different in each case. The deviations can be understood in terms of torsional waves and how each theory succeeds, or fails, in approximating the effect of torsion. Dispersion equations are also derived, some for the first time, for the flexural edge wave in each of the four "engineering" theories.

  3. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  4. Micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  5. Experimental Method for Determining Forces at Bending of Perforated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Adrian; Oleksik, Mihaela; Avrigean, Eugen

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the method of calculating the forces which appear at the bending of perforated plates with holes of different shapes and placed in different patterns, by means of a dynamometric table which uses resistive tensometric transducers (strain gauges). It also describes an instrument for the recording of data from the dynamometric table, a tool created with the aid of the "TestPoint" software which, beneath the data recording, ensures the filtering and statistic processing of data. The obtained results are displayed in comparative graphs for six types of perforated plates, as well as for an unperforated plate.

  6. Create Your Plate

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  7. Use of a locking plate “notched head T-plate®” for the fixation of an ilial body fracture in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Cassio Ricardo Auada Ferrigno; Paulo Vinícius Tertuliano Marinho; Márcio Poletto Ferreira; Jaqueline França dos Santos; Ísis dos Santos Dal-Bó; Fernanda Paes; Viviane Sanchez Galeazzi

    2016-01-01

    Several types of implants may be used to treat iliac fractures in dogs, of which osteosynthesis with plate is the most described and recommended in the literature. The type of plate and screw are major factors in osteosynthesis success. The use of locking plates has been advocated for this purpose, as they do not allow the plate-bone-screw unit to shift, providing angular stability and rigidity to the system. The present study aimed to describe the unprecedented use of a locking notched head ...

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  15. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

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  14. Enumeration of heterotrophs, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in water: comparison of 3M Petrifilm plates with standard plating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraft, H; Watterworth, L A

    2005-03-01

    A total of 177 naturally contaminated water samples were analyzed by membrane filtration according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater published by the American Public Health Association. Filters were incubated in parallel on mHPC-agar and 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plates (Petrifilm AC plates) for heterotrophic counts. Fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were enumerated on mFC-agar and 3M Petrifilm E. coli/Coliform Count Plates (Petrifilm EC plates). Typical colonies on each media type were confirmed following standard procedures. Heterotrophic counts were between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/mL and the average log10 counts obtained on Petrifilm AC plates were about two-fold lower than on mHPC-agar. Counts for fecal coliforms and E. coli were between 10(2) and 10(3) CFU/mL. Average log10 counts for confirmed fecal coliforms obtained on Petrifilm EC plates were slightly lower than on mFC agar with a correlation coefficient of 0.949. The average log10 counts for confirmed E. coli on Petrifilm EC plates and on mFC agar were statistically not different (P=0.126) with a correlation coefficient of 0.879. Specificity of Petrifilm EC plates and mFC agar was evaluated by comparing typical colony counts with confirmed counts. On mFC agar, counts for typical colonies were by 2 log10 CFU higher than the actual confirmed counts. In contrast, on Petrifilm EC plates typical colony counts were almost identical to confirmed colony counts for both fecal coliforms and E. coli. This comparison illustrates the high specificity of Petrifilm EC plates for enumeration of both fecal coliforms and E. coli in water.

  15. Elastic stability of superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded orthogonally corrugated core sandwich plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper concerns the elastic buckling behavior of a newly developed superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded (SPF/DB) orthogonally corrugated core sandwich plate. Uniaxial buckling loads were calculated for this type of sandwich plate with simply supported edges by using orthotropic sandwich plate theory. The buckling behavior of this sandwich plate was then compared with that of an SPF/DB unidirectionally corrugated core sandwich plate under conditions of equal structural density. It was found that the buckling load for the former was considerably higher than that of the latter.

  16. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  17. Imaging of growth plate injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanaguizawa, Matiko; Taberner, Gustavo Sobreira; Aihara, Andre Yui; Yamaguchi, Cleudia Kazue; Guimaraes, Maria Carolina; Rosenfeld, Andre [Diagnosticos da America, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: matikoyan@uol.com.br; Fernandes, Joao Luiz [Image Memorial, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa [ Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Imaging Diagnosis

    2008-05-15

    The structures responsible for the growth of bones include the physis (also called growth plate) and the epiphysis. Affections involving patients with immature skeletons, i.e., with a still open growth plate, may affect the bone growth, resulting in complications such as growth arrest, limb shortening and angular deformities. Traumatic conditions, many times resulting in epiphyseal fractures, are the most frequent cause of growth plate injuries. A careful evaluation of these patients by means of currently available imaging methods, especially radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, allows an early diagnosis of the involvement of structures related to the bone growth, besides an appropriate management, reducing the probability of secondary complications. (author)

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF DESIGN PARAMETERS IN DESIGN EXTRAMEDULLARY PLATE AND LOCKING MEMBER OSTEOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesuk I.S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most widespread, fairly cheap and relatively simple types is osteosynthesis. Depending on the size of the damaged bone, the type of fracture and the type of plates may be monoplanar, malokontaktnymi in derotation stability and yaw. The dimensions of housings plates, the number of holes for fixing and locking screws, their location and configuration depends on the type and the type of damage to the nascent bone, its anatomical location.

  19. Synthesis of Submicron Hexagonal Plate-Type SnS2 and Band Gap-Tuned Sn1−xTixS2 Materials and Their Hydrogen Production Abilities on Methanol/Water Photosplitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Min Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SnS2 and Sn1−xTixS2 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mol materials were designed using solvothermal method with the aim to enhance hydrogen production from water/methanol water photosplitting. Scanning electron microscopy revealed hexagonal plates with one side, 3.0 μm in length, in the SnS2 materials. Pure SnS2 showed absorption band edges of above 660 nm, and the absorption was shifted to low wavelengths with the insertion of Ti ions. The evolution of H2 from MeOH/H2O (1 : 1 photosplitting over SnS2 hexagonal plates in the photocatalytic liquid system was 0.016 mL h−1 g−1, and the evolutions were enhanced in Sn1−xTixS2. In particular, 0.049 mL h−1 g−1 of H2 gas was produced in Sn0.7Ti0.3S2 without electrolytes and it increased significantly to more than 90.6% (0.47 mL h−1 g−1 evolutions at higher pH using 0.1 M of KOH. Based on the UV-visible absorption spectra, the high photocatalytic activity of Sn1−xTixS2 was attributed to the existence of an appropriate band-gap state that retarded recombination between the electrons and holes.

  20. TEXTILE IMPACT PLATES FOR NANOPARTICLES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VISILEANU Emilia; DUMITRESCU Iuliana; VARZARU Elena; MITRAN Cornelia; CHIRIAC Laura

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents textile materials with destination impact plates, having different surface architectures and active treatments for functionalization, with influence upon the aging process of nano-Ag and nano-CeO2...

  1. corn-mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manufactured corn-mill grinding plates to investigate the possible causes of their early wear and failure. Three different samples selected from the same local manufacturer were tested for chemical composition and micro- structural, as well as wear ...

  2. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Crotty, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hatzifotiadou, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Valverde, J. Lamas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Neupane, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland); Williams, M. C. S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Zichichi, A. [Univ. of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  3. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  4. Locking compression plate with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in diaphyseal and distal tibial fracture: a retrospective study of 32 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenboehler, E; Rikli, D; Babst, R

    2007-03-01

    With the introduction of Locking Compression Plates (LCP), Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis (MIPO) has become widely used. The plates act as internal fixators in a bridging manner, thus resulting in secondary bone healing. We retrospectively evaluated the healing pattern and the clinical evolution of diaphyseal and distal tibial shaft fractures over two and a half years in 32 patients (6 females, 26 males). Fractures were classified according to AO classification and included all 42A-C, 43A-B and 43C1-2 types. For open fractures, Gustillo Anderson classification was used. Plates consisted of the 4.5mm LCP and 3.5mm LCP-Pilon form plate. Clinical and radiological assessment was performed at 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Fracture healing was defined as callus bridging of one cortex, seen on both lateral and posterior-anterior X-ray, and full, painless weight bearing. Ten patients at 3 months, 23 at 6 months, and 27 at 9 months met the criteria for a healed fracture. Plate bending was observed in one patient and called for re-operation at 5 months. Two patients required re-operation at 13 months secondary to pseudoarthrosis. Though MIPO seems more advantageous for soft tissue and bone biology, prolonged healing was observed in simple fracture patterns when a bridging plate technique was used.

  5. Micropatterning of a Bipolar Plate Using Direct Laser Melting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jeong-hwan; Joo, Byeong-don; Mun, Sung-min; Moona, Young-hoon

    2010-06-01

    Direct laser melting (DLM) technology has been used to fabricate the micro-pattern of the bipolar plate in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). A suitable approach to enhance the performance of the bipolar plate has been performed to optimize the DLM process. To fabricate the micro pattern, a DLM process with 316L stainless steel powder has been used. For the melted height of 1 mm, the DLM process conditions were optimized such as; laser power of 200 W, scan rate of 36.62 mm/s and the 8-layer structures. To characterize the effect of material type, the bipolar plates of various types were analyzed. In case of the 316L stainless steel DLM patterning, a current density of 297 mA/cm2 was achieved but the case of the 316L stainless steel plate, 248 mA/cm2 current density that is lower than that of other materials was achieved. The overall cell performance of 316L stainless steel DLM patterning bipolar plate was better than that of the 316L stainless steel plate. This has significant advantages for the micropatterning using DLM process. The use of 316L stainless steel powder material as micro pattern material will reduce the machining cost as well as volume of the fuel cell stack.

  6. [Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using a humeral locking plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Méndez, M P; Gamba, C; Hernández, E; Molano, J; Andrade, J C

    2016-01-01

    To describe the results of tibiotalocalcáneal arthrodesis (TTC) using a humeral locking plate. A retrospective, observational study was conducted between January 2007 and December 2013 in the Hospital Militar Central de Bogotá. The study included patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis diagnosed clinically and radiologically, and who underwent TTC arthrodesis using a humeral locking plate with a minimum follow up of 6 months. The total number patients was 35, of whom 7 (20%) were women and 28 (80%) men, with a mean age 36.3 years (19.77). 74% with post-traumatic arthritis, most of them secondary to gunshot wounds and fragmentation weapons, and neuropathic in 20%. An autogenous graft was used in 13 cases, and 14 cases using both, with a mean consolidation time of 4.37 months. Complications include, delayed union in 3 cases, and surgical site infection in 4. The postoperative functionality (AOFAS) mean was 66.7/100 points, with a score of 2.35 on a visual analogue pain scale. TTC arthrodesis using a humeral locking plate is a suitable option for fixing this type of arthrodesis, with a low rate of complications, and postoperative results that revealed satisfactory improvement in pain and consolidation. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Create Your Plate

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  14. Metal plating removal from insulator substrate using pulsed arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasaka, K.; Gnapowski, S.; Akiyama, H.

    2014-06-01

    Removal technique of metal materials from a metal plating insulator substrate using a pulsed arc discharge was proposed and its fundamental characteristics were investigated. The metal plating substrate with three metal-layers structure (cupper, nickel and gold layers) is used as the sample substrate. Repetitive pulsed arc discharge plasma is generated using three types of electrode systems. Effects of the electrode systems on the metal plating removal from the insulator substrate were investigated. The metal plating was removed by the pulsed arc discharge between the electrode and substrate surface. A part of the gold layer, which is the topmost metal layer on the insulator substrate is vaporized and removed by the repetitive pulsed arc discharges.

  15. Cooling of a layered plate under mixed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Zaman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the temperature distribution in an infinite plate composed of two dissimilar materials. We suppose that half of the upper surface (y=h,−∞type, while the other half (y=h,0type. Such a plate is allowed to cool down on the lower surface with the help of a fluid medium which moves with a uniform speed v and which cools the plate at rate Ω. The resulting mixed boundary value problem is reduced to a functional equation of the Wiener-Hopf type by use of the Fourier transform. We then seek the solution using the analytic continuation and an extended form of the Liouville theorem. The temperature distribution in the two layers can then be written in a closed form by use of the inversion integral.

  16. THE NEW STRUCTURE OF A PLATE-PILE FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMORODOV О. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the construction of high-rise buildings with significant loads on foundations and bedding at the base of not rocky soils tend to use the most common pile foundation to reduce the deformation and correspond to regulations [1] on the maximum permissible deformation. Monitoring of the stress-strain state (SSS pile foundations constructed buildings shows the existing reserves of bearing capacity on the one hand - soil bases of the second group of limit states, on the other - the foundation of the first group of limit states by regulating the SSS foundation during construction and exploitation. Therefore, are increasingly using more progressive structure of foundations consisting of piles and of plate, as well as methods for their construction [2 - 10], however, in their design there are a number of disadvantages associated with the ambiguity of the application of methods for the calculation of such structures, which allows to do only partial conclusions and recommendations. Purpose. Is proposing the new structure of a plate-pile foundation, which overcomes the drawbacks of the existing design solutions and methods of consruction their, as well as is proposing an engineering method of a determination of basic parameters. Conclusion. Is proposes the new structure of a plate-pile foundation and the method of a determination of basic parameters his in the design of a soil base to the maximum permissible deformation Su buildings. Efficiency of application this type plate-pile foundation obtained by rational distribution resistance between a plate and piles, when under load from the building to the first work fully incorporated plate that allows maximum deformed for plate, and then the piles - due to of the hinge connection with the plate. Thus, depending on the maximum permissible deformation for buildings resistance of plate part of a full load of more than 50%, that significantly reduces the consumption of concrete.

  17. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-04

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.

  18. Evaluation of factors affecting plate waste of inpatients in different healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero Díaz, Antonio; Caracuel García, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Satisfaction of inpatients with served food within a hospital care system still constitutes one of the main attempts to modernize food services. The impact of type of menu, food category, hospital centre and timetable on the meals wastage produced in different Spanish healthcare settings, was evaluated. Meal wastage was measured through a semiquantitative 5-point scale ("nothing on plate"; "¼ on plate"; "half on plate"; "¾ on plate" and "all on plate"). The study was carried out in two periods of three months each in 2010 and 2011. A trained person took charge of measuring plate waste classified into 726 servings belonging to 11 menus. In total 31,392 plates were served to 7,868 inpatients. A Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test (p food categories, 26.78% of the plates corresponded to soups and purées, while pasta and rice, and prepared foods were only distributed in 4-5% of the servings. Desserts were mostly consumed, while cooked vegetables were less accepted by the inpatients evaluated. Other factors such as hospital centre influenced plate waste (p 0.05). Visual inspections of plate waste might be useful to optimize type and quality of menus served. The type of menu served and the food category could have a great influence on food acceptability by the inpatients studied. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Intrapelvic acetabulum surgery: does the positioning of the plate fixation play a role in the stability of the osteosynthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztrinkai, Gergely; Bodzay, Tamás; Madarász, Benjámin; Zoltán, Gergely; Gál, Tamás; Váradi, Károly

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether positioning of the plate fixation plays a role in the stability of the osteosynthesis. We used finite element modelling to model an anterior pillar fracture and a T-type fracture of the acetabulum. Fracture fixation was carried out in three different variations: cranially positioned plate, medially positioned plate, and a combination of the two methods. In all cases, 3-3 screws were inserted on both ends of the plate to fix the fracture. In both fractures, nearly the same amount of displacement was detected in the fracture gap using a cranially positioned or medially positioned plate, and the amount of displacement was not less when using both plates simultaneously. The position of the plate fixation does not affect the stability of the osteosynthesis and in cases of simple fracture patterns, fixation using two plates does not provide more stability than one plate alone.

  20. Forced Response of Polar Orthotropic Tapered Circular Plates Resting on Elastic Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ansari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forced axisymmetric response of polar orthotropic circular plates of linearly varying thickness resting on Winkler type of elastic foundation has been studied on the basis of classical plate theory. An approximate solution of problem has been obtained by Rayleigh Ritz method, which employs functions based upon the static deflection of polar orthotropic circular plates. The effect of transverse loadings has been studied for orthotropic circular plate resting on elastic foundation. The transverse deflections and bending moments are presented for various values of taper parameter, rigidity ratio, foundation parameter, and flexibility parameter under different types of loadings. A comparison of results with those available in literature shows an excellent agreement.

  1. Preliminary testing of microstructured Imaging Plates with improved spatial resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratyev, V I; Mezentsev, N A; Mezentseva, L A; Nazmov, V P; Pavlyukhin, Y T; Pindyurin, V F; Sidelnikov, A A; Tolochko, B P

    2000-01-01

    Read-out device and method for the Contrast-Frequency Characteristics (CFC) measurements of the Imaging Plates X-ray area detectors are described. The results of the CFC measurements for the different types of these detectors are shown. Also shown is the preliminary result of CFC measurement for the new detector type - microstructured memorized Imaging Plates with improved spatial resolution, produced with LIGA-technology on the synchrotron radiation beam on the VEPP-3 storage ring. These results demonstrate that the specific information capacity of the new microstructured detectors more than 2 times exceed the specific information capacity of the FUJI serial production detectors.

  2. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  3. Delamination, upper plate extension, and plate margin complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kosuke; Gerya, Taras; Willett, Sean

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the syn- and post-subduction margin evolution with respect to extension, lithospheric removal, and magmatic and topographic consequences by employing 3D geodynamic models. In all experiments, regions of extended partial melting are overlain by up to 3 km high plateaus. There is complex geometric entanglement between upper mantle, partially molten rocks, and lithosphere, which is thermally eroded, over hundreds of kilometers across the plate contact. A complex lithosphere-asthenosphere-boundary features elongated anomalies at scales of few tens to hundred kilometers. First-order, synthetic seismic anomaly patterns, based on thermodynamic velocities which are tabulated for model p,T conditions, are accordingly complex. Passive margin geometry variations in the lower plate effect consistent and inherited differences in dynamic evolution. Promontories along the margin tend to trigger three stages of evolution: 1) a magmatic arc; 2) a lower plate, eduction-like exhumation of buried continental crust in domal patterns of few tens of km wavelength; and subsequently, 3) the formation of extended zones on the upper plate which lack a lithospheric mantle, undergo partial extension, and feature lower crustal melting. Slab break-off is consistently favoured in locations where the lower plate margin is relatively recessed. Concerning the classical removal mechanisms, transitions and co-evolution between delamination, convective thinning, and upper-plate extension are gradual and these modes are not mutually exclusive. Almost complete mixed-mode removal and extension can be compared to the Aegean. Slab window formation by margin geometry variation produces characteristic uplift patterns that are comparable to the Apennines, where higher uplift rates could be a consequence of incipient necking of the slab below central Calabria.

  4. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  5. EXACT SOLUTION FOR TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF FG-CNT-REINFORCED MINDLIN PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the buckling analysis of nanocomposite polymeric temperature-dependent plates reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. For the carbon-nanotube reinforced composite (CNTRC plate, uniform distribution (UD and three types of functionally graded (FG distribution patterns of SWCNT reinforcements are assumed. The material properties of FG-CNTRC plate are graded in the thickness direction and estimated based on the rule of mixture. The CNTRC is located in a elastic medium which is simulated with temperature-dependent Pasternak medium. Based on orthotropic Mindlin plate theory, the governing equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by Navier method. The influences of the volume fractions of carbon nanotubes, elastic medium, temperature and distribution type of CNTs are considered on the buckling of the plate. Results indicate that CNT distribution close to top and bottom are more efficient than those distributed nearby the mid-plane for increasing the stiffness of plates.

  6. Biomechanical analysis of acromioclavicular joint dislocation treated with clavicle hook plates in different lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheng-Min; Huang, Kui-Chou; Pan, Chien-Chou; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Su, Kuo-Chih

    2015-11-01

    Clavicle hook plates are frequently used in clinical orthopaedics to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. However, patients often exhibit acromion osteolysis and per-implant fracture after undergoing hook plate fixation. With the intent of avoiding future complications or fixation failure after clavicle hook plate fixation, we used finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the biomechanics of clavicle hook plates of different materials and sizes when used in treating acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Using finite element analysis, this study constructed a model comprising four parts: clavicle, acromion, clavicle hook plate and screws, and used the model to simulate implanting different types of clavicle hook plates in patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Then, the biomechanics of stainless steel and titanium alloy clavicle hook plates containing either six or eight screw holes were investigated. The results indicated that using a longer clavicle hook plate decreased the stress value in the clavicle, and mitigated the force that clavicle hook plates exert on the acromion. Using a clavicle hook plate material characterized by a smaller Young's modulus caused a slight increase in the stress on the clavicle. However, the external force the material imposed on the acromion was less than the force exerted on the clavicle. The findings of this study can serve as a reference to help orthopaedic surgeons select clavicle hook plates.

  7. A simple method for freezing lymphocytes in microtest plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A S; Hubbard, M C; Barry, J M

    1981-02-01

    Freezing lymphocytes in microtest plates instead of vials for the purpose of screening sera for HLA or other cytotoxic antibodies offers the same technical advantages as freezing sera in microtest plates for tissue typing. Plate-loading errors and cell wastage are minimized, and time required for serum screening is greatly reduced. A method for freezing lymphocytes in large numbers of microtest plates for use in serum screening that is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive is described. Cryoprotected lymphocytes dispensed into microtest plates are placed on a metal table that is lowered onto a tray containing 1 cm of liquid nitrogen in a Styrofoam box. The amount of liquid nitrogen in the tray and the height of the metal table above the tray determine the freezing rate of the lymphocytes. Over 100 microtest plates can be frozen per cycle with total cooling uniformity. The materials required for this freezing device can be assembled for less than $400. Commercial freezing units typically cost over $4,000.

  8. A modified commercial scanner as an image plate for table-top optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado-Rojo, S; Lorenzana, H E; Baonza, V G

    2008-12-09

    A reliable, accurate, and inexpensive optical detector for table-top applications is described here. Based on a commercial high resolution office scanner coupled to a projection on plate, it enables a large image plate surface, allowing recording of large images without systematic errors associated to coupling optics' aberrations. Several tests on distance-dependent and steady interference patterns will be presented and discussed. The extension to other types of optical measurement by substituting the projection on plate is proposed.

  9. An investigation on the performance characteristics of solar flat plate collector with different selective surface coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Madhukeshwara N., E. S. Prakash

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, investigations are made to study performance characteristics of solar flat plate collector with different selective surface coatings. Flat plate collector is one of the important solar energy trapping device which uses air or water as working fluid. Of the many solar collector concepts presently being developed, the relative simple flat plate solar collector has found the widest application so far. Its characteristics are known, and compared with other collector types, it...

  10. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    in the frequency domain. The second-order vertical displacements induced by the membrane forces are calculated by the von Karman plate theory. The results show that the membrane contribution both in terms of the axial stresses and the effect on the bending stresses can be important......The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method...

  11. Orifice plates and venturi tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Reader-Harris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book gives the background to differential-pressure flow measurement and goes through the requirements explaining the reason for them. For those who want to use an orifice plate or a Venturi tube the standard ISO 5167 and its associated Technical Reports give the instructions required.  However, they rarely tell the users why they should follow certain instructions.  This book helps users of the ISO standards for orifice plates and Venturi tubes to understand the reasons why the standards are as they are, to apply them effectively, and to understand the consequences of deviations from the standards.

  12. Prospective Randomized Comparison of Locked Plates Versus Nonlocked Plates for the Treatment of High-Energy Pilon Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dʼHeurle, Albert; Kazemi, Namdar; Connelly, Camille; Wyrick, John D; Archdeacon, Michael T; Le, Theodore T

    2015-09-01

    To compare the radiographic and functional outcome of patients with high-energy pilon fractures treated with locked versus nonlocked plates. Randomized prospective trial. Academic level 1 trauma center. Between December 2006 and December 2008, 60 consecutive patients with 62 AO/OTA type A, B, and C tibial pilon fractures were enrolled in the study. Thirty-two of the fractures were treated using locked plates and 29 were treated with nonlocked plates. Follow-up data were available for 33 of the 60 patients. Treatment with locked versus nonlocked plates. Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) questionnaire and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AHS). Radiographic measurements on anteroposterior and lateral views for the quality of reduction and maintenance of alignment immediately postoperatively compared with the latest follow-up. There were no significant differences in the mechanism or injury pattern, average age of the patients, ratio of males to females, tourniquet time, operative time, interval to surgery, AHS, or SMFA scores. One of 15 fractures in the locked plate group lost reduction at the latest follow-up compared with 3 of 19 fractures in the nonlocked group. In this study, there seems to be no difference between the 2 constructs. Thus, one must question the routine use of locked plates in the treatment of high-energy pilon fractures. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension. 1. Introduction. Plate boundaries are the zones where most earth dynamics are focussed. The complexity of tectonic boundaries draws attention to them as the largest earthquakes are felt in these areas and they elicit the natural hazard of ...

  14. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... tested using the coherence of time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link orientations at the plate boundary conditions indicate that causal triggering seems to be localized along a major fault, as a stress transfer between two major faults, and parallel to the geothermal area extension.

  15. [Biodynamics of the epiphyseal plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallek, M; Jungbluth, K H

    1984-02-01

    The architecture of the collagenous fibers in epiphyseal plates of infantile long bones is ordered in a manner that tensile load is able to be transformed in compressive stress and reverse. This system can be classify in the theory of the formation of the sustentacular tissue by mechanical forces of Roux, Benninghoff and Pauwels.

  16. Comment on "Intermittent plate tectonics?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2008-06-06

    Silver and Behn (Reports, 4 January 2008, p. 85) proposed that intermittent plate tectonics may resolve a long-standing paradox in Earth's thermal evolution. However, their analysis misses one important term, which subsequently brings their main conclusion into question. In addition, the Phanerozoic eustasy record indicates that the claimed effect of intermittency is probably weak.

  17. TUBULARIZED INCISED PLATE (TIP) URETHROPLASTY:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Recently, tubularized incised plate. (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass repair) has gained popularity for the primary repair of distal and proximal hypospadias. This study was carried out to evaluate TIP urethro- plasty in the repair of failed and compli- cated hypospadias cases. Patients and Methods: This study was ...

  18. Shaker slip-plate adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, O. S.

    1969-01-01

    Magnesium adapter ties in all of the attachment bosses on a horizontal slip table and makes a rigid coupling which terminates in a single row of attachment bosses at the edge of the horizontal plate. This eliminates ineffective dissipation of the driving force in vibration tests.

  19. TUBULARIZED INCISED PLATE (TIP) URETHROPLASTY:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Churchill BM, van Savage JG, Khoury AE, McLorie. GA. The dartos flap as an adjunct in preventing urethrocutaneous fistulas in repeat hypospadias surgery. J Urol1996, 15612047. Cooper CS, Noh PH, Snyder HM 3"'. Preservation of urethral plate spongiosurn1 technique to reduce hypospadias fistulas. Urology 2001 ...

  20. Alfred Wegener - From Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the climate existing today. He found fossils. of tropkal plants such as ferns and cycads, in the Arctic island of Spitsbergen. The overall picture that emerged from .... and the Galapagos Ridge, are examples of this type of boundary. As discussed in the next section, the growing acceptance of plate. _ tectonics was chiefly due to ...

  1. Flat Plate Reduction in a Water Tunnel Using Riblets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Cononue onreee dnaessey end defyy blod numbr) FIEL / 9 GROUP SUB.GROUP Drag reduction /inTurbulent boundary layer // Streamwie microgroove surface...and its leading edge were separately constructed from type 302 stainless steel. The flat plate is 19.0mm thick and -.0.58m wide. with an Overall

  2. Versatility of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The outcomes of urethroplasty in the management of different types of hypospadias have continued to improve since the introduction of the tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass method). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of TIP urethroplasty in the ...

  3. Operational test of bonded magnetocaloric plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Navickaité, Kristina; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Bonded plates made by hot pressing La0.85Ce0.15Fe11.25Mn0.25Si1.5Hy particles and resin have been tested as active magnetic regenerators in a small scale magnetocaloric device. Firstly the plates were carefully characterised magnetically and thermally. The plates were prepared with 5 wt% resin......, and from density measurements it was found that the volume ratio of the magnetocaloric material in the plates was 0.53, due to the resin and porosity. The best operating conditions for the plate regenerator were determined at which a temperature span of 6.4 K was measured along the plates....

  4. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.

  5. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...... for determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  6. Preliminary Analysis for Flow Blockage of Plate Fuel using a Commercial CFD Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Pil; Park, Suki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A plate-type fuel assembly is widely used in the research reactors in order to enhance power density. This type fuel assembly consists of a number of fuel plates, supporting plates, and narrow rectangular cooling channels between the fuel plates. Due to the narrow rectangular channels consisting of parallel plate fuels and side plates, the cooling channels are isolated from each other so that the cross flow between the channels are completely restricted. When blockage at the inlet of the channel occurs, therefore, the coolant flow through the blocked channel will be greatly reduced or completely interrupted. Accordingly, the blocked channel loses its own cooling capability. This event may cause initiation of nucleate boiling and two phase flow instability (FI) in the blocked channel. In recent years, CFD analyses of flow blockage of a research reactor have been performed by many researchers. The present study reports a 3-dimensional CFD simulation using two-phase model for flow blockage of two channels of a plate-type fuel assembly. The present result shows limited information since the simulation is working at the moment. However, the present study indicates that it is possible to predict a damage propagation of a plate-type fuel assembly due to the flow instability caused by flow blockage using a commercial CFD code.

  7. Plate shape and colour interact to influence taste and quality judgments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Peter C; Goss, Erica

    2013-01-01

    ... the resultant perception of taste. The current study examined two factors external to the food source, plate shape and plate colour, for their effect on perceptual judgments of sweetness, intensity, quality, and liking. Research has shown that the manipulation of a variety of food-specific cue types will influence various aspects of taste perception. Olfa...

  8. OUTCOME OF LOCKING PLATES IN DISTAL TIBIA FRACTURES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Most of these fractures except intra-articular fractures are treated with interlocking nail. 1,2 These nails are a boon for these fractures. But as the fracture nears to the joint stability the fracture fixation will be compromised due to malreduction and alignment, it leads to increased chances of delayed and nonunion. 3 Locking anatomical plates are evaluated for anatomical and relative stability fixation. Since then most intra and near intra-articular fractures are fixed with these plates with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis method, these plates have given excellent result 4 . But again these plates have some disadvantages 5 . This study is done to see the outcome of locking plates in distal tibia fracture. METHODS This study is done in the Department of Orthopaedics, Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore. This study is done from 2013 to 2015. 30 patients who came to outpatient department were treated with locking plates. All patients above 16 years having distal third tibia fracture are included. All open fractures except type 1 and elderly above 60 years and pathological fractures are excluded in our study. All patients were followed up for initial 5 months, thereafter, once in 3 months, for clinical and radiological evaluation of union status, knee range of motion, ankle range of motion and other complications. Assessment of the patient with functional recovery was done with American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgery(AOFAS 6 minimum 5 months after injury. RESULTS Majority of the patients are from age group 18-29 years (50%. Average age group was 30 years. Majority of the patients were males 80.6% (25. All fractures were closed fractures except 2 cases which are type 1. There were 12 cases of AO type A, 8 patients were AO type B and 10 patients were type C. Majority of the patients had fracture due to road traffic accidents, 74%. All fractures were united by the end of 20 weeks. There was delayed union in

  9. Birth injuries to growth plates: A sheep in wolves' clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Jerrin; Teng, Matthew; Huang, Mingqian; Balsam, Dvorah

    2017-10-01

    Growth plate injuries (Salter-Harris type 1 or physeal fractures) of the long bones in the newborn are easily misdiagnosed as joint fractures with dislocations due to their nonossified epiphyses on plain radiographs. Diagnosis with musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) is advantageous due to its ability to visualize the nonossified epiphysis. We present two cases of humeral growth plate fractures in newborns, one at the shoulder (proximal humerus) and the other at the elbow (distal humerus). These cases emphasize the importance of quick and noninvasive diagnosis with US to avoid unnecessary intervention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:511-514, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Anterolateral Versus Medial Plating of Distal Extra-articular Tibia Fractures: A Biomechanical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirolo, Joseph M; Behn, Anthony W; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bishop, Julius A

    2015-09-01

    Both medial and anterolateral plate applications have been described for the treatment of distal tibia fractures, each with distinct advantages and disadvantages. The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and anterolateral plating constructs used to stabilize simulated varus and valgus fracture patterns of the distal tibia. In 16 synthetic tibia models, a 45° oblique cut was made to model an Orthopedic Trauma Association type 43-A1.2 distal tibia fracture in either a varus or valgus injury pattern. Each fracture was then reduced and plated with a precontoured medial or anterolateral distal tibia plate. The specimens were biomechanically tested in axial and torsional loading, cyclic axial loading, and load to failure. For the varus fracture pattern, medial plating showed less fracture site displacement and rotation and was stiffer in both axial and torsional loading (Pfracture pattern, there was no statistically significant difference between medial and anterolateral plating. There were no significant differences between the 2 constructs for either fracture pattern with respect to ultimate load, displacement, or energy absorption in load to failure testing. When used to stabilize varus fracture patterns, medial plates showed superior biomechanical performance compared with anterolateral plates. In this application, the medial plates functioned in anti-glide mode. For valgus fracture patterns, no biomechanical differences between anterolateral and medial plating were observed. In clinical practice, surgeons should take this biomechanical evidence into account when devising a treatment strategy for fixation of distal tibia fractures. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Features of the configurations "small particle -plate" and "plate -plate" in the theory of fluctuation electromagnetic interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dedkov, G. V.; Kyasov, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the limiting transition from the geometrical configuration "plate -plate" to configuration "small particle -plate" being frequently used in the theory of Lifshitz -Pitaevskii, is not continually true. On the other hand, the known solution to the problem in the last configuration can be used to verify the generalizations of the theory being worked out in the former configuration.

  12. Modeling the Dynamic Bending of Rigidplastic Hybrid Composite Elliptical Plates with a Rigid Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, T. P.

    2017-11-01

    A model of dynamic bending of rigid-plastic hybrid composite elliptical plates with a rigid center and simply supported or clamped contour, subjected to a uniformly distributed short-time intense dynamic load of explosive type is developed. The plates are multilayered and fibrous, with a symmetric distribution of layers with respect to the middle surface. The reinforcing fibers, made of different materials, are located in directions parallel or normal to the plate contour. Various mechanisms of dynamic deformation of the plates are considered. For each mechanism, equations of their dynamic behavior are obtained. Operating conditions of these mechanisms are analyzed. Analytical expressions for evaluating the limit loads, deformation time, and residual deflections are obtained. It is shown that a change in reinforcement parameters significantly affects the bearing capacity and residual deflection of the plates. The solutions proposed can be used in the design of reinforced metal-composite elliptical plates. Numerical examples are given for different reinforcement structures.

  13. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  14. Influence of the Print Run on Silver Halide Printing Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Cigula

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common printing technique today is lithography. The difference between printing and nonprinting areason a printing plate is accomplished by opposite physical and chemical properties of those areas (MacPhee, 1998.The printing areas are made of photoactive layer that attracts oil and chemical substances with oil solvent – printinginks. The nonprinting areas are made of aluminium-oxide which attracts water based substances – the fountainsolution.There are many of various types of photoactive layer which are used for production of offset printing plates, amongothers is silver halide layer. The usage of the silver halide technology in the graphic reproduction is not a novelty.The filmmaking phase is based on the usage of the silver halide as the photographically active ingredient, for instance,AgBr (silver bromide. The new, digital plate making technology (Computer to Plate, CtP eliminates thefilmmaking phase and therefore enables control of the printing plate’s exposure made by computer. CtP technologyeliminates the filmmaking phase, but it also results with the reduction of needed material quantities and requiredtime for the production (Limburg, 1994; Seydel, 1996.In this paper the basis of the graphic reproduction by using the silver halide digital printing plates was described.The changes of the AgX copying layer and the surface of the aluminium base in the printing process have beenobserved. The surface characteristics were determined by measuring the relevant surface roughness parameters. Inaddition, measurements of coverage values on the prints, detailed at smaller print run, were conducted.Results showed that surface changes on the printing plate are changing during printing process and that thesechanges influence transfer of the printing ink on the printing substrate. These measurements proved to be of greatinterest in the graphic reproduction as they enable us to determine consistency of the printing plates during theprinting

  15. Vision-based surface defect inspection for thick steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jong Pil; Kim, Dongseob; Kim, KyuHwan; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, Chang Hyun; Kim, Sang Woo

    2017-05-01

    There are several types of steel products, such as wire rods, cold-rolled coils, hot-rolled coils, thick plates, and electrical sheets. Surface stains on cold-rolled coils are considered defects. However, surface stains on thick plates are not considered defects. A conventional optical structure is composed of a camera and lighting module. A defect inspection system that uses a dual lighting structure to distinguish uneven defects and color changes by surface noise is proposed. In addition, an image processing algorithm that can be used to detect defects is presented in this paper. The algorithm consists of a Gabor filter that detects the switching pattern and employs the binarization method to extract the shape of the defect. The optics module and detection algorithm optimized using a simulator were installed at a real plant, and the experimental results conducted on thick steel plate images obtained from the steel production line show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Laser-Based Characterization of Nuclear Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; David L. Cottle; Barry H. Rabin

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring the integrity of fuel-clad and clad-clad bonding in nuclear fuels is important for safe reactor operation and assessment of fuel performance, yet the measurement of bond strengths in actual fuels has proved challenging. The laser shockwave technique (LST) originally developed to characterize structural adhesion in composites is being employed to characterize interface strength in a new type of plate fuel being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large-amplitude acoustic waves and is well suited for application to both fresh and irradiated nuclear-fuel plates. This paper will report on initial characterization results obtained from fresh fuel plates manufactured by different processes, including hot isostatic pressing, friction stir welding, and hot rolling.

  17. A concept of PWR using plate and shell heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: luciano.ondir@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In previous work it was verified the physical possibility of using plate and shell heat exchangers for steam generation in a PWR for merchant ships. This work studies the possibility of using GESMEX commercial of the shelf plate and shell heat exchanger of series XPS. It was found it is feasible for this type of heat exchanger to meet operational and accidental requirements for steam generation in PWR. Additionally, it is proposed an arrangement of such heat exchangers inside the reactor pressure vessel. Such arrangement may avoid ANSI/ANS51.1 nuclear class I requirements on those heat exchangers because they are contained in the reactor coolant pressure barrier and play no role in accidental scenarios. Additionally, those plates work under compression, preventing the risk of rupture. Being considered non-nuclear safety, having a modular architecture and working under compression may turn such architectural choice a must to meet safety objectives with improved economics. (author)

  18. Dynamical behaviors of a plate activated by an induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheutchoua Fossi, D. O.; Woafo, P.

    2010-08-01

    Dynamics and chaotification of a system consisting of an induction motor activating a mobile plate (with variable contents) fixed to a spring are studied. The dynamical model of the device is presented and the electromechanical equations are formulated. The oscillations of the plate are analyzed through variations of the following reliable control parameters: phase voltage supply of the motor, frequency of the external source and mass of the plate. The dynamics of the system near the fundamental resonance region presents jump phenomenon. Mapping of the control parameters planes in terms of types of motion reveals period- n motion, quasi-periodicity and chaos. Anti-control of chaos of the induction motor is also obtained using the field-oriented control associated to the time delay feedback control.

  19. Ability of modern distal tibia plates to stabilize comminuted pilon fracture fragments: Is dual plate fixation necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Phillip; Swords, Michael; Heisler, Jason; Cien, Adam; Sands, Andrew; Cole, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the screw trajectory of ten commercially available distal tibia plates and compare them to common fracture patterns seen in OTA C type pilon fractures to determine their ability to stabilize the three most common fracture fragments while buttressing anterolateral zones of comminution. We hypothesized that a single plate for the distal tibia would fail to adequately stabilize all three main fracture fragments and zones of comminution in complex pilon fractures. Ten synthetic distal tibia sawbones models were used in conjunction with ten different locking distal tibia plate designs from three manufacturers (Depuy Synthes, J&J Co, Paoli, PA; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN; and Stryker, Mawa, NJ). Both medial and anterolateral plates from each company were utilized and separately applied to an individual sawbone model. Three implants allowing variable angle screw placement were used. The location of the locking screws and buttress effect 1cm above the articular surface was noted for each implant using axial computed tomography (CT). The images were then compared to a recently published "pilon fracture map" using an overlay technique to establish the relationship between screw location and known common fracture lines and areas of comminution. Each of the three main fragments was considered "captured" by a screw if it was purchased by at least two screws thereby controlling rotational forces on each fragment. Three of four anterolateral plates lacked stable fixation in the medial fragment. Of the 4 anterolateral plates used, only the variable angle anterolateral plate by Depuy Synthes captured the medial fragment with two screws. All four anterolateral plates buttressed the area of highest comminution and had an average of 1.25 screws in the medial fragment and an average of 3 screws in the posterolateral fragment. All five direct medial plates had variable fixation within anterolateral and posterolateral fragments with an average of

  20. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  1. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  2. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    was to investigate whether the size of the dishware would non-reflectively influence the amount of foods taken from an “ad-libitum” buffet and the resulting amount of waste. Sample consisted of Danish business leaders that took part in a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. Two buffet tables were set up on two separate......With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers....... All food waste was collected in designated trash bags (different colour in each floor) and weighted in bulk by students. Smaller plates appear to have decreased food waste by 26% compared to the standard sized plates at a single serving in a self-service eating setting. This pilot study supports...

  3. Estimation of Local Delamination Buckling in Orthotropic Composite Plates Using Kirchhoff Plate Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Juhász

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the buckling process of composite plates with through-the-width delamination and straight crack front applying uniaxial compression. We are focusing on the mixed mode buckling case, where the non-uniform distribution of the in-plane forces controls the occurence of the buckling of the delaminated layers. For the analysis, semi-discrete finite elements will be derived based on the Lèvy-type method. The method of harmonic balance is used for taking into account the force distribution that is generally non uniform in-plane.

  4. ITRF2014 plate motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Zuheir; Métivier, Laurent; Rebischung, Paul; Rouby, Hélène; Collilieux, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    For various geodetic and geophysical applications, users need to have access to a plate motion model (PMM) that is consistent with the ITRF2014 frame. This paper describes the approach used for determining a PMM from the horizontal velocities of a subset of the ITRF2014 sites away from plate boundaries, Glacial Isostatic Adjustment regions and other deforming zones. In theory it would be necessary to include in the inversion model a translational motion vector (called in this paper origin rate bias, ORB) that would represent the relative motion between the ITRF2014 origin (long-term averaged centre of mass of the Earth as sensed by SLR) and the centre of tectonic plate motion. We show that in practice, the magnitude of the estimated ORB is strongly dependent on the selection of ITRF2014 sites used for the PMM adjustment. Its Z-component can in particular range between 0 and more than 1 mm yr-1 depending on the station network used, preventing any geophysical interpretation of the estimated value. Relying on rigorous statistical criteria, the site selection finally adopted for the ITRF2014-PMM adjustment leads to a relatively small ORB (0.30 ± 0.18 mm yr-1 in the Z-component), which is statistically insignificant at the 2-sigma level, but also according to an F-ratio test. Therefore we opted for an ITRF2014-PMM without estimating the ORB, which in turn accommodates geodetic applications that require access to the ITRF2014 frame through pure plate rotation poles.

  5. Secure matching of Dutch car license plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, A.B.; Erkiny, Z.; Veugenyz, T.

    2016-01-01

    License plate matching plays an important role in applications like law enforcement, traffic management and road pricing, where the plate is first recognized and then compared to a database of authorized vehicle registration plates. Unfortunately, there are several privacy related issues that should

  6. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  7. The critical shear load of rectangular plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, Edgar

    1933-01-01

    This report gives formulas for analyzing the critical shear load of a simply supported square, isotropic (simple flat plate), or orthogonal anisotropic plate (a plate in which the rigidity in two directions perpendicular to each other is different, i.e. plywood or corrugated sheet), these formulas, although arrived at by approximation method, seem to agree fairly well with experimental results.

  8. Designing a licence plate for memorability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Dongen, C.J.G. van

    2005-01-01

    Good memorability of licence plates is important in those cases where licence plates are viewed for a brief period of time and the information is essential for police investigations. The purpose of the current study was to design a new Dutch licence plate that could be remembered well. A memory

  9. NATURAL TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF A PRESTRESSED ORTHOTROPIC PLATE-STRIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorychev Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a new outlook at the boundary-value problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous pre-stressed orthotropic plate-stripe. In the paper, the motion equation represents a new approximate hyperbolic equation (rather than a parabolic equation used in the majority of papers covering the same problem describing the vibration of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe. The proposed research is based on newly derived boundary conditions describing the pin-edge, rigid, and elastic (vertical types of fixing, as well as the boundary conditions applicable to the unfixed edge of the plate. The paper contemplates the application of the Laplace transformation and a non-standard representation of a homogeneous differential equation with fixed factors. The article proposes a detailed representation of the problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe if rigidly fixed at opposite sides; besides, the article also provides frequency equations (no conclusions describing the plate characterized by the following boundary conditions: rigid fixing at one side and pin-edge fixing at the opposite side; pin-edge fixing at one side and free (unfixed other side; rigid fixing at one side and elastic fixing at the other side. The results described in the article may be helpful if applied in the construction sector whenever flat structural elements are considered. Moreover, specialists in solid mechanics and theory of elasticity may benefit from the ideas proposed in the article.

  10. Episodic plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.

  11. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  12. Performance Comparison of Cross-Like Hall Plates with Different Covering Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lyu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effects of the covering layers on the performance of a cross-like Hall plate. Three different structures of a cross-like Hall plate in various sizes are designed and analyzed. The Hall plate sensitivity and offset are characterized using a self-built measurement system. The effect of the P-type region over the active area on the current-related sensitivity is studied for different Hall plate designs. In addition, the correlation between the P-type covering layer and offset is analyzed. The best structure out of three designs is determined. Besides, a modified eight-resistor circuit model for the Hall plate is presented with improved accuracy by taking the offset into account.

  13. Wheelspace windage cover plate for turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Norman Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Windage cover plates are secured between the wheels and spacer of a turbine rotor to prevent hot flow path gas ingestion into the wheelspace cavities. Each cover plate includes a linear, axially extending body curved circumferentially with a radially outwardly directed wall at one axial end. The wall defines a axially opening recess for receiving a dovetail lug. The cover plate includes an axially extending tongue received in a circumferential groove of the spacer. The cover plate is secured with the tongue in the groove and dovetail lug in the recess. Lap joints between circumferentially adjacent cover plates are provided.

  14. Free vibrations of multilayered composite plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Summary of some of the results of a recent study of the reliability and range of validity of two-dimensional plate theories in application to low-frequency free vibration analysis of simply supported, bidirectional, multilayered plates consisting of a large number of layers. These results show that for composite plates the error in the predictions of the classical plate theory is strongly dependent on the number and stacking of the layers, in addition to the degree of orthotropy of the individual layers and the thickness ratio of the plate.

  15. Management of Intra-Articular Distal Radius Fractures: Volar or Dorsal Locking Plate-Which Has Fewer Complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Susumu; Moriya, Takuro

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcomes and complications of volar and dorsal plating for the management of intra-articular distal radius fractures, with special regard to indications for dorsal plating. Furthermore, we examine the rationale for choosing dorsal plating and its frequency of use. Clinical assessments included range of motion measurements at the wrist; grip strength; the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score; and the Gartland and Werley score. Clinical results were compared with those achieved using a volarly placed locking plate system. According to Lutsky's plate theory, the rationale for choosing dorsal plating was based on 4 types of pathologic fractures. Of 112 patients, 38 patients were treated with open reduction internal fixation via a dorsal approach and 68 patients were treated using a volar approach. Except for wrist flexion, there were no other statistical differences in the clinical results between groups for both subjective and objective parameters. There were no statistically significant differences in the complication rates between the volar and dorsal plated groups. One serious complication occurred after volar plating. The most common reason for choosing dorsal plating was irreducible dorsal die-punch fractures. The treatment of displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures with a dorsally versus a volarly placed interlocking plate system demonstrated similar clinical results. Postoperative complications were not readily observed in the patients treated with a dorsal locking plate. Certain fracture patterns are more appropriately stabilized using a dorsal plate fixation.

  16. A STUDY ON PROXIMAL HUMERAL FRACTURES STABILISED WITH PHILOS PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sivakumar K

    2017-02-01

    case (3.33% had excellent result, 12 cases (40% had good results, 12 cases (40% had moderate results and 5 cases (16.66% had poor results. Collected data analysed with independent t-test and ANNOVA test. In our study, T-test value was 8.529. Probability (P value was <0.001, which was significant. CONCLUSION The results demonstrate both potential benefits and problems of using the PHILOS plate. We obtained good functional results and bone healing in a vast majority of our patients. There was no statistical difference in the functional outcome between the fracture types at a minimum of 18 months postoperatively. However, we caution all surgeons on the high potential for complications and hence the chances reoperation with its use.

  17. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  18. Forced vibration analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates using a numerical strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R.; Hasrati, E.; Faghih Shojaei, M.; Gholami, R.; Shahabodini, A.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear forced vibration behavior of composite plates reinforced by carbon nanotubes is investigated by a numerical approach. The reinforcement is considered to be functionally graded (FG) in the thickness direction according to a micromechanical model. The first-order shear deformation theory and von Kármán-type kinematic relations are employed. The governing equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived with the use of Hamilton's principle. The generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is utilized to achieve a discretized set of nonlinear governing equations. A Galerkin-based scheme is then applied to obtain a time-varying set of ordinary differential equations of Duffing-type. Subsequently, a time periodic discretization is done and the frequency response of plates is determined via the pseudo-arc length continuation method. Selected numerical results are given for the effects of different parameters on the nonlinear forced vibration characteristics of uniformly distributed carbon nanotube- and FG carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates. It is found that with the increase of CNT volume fraction, the flexural stiffness of plate increases; and hence its natural frequency gets larger. Moreover, it is observed that the distribution type of CNTs significantly affects the vibrational behavior of plate. The results also show that when the mid-plane of plate is CNT-rich, the natural frequency takes its minimum value and the hardening-type response of plate is intensified.

  19. Biomechanical properties of orthogonal plate configuration versus parallel plate configuration using the same locking plate system for intra-articular distal humeral fractures under radial or ulnar column axial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Toshiya; Hara, Akira; Iwase, Hideaki; Ichihara, Satoshi; Nagao, Masashi; Maruyama, Yuichiro; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Previous reports have questioned whether an orthogonal or parallel configuration is superior for distal humeral articular fractures. In previous clinical and biomechanical studies, implant failure of the posterolateral plate has been reported with orthogonal configurations; however, the reason for screw loosening in the posterolateral plate is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate biomechanical properties and to clarify the causes of posterolateral plate loosening using a humeral fracture model under axial compression on the radial or ulnar column separately. And we changed only the plate set up: parallel or orthogonal. We used artificial bone to create an Association for the Study of Internal Fixation type 13-C2.3 intra-articular fracture model with a 1-cm supracondylar gap. We used an anatomically-preshaped distal humerus locking compression plate system (Synthes GmbH, Solothurn, Switzerland). Although this is originally an orthogonal plate system, we designed a mediolateral parallel configuration to use the contralateral medial plate instead of the posterolateral plate in the system. We calculated the stiffness of the radial and ulnar columns and anterior movement of the condylar fragment in the lateral view. The parallel configuration was superior to the orthogonal configuration regarding the stiffness of the radial column axial compression. There were significant differences between the two configurations regarding anterior movement of the capitellum during axial loading of the radial column. The posterolateral plate tended to bend anteriorly under axial compression compared with the medial or lateral plate. We believe that in the orthogonal configuration axial compression induced more anterior displacement of the capitellum than the trochlea, which eventually induced secondary fragment or screw dislocation on the posterolateral plate, or nonunion at the supracondylar level. In the parallel configuration, anterior movement of the capitellum or

  20. Thermal Stress Cracking of Slide-Gate Plates in Steel Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung-Jun; Thomas, Brian G.; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-04-01

    The slide-gate plates in a cassette assembly control the steel flow through the tundish nozzle, and may experience through-thickness cracks, caused by thermal expansion and/or mechanical constraint, leading to air aspiration and safety concerns. Different mechanisms for common and rare crack formation are investigated with the aid of a three-dimensional finite-element model of thermal mechanical behavior of the slide-gate plate assembly during bolt pretensioning, preheating, tundish filling, casting, and cooling stages. The model was validated with previous plant temperature measurements of a ladle plate during preheating and casting, and then applied to a typical tundish-nozzle slide-gate assembly. The formation mechanisms of different types of cracks in the slide-gate plates are investigated using the model and evaluated with actual slide-gate plates at POSCO. Common through-thickness radial cracks, found in every plate, are caused during casting by high tensile stress on the outside surfaces of the plates, due to internal thermal expansion. In the upper plate, these cracks may also arise during preheating or tundish filling. Excessive bolt tightening, combined with thermal expansion during casting may cause rare radial cracks in the upper and lower plates. Rare radial and transverse cracks in middle plate appear to be caused during tundish filling by impingement of molten steel on the middle of the middle plate that generates tensile stress in the surrounding refractory. The mechanical properties of the refractory, the bolt tightening conditions, and the cassette/plate design are all important to service life.

  1. TEXTILE IMPACT PLATES FOR NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    VISILEANU Emilia; Dumitrescu, Iuliana; Varzaru, Elena; MITRAN Cornelia; CHIRIAC Laura

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents textile materials with destination impact plates, having different surface architectures and active treatments for functionalization, with influence upon the aging process of nano-Ag and nano-CeO2. The woven and knitted samples from 100% cotton, cotton/PES blend and 100% PES were treated by impregnation on the laboratory padding machine, drying and condensing on the machine for drying-condensing-heat setting, with the following recipes: 50g/l RUCOSTAR EEE6+20 ml 5% nano-A...

  2. Overcoming confounding plate effects in differential expression analyses of single-cell RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Aaron T L; Marioni, John C

    2017-07-01

    An increasing number of studies are using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) to characterize the gene expression profiles of individual cells. One common analysis applied to scRNA-seq data involves detecting differentially expressed (DE) genes between cells in different biological groups. However, many experiments are designed such that the cells to be compared are processed in separate plates or chips, meaning that the groupings are confounded with systematic plate effects. This confounding aspect is frequently ignored in DE analyses of scRNA-seq data. In this article, we demonstrate that failing to consider plate effects in the statistical model results in loss of type I error control. A solution is proposed whereby counts are summed from all cells in each plate and the count sums for all plates are used in the DE analysis. This restores type I error control in the presence of plate effects without compromising detection power in simulated data. Summation is also robust to varying numbers and library sizes of cells on each plate. Similar results are observed in DE analyses of real data where the use of count sums instead of single-cell counts improves specificity and the ranking of relevant genes. This suggests that summation can assist in maintaining statistical rigour in DE analyses of scRNA-seq data with plate effects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Image plates as x-ray detectors in plasma physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, S. G.; Bentley, C. D.

    2004-10-01

    The performance of image plates based on the photostimulable phosphor BaF(Br,l):Eu2+ has been investigated and compared with x-ray film. Evaluation of detective quantum efficiency (DQE), sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity was carried out for several types of commercially available image plate, using the Excalibur soft x-ray calibration facility at AWE. Image plate response was found to be linear over a dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude. One type of image plate was found to have a number of advantages for soft x-ray detection, with a measured sensitivity 1 order of magnitude greater than that of Kodak Industrex CX and DEF-5 x-ray film. The DQE of this plate was found to be superior to that of film at low [less than 103 photons/(50 μm)2] and high fluxes [greater than 104 photons/(50 μm)2]. The spatial resolution of image plates, scanned with several models of commercial image plate readers, has been evaluated using a USAF resolution test target. The highest spatial resolution measured is 35 μm. Though this is significantly lower than the resolution possible with film, it is sufficient for many applications. Image plates were fielded in a refractive x-ray lens imaging diagnostic on the 1 TW Helen laser and these results are discussed.

  4. Biomechanical comparison of different volar fracture fixation plates for distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobky, Kareem; Baldini, Todd; Thomas, Kenneth; Bach, Joel; Williams, Allison; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of four volar fixed-angle fracture fixation plate designs in a novel sawbones model as well as in cadavers. Four volar fixed angle plating systems (Hand Innovations DVR-A, Avanta SCS/V, Wright Medical Lo-Con VLS, and Synthes stainless volar locking) were tested on sawbones models using an osteotomy gap model to simulate a distal radius fracture. Based on a power analysis, six plates from each system were tested to failure in axial compression. To simulate loads with physiologic wrist motion, six plates of each type were then tested to failure following 10,000 cycles applying 100N of compression. To compare plate failure behavior, two plates of each type were implanted in cadaver wrists and similar testing applied. All plate constructs were loaded to failure. All failed with in apex volar angulation. The Hand Innovations DVR-A plate demonstrated significantly more strength in peak load to failure and failure after fatigue cycling (p value biomechanical testing and indicates that volar fixation of unstable distal radius fractures with a fixed angle device is a reliable means of stabilization.

  5. Biomechanical comparison of 2 different locking plate fixation methods in vancouver b1 periprosthetic femur fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletka, Joshua D; Marsland, Daniel; Belkoff, Stephen M; Mears, Simon C; Kates, Stephen L

    2011-03-01

    Locking plates are commonly used to treat fractures around a well-fixed femoral component. The optimal construct should provide sufficient fixation while minimizing soft-tissue dissection. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether plate length, working length, or bone mineral density affects survival of locking plate fixation for Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic hip fractures. A transverse osteotomy was created just distal to cemented femoral prostheses in 9 pairs of cadaveric femurs. Fractures were stabilized with long (20-hole) or short (12-hole) locking plates that were secured proximally with cables and screws and distally with screws only. Specimens were then cycled 10 000 times at 2500 N of axial force and 15 Nm of torque to simulate full weightbearing. A motion capture system was used to record fracture displacement during cycling. Failure occurred in 5 long and 3 short plates, with no significant differences found in the number of cycles to failure. For the specimens that survived, there were no significant differences found between long and short plates for displacement or rotation observed at the fracture site. A shorter working length was not associated with increased failure rate. Lower bone mineral density was significantly associated with failure (P = .02). We concluded that long locked plates do not appear to offer a biomechanical advantage over short locking plates in terms of fixation survival, and that bone mineral density was a better predictor of failure than was the fixation construct type.

  6. Methods of localization of Lamb wave sources on thin plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Kvalheim Eriksen, Fredrik; Daniel, Guillaume; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2015-04-01

    Signal localization techniques are ubiquitous in both industry and academic communities. We propose a new localization method on plates which is based on energy amplitude attenuation and inverted source amplitude comparison. This inversion is tested on synthetic data using Lamb wave propagation direct model and on experimental dataset (recorded with 4 Brüel & Kjær Type 4374 miniature piezoelectric shock accelerometers (1-26 kHz frequency range)). We compare the performance of the technique to the classical source localization algorithms, arrival time localization, time reversal localization, localization based on energy amplitude. Furthermore, we measure and compare the accuracy of these techniques as function of sampling rate, dynamic range, geometry, Signal to Noise Ratio, and we show that this very versatile technique works better than classical ones over the sampling rates 100kHz - 1MHz. Experimental phase consists of a glass plate having dimensions of 80cmx40cm with a thickness of 1cm. Generated signals due to a wooden hammer hit or a steel ball hit are captured by sensors placed on the plate on different locations with the mentioned sensors. Numerical simulations are done using dispersive far field approximation of plate waves. Signals are generated using a hertzian loading over the plate. Using imaginary sources outside the plate boundaries the effect of reflections is also included. This proposed method, can be modified to be implemented on 3d environments, monitor industrial activities (e.g boreholes drilling/production activities) or natural brittle systems (e.g earthquakes, volcanoes, avalanches).

  7. A hot plate solar cooker with electricity generation-Combining a parabolic trough mirror with a sidney tube and heat pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasjager, A.D.J.; Moeys, G.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Solar cookers supply clean and sustainable energy for cooking and so limit the use of wood or charcoal. A new type of solar cooker is developed with a hot plate. The hot plate offers comfortable access to the food under preparation. The hot plate opens up the opportunity to generate small amounts of

  8. Single cycle to failure in bending of three standard and five locking plates and plate constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, C A; Boudrieau, R J; Torrance, B S; Tacvorian, E K; Cabassu, J B; Gaudette, G R; Kowaleski, M P

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical properties of standard and locking plates in bending. We hypothesised that titanium (Ti) constructs would have the greatest deformation and that String of Pearl (SOP) constructs would have the greatest strength and stiffness, and would behave differently compared to plates alone. Dynamic compression plates (DCP), stainless steel (SS) limited contact (LC)-DCP®, Ti LC-DCP, locking compression plates (LCP), 10 mm and 11 mm advanced locking plate system (ALPS 10 / 11), SOP and Fixin plates were evaluated individually and as constructs applied to a validated bone model simulating a bridging osteosynthesis. Bending stiffness and strength were compared using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey, and unpaired t-test (p <0.05). The SOP plates had significantly greater stiffness than all other plates; Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin plates had significantly lower stiffness than all other plates. The SOP constructs had the highest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only the Ti LC-DCP, ALPS 10 and Fixin constructs. The ALPS 10 constructs had the lowest mean bending stiffness, and strength that was significantly different from only ALPS 11 and SOP constructs. Comparison of bending structural stiffness of plates versus constructs showed a significant difference in all plate pairs except for the DCP and ALPS 10. Due to differing plate construct properties inherent to these diverse implant systems, identical approaches to fracture management and plate application cannot be applied.

  9. Chaotic vibrations of heated plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermen-Coker, Muge

    1998-12-01

    In recent years, the investigation of dynamical behavior of plates under thermal loads has become important due to the high temperatures reached on external skin panels of hypersonic vehicles. It has been shown by other researchers that the skin panels may encounter chaotic vibrations about their thermally buckled positions. In this research, the chaotic vibrations of simply supported plates under thermal and sinusoidal excitation is studied in order to predict the vibratory behavior of a representative class of such skin panels. A method for the development of equations of motion, that forms a foundation for further investigation of the response of elastic panels under general thermal, mechanical and aerodynamic loading and various boundary conditions, is presented and discussed. The boundaries of regular and chaotic regions of motion are defined and the sensitivity of these boundaries to changes in design parameters is explored for the purpose of developing useful design criteria. The onset of chaos is predicted through the computation of Lyapunov exponents. The sensitivity of Lyapunov exponent calculations to the choice of numerical method of integration, numerical precision and the magnitude of coefficients as functions of design variables, is discussed. The effects of thermal moment, thermal buckling, amplitude and frequency of excitation, damping, thickness and length to width ratio of panels on the onset of chaos is studied. The results of the research are presented as a contribution to the panel design of hypersonic vehicles.

  10. Plating of pilon fractures based on the orientation of the fibular shaft component: A biomechanical study evaluating plate stiffness in a cadaveric fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busel, Gennadiy A; Watson, J Tracy

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate mechanically superior method of pilon fracture fixation by comparing axial stiffness between anterolateral and medial tibial locking plates in a cadaveric fracture model. Eight matched pairs of fresh frozen cadaver specimens (lower limb after through-knee disarticulation) were used to eliminate confounder of bone quality. Simulated pilon fractures were created so that each pair represented either varus or valgus fracture pattern (AO 43-A2) with associated fibular fractures (transverse or comminuted). Specimens were plated with DePuy anterolateral or medial locking plate and axial load applied, measuring displacement at the fracture site. Each lower extremity was tested with a fracture wedge in place and removed to mimic comminution. Average force at which failure occurred was compared between the two fixation methods, for varus and valgus fracture pattern respectively, with the use of a Mann-Whitney U test. On average, medial plate fixation of varus fractures resulted in 2.27 times (range of 1.6-3.9) greater load prior to failure as compared to anterolateral plate. Similarly, valgus simulated fractures tolerated 1.6 times (range 1.12-2.34) higher force prior to failure if anterolateral plate was applied versus medial plate. Analysis utilizing the Mann-Whitney U test for fracture patterns vs plate configuration approached statistical significance (p = 0.081 varus failure and p = 0.386 valgus failure). Lateral plate fixation is biomechanically superior for pilon fractures resulting from valgus force as evident by comminuted fibular fracture. Similarly, medial plate location resulted in improved stiffness in compression for varus type fractures, evident by transverse fibular fracture. We approached statistical significance, however our lack of power regarding adequate sample size is an issue that is consistent with other biomechanical studies in this area.

  11. SOLUTION TO THE THERMOELASTIC PLATE VIBRATION PROBLEM IF THE THREE PLATE EDGES ARE SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND THE FOURTH ONE IS RIGIDLY FIXED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorychev Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Operating conditions of uneven heating can cause changes in the physical and mechanical properties of materials. Awareness of the values and nature of thermal stresses are required for a comprehensive structural strength analysis. The authors propose their solution to the problem of identification of natural frequencies of vibrations of rectangular plates using a thermal factor. The introductory part of the paper covers the derivation of equations of (a the thermoelastic vibration of a plate, (b initial and boundary conditions. In the next part of the paper, the authors describe a method of frequency equation derivation for plates exposed to special boundary conditions, if the two opposite edges of the plate are simply supported, the temperature of the plate surface is equal to zero degrees Celsius, while the two other edges have an arbitrary type of fixation and an arbitrary thermal mode. The authors have derived a general solution for the above boundary conditions, and by altering the method of fixation of the two edges of a plate, the authors obtain transcendental trigonometric equations reducible to algebraic frequency equations by using expanding in series. Thus, derivation of frequency equations different from the general solution is feasible for various types of boundary conditions. The final part of the paper contains a derivation of the solution to the selected problem using the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the thermoelastic plate has four natural frequencies, two of them being equal to the frequencies of a plate free from the temperature influence, while the other two are close to the frequency of free vibrations of a plate.

  12. Displaced proximal humeral fractures: an Indian experience with locking plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Sameer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures, especially in elderly, remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate functional outcome of locking plate used for fixation of these fractures after open reduction. We also attempted to evaluate the complications and predictors of loss of fixation for such an implant. Methods Over two and a half years, 56 patients with an acute proximal humerus fracture were managed with locking plate osteosynthesis. 47 of these patients who completed a minimum follow up of 1 year were evaluated using Constant score calculation. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16 and a p value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The average follow up period was around 21.5 months. Outcomes were excellent in 17%, good in 38.5%, moderate in 34% while poor in 10.5%. The Constant score was poorer for AO-OTA type 3 fractures as compared to other types. The scores were also inferior for older patients (> 65 years old. Complications included screw perforation of head, AVN, subacromial impingement, loss of fixation, axillary nerve palsy and infection. A varus malalignment was found to be a strong predictor of loss of fixation. Conclusion Locking plate osteosynthesis leads to satisfactory functional outcomes in all the patients. Results are better than non locking plates in osteoporotic fractures of the elderly. However the surgery has steep learning curve and various complications could be associated with its use. Nevertheless we believe that a strict adherence to the principles of locking plate use can ensure good result in such challenging fractures.

  13. Wave energy harvesting by piezoelectric flexible plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoele, Kourosh

    2013-11-01

    The ocean tidal currents and waves are very attractive sources of energy for extraction due to their vast availability and very low environmental impacts. Among different technologies, the harvesting of flow energy through the flapping of flexible plates has recently gained attentions. The sustained oscillation of a flexible plate is the result of a fluid-structure interaction occurrence, mainly from two different situations. In the first case, the oscillation is from the fluttering instability of the plate. In the second case, the unsteady flow is presented in the incoming flow either from the oscillatory sources such as surface waves. The mechanical energy is then converted to electricity using piezoelectric patches connected to the plate. In this paper, we discuss the novel approach to extract the wave energy using piezoelectric plates and discuss how parameters of the piezoelectric plate can be adjusted to increase the amount of energy that can be extracted from the current and free-surface waves.

  14. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zweben

    2011-05-16

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ~10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  15. Metal nano-grid reflective wave plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y; Gordon, R

    2009-02-16

    We propose an optical wave plate using a metal nano-grid. The wave plate operates in reflection mode. A single-mode truncated modematching theory is presented as a general method to design such nano-grid wave plates with the desired phase difference between the reflected TM and TE polarizations. This analytical theory allows angled incidence calculations as well, and numerical results agree-well with comprehensive finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic simulations. Due to the subwavelength path-length, the reflective wave plate is expected to have improved broad-band functionality over existing zero-order transmissive wave plates, for which an example is provided. The proposed wave plate is simple and compact, and it is amenable to existing nanofabrication techniques. The reflective geometry is especially promising for applications including liquid-crystal displays and laser feedback experiments.

  16. A New Absolute Plate Motion Model for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, S. M.; Wessel, P.; Müller, D.; Harada, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The India-Eurasia collision, a change in relative plate motion between Australia and Antarctica, and the coeval ages of the Hawaiian Emperor Bend (HEB) and Louisville Bend of ~Chron 22-21 all provide convincing evidence of a global tectonic plate reorganization at ~50 Ma. Yet if it were a truly global event, then there should be a contemporaneous change in Africa absolute plate motion (APM) reflected by physical evidence somewhere on the Africa plate. This evidence might be visible in the Reunion-Mascarene bend, which exhibits many HEB-like features such as a large angular change close to ~50 Ma. Recently, the Reunion hotpot trail has been interpreted as a continental feature with incidental hotspot volcanism. Here we propose the alternative hypothesis that the northern portion of the chain between Saya de Malha and the Seychelles (Mascarene Plateau) formed as the Reunion hotspot was situated on the Carlsberg Ridge, contemporaneously forming the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge on the India plate. We have created a 4-stage model that explores how a simple APM model fitting the Mascarene Plateau can also satisfy the age progressions and geometry of other hotspot trails on the Africa plate. This type of model could explain the apparent bifurcation of the Tristan hotspot chain, the age reversals seen along the Walvis Ridge and the diffuse nature of the St. Helena chain. To test this hypothesis we have made a new African APM model that goes back to ~80 Ma using a modified version of the Hybrid Polygonal Finite Rotation Method. This method uses seamount chains and their associated hotspots as geometric constraints for the model, and seamount age dates to determine its motion through time. The positions of the hotspots can be moved to get the best fit for the model and to explore the possibility that the ~50 Ma bend in the Reunion-Mascarene chain reflects Africa plate motion. We will examine how well this model can predict the key features reflecting Africa plate motion and

  17. Finite-Element Modeling of Timber Joints with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe the idea and the theory behind a finite-element model developed for analysis of timber trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates). The finite-element model includes the semirigid and nonlinear behavior of the joints (nonlinear nail and plate...... area over the joint lines. The finite-element model is based on the Foschi model, but with further improvements. After the theory of the model is described, results from experimental tests with two types of nail plate joints are compared with predictions given by the model. The model estimates...... elements) and contact between timber beams, if any (bilinear contact elements). The timber beams have linear-elastic properties. The section forces needed for design of the joints are given directly by the finite-element model, since special elements are used to model the nail groups and the nail plate...

  18. From Point Defects to Plate Tectonic Faults

    OpenAIRE

    Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Hobbs, Bruce; Yuen, David; Ord, Alison; Zhang, Yanhua; Muhlhaus, Hans Bernd; Morra, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Understanding and explaining emergent constitutive laws in the multi-scale evolution from point defects, dislocations and two-dimensional defects to plate tectonic scales is an arduous challenge in condensed matter physics. The Earth appears to be the only planet known to have developed stable plate tectonics as a means to get rid of its heat. The emergence of plate tectonics out of mantle convection appears to rely intrinsically on the capacity to form extremely weak faul...

  19. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  20. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  1. 431K/CD vehicle number plates

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    The Green Plates Service, which is responsible for issuing the 431K/CD vehicle number plates , wishes to apologise for the delay in processing applications over the past weeks. The delay is outside the Service’s control, as it is due to the recent introduction of new rules governing the vehicle registration process in France. Normal service will be resumed as soon as possible. Thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM-LS – Green Plates Service

  2. Strain resolving method of composite plane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion FUIOREA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extension of isotropic plates problem to the case of composite plates. In order to perform it, the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses were “softened” by some additional ones. Considering the constitutive laws for composite materials the stress functions were eliminated by using Cauchy equations. As a result a partial derivative equation in displacements was obtained. Finally the boundary condition formulation was extended for the case of complex composite plates.

  3. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  4. Effects of magnetoelastic interactions in conductive plates and shells

    CERN Document Server

    Baghdasaryan, Gevorg

    2016-01-01

    This monograph investigates the stability and vibrations of conductive, perfectly conductive and superconductive thin bodies in electromagnetic fields. It introduces the main principles and obtains basic equations and relations describing interconnected mechanical and electromagnetic processes in deformable electroconductive bodies placed in an external inhomogeneous magnetic field and under the influence of various types of force interactions. Basic equations and relations are addressed in the nonlinear formulation. A special emphasis is put on the mechanical interaction of superconducting thin bodies plates with magnetic field.

  5. Lexan Linear Shaped Charge Holder with Magnets and Backing Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Matthew W.; Dutton, Maureen L.; Hacker, Scott C.; Dean, Richard J.; Kidd, Nicholas; Long, Chris; Hicks, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed for cutting a fabric structural member in an inflatable module, without damaging the internal structure of the module, using linear shaped charge. Lexan and magnets are used in a charge holder to precisely position the linear shaped charge over the desired cut area. Two types of charge holders have been designed, each with its own backing plate. One holder cuts fabric straps in the vertical configuration, and the other charge holder cuts fabric straps in the horizontal configuration.

  6. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Locking screw-plate interface stability in carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone proximal humerus plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, David J; Fader, Ryan; Baldini, Todd; Chadayammuri, Vivek B S

    2017-07-13

    Carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plates have recently been introduced for proximal humerus fracture treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the locking screw-plate interface stability in CFR-PEEK versus stainless steel (SS) proximal humerus plates. Locking screw mechanical stability was evaluated independently in proximal and shaft plate holes. Stiffness and load to failure were tested for three conditions: (1) on-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK versus SS plates, (2) on-axis locking screw insertion, removal, and reinsertion in CFR-PEEK plates, and (3) 10-degree off-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK plates. Cantilever bending at a rate of 1 mm/minute was produced by an Instron machine and load-displacement data recorded. Shaft locking screw load to failure was significantly greater in CFR-PEEK plates compared to SS plates (746.4 ± 89.7 N versus 596.5 ± 32.6 N, p PEEK plates (p PEEK plates. The mechanical stability of locking screws in CFR-PEEK plates is comparable or superior to locking screws in SS plates.

  8. Pulse reversal plating of nickel alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    Pulse plating has previously been reported to improve the properties of nickel and nickel alloy deposits. Typically, focus has been on properties such as grain size, hardness and smoothness. When pulse plating is to be utilised for microtechnologies such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS......), internal stress and material distribution are even more important. With baths based upon nickel chloride, and nickel and cobalt chlorides, pulse reversal plating of both pure nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys has been used to fabricate tools for microinjection moulding. Pulse reversal plating of ternary soft...

  9. Plate Tectonics: A Paradigm under Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the challenges confronting plate tectonics. Presents evidence that contradicts continental drift, seafloor spreading, and subduction. Reviews problems posed by vertical tectonic movements. (Contains 242 references.) (DDR)

  10. Modal interaction in postbuckled plates. Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Gaylen A.

    1989-01-01

    Plates can have more than one buckled solution for a fixed set of boundary conditions. The theory for the identification and the computation of multiple solutions in buckled plates is examined. The theory predicts modal interaction (which is also called change in buckle pattern or secondary buckling) in experiments on certain plates with multiple theoretical solutions. A set of coordinate functions is defined for Galerkin's method so that the von Karman plate equations are reduced to a coupled set of cubic equations in generalized coordinates that are uncoupled in the linear terms. An iterative procedure for solving modal interaction problems is suggested based on this cubic form.

  11. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...

  12. Plate electrode arrangement for an electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    An electrode plate arrangement for an electrostatic precipitator including a plurality of essentially identical plate assemblies secured in an opposing fashion to the opposite sides of a gridlike mounting frame extending across the interior of the precipitator. The plate assemblies on the upstream side of the frame include an ionizing zone for the dirty gas stream which feeds into serially aligned collecting zones in the opposing assemblies which in turn feed into a deionizing zone in the plate assemblies on the downstream side of the frame.

  13. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates....... The obtained results indicate that the simplified analytical method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding-induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show...

  14. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy for practical...

  15. Line Heat-Source Guarded Hot Plate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The 1-meter guarded hot-plate apparatus measures thermal conductivity of building insulation. This facility provides for absolute measurement of thermal...

  16. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... analysis of beam structures is presented and includes both upper and lower-bound solution techniques. The remaining chapters are devoted to plates. The classic elastic plate theories are presented. The plastic yield line theory for plates is presented including both upper and lower-bound techniques...

  17. Compiling an earthquake catalogue for the Arabian Plate, Western Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deif, Ahmed; Al-Shijbi, Yousuf; El-Hussain, Issa; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Mohamed, Adel M. E.

    2017-10-01

    The Arabian Plate is surrounded by regions of relatively high seismicity. Accounting for this seismicity is of great importance for seismic hazard and risk assessments, seismic zoning, and land use. In this study, a homogenous earthquake catalogue of moment-magnitude (Mw) for the Arabian Plate is provided. The comprehensive and homogenous earthquake catalogue provided in the current study spatially involves the entire Arabian Peninsula and neighboring areas, covering all earthquake sources that can generate substantial hazard for the Arabian Plate mainland. The catalogue extends in time from 19 to 2015 with a total number of 13,156 events, of which 497 are historical events. Four polygons covering the entire Arabian Plate were delineated and different data sources including special studies, local, regional and international catalogues were used to prepare the earthquake catalogue. Moment magnitudes (Mw) that provided by original sources were given the highest magnitude type priority and introduced to the catalogues with their references. Earthquakes with magnitude differ from Mw were converted into this scale applying empirical relationships derived in the current or in previous studies. The four polygons catalogues were included in two comprehensive earthquake catalogues constituting the historical and instrumental periods. Duplicate events were identified and discarded from the current catalogue. The present earthquake catalogue was declustered in order to contain only independent events and investigated for the completeness with time of different magnitude spans.

  18. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-10

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called "stress bandage", the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  19. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  20. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated. PMID:26860896

  1. EVALUATION OF U10MO FUEL PLATE IRRADIATION BEHAVIOR VIA NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel J. Miller; Hakan Ozaltun

    2012-11-01

    This article analyzes dimensional changes due to irradiation of monolithic plate-type nuclear fuel and compares results with finite element analysis of the plates during fabrication and irradiation. Monolithic fuel plates tested in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Lab (INL) are being used to benchmark proposed fuel performance for several high power research reactors. Post-irradiation metallographic images of plates sectioned at the midpoint were analyzed to determine dimensional changes of the fuel and the cladding response. A constitutive model of the fabrication process and irradiation behavior of the tested plates was developed using the general purpose commercial finite element analysis package, Abaqus. Using calculated burn-up profiles of irradiated plates to model the power distribution and including irradiation behaviors such as swelling and irradiation enhanced creep, model simulations allow analysis of plate parameters that are either impossible or infeasible in an experimental setting. The development and progression of fabrication induced stress concentrations at the plate edges was of primary interest, as these locations have a unique stress profile during irradiation. Additionally, comparison between 2D and 3D models was performed to optimize analysis methodology. In particular, the ability of 2D and 3D models account for out of plane stresses which result in 3-dimensional creep behavior that is a product of these components. Results show that assumptions made in 2D models for the out-of-plane stresses and strains cannot capture the 3-dimensional physics accurately and thus 2D approximations are not computationally accurate. Stress-strain fields are dependent on plate geometry and irradiation conditions, thus, if stress based criteria is used to predict plate behavior (as opposed to material impurities, fine micro-structural defects, or sharp power gradients), unique 3D finite element formulation for each plate is required.

  2. Impact Of Screen Ruling on the Formation of the Printing Elements on the Flexographic Printing Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tomašegović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexography is a printing technique widely used in the packaging production. The main feature of the flexography is the usage of the printing plate which is elastically deformed during the reproduction process. The printing plate is made of elastic material, rubber or nowadays mainly of different types of photopolymer. Elasticity of the plate enables printing on a wide range of printing substrates (papers, foils, board, magazines, hygienic papers etc., which is one of its advantages compared to other printing techniques. On the other hand, deformations of the printing plate in the printing process caused by the pressure between the printing plate and substrate present major limitation of the flexography. Beside functional properties of the printing plate in the printing process, the plate making process including photopolymerization highly influences the value of the halftones on the printing plate, and consequently on the final product.  The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of the screen ruling on the formation of the printing elements and the procedure of the printing plate making process adjustment in order to achieve optimal quality of the printing plate and, therefore, the final product. Results have shown that the usage of different screen ruling is of great significance in processes of printing plate curve adjustment. It was proven that the usage of different screen ruling highly influences the relief depth and a cross-section of the printing elements (3D analysis, which have a significant impact on the final product quality, but cannot be detected in 2D analysis.

  3. Impact Of Screen Ruling on the Formation of the Printing Elements on the Flexographic Printing Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Tomašegović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Flexography is a printing technique widely used in the packaging production. The main feature of the flexography is the usage of the printing plate which is elastically deformed during the reproduction process. The printing plate is made of elastic material, rubber or nowadays mainly of different types of photopolymer. Elasticity of the plate enables printing on a wide range of printing substrates (papers, foils, board, magazines, hygienic papers etc., which is one of its advantages compared to other printing techniques. On the other hand, deformations of the printing plate in the printing process caused by the pressure between the printing plate and substrate present major limitation of the flexography. Beside functional properties of the printing plate in the printing process, the plate making process including photopolymerization highly influences the value of the halftones on the printing plate, and consequently on the final product. The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of the screen ruling on the formation of the printing elements and the procedure of the printing plate making process adjustment in order to achieve optimal quality of the printing plate and, therefore, the final product.Results have shown that the usage of different screen ruling is of great significance in processes of printing plate curve adjustment. It was proven that the usage of different screen ruling highly influences the relief depth and a cross-section of the printing elements (3D analysis, which have a significant impact on the final product quality, but cannot be detected in 2D analysis.

  4. Comparison between the spatial subchondral support plate and the proximal humeral locking plate in the treatment of unstable proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Lei; Yang, Di; Yang, Peng; Ma, Jun; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Aimin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the S3 (spatial subchondral support) humeral plate and to compare the clinical outcomes and complications after ORIF (open reduction and internal fixation) of proximal humeral fractures using either a S3 plate or a PHLP (proximal humeral locking plate). A total of 144 patients with displaced unstable proximal humeral fractures were treated with either a S3 plate or a PHLP. Each patient had a follow-up at least for one year. We retrospectively collected the data and compared the shoulder functional outcome as well as complications of these two methods. During the one-year follow-up, the average Constant scores gradually improved for both groups. Patients treated with use of an S3 plate had better functional results at three and six months (P fracture types (Neer classified) were not significantly different between the S3 and PHLP group (P > 0.05). The complication rate was comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05). The treatment using an S3 plate for displaced unstable proximal humeral fractures resulted in a good union rate and functional outcome, which is comparable to the PHLP treatment. The S3 humerus plate can be considered as an effective implant for ORIF of displaced unstable proximal humeral fractures.

  5. Surgical treatment of intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus: comparison between flat plate and calcaneal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Almeida da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical results of surgical treatment of intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus, comparing the use of calcaneal plate and flat plate. METHODS: This was a retrospective study assessing the postoperative results of 25 patients between 2013 and 2015. Patients undergoing surgical treatment of intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus without concomitant surgical lesions were included. Patients who did not complete appropriate follow-up after surgery were excluded from the study. RESULTS: The unavailability of calcaneal plates at resource-limited settings, associated with the availability and lower cost of flat plates, may have been a confounding factor in the present study. However, there was no statistical difference between the outcomes of fractures treated with calcaneal plates or flat plates. CONCLUSION: Statistical inference shows that, when calcaneal plates are not available, it is possible to use flat plates with similar clinical outcomes.

  6. Energy and exergy analysis of a new flat-plate solar air heater having different obstacles on absorber plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Kocyigit, Fatih [Mechanical Engineering Department, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    This study experimentally investigates performance analysis of a new flat-plate solar air heater (SAH) with several obstacles (Type I, Type II, Type III) and without obstacles (Type IV). Experiments were performed for two air mass flow rates of 0.0074 and 0.0052 kg/s. The first and second laws of efficiencies were determined for SAHs and comparisons were made among them. The values of first law efficiency varied between 20% and 82%. The values of second law efficiency changed from 8.32% to 44.00%. The highest efficiency were determined for the SAH with Type II absorbent plate in flow channel duct for all operating conditions, whereas the lowest values were obtained for the SAH without obstacles (Type IV). The results showed that the efficiency of the solar air collectors depends significantly on the solar radiation, surface geometry of the collectors and extension of the air flow line. The largest irreversibility was occurring at the SAH without obstacles (Type IV) collector in which collector efficiency is smallest. At the end of this study, the energy and exergy relationships are delivered for different SAHs. (author)

  7. Printed two-dimensional micro-zone plates for chemical analysis and ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Junfei; Li, Xu; Shen, Wei

    2011-09-07

    In this study we report a new concept of printing low-cost two-dimensional micro-zone plates for chemical and biochemical assays and ELISA. It is different from the concept of forming multi-zone micro-zones on paper by hydrophobic barriers first reported by Yagoda. Instead, the desired multi-zone micro-zone pattern was first printed using a UV-curable varnish onto a polymer film; then fine powders of cellulose or other materials were applied onto the uncured varnish, allowing the powder to stick to the varnish layer. After UV-curing, the powder particles were fixed by the cured varnish, leading to the formation of porous, water absorbing micro-zones on the polymer film. This type of micro-zone plate has the required liquid handling capacity for a variety of low-volume and portable two-dimensional plates for chemical, biochemical assays and ELISA. By suitably spacing porous micro-zones on a non-porous substrate, this type of plate eliminates inter-zone sample leaking. Rapid colorimetric analysis of the results can be performed using a portable battery-powered colour densitometer or a desktop scanner. By introducing a refractive-index-matching liquid into the micro-zones, the plate can be easily analyzed using transmission instruments. A major advantage of this plate fabrication method is that it enables the printing of different powders or functionalized powders to form micro-zones on a same plate, potentially allowing certain more difficult functionalization of materials to be performed before printing. We demonstrate the assaying performance of the plates using an analytical system that aims to clarify the analytical interference between NO(2)(-) and uric acid (UA) in the analysis of samples where both chemical species are present. We also show that ELISA assays can be performed using this type of plates.

  8. Tool design, user characteristics and performance: a case study on plate-shears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbom, A; Mäkäräinen, M; Sperling, L; Kadefors, R; Liedberg, L

    1993-06-01

    Performance, grip forces and fatigue were studied in six male and six female subjects while cutting with plate-shears. Three types of plate-shears were used, one standard and two modified, either with a spring grip, or with a spring grip in combination with a reduced grip span. In addition, three types of plate - easy, moderately difficult and difficult to cut - were used. Male subjects used around 40% of their maximal grip force and female subjects around 60% with the moderately difficult plate; the male subjects produced more than twice as long a cutting distance as the females. Neither EMG analysis (frequency shifts) nor subjective exertion or reduction of handgrip MVC indicated a more pronounced fatigue in women than in men, probably because the female subjects used about a 50% lower cutting rate than the men. Productivity (in cm cut per min) was strongly related to measures of hand size and to the relative grip force used. Thus in a multiple regression analysis using metacarpal hand circumference and relative grip force as independent variables, R2 was 0.77. The two types of modified plate-shears were preferred by all and gave a roughly 30% higher productivity in the male subjects but did not improve productivity in the females. However, with a spring grip and reduced grip span, the female subjects reduced the relative grip forced used from around 65 to 50%. The total work (force-time integral) per cm cut was not influenced by type of plate-shear.

  9. Ultra-wideband ladder filters using zero-th shear mode plate wave in ultrathin LiNbO3 plate with apodized interdigital transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Michio; Tanaka, Shuji

    2016-07-01

    There are two kinds of plate waves propagating in a thin plate, Lamb and shear horizontal (SH) waves. The former has a velocity higher than 15,000 m/s when the plate is very thin. On the contrary, 0th SH (SH0) mode plate wave in an ultrathin LiNbO3 plate has an electro-mechanical coupling factor larger than 50%. Authors fabricated an ultra-wideband T-type ladder filter with a relative bandwidth (BW) of 41% using the SH0 mode plate wave. Although the BW of the filter fully covers the digital TV band in Japan, it does not have sufficient margin at the lower and higher end of BW. Besides, periodic small ripples due to transverse mode in pass-band of the filter were observed. In this study π-type ladder filters were fabricated by changing the pitch ratio of interdigital transducer (IDT) of parallel and series arm resonators (PR(IDT)) to control the BW, and by apodizing IDTs to improve the periodic small ripples due to transverse mode. Ultra-wideband filters without periodic small transverse mode with ultrawide bandwidth from 41 to 49% were fabricated. The BWs fully cover ultrawide digital television bands in Japan and U.S.A. These filters with an ultrawide BW and a steep characteristic show the possibility to be applied to a reported cognitive radio system and other communication systems requiring an ultrawide BW.

  10. Use of a locking plate “notched head T-plate®” for the fixation of an ilial body fracture in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Ricardo Auada Ferrigno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several types of implants may be used to treat iliac fractures in dogs, of which osteosynthesis with plate is the most described and recommended in the literature. The type of plate and screw are major factors in osteosynthesis success. The use of locking plates has been advocated for this purpose, as they do not allow the plate-bone-screw unit to shift, providing angular stability and rigidity to the system. The present study aimed to describe the unprecedented use of a locking notched head T-plate in the treatment of a caudal body of ilium fracture. A two year old male mongrel dog was attended after falling from a third floor height, with two days of evolution. The animal was in standing position, and during orthopedic examination non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb, instability, and crepitus in the right body of ilium, with considerable swelling and pain. The radiographic examination allowed diagnosing a complete fracture of the caudal body of ilium with decrease of the pelvic canal diameter. The patient underwent surgery, and the fracture was stabilized with an LCP notched head T-plate. The patient evolved satisfactorily, with good weight-bearing of the affected limb within 24 hours of surgery, and complete recovery with medical discharge after 60 days of postoperative period, with consolidation of the fracture.

  11. Vibration of Cracked Circular Plates at Resonance Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUANG, CHI-HUNG; MA, CHIEN-CHING

    2000-09-01

    It is well known that the presence of cracks will affect the dynamic characteristics of the vibrating plate. Such a problem is complicated because it combines the field of vibration analysis and fracture mechanics. In this study, an optical system called the AF-ESPI method with the out-of-plane displacement measurement is employed to investigate the vibration characteristics of a free circular plate with a radial crack emanating from the edge. The boundary conditions along the circular edge are free. As compared with the film recording and optical reconstruction procedures used for holographic interferometry, the interferometric fringes of AF-ESPI are produced instantly by a video recording system. Based on the fact that clear fringe patterns will appear only at resonant frequencies, both resonant frequencies and corresponding mode shapes can be obtained experimentally at the same time by the proposed AF-ESPI method. Numerical finite element calculations are also performed and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. Good agreements are obtained for both results. The vibrating mode shapes obtained in this study can be classified into two types, symmetric and antisymmetric modes with respect to the crack line. The influence of crack length on resonant frequencies is also investigated in terms of the dimensionless frequency parameter (λ2) versus crack length ratio (a/D). We find that if the crack face displacement is out of phase, i.e., the antisymmetric type, a large value of stress intensity factor may be induced and the cracked circular plate will be dangerous, from the fracture mechanics point of view. However, there are some resonant frequencies for which the crack face displacements are completely in phase, i.e., the symmetric type, which yields a zero stress intensity factor and the cracked plate will be safe.

  12. Crane Scheduling for a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. This paper considers the problem of scheduling two cranes that carry out the movements of plates...

  13. Marangoni flow on an inkjet nozzle plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; Reinten, Hans; Wijshoff, H.; Wijshoff, Herman; van den Berg, Marc; Delescen, Koos; van Dongen, Rini; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    In piezo inkjet printing, nozzle failures are often caused by an ink layer on the nozzle plate. It is experimentally shown that the ink layer at the nozzle is formed through streamers of ink, emanating from a central ink band on the nozzle plate. The streamers propagate over a wetting nanofilm of

  14. Plate Tectonic Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Plate Tectonics Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) volcanoes (covering formation, distribution, and major volcanic groups); (2) earthquakes (with investigations on wave movements, seismograms and sub-suface earth currents); (3) plate tectonics (providing maps…

  15. 30 CFR 22.10 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... manufacturers. (1) Manufacturers shall attach, stamp, or mold an approval plate on each permissible methane detector. The plate shall bear the emblem of the Mines Safety and Health Administration and be inscribed as...

  16. 30 CFR 20.13 - Approval plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... manufacturer shall attach, stamp, or mold an approval plate on the battery container or housing of each permissible lamp. The plate shall bear the emblem of the Mine Safety and Health Administration, and be...

  17. Micromachined silicon plates for sensing molecular interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, Edwin; Weinberg, M.S.; Dube, C.E.; Zapata, A.M.; Borenstein, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    A micromachined surface stress sensor based on a thin suspended crystalline silicon circular plate measures differential surface stress changes associated with vapor phase chemisorption of an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer. The isolated face of the suspended silicon plate serves as the sensing

  18. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Corroded steel plate; plastic collapse; FEM; rough surface. ... The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method ... Department of Ocean Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, 15914 Tehran, Iran ...

  19. 49 CFR 230.46 - Badge plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.46 Badge plates. A metal badge plate showing the allowed steam pressure shall be attached to the boiler backhead in the cab. If boiler backhead is lagged, the lagging and jacket shall be cut away so...

  20. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  1. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF SSSS THIN RECTANGULAR PLATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was achieved by truncating the two domain Taylor Maclaurin's series at the seventh term to evolve the general deflection polynomial function for thin rectangular plate continuum. Consequently, the SSSS plate boundary conditions were applied, reducing the polynomial function to four degrees of freedom function.

  2. Tectonics of oblique plate boundary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Brune, Sascha; Leever, Karen A.; Fernández, Carlos; Czeck, Dyanna M.

    2016-12-01

    The relative displacement between lithospheric plates normally results in obliquely deforming plate boundaries. This is simply caused by the fact that, on plate tectonics basis, irregularly shaped plate boundaries are rarely perpendicular or parallel to small-circle rotation paths, which describe plate motion on a sphere (Fig. 1a). Global current relative plate motions estimated from geological data (DeMets et al., 2010; Argus et al., 2011) and GPS measurements (e.g., Kreemer et al., 2003; Argus et al., 2010) provide insight to the prevalent degrees of obliquity on Earth's surface. Based on these global data sets, Philippon and Corti (2016), statistically show that current orthogonal boundaries (obliquity angle smaller than 10°) represent around 8% of the total boundary length whereas strike-slip boundaries (obliquity angle larger than 80°) are encountered in plate boundaries present oblique relative motions. Furthermore, changes in plate kinematics leading to migration or jumps in the rotation poles necessarily cause obliquity along former pure strike-slip or convergent/divergent boundaries (Fig. 1b).

  3. Roll-forming tubes to header plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K.

    1976-01-01

    Technique has been developed for attaching and sealing tubes to header plates using a unique roll-forming tool. Technique is useful for attaching small tubes which are difficult to roll into conventional grooves in header plate tube holes, and for attaching when welding, brazing, or soldering is not desirable.

  4. Pressure-Letdown Plates for Coal Gasifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Variation of pseudoporous plates used with coal gasifiers in pressure letdown stage of processing minimize clogging. Rotating plates containing variable gap annuli continually change flow path to enable erosionless reduction of gas pressure. Particles that otherwise clog porous plugs pass through gaps.

  5. Growth Plate Chondrocytes' Morphology and Intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Longitudinal bone growth is dependent on the state of the chondrocytes and the extracellular matrix of the growth plate. Hypervitaminosis A is known to result in limb shortening in several models, this anomaly has been related to the early closure of the epiphyseal plate. The specific contribution of the different ...

  6. Novel Algorithms for Astronomical Plate Analyses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Powerful computers and dedicated software allow effective data mining and scientific analyses in astronomical plate archives. We give and discuss examples of newly developed algorithms for astronomical plate analyses, e.g., searches for optical transients, as well as for major spectral and brightness ...

  7. Foundation plate on the elastic half-space, deterministic and probabilistic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrdá Katarína

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between the foundation plate and subgrade can be described by different mathematical - physical model. Elastic foundation can be modelled by different types of models, e.g. one-parametric model, two-parametric model and a comprehensive model - Boussinesque (elastic half-space had been used. The article deals with deterministic and probabilistic analysis of deflection of the foundation plate on the elastic half-space. Contact between the foundation plate and subsoil was modelled using contact elements node-node. At the end the obtained results are presented.

  8. Fabrication of mandible fracture plate by indirect additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizat, M.; Khan, S. F.

    2017-10-01

    Bone fracture is a serious skeletal injury due to accidents and fragility of the bones at a certain age. In order to accelerate fracture healing process, fracture bone plate is use to hold the fracture segment for more stability. The purpose of this study is to fabricate mandibular fracture plate by using indirect additive manufacturing methods in order to reduce time taken during bending and shaping the fracture fixation plate that conform to the anatomy of the fractured bone site. The design and analysis of the plates are performed using CATIA and ANSYS software. The 3D-CAD data were sent to an additive manufacturing machine (fused filament fabricated) to generate master pattern using PLA and the mould were fabricated using Plaster of Paris. A melt ZAMAK 3 was poured directly into the moulds, and left it until completely harden. 3point bending test was performed on the prototype plate using universal testing machine. Stress-strain curve shows the graph exhibited a linear relationship of stress-strain up to a strain value of 0.001. Specimens give a maximum yielding stress and then break before the conventional deflection. Since the maximum flexural stress and the breaking stress are far apart with a plateau stating at strain value of 0.003mm/mm in most specimens, the specimen’s failure types are considered plastic failure mode. The average thickness and width are 1.65mm and 2.18mm respectively. The flexural modulus and flexural strength are 189.5GPa and 518.1MPa, respectively.

  9. Torsion and transverse bending of cantilever plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, Eric; Stein, Manuel

    1951-01-01

    The problem of combined bending and torsion of cantilever plates of variable thickness, such as might be considered for solid thin high-speed airplane or missile wings, is considered in this paper. The deflections of the plate are assumed to vary linearly across the chord; minimization of the potential energy by means of the calculus of variations then leads to two ordinary linear differential equations for the bending deflections and the twist of the plate. Because the cantilever is analyzed as a plate rather than as a beam, the effect of constraint against axial warping in torsion is inherently included. The application of this method to specific problems involving static deflection, vibration, and buckling of cantilever plates is presented. In the static-deflection problems, taper and sweep are considered.

  10. 2017 Bipolar Plate Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, John P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenck, Deanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The Bipolar Plate (BP) Workshop was held at USCAR1 in Southfield, Michigan on February 14, 2017 and included 63 participants from industry, government agencies, universities, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the workshop was to identify research and development (R&D) needs, in particular early-stage R&D, for bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation applications. The focus of the workshop was on materials, manufacturing, and design aspects of bipolar plates with the goal of meeting DOE’s 2020 bipolar plate targets. Of special interest was the cost target of ≤$3/kW for the bipolar plate.

  11. Clinical efficacy of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis combined locking compression plate treatment for humeral shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO combined locking compression plate treatment for humeral shaft fractures. Methods The clinical data of 15 patients suffering humeral shaft fractures and receiving MIPPO combined locking compression plate treatment hospitalized from Jan 2012 to Dec 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The 15 patients included 9 males and 6 females, aged from 23 to 65 years with an average of 42; The fracture was proximal in 4, middle in 8, and distal in 3 patients; There were 5 type A, 7 type B and 3 type C fracture patients according to AO/ASIF classification. The radial nerve function, fracture healing time, and the shoulder and elbow joint function were observed in all the patients. Results The operation time of 15 patients was 65-110min with an average of 80min. Surgical incision of all patients healed well, and no iatrogenic radial nerve injury was found. All patients were followed-up for 5-22 months, with a mean of 13 months. The fracture healing time was 10-15 weeks, with a mean of 12.5 weeks. The clinical outcome was 14 excellent and 1 of good according to UCLA score, and 13 excellent and 2 good according to Mayo score at the last follow-up. Conclusion MIPPO combined locking compression plate is a safe and simple method for humeral shaft fractures. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.12.13

  12. Parallel Plate System for Collecting Data Used to Determine Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukler, William (Inventor); Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A parallel-plate system collects data used to determine viscosity. A first plate is coupled to a translator so that the first plate can be moved along a first direction. A second plate has a pendulum device coupled thereto such that the second plate is suspended above and parallel to the first plate. The pendulum device constrains movement of the second plate to a second direction that is aligned with the first direction and is substantially parallel thereto. A force measuring device is coupled to the second plate for measuring force along the second direction caused by movement of the second plate.

  13. Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio hard x-ray zone plates with HSQ plating molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Mancini, Derrick C.

    2008-08-01

    Fresnel zone plates are important x-ray diffractive optics which offer a focusing resolution approaching the theoretical limit. In hard x-ray region, the refractive indices of all the materials are close to unity, which requests thick zone plate to achieve a reasonable efficiency. It makes high-resolution zone plate extremely difficult to fabricate due to its high aspect ratio. We report a LIGA-like fabrication process employing e-beam resist HSQ as the plating mold material, which is relative simply compared with traditional processes. 1-μm-thick gold zone plates with 80-nm-wide outermost zone have been fabricated with this process.

  14. Thermal stability analysis of eccentrically stiffened Sigmoid-FGM plate with metal–ceramic–metal layers based on FSDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Hong Cong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches the thermal stability of eccentrically stiffened plates made of functionally graded materials (FGM with metal–ceramic–metal layers subjected to thermal load. The equilibrium and compatibility equations for the plates are derived by using the first-order shear deformation theory of plates, taking into account both the geometrical nonlinearity in the von Karman sense and initial geometrical imperfections with Pasternak type elastic foundations. By applying Galerkin method and using stress function, effects of material and geometrical properties, elastic foundations, temperature-dependent material properties, and stiffeners on the thermal stability of the eccentrically stiffened S-FGM plates in thermal environment are analyzed and discussed.

  15. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient's final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures.

  16. Innovation-Prototype. Making hydraulic and/or pneumatic plates using 3D printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, V.; Rațiu, S. A.; Kiss, I.; Cioată, V. G.; Rackov, M.

    2018-01-01

    Start 3D printing allows hydraulic and/or pneumatic plates to be obtained from a single technological process without requiring further post-production operations. 3D printing with innovative materials in a rich colour range has several advantages such as: time-saving, cost is the same for any type of plate and its reported just to volume, fast and impossible realization of hydraulic and/or pneumatic links compared to traditional and high accuracy technologies.

  17. Influence of Hardness on Perforation Velocity in Steel Armour Plates

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Dikshit

    2000-01-01

    In an earlier investigation3, the influence ofh'ardness on tempered steel armour plates of 20 mm thickness, impacted by. 20 mm diameter steel ogive-shaped projectile at normal , was studied. Additional data is investigated with relation to the perforation velocity of the plates. It is observed that the plate perforation velocity and the plate plugging velocity decrease with increasing plate hardness.

  18. 'Home Plate' Evidence for an Explosive Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This view of layers around the edge of a low plateau called 'Home Plate' inside Mars' Gusev Crater includes a feature that may be what geologists call a 'bomb sag' and interpret as evidence of an explosive event, such as a volcanic eruption. The layers seen here are generally straight and parallel except in the lower right, where they dip around a greyish rock that is about 4 centimeters (about 1.5 inches) in diameter. When layered deposits are struck by a falling rock while the layers are still soft, this type of pattern can be created. The rock might have been lofted by a volcanic burst or as part of the material ejected by the crater-forming impact of a meteorite. The panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired the exposures for this image on Spirit's 754th Martian day (Feb. 15, 2006). This view is an approximately true-color rendering mathematically generated from separate images taken through all of the left Pancam's 432-nanometer to 753-nanometer filters.

  19. Current plate velocities relative to the hotspots incorporating the NUVEL-1 global plate motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripp, Alice E.; Gordon, Richard G.

    1990-01-01

    The NUVEL-1 model of current global relative plate velocities is presently incorporated into HS2-NUVEL1, a global model for plate velocities relative to hotspots; the results thus obtained are compared with those of the AM1-2 model of hotspot-relative plate velocities. While there are places in which plate velocities relative to the hotspots differ between HS2-NUVEL1 and AM1-2 by tens of degrees in direction and 15 mm/yr in speed, the hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95 percent confidence only for the Arabian and Indian plates. Plates attached to subducting slabs move faster relative to the hotspots than do plates without slabs.

  20. Current plate velocities relative to the hotspots incorporating the NUVEL-1 global plate motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripp, Alice E.; Gordon, Richard G.

    1990-07-01

    The NUVEL-1 model of current global relative plate velocities is presently incorporated into HS2-NUVEL1, a global model for plate velocities relative to hotspots; the results thus obtained are compared with those of the AM1-2 model of hotspot-relative plate velocities. While there are places in which plate velocities relative to the hotspots differ between HS2-NUVEL1 and AM1-2 by tens of degrees in direction and 15 mm/yr in speed, the hotspot Euler vectors differ with 95 percent confidence only for the Arabian and Indian plates. Plates attached to subducting slabs move faster relative to the hotspots than do plates without slabs.