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Sample records for swarna bhasma preparations

  1. Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals

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    Sudhaldev Mohapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite bhasma (SMB has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas . The experimental animals (rats were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Suvarna Bhasma Parada Marit

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    Kapil Thakur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this study was to characterize Suvarna Bhasma Parada Marit by using the Ayurvedic test parameters, physico-chemical tests, and various instrumentation techniques. Methods: Suvarna Bhasma, an Ayurvedic formulation manufactured as per Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakar 5/8357 (BBR, has been studied using various instrumentation techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX, laser particle size distribution (PSD analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, and physico-chemical parameters, such as the loss on drying (LOD, loss on ignition (LOI, and acid insoluble Ash (AIA were determined. In addition, Ayurvedic tests, such as Rekhapurnatva (enterable in the furrows of the fingers, Varitaratwa (floatable over water, Nirdhoomta (smokeless, Dantagre Kach-Kach (gritty particle feeling between the teeth, were performed. Results: The XRD study showed Suvarna Bhasma to be crystalline in nature and to contain more than 98% gold. The mean size of the gold crystallites was less than 10 microns, and the morphology was globular and irregular. Suvarna Bhasma contains gold as its single and major element, with EDAX and FT-IR spectra showing that it is more than 98% pure gold. The moisture content (LOD is less than 0.5%, the LOI is less than 2%, and the AIA is not less than 95%. The Ayurvedic tests, as specified above, helped to confirm the quality of Suvarna bhasma prepared as per the text reference (BBR. Conclusion: This chemical characterization of Suvarna Bhasma performed in this study by using modern instrumentation techniques will be helpful in understanding its pharmacological actions and will help in establishing quality protocols and specifications to substantiate the safety, efficacy & quality of Suvarna Bhasma.

  3. Ayurvedic bhasma: nanomedicine of ancient India--its global contemporary perspective.

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    Chaudhary, Anand

    2011-02-01

    Ayurveda is one of the oldest systems of medicine, practiced in Indian sub continent. We are working to calibrate classical parameters of good manufacturing practices of Ayurvedic bhasma on parameters and language of contemporary science. Bhasma in accordance of classical expectation are Swarna bhasma, Makshika bhasma, Abhrak bhasma, Tamra bhasma and Louha bhasma. X-ray diffraction, TEM and particle size analysis revealed that these bhasma are in nanometer dimension. These bhasma may be considered as nanomedicine and are free from toxicity in therapeutic doses.

  4. Scientific Insights in the Preparation and Characterisation of a Lead-based Naga Bhasma

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    Nagarajan, S.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Pemiah, Brindha; Rajan, K. S.; Krishnan, Umamaheswari; Sethuraman, S.

    2014-01-01

    Naga bhasma is one of the herbo-metallic preparations used in Ayurveda, a traditional Indian System of Medicine. The preparation of Naga bhasma involves thermal treatment of ‘Naga’ (metallic lead) in a series of quenching liquids, followed by reaction with realgar and herbal constituents, before calcination to prepare a fine product. We have analysed the intermediates obtained during different stages of preparation to understand the relevance and importance of different steps involved in the preparation. Our results show that ‘Sodhana’ (purification process) removes heavy metals other than lead, apart from making it soft and amenable for trituration. The use of powders of tamarind bark and peepal bark maintains the oxidation state of lead in Jarita Naga (lead oxide) as Pb2+. The repeated calcination steps result in the formation of nano-crystalline lead sulphide, the main chemical species present in Naga bhasma. PMID:24799737

  5. Bhanupaka: A Green Process in the Preparation of an Indian Ayurvedic Medicine, Lauha Bhasma

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    Balaji Krishnamachary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of lauha bhasma, a traditional Indian herbometallic preparation, is in vogue for centuries for the treatment of various ailments related to iron deficiency. The preparation of lauha bhasma requires strict adherence to time-consuming, well-practiced, multistage, and multistep procedures. One of the steps is the treatment of purified metallic ingredients with Triphala decoction (the aqueous extract of Indian gooseberry, Chebulic myrobalans, and Beleric myrobalans in the presence of sunlight (Bhanupaka. The formation of metal complexes due to the reaction of the metallic ingredients with the constituents of Triphala decoction has been ascertained by FTIR spectroscopy and carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analyses. Our results demonstrate that Bhanupaka is an essential step in the preparation of lauha bhasma.

  6. Pharmaceutical standardization of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma

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    Parmar, Kirti Kumar G.; Galib,; Patgiri, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Shukti is an important component of Sudha Varga, which is considered as the latest class in the field of Rasa Shastra. Two types of Shukti have been mentioned in Rasa Shastra texts i.e. Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukti according to the availability. In present study, an attempt has been made to develop a standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma. Five batches of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma were prepared and standardization was attempted by...

  7. Bhasma : The ancient Indian nanomedicine

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    Dilipkumar Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique ayurvedic metallic/minerals preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7 th century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal′s derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration; the starter material undergoes an elaborate process of purification and this process is followed by the reaction phase, which involves incorporation of some other minerals and/or herbal extract. There are various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum health, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness; because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don′t produce any harmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora, etc., Bhasma which contain Fe, Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product(s. Particle size (1-2 μ reduced significantly, which may facilitate absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Shanku bhasma-an anti-ulcer herbomineral formulation

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    Rasheed, Shebina P.; Shivashankar, Murugesh

    2017-11-01

    The traditional systems of Medicines are considered as a safer therapy. This context urges the need of Characterization of traditional medicines for their worldwide acceptance and for the safer, efficacious use. Bhasma the traditional Herbo mineral Ayurvedic formulation prepared by bhasmikaran process. Shanka Bhasma is prepared from the shell of a marine organism is a well-known herbo mineral formulation used for the treatment of peptic ulcer. In the present study, shanka bhasma was prepared and its characterization was done by traditional methods and by modern analytical Parameters like IR, X-ray, EDAX TGA and atomic absorption methods. Its antiulcer effect was also evaluated by animal studies.

  9. Safety and bioactivity studies of Jasad Bhasma and its in-process intermediate in Swiss mice.

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    Chavare, Aparna; Chowdari, Praneeth; Ghosh, Sandipto; Pawar, Priyanka; Patkar, Meena; Dakave, Suresh; Gota, Vikram; Chaudhari, Pradip; Chiplunkar, S V; Kane, Shantaram; Suresh, A K; Bellare, Jayesh

    2017-02-02

    Bhasma, Ayurvedic medicinal preparations, are prepared using herbs and minerals on following long iterative procedures. However, industrially mercury and sulphur are more commonly used to prepare bhasma from its raw material. The end point of this iterative procedure is mainly judged by the traditional tests specifying physical appearance of the powders. They fail to give better idea about chemical nature of the material. Moreover, the differences in biological activity of final product verses intermediate are not addressed. To compare the physicochemical as well as biological properties of the Jasad bhasma and its in-process intermediate using modern science methods. The Jasad bhasma and its in-process intermediate are characterized for their physicochemical properties using electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and CHNS(O) analysis. The biological effects of both the preparations are then studied. The bioaccumulation of zinc, effect on liver antioxidant status, liver and kidney function (by conventional tests as well as SPECT: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography), effect on blood cells and effect on immune system are studied in mice model, Swiss albino. Since bhasma is given with an accompaniment (anupan), all the bioactivity studies were carried out by administering the preparation with and without Amala powder (Phyllanthus emblica L., fruit, dry powder) as anupan. The XRD results accompanied with Rietveld analysis indicate that the final bhasma is mainly oxide of zinc, whereas the intermediate is mainly sulphide of zinc. The animal studies show that the bhasma as well as its intermediate do not lead to any bioaccumulation of zinc in major organs, when administered with and without anupan. Both, bhasma and intermediate do not cause any deleterious effects on kidney and liver as indicated by blood biochemistry and SPECT studies. However, the intermediate perturbs antioxidant status more and affects the platelet turnover, in comparison with bhasma. On 28

  10. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.

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    Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

  11. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS – A PRELIMINARY STUDY

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    Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

  12. Physico-chemical study of Vaikrānta bhasma

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    R Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaikrānta has very important place in Rasa śāstra and is placed under Mahārasa and Upratna group. It has been mentioned that vaikrānta can be used in the place of diamond, which is a very precious stone and whose use is beyond the limit of the common man. Vaikrānta possesses pharmacological and therapeutic properties similar to diamond, but still very few researchers have worked on it. Aims and Objectives: The main aim of the present study is to analyze vaikrānta bhasma by employing various organoleptic methods mentioned in Ayurvedic science along with analysis as per tools available today. Settings and Design: In the present study, vaikrānta bhasma was prepared according to method mentioned in Rasa Ratna Samuccaya. Final product is prepared according to classical parameters described in Ayurvedic science. Materials and Methods: Ayurvedic scholars have described various parameters for the qualitative evaluation of vaikrānta bhasma, but all those are subjective in nature and cannot be evaluated numerically for reproducibility of the result. With this in mind, in the present study, tests as per Ayurvedic science and analytical parameters such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry were adopted to analyze the final product. Results and Conclusions: Data suggests that vaikrānta bhasma is a multi-mineral compound, which contains iron and silica as major constituents and others are present as trace elements. The data obtained in this study suggest that quality specifications for vaikrānta bhasma can be developed using tests described in Ayurvedic science along with analytical tools available today.

  13. ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF SHANKHA BHASMA (CALCINED CONCH-SHELL

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    T. K. Sur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The anti-ulcer activities along with chemical identification of purified Shankha Bhasma (SBM or calcined conch-shell was undertaken. Shankha Bhasma (SBM was prepared by traditional process used in India. The chemical composition of SBM was studied by atomic absorption spectrometry and infra-red spectral analysis. Acute oral toxicity of SBM was done in Swiss mice. SBM (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg was studied for anti-ulcer effect on ethanol induced and pylorus ligature induced model in Wistar rats. SBM showed significant (P<0.001 positive results in both the models in comparison with respective control and standard control (omeprazole 20 mg/kg and ranitidine 50 mg/kg.

  14. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron in albino rats

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    Namrata Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in some of the biochemical and haematological parameters along with histopathological findings were evident at the highest dose level.

  15. Evolution of Swarna estuary and its impact on braided islands and estuarine banks, Southwest coast of India

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    AvinashKumar; Jayappa, K.S.; Vethamony, P.

    Qualitative and quantitative evolution of the Swarna estuary, Karnataka, India during the past 38 years (1967–2005), has been analysed by integrating the results of field surveys, satellite images, hydrodynamic modelling and topographic data in GIS...

  16. Toxicity studies of iron-containing ayurvedic drug Kasisa Bhasma

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    Satadru Palbag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kasisa is an important iron-containing mineral drug of ayurvedic Rasa Shastra and employs for various therapeutic uses in anemia, hair growth modulator, eye disorders, skin disorders, etc. Objective: In this study, shodhana was done by triturating in lemon juice and calcination was done by traditional heating arrangement with Kanji (sour gruel method. Both the purified and calcined product of the Kasisa was subjected to histopathological and toxicological study to evaluate the safety of this iron-based ayurvedic medicine. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult Charles Foster albino rats of either sex, 16 for each drug (Shodhita Kasisa, Kasisa Bhasma, were taken for the whole study. Toxicological study of the brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was performed. Results: Kasisa Bhasma at higher dose of 100 mg/kg showed some adverse effects in isolated organs of experimental animals, but the extent of damage is minimal compared to Shodhita Kasisa which showed adverse effects at 25-50 mg/kg. Conclusions: Kasisa Bhasma is nontoxic and safer as compared to Shodhita Kasisa. It can be administered at a controlled dose to affect therapeutic efficacy.

  17. Physicochemical and pharmacological assessment of a traditional biomedicine: Mukta shouktic bhasma

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    Nitin Dubey

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mukta shouktic bhasma (MSB is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal preparation. This biomedicine is synthesized through special calcination of mother of pearl as mentioned in the classical Ayurvedic text. Physicochemical characterization of MSB was carried out using modern techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The study showed that the raw material mukta shouktic (mother of pearl is an organo-mineral matrix containing calcium carbonate in aragonite form. The aragonite form of calcium carbonatetransforms to a stable calcite form during the process of bhasma formation and forms the main crystalline component of MSB. The heat treatment does result in partial conversion of calcite to calcium oxide, which appears as calcium hydroxide(not more than 2% w/w in the final product. The organic content of processed material degraded gradually. Physical evaluation revealed that MSB is a fine grayish white powder having a poor flow property with narrow particle size distribution of 1.22 to 22.52 m having a mean particle size of 10.20±0.45 m. A clearly identifiable fraction of MSB particles was below 50 nanometer. The presence of nanosized particles in MSB might impart the therapeutic property of this medicine. Trace element analysis of MSB revealed the presence of metals, like arsenic, lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury, and tin under regulatory acceptable limits at the prescribed dose of MSB. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed calcium as the major element (40.22 wt % in MSB. Microbial load for the formulation was found to be within limits. Animals were found to be safe up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight in acute toxicity studies. A significant (P<0.05 reduction in hyperpyrexia in rat was produced by MSB.

  18. Anti-diabetic activity and safety assessment of Ayurvedic medicine, Jasada bhasma (zinc ash) in rats.

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    Umrani, Rinku D; Agrawal, Durgashankar S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2013-10-01

    Jasada bhasma (zinc ash) is an extensively used Ayurvedic medicine for treating diabetes mellitus. The present communication presents yet unavailable comprehensive scientific data on its physico-chemical nature vis-a-vis anti-diabetic activity and toxicity profile.Zinc ash prepared by traditional method was found to consist of 200-500 nm sized particles, predominantly zinc oxide with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. The effective dose range of zinc ash in oral glucose tolerance tests performed using normoglycemic Wistar rats was found to be 3-30 mg/kg. Subsequently anti-diabetic activity was assessed in streptozotocin induced type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats. Four weeks treatment with zinc ash (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) resulted in improved glucose tolerance (16-19%), lowered blood glucose levels (20-33%) and reduced serum insulin levels (27-32%). Systemic absorption was assessed by single dose pharmacokinetic study where serum zinc levels were found to be elevated (3.5 folds) after oral administration of zinc ash. Acute and sub-acute toxicity tests demonstrated safety of zinc ash up to 300 mg/kg doseie. 100 times the efficacy dose in rats. These findings, the first of their kind, provide concrete scientific evidence that justifies usage of zinc ash in diabetes treatment.

  19. Genotype × environment interactions of yield traits in backcross introgression lines derived from Oryza sativa cv. Swarna /Oryza nivara

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    Divya Balakrishnan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced backcross introgression lines (BILs developed from crosses of Oryza sativa var. Swarna/O. nivara accessions were grown and evaluated for yield and related traits. Trials were conducted for consecutive three seasons in field conditions in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on yield traits under irrigated conditions were analyzed using the Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI, Genotype and Genotype × Environment Interaction (GGE and modified rank-sum statistic (YSi for yield stability. BILs viz., G3 (14S and G6 (166S showed yield stability across the seasons along with high mean yield performance. G3 is early in flowering with high yield and has good grain quality and medium height, hence could be recommended for most of the irrigated locations. G6 is a late duration genotype, with strong culm strength, high grain number and panicle weight. G6 has higher yield and stability than Swarna but has Swarna grain type. Among the varieties tested DRRDhan 40 and recurrent parent Swarna showed stability for yield traits across the seasons. The component traits thousand grain weight, panicle weight, panicle length, grain number and plant height explained highest genotypic percentage over environment and interaction factors and can be prioritized to dissect stable QTLs/ genes. These lines were genotyped using microsatellite markers covering the entire rice genome and also using a set of markers linked to previously reported yield QTLs. It was observed that wild derived lines with more than 70% of recurrent parent genome were stable and showed enhanced yield levels compared to genotypes with higher donor genome introgressions.

  20. Molecular and Functional Characterization of GR2-R1 Event Based Backcross Derived Lines of Golden Rice in the Genetic Background of a Mega Rice Variety Swarna.

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    Haritha Bollinedi

    Full Text Available Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype. Nucleotide blast analysis with the primer sequences used to amplify the transgene revealed that the integration of transgene disrupted the native OsAux1 gene, which codes for an auxin transmembrane transporter protein. Real time expression analysis of the transgenes (ZmPsy and CrtI driven by endosperm-specific promoter revealed the leaky expression of the transgene in the vegetative tissues. We propose that the disruption of OsAux1 disturbed the fine balance of plant growth regulators viz., auxins, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid, leading to the abnormalities in the growth and development of the lines homozygous for the transgene. The study demonstrates the conserved roles of OsAux1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis.

  1. Molecular and Functional Characterization of GR2-R1 Event Based Backcross Derived Lines of Golden Rice in the Genetic Background of a Mega Rice Variety Swarna.

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    Bollinedi, Haritha; S, Gopala Krishnan; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Mishra, Sushma; Khurana, Jitendra P; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB) using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm) but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype. Nucleotide blast analysis with the primer sequences used to amplify the transgene revealed that the integration of transgene disrupted the native OsAux1 gene, which codes for an auxin transmembrane transporter protein. Real time expression analysis of the transgenes (ZmPsy and CrtI) driven by endosperm-specific promoter revealed the leaky expression of the transgene in the vegetative tissues. We propose that the disruption of OsAux1 disturbed the fine balance of plant growth regulators viz., auxins, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid, leading to the abnormalities in the growth and development of the lines homozygous for the transgene. The study demonstrates the conserved roles of OsAux1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis.

  2. Molecular Mapping of QTLs for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Oryza sativa cv Swarna × O. nivara (IRGC81848 Backcross Population

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    B.P. MALLIKARJUNA SWAMY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced backcross QTL analysis was used to identify QTLs for seven yield and yield-related traits in a BC2F2 population from the cross between a popular Oryza sativa cv Swarna and O. nivara IRGC81848. Transgressive segregants with more than 15% increased effect over Swarna were observed for all the traits except days to heading and days to 50% flowering. Thirty QTLs were detected for seven yield and yield-related traits using interval and composite interval mapping. Enhancing alleles at 13 (45% of these QTLs were derived from O. nivara, and enhancing alleles at all the QTLs for stem diameter and rachis diameter were derived from O. nivara. Three stem diameter QTLs, two rachis diameter QTLs and one number of secondary branches QTL identified by both Interval and composite interval mapping contributed more than 15% of the total phenotypic variance. The QTL epistasis was significant for stem diameter and plot yield. The most significant QTLs qSD7.2, qSD8.1 and qSD9.1 for stem diameter, qRD9.1 for rachis diameter and qNSB1.1 for number of secondary branches are good targets to evaluate their use in marker-assisted selection. O. nivara is a good source of novel alleles for yield related traits and reveals major effect QTLs suitable for marker-assisted selection.

  3. Comparative studies on Indian traditional nanomedicine Yashadha Bhasma and zinc oxide nanoparticles for anti-diabetic activity

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    Durgalakshmi, D.; Ajay Rakkesh, R.; Bhargavi Ram, T.; Balakumar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder due to carbohydrate metabolism. Also, zinc and its supplements have been used in Indian traditional medicines for treating urinary tract infections. In this work, an attempt has been made to compare the properties of ‘Yashadha Bhasma’ a traditional ayurvedic ZnO supplement for diabetic treatment with the laboratory-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. The nano-sized ZnO particles are synthesized using co-precipitation method and calcined at 400 °C for further purification. Confirmation of ZnO and presence of Ca and K elements additional to Zn in Yashadha Bhasma is confirmed from XPS. The morphology of ZnO is found to be spherical with average diameter of 15 nm. TEM results show that ZnO rods of Yashadha Bhasma are porous and non-uniform. Glucose degradation studies revealed good performance with ZnO nanoparticles with 80% degradation occurring within 15 min itself. Antibacterial studies also performed well establishing efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains, thereby establishing suitable material for treating diabetes mellitus and also curing bacterial wound infections arising due to diabetes mellitus.

  4. PA02.04. A comparative study of loha rasayana prepared by ayaskriti and modified method w.s.r. disintegration of Iron.

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    Baijnath, P Anjali; Meena, Moharpal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Loha Rasayana one of the important Rasayana referred in Charaka Samhita is known for its Rasayana effect. This approach to the formulations was so rational and perfect that it fulfils the expectation of the scientific masses even also in terms of today's Nanoparticle theory. This technique got improvised with time and experience and is now used to make the Bhasmas. Purpose of present study was to scrutinize the validation of the process referred in Charaka Samhita to render the metal therapeutically suitable to the body and procedure by which the Bhasmas are prepared and to analyse them on ancient and modern parameters. Method: •Loha Rasayana was prepared as per Cha.Chi. 13/1523 by using Ayaskriti. •Samples were collected and subjected to analysis at different interval of time to trace the ongoing changes in the medicine. •Loha Rasayana was analytically compared with the Bhasma and also with a sample of Loha Rasayana prepared by using Bhasma on ancient and modern parameters. •The samples were subjected to XRD, ICPAES, SEM, Organoleptic tests, Physico chemical, Assay of Iron Content, Particle size, TLC and Alcohol Content. Result: Analytical Tests: LRA LRB Particle Size(200) 68.0% 88%, Particle Size (325) 4% 7%, TLC (Rf) 0.25 0.024, Alcohol content %2.12% 4.28%, ICP AES (Fe) % 66.45% 51.32%, Total Iron Content %36.40 43.50, Ferrous Content %7.23 7.09, Ferric Content % 29.49 37.91, XRD Hematite & Magnetite Hematite Conclusion: Submersion of Iron in Acidic media for 12 months reduced Iron to 68% and 88% of the Ayaskriti and Bhasma to pass through 200 mess size. Alcohol content of the samples was well within the limit (2.12% and 4.28) and Ferrous content were found to increase in both samples to 7.23% & 7.09%.

  5. Safety and toxicity issues associated with lead-based traditional herbo-metallic preparations.

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    Nagarajan, Surya; Sivaji, Kalaiarasi; Krishnaswamy, Sridharan; Pemiah, Brindha; Rajan, Kalpoondi Sekar; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    Herbal and herbo-mineral preparations are being traditionally used in Indian medicines. The herbo-mineral preparations have several benefits that have been instrumental in their widespread use in treatment of different disorders by traditional medicinal practitioners. These include better stability, lower dosage, ease of storability and sustained availability. Naga bhasma (lead sulphide ash), a traditional Indian herbo-mineral medication prepared using lead and several herbal ingredients, has been used as an oral medicine in India for many years for the treatment of diabetes, spleen enlargement, diarrhoea and various skin diseases. The elaborate preparation protocol involved in the traditional medicines is believed to modify the toxic nature of the precursor (metal) and adds therapeutic value. But modern scientists claim that these preparations are toxic to health as they contain large amount of metal. Many factors such as preparation based factors, chemical nature based factors, vehicle used, therapy associated factors, pharmacological factors, etc, determine whether the traditional medicines are toxic or not. This review focuses on the safety and critical issues associated with Naga bhasma-a lead based ayurvedic medicine. The detailed review of literature about Naga bhasma apart from other lead based formulations are carried out by utilizing the resources including, classical Indian text books, databases such as Pub med, Scopus, Science direct and few other web sources. Though metallic lead is known to be toxic to the biological system, no compelling evidence has been put forth to suggest any toxic manifestations of Naga bhasma. The elemental characterization of preparations containing Naga bhasma has shown extremely high levels of lead content and various parameters must be taken into consideration in deciding the safety and critical issues present in traditional medicines. As there are no molecular targets available for most of the traditional medicine, it is

  6. Effect of Ayurveda Medications (Kasīsa Bhasma and Dhātrī Avaleha on Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Ramappa Tubaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper explores the role that Ayurveda can play in the management of Iron Deficiency Anaemia, a major nutritional deficiency disorder affecting people across the globe. Methodology: Forty (40 patients suffering from Iron deficiency anaemia as per WHO guidelines, between the age group of 20 to 60 yrs of either sex participated in the study. Study was a randomized, controlled, open label clinical study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group D (n = 20 received Dhārī avaleha 10 g twice a day after food. Group K (n = 20 received capsules Kasīsa bhasma 125 mg thrice a day. Both interventions were administered for 30 days and the subjects were followed up for next 30 days with placebo capsules to assess the sustainability of the effects. Assessments were done at baseline, 30th and 60th days. Primary outcome measure was hemoglobin estimation (Hb and secondary outcome measures were the other hematological parameters such as Red blood cell (RBC indices, total RBC count, Packed Cell volume (PCV and Peripheral Blood smear study. Results: Both interventions produced significant improvements (P < 0.001. Kasīsa bhasma was better compared to dhārī avaleha in terms of primary (P < 0.0001 and secondary outcomes. Comparison of outcomes from base line – 30th day, base line – 60th day and 30th – 60th day showed significant (P < 0.0001 improvement in both the groups in parameters such as haemoglobin, MCV and MCH. Hence improvements sustained during placebo intervened sustainability period also. Conclusions: Study effectively shows that Kasīsa bhasma is better then Dhātrī avaleha. Improvements by both interventions were sustained even during the sustainability period.

  7. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  8. Nature vs. nurture: gold perpetuates "stemness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P; Deb, Kaushik Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Adult tissues contain quiescent reservoirs of multipotent somatic stem cells and pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells (ELSCs). Credited with regenerative properties gold is used across both -contemporary and -ancient medicines. Here, we show that gold exerted these effects by enhancing the pool of pluripotent ELSC while improving their stemness. We used hESCs as an in-vitro model to understand if gold could enhance self-renewal and pluripotency. Swarna-bhasma (SB), an ancient Indian gold microparticulate (41.1 nm), preparation, reduced spontaneous-differentiation, improved self-renewal, pluripotency and proliferation of hESCs. Colloidal gold-nanoparticles (GNP) (15.59 nm) were tested to confirm that the observations were attributable to nanoparticulate-gold. SB and GNP exposure: maintained -stemness, -karyotypic stability, enhanced pluripotency till day-12, increased average colony-sizes, and reduced the number of autonomously-derived differentiated FGFR1 positive fibroblast-niche-cells/colony. Particulate-gold induced upregulation of FGFR1 and IGF2 expression, and decrease in IGF1 secretion indicates IGF1/2 mediated support for enhanced pluripotency and self-renewal in hESCs.

  9. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  10. Specimen Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David B.; Carter, C. Barry

    Specimen preparation is a very broad subject; there are books devoted to this topic alone. The intention here is to summarize the techniques, suggest routes that you might follow, and above all to emphasize that there are many ways to produce a TEM specimen; the one you choose will depend on the information you need, time constraints, availability of equipment, your skill, and the material. So we’ll concentrate on the ‘principles of cooking,’ but won’t try to list all the possible ‘recipes.’ One important point to bear in mind is that your technique must not affect what you see or measure, or if it does, then you must know how. Specimen preparation artifacts may be interesting but they are not usually what you want to study. Incidentally, we’ll make ‘specimens’ from the ‘sample’ we’re investigating so we’ll look at ‘TEM specimens,’ but sometimes we, and everyone else, will interchange the two words.

  11. The Lottery Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamkins, Joel David

    1998-01-01

    The lottery preparation, a new general kind of Laver preparation, works uniformly with supercompact cardinals, strongly compact cardinals, strong cardinals, measurable cardinals, or what have you. And like the Laver preparation, the lottery preparation makes these cardinals indestructible by various kinds of further forcing. A supercompact cardinal kappa, for example, becomes fully indestructible by kappa-directed closed forcing; a strong cardinal kappa becomes indestructible by less-than-or-...

  12. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  13. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  14. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child will probably cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...

  15. Preparation of the Reagent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    D-glucose and D-fructose. It is the easiest to perform among all the distinguishing tests available in the literature [2,3] for these two sugars, gives unambiguous results and uses ordinary chemicals such as NaOH and potassium ferricyanide. Preparation of the Reagent. The alkaline potassium ferricyanide reagent is prepared ...

  16. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganisms on the skin surface and to reduce the resident flora to a low level. Povidone iodine (I odophors and chlorhexidine are most often used antiseptics for pre - operative skin preparation. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and in combination with antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine in preoperative skin p reparation by taking swab culture. (2 To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups. METHODS: One hundred patients (fifty in each group undergoing clean elective surgery with no focus of infection on the body were included in th e study. The pre - operative skin preparation in each group is done with the respective antiseptic regimen. In both the groups after application of antiseptics , sterile saline swab culture was taken immediately from site of incision. In cases which showed gr owth of organisms , the bacteria isolated were identified by their morphological and cultural characteristics. Grams staining , coagulase test and antibiotic sensitivity test were done wherever necessary and difference in colonization rates was determined as a measure of efficacy of antiseptic regimen. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that when compared to povidone iodine alone , using a combination of povidone iodine and alcoholic solution of chlorhexidine , the colonization rates of the site of incisi on were reduced significantly. As for the rate of post - operative wound infection , it is also proven that wound infections are also

  17. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  18. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  19. Preparing Students for Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences with internat......A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences...

  20. Standardization of a traditional polyherbo-mineral formulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis showed the reduction of metals and minerals (particle size range 2-5 ìm) which indicates the proper preparation of bhasmas, the important ingredient of Brahmi vati. Findings of EDX analysis of all samples of Brahmi vati suggested the absence of Gold, an important

  1. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preparing preschoolers for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - preschooler ... Preparing children for medical tests can reduce their anxiety. It can also make them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that ...

  2. Variability of hydroxyapatite preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R A; Holcomb, D W

    1982-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite synthesized by various "standard" ways exhibits marked differences with preparation method. Specimens were prepared with two precipitation methods, a reflux method, a hydrothermal method, a high-temperature (1000 degrees C) solid-state reaction method, and by conversion of chlorapatite at 1000 degrees C. They were compared in detail by use of several techniques, the major ones being x-ray diffraction including Rietveld structure refinements, quantitative i.r. analyses, and deuteration kinetics studies. At least some of the specimens differed with respect to each of the approximately 14 properties measured. The major lattice parameter differences could be largely accounted for by structurally incorporated H2O, CO2-3, and + O2- for 2(OH)-. Deuterizability was used as an indicator of ease of diffusion along the X-ion channels, a property that may be related to dissolution kinetics. The differently prepared specimens differed in deuterizability by at least two orders of magnitude. The high-temperature preparations, which were monoclinic, deuterated little at 110 degrees C, even in 1000 h. The precipitated and reflux specimens deuterated readily. There were general indications of correlation between ease of diffusion and features providing passing sites for the diffusing species, e.g., OH- disorder, vacancies, and distortions in the walls of the X-ion channels (mostly by CO3 for PO4), and possibly OH- vacancies. Correlation of structural H2O, present in the aqueous preparations, with ease of diffusion is still ambiguous.

  3. Preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kien-yin

    1985-01-01

    Method for the preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate. Ethylenediamine dinitrate, a useful explosive, may readily be prepared by solvent extraction of nitrate ion from an acidic aqueous solution thereof using a high-molecular-weight, water-insoluble amine dissolved in an organic solvent, and reacting the resulting organic solution with ethylenediamine. The process of the instant invention avoids the use of concentrated nitric acid, as is currently practiced, resulting in a synthesis which is far less hazardous especially for large quantities of the explosive, and more efficient.

  4. Preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.

    1984-05-17

    Method for the preparation of ethylenediamine dinitrate. Ethylenediamine dinitrate, a useful explosive, may readily be prepared by solvent extraction of nitrate ion from an acidic aqueous solution thereof using a high-molecular-weight, water-insoluble amine dissolved in an organic solvent, and reacting the resulting oraganic solution with ethylenediamine. The process of the instant invention avoids the use of concentrated nitric acid, as is currently practiced, resulting in a synthesis which is far less hazardous, especially for large quantities of the explosive, and more efficient.

  5. Teaching Preparation Program (TPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Geography.

    Because most graduate geography students will engage in professional teaching activities, the Teaching Preparation Program of UCLA's department of geography is viewed as an important part of graduate training. The program, co-directed by a graduate student and faculty member, is available to all graduate students on a voluntary basis and consists…

  6. The Preparation of Ferrocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, F. R.; Temple-Nidd, G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the preparation of a compound that is of particular interest because of its sandwich structure in which the metal atom is sandwiched between two planar C5H5-rings. Sublimation results in the formation of long thin plate-like crystals. (GS)

  7. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prepared host-guest composite material shows luminescence. The material has the potentiality as luminescence material. KEY WORDS: Host-guest nanocomposite material, Nanometer MCM-41 molecular sieve host, Rhodamine B guest, Characterization, Luminescence Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2009, 23(1), 145-150.

  8. Preparing for CLIC tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Canon 5 undergoes first brazing for preparation in the CLIC study at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2). This will test injection for a proposed linear collider that will further explore discoveries made at the LHC. Electric fields in the canon will boost electrons into the acceleration fields of the collider.

  9. Rules for Thesaurus Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Educational Research and Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Panel on Educational Terminology.

    This is a revision of the "Rules for Thesaurus Preparation," published in October 1966. These rules are designed to help the Central ERIC staff and the staffs of the ERIC Clearinghouses make similar decisions related to the addition and modification of terms in the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors," Second Edition. In addition to…

  10. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...

  11. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...

  12. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  13. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  14. Simplified budget preparation

    OpenAIRE

    VIJAYA KRUSHNA VARMA

    2011-01-01

    In the present economic system the budget preparation is massive, multi staged, time consuming and laborious process. There are thousands of different high or very low valued goods or services to be segregated into different groups and taxed by both Centre and States with different taxes at three or more slab rates and, as if these are not enough, there are additional surcharges or cesses on selected goods. These tax structures and slab rates on different goods keep changing every year. With ...

  15. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cryopreservation; evaluation of semen in the andrology laboratory; genetic aspects of male reproduction; emerging techniques and future development of semen evaluation and handling and applied androlo...

  16. Electrohydrodynamic preparation of nanomedicines

    OpenAIRE

    Rasekh, Manoochehr; Smith, Ashleigh; Arshad, M. S.; Gunduz, O.; Van Der Merwe, Marisa; Smith, G.; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of nanomedicines can be achived using a host of methods ranging from wet-chemical approaches to more engineering related techniques. As a maturing branch of nanotechnology, nanomedcines are being tailored to serve multiple pharmaceutic and biomedical related funcitons (e.g. targeted delivery, imaging, healing, sensing) which may require the utilisaiton of one or more actives or excipients. In some instances, handling of materials (such as sensitive biomolecules or active pharm...

  17. TORIS Data Preparation Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, H.; Remson, D.

    1999-03-11

    The objective of this manual is to present guidelines and procedures for the preparation of new data for the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) data base. TORIS is an analytical system currently maintained by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Bartlesville Project Office. It uses an extensive field- and reservoir-level data base to evaluate the technical and economic recovery potential of specific crude oil reservoirs.

  18. Preparation of chitosan gel

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerge S.; Ben Salem R.; Elaloui E.; Mnasri N.; Moussaoui Y.; de Menorval L. C.

    2012-01-01

    Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  19. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  20. PREPARATION OF URANIUM TRIOXIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, J.S.

    1959-09-01

    The production of uranium trioxide from aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate is discussed. The uranium trioxide is produced by adding sulfur or a sulfur-containing compound, such as thiourea, sulfamic acid, sulfuric acid, and ammonium sulfate, to the uranyl solution in an amount of about 0.5% by weight of the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate, evaporating the solution to dryness, and calcining the dry residue. The trioxide obtained by this method furnished a dioxide with a considerably higher reactivity with hydrogen fluoride than a trioxide prepared without the sulfur additive.

  1. prepare_taxa_charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhujani, Vijay; Badapanda, Chandan

    2017-06-01

    QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) is one of the most popular open-source bioinformatics suite for performing metagenome, 16S rRNA amplicon and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) data analysis. Although, it is very comprehensive and powerful tool, it lacks a method to provide publication ready taxonomic pie charts. The script plot_taxa_summary . py bundled with QIIME generate a html file and a folder containing taxonomic pie chart and legend as separate images. The images have randomly generated alphanumeric names. Therefore, it is difficult to associate the pie chart with the legend and the corresponding sample identifier. Even if the option to have the legend within the html file is selected while executing plot_taxa_summary . py , it is very tedious to crop a complete image (having both the pie chart and the legend) due to unequal image sizes. It requires a lot of time to manually prepare the pie charts for multiple samples for publication purpose. Moreover, there are chances of error while identifying the pie chart and legend pair due to random alphanumeric names of the images. To bypass all these bottlenecks and make this process efficient, we have developed a python based program, prepare_taxa_charts . py , to automate the renaming, cropping and merging of taxonomic pie chart and corresponding legend image into a single, good quality publication ready image. This program not only augments the functionality of plot_taxa_summary . py but is also very fast in terms of CPU time and user friendly.

  2. Data Breach Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belangia, David Warren [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-13

    The Home Depot Data Breach is the second largest data breach on record. It has or will affect up to 56 million debit or credit cards. A trusted vendor account, coupled with the use of a previously unknown variant of malware that allowed the establishment of a foothold, was the entry point into the Home Depot network. Once inside the perimeter, privilege escalation provided an avenue to obtain the desired information. Home Depot did, however, learn some lessons from Target. Home Depot certainly communicated better than Target, procured insurance, and instituted as secure an environment as possible. There are specific measures an institution should undertake to prepare for a data breach, and everyone can learn from this breach. Publicly available information about the Home Depot Data Breach provides insight into the attack, an old malware variant with a new twist.While the malware was modified as to be unrecognizable with tools, it probably should have been detected. There are also concerns with Home Depot’s insurance and the insurance provider’s apparent lack of fully reimbursing Home Depot for their losses. The effect on shareholders and Home Depot’s stock price was short lived. This story is still evolving but provides interesting lessons learned concerning how an organization should prepare for it inevitable breach.

  3. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  4. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources is organising a preparation for retirement seminar which will take place on the four successive afternoons of 2 to 5 October 2007. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of one’s working life and the start of a new period of life. This period of transition and change is experienced differently from one individual to another. In any case, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above as well as those who have retired during the year have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of th...

  5. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are ...

  6. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

      The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Indico. &a...

  7. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are r...

  8. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  9. Food Preparation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    scales for weighing miscellaneous spices and other ingredients, a chopper-crusher for garlic, a jacketed kettle for thawing pineapple and orange...specialized equipment is necessary for preparing of pizza dough, the CFPF will make the dough, and the satellite will apply the tomato paste...2439 pineapple , 6 6 No. 3 B 6 3 6 6 3 3 6 3 48.0 cyl D 0.33 2 0.33 2 0.33 2 0,33 2 0.33 0.33 9,98 can s 0.33 0.50 0.33 1.16 so 0.33 2 0.33 2 0.33

  10. Preparation of A Spaceflight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riwaldt, Stefan; Monici, Monica; Graver Petersen, Asbjørn

    2017-01-01

    To prepare the ESA (European Space Agency) spaceflight project "Wound healing and Sutures in Unloading Conditions", we studied mechanisms of apoptosis in wound healing models based on ex vivo skin tissue cultures, kept for 10 days alive in serum-free DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with bovine serum...... albumin, hydrocortisone, insulin, ascorbic acid and antibiotics at 32 °C. The overall goal is to test: (i) the viability of tissue specimens; (ii) the gene expression of activators and inhibitors of apoptosis and extracellular matrix components in wound and suture models; and (iii) to design analytical...... protocols for future tissue specimens after post-spaceflight download. Hematoxylin-Eosin and Elastica-van-Gieson staining showed a normal skin histology with no signs of necrosis in controls and showed a normal wound suture. TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling for detecting DNA fragmentation revealed...

  11. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  12. Preparing the operating budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B

    1983-12-01

    The process of preparing a hospital pharmacy budget is presented. The desired characteristics of a budget and the process by which it is developed and approved are described. Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budget types are explained, as are the major components of a well-developed budget: expense, workload, productivity, revenue, and capital equipment and other expenditures. Specific methods for projecting expenses and revenues, based on historical data, are presented along with a discussion of variables that must be considered in order to achieve an accurate and useful budget. The current shift in emphasis away from revenue capture toward critical analysis of pharmacy costs underscores the importance of budgetary analysis for hospital pharmacy managers.

  13. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    (Health insurance and wealth and succession planning) During the preparation for retirement seminar in November 2009, the sessions on health insurance in Switzerland and in France unfortunately had to be postponed. Participants in the seminar also expressed interest in an information session on “How to manage your wealth and organize your succession”. The sessions on health insurance will be held on 16 March 2010 and those on managing wealth and succession on 18 March 2010. Programme for Tuesday 16 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 Health insurance in Switzerland by Mr. Sandro Breitenstein, Service de l'Assurance Maladie du Canton de Genève 10:00 Coffee break 10:20 Health insurance in France by Mr. Dominique Curtiaud, Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie de l'Ain Programme for Thursday 18 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 How to manage your wealth and organize your succession in Switzerland by Mr. Jean-Marc W...

  14. Prepared for internship?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abuhusain, H

    2009-03-01

    Preparedness of medical school graduates for the intern year is one of the emphasised objectives of undergraduate medical training. We have evaluated the perceived preparedness of graduates undertaking the intern year in the Republic of Ireland. A 9-page questionnaire was mailed to all 497 interns in Ireland following commencement of the intern year in July 2005. Data obtained included demographics, perceived preparedness and assessment of perceived clinical skills (four sub-domains: core competencies, communication, emergencies, and educational environment). Information on intern induction was also collected. 99 questionnaires were returned (19.9%). Most of the cohort were Irish and worked in large medical school teaching hospitals. The majority of interns felt \\'unprepared\\' for the intern year. Interns perceived themselves \\'poor\\' in all areas of clinical skills assessed. Intern induction was attended by the majority and most stated it was too short. Medical schools are actively seeking innovative methods, through early patient contact and sub-internships, to better prepare undergraduates for the intern year. The deficiencies identified in this study are significant and emphasise the need for continued reform in the undergraduate curriculum.

  15. Preparing for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Panos Charitos

    2016-01-01

    The second annual meeting of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study took place from 11 to 15 April in Rome.   The participants in the second annual meeting of the FCC design study. (Photo: Vinicio Tullio/INFN) More than 450 scientists, researchers and leaders of high-tech industry gathered in Rome to review the progress of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study. The study was kicked off in 2014 as a response to a statement in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, and today embraces 74 institutes from 26 countries. With the LHC programme well under way, particle physicists are at an exciting juncture. New results from the 13 TeV run could show that we are on the threshold of an eye-opening era that presents new challenges and calls for developments. “To prepare for its future, CERN should continue to develop a vibrant R&D programme that should take advantage of its strengths and uniqueness, pursue design studies for...

  16. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...... healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...... preparation has significant adverse physiologic effects, which may be attributed to dehydration. The majority of these findings is small and may not be of clinical relevance in otherwise healthy patients undergoing bowel preparation and following recommendations for oral fluid intake....

  17. Psychological preparation in sport shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Ledecká, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Title: Psychological preparation in sport shooting Objectives: The objective of this thesis is usage of psychological preparation by sport shooting representation team in Czech Republic. How they are informed about psychological preparation. What it means to them. Which types of regulation they use and how they behave before and after a competition. Methods: A Questionnaire was used as a method for data obtaining. The questionnaire was compiled for the purposes of this Thesis. The researched ...

  18. Communication games measure preparation contextuality

    OpenAIRE

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that the ability of an operational theory to perform communication games is a measure of the degree of preparation contextuality in that theory. For statistics...

  19. Hurricanes : get prepared !

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauroy, Maëlle

    2013-04-01

    Living in France, near Paris, we have the chance not to be exposed to natural hazards. But on TV we can see, almost every year, geological disasters affecting people from all around the world. Sometimes it also affects us indirectly. For example, the Icelandic volcanic eruption of 2010 prevented some of my students to go on holidays because of the air travel disruption. Since then, every year, we study a natural disaster that has just made the headlines. This topic is of great interest for students because it is connected with their everyday life, with what they see on the news at that time. This year, they were amazed that a city as New York could be struck so violently by a hurricane. Understanding the formation of a hurricane and the consequences of such an event made them think about how to educate people and warn them in case of a hurricane. As a matter of fact, history teaches that a lack of hurricane awareness and preparation are common threads among all major hurricane disasters. By knowing the vulnerability and what actions people should take, it is possible to reduce the effects of a hurricane disaster. They designed posters, showing how a hurricane form, the risks and what to do in case of a hurricane alert. They used TV news broadcasts and educational videos as well as videos from the National Hurricane Center [of the United-States]. Later, they tried to model the formation of a hurricane and the consequences of storm surge, high winds and inland flooding on a coastal area. They filmed their experiments in order to create an interactive exhibition on hurricanes, to be displayed in the school library for other students.

  20. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Soares

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front. A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180° around its longitudinal axis and 360° around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies.

  1. Preparation of quantum state (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N.; Yusof, N. R.; Soekardjo, S.; Saharudin, S.; Endut, R.

    2017-11-01

    We reviewed experimental results and publications prepared by the Quantum Laboratory, Mimos Berhad. The complexity of the setups lies mainly in preparing the quantum states. Optics is chosen as the medium of this quantum system. The two methods - fiber based and free space systems are different from each other in terms of experimental setups, components configuration, and selections.

  2. A Simple Preparation of Hexadeuteriocholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Crossland, Ingolf

    1996-01-01

    26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %.......26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %....

  3. Preparing Global-Ready Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lotta; Brown, Jennifer S.

    2017-01-01

    To produce global-ready students who can thrive and compete in an interconnected world, we must prepare global-ready teachers. This article shares how one teacher preparation program focuses on literacy, technology, and globalization, while offering relevant K-12 applications.

  4. Psychosocial disadvantage: preparation, grieving, remembrance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As groundwork for supporting orphans' healthy development, this study describes the preparation, grief, and memorial experiences and the physical and psychosocial well-being of 144 double orphans and 109 single orphans in rural eastern Zimbabwe. Most received no preparation or orphan-specific support for mourning ...

  5. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  6. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...... healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance......, plasma and extracellular volume, balance function, and biochemical parameters were measured. RESULTS: Bowel preparation led to a significant decrease in exercise capacity (median, 9 percent) and weight (median, 1.2 kg). Plasma osmolality was significantly increased from 287 to 290 mmol kg(-1), as well...

  7. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  8. Preparation of large monodisperse vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting F Zhu

    Full Text Available Preparation of monodisperse vesicles is important both for research purposes and for practical applications. While the extrusion of vesicles through small pores (approximately 100 nm in diameter results in relatively uniform populations of vesicles, extrusion to larger sizes results in very heterogeneous populations of vesicles. Here we report a simple method for preparing large monodisperse multilamellar vesicles through a combination of extrusion and large-pore dialysis. For example, extrusion of polydisperse vesicles through 5-microm-diameter pores eliminates vesicles larger than 5 microm in diameter. Dialysis of extruded vesicles against 3-microm-pore-size polycarbonate membranes eliminates vesicles smaller than 3 microm in diameter, leaving behind a population of monodisperse vesicles with a mean diameter of approximately 4 microm. The simplicity of this method makes it an effective tool for laboratory vesicle preparation with potential applications in preparing large monodisperse liposomes for drug delivery.

  9. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  10. Chemoenzymatic preparation of germacrene analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascón, Oscar; Touchet, Sabrina; Miller, David J; Gonzalez, Veronica; Faraldos, Juan A; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2012-10-09

    A small library of novel germacrenes was generated using a combination of two plant enzymes, germacrene A synthase, and D synthase and modified farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) analogues. This chemoenzymatic approach allows the preparation of potentially valuable volatiles for biological studies.

  11. Preparing for Time after Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernau, C.

    1983-01-01

    One important area of activities for which retiring workers could be prepared is undoubtedly that which lies in the field of social services in which trade unions everywhere are increasingly engaged. (SSH)

  12. Preparation for Advanced Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frik, Seigina M.; Pollock, Susan E.

    1993-01-01

    Lehman College's graduate nursing program uses theory-based courses to prepare advanced nurse practitioners. Students increase scholarly inquiry skills and clinical decision making; use of nursing conceptual models helped them plan and evaluate their practice. (SK)

  13. PrePARe project blog

    OpenAIRE

    PrePARe project team

    2012-01-01

    The JISC-funded PrePARe project aimed to encourage researchers to take an interest and responsibility in digital preservation of their research outputs. This is a preservation copy of the Project blog documenting the project progress.

  14. Immunomodulatory properties of surfactant preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Iliana; Kunzmann, Steffen; Speer, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant replacement significantly decreased acute pulmonary morbidity and mortality among preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. Besides improving lung function and oxygenation, surfactant is also a key modulator of pulmonary innate and acquired immunity regulating lung inflammatory processes. In this review, we describe the immunomodulatory features of surfactant preparations. Various surfactant preparations decrease the proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release, the oxidative burst activity, and the nitric oxide production in lung inflammatory cells such as alveolar neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages; they also affect lymphocyte proliferative response and immunoglobulin production, as well as natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cell activity. In addition, surfactant preparations are involved in airway remodeling, as they decrease lung fibroblast proliferation capacity and the release of mediators involved in remodeling. Moreover, they increase cell transepithelial resistance and VEGF synthesis in lung epithelial cells. A number of different signaling pathways and molecules are involved in these processes. Because the inhibition of local immune response may decrease lung injury, surfactant therapeutic efficacy may be related not only to its biophysical characteristics but, at least in part, to its anti-inflammatory features and its effects on remodeling processes. However, further studies are required to identify which surfactant preparation ensures the highest anti-inflammatory activity, thereby potentially decreasing the inflammatory process underlying respiratory distress syndrome. In perspective, detailed characterization of these anti-inflammatory effects could help to improve the next generation of surfactant preparations.

  15. Preparing for retirement - new seminars

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2015-01-01

    We would like to take the opportunity to inform you about a new programme related to retirement, organised by the Human Resources Department. Retirement marks the end of a career and the start of a new chapter in life.  In all cases, being well-informed and prepared is necessary to cope successfully with this transition. The programme has been developed for staff members and consists of two seminars: Leaving CERN (half day seminar): short presentations by internal speakers, focusing on what options CERN offers at the end of your career: organised once per year, next session scheduled on 24 November 2015, in the afternoon, enrolment and more information on Indico.   Preparation for retirement (2-day seminar): interactive workshop (in small groups) delivered by external experts, focusing on how to prepare psychologically as well as practically to cope with all the changes retirement brings: organised regularly in 2016, in English or ...

  16. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Zinc Materials Prepared by Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Krystýnová

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of zinc-based materials as biodegradable materials for medical purposes is offered as a possible alternative to corrosion-less resistant magnesium-based materials. Zinc powders with two different particle sizes (7.5 µm and 150 µm were processed by the methods of powder metallurgy: cold pressing, cold pressing followed by sintering and hot pressing. The microstructure of prepared materials was evaluated in terms of light optical microscopy, and the mechanical properties were analyzed with Vickers microhardness testing and three-point bend testing. Fractographic analysis of broken samples was performed with scanning electron microscopy. Particle size was shown to have a significant effect on compacts mechanical properties. The deformability of 7.5 µm particle size powder was improved by increased temperature during the processing, while in the case of larger powder, no significant influence of temperature was observed. Bending properties of prepared materials were positively influenced by elevated temperature during processing and correspond to the increasing compacting pressures. Better properties were achieved for pure zinc prepared from 150 µm particle size powder compared to materials prepared from 7.5 µm particle size powder.

  18. EFFECTIVE PROCEDURES FOR EXECUTIVE'S PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Martínez Mondéjar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this article is to present methodological procedure that facilitates the executives  work with teachers that are preparing themselves to by promoting post from their  workplace from  a manual directed towards counseling executives  on how to develop the focalization, the selection and the evaluation and promotion of its teachers that are preparing themselves to by promoting post  from the work system itself  of the different levels of management from the University of Pedagogical Sciences " Felix Varela Morales " of Villa Clara.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Man

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous-dispersed graphene oxide was prepared by the improved Hummers method, which would be reduced to graphene with the reducing agent called hydrazine hydrate. The X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra and Transmission electron microscopy were used to analysis the phase, morphology and structure of the graphene and graphene oxide. The results show that the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared via this method, whose degree of oxidation and reduction are high; Also obtained a higher well-disperses and less structural imperfection of the graphene that was manufactured in the reducing system that added ammonia reduction

  20. PREPARATION, CHARACTERISATION AND APPLICATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyamine-silica hybrids were prepared by a one-pot sol-gel method via a neutral amine templating route. At low loadings (ca. 1 mmol organic group per g of silica) the resultant materials displayed properties typical of M41S-type materials, namely, high surface area (typically 600 m2 g-1) and controlled porosity with an ...

  1. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  2. Preparing Student Mobility through Telecollaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Marta; Jeanneau, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, going to a foreign country has become all the more significant for Higher Education (HE) students, as concepts such as internationalisation and intercultural competencies have gained a more prominent role in HE. For students to fully benefit from this experience, it is paramount to prepare them for their stay in a foreign country…

  3. Professional Preparation in Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles E.; Fisher, Shirley P.

    1992-01-01

    Colleges and universities must develop curricula to prepare health promotion specialists to work with persons of all ages. Program core should include self-care, consumer awareness, nutrition, weight control, stress management, and substance abuse. Health and physical educators should learn to facilitate change of negative health behaviors into…

  4. Teacher Certification/Preparation Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Rita

    1990-01-01

    Presents guidelines for general and theater specialist K-12 teacher certification developed by the American Alliance for Theatre Education and the Speech Communication Association. Advocates that all teachers have preparation in arts and communication and that theater and communication specialists continue to be trained. (SR)

  5. Process for preparing fluorine-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Harry S.; Wells, Dale K.; Lamb, James F.; Beaudry, Samuel B.

    1976-09-21

    An improved process for preparation of fluorine-18 by a neon (deuteron, alpha particle) fluorine-18 nuclear reaction in a non-reactive enclosed reaction zone wherein a ultrapure product is recovered by heating the reaction zone to a high temperature and removing the product with an inert gas.

  6. Psychosocial disadvantage: preparation, grieving, remembrance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few programmes for sub-Saharan Africa's 12.3 million children orphaned by AIDS have focused on their high risk for psychosocial problems. As groundwork for supporting orphans' healthy development, this study describes the preparation, grief, and memorial experiences and the physical and psychosocial well-being of ...

  7. Preparing Students for Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldoni, Federica

    2015-01-01

    This study is situated in the fields of language education, study abroad (SA) and intercultural communication. The interest in SA is increasing on the part of students, administrators, educators, and business companies for the learning opportunities that it offers. However, SA students are not always prepared to maximize their learning…

  8. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate

  9. Preparation of a tritiated ginkgolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Suehiro, Makiko; Nakanishi, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgolide B, a constituent of the tree Ginkgo biloba, was radiolabeled with the beta-emitter tritium ([(3)H]) in two steps from ginkgolide C. First, a triflate precursor was prepared utilizing the selective reactivity of 7-OH in ginkgolide C; the triflate was then reduced with sodium borotritide...

  10. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  11. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  12. Herbal preparations for uterine fibroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Hong; Xia, Yun; Cardini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids are the most common non-malignant growths in women of childbearing age. They are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding and subfertility. Herbal preparations are commonly used as alternatives to surgical procedures. Objectives To assess the benefits and risks of herbal preparations for uterine fibroids. Search strategy Authors searched following electronic databases: the Trials Registers of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group and the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), AMED, and LILACS. The searches ended on 31st December 2008. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing herbal preparations with no intervention, placebo, medical treatment or surgical procedures in women with uterine fibroids. We also included trials of herbal preparations with or without conventional therapy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors collected data independently. We assessed trial risk of bias according to our methodological criteria. We presented dichotomous data as risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main results We included two randomised trials (involved 150 women) with clear description of randomisation methods. The methodological risk of bias of the trials varied. There were variations in the tested herbal preparations, and the treatment duration was six months. The outcomes available were not the primary outcomes selected for this review, such as symptom relief or the need for surgical treatment; trials mainly reported outcomes in terms of shrinkage of the fibroids. Compared with mifepristone, Huoxue Sanjie decoction showed no significant difference in the disappearance of uterine fibroids, number of

  13. Integrated Work Management: Preparer, Course 31883

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The preparer (also called the “planner”) plays a key role in the integrated work management (IWM) process at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This course, Integrated Work Management: Preparer (COURSE 31883), describes the IWM roles and responsibilities of the preparer. This course also discusses IWM requirements that must be met by the preparer.

  14. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme preparations. (a) Identification. Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the histopathology...

  15. Preparing for an Uncertain Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Navigating the world of government relations and public policy can be a little like predicting the weather. One can't always be sure what's in store or how it will affect him/her down the road. But there are common patterns and a few basic steps that can help one best prepare for a change in the forecast. Though the forecast is uncertain, early…

  16. Preoperative Psychological Preparation of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Güleç, Ersel; Özcengiz, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Surgery and anaesthesia are significant sources of anxiety for children. In the preoperative period, reducing anxiety helps in preventing the negative consequences that may occur after surgery. The predetermined high-risk children in terms of the development of anxiety play an important role in reducing the negative consequences. Recently featured approaches are modelling and coping techniques, although many techniques are used in the preoperative psychological preparation. The use of compute...

  17. Preparation, characterization and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Luengo, María Ángeles; Yates Buxcey, Malcolm; M. Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Renewable raw biocompatible materials can be prepared from beer production waste, that due to their nature contain the main chemical components present in bone (phosphorous, silicon, magnesium and calcium). Their characteristics can be tailored for use as replacement candidates in osteoporotic treatments, coatings for prostheses, bone grafts and odontoestomatologi implants, for example, with greater cost effectiveness than conventional scaffolds and eliminating the use of non-rene...

  18. Rationale for designing cavity preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laswell, H R; Welk, D A

    1985-04-01

    Increased resistance to caries, increased dental awareness, superior diagnostic capabilities, better illumination, optical aids that significantly enhance vision, improved and standardized materials for restoration, and a deeper understanding of the caries process enable a far more conservative approach to tooth preparation. The dentist can concentrate on preserving as much sound tooth structure as possible with less attention being devoted to resistance and retention form that previously demanded in bulk restorations and massive channels and locks that are no longer appropriate. Although caries inhibitory effects have been shown with materials such as silicate cement, glass ionomers, and resins that leach fluoride, in general, dentists should not rely on restorative materials to inhibit the development of future decay. Characteristics of the carious lesion are unique for each tooth according to many factors centering around the plaque pattern for that tooth and not according to zones of natural susceptibility or immunity strictly dictated by morphology. Therefore, no single cavity preparation duplicated from a textbook is likely to be satisfactory for an individual tooth. Furthermore, novices learning the subject of cavity preparation often leave decalcified enamel when they attempt to replicate under clinical conditions that which they have learned in technique courses. This is the major invitation to future caries reappearing adjacent to restorations. Also, failure to duplicate the exact morphology of the tooth surface that has been replaced is likely to alter the pattern of plaque accumulation and create other caries prone areas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Preparing for a dermatopathology quiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Vasudevan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatopathology is one of the key aspects in dermatological diagnosis and is of immense value to the practicing dermatologist as well as residents pursuing dermatology as a career. It is a visual medium of understanding the subject, and is therefore ideal to be tested similarly. Dermatopathology quiz has become a part and parcel of most scientific deliberations, and is therefore an essential requirement of the postgraduate curriculum. Preparing for a dermatopathology quiz is tougher than preparing for a normal clinical quiz because of the lesser importance given for it in the syllabus of postgraduation and also due to the lack of resources either in getting microscopic sessions arranged or due to lack of flair of the subject compared to cosmetology or dermatosurgery. This review was done with the purpose of educating both the students and quizmasters as to how to prepare for a dermatopathology quiz. It is a unique proposal and, therefore, is gathered from more of personal experience, experience gained from watching quizzes conducted by experienced quizmasters, and also from the advice gained from masters of the subject in relation to the quiz.

  20. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  1. STS Interventions: Preparing, Defending, Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intervening in the Australian vaccination debate, I found that STS perspectives helped me understand the controversy but gave little guidance on how to defend against attacks. Max Liboiron comments that preparation, including support networks, should precede interventions. I was well supported in my involvement in the vaccination debate, but those who openly advocate a stigmatized view may have difficulty gaining support. Teun Zuiderent-Jerak asks what is being learned when interventions reinforce existing categories. Controversy participants can learn by being exposed to STS perspectives; controversy researchers, when attacked, can gain new information and develop new research ideas.

  2. Rhenium Nanochemistry for Catalyst Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Kessler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The review presents synthetic approaches to modern rhenium-based catalysts. Creation of an active center is considered as a process of obtaining a nanoparticle or a molecule, immobilized within a matrix of the substrate. Selective chemical routes to preparation of particles of rhenium alloys, rhenium oxides and the molecules of alkyltrioxorhenium, and their insertion into porous structure of zeolites, ordered mesoporous MCM matrices, anodic mesoporous alumina, and porous transition metal oxides are considered. Structure-property relationships are traced for these catalysts in relation to such processes as alkylation and isomerization, olefin metathesis, selective oxidation of olefins, methanol to formaldehyde conversion, etc.

  3. Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure. PMID:24932126

  4. Chuanxiong preparations for preventing stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xunzhe; Zeng, Xiaoxi; Wu, Taixiang

    2010-01-20

    Stroke is a major healthcare problem and is one of the leading causes of death and serious long-term disability. Prevention of stroke is considered an important strategy. Chuanxiong is traditionally used in China in the treatment and prevention of stroke. In recent years, Chinese researchers have developed new patented Chuanxiong preparations. To assess the effects and safety of Chuanxiong preparations in preventing stroke in high-risk adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2008), EMBASE (1980 to March 2008), AMED (1985 to March 2008), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1975 to March 2008), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1994 to March 2008), and the VIP Database (1989 to March 2008). Trials registers were searched for ongoing studies. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) studying the effects of Chuanxiong preparations in preventing stroke were included. Three reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and two reviewers independently extracted data. Authors of identified RCTs were telephoned to confirm the randomisation procedure. Outcomes assessed included: stroke, composite cardiovascular outcomes, changes in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular haemodynamic indices and adverse events. Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for dichotomous variables and mean differences for continuous outcomes. Three RCTs (5042 participants) were included. One higher quality study (4415 participants) compared Nao-an capsule with aspirin for primary prevention in high-risk stroke populations. Nao-an capsule appeared to reduce the incidence of stroke compared with aspirin (OR 0.56 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). One study of low methodological quality indicated that a self-prepared Xifenwan tablet reduced the incidence of stroke in people with transient ischaemia attack (TIA) (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.78). The

  5. Preoperative Psychological Preparation of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç, Ersel; Özcengiz, Dilek

    2015-10-01

    Surgery and anaesthesia are significant sources of anxiety for children. In the preoperative period, reducing anxiety helps in preventing the negative consequences that may occur after surgery. The predetermined high-risk children in terms of the development of anxiety play an important role in reducing the negative consequences. Recently featured approaches are modelling and coping techniques, although many techniques are used in the preoperative psychological preparation. The use of computer programs in this area may facilitate important achievements, and it needs to support new studies to be performed.

  6. Caustic magnesite - preparation and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plešingerová Beáta

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the selected results of the thermal decomposition of natural magnesite for preparation of active MgO. At the temperature of selective decomposition of magnesite intermediate phases exhibiting enhanced reactivity and low mechanical stability are formed. Evolution of carbon dioxide is accompanied by decrepitation of active magnesia. The selective decomposition and the accompanying decrepitation of the solid may be conveniently used as a way of enriching the chemically active magnesia by simple screening. Magnesia is accumulated in the undersize fraction, whereas undecomposed calcium carbonate and silica remain in the oversize fractions.

  7. METHOD OF PREPARING METAL FLUORIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J.J.; Sheft, I.

    1959-08-11

    A method is presented for preparing the halides of elements which are relatively non-reactive with halogenating agents. The method involves reacting a mixture of an oxygen containing salt of a difficulty halogenated metal with an oxygen containing salt of an easily halogenated metal with a halogenating agent. Accordingly plutonium tetrafluoride is produced by reacting a mixture of plutonium dioxide and uranium octaoxide with bromine trifluoride. The reaction proceeds smoothly at moderate temperatures and the resulting plutonium trifluoride may be readily separated from many impurities which form volatile fluorides by volatilizing these volatile fluorides from the reaction chamber.

  8. Food Safety When Preparing Holiday Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Home Department of Public Health Current: Remember Food Safety when Preparing Holiday Meals Services and Programs Regulation & ... of Public Health (DPH) reminds Connecticut residents that food safety is especially important as they prepare holiday meals. ...

  9. Polylactide microcapsules and films: preparation and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aims at preparation of hollow polylactide (PLA) microcapsules for use as ultrasound contrast agents with controlled size, structure and mechanical and thermal properties. The microcapsules were prepared with multistage premix membrane emulsification. The mechanical and thermal properties

  10. A Simple Preparation Method for Diphosphoimidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, T.

    1964-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of diphosphoimidazole is presented that involves direct phosphorylation of imidazole by phosphorus oxychloride in alkaline aqueous solution. Details are given on the use of diphosphoimidazole in preparing sodium phosphoramidate and certain phosphorylated amino...

  11. IONIC LIQUIDS: PREPARATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzulkefly Kuang Abdullah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are considered as an ideal alternative to volatile organic solvents and chemical industries in the future,because they are non-volatile. Ionic liquids are also considered as new novel chemical agents and widely regarded as agreener alternative to many commonly used solvents. Ionic liquids have been studied for a wide range of syntheticapplications and have attracted considerable interest for use as electrolytes in the areas of organic synthesis, catalysis,solar cell, fuel cells, electrodeposition and supercapacitors. However, some ionic liquids suffer from more or less somedrawbacks such as toxicity, preparation and high cost in the process for use. Most recently, three types of ionic liquidsare attracted much attentions specifically traditional ionic liquid, protic ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvent, wheretheir preparation, mechanism and limitation were differentiated. However, those liquids are having their ownadvantages and limitations based on applications. Traditional ionic liquid and protic ionic liquid are highly cost andtoxic for applied engineering research, but they consist of micro-biphasic systems composed of ionic compounds whichhave more varieties in the applications. The deep eutectic solvent is very economic for large-scale possessing but thereare only limited ionic mixtures to certain application such as electrochemistry.

  12. MUET Preparation Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoong Li Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to examine the English language learning strategies (LLS used by Lower Six students in secondary schools who are sitting for their MUET test. It analyzed the language learning strategies that students use in order to prepare for the MUET test. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire with 300 students. The instrument used in this study called “MUET Preparation Language Strategy Use Inventory” is an adapted and bilingual questionnaire designed by Cohen, Oxford and Chi (2005 known as Language Strategy Use Inventory. Forty items were analyzed and they comprised of the four skills tested in MUET which is listening, speaking, reading and writing. Data were analyzed by performing frequency analysis. The findings revealed that the listening skill is the most frequently used, while the writing skill is the least frequently used. Only the listening skill has high frequency of use, while the reading, speaking and writing skills fall under the range of moderate frequency of use. There were variations in responses with regard to the use of LLS among Form Six students in secondary schools. The findings had practical implications.

  13. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  14. How to select BCAA preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akinobu; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2004-12-01

    In Japan, oral branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) preparations are used in nutritional therapy for correcting disorders of protein and amino acid metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis. There are two forms of oral BCAA preparations: enteral nutrition products for liver failure (or elemental nutrition products for liver cirrhosis) and oral BCAA granular products. Granular products are indicated for patients with uncompensated liver cirrhosis who have no dietary restriction and hypoproteinemia. Enteral nutrition products are indicated for patients who have a history of hepatic encephalopathy and exhibit protein intolerance. In clinical practice, the existence of protein intolerance in patients with uncompensated liver cirrhosis should be determined based on a history of hepatic encephalopathy and blood ammonia concentration. When patients exhibit protein intolerance, they are given a low protein diet (approximately 0.5-1.0g/kg/day) with enteral nutrition products for liver failure. However, when patients consume adequate amounts of a well-balanced diet and ammonia concentration does not increase, it is possible to control their condition with granular products. However, when patients cannot achieve an adequate dietary intake, it is recommended that enteral nutrition products should be used in order to improve nutritional status, even if these patients do not have a history of encephalopathy.

  15. Preparation of antimony trioxide powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyung Kyu; Jang, Hee Dong; Km, Joon Soo; Lim, Young Woong; Kim, Sung Don; Yoon, Ho Sung; Lee, Hoo In; Kim, Chul Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Antimony trioxide is used as flame retardant material in plastic, rubber, and textile industries. It was carried out to establish processing technology of antimony trioxide, and provide for smelting of metallic antimony by domestic industries. Also, domestic market of antimony trioxide was surveyed. Commercial antimony trioxide has been manufactured through two steps : the first is to extract antimony metal from Stibnite ore, and the second is to evaporate and oxidize metallic antimony. In this study, it was focused on the second step because primary antimony has not been produced domestically. An equipment for melting and vaporizing of metallic antimony was experimentally prepared. Antimony metal was melted in magnesia crucible, and reacted with air to oxidize into antimony trioxide powder in the equipment by use of suction blower. The powder was collected through bag filter. The crystal form of the antimony trioxide sample was senarmontite. The shape of the powder was widely spherical. It is considered that antimony trioxide could be prepared effectively through the experiment. (author). 9 figs.

  16. New antiepileptic drugs and preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Y; Jagoda, A

    2000-11-01

    Epilepsy affects 1.2% to 4.4% of the general population. Given the clinical profile of the newer antiepileptic agents, it is likely their usage will increase in the coming years, thus increasing the emergency physician's exposure to these medications and their side effects. Several of these side effects can have high morbidity, such as the aplastic anemia and hepatotoxicity caused by felbamate, and the Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with lamotrigine. Overdoses of these medications also could increase, as will our knowledge of recognizing and managing them. The clinical spectrum of the newer medications is the treatment of partial seizures. None of the newer medications can be orally loaded nor are they available in an i.v. preparation. Serum drug levels are not available in most institutions and are not routinely measured in the ED. The new preparations of phenytoin, diazepam, and valporic acid add increased efficiency in drug administration, providing a new method for prehospital treatment of seizures and a more tolerable means of administration in the ED.

  17. Teaching Food Preparation with Video Flash Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Jan F.; Cason, Katherine; Cherry, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Food preparation skills are needed to prepare low-cost, nutritious meals that meet current dietary recommendations. Research indicates that many youth and adults can read a recipe for ingredients, but they often do not know basic food preparation techniques such as how to broil, fold, dredge, baste and other cooking methods. To address the need to…

  18. 28 CFR 551.81 - Manuscript preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manuscript preparation. 551.81 Section 551.81 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Inmate Manuscripts § 551.81 Manuscript preparation. An inmate may prepare a manuscript for private...

  19. Preparation and characterization of lamivudine microcapsules using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The objective of the present study was to prepare and evaluate microcapsules for the controlled release of lamivudine using various cellulose polymers. Methods: The microcapsules were prepared by the solvent evaporation method. The prepared microcapsules were characterized for the percent drug content, ...

  20. Microfluidic Sample Preparation for Immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S; Benett, W; Bettencourt, K; Chang, J; Fisher, K; Hamilton, J; Krulevitch, P; Park, C; Stockton, C; Tarte, L; Wang, A; Wilson, T

    2001-08-09

    Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are developing means to collect and identify fluid-based biological pathogens in the forms of proteins, viruses, and bacteria. to support detection instruments, they are developing a flexible fluidic sample preparation unit. The overall goal of this Microfluidic Module is to input a fluid sample, containing background particulates and potentially target compounds, and deliver a processed sample for detection. They are developing techniques for sample purification, mixing, and filtration that would be useful to many applications including immunologic and nucleic acid assays. Many of these fluidic functions are accomplished with acoustic radiation pressure or dielectrophoresis. They are integrating these technologies into packaged systems with pumps and valves to control fluid flow through the fluidic circuit.

  1. Sonochemical preparation of antimony subiodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, M; Szperlich, P; Talik, E; Szala, J; Rzychoń, T; Stróz, D; Nowrot, A; Solecka, B

    2010-01-01

    The substantiated isolation of the antimony subiodide (Sb(3)I) is presented for the first time. It has been prepared using elemental Sb and I in ethanol under ultrasonic irradiation at 323 K. Its composition was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations exhibit that the samples are made up of large quantity of nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 20 nm and single crystalline in nature. The interplanar spacings in Sb(3)I that have been determined using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and HRTEM are very similar. Surprisingly, the registered XRD patterns are identical to the one reported earlier for Sb(4)O(5)I(2).

  2. Sonochemical Preparation of Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Jin Choi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Thisreview covers sonochemical fabrication of polymer nanocomposites. In addition to its application to the synthesis of various polymeric systems, due to its powerful efficiency, sonochemistry has been widely used not only as the assistant of dispersion for nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT and organophillic clay, but also as a special initiator to enhance polymerization for fabrication of polymer nanocomposites with CNT and metallic nanoparticles. Recent developments in the preparation of multi-walled carbon nanotube/polymer nanocomposites with polystyrene and PMMA, magnetic particle/CNT composites and polymer/clay nanocomposites along with their physical characteristics and potential engineering applications will be introduced. Physical characterizations include morphological, thermal, and rheological properties under either an applied electric or magnetic field.

  3. Aerosol preparation of intact lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, W Henry [Danville, CA; Krauss, Ronald M [Berkeley, CA; Blanche, Patricia J [Berkeley, CA

    2012-01-17

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  4. LHC Report: Restart preparations continue

    CERN Multimedia

    Katy Foraz for the LHC team and Julia Trummer for the RP Group

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance and consolidation work has been progressing well in both the machine and the experiments in preparation for the March restart.   A sample material is attached to the LHC (the white bag taped to the green line), to measure the radiation doses. Additional work was required around Point 5 due to the discovery and repair of a problem with the RF fingers at the connection of two beam vacuum chambers in CMS. The repair has been completed successfully and the sector is now under vacuum. In order to avoid rushing the delicate final operations required for closing the detector, the restart of the machine has been postponed by one week, from 7 March to 14 March. In the machine, the first cool-down to 1.9 K has started in several sectors ,and the cool-down of the whole machine is still planned to be finished by 21 February. The time window between 22 February and 14 March will be dedicated to powering and cryogenic tests. Since 12 December, the Radiation Protection (RP) group has been deep...

  5. Process for preparing energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Lee, Ronald S [Livermore, CA; Tillotson, Thomas M [Tracy, CA; Hrubesh, Lawrence W [Pleasanton, CA; Swansiger, Rosalind W [Livermore, CA; Fox, Glenn A [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  6. CMS prepares for new challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    One of the world’s largest physics experiments has just had a change in leadership. This is a chance for the collaboration to take stock of the tremendous work done for LS1 and to prepare for the challenges that lie ahead.   From left to right: Kerstin Borras, Tiziano Camporesi and Paris Sphicas. “The keyword is teamwork. That’s the only way you can effectively manage a large number of extremely talented and motivated people,” says Tiziano Camporesi who took the reins of the CMS collaboration at the beginning of the year. The recipe might seem easier on paper than in practice. However, given his 28 years at CERN, two of which he spent as the head of the DELPHI collaboration, Camporesi has extensive experience in managing large scientific collaborations and success in this respect is well within his reach: “I have learned many lessons from the past and I believe that building consensus is instrumental to successful leadership.” The C...

  7. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellanzhiyil Surendran Sunila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929 and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties.

  8. Wound bed preparation from a clinical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, A. S.; Khoo, T L; Mat Saad, A. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Wound bed preparation has been performed for over two decades, and the concept is well accepted. The ′TIME′ acronym, consisting of tissue debridement, i nfection or inflammation, moisture balance and edge effect, has assisted clinicians systematically in wound assessment and management. While the focus has usually been concentrated around the wound, the evolving concept of wound bed preparation promotes the treatment of the patient as a whole. This article discusses wound bed preparation and ...

  9. METALLOGRAPHIC SAMPLE PREPARATION STATION-CONSTRUCTIVE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM Florin Timotei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to present the issues involved in the case of the constructive conception of a station for metallographic sample preparation. This station is destined for laboratory work. The metallographic station is composed of a robot ABB IRB1600, a metallographic microscope, a gripping device, a manipulator, a laboratory grinding and polishing machine. The robot will be used for manipulation of the sample preparation and the manipulator take the sample preparation for processing.

  10. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, May 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-06-27

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of May, 1957. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  11. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, August 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-09-16

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of August, 1957. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  12. Proceedings. Feedstock preparation and quality 1997 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Jan Erik [ed.

    1998-06-01

    The IEA Bioenergy Feedstock Preparation and Quality 1997 Workshop dealt with fuel feedstock quality improvement and methods to determine feedstock properties. It was arranged by the Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences on behalf of the IEA Bioenergy Task XII Activity 4.1 Feedstock Preparation and Quality. This Activity is a 3-year cooperation 1995-1997 between Denmark, Sweden and the USA, mainly based on information exchange. The workshop had two sections: presentations by invited experts, and country reports on recent development in feedstock preparation and quality in the three participating countries. Separate abstracts have been prepared for four of the six papers presented

  13. Tooth preparation techniques for porcelain laminate veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, P A; Aminian, A; Wilson, N H

    2000-09-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect that two guides to tooth preparation had on an operator's ability to appropriately and consistently prepare teeth for porcelain laminate veneers. In-vitro study. Thirty typodont central incisor teeth were randomly allocated into three groups and a general dental practitioner was asked to prepare the teeth for porcelain laminate veneers. Group A were prepared freehand while Groups B and C were prepared with the assistance of a silicone index and depth preparation bur respectively. Images of the prepared teeth were used to calculate the mean labial depth of preparation and incisal reduction of teeth in each group. The mean labial reduction for Groups A, B and C was 0.37 mm (SD 0.13), 0.62 mm (SD 0.17) and 0.61 mm (SD 0.15) and the mean incisal reduction for Groups A, B and C was 1.0 mm (SD 0.28), 1.0 mm (SD 0.38) and 1.03 mm (SD 0.26) respectively. It is suggested that consideration be given to the use of a silicone index or depth gauge bur when teeth are prepared for porcelain laminate veneers.

  14. Preparing Community College Teachers of Social Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Raymond C.

    1972-01-01

    An interdisciplinary doctoral degree program to prepare community college social science teachers is described. The program includes academic course work, summer practicums, internship, and comprehensive examinations. (RN)

  15. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, July 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-08-09

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of July 1957. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  16. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF CONDITIONAL PREPARATION IN JUDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Obadov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Conditional preparation is a constituent part of overall sports preparation. Conditional training might be defined as a process of improvement of a sportsman’s functional and motor abilities, morphological characteristics, health, as well as the required motor knowledge. Conditional preparation can be might be classified as: general, basic and situational conditional preparation. Programs of the conditional training might be classified as: developing, resuming, recovering, preventive and recovering ones. High level of the general physical preparation enables maximum demonstration of the physical abilities of a sportsman during the stage of improvement of the specific motor abilities. Good general preparation of a sportsman enables him to push beyond his functional limits in order to cope with heavy loads easier, which subsequently enables him to achieve top performance level. Basic conditional preparation assumes the development of the most important judo abilities. Specific conditional preparation is related directly to the execution of different structural elements under the conditional requirements. Situational conditional preparation enables integration of the tactical and conditional training.

  17. Preparing nurse leaders for 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Carol

    2008-11-01

    This article highlights eight leadership competencies likely to be an essential part of the nurse leader's repertoire in 2020. Planning for the future is difficult, even when environments are relatively static. When environments are dynamic, the challenges multiply exponentially. Unfortunately, few environments have been more unpredictable in the 21st century than health care. The healthcare system is in chaos, as is much of the business world. It is critical then that contemporary nursing and healthcare leaders identify skill sets that will be needed by nurse leaders in 2020 and begin now to create the educational models and management development programs necessary to assure these skills are present. Essential nurse leader competencies for 2020 include: (i) A global perspective or mindset regarding healthcare and professional nursing issues. (ii) Technology skills which facilitate mobility and portability of relationships, interactions, and operational processes. (iii) Expert decision-making skills rooted in empirical science. (iv) The ability to create organization cultures that permeate quality healthcare and patient/worker safety. (v) Understanding and appropriately intervening in political processes. (vi) Highly developed collaborative and team building skills. (vii) The ability to balance authenticity and performance expectations. (viii) Being able to envision and proactively adapt to a healthcare system characterized by rapid change and chaos. Nursing education programmes and healthcare organizations must be begin now to prepare nurses to be effective leaders in 2020. This will require the formal education and training that are a part of most management development programmes as well as a development of appropriate attitudes through social learning. Proactive succession planning will also be key to having nurse leaders who can respond effectively to the new challenges and opportunities that will be presented to them in 2020.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of commercial interferon preparations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiviral, antiproliferative and natural killer-cell. (NKC) stimulatory activities of four commercial the- rapeutic interferon preparations were assayed in our laboratory. The antiviral and antiproliferative activities of each preparation were relatively similar, but an unexpectedly high NKC stimulatory activity was foupd in one ...

  19. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured copper bismuth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Thin films of copper bismuth diselenide were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrate below 60°C. The deposition parameters such as time, temperature of deposition and pH of the solution, were optimized. The set of films having different elemental compositions was prepared by ...

  20. Preparing Instructional Objectives: Agony or Ecstasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wesley K.

    This paper 1) discusses the problems encountered in preparing objectives for instructional programs; 2) describes an informal research project in which seven instructional designers working on the same project attempted to determine agreement on an objective; and 3) suggests how to prepare objectives so that difficulties can be minimized. One…

  1. Praxis and Poiesis in Piano Repertoire Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Regina Antunes Teixeira; Hentschke, Liane

    2011-01-01

    The piano repertoire preparation of three undergraduate students at three different academic levels--the first, fifth and eighth semesters--was followed during an academic semester. A phenomenological approach was used to collect data in three stages: an introductory interview, observations of the repertoire under preparation and a final…

  2. Dissipative preparation of entanglement in optical cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael James; Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme for the preparation of a maximally entangled state of two atoms in an optical cavity. Starting from an arbitrary initial state, a singlet state is prepared as the unique fixed point of a dissipative quantum dynamical process. In our scheme, cavity decay is no longer...

  3. Emergency situations in SMEs : Are entrepreneurs prepared?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, E.; Montfort, van K.; Masurel, E.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how entrepreneurs prepare for emergency situations in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands. It identifies the characteristics of SMEs and the theory related to emergency situations and the preparations for such situations. It also provides a detailed

  4. Research Synthesis: Teacher Preparation for Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ellen; Edington, Everett D.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the literature of teacher preparation and inservice for rural areas, noting the dilemmas facing rural educators (multiple preparations, extracurricular duties, isolation, community problems), what colleges and universities can do (rural visibility, off-campus centers, curriculum expertise), and implications for colleges and universities…

  5. Preparing for the SAT: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelrouth, Jed I.; Zabrucky, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, more than 1.6 million students took the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), a standardized college admissions test (College Board 2016a). Researchers have estimated that 33 percent of students who take the SAT participate in some mode of formal test preparation, such as private tutoring or classes, to prepare for the exam (Buchmann, Condron…

  6. Preparing Learners for e-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskurich, George M., Ed.

    This book presents methods business organizations and educational institutions can use to prepare their learners to become successful e-learners. "Preparing e-Learners for Self- Directed Learning" (Long) discusses self-direction as a prerequisite to e-learning and gives a list of ways to help enhance learners' self-directedness.…

  7. Race "Still" Matters: Preparing Culturally Relevant Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Tonia; Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Truscott, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores racial identity development of teacher candidates during a teacher preparation program dedicated to preparing teachers for diverse classrooms. Two black teacher candidates in the US demonstrate their racial identity development through critical reflections offered throughout the program. Findings suggest that…

  8. Preparation of Spirocyclic β-Proline Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Kasper; Marigo, Mauro; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius

    2017-01-01

    A series of novel N-Bn-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using [3+2] cycloaddition and subsequently converted into their corresponding aldehydes. In addition, two novel N-Cbz-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using intramolecular cyclization starting from sim...

  9. Preparation of microstructured hydroxyapatite microspheres using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) microspheres with peculiar spheres-in-sphere morphology were prepared by using oil-in-water emulsions and solvent evaporation technique. Ethylene vinyl acetate co-polymer (EVA) was used as the binder material. Preparation of HAP/EVA microspheres was followed by the thermal de-.

  10. Leading Leadership Preparation: 21st Century Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2010-01-01

    As political accountability and economic reality increasingly influence higher education, many leadership preparation programs are seeking cost effective instructional delivery systems that yield highly effective results. Simultaneously, large numbers of graduate students are seeking quality leadership preparation programs that provide both…

  11. Effective Preparation Program Features: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Gary M.; Whiteman, Rodney S.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a summary of a report prepared for the University Council for Educational Administration Program Improvement Project for the Wallace Foundation. This explores the research base for educational leadership preparation programs, specifically examining literature on program features. The review covers context, candidates, faculty,…

  12. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High purity fine silver powder with uniform particle morphology was prepared through glycerol process. The process involves reduction of silver nitrate by glycerol under atmospheric conditions at a temperature below 175°C. Glycerol, in this process, acts as a solvent as well as a reducing agent. The powders prepared ...

  13. Preparation of Alginate Gel Beads Containing Metformin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new emulsion gelation method was used to prepare gel beads for a highly water-soluble drug metformin hydrochloride using sodium alginate as the polymer. The gel beads containing oil was prepared by gently mixing or homogenizing oil and water phase containing sodium alginate which was then extruded into calcium ...

  14. Preparation and physicochemical evaluation of transdermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation and physicochemical evaluation of transdermal aerosols containing ketoprofen ... Purpose: To prepare transdermal ketoprofen metered-dose aerosol formulations containing menthol and isopropyl myristate (IPM) as ..... of a transdermal delivery system for aspirin as an antithrombotic drug. Int J Pharm 2006; ...

  15. Optimization of Experimental Parameters in preparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anodic oxidation method has been applied to the preparation of multinanoporous TiO2 thin films. The experimental parameters, including the electrolyte nature, oxidation voltage, and oxidation time have been carefully controlled. Their influence on the structure, morphology and photocatalytic activity of the prepared ...

  16. MR Colonography with limited bowel preparation: Patient acceptance compared with that of full-preparation Colonoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florie, Jasper; Birnie, Erwin; van Gelder, Rogier E.; Jensch, Sebastiaan; Haberkorn, Brigitte; Bartelsman, Joep F.; Veer, Annet van der Sluys; Snel, Pleun; van der Hulst, Victor P. M.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate participants' experience and preference of magnetic resonance (MR) colonography with limited bowel preparation compared with full-preparation colonoscopy in participants at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: This study had institutional

  17. Teachers' self-assessed levels of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2016-02-01

    Every four years we survey a nationally representative sample of high school physics teachers. We define anyone who teaches at least one physics class to be a "physics teacher." About 40% of these teachers teach a majority of their classes in subjects other than physics. We also ask teachers to rate how well prepared they felt in various aspects of teaching. The response choices are "not adequately prepared," "adequately prepared," and "very well prepared." The accompanying figure shows the proportion of teachers who reported feeling adequately or very well prepared in the following aspects of teaching: • Basic physics knowledge, • Other science knowledge, • Application of physics to everyday experience, • Use of demonstrations, • Instructional laboratory design, • Use of computers in physics instruction and labs, and • Recent developments in physics.

  18. Preparing the Family and Children for Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya Al-Sagarat, Ahmad; Al-Oran, Haytham Mohammad; Obeidat, Hala; Hamlan, Adlah Mohammad; Moxham, Lorna

    The focus of this literature analysis is the concept of preparing the family and children for surgery. As posited in the literature, surgery causes stress and anxiety that have a negative impact on both parents and their children. Therefore, the need for health care professionals to facilitate positive preparation for surgery to minimize anxiety and enhance postoperative recovery is important. Preparing the family and children for surgery is discussed in depth under the following themes: Preoperative Anxiety in Children, the Impact of Preoperative Anxiety on the Pediatric Patients and Parents, Preoperative Psychological Preparation for Children and Parents, and the Role of Nurse Practitioners in Preoperative Preparation. Through reviewing the literature, it would appear that some areas of preparation for parents are not as sufficient as they could be, particularly with regard to adequate preoperative education programs. The majority of studies reported that therapeutic play and clown interventions used for psychological preparation of parents and their children have been effective in minimizing and decreasing anxiety levels.

  19. Relative costs of anesthesiologist prepared, hospital pharmacy prepared and outsourced anesthesia drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelacic, Srdjan; Craddick, Karen; Nair, Bala G; Bounthavong, Mark; Yeung, Kai; Kusulos, Dolly; Knutson, Jennifer A; Somani, Shabir; Bowdle, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Anesthesia drugs can be prepared by anesthesia providers, hospital pharmacies or outsourcing facilities. The decision whether to outsource all or some anesthesia drugs is challenging since the costs associated with different anesthesia drug preparation methods remain poorly described. The costs associated with preparation of 8 commonly used anesthesia drugs were analyzed using a budget impact analysis for 4 different syringe preparation strategies: (1) all drugs prepared by anesthesiologist, (2) drugs prepared by anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy, (3) drugs prepared by anesthesiologist and outsourcing facility, and (4) all drugs prepared by outsourcing facility. A strategy combining anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy prepared drugs was associated with the lowest estimated annual cost in the base-case budget impact analysis with an annual cost of $225 592, which was lower than other strategies by a margin of greater than $86 000. A combination of anesthesiologist and hospital pharmacy prepared drugs resulted in the lowest annual cost in the budget impact analysis. However, the cost of drugs prepared by an outsourcing facility maybe lower if the capital investment needed for the establishment and maintenance of the US Pharmacopeial Convention Chapter compliant facility is included in the budget impact analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparing teachers: building evidence for sound policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Study of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States; National Research Council

    2010-01-01

    "Teachers make a difference. The success of any plan for improving educational outcomes depends on the teachers who carry it out and thus on the abilities of those attracted to the field and their preparation...

  1. Progress involving new techniques for liposome preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of new techniques being used for the preparation of liposomes. A total of 28 publications were examined. In addition to the theories, characteristics and problems associated with traditional methods, the advantages and drawbacks of the latest techniques were reviewed. In the light of developments in many relevant areas, a variety of new techniques are being used for liposome preparation and each of these new technique has particular advantages over conventional preparation methods. However, there are still some problems associated with these new techniques that could hinder their applications and further improvements are needed. Generally speaking, due to the introduction of these latest techniques, liposome preparation is now an improved procedure. These applications promote not only advances in liposome research but also the methods for their production on an industrial scale.

  2. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... preparation as an activity for people with dementia but they have no combined material to base the planning of the activity on. The thesis of this project is that when persons with dementia is involved in cooking his or her own meal meal preparation it will contribute to the feeling of content and meaning...... in everyday life. Furthermore getting the appropriate and nutritious food will be a step in the right direction regarding prevention of malnutrition. The aim of this project is to develop a guide to increase the possibility for people with dementia to continue everyday life through participating in meal...

  3. Sample preparation in biological mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Alexander R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide the researcher with important sample preparation strategies in a wide variety of analyte molecules, specimens, methods, and biological applications requiring mass spectrometric analysis as a detection end-point.

  4. Preparing for surgery when you have diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000702.htm Preparing for surgery when you have diabetes To use the sharing features on this ... the day of your surgery. Your provider may have you meet with a dietitian, or give you ...

  5. Thermodynamic studies of preparing gas for transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykh-Zade, E.S.; Ramazanova, E.E.; Razamat, M.Yu.

    1979-08-01

    The evaluation of the conditions required for the preparation of gas for transportation is shown to be based on the computation of gas separation dew points which indicate gas phase diagrams. 5 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. Carbon membranes: Precursor, preparation, and functionalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsema, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we study the preparation of Carbon Molecular Sieve (CMS) membranes for the separation of gases. The gases are separated based on their size difference and affinity for the membrane material.

  7. Improving Educational Preparation for Transcultural Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Var, Rita M. H.

    1998-01-01

    Nurses and health care professionals must be prepared for transcultural health care because society is becoming increasingly multicultural and current health services are not meeting the needs of minority ethnic groups in Britain. (SK)

  8. Porcelain veneers - preparation design: A retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the preparation of tooth design for porcelain veneers. It follows the literature more than three decades back in the past. From the very beginning, porcelain veneers were placed to no/minimally prepared tooth substance, showing different problems in clinical use. Later, the technique of etching the porcelain and controlling the reduction of tooth structure, presented the great steps forward in porcelain veneers accepting. A special accent concerning the preparative design was placed on variations of incisal edge preparation - the problem, which is still present in current practice. Additionally, the paper emphasizes the extremely demanding protocols in making the porcelain veneers as well as their expanded clinical indications.

  9. Preparation and Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate simvastatin orodispersible tablets with high dissolution rate and enhanced bioavailability. ... DSC and FTIR indicated the formation of solid dispersion without chemical interaction between simvastatin and polymer. Orodispersible tablet prepared with Emcosoy and Pullulan showed least wetting and.

  10. Immediate field of intervention: undergraduate college Preparation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... field of intervention: undergraduate college Preparation: at research institutes and universities The challenge: to transform the disciplines themselves Make them relevant and responsive. First step: create innovative interactions across the higher education spectrum, between Research Institute-University-College.

  11. School age test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... qualitative study of the pre-operative preparation of children, young people and their parents' for planned continence surgery: experiences and expectations. J Clin Nurs . 2012;21(13-14):1964- ...

  12. In situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, S.; Voigts, F. [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Maus-Friedrichs, W., E-mail: w.maus-friedrichs@pe.tu-clausthal.de [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Clausthaler Zentrum fuer Materialtechnik, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2011-10-31

    The in situ preparation of Calcium hydroxide films in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) is constrained by the decomposition of species at the surface and the absence of OH bulk diffusion. Therefore, it is not possible to prepare such films simply by water exposure to a Calcium layer. We present four different approaches for the preparation of Ca(OH){sub 2} films in an UHV. Two of these methods are found to be ineffective for the preparation, the other two are shown to produce Calcium hydroxide films. Both of the two effective procedures make use of H{sub 2} gas exposure. Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy are employed to verify quality and purity of the films.

  13. Deterministic remote preparation via the Brown state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Song-Ya; Gao, Cong; Zhang, Pei; Qu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    We propose two deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) schemes by using the Brown state as the entangled channel. Firstly, the remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state is considered. It is worth mentioning that the construction of measurement bases plays a key role in our scheme. Then, the remote preparation of an arbitrary three-qubit state is investigated. The proposed schemes can be extended to controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) with unit success probabilities. At variance with the existing CRSP schemes via the Brown state, the derived schemes have no restriction on the coefficients, while the success probabilities can reach 100%. It means the success probabilities are greatly improved. Moreover, we pay attention to the DRSP in noisy environments under two important decoherence models, the amplitude-damping noise and phase-damping noise.

  14. Semen preparation techniques for intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Carolien M.; Heineman, M. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Farquhar, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Semen preparation techniques for assisted reproduction, including intrauterine insemination (IUI), were developed to separate the motile morphological normal spermatozoa. Leucocytes, bacteria and dead spermatozoa produce oxygen radicals that negatively influence the ability to fertilize

  15. Process for the preparation of organoclays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, David J.

    2003-01-01

    A method for preparing organoclays from smectites for use as rheological control agents and in the preparation of nanocomposites. Typically, the clay is dispersed in water, and a substantially monomolecular layer of a water soluble polymer is applied to the surfaces of the clay. A surfactant is also applied to the clay to modify the surface hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance of the clay, and the organoclay is separated out for subsequent use.

  16. Metaphase preparation from murine bone marrow

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Genomic instabilities including chromosomal translocations are frequently associated with genetic diseases and cancer, especially leukemia. Cytogenetic studies of these diseases requiring preparation of metaphase chromosomes are often key to revealing their chromosomal abnormalities. Treatment of in vitro disease cell cultures with cell cycle inhibitors, e.g. colcemid, have proved to be a very simple and effective metaphase preparation method for cytogenetic studies. Two good examples are met...

  17. Prepare and Evaluate an Organizational Relocation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    accomplishment, considering the "state of the art " for that particular activity. Establish methodology through building logic flow diagrams. Develop a...Prepare meals. d. Perform kitchen duties and utensil maintenance. e. Perform housekeeping chores. f. Perform facility maintenance including electrical...commitment in the ORP 2.2 Food preparation Enlist culinary skills from evacuees; plan menus and provisioning to meet special circumstance (nutritional

  18. Career Concern and Tax Preparer Fraud

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Yang; Liansheng Wu; Xianhui Bo

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of career concern on fraud among tax return preparers. A two-stage model is built to ascertain whether the propensity of tax preparers to cooperate with taxpayers in underpaying tax can be decreased if the revealed fraud behavior increases the probability of being audited by the tax agency in the following period. After solving the unique SPNE, this effect is shown to exist.

  19. Preparing Financial Reports for Marine Corps Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-12

    PREPARING FINANCIAL REPORTS FOR MARINE CORPS APPROPRIATIONS Report No. D-2001-097 April 12, 2001...to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Preparing Financial Reports for Marine Corps Appropriations Contract or Grant Number Program Element...Act of 1990, as amended by the Federal Financial Management Act of 1994. This is the third report on our audit of the FY 2000 Department of the Navy

  20. Quality of small bowel preparation for video-capsule endoscopy. Prospective comparison of two different preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Kalantzis, Chryssostomos; Papadopoulos, Aggelos A; Apostolopoulos, Pericles; Ladas, Dimitris; Kalli, Theodora; Kakavetsi, Vassiliki; Kalantzis, Nikolaos; Ladas, Spiros D

    2010-01-01

    The best preparation for successful small bowel video-capsule endoscopy (VCE) is still unknown. The primary aim of our study was to compare sodium phosphate (PS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) purge on the quality of small bowel preparation. In this prospective, non-randomized, two centers study, we evaluated 47 and 48 consecutive outpatients who received PS and PEG preparations, respectively. Two independent investigators measured the proportion of small bowel transit time (SBTT) without clean mucosa. Two other investigators assessed bowel preparation independently, using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The proportion of SBTT without clean mucosa was similar for both preparations, in the proximal [3.8 (2.1-8.7) % vs. 4.85 (2.7-9.7) %, p = 0.24)] and in the distal half [31.9 (10.7-52.5) % vs. 22.9 (6.9-57.7) %, p = 0.48] of VCE recording. There was moderate - good correlation of VAS assessment of bowel preparation with the proportion of SBTT without clean mucosa in the proximal (r = 0.69, p preparations. PS and PEG preparations result in similar quality of small bowel preparation and similar outcome measures of VCE studies. VAS assessment could be an alternative measure of bowel preparation in clinical practice.

  1. Childbirth and parenting preparation in antenatal classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barimani, M; Forslund Frykedal, K; Rosander, M; Berlin, A

    2018-02-01

    to describe topics (1) presented by midwives' during antenatal classes and the amount of time spent on these topics and (2) raised and discussed by first-time parents and the amount of time spent on these topics. qualitative; data were gathered using video or tape recordings and analysed using a three-pronged content analysis approach, i.e., conventional, summative, and directed analyses. 3 antenatal courses in 2 antenatal units in a large Swedish city; 3 midwives; and 34 course participants. class content focused on childbirth preparation (67% of the entire antenatal course) and on parenting preparation (33%). Childbirth preparation facilitated parents' understanding of the childbirth process, birthing milieu, the partner's role, what could go wrong during delivery, and pain relief advantages and disadvantages. Parenting preparation enabled parents to (i) plan for those first moments with the newborn; (ii) care for/physically handle the infant; (iii) manage breastfeeding; (iv) manage the period at home immediately after childbirth; and (v) maintain their relationship. During the classes, parents expressed concerns about what could happened to newborns. Parents' questions to midwives and discussion topics among parents were evenly distributed between childbirth preparation (52%) and parenting preparation (48%). childbirth preparation and pain relief consumed 67% of course time. Parents particularly reflected on child issues, relationship, sex, and anxiety. Female and male participants actively listened to the midwives, appeared receptive to complex issues, and needed more time to ask questions. Parents appreciated the classes yet needed to more information for managing various post-childbirth situations. while midwifery services vary among hospitals, regions, and countries, midwives might equalise content focus, offer classes in the second trimester, provide more time for parents to talk to each other, allow time in the course plan for parents to bring up new

  2. 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrhythmias Abuse 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Prepare ... temporada deportiva 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season If you've ever played competitive sports, ...

  3. The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Iron Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Burckhardt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard approaches are not appropriate when assessing pharmacokinetics of iron supplements due to the ubiquity of endogenous iron, its compartmentalized sites of action, and the complexity of the iron metabolism. The primary site of action of iron is the erythrocyte, and, in contrast to conventional drugs, no drug-receptor interaction takes place. Notably, the process of erythropoiesis, i.e., formation of new erythrocytes, takes 3−4 weeks. Accordingly, serum iron concentration and area under the curve (AUC are clinically irrelevant for assessing iron utilization. Iron can be administered intravenously in the form of polynuclear iron(III-hydroxide complexes with carbohydrate ligands or orally as iron(II (ferrous salts or iron(III (ferric complexes. Several approaches have been employed to study the pharmacodynamics of iron after oral administration. Quantification of iron uptake from radiolabeled preparations by the whole body or the erythrocytes is optimal, but alternatively total iron transfer can be calculated based on known elimination rates and the intrinsic reactivity of individual preparations. Degradation kinetics, and thus the safety, of parenteral iron preparations are directly related to the molecular weight and the stability of the complex. High oral iron doses or rapid release of iron from intravenous iron preparations can saturate the iron transport system, resulting in oxidative stress with adverse clinical and subclinical consequences. Appropriate pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics analyses will greatly assist our understanding of the likely contribution of novel preparations to the management of anemia.

  4. Hypolipidemic effects of modified psyllium preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenneth G D; Bristow, Sandee J; Yu, Liangli

    2004-08-11

    The hypolipidemic effects of two solid-state enzymatically modified psyllium preparations were compared to that of the original psyllium husks in hamsters. Hamsters were ad libitum fed 0.2 wt % cholesterol diets formulated to contain 12% cellulose or 5% cellulose plus 7% raw or enzymatically modified psyllium preparations. Psyllium additions to the diet did not significantly alter food consumption or the weekly mean hamster weight over the 5 weeks of feeding. However, the total weight gained over 35 days of feeding of modified psyllium Y-26-4, one of the modified psyllium preparations, was significantly lower, 48, 47, and 32% than that for the cellulose, raw psyllium, and modified psyllium Y-24-3 groups, respectively. At 35 days, psyllium feeding significantly reduced plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 50-100% in comparison to cellulose feeding, with no significant differences between the psyllium preparations. Fecal dry weight was unaffected by dietary treatment. At days 29-31, fecal bile acid excretion was significantly increased by 30-70% with all three psyllium diets, with no significant differences between psyllium preparations. These results suggest that improving the functional properties of psyllium by solid-state enzymatic procedures, such that its incorporation into food products is feasible, does not alter psyllium-mediated hypolipidemic effects.

  5. Preparation and screening of crystalline inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Xiang, Xiaodong [Danville, CA; Goldwasser, Isy [Palo Alto, CA; Brice{hacek over }o, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong [Fremont, CA; Wang, Kai-An [Cupertino, CA

    2008-10-28

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  6. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Shtayah, Rania; Qadumi, Ayman; Ghanem, Mashour; Qedan, Rawan; Daibes, Marah; Awwad, Somud Abu; Jaradat, Nidal; Kittana, Naim

    2017-10-01

    The stability of an extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin suspension stored over 30 days under various storage conditions was evaluated. Rosuvastatin suspension was extemporaneously prepared using commercial rosuvastatin tablets as the source of active pharmaceutical ingredient. The organoleptic properties, dissolution profile, and stability of the formulation were investigated. For the stability studies, samples of the suspension were stored under 2 storage conditions, room temperature (25 °C and 60% relative humidity) and accelerated stability chambers (40 °C and 75% relative humidity). Viscosity, pH, organoleptic properties, and microbial contamination were evaluated according to the approved specifications. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for the analysis and quantification of rosuvastatin in selected samples. Microbiological investigations were also conducted. The prepared suspension showed acceptable organoleptic properties. It showed complete release of rosuvastatin within 15 minutes. The pH of the suspension was 9.8, which remained unchanged during the stability studies. The microbiological investigations demonstrated that the preparation was free of any microbial contamination. In addition, the suspension showed stability within at least the period of use of a 100-mL rosuvastatin bottle. Extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin 20-mg/mL suspension was stable for 30 days when stored at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical characterization of an Ayurvedic herbo-mineral formulation - Vasantakusumākara Rasa: A potential tool for quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada Ota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbo-mineral formulations of Ayurveda contain specified metals or minerals as composition, which have their beneficial effects on biological systems. These metals or minerals are transformed into non-toxic forms through meticulous procedures explained in Ayurveda. Though literature is available on quality aspects of such herbo-mineral formulations; contemporary science is raising concerns at regular intervals on such formulations. Thus, it becomes mandate to develop quality profiles of all formulations that contain metals or minerals in their composition. Considering this, it is planned to evaluate analytical profile of Vasantakusumākara Rasa. Objective: To prepare Vasantakusumākara Rasa as per Standard operating Procedures (SoP mentioned in classical text and to characterize it chemically using modern analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: The drug (Vasantakusumākara Rasa in three batches was prepared in GMP certified pharmacy. Physico-chemical analysis, Assay of elements and HPTLC were carried out as per API. XRD was conducted using Rigaku Ultima-IV X-ray diffractometer. Results: The analysis shown the presence of Mercury, Tin, Gold, Silver, Iron, Zinc and Calcium etc., and HPTLC revealed presence of organic constituents from plant material. The XRD indicated the presence of cinnabar (mercury sulphide from Rasa Sindhura, cassiterite (tin oxide from Vaṅga Bhasma, massicot (lead oxide from Nāga bhasma and Magnetite (di-iron oxide from Loha bhasma. Conclusion: The physico chemical analysis reveals that VKR prepared by following classical guidelines is very effective in converting the macro elements into therapeutically effective medicines in micro form. Well prepared herbo-mineral drugs offer many advantages over plant medicines due to their longer shelf life, lesser doses, easy storing facilities, better palatability etc. The inferences and the standards laid down in this study certainly can be utilized as baseline data

  8. Photonic devices prepared by embossing in PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandura, D., E-mail: jandura@fyzika.uniza.sk; Pudis, D.; Berezina, S.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication technology of photonic devices based on embossing in PDMS is presented. • Analysis of morphological properties of prepared devices in PDMS by CLSM and AFM. • Spectral characterization of PDMS ring resonator proved the resonator functionality. - Abstract: In this paper, we present useful technique for fabrication of novel photonic devices created in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We use combination of direct laser writing in thin photoresist layer with embossing process of liquid PDMS. We prepared ring resonator and Mach-Zehnder interferometer in PDMS. The shape of prepared PDMS photonic devices was analyzed by confocal laser microscope and atomic force microscope. Optical characterization of these devices reveals extinction ratios of up to 20 dB.

  9. Putting the Evidence into Preceptor Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Myrick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The term evidence-based practice refers to the utilization of knowledge derived from research. Nursing practice, however, is not limited to clinical practice but also encompasses nursing education. It is, therefore, equally important that teaching preparation is derived from evidence also. The purpose of this study was to examine whether an evidence-based approach to preceptor preparation influenced preceptors in a assuming that role. A qualitative method using semistructured interviews was used to collect data. A total of 29 preceptors were interviewed. Constant comparative analysis facilitated examination of the data. Findings indicate that preceptors were afforded an opportunity to participate in a preparatory process that was engaging, enriching, and critically reflective/reflexive. This study has generated empirical evidence that can (a contribute substantively to effective preceptor preparation, (b promote best teaching practices in the clinical setting, and (c enhance the preceptorship experience for nursing students.

  10. Arsenic Release from Foodstuffs upon Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyns, Karlien; Waegeneers, Nadia; Van de Wiele, Tom; Ruttens, Ann

    2017-03-22

    In this study the concentration of total arsenic (As) and arsenic species (inorganic As, arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinate, and methylarsonate) was monitored in different foodstuffs (rice, vegetables, algae, fish, crustacean, molluscs) before and after preparation using common kitchen practices. By measuring the water content of the foodstuff and by reporting arsenic concentrations on a dry weight base, we were able to distinguish between As release effects due to food preparation and As decrease due to changes in moisture content upon food preparation. Arsenic species were released to the broth during boiling, steaming, frying, or soaking of the food. Concentrations declined with maxima of 57% for total arsenic, 65% for inorganic As, and 32% for arsenobetaine. On the basis of a combination of our own results and literature data, we conclude that the extent of this release of arsenic species is species specific, with inorganic arsenic species being released most easily, followed by the small organic As species and the large organic As species.

  11. Optimising uncertainty in physical sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Jennifer A; Ramsey, Michael H; Damant, Andrew P; Wood, Roger

    2005-11-01

    Uncertainty associated with the result of a measurement can be dominated by the physical sample preparation stage of the measurement process. In view of this, the Optimised Uncertainty (OU) methodology has been further developed to allow the optimisation of the uncertainty from this source, in addition to that from the primary sampling and the subsequent chemical analysis. This new methodology for the optimisation of physical sample preparation uncertainty (u(prep), estimated as s(prep)) is applied for the first time, to a case study of myclobutanil in retail strawberries. An increase in expenditure (+7865%) on the preparatory process was advised in order to reduce the s(prep) by the 69% recommended. This reduction is desirable given the predicted overall saving, under optimised conditions, of 33,000 pounds Sterling per batch. This new methodology has been shown to provide guidance on the appropriate distribution of resources between the three principle stages of a measurement process, including physical sample preparation.

  12. Clean coal-preparation barriers in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, W.; Nycz, R. [Polish Academy of Science, Krakow (Poland). Mineral & Energy Economic Research Institution

    2003-04-01

    Poland is the second biggest European producer of hard coal. This raw product is cleaned in 49 preparation plants. Production capacities of the preparation plants depend on the demand for coal. The clean-coal production mostly depends on the quality demands of customers. Polish hard-coal is of good quality. It is enough to remove grains of clean stone to get saleable products of ash content between 8 and 12%. Rarely the ash content is up to 15%. The coal can be cleaned to 4-6% ash content, but there is a very small demand for this type of coal. Gravity separation (via heavy liquids, jigs, cyclones) removes the grains of pure stone. Currently, no preparation of the coal after grinding is conducted.

  13. In situ preparation of calcium carbonate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, S. [Clausthaler Zentrum fuer Materialtechnik, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Voigts, F. [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Maus-Friedrichs, W., E-mail: w.maus-friedrichs@pe.tu-clausthal.de [Clausthaler Zentrum fuer Materialtechnik, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    The in situ preparation of calcium carbonate films in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) is inhibited by the decomposition of CO{sub 2} molecules at the surface and the absence of CO{sub 2} bulk diffusion. Therefore, it is not possible to prepare such films simply by CO{sub 2} exposure to a calcium layer. We investigated different approaches for the preparation of CaCO{sub 3} films in an UHV. Among these, only the simultaneous evaporation of Ca atoms in a mixed O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} atmosphere is able to produce well defined stoichiometric calcium carbonate films. Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy are employed to verify quality and purity of the films.

  14. Preparation of tacrolimus ophthalmic solution using cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Hajiahmadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Application of topical tacrolimus in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis is considered as an alternative to steroids. Due to the low aqueous solubility of  the drug, preparing a solution of the drug has got particular importance. In the present study, tacrolimus eye drop was prepared using cyclodextrin  ,as a drug solubility enhancer. Materials and Methods: To improve the aqueous solubility of tacrolimus, 5 types of cyclodextrins called α, γ, hydroxypropyl (HP-β, HP-γ, and sulfobutyl ether (SBE-β-cyclodextrin (CD, were used. After phase solubility studies, the most appropriate cyclodextrin was selected to prepare tacrolimus eye drop. For eye drop preparation, phosphate buffer (pH=7.4, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA polymers (viscosity increasing agent, methyl paraben and benzalkonium chloride (preservative agent were used together with cyclodextrin-tacrolimus complex. Results: α, HP-β ,and γ-CD had the most effect on aqueous solubility,respectively. These 3 types of CDs,  respectively increased the intrinsic solubility of tacrolimus174, 160, and 102 times. Taking this into account, α and HP-β-CD were chosen to prepare a soluble form of tacrolimus. In the eye drop formulation containing CD-tacrolimus complex, methyl paraben and HPMC, remarkably reduced the drug solubility while there was not a critical change in the solubility of tacrolimus in the case of CD-tacrolimus complex, buffer, HPMC or PVA and benzalkonium chloride. Conclusion: It is possible to prepare tacrolimus eye drop (0.05% using cyclodextrins.

  15. [Research on the preparative method of Arctigenin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ying; Yang, Yi-Shun; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Yue; Cai, Zhen-Zhen; Tao, Jian-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    To research on the preparation of Arctigenin in vitro. Took enzyme concentration, time course and substrate concentration as investigation factors, used Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis path of Arctigenin. The best operational path for Arctigenin was as follows: the temperature was 50 degrees C, pH was 4.8, enzyme concentration was 0.44 U/mL, time course was 46.81 min, substrate concentration was 0.29 mg/mL, the conversion rate was 90.94%. This research can be regarded as a referencein preparing Arctigenin in vitro.

  16. Preparation of atomic oxygen resistant polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, Victor J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Connell, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Polyphenyl quinoxalines (PPQs) are an important family of high performance polymers that offer good chemical and thermal stability coupled with excellent mechanical properties. These aromatic heterocyclic polymers are potentially useful as films, coatings, adhesives, and composite materials that demand stability in harsh environments. Our approach was to prepare PPQs with pendent siloxane groups using the appropriate chemistry and then evaluate these polymers before and after exposure to simulated atomic oxygen. Either monomer, the bis(o-diamine)s or the bis(alpha-diketone)s can be synthesized with a hydroxy group to which the siloxane chain will be attached. Several novel materials were prepared.

  17. Macroporous Monolithic Polymers: Preparation and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrua, Ruben Dario; Strumia, Miriam Cristina; Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia Inés

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, macroporous monolithic materials have been introduced as a new and useful generation of polymers used in different fields. These polymers may be prepared in a simple way from a homogenous mixture into a mold and contain large interconnected pores or channels allowing for high flow rates at moderate pressures. Due to their porous characteristics, they could be used in different processes, such as stationary phases for different types of chromatography, high-throughput bioreactors and in microfluidic chip applications. This review reports the contributions of several groups working in the preparation of different macroporous monoliths and their modification by immobilization of specific ligands on the products for specific purposes.

  18. Preparation and properties of thyroid cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, J B; Wicken, J V; Lafferty, M A

    1969-12-01

    Calf and human thyroids have been disrupted by nitrogen microcavitation, and the thyroid membranes prepared by repeated centrifugation in low ionic strength buffers. Two classes of membranes were prepared by centrifugation on a discontinuous gradient of ficoll. A lighter fraction was comprised of somewhat larger vesicles; they were higher in Na(+)-K(+)-activated ATPase, phosphodiesterase, and 5'-nucleotidase than was the heavier fraction. The heavier fraction had a higher nicotinamide adenine nucleotide dehydrogenase-diaphorase activity. Thus the lighter fraction appears to have been enriched in fragments derived from the plasma membrane.

  19. Achieving the best bowel preparation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Blanco, Adolfo; Ruiz, Alex; Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Amorós, Ana; Gana, Juan Cristóbal; Ibáñez, Patricio; Ono, Akiko; Fujii, Takahiro

    2014-12-21

    Bowel preparation is a core issue in colonoscopy, as it is closely related to the quality of the procedure. Patients often find that bowel preparation is the most unpleasant part of the examination. It is widely accepted that the quality of cleansing must be excellent to facilitate detecting neoplastic lesions. In spite of its importance and potential implications, until recently, bowel preparation has not been the subject of much study. The most commonly used agents are high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) electrolyte solution and sodium phosphate. There has been some confusion, even in published meta-analyses, regarding which of the two agents provides better cleansing. It is clear now that both PEG and sodium phosphate are effective when administered with proper timing. Consequently, the timing of administration is recognized as one of the central factors to the quality of cleansing. The bowel preparation agent should be administered, at least in part, a few hours in advance of the colonoscopy. Several low volume agents are available, and either new or modified schedules with PEG that usually improve tolerance. Certain adjuvants can also be used to reduce the volume of PEG, or to improve the efficacy of other agents. Other factors apart from the choice of agent can improve the quality of bowel cleansing. For instance, the effect of diet before colonoscopy has not been completely clarified, but an exclusively liquid diet is probably not required, and a low-fiber diet may be preferable because it improves patient satisfaction and the quality of the procedure. Some patients, such as diabetics and persons with heart or kidney disease, require modified procedures and certain precautions. Bowel preparation for pediatric patients is also reviewed here. In such cases, PEG remains the most commonly used agent. As detecting neoplasia is not the main objective with these patients, less intensive preparation may suffice. Special considerations must be made for patients

  20. Preparation of superconducting Nb-Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapala, J.; Kuchar, L. (Vysoka Skola Banska, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Nezeleznych Kovu a Jaderne Metalurgie)

    1983-01-01

    Superconducting Nb-Zr alloy with a zirconium content of up to 3 wt.% was prepared by a combination of arc and electron zone melting. First, the Nb-Zr master alloy with 1 wt.% Zr was prepared in a horizontal arc furnace under an argon atmosphere. This master alloy was remelted several times to achieve the highest possible homogeneity of samples. The Nb-Zr ingot was then remelted through two zone passes on equipment for high-vacuum electron zone melting. Samples were taken of the Nb-Zr alloy and a metallographic analysis was made.

  1. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz; Cristiano Ferrari Siqueira; David Lee Nelson; Josep Martin-Comin; Valbert Nascimento Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99mTc-ceftizoxime (99mTc-CFT), with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli) in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/mL). After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate solution (Na99mTcO4-) with an...

  2. Preparation and Evaluation of Herbal Shampoo Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Sachin; Nema, Neelesh; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    Two preparations of herbal shampoo powder were formulated using some common traditional drugs used by folk and traditional people of Bundelkhand region (M.P) India, for hair care. The preparations were formulated using bahera, amla, neem tulsi, shikakai henna & brahmi evaluated for organoleptic, powder charecterestics, foam test and physical evaluation. As the selected drugs being used since long time as single drug or in combination, present investigations will further help to establish a standard formulation and evaluation parameters, which will certainly help in the standardization for quality and purity of such type of herbal powder shampoos. PMID:22557149

  3. Progress in Preparation of Monodisperse Polymer Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan

    2017-12-01

    The monodisperse crosslinked polymer microspheres have attracted much attention because of their superior thermal and solvent resistance, mechanical strength, surface activity and adsorption properties. They are of wide prospects for using in many fields such as biomedicine, electronic science, information technology, analytical chemistry, standard measurement and environment protection etc. Functional polymer microspheres prepared by different methods have the outstanding surface property, quantum size effect and good potential future in applications with its designable structure, controlled size and large ratio of surface to volume. Scholars of all over the world have focused on this hot topic. The preparation method and research progress in functional polymer microspheres are addressed in the paper.

  4. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bimetallic nanoparticles: Preparation, properties, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Abbasi, Elham; Davaran, Soodabeh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Many studies of non-supported bimetallic nanoparticle (BMNP) dispersions, stabilized by ligands or polymers, and copolymers, were started only about 10 years ago. Several preparative procedures have been proposed, and full characterizations on BMNPs have been approved. Studies on BMNPs received huge attention from both scientific and technological communities because most of the NPs' catalytic activity depends on their structural aspects. In this study, we focus on the preparation, properties, and bio-application of BMNPs and introduction of the recent advance in these NPs.

  6. Preparation Methods: past and Potential Methods of Food Preparation for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The logical progression of development of space food systems during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs is outlined. The preparation methods which include no preparation to heating, cooling and freezing are reviewed. The introduction of some new and exciting technological advances is proposed, which should result in a system providing crew members with appetizing, safe, nutritious and convenient food.

  7. Medication errors in oral dosage form preparation for neonates: The importance of preparation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Sousan; Rasekhi, Mehri; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Asadollahi, Malihe; Hamishehkar, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Considering the inability of neonates to swallow oral drugs in the form of solid tablets, the lack of appropriate dosage forms for infants, and the necessity to prepare some pills for neonates, the current study investigated dosage accuracy in drugs for neonates prepared from tablets by analyzing the concentrations of final products. Captopril and spironolactone, oral dosage forms that are not suitable for infants, were chosen as the drug model for this study. Demographic characteristics of nurses providing medications and tablet preparation methods were documented in a random observational method. To determine concentrations of final solutions, 120 drug samples (60 captopril and 60 spironolactone samples) prepared by Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses of the Children Cure and Health Hospital of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry. There was a significant error rate in the concentration of captopril in prepared solutions compared with the ordered dosage. No differences were observed in the demographic characteristics of the nurses and the method of preparation between the two drugs. The only difference related to the preparation technique was that in most cases (70.8%), one whole spironolactone tablet was used, whereas in around 50% of samples in captopril group, half or a quarter of one captopril tablet was utilized for the intended dosage (P = 0.009). This research suggests that the use of a whole tablet instead of a divided tablet in the manual preparation of medication dosage forms for neonates is the most appropriate approach.

  8. Specialized Preparation for Middle Level Teachers: A National Review of Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Penny B.; Faulkner, Shawn A.; Cook, Chris M.; Miller, Nicole C.; Thompson, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Since William Alexander's (1963, 1995) call for attention to the need for specialized middle level teacher preparation in 1963, 45 states have created requirements for middle level certification, licensure, or endorsement (Association for Middle Level Education [AMLE], 2014) which have led to institutions of teacher preparation creating routes…

  9. [Study on the appropriate parameters of automatic full crown tooth preparation for dental tooth preparation robot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F S; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y P; Sun, Y C; Wang, D X; Lyu, P J

    2017-05-09

    Objective: To further study the most suitable parameters for automatic full crown preparation using oral clinical micro robot. Its purpose is to improve the quality of automated tooth preparing for the system and to lay the foundation for clinical application. Methods: Twenty selected artificial resin teeth were used as sample teeth. The micro robot automatic tooth preparation system was used in dental clinic to control the picosecond laser beam to complete two dimensional cutting on the resin tooth sample according to the motion planning path. Using the laser scanning measuring microscope, each layer of cutting depth values was obtained and the average value was calculated. The monolayer cutting depth was determined. The three-dimensional (3D) data of the target resin teeth was obtained using internal scanner, and the CAD data of full-crown tooth preparation was designed by CAD self-develged software. According to the depth of the single layer, 11 complete resin teeth in phantom head were automatically prepared by the robot controlling the laser focused spot in accordance with the layer-cutting way. And the accuracy of resin tooth preparation was evaluated with the software. Using the same method, monolayer cutting depth parameter for cutting dental hard tissue was obtained. Then 15 extracted mandibular and maxillary first molars went through automatic full crown tooth preparation. And the 3D data of tooth preparations were obtained with intra oral scanner. The software was used to evaluate the accuracy of tooth preparation. Results: The results indicated that the single cutting depth of cutting resin teeth and in vitro teeth by picosecond laser were (60.0±2.6) and (45.0±3.6) μm, respectively. Using the tooth preparation robot, 11 artificial resin teeth and 15 complete natural teeth were automatically prepared, and the average time were (13.0±0.7), (17.0±1.8) min respectively. Through software evaluation, the average preparation depth of the occlusal surface

  10. PREPARATION OF URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium--aluminum alloys from a solution of uranium halide in an about equimolar molten alkali metal halide-- aluminum halide mixture and excess aluminum. The uranium halide is reduced and the uranium is alloyed with the excess aluminum. The alloy and salt are separated from each other. (AEC)

  11. Academic Preparation and the Academic Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Dorothy; Pierce, William

    1993-01-01

    Study examined the curricular structure of doctoral programs at research and doctoral grant institutions, analyzing the job market and assessing the overall compatibility of preparation with college employment needs. Results suggest there is too much overspecialization in doctoral study, and institutions are not graduating for a realistic college…

  12. Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal surgeries frequently require bowel preparation. In children, (is this standard of care?: this method is mostly followed) this is usually performed using normal saline, which is very cumbersome and causes unnecessary discomfort. This study compared polyethylene glycol (PEG) with normal saline for ...

  13. Preparing Urban School Leaders: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tiedan; Beachum, Floyd D.; White, George P.; Kaimal, Girija; FitzGerald, Anne Marie; Reed, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Extant research, though limited in quantity, increasingly demonstrates the critical connection between quality preparation experience, candidates' leadership capacity, and their subsequent instructional and transformation leadership practices. Using mixed methods, this study builds on the current knowledge base and aims to further verify the link…

  14. Translanguaging in English Academic Writing Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, John; Coulson, David

    2015-01-01

    We investigate translanguaging (i.e. the co-use of first and second languages) in a Content and Language Integrated Learning course, as a pragmatic means to promote the skill of young university students in extended critical academic writing. We aimed to prepare new undergraduate students (n = 180) for courses where partial English-medium…

  15. Preparation and Evaluation of Glibenclamide-Loaded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of stirring speed (250, 1000, 1500 and 2500 rpm) and drug: polymer ratio (1:1, 1: 2, 1:3 and 2:1) on particle size, size distribution, zeta potential, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and drug release was also studied. Results: Stable NPs were successfully prepared without any incompatibility, as indicated by ...

  16. Liposomal preparation by supercritical fluids technology | Zhong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 1970s, supercritical fluids technology (SCF) has been utilized in liposomal preparation because of its friendliness, nontoxicity to the environment and its possibility to achieve solvent-free liposomes and industrial-scale of liposome production under the conditions of current good manufacturing practice (cGMP).

  17. Preparation of flat carbon support films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, RI; Oostergetel, GT; Brisson, A

    Wrinkling of carbon support films is known to limit the resolution of electron microscopy images of protein two-dimensional crystals. The origin of carbon wrinkling during preparation of the support films was investigated by reflected light microscopy. We observed that carbon films go through

  18. Mechanical site preparation for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus Lof; Daniel C. Dey; Rafael M. Navarro; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Forest restoration projects have become increasingly common around the world and planting trees is almost always a key component. Low seedling survival and growth may result in restoration failures and various mechanical site preparation techniques for treatment of soils and vegetation are important tools used to help counteract this. In this article, we synthesize the...

  19. Preparing for Workplace Numeracy: A Modelling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this article is the question, "how might we inform an epistemology of numeracy from the point of view of better preparing young people for workplace competence?" To inform thinking illustrative data from two projects that researched into mathematics in workplace activity and the teaching and learning of modelling in…

  20. Magnetite Nanoparticles Prepared By Spark Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorov M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, we study a possibility of using the electric spark erosion method as an alternative to the method of chemical co-precipitation for preparation of magnetic nanoparticles. Initiation of high frequency electric discharge between coarse iron particles under a layer of distilled water allows obtaining pure magnetite nanoparticles.

  1. the effect of feeding differently prepared breadfruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groups, while the fifth group receive a 100 % commercial basic diet (poultry growers mash, vital® feed) served as the control. .... dietary intake of a 50 % feed supplementation .... TABLE 1: Chemical composition (9/9 dry matter) ol'differently prepared bread fruit ( Armcarpus ri/ti/is) .... copper containing foods lead to high liver.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1538 - Nisin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nisin preparation. 184.1538 Section 184.1538 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  3. Guidelines for Preparing Interim Technical Reports

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Using these guidelines. Although fairly structured guidelines are provided below, we suggest to project leaders that they begin ... IDRC does not wish to impose an undue burden on project leaders in preparing these reports. The amount of effort ... o increased research or administrative skills of the researchers involved; and.

  4. Preparation of amine coated silver nanoparticles using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. This article presents a simple method towards the preparation of functionalized silver nano- particles in a continuous medium. Silver nanoparticles were obtained through AgNO3 chemical reduction in ethanol and triethylenetetramine was used to stabilize and functionalize the metal. The product was characterized ...

  5. Are Our Students Prepared for University?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    The A-level curricula are not preparing students for a university education, concentrating more on knowledge than skills. However, because of aspects such as the modular design of A-levels, subject knowledge can also be lacking in students as they enter university education. Diagnostic tests in maths and literacy for first year bioscience…

  6. Methotrexate-loaded biodegradable nanoparticles: preparation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The prepared nanoparticles were evaluated for physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, release studies, etc and also evaluated for its in vitro cytotoxic potential against U-343 MGa human neuronal glioblastoma cells. Particle size of optimized formulation was < 200 nm. There was a considerable ...

  7. Preparation, spectral and thermal studies of pyrazinecarboxylic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    carboxylic acid) have been prepared by neutralization of aqueous hydrazine hydrate with the respective acids in appropriate molar ratios. The free acids and their hydrazinium salts have been characterized by analytical, IR spectroscopic and thermal studies. IR spectra of all the salts show N–N stretching frequencies of the ...

  8. Personnel Preparation for the Learning Disabled Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Cherry; Geller, Carol H.

    1983-01-01

    The Statewide (Virginia) Personnel Preparation Project, designed to provide training and ongoing support for teachers of learning disabled adolescents, consists of four major components: a summer institute, a full-year follow-through directed study program, a four-activity technical assistance program, and a preservice component. (CL)

  9. Immigrant Youth Organizing as Civic Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Rand; Nguyen, Chi

    2017-01-01

    Adequately preparing youth to enter the civic spheres of adulthood has emerged as an issue of concern in recent years due to widening civic empowerment gaps that track along race and class lines. Drawing on an ethnographic study of Homeward Bound (pseudonym), a program for Vietnamese youth in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, we show how immigrant youth…

  10. Professional Preparation: A Process of Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Janice

    Self awareness is a key element in the effectiveness of teacher performance. To a large extent, however, individual psychology and the growth process have been neglected in the preparation of teachers. Four guidelines can aid prospective teachers to gain strengths they will need in the classroom. The first is increasing student teachers' autonomy…

  11. Preparation, characterisation and application of polyaminesilica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyamine-silica hybrids were prepared by a one-pot sol-gel method via a ... materials were amorphous at loading above 1.2 mmol organic group per g of silica. .... produced a material that was non-porous and had a specific surface area of ...

  12. Application of thermotolerant microorganisms for biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yann-Shying; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2007-12-01

    Intensive agriculture is practised in Taiwan, and compost application is very popular as a means of improving the soil physical properties and supplying plant nutrition. We tested the potential of inoculation with thermotolerant microorganisms to shorten the maturity and improve the quality of biofertilizer prepared by composting. Thermotolerant microorganisms were isolated from compost and reinoculated for the preparation of biofertilizer. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the biofertilizer were determined during composting. The effects of biofertilizer application on the growth and yield of rape were also studied. Among 3823 colonies of thermotolerant microorganisms, Streptomyces thermonitrificans NTU-88, Streptococcus sp. NTU-130 and Aspergillus fumigatus NTU-132 exhibited high growth rates and cellulolytic and proteolytic activities. When a mixture of rice straw and swine manure were inoculated with these isolates and composted for 61 days, substrate temperature increased initially and then decreased gradually during composting. Substrate pH increased from 7.3 to 8.5. Microbial inoculation enhanced the rate of maturity, and increased the content of ash and total and immobilized nitrogen, improved the germination rate of alfalfa seed, and decreased the content of total organic carbon and the carbon/nitrogen ratio. Biofertilizer application increased the growth and yield of rape. Inoculation of thermotolerant and thermophilic microorganisms to agricultural waste for biofertilizer preparation enhances the rate of maturity and improves the quality of the resulting biofertilizer. Inoculation of appropriate microorganisms in biofertilizer preparation might be usefully applied to agricultural situations.

  13. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen, E-mail: twxu@ustc.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Sustained Release Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate matrix type sustained-release (SR) tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride (TH) for prolonged drug release and improvement in motor activity after spinal injuries. Methods: Matrix tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using four polymers (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose [HPMC] K 100, ethyl ...

  15. Successful Innovations in Educational Leadership Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen P.; Oliver, John; Solis, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe successful innovations in educational leadership preparation programs. Professors of educational leadership from across the nation nominated innovations of 12 programs. Based on review of descriptions of the innovations provided by nominees, further documentation on the innovations was…

  16. Educational preparation to strengthen nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elaine S

    2011-01-01

    Two of the 8 recommendations in the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies report on the future of nursing call for increased leadership by nurses. While nurses alone cannot transform health care, they do need a stronger voice in health care systems, and they need better educational preparation as members of the health care leadership team.

  17. Preparation and characterization of artemether inclusion complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate experimentally the inclusion of artemether into the cavity of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and examine its effect on the solubility and dissolution rate of the drug. Methods: Inclusion complexes of artemether with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin of molar ratios 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 were prepared using the ...

  18. Preparation and Evaluation of Orodispersible Tablets Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate simvastatin orodispersible tablets with high dissolution rate and enhanced bioavailability. Methods: Simvastatin solid dispersions in β- cyclodextrin, hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and hydroxylbutyl-β-cyclodextrin were prepared in different drug: polymer ratios by kneading and solvent evaporation ...

  19. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we have reported a modified method for preparation and transformation of competent cells. This modified method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride and competent bacteria solution, rotation speed in centrifugation and centrifugation time.

  20. The influence of school leadership preparation programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC) is responsible for the accreditation of public and private institutions and their learning programmes in South Africa. This body has identified a number of criteria in order to determine the effectiveness of school leadership preparation programmes. One of them focuses on the ...

  1. Wound bed preparation from a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound bed preparation has been performed for over two decades, and the concept is well accepted. The ′TIME′ acronym, consisting of tissue debridement, i nfection or inflammation, moisture balance and edge effect, has assisted clinicians systematically in wound assessment and management. While the focus has usually been concentrated around the wound, the evolving concept of wound bed preparation promotes the treatment of the patient as a whole. This article discusses wound bed preparation and its clinical management components along with the principles of advanced wound care management at the present time. Management of tissue necrosis can be tailored according to the wound and local expertise. It ranges from simple to modern techniques like wet to dry dressing, enzymatic, biological and surgical debridement. Restoration of the bacterial balance is also an important element in managing chronic wounds that are critically colonized. Achieving a balance moist wound will hasten healing and correct biochemical imbalance by removing the excessive enzymes and growth factors. This can be achieved will multitude of dressing materials. The negative pressure wound therapy being one of the great breakthroughs. The progress and understanding on scientific basis of the wound bed preparation over the last two decades are discussed further in this article in the clinical perspectives.

  2. Polymer Based Thin Film Screen Preparation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valais, I.; Michail, C.; Fountzoula, C.; Fountos, G.; Saatsakis, G.; Karabotsos, A.; Panayiotakis, G. S.; Kandarakis, I.

    2017-11-01

    Phosphor screens, mainly prepared by electrophoresis, demonstrate brightness equal to the standard sedimentation on glass or quartz substrate process and are capable of very high resolution. Nevertheless, they are very fragile, the shape of the screen is limited to the substrate shape and in order to achieve adequate surface density for application in medical imaging, a significant quantity of the phosphor will be lost. Fluorescent films prepared by the dispersion of phosphor particles into a polymer matrix could solve the above disadvantages. The aim of this study is to enhance the stability of phosphor screens via the incorporation of phosphor particles into a PMMA (PolyMethyl MethAcrylate) matrix. PMMA is widely used as a plastic optical fiber, it shows almost nearly no dispersion effects and it is transparent in the whole visible spectral range. Different concentrations of PMMA in MMA (Methyl Methacrylate) were examined and a 37.5 % w/w solution was used for the preparation of the thin polymer film, since optical quality characteristics were found to depend on PMMA in MMA concentration. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of the polymer screens demonstrated high packing density and uniform distribution of the phosphor particles. This method could be potentially used for phosphor screen preparation of any size and shape.

  3. Preparation, characterization and luminescent properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    tron microscopy (SEM). 2. Experimental. Europium doped LaMn0⋅9Zn0⋅1O3+d were prepared by. Pechini sol–gel method (Alemi et al 2008) employing the corresponding metal nitrates and Eu2O3 weighed and dis- solved in acid to form europium nitrate. Then aqueous solutions of metal nitrates with nominal atomic ratios.

  4. Preparation and characterization of plasticized high molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer electrolytes films consisting of lithium trifluromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3)-ethylene carbonate (EC) were prepared by the solution-casting method. Ionic conductivities of the electrolytes have been determined by an impedance studies in the temperature range of 298–373 K.

  5. Research Article Preparation and Evaluation of Glibenclamide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methanol/dichloromethane (2:1) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential ... Results: Stable NPs were successfully prepared without any incompatibility, as indicated by TEM and .... Table 1: Effect of drug/polymer ratio (D:P), stirring speed (SP), entrapment efficiency (EE), drug content.

  6. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  7. 21 CFR 113.81 - Product preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Production and Process Controls § 113.81 Product preparation. (a) Before using raw materials and ingredients susceptible to microbiological contamination, the processor shall ensure that those materials and ingredients... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  8. Preparation, characterization and dielectric behaviour of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 5. Preparation, characterization and dielectric behaviour of some yttrium doped strontium stannates. P K Bajpai Kuldeep Ratre Mukul Pastor T P Sinha. Sensor Materials Volume ... Keywords. Electronic ceramics; sensors; dielectric constant; strontium stannate.

  9. 21 CFR 740.19 - Suntanning preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to affect the structure or any function of the body. ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suntanning preparations. 740.19 Section 740.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  10. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y., E-mail: Ildiko.Toth@chem.u-szeged.hu; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu

    2015-04-15

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection.

  11. Characterization of Microemulsions Prepared using Isopropyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of various surfactants and cosurfactants, and their ratio on microemulsions prepared with isopropyl palmitate (IPP) Methods: Tween 20, 40, 60, and 80 were used separately as surfactant with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol or 1-pentanol as cosurfactant, and IPP as oil phase to ...

  12. Low platinum catalyst and method of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Chong, Lina

    2017-11-21

    A low platinum catalyst and method for making same. The catalyst comprises platinum-transition metal bimetallic alloy microcrystallites over a transition metal-nitrogen-carbon composite. A method of making a catalyst comprises preparation of transition metal organic frameworks, infusion of platinum, thermal treatment, and reduction to form the microcrystallites and composite.

  13. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Transformation is one of the fundamental and essential molecular cloning techniques. In this paper, we have reported a modified method for preparation and transformation of competent cells. This modified method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of.

  14. Preparation and study of thickness dependent electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc sulfide thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. The various deposition parameters such as volume of sulfide ion source, pH of bath, deposition time, temperature etc are optimized. Thin films of ZnS with different thicknesses of 76–332 nm were prepared by changing the ...

  15. (PLGA) microspheres-encapsulated vaccine preparation against

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the immunogencity of poly(D,L-lactide-coglycolide) (PLGA) microspheres-encapsulated vaccine preparation against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection ... of the immune group, the other two groups were not coated with S. maltophilia raising vaccination with inactivated Aeromonas group and the control group.

  16. ARE ROMANIAN UNIVERSITIES PREPARING LEADERS IN ACCOUNTING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIRON TUDOR ADRIANA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Report on the Results of the Global Accounting Education Benchmarking Pilot Project, prepared by Phelps and Karreman, found that higher education institutions were not providing the leadership role necessary to close gaps in accounting educat

  17. Preparing Superintendents through Standards-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Mike

    The past few decades have seen substantial debate over the effectiveness of preparation programs for school administrators. A program is suggested that is based on the Texas superintendent certificate of 1994. Eight standards addressing superintendent performance were developed by the American Association of School Administrators: (1)…

  18. Process for the preparation of aromatic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, N.J.; Biesbroek, Arnold; Heeres, André; Heeres, Hero

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are prepared from a feed stream comprising biomass or a mixture of biomass and synthetic polymer in a process, comprising: a) subjecting the feed stream to a pyrolysis treatment in the presence of a cracking catalyst to yield a vaporous fraction comprising hydrocarbons with

  19. Temporal Preparation, Response Inhibition and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Angel; Trivino, Monica; Perez-Duenas, Carolina; Acosta, Alberto; Lupianez, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Temporal preparation and impulsivity involve overlapping neural structures (prefrontal cortex) and cognitive functions (response inhibition and time perception), however, their interrelations had not been investigated. We studied such interrelations by comparing the performance of groups with low vs. high non-clinical trait impulsivity during a…

  20. Preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive cefdinir microcapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Reddy Veerareddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucoadhesive microcapsules were prepared by using various concentrations of three different mucoadhesive polymers, namely, chitosan, Carbopol 934P, and methyl cellulose as wall materials and cefdinir as the core material employing orificeionic gelation method. The prepared microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR. The prepared microcapsules were found to be spherical with particle size ranging from 765±20 to 985±10 μm and encapsulation efficiencies in the range of 55%-92%. The formulation containing Carbopol 934P as mucoadhesive polymer was found to be best with particle size 946±10 μm. The ex vivo wash-off test showed that the mucoadhesion after 1 h was 80% and the in vitro drug release was extended for more than 12 h. FT-IR spectra indicate that there was no interaction between drug and the polymers used in the formulation. Cefdinir is better absorbed from the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, it suffers from low oral bioavailability (20-30%, shorter biological half-life (1-2 h, and less transit time. Thus, it can be concluded that microcapsules prepared using Carbopol 934P have promising properties for use as mucoadhesive carrier to increase the residence time of cefdinir.

  1. College Preparation Checklist, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This leaflet contains a checklist of actions students should take to prepare for college. The checklist begins with the pre high school years, by advising selection of challenging courses and outlining ways to save for college. Ninth graders are again advised to select challenging courses and to begin to think about possible careers. It is…

  2. Preparing Teachers to Teach Digital Citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Searson, Michael; Voogt, Joke; Whittier, David; Plants, Robert; Gibson, David; Sutton, Bonnie; Ochoa, Marilyn; Sutton, Vic; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A team of SITE leaders was awarded a highly competitive “Digital Citizenship Award” from Facebook to explore the role of digital citizenship in teacher education. The focus of the SITE “Preparing Teachers to Teach Digital Citizenship” project is the development of a college based course, available

  3. Photocatalytic methods for preparation of electrocatalyst materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Kawamura, Tetsuo; Nagami, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Muldoon, John; Shelnutt, John A; Song, Yujiang; Miller, James E; Hickner, Michael A; Medforth, Craig

    2013-09-24

    The invention relates to methods of preparing metal particles on a support material, including platinum-containing nanoparticles on a carbon support. Such materials can be used as electrocatalysts, for example as improved electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM-FCs).

  4. Preparation, characterisation and application of polyaminesilica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may be due to the greater length of the organic molecule that has many possible weak points. Figure 5.STA profiles of product 1. Activity and selectivity in the epoxidation of electron deficient olefins. The prepared materials were screened in the epoxidation of electron deficient olefins to establish their catalytic activity.

  5. Food Preparation and Service: Cluster Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant.

    This teacher's guide is one of a series of publications focusing on the occupational preparation of persons with special education needs. The material was developed and tested by cooperating teachers over a period of three years. Task analysis information is presented using occupational descriptions from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles,…

  6. Preparation of student teachers for multicultural classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    indicate that teachers are in need of professional training to better prepare them for working in multicultural and multilingual classroom settings. The aim of this article is to briefly investigate how curriculum in the 2013 reform of Danish teacher education suggests that student teachers address...... classroom diversity....

  7. Process for preparation of MR contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for the preparation of an MR contrast agent, said process comprising: i) obtaining a solution in a solvent of a hydrogenatable, unsaturated substrate compound and a catalyst for the hydrogenation of said substrate compound; ii) introducing said solution...

  8. Preparation of Tetramethylguanidine-Functionalized Mesoporous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A heterogeneous guanidine catalyst, based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine was prepared by functionalisation of a glycidylpropyl group previously attached to hexagonal mesoporous silica. The catalyst was characterized by various techniques including Diffuse Reflectance FTIR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and ...

  9. Preparation and characterization of antigenic properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid, simple and low cost procedure for preparing hapten-protein conjugates was developed using gramicidin A (GA) and two other water-soluble proteins, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and ovalbumin (OVA). GA was a kind of antimicrobial peptides. Two lysines and a cysteine were linked to amino- terminus and ...

  10. METHOD OF PREPARING SULFUR-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, W.; de Leeuw, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9412450 (A1) The invention relates to a method of preparing sulfur-containing compounds, comprising reacting a sulfur compound with a compound containing unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds, wherein in a solvent one or more compounds containing non-activated unsaturated carbon-carbon

  11. Preparation of Natural and Synthetic Porous Biodegradable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Preparation of Natural and Synthetic Porous Biodegradable Scaffolds for Infected Wounds. Characterised for their physical properties, pore size and release kinetics. Release kinetics of bioactive molecules (antibiotics) in a controlled fashion. Release pattern of the ...

  12. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  13. A Paradigm for EST Materials Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Edwina S.; Balarbar, Corazon V.

    In many countries, suitable English for special purposes (ESP) textbooks and materials are difficult to find. ESP teachers and program coordinators often must develop their own materials, but preparing such materials requires training. One model that has served as a guide to numerous ESP materials projects is the Hutchinson and Waters' model. This…

  14. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  15. Process for preparing concentrated byproduct nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, T.A.

    1988-07-12

    This patent describes a process for preparing a concentrated aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate, further containing sulfate ions and a substantially reduced portion of calcium ions from a dilute aqueous waste stream. The stream is characterized by having a neutral pH and containing ammonium nitrate and sulfate ions and calcium ions.

  16. Fixational saccades reflect volitional action preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Matsuo, Yuka; Zha, Ling; Munoz, Douglas P; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2013-07-01

    Human volitional actions are preceded by preparatory processes, a critical mental process of cognitive control for future behavior. Volitional action preparation is regulated by large-scale neural circuits including the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia. Because volitional action preparation is a covert process, the network dynamics of such neural circuits have been examined by neuroimaging and recording event-related potentials. Here, we examined whether such covert processes can be measured by the overt responses of fixational saccades (including microsaccades), the largest miniature eye movements that occur during eye fixation. We analyzed fixational saccades while adult humans maintained fixation on a central visual stimulus as they prepared to generate a volitional saccade in response to peripheral stimulus appearance. We used the antisaccade paradigm, in which subjects generate a saccade toward the opposite direction of a peripheral stimulus. Appropriate antisaccade performance requires the following two aspects of volitional control: 1) facilitation of saccades away from the stimulus and 2) suppression of inappropriate saccades toward the stimulus. We found that fixational saccades that occurred before stimulus appearance reflected the dual preparatory states of saccade facilitation and suppression and correlated with behavioral outcome (i.e., whether subjects succeeded or failed to cancel inappropriate saccades toward the stimulus). Moreover, fixational saccades explained a large proportion of individual differences in behavioral performance (poor/excellent) across subjects. These results suggest that fixational saccades predict the outcome of future volitional actions and may be used as a potential biomarker to detect people with difficulties in volitional action preparation.

  17. Modelling preparation and consumption of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Arno; Nauta, Maarten; Evers, Eric

    is thoroughly mixed, and Salmonellae may be present in the interior of hamburger patties, undercooking may occur, and Salmonellae may survive. Dry cured sausages, including all variations therein like chorizo, salami, etc., are eaten uncooked. Food preparation habits are highly variable and accurate data...

  18. simple metaphase chromosome preparation from meristematic root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to arrest cells in metaphase, colchicine, -monobromonaphthalene, ice cold water, colchicine-ice cold water and -monobromonaphthalene-ice cold water were compared to each other. Ice water pretreatment resulted in the highest metaphase index (up to 20% in some cultivars). Some preparations were used for in ...

  19. The Preparation and Characterization of Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Aaron

    1980-01-01

    Presents several examples illustrating different aspects of materials problems, including problems associated with solid-solid reactions, sintering and crystal growth, characterization of materials, preparation and characterization of stoichiometric ferrites and chromites, copper-sulfur systems, growth of single crystals by chemical vapor…

  20. FINANCIAL WORKBOOK Quick Reference -Budget Preparation 1 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexandra Eustache

    FINANCIAL WORKBOOK. Quick Reference -Budget Preparation. 1. Open file and immediately click on enable macros to open workbook. Follow instructions on the workook welcome page. 2. Click yes on the security warning widow to make the workbook a Trusted document. 3. Save workbook with file extension XLSM. 4.

  1. Multicultural Education: Teachers' Perceptions and Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alismail, Halah Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on theory and practice in multicultural education as it pertains to the preparation of preservice teachers. The literature reviews the history and definition of multiculturalism and investigates multiple theoretical frameworks around the ongoing debate and issues of multicultural education. Teachers' perceptions of multicultural…

  2. Duncan Cites Shortcomings of Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In what had been billed as a major speech on teacher education, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan last week reiterated concerns about the quality of the schools that produce a majority of the nation's teachers. But some observers said that by praising several new teacher-preparation initiatives, he struck a more conciliatory tone toward the…

  3. Preparing for the biggest experiment on earth

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "An international team of over 2'000 scientists, led by Professor Tejinder Virdee from Imperial College London's Department of Physics is stepping up preparations for the world's largest ever physics experiment, starting next year at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland." (1 page)

  4. Case study: Natural bodybuilding contest preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Brandon M; Fitschen, Peter J; Ranadive, Sushant M; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physiological changes that occur in a natural bodybuilder during prolonged contest preparation for a proqualifying contest. During the 26-week preparation, the athlete undertook a calorically restrictive diet with 2 days of elevated carbohydrate intake per week, increased cardiovascular (CV) training, and attempted to maintain resistance-training load. The athlete was weighed twice a week and body composition was measured monthly by DXA. At baseline and every 2 weeks following CV structure and function was measured using a combination of ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiorespiratory performance was measured by VO(2)peak at baseline, 13 weeks, and 26 weeks. Body weight (88.6 to 73.3 Kg, R(2) = .99) and percent body fat (17.5 to 7.4%) were reduced during preparation. CV measurements including blood pressure (128/61 to 113/54 mmHg), brachial pulse wave velocity (7.9 to 5.8m/s), and measures of wave reflection all improved. Indexed cardiac output was reduced (2.5 to 1.8L/m(2)) primarily due to a reduction in resting heart rate (71 to 44 bpm), and despite an increase in ejection faction (57.9 to 63.9%). Assessment of HRV found a shift in the ratio of low to high frequency (209.2 to 30.9%). Absolute VO2 was minimally reduced despite weight loss resulting in an increase in relative VO2 (41.9 to 47.7 ml/Kg). In general, this prolonged contest preparation technique helped the athlete to improve body composition and resulted in positive CV changes, suggesting that this method of contest preparation appears to be effective in natural male bodybuilders.

  5. 48 CFR 252.237-7011 - Preparation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation history. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7011 Preparation history. As prescribed in 237.7003(b), use the following clause: Preparation History (DEC 1991) For each body prepared, or for each casket handled in a group...

  6. Utah Elementary School Principals Preparation as Technology Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, Nathan L.

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly expanding use of technology in education has brought about the need for principals to be prepared as technology leaders. Although, there is a need for principals to be prepared as technology leaders, many currently are not prepared for this role. It is crucial that principals are prepared in order ability to lead their school in…

  7. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which is...

  8. Improving adherence to surgical hand preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A; Hübner, N; Below, H; Heidecke, C-D; Assadian, O

    2008-10-01

    At present, no universal agreement on detailed practice for surgical hand preparation exists. In order to fill this gap, in 2002 a Franco-German recommendation for surgical hand preparation was published as a first step towards a generally accepted European recommendation. Based on an assessment of the actual literature, a protocol for surgical hand preparation is discussed with the aim to recommend evidence-based standard procedures including prerequisites, washing and disinfection phase, and its practical implementation. In contrast to hygienic hand disinfection, for surgical hand preparation compliance is not an issue, since it mostly is regarded as a ceremony which is carried out without exception. Nevertheless, the following factors influence acceptance and efficacy: skin tolerance, ease of use, duration of procedure, and recommended time), potential for impaired efficacy due to incorrect performance of the procedure, possibility of systemic risks and irritating potential by applied preparations, religious restrictions, ecological aspects, costs and safety. Here, we report our experience with the introduction of a new hand preparation regime in all surgical disciplines in our university hospital based on the above factors. The following statements were evaluated: 1) The immediate efficacy of an alcohol-based hand disinfectant is impaired by a preceding hand wash for up to 10 minutes. Therefore hands should not be routinely washed before the disinfection period unless there is a good reason for it such as visible soiling. 2) A shortened application time (1.5 minutes) is equal to 3 min in terms of efficacy. 3) Hands should be air dried before gloves are put on, otherwise the perforation rate of gloves will increase. 4) The efficacy of alcohol-based disinfectants is significantly higher when hands are allowed to dry for 1 minute after the washing phase and before the disinfection phase. To clarify the above questions before the establishment of the modified

  9. Effect of preparation conditions on physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of cobalt ferrite prepared by coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shobaky, G.A., E-mail: elshobaky@yahoo.co [Physical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Turky, A.M.; Mostafa, N.Y.; Mohamed, S.K. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt)

    2010-03-18

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared via thermal treatment of cobalt-iron mixed hydroxides at 400-600 {sup o}C. The mixed hydroxides were coprecipitated from their nitrates solutions using NaOH as precipitating agent. The effects of pH and temperature of coprecipitation and calcination temperature on the physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of the prepared ferrites were studied. The prepared systems were characterized using TG, DTG, DTA, chemical analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) as well as surface and texture properties based on nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The prepared cobalt ferrites were found to be mesoporous materials that have crystallite size ranges between 8 and 45 nm. The surface and catalytic properties of the produced ferrite phase were strongly dependent on coprecipitation conditions of the mixed hydroxides and on their calcination temperature.

  10. Scholarship in nursing: Degree-prepared nurses versus diploma-prepared nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Roets

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The global nursing crisis, nor the nursing profession, will benefit by only training more nurses. The profession and the health care sector need more degree prepared nurses to improve scholarship in nursing.

  11. Remote preparation of single-plasmon states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheur, Marie-Christine; Vest, Benjamin; Devaux, Éloïse; Baron, Alexandre; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Messin, Gaétan; Marquier, François

    2017-07-01

    Quantum entanglement is a stunning consequence of the superposition principle. This universal property of quantum systems has been intensively explored with photons, atoms, ions, and electrons. Collective excitations such as surface plasmons exhibit quantum behaviors. We report the remote preparation of a single plasmon state through the projective measurement of a photon entangled with the plasmon. We achieved photon-plasmon entanglement by converting one photon of an entangled photon pair into a surface plasmon. The plasmon is tested on a plasmonic platform in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A projective measurement on the polarization of the photon allows the remote preparation of the interference state of the plasmon. Entanglement between particles of various nature paves the way to the design of hybrid systems in quantum information networks.

  12. Preparation of Hydrochlorothiazide Nanoparticles for Solubility Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliska Vaculikova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles can be considered as a useful tool for improving properties of poorly soluble active ingredients. Hydrochlorothiazide (Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System was chosen as a model compound. Antisolvent precipitation-solvent evaporation and emulsion solvent evaporation methods were used for preparation of 18 samples containing hydrochlorothiazide nanoparticles. Water solutions of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, Tween 80 and carboxymethyl dextran were used in mass concentrations of 1%, 3% and 5%. Acetone and dichloromethane were used as solvents of the model compound. The particle size of the prepared samples was measured by dynamic light scattering. The selected sample of hydrochlorothiazide nanoparticles stabilized with carboxymethyl dextran sodium salt with particle size 2.6 nm was characterized additionally by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the solubility of this sample was 6.5-fold higher than that of bulk hydrochlorothiazide.

  13. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Benjamin R.; McBranch, Duncan W.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Love, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C.sub.60 in silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these "guests" in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C.sub.60. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C.sub.60 dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C.sub.60 in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  14. Preparation and nucleation of spherical metallic droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-ge Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and solidification of metallic droplets attract more and more attention for their significance in both engineering and scientific fields. In this paper, the preparation and characterization of Sn-based alloy droplets using different methods such as atomization and consumable electrode direct current arc (CDCA technique are reviewed. The morphology and structure of these droplets were determined by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The solidification behavior of single droplet was systematically studied by means of scanning calorimetry (DSC, and the nucleation kinetics was also calculated. In particular, the development of fast scanning calorimetry (FSC made it possible to investigate the evolution of undercooling under ultrafast but controllable heating and cooling conditions. The combination of CDCA technique and FSC measurements opens up a new door for quantitative studies on droplet solidification, which is accessible to demonstrate some theories by experiments.

  15. Sonochemical preparation of SbSI gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, M; Szperlich, P; Bober, L; Szala, J; Moskal, G; Stróz, D

    2008-07-01

    A novel sonochemical method for direct preparation of nanocrystalline antimony sulfoiodide (SbSI) has been established. The SbSI gel was synthesized using elemental Sb, S and I in the presence of ethanol under ultrasonic irradiation (35 kHz, 2 W/cm2) at 50 degrees C for 2 h. The products were characterized by using techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and optical diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). The SEM and HRTEM investigations exhibit that the as-prepared samples are made up of large quantity nanowires with diameters of about 10-50 nm and lengths reaching up to several micrometers and single-crystalline in nature.

  16. KARMA: the observation preparation tool for KMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Michael; Muschielok, Bernard

    2008-08-01

    KMOS is a multi-object integral field spectrometer working in the near infrared which is currently being built for the ESO VLT by a consortium of UK and German institutes. It is capable of selecting up to 24 target fields for integral field spectroscopy simultaneously by means of 24 robotic pick-off arms. For the preparation of observations with KMOS a dedicated preparation tool KARMA ("KMOS Arm Allocator") will be provided which optimizes the assignment of targets to these arms automatically, thereby taking target priorities and several mechanical and optical constraints into account. For this purpose two efficient algorithms, both being able to cope with the underlying optimization problem in a different way, were developed. We present the concept and architecture of KARMA in general and the optimization algorithms in detail.

  17. A novel method for preparing microplastic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic plastic (microplastic, 0.1 µm–5 mm) is a widespread pollutant impacting upon aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Environmental sampling has revealed synthetic fibers are prevalent in seawater, sediments and biota. However, microplastic fibers are rarely used in laboratory studies as they are unavailable for purchase and existing preparation techniques have limited application. To facilitate the incorporation of environmentally relevant microplastic fibers into future studies, new methods are required. Here, a novel cryotome protocol has been developed. Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene fibers (10–28 μm diameter) were aligned, embedded in water-soluble freezing agent, and sectioned (40–100 μm length) using a cryogenic microtome. Microplastic fibers were prepared to specified lengths (P microplastics, with widths similar to those observed in the natural environment, which could ultimately lead to a better understanding of the biological and ecological effects of microplastic debris in the environment. PMID:27694820

  18. Health care reform: preparing the psychology workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozensky, Ronald H

    2012-03-01

    This article is based on the opening presentation by the author to the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers' 5th National Conference, "Preparing Psychologists for a Rapidly Changing Healthcare Environment" held in March, 2011. Reviewing the patient protection and affordable care act (ACA), that presentation was designed to set the stage for several days of symposia and discussions anticipating upcoming changes to the healthcare system. This article reviews the ACA; general trends that have impacted healthcare reform; the implications of the Act for psychology's workforce including the growing focus on interprofessional education, training, and practice, challenges to address in order to prepare for psychology's future; and recommendations for advocating for psychology's future as a healthcare profession.

  19. Preparation a Child for Surgery and Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalization and medical experiences can be confusing and stressful for children, teens and their families. It is very common for young people and their families to have many questions when they are scheduled for surgery or hospitalization. When children are given opportunities to cope successfully with medical experiences, they may see themselves as more capable, more in control, and more reassured. This success often leads to a more positive sense of self, as well as a healthier regard for medical procedures in general. Also, previous medical experiences can affect how the child will react to hospitalization. It is important to maintain a normal routine and activities, such as playing and schooling. Family and friend’s child should be encouraged to visit the child patient. The best way to prepare the child for hospitalization is to prepare ourselves by understanding what will occur.

  20. Macroporous Monolithic Polymers: Preparation and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Inés Alvarez Igarzabal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, macroporous monolithic materials have been introduced as a new and useful generation of polymers used in different fields. These polymers may be prepared in a simple way from a homogenous mixture into a mold and contain large interconnected pores or channels allowing for high flow rates at moderate pressures. Due to their porous characteristics, they could be used in different processes, such as stationary phases for different types of chromatography, high-throughput bioreactors and in microfluidic chip applications. This review reports the contributions of several groups working in the preparation of different macroporous monoliths and their modification by immobilization of specific ligands on the products for specific purposes.

  1. A novel method for preparing microplastic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Microscopic plastic (microplastic, 0.1 µm-5 mm) is a widespread pollutant impacting upon aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Environmental sampling has revealed synthetic fibers are prevalent in seawater, sediments and biota. However, microplastic fibers are rarely used in laboratory studies as they are unavailable for purchase and existing preparation techniques have limited application. To facilitate the incorporation of environmentally relevant microplastic fibers into future studies, new methods are required. Here, a novel cryotome protocol has been developed. Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene fibers (10-28 μm diameter) were aligned, embedded in water-soluble freezing agent, and sectioned (40-100 μm length) using a cryogenic microtome. Microplastic fibers were prepared to specified lengths (P effects of microplastic debris in the environment.

  2. Standard guide for preparation of metallographic specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 The primary objective of metallographic examinations is to reveal the constituents and structure of metals and their alloys by means of a light optical or scanning electron microscope. In special cases, the objective of the examination may require the development of less detail than in other cases but, under nearly all conditions, the proper selection and preparation of the specimen is of major importance. Because of the diversity in available equipment and the wide variety of problems encountered, the following text presents for the guidance of the metallographer only those practices which experience has shown are generally satisfactory; it cannot and does not describe the variations in technique required to solve individual specimen preparation problems. Note 1—For a more extensive description of various metallographic techniques, refer to Samuels, L. E., Metallographic Polishing by Mechanical Methods, American Society for Metals (ASM) Metals Park, OH, 3rd Ed., 1982; Petzow, G., Metallographic Etchin...

  3. Preparation of electrophoretic nanoparticles for electronic paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianwei; Qiang, Li; Wei, Jianfei; Shi, Haitang

    2014-02-01

    As an electronic alternative for printed media, the E-paper has ultralow power consumption, reduced eyestrain, high contrast ratio. Electrophoretic displays are one of the most promising E-paper technologies, which are now widely used in consumer products. The properties of the electrophoretic display are mainly determined by the composition, size, light scattering properties, and density of the electrophoretic nanoparticles. First, we introduce the preparation of white and black electrophoretic nanoparticles, because the monochrome E-paper has achieved commercial success. Then the structure and properties of color electrophoretic nanoparticles for color E-paper products are discussed. In addition, the enhanced and novel electrophoretic nanoparticles are now propelling the development of next-generation E-paper with new applications. Finally, the active area of the preparation of electrophoretic nanoparticles is highlighted in terms of the development of future E-paper.

  4. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  5. IRRIGOGRAPHY AFTER PREPARATIONS OF PATIENTS WITH FORTRANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jankovic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortrans® is a laxative in the form of the powder which is used for making solution for oral application. Laxative effects are achieved over long linear polymer (polyethylene-glikol - PEG 4000 which binds water molecules, increasing thus the volume of fluids in the intestinal tract.Material of study comprises 150 irrigographies made at the Institute of Radiology of the Clinical Center in Nis in the period from January 2004 to Jun 2005.The preparation in these cases was done by Fortrans®. The contrast medium used was barium sulfate.The results of study are presented in illustrations and irrigograms.In conclusion,we can say that Fortrans® provides reliable, effective and simple preparation of patients for irrigography as well as for fast, comfortable and efficient endographic examination (irrigography. The obtained irrigograms are of satisfactory quality, showing sharp contrasts.

  6. Data preparation for asteroseismology with TESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mikkel N.; Handberg, Rasmus; Kjeldsen, Hans; Chaplin, William J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2017-10-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission. Following its scheduled launch in 2017, TESS will focus on detecting exoplanets around the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, for which detailed follow-up observations are possible. TESS will, as the NASA Kepler mission, include a asteroseismic program that will be organized within the TESS Asteroseismic Science Consortium (TASC), building on the success of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC). Within TASC data for asteroseismic analysis will be prepared by the TASC Working Group 0 (WG-0), who will facilitate data to the community via the TESS Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (TASOC), again building on the success of the corresponding KASOC platform for Kepler. Here, we give an overview of the steps being taken within WG-0 to prepare for the upcoming TESS mission.

  7. Data preparation for asteroseismology with TESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Mikkel N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS is a NASA Astrophysics Explorer mission. Following its scheduled launch in 2017, TESS will focus on detecting exoplanets around the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, for which detailed follow-up observations are possible. TESS will, as the NASA Kepler mission, include a asteroseismic program that will be organized within the TESS Asteroseismic Science Consortium (TASC, building on the success of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC. Within TASC data for asteroseismic analysis will be prepared by the TASC Working Group 0 (WG-0, who will facilitate data to the community via the TESS Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (TASOC, again building on the success of the corresponding KASOC platform for Kepler. Here, we give an overview of the steps being taken within WG-0 to prepare for the upcoming TESS mission.

  8. IT disaster recovery: are you prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    New Web technologies provide new opportunities but also include new risks. In an article in the May 2003 edition of Harvard Business Review, Editor Nicolas G. Carr said, "executives need to shift their attention from IT opportunities to IT risks-from offense to defense." That's probably a bit extreme. A better approach is to look at IT the same way you look at any business proposition. Every decision should be an informed decision. You should weigh the opportunities against the risks in order to select the best option. Then, once you have made your decision, take the necessary steps to minimize and prepare for the risks. This includes preparing for whatever disaster may come your way.

  9. Emotional and psychological preoperative preparation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennie April

    Emotional and psychological surgical preparation plays an important role in many areas of nursing. However, it varies greatly in terms of its perception and delivery. The aim of this article is to familiarize the reader with the concept of emotional and psychological preparation for surgery and to explain how this may be achieved in nursing practice. It highlights that gender, age, and previous experiences are predisposing factors to preoperative anxiety, as is fear of the unknown and fear of harm. It is recommended that information should be given verbally with written supplements and that the patient should be encouraged to ask questions. Diversion therapy such as music, humour and guided imagery have been shown to be effective in reducing patients' preoperative anxiety.

  10. Colloidal astaxanthin: preparation, characterisation and bioavailability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anarjan, Navideh; Tan, Chin Ping; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2012-12-01

    Astaxanthin colloidal particles were produced using solvent-diffusion technique in the presence of different food grade surface active compounds, namely, Polysorbate 20 (PS20), sodium caseinate (SC), gum Arabic (GA) and the optimum combination of them (OPT). Particle size and surface charge characteristics, rheological behaviour, chemical stability, colour, in vitro cellular uptake, in vitro antioxidant activity and residual solvent concentration of prepared colloidal particles were evaluated. The results indicated that in most cases the mixture of surface active compounds lead to production of colloidal particles with more desirable physicochemical and biological properties, as compared to using them individually. The optimum combination of PS20, SC and GA could produce the astaxanthin colloidal particles with small particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), conductivity and higher zeta potential, mobility, cellular uptake, colour intensity and in vitro antioxidant activity. In addition, all prepared astaxanthin colloidal particles had significantly (ppowder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparing Teachers for Anti-oppressive Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baber, Sikunder Ali

    2004-01-01

    While theories and recommendations continue to proliferate in the educational research literature on what it means to teach towards social justice and to prepare teachers for such teaching, so do concerns that these theories and recommendations fail to account for the ways that the contexts...... of teaching cultural contexts, national contexts, political contexts always affect teaching in idiosyncratic, unpredictable and even contradictory ways. Given that much educational research fails to trouble the US-centric nature of prevailing conceptions of social justice and teacher education......, it is important to learn about the unique as well as shared challenges facing teacher educators around the globe. In this article, teacher educators from Asia, Africa, North America and South America offer a sampling of initiatives in anti-oppressive teacher education; that is, initiatives to prepare teachers...

  12. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Isosorbide Mononitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize acrylic acid and ethyl cellulose hydrogels of isosorbide mononitrate for site-specific delivery. Methods: .... temperature of 45 °C for 1 h, 50 °C for 2 h, 52 °C for 12 h, 55 °C for 6 h, 60 °C for 3 h and 65 °C .... medium changes from highly acidic conditions in the stomach (pH 1-3) to almost.

  14. A novel method for preparing microplastic fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Cole

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic plastic (microplastic, 0.1??m?5?mm) is a widespread pollutant impacting upon aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Environmental sampling has revealed synthetic fibers are prevalent in seawater, sediments and biota. However, microplastic fibers are rarely used in laboratory studies as they are unavailable for purchase and existing preparation techniques have limited application. To facilitate the incorporation of environmentally relevant microplastic fibers into future studies, new...

  15. Macroporous Monolithic Polymers: Preparation and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Inés Alvarez Igarzabal; Ruben Dario Arrua; Miriam Cristina Strumia

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, macroporous monolithic materials have been introduced as a new and useful generation of polymers used in different fields. These polymers may be prepared in a simple way from a homogenous mixture into a mold and contain large interconnected pores or channels allowing for high flow rates at moderate pressures. Due to their porous characteristics, they could be used in different processes, such as stationary phases for different types of chromatography, high-throughput biorea...

  16. Preparation of iron oxides and oxihydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Štyriaková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxides are common minerals that occur in the environment, either naturally or as a result of human activities.The most common Fe(III-hydroxides and -oxides include ferrihydrite (Fe5HO8 .4H2O that transforms to hematite (a-Fe2O3 and/or goethite (a-FeOOH.That depends on the solution composition, temperature and pH. Depending on the composition of the solid and solution, oxidation can transform the green rust (a product formed by a metal corrosion to lepidocrocite (γ -FeOOH or magnetite (Fe(IIFe(III 2O4 . Weathering can degrade magnetite to maghemite (γ –Fe2O3 and all of the Fe-oxides are subject to an attack and dissolution by organic acids and ligands that are formed during the breakdown of biological material. Iron oxides can be prepared by hydrolysis of acidic Fe3+ solutions or by controlled oxidation of Fe2+ solutions. Goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite were prepared by oxidation of Fe2+ solutions under slightly different values of pH, Fe concentrations and rates of oxidation. Maghemite was prepared by a thermal transformation from synthetic lepidocrocite heated in a furnace at 250 °C for 2h. Hematite was prepared by forced hydrolysis of Fe3+ solution from a chlorine system (FeCl3 at the temperature close to 100 °C under strongly acidic conditions (pH 1-2. Main mineral phases were confirmed by the RTG diffraction and IR spectroscopy method. Iron oxides are excellent, renewable adsorbents, and often control free metals through adsorption reaction.

  17. PREPARATION OF SPHERICAL URANIUM DIOXIDE PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, R.P. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

    1963-04-30

    This patent relates to the preparation of high-density, spherical UO/sub 2/ particles 80 to 150 microns in diameter. Sinterable UO/sub 2/ powder is wetted with 3 to 5 weight per cent water and tumbled for at least 48 hours. The resulting spherical particles are then sintered. The sintered particles are useful in dispersion-type fuel elements for nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  18. Who Will Prepare Tomorrow's Science Teachers? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jerry

    1997-01-01

    The teacher is the single most important factor affecting student learning at all classroom levels. Within the next decade more than a million new elementary and secondary teachers will be needed (1). This need provides an unprecedented opportunity for departments of science, mathematics, engineering, and education to collaborate with one another and with school districts, parents, and business and industry to prepare a new generation of teachers who can effectively facilitate science and mathematics learning for all students.

  19. Preparation and transplantation of photoreceptor sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J C; Ishida, M; Hersh, P; Sugino, I K; Zarbin, M A

    1998-06-01

    Photoreceptor (PR) transplantation may be a treatment for blindness secondary to PR degeneration. We studied different technical aspects of PR-sheet preparation. Geographic variation in the thickness of the cat PR layer (from the outer segments to the outer plexiform layer) and inner retina (width of the remainder of the retina) was studied. PR sheets (cat and human) were prepared through gelatin embedding and subsequent vibratoming or excimer laser ablation. Cat PR sheets were evaluated after transplantation. The thickness of the cat PR layer and inner retina varied in different regions. The superior central retina, including the area centralis, was thickest (PR layer: 115-123 microm, entire retina: 225-230 microm, in fixed tissue). The peripheral retina was approximately 40% thinner than the center. Fresh retina was approximately 7.9% thicker than the fixed retina. Both vibratomy and excimer laser ablation removed the inner retina, leaving a PR-layer sheet with good morphology. To produce good quality PR sheets with vibratomy, use of different gelatin concentrations (2% to 35%) at various stages of sheet preparation was crucial. To produce PR sheets of uniform thickness with excimer laser ablation, control of fluid on the retinal surface was critical. Twenty-four hours after PR transplantation surgery, donor PR cells were well oriented and in close contact with host retinal pigment epithelial cells. Gelatin supporting the transplant dissolved as early as 100 min after surgery. We confirmed and expanded the work of previous investigators and showed that cat and human PR sheets can be manufactured using vibratomy or excimer laser ablation. This preparation provides a well oriented and organized PR cell layer after transplantation.

  20. A Guide for Preparing Procedure Training Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Distribution/ Availability Codes Avail and/or Diot Special AGUIDE FOR PREPARING ~ PROCEDURE TRAINING AIDS cWilliam R. Terrell INSECTED Training Analysis... swiches o . o _______ postion 28 FT 9 With your finger, trace the steps ROAO MAP a Recall (1) how to perform, (2) systems response 0 Look up answers...copies) CO FLEASWTRACENPAC CO FLETRACEN SDIEGO Executive Director NAVINSTPRODEVDET VT-10 (Education Specialist) CO NAVSUBSCOL NLON ( Code 0110) CO

  1. Preparation and characterization of aluminum stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of aluminum stearate by the precipitation method was examined under various conditions of stearic acid saponification with sodium hydroxide. It was proved that the most favorable ratio of acid/alkali was 1:1.5 and that the obtained soap was very similar to the commercial product. Endothermic effects determined by differential scanning calorimetry and also the other parameters showed that the soaps consisted mono-, di-, tristearates and non-reacted substances, where distearate was the dominant form.

  2. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güenaga, Katia F; Matos, Delcio; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bowel contents during colorectal surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage, but the belief that mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is an efficient agent against leakage and infectious complications is based on observational data and expert opinions only.An enema before...... the rectal surgery to clean the rectum and facilitate the manipulation for the mechanical anastomosis is used for many surgeons. This is analysed separately...

  3. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-12-22

    A method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon tubes involves preparing a solution of cyanamide and a suitable transition metal-containing salt in a solvent, evaporating the solvent to form a solid, and pyrolyzing the solid under an inert atmosphere under conditions suitable for the production of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes from the solid. Pyrolyzing for a shorter period of time followed by rapid cooling resulted in a tubes with a narrower average diameter.

  4. Preparation for Medical Librarianship: Status and Potential *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachert, Martha Jane K.

    1972-01-01

    The educational programs for the preparation of health sciences information personnel are described and the lack of evaluative criteria or studies in relation to these programs is noted. The author recommends an extension of MLA's role in four areas of the educational process: curriculum design, teacher development, development of learning materials, and evaluation of the educational effort. Preconditions for the fulfillment of the projected MLA role are identified as unity of purpose, leadership by the headquarters staff, and money. PMID:16017604

  5. Preparation of preschool children for school attendance

    OpenAIRE

    DRAŽANOVÁ, Judita

    2014-01-01

    The thesis consists of a theoretical part which describes the developmental period of preschool children between the fifth and seventh year and deals with the issue of school readiness, preparing preschool children to enter school, and with areas that are key success in school. In a practical part, skills and general knowledge of the specific research sample of children from kindergarten are tested. Consequently, practical exercises and opportunities to develop these children are proposed.

  6. Anticipating Serendipity. Preparing for the Unexpected.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe Thomas J.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Serendipity—using "fortunate accidents" for learning or discovery—is a valued if too infrequent route to progress. Although serendipity cannot be scheduled or relied upon, one can develop skills, flexibility and habits of mind that make the recognition and incorporation of serendipitous discoveries more likely. This paper overviews at a high level a program of activities and concepts aimed at preparing modern professionals and communities to leverage the fortunate occurrences they encounter.

  7. Scholarship in nursing: Degree-prepared nurses versus diploma-prepared nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Roets

    2016-10-01

    Aim: The aim of this study being reported here was to establish whether degree-prepared nurses in South-Africa partake more often in scholarly activities than diploma-prepared nurses. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. The population was all professional nurses registered with the South African Nursing Council who obtained either a four year degree or four year diploma in nursing. Data were gathered from 479 respondents, using aself-administrative questionnaire. Results: Three times more nursing educators (n = 19 achieved a degree as first qualification than their colleagues (n = 6 who achieved a diploma as first qualification. All but one (n = 18 nursing educators who obtained a degree as first qualification are educators in the private sector that include both universities as well as nursing colleges of private hospital groups. Data further revealed that most nurse educators and those in managerial positions were degree prepared. More degree prepared nurses than diploma prepared nurses were actively involved in scholarly activities such as research (30,5% compared to 25,5% andimplementing best practice guidelines (62,2% compared to 55,9%. Conclusion: The global nursing crisis, nor the nursing profession, will benefit by only training more nurses. The profession and the health care sector need more degree prepared nurses to improve scholarship in nursing.

  8. Fractionation of liver proteins by preparative electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M; Juranville, J-F; Tsangaris, G; Suter, L

    2004-02-01

    Proteomics offers unique possibilities to investigate changes in the levels and modifications of proteins involved in the pathomechanisms of diseases and toxic events. However, search for potential drug targets and disease or toxicity markers is limited by the fact that mainly the high-abundance, hydrophilic proteins are visualized in two-dimensional gels. Here we studied the enrichment of rat liver cytosolic proteins by preparative electrophoresis. Preparative electrophoresis was performed with the PrepCell apparatus in the presence of 0.1% lithium dodecyl sulfate. Lithium dodecyl sulfate was exchanged against agents compatible with isoelectric focusing prior to the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins were identified from two-dimensional gels by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass specrometry. Low- and middle-size proteins and low-abundance proteins, which had not been found before, were enriched by preparative electrophoresis. The present study represents a contribution of proteomics in the quantification of differences in the levels of low-abundance liver proteins in toxicity studies.

  9. Preparation Calcium Oxide From Chicken Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risfidian Mohadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of metal oxide CaO from chicken eggshell has been carried out by decomposition at various temperatures 600, 700, 800, 900, and 1000oC. The metal oxide CaO was characterized using XRD. Furthermore, The optimum temperature for preparation of CaO was determined based on the XRD pattern, then the characterization of CaO was extended using FT-IR spectrophotometer and BET analysis. The results show that the optimum temperature for preparation of CaO from chicken eggshell is 900oC with peak of 2Ө at 32.3o, 37.4o, 53.9o, 64.2o and 67.5o, respectively. The FT-IR spectrums show the unique vibration for Ca-O at 393 cm-1. The BET analysis show that CaO has surface area 68 m2/g with pore volume 1.65 cm3/g and pore size 6.6 nm which can be classified as mesoporous.

  10. Preparation of osmotic dehydrated ripe banana slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, U D; Prabhukhanolkar, A E; Pawar, V D

    2010-08-01

    Process for preparation of ripe banana slices using osmotic dehydration was standardized. Fully ripe banana fruits were peeled and slices of 8 mm thickness were prepared. The slices were divided into 5 lots and pretreated with sulphur fumigation @ 2 g/kg of slices for 2 h then each lot was soaked in 60 (0)Brix sugar syrup containing 0.1% KMS + 0.1 % citrate, 0.1% KMS + 0.1% citrate + 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% ascorbic acid and control respectively. After 16 h soaking, quick washing, blotting and then cabinet drying at 55 °C for 10 h up to 18% moisture content was done. The dried products were packed in 200 gauge polypropylene bags and stored at ambient condition for 6 months. The chemical, microbial and organoleptic changes were monitored for 6 months. The osmo-dried banana slices prepared with sulphur fumigation @ 2 g /kg slices for 2 h followed by soaking in 60(0)Brix sugar syrup containing 0.1% KMS + 0.1% citrate + 0.2% ascorbic acid were found better with respect to colour and appearance, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability with non-stickiness of the product. Storage study showed that there was marginal decrease in moisture content and organoleptic quality and increase in TSS, total sugars and reducing sugars content of osmodried banana slices. The products were found microbiologically safe and sensorily acceptable up to 6 months storage at ambient condition.

  11. Measurement and preparation using two probe modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, P.; Stenholm, S.; Jex, I.

    1995-12-01

    We consider the simultaneous measurement of two conjugate variables by coupling the system of interest to two independent probe modes. Our model consists of linearly coupled boson modes that can be realized by quantum optical fields in the rotating-wave approximation. We approach the setup both as a device to extract observable information and to prepare an emerging quantum state. The initial states of the probe modes and the coupling are utilized to optimize the operation in the various regimes. In contrast to the Arthurs and Kelly ideal scheme [Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 44, 725 (1965)], our more realistic coupling does not allow perfect operation but the ideal situations can be approximated closely. We discuss the conditions for maximum information transfer to the probe modes, information extraction with minimum disturbance of the system mode, and optimal state preparation for subsequent measurements. The minimum disturbance operation can be made to approximate a nondemolition measurement, especially when the information is carried in one quadrature component only. In the preparation mode, we find that the recording accuracy of the probe signals plays an essential role. We restrict the discussion to the first and second moments only, but the method can easily be generalized to any situation. Choosing all modes to be in squeezed coherent states originally, we can carry out analytical considerations; other cases can be treated numerically. The results are presented and discussed in detail as the paradigm of a class of realizable measurements.

  12. Preparing to perform an awake fiberoptic intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, M E

    2012-02-03

    Fiberoptically guided tracheal intubation represents one of the most important advances in airway management to occur in the past thirty years. Perhaps its most important role is in management of the anticipated difficult airway. This is a situation in which the dangers of encountering the life-threatening "can\\'t intubate, can\\'t ventilate" situation can be avoided by placement of an endotracheal tube while the patient is awake. Although skill at the procedure of endoscopy is obviously necessary in this setting, these authors hold that success or failure of the technique frequently depends on the adequacy of preparation. These measures include 1) pre-operative assessment of the patient; 2) careful explanation of what lies in store; 3) "setting the stage"; 4) preparing the equipment to be used; and 5) preparing the patient (antisialogue, sedation, application of topical anesthesia to the upper airway). If these preparatory measures are carried out meticulously, the likelihood of performing a successful and comfortable awake fiberoptic tracheal intubation is greatly increased.

  13. Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shone, C M; Jothi, T J S

    2016-05-01

    Dried leaves are a potential source of energy although these are not commonly used beside to satisfy daily energy demands in rural areas. This paper aims at preparing a leafy biomass feedstock in the form of briquettes which can be directly used for combustion or to extract the combustible gas using a gasifier. Teak (Tectona grandis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves are considered for the present study. A binder-assisted briquetting technique with tapioca starch as binder is adopted. Properties of these leafy biomass briquettes such as moisture content, calorific value, compressive strength, and shatter index are determined. From the study, briquettes with biomass-to-binder ratio of 3:5 are found to be stable. Higher mass percentage of binder is considered for preparation of briquettes due to the fact that leafy biomasses do not adhere well on densification with lower binder content. Ultimate analysis test is conducted to analyze the gasification potential of the briquettes. Results show that the leafy biomass prepared from teak and rubber leaves has calorific values of 17.5 and 17.8 MJ/kg, respectively, which are comparable with those of existing biomass feedstock made of sawdust, rice husk, and rice straw.

  14. Preparation of single phase molybdenum boride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camurlu, Hasan Erdem, E-mail: erdemcamurlu@gmail.com [Akdeniz University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 07058, Antalya (Turkey)

    2011-04-28

    Highlights: > Formation of Mo and a mixture of molybdenum boride phases take place in preparation of molybdenum borides. > It is intricate to prepare single phase molybdenum borides. > Formation of single phase MoB from MoO{sub 3} + B{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Mg mixtures has not been reported previously. > Single phase MoB was successfully prepared through a combination of mechanochemical synthesis and annealing process. - Abstract: The formation of MoB through volume combustion synthesis (VCS), and through mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) followed by annealing has been investigated. MoO{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mg were used as reactants while MgO and NaCl were introduced as diluents. Products were leached in dilute HCl solution and were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations. Mo was the major phase component in the VCS products under all the experimental conditions. Mo{sub 2}B, MoB, MoB{sub 2} and Mo{sub 2}B{sub 5} were found as minor phases. Products of MCS contained a mixture of Mo{sub 2}B, MoB, MoB{sub 2} and Mo. After annealing the MCS product at 1400 deg. C for 3 h, single phase {alpha}-MoB was obtained.

  15. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka

    2015-04-01

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

  16. Improving educational preparation for transcultural health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Var, R M

    1998-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that the health care needs of people from black and ethnic minority groups in England are not being met. A growing number of initiatives are being undertaken to remedy the situation. Many of them are focused on health care delivery at local and national levels. However, unless the preparation of health care professionals in the area of multi-cultural health care is appropriate and effective, a great deal of corrective action will continue to have to be taken. Despite 1997 having been the European Year Against Racism, it is still necessary to consider what educational preparation should be like. The article draws on identified inadequacies in health care provision as well as examples of initiatives taken to improve care provision. The author identifies deficiencies in educational preparation and proposes a range of actions to be taken. The article is focused on nursing, midwifery and health visiting education in England, but is deemed to be relevant to all health care professionals not only in Europe but other continents, as they become increasingly international and multi-ethnic.

  17. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenaga, K F; Matos, D; Castro, A A; Atallah, A N; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century the presence of bowel content during surgery has been related to anastomotic leakage. Mechanical bowel preparation has been considered an efficient agent against leakage and infections complications. This dogma is not based on solid evidence, but more on observational data and expert's opinions. To determine the security and effectiveness of prophylactic mechanical bowel preparation for morbidity and mortality rates in colorectal surgery. The following hypothesis was tested: "The use of mechanical bowel preparation before elective colorectal surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative complications". All publications describing mechanical bowel preparation before elective colorectal surgery was sought through computerized searches of EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library; by hand-searching in relevant medical journals, from major gastroenterological congresses, without limitation for date and language, using the search strategy described by the Colorectal Cancer Review Group. In addition, randomised clinical trials will be searched through personal communication with colleagues and from conference proceedings All randomised, clinical trials, that were performed in order to answer the hypothesis. Patients submitted elective colorectal surgery. Any strategy in mechanical bowel preparation compared with no mechanical bowel preparation. 1. Anastomosis leakage- stratified for rectum and colon 2. Overall anastomotic leakage 3. Mortality 4. Peritonitis 5. Re operation 6. Wound Infection 7 Infectious extra-abdominal complication 8. Non-infection extra-abdominal 9. Overall surgical site infections Data was independently extracted by two reviewers and cross-checked. The methodological quality of each trial was assessed by the same two reviewers. Details of the randomisation (generation and concealment), blinding, whether an intention-to-treat analysis was done, and the number of patients lost to follow-up was recorded. The results of each

  18. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  19. Spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2009-02-01

    Simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the determination of four fluoroquinolone (FQ) drugs, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations. Proposed method is based on the derivatization of FQ with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) in borate buffer of pH 9.0 to yield a yellow product. The optimum experimental conditions have been studied carefully. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 23.5-500 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 28.5-700 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 29.5-800 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 33.5-1000 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin using NBD-Cl reagent, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 7.0 ng mL -1 for ciprofloxacin, 8.5 ng mL -1 for enoxacin, 9.2 ng mL -1 for norfloxacin and 9.98 ng mL -1 for moxifloxacin, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation and relative mean error values at three different concentrations were determined. The low relative standard deviation values indicate good precision and high recovery values indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. The method is highly sensitive and specific. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by the official and reference method. The results presented in this report show that the applied spectrofluorimetric method is acceptable for the determination of the four FQ in the pharmaceutical preparations. Common excipients used as additives in pharmaceutical preparations do not interfere with the proposed method.

  20. Orion Ammonia Boiler System Preflight Test Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Controls and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is currently undergoing preparations for ground testing of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to prepare its subsystems for EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1). EM-1, Orions second unmanned flight, is a three-week long lunar mission during which the vehicle will complete a 6-day retrograde lunar orbit before returning to Earth. This paper focuses on the work done during the authors 16-week internship with the Mechanical Engineering Branch of KSCs Engineering Directorate. The authors project involved assisting with the preparations for testing the Orion MPCVs ammonia boiler system. The purpose of the ammonia boiler system is to keep the spacecraft sufficiently cool during the reentry portion of its mission, from service module (SM) separation to post-landing. This system is critical for keeping both the spacecraft (avionics and electronics) and crew alive during reentry, thus a successful test of the system is essential to the success of EM-1. XXXX The author was able to draft a detailed outline of the procedure for the ammonia system functional test. More work will need to be done on the vehicle power-up and power-down portions of the procedure, but the ammonia system testing portion of the procedure is thorough and includes vehicle test configurations, vehicle commands, and GSE. The author was able to compile a substantial list of questions regarding the ammonia system functional test with the help of her mentors. A significant number of these questions were answered in the teleconferences with Lockheed Martin.

  1. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Extemporaneously Prepared Herbal Mouthwashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Kamal; Sheshala, Ravi; Al-Waeli, Haider A; Gupta, Gauarv; Chellappan, Dinesh K

    2015-01-01

    Natural products like plants and its components have been in use for treatment and cure of diseases all around the globe from ancient times much before the discovery of the current modern drugs. These substances from the nature are well known to contain components which have therapeutic properties and can also behave as precursors for the synthesis of potential drugs. The beneficial results from herbal drugs are well reported where their popularity in usage has increased across the globe. Subsequently developing countries are now recognizing the many positive advantages from their use which has engaged the expansion of R & D from herbal research. The flow on effect from this expansion has increased the awareness to develop new herbal products and the processes, throughout the entire world. Mouth washes and mouth rinses which have plant oils, plant components or extracts have generated particular attention. High prevalence of gingival inflammation and periodontal diseases, suggests majority of the patients practice inadequate plaque control. Of the currently available mouthwashes in the market, Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) has been investigated on a larger scale with much detail. CHX is associated with side effects like staining of teeth when used daily as well as the bitter taste of the mouthwash which leads to patient incompliance. The present research encompasses the antibacterial activity of extemporaneously prepared herbal mouthwash using natural herbs and therefore allows for the potential commercialization with in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries. Also, the present research article reviewed details of various existing patents of herbal mouthwashes which shows the trend of existing market and significance of emerging mouthwashes in both pharmaceutical and herbal industries. The antimicrobial activity of prepared mouthwashes was found to be effective against various strains of bacteria. It also suggests that the prepared herbal mouthwashes may provide

  2. Chitin nanofibers: preparations, modifications, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    Chitin nanofibers are prepared from the exoskeletons of crabs and prawns by a simple mechanical treatment after the removal of proteins and minerals. The obtained nanofibers have fine nanofiber networks with a uniform width of approximately 10-20 nm and a high aspect ratio. The method used for chitin-nanofiber isolation is also successfully applied to the cell walls of mushrooms. They form a complex with glucans on the fiber surface. A grinder, a Star Burst atomization system, and a high speed blender are all used in the mechanical treatment to convert chitin to nanofibers. Mechanical treatment under acidic conditions is the key to facilitate fibrillation. At pH 3-4, the cationization of amino groups on the fiber surface assists nano-fibrillation by electrostatic repulsive force. By applying this finding, we also prepared chitin nanofibers from dry chitin powder. Chitin nanofibers are acetylated to modify their surfaces. The acetyl DS can be controlled from 1 to 3 by changing the reaction time. An acetyl group is introduced heterogeneously from the surface to the core. Nanofiber morphology is maintained even in the case of high acetyl DS. Optically transparent chitin nanofiber composites are prepared with 11 different types of acrylic resins. Due to the nano-sized structure, all of the composites are highly transparent. Chitin nanofibers significantly increase the Young's moduli and the tensile strengths and decrease the thermal expansion of all acrylic resins due to the reinforcement effect of chitin nanofibers. Chitin nanofibers show chiral separation ability. The chitin nanofiber membrane transports the d-isomer of glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and lysine from the corresponding racemic amino acid mixtures faster than the corresponding l-isomer. The chitin nanofibers improve clinical symptoms and suppress ulcerative colitis in a DSS-induced mouse model of acute ulcerative colitis. Moreover, chitin nanofibers suppress myeloperoxidase activation in the colon and

  3. Preparation and evaluation of sulphonamide nonionic surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkyl (octyl, decyl and dodecyl; C8,C10 and C12 benzene sulphonyl chloride was used in the preparation of a novel series of nonionic surfactants (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IX a-c and (X-XIIa-c. The preparations were completed by reacting each alkyl (C8,C10 and C12 benzene sulphonyl chloride with ethanolamine to give (I-III respectively. The resulting products were reacted separately with ethylene oxide in the presence of different (base KOH, Lewis acid SnCl4 and k10 clay catalysts to produce different moles of nonionic surfactants (5, 7 and 9 in sequence corresponding to (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IX a-c and (X-XIIa-c respectively. The chemical structures of prepared nonionic surfactants were elucidated by IR and 1HNMR spectra. The surface activity, biodegradability and biological activities of the prepared compounds were investigated. The obtained data show that these compounds have good surface and biological activities as well as reasonable biodegradability properties.Cloruros de sulfonilbenceno alquilados (octil, decil, dodecil; C8, C10 y C12 fueron usados en la preparación de una nueva serie de surfactantes no iónicos (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IX a-c and (X-XIIa-c. Las preparaciones fueron completadas por reacción de cada cloruro de sulfonilbenceno alquilado (C8, C10 y C12 con etanolamina para dar los compuestos (IIII, respectivamente. Los anteriores productos reaccionaron separadamente con óxido de etileno en presencia de diferentes catalizadores (la base KOH, el ácido de Lewis SnCl4 y la arcilla k10 para producir secuencialmente diferentes surfactantes no iónicos con distintos moles de óxido de etileno (5, 7 y 9: (IV-VIa-c, (VII-IXa-c and (X-XIIa-c, respectivamente. La estructura química de los surfactantes no iónicos preparados fueron elucidadas mediante sus espectros de IR y 1H RMN. Las propiedades tensoactivas, biodegradabilidad y actividad biológica de los compuestos preparados fueron investigados. Los datos obtenidos muestran que estos compuestos tienen

  4. The Current Techniques for Preparing Bioglass Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yafan; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang

    Bioglasses are promising alternatives as biomedical materials to repair or replace damaged parts of bones because of its good bioactivity and biocompatibility. It is possible to combine the bone-bonding ability of the bioglass surface with the high mechanical properties of the metallic substrate though the coating of metallic implants with bioglass. The principles and characteristics of some coating techniques, including sintering, plasma spray, sol-gel, electrophoresis deposition, ion beam assisted deposition and pulsed laser deposition, are introduced. Their current applications in preparing bioglass coatings are reviewed in detail. The future application trends are also reviewed.

  5. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  6. Conductive ceramic composition and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

    1991-04-16

    A ceramic anode composition is formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The anode is prepared as a non-stoichiometric crystalline structure by reaction and conditioning in a hydrogen gas cover containing minor proportions of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The structure exhibits a single phase and substantially enhanced electrical conductivity over that of the corresponding stoichiometric structure. Unexpectedly, such oxides and oxygenates are found to be stable in the reducing anode fuel gas of a molten carbonate fuel cell. 4 figures.

  7. Preparation of Aragonite Whiskers by Dolomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu W.R

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aragonite CaCO3 with complicated morphologies needle-like structrues have been successfully synthesized through dolomite as raw materials by the decomposition of urea. The phase of the aragonite whiskers were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared, the structrue of the samples was characterized by scanning electron microscope and the effects of different ratio of materials were studied. The result show that the concentration of urea was found to have an effect on the morphology of aragonite crystals. All the prepared crystals were almost aragonite and there was no phase under varied experiment conditions.

  8. Voyager flight engineering preparations for Neptune encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. J.; Savary, K. E.

    1988-01-01

    Voyager 2 will make the first close observations of the planet Neptune, during the period from June 1 to October 1,1989. A number of flight engineering activities are being conducted in preparation for the encounter. This paper discusses the most significant of these activities: new image motion compensation techniques, attitude control system changes, new exposure capabilities, new data handling capabilities, radiation protection measures, and new navigation methods. In addition, the process of performing late sequence updates is discussed. An overview of the Neptune mission is also presented.

  9. (Academic) preparation of/for students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Engstrøm, Emma; Sandermann, Weibke

    of both cases include the methodological empirical approach, emphasis on the process of ‘othering’, ethnocentrism and ethno- racial representations. The first case deals with pre-departure preparation inspired by MUD (memory, understanding and doing) principles, while the second deals with the ongoing in......-/ exclusion experiences in the university setting. The results underline inclusion of both sides- the subject and ‘the other’ in the encounters. In the first case, participants both from the global North and the global South are perceived as active agents and students are encouraged to consider critically...

  10. ATLAS data preparation in run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00037318; The ATLAS collaboration; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Guenther, Jaroslav; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Strandberg, Jonas; Taffard, Anyes; Wang, Song-Ming

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. The challenges posed by the excellent performance and high live time fraction of the LHC are discussed, and the solutions implemented by ATLAS are described. The prompt calibration loop procedures are described and examples are given. Several levels of data quality assessment are used to quickly spot problems in the control room and prevent data loss, and to provide the final selection used for physics analysis. Finally the data quality efficiency for physics analysis is shown.

  11. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: onoda@kpu.ac.jp [Department of Informatics and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Shimogamo Nakaragi-cyo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishima, Yuya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Takenaka, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Yonago National College of Technology, 4448, Hikona-cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  12. Application and Preparation of Enteric Coating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M. M.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhou, H. J.; Chen, X. Q.; Li, Y. T.; Yang, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, polymethacrylate enteric coated materials based on the equal mass of methyl acrylic acid and ethyl acrylate as the main raw materials were synthesized through emulsion polymerization. Omeprazole Enteric-coated Capsules were prepared by the fluidized bed coating technology using above materials as enteric layer and in vitro enteric test was considered according to standard. The results showed that the material had good coverage in the surface of omeprazole isolated pellets, excellent acid resistance in artificial gastric acid environment, and reached the disintegration effect in the buffer solution of 20min. Moreover the drug release reached 88.2% and had excellent long-term storage.

  13. Preparation of emergency care centre exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnadt, H.; Miska, H.

    2011-12-15

    Setup and operation of emergency care centres (sometimes also addressed as emergency reception centres) are part of emergency response in the environs of nuclear power plants. The preparation of an exercise scenario for such a centre is very demanding on the responsible agency. Therefore, a computer code has been developed which helps to translate the exercise objectives into instructions for figurants which simulate the affected population. These instructions are intended to steer a determined flow of people through the emergency care centre by providing fictitious radiological readings and by injecting the demand for additional actions of response personnel by statements and questions. (orig.)

  14. Preparation of Simulated Waste Solutions for Solvent Extraction Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, R.A.

    2000-06-27

    Personnel will need to routinely prepare 0.5 to 10 L batches of salt solutions simulating Savannah River Site (SRS) soluble waste for solvent extraction testing. This report describes the compositions and preparation methods.

  15. Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Elvitegravir-Loaded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVG) by formulating the drug as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) using solvent injection method. Methods: EVG-loaded SLNs were prepared by solvent injection method. Four different formulations of SLN were prepared using gelucire - 44/14 as ...

  16. At Arbitration Hearings, Justice Favors the Well Prepared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Arbitration can be a way to settle employee grievances efficiently and fairly. Count on spending five or six hours in preparation for each hour spent with the arbitrator. Presents strategies for meticulous preparation. (MLF)

  17. Distinct in vitro Complement Activation by Various Intravenous Iron Preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempel, Julia Cordelia; Poppelaars, Felix; da Costa, Mariana Gaya; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Vlaam, Thomas P G; Daha, Mohamed R.; Berger, Stefan P.; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intravenous (IV) iron preparations are widely used in the treatment of anemia in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). All IV iron preparations carry a risk of causing hypersensitivity reactions. However, the pathophysiological mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesize that a

  18. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  19. PRACTICAL PREPARATION OF RESVERATROL 3-O-β-D-GLUCURONIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Jungong, Christian S.; Novikov, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    A practical synthesis of resveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucuronide, suitable for preparation of large quantities, was developed using selective deacetylation of resveratrol triacetate with ammonium acetate. A simplified procedure for large scale preparation of resveratrol is also reported.

  20. A modern approach to surgical endodontics: ultrasonic apical preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellert, M; Solomon, C; Chalfin, H

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic devices are capable of generating better apical preparations than rotary instruments with less sacrifice of root structure. Regardless of the technique used, good lighting and magnification are necessary to insure an adequate apical preparation.

  1. Quantification of residual dentine thickness following crown preparation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Graham R; Tayeb, Rabab A; Seymour, Kevin G; Cherukara, George P

    2012-01-01

    Pulpal response to tooth preparation is a major concern in fixed prosthodontics. Research has suggested that 2mm or more of remaining dentine is critical in protecting the pulp following tooth preparation...

  2. Physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from wheat and vitamin A enriched cassava flour blends. Materials and Methods: Cissus gum was extracted from cissus stem and prepared into powder while vitamin A enriched cassava ...

  3. All-ceramic crown preparations: An alternative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, J; Dudley, J; Richards, L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the crown preparation dimensions produced from two different techniques of preparation for posterior all-ceramic crowns. Twenty-four fourth year dental students undertook a course of advanced simulation training involving education in an alternative technique of preparation for a 36 all-ceramic crown. Crown preparations performed using the traditional technique were compared with an alternative technique for total occlusal convergence (TOC) and reduction difference (RD) using digital scanning and comparative software. Groups that spent the most time performing the alternative technique produced crown preparations with significantly lower buccolingual (BL) TOC. The training resulted in crown preparations that were closer to ideal TOC and RD measurements. The alternative technique of crown preparation for a posterior all-ceramic crown showed initial promise in creating a less buccolingually tapered and more ideally occlusally reduced crown preparation. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Biochemical Changes from Preparation to Competitive Period in Soccer

    OpenAIRE

    ARISTOTELIS, Gioldasis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to indicate the biochemical changes during the preparation and competitive soccer period. The literature review showed that biochemical parameters such as transaminases, enzymes and other factors change significantly from the preparation to the competitive period. The sample of the study included twenty five professional soccer players whose biochemical parameters assessed in the beginning of the preparation period, in the middle, in the end of the preparation...

  5. Fracture Resistance of Composite Veneers with Different Preparation Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatanovska Katerina; Guguvcevski Ljuben; Popovski Risto; Dimova Cena; Minovska Ana; Mijoska Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the fracture load of composite veneers using three different preparation designs. Material and methods: Fifteen extracted, intact, human maxillary central incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three groups with different preparation design: 1) feather preparation, 2) bevel preparation, and 3) incisal overlap- palatal chamfer. Teeth were restored with composite veneers, and the specimens were loaded to failure. The localizatio...

  6. IELTS Preparation Courses in China : the Reading Comprehension Task

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ying

    2011-01-01

    More and more private language schools provide IELTS preparation courses for candidates who want to sit the test for admission to undergraduate and postgraduate courses in English-speaking countries. This essay investigates whether the IELTS preparation course in a language school in China offers an adequate preparation for candidates. The study focuses on one preparation course for the IELTS reading test (other modules are beyond the scope of the present study). A questionnaire and interview...

  7. Preparation of Fuel Cell Stack Based on Fision Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Pujiastuti, Sri; Rahimi, Elsy; Hendrana, Sunit

    2009-01-01

    Preparation of single fuel cell stack using fision membrane of local materials has been done. In this research, beside preparation of fuel cell stack, the engineering side in the preparation of fuel cell stack also explored. The crucial steps of this research were on preparation of Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA), stack construction, and flow field design used to distribute the fuel of hydrogen gas. The first two cases will be explained technically, but the third case, flow field design, wi...

  8. Methods of preparation of Swazi traditional fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Simatende

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Umcombotsi, emahewu, buganu, and emasi were the fermented foods commonly prepared at a household level in the Hhohho region, Swaziland. The main ingredient used for preparing umcombotsi and emahewu was maize meal. Unmilled sorghum malt was also added during preparation of umcombotsi. However, typically no malt was added during the preparation of emahewu. Buganu and emasi also play an important role in the diet and socioeconomic activities of the population in Swaziland.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO films with two-dimensional structure were successfully prepared via the modified Hummer method. It is proven that redox method is a promising way to synthesize GO films on a large scale. Comprehensive characterizations of the properties of GO films were conducted. TEM and DFM analyses showed that GO sheets prepared in this study had single and double lamellar layer structure and a thickness of 2~3 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD was selected to measure the crystal structure of GO sheet. Fourier-transform infrared spectra analyzer (FT-IR was used to certify the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups in GO films. The tests of UV-VIS spectrometer and TGA analyzer indicated that GO sheet possessed excellent optical response and outstanding thermal stability. Elemental analyzer (EA and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS analyzed the components synthetic material. Simultaneously, chemical structure of GO sheet was described in this study. Discussion and references for further research on graphene are provided.

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF COMPETITIVE JUDOKAS - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ziv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 18 on psychological preparation of competitive judokas. These studies were grouped according to the type of study performed - observational, experimental, and case studies. In addition, five psychological categories were identified: (a imagery, (b motivation, (c stress, anxiety, and mood states, (d eating attitudes and weight control, and (e coach/athlete interactions. The main findings of this review are that (a there is a lack of data regarding the use of imagery to improve judo performance; (b goal involvement states of competitive judokas fluctuate and undergo abrupt changes during actual combat, according to the ecological constraints of the situation; (c cortisol levels and somatic and cognitive anxiety tend to increase prior to and during a judo combat; (d weight reduction programs that judokas undergo prior to a judo combat can lead to unpleasant moods, and cultural differences can lead to conflicting results; (e psychological preparation plans should be tailored to each individual judoka, as there can be significant individual differences among the judokas. Based on the findings of our review, a number of research limitations and methodological concerns are discussed

  11. Preparation of the magnet sub-assemblies

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: On a rotation bench, preparation of the lower half-yoke with the bus bars and the pre-curved shell. The components are put on a dummy half-yoke in view of being rotated upside down. Photo 02: On a rotation bench, preparation of the lower half-yoke with the bus bars and the pre-curved shell. The components are put on a dummy half-yoke in view of being rotated upside down. Photo 03: The half-yoke assembly is made of short packs that are assembled together and locked with 15-m long tie-rods on a dedicated bench. Photo 04: The collared-coils assembly is equipped with magnetic inserts and special shims on a rotation bench in view of its installation in the yoke, operation that is called "yoking". At that stage of the assembly, the collared-coils assembly is equipped with the end plates and the electrical connections between the poles and between dipole I and dipoe II are made.

  12. Preparation of ferrite-coated MFM cantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koblischka, M.R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Saarbruecken, P. O. Box 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]. E-mail: m.koblischka@mx.uni-saarland.de; Kirsch, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Saarbruecken, P. O. Box 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Wei, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Saarbruecken, P. O. Box 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Sulzbach, T. [Nanoworld Services GmbH, Schottkystrasse 10, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Hartmann, U. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Saarbruecken, P. O. Box 151150, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Ferrite-coated magnetic force microscopy (MFM) cantilevers were prepared for the use with a high-frequency MFM (HF-MFM) setup. The ferrite coatings were fabricated by means of radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering directly on the Si surface. Two types of ferrites were employed in this study: NiZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and Co{sub 2} Z-type hexaferrite (Ba{sub 3}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 24}O{sub 41}, BCFO). The typical thickness of the coatings was 50 nm. For comparison, ferrite samples on (1 0 0) and (1 1 1)-oriented Si substrates (analogous to the surfaces of the cantilevers) were prepared. Successful HF-MFM imaging was performed with both types of cantilevers using harddisk writer poles as samples. The HF-MFM images obtained by ferrite-coated cantilevers evidently reveal more details of the magnetic field distribution of the writer poles up to the GHz range than conventional CoCr-coated MFM cantilevers.

  13. Clinical utility of different botulinum neurotoxin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven B; Hallett, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Comparative literature assessing the relative safety and efficacy of different BoNT products is limited. The quantity and quality of data vary by preparation and indication. Clinicians seeking data relevant to the care of patients with specific conditions may find only reports about small numbers of patients with varying symptoms. While a literature search for "botulinum neurotoxins" will yield a large number of publications; only a fraction of these meet criteria for an academic evidence-based review. Patients may have been treated with a different BoNT formulation than that with which the physician is familiar, or there may be little or no clinical data on the use of a specific BoNT product for the proposed intervention. This paper is an introduction to a series of papers (which follow) in which an expert panel reviewed the BoNT clinical trial literature in order to provide evidence-based recommendations regarding the clinical use and efficacy of available BoNT preparations for four major therapeutic areas: movement disorders, spasticity, urology, and secretory disorders. Expert opinion is also included to address practical issues where more evidence and further research is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Travel Preparations for Patients Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shu-Chi; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    People who receive peritoneal dialysis (PD) have more freedom than those who are on hemodialysis. However, some PD patients have difficulty adapting to their new environment and thus remain largely homebound. When they work or travel abord, who cannot rely wholly on others, these patients must handle certain life problems alone. It is essential for nursing staff to help PD patients to prepare for overcoming typical inconveniences, improving quality of life, and handling unfamiliar environments. The present study assists patients to arrange domestic and foreign tourism and to participate in various activities. The intervention teaches the pre-assessment of tourism, the assessment and selection of the sterile environment for exchange, the arrangements for dialysate, planning for handling complications, the travel matters attention, and other tourist information using group or individual instruction. It is expected that patients with peritoneal dialysis will be more willing to leave their houses and be better prepared to travel, which should lead to their having more fun and to their greater enjoyment of life.

  15. Relevance of sample preparation for flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccio, V E; Saraci, E; Gilestro, M; Oddolo, D; Ruggeri, M; Caltagirone, S; Bruno, B; Boccadoro, M; Omedè, P

    2017-10-06

    Flow cytometry is a useful tool for diagnosis and minimal residual disease (MRD) study of hematological diseases. Standard sample preparation protocols are characterized by stain-lyse-wash (SLW). To prevent nonspecific bindings and achieve high sensitivity in MRD studies, lyse-wash-stain-wash (LWSW) is required. To our knowledge, no comparison between the two methods has been performed. We compared mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), stain index, signal-to-noise ratio, and percentage of positive cells of 104 antibodies and of 13 selected antibodies tested in 10 samples simultaneously prepared with the two methods. MFI and percentages of positive cells obtained by the two methods did not show significant differences and showed a very high correlation. Stain index and signal-to-noise ratio presented higher values for kappa and lambda surface chains in LWSW samples and a trend of higher values for the other antibodies in SLW samples. We suggest to use LWSW method also at diagnosis to obtain more comparable antibody intensity expressions when samples from the same patient are processed for MRD evaluation after bulk lysis. Moreover, LWSW can prevent nonspecific bindings, shows no differences in the identification and quantitation of the populations of interest, and reduces acquisition of cell debris. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  17. Toxicity of ionic liquids prepared from biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, W; Jorge, T F; Martins, S; Meireles, M; Carolino, M; Cruz, C; Almeida, T V; Araújo, M E M

    2014-06-01

    In search of environmentally-friendly ionic liquids (ILs), 14 were prepared based on the imidazolium, pyridinium and choline cations, with bromide and several amino acids as anions. Good yields were obtained in the synthesis of pyridinium ILs and those prepared from choline and amino acids. Four of the ILs synthesized from choline and the amino acids arginine, glutamine, glutamic acid and cystine are described here for the first time. The toxicity of the synthesized ILs was checked against organisms of various levels of organization: the crustacean Artemia salina; Human cell HeLa (cervical carcinoma); and bacteria with different types of cell wall, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The toxicity was observed to depend on both the cation and anion. Choline-amino acid ILs showed a remarkable low toxicity to A. salina and HeLa cell culture, ten times less than imidazolium and pyridinium ILs. None of ionic liquids exhibited marked toxicity to bacteria, and the effect was 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of the antibiotic chloramphenicol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectrophotometric Estimation of Sulfadoxine in Pharmaceutical Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four simple, sensitive, accurate and rapid visible spectrophotometric methods (A, B, C and D have been developed for the estimation of sulfadoxine in pharmaceutical preparations. They are based on the diazotization of sulfadoxine with sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid followed by coupling with N-(1-naphthyl ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (Method A to form pink coloured chromogen, diphenylamine (Method B to form light pink coloured chromogen, chromotropic acid (in alkaline medium (Method C to form orange coloured chromogen, Resorcinol (in alkaline medium (Method D to form light orange coloured chromogen and exhibiting absorption maxima (λmax at 536 nm, 524 nm, 520 nm and 496 nm respectively. The coloured chromogens formed are stable for more than 2 h. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1.0 - 5.0 μg/mL in Method A , 5.0 - 25.0 μg/mL in Method B, 5.0 - 25.0 μg/mL in Method C and 4.0 - 8.0 μg/mL in Method D respectively. The results of the three analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. The results obtained in the proposed methods are in good agreements with labeled amounts, when marketed pharmaceutical preparations are analyzed.

  19. US preparations for an international conference on broadcast satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Areas of the U.S. preparation for the 1983 regional administrative radio conference were addressed including the following: conference background, interagency coordination of preparations, delegation selection and preparation activities, budget planning, preparatory bilateral and multilateral meetings, and computer software development.

  20. Acetylene (ethynyl) terminated polyimide siloxane and process for preparation thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stclair, T. L.; ASI primers applied over ste (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Siloxane containing addition polyimides having improved physical property characteristics of flexibility, drape, tack, and toughness and the process for preparing and utilizing the same are disclosed. The novelty of this invention appears to reside in the composition and process of preparing addition type polyimides useful as structural adhesives as well as composite matrix materials and the process of preparing the same.

  1. 77 FR 58774 - New Pallet Preparation Standards for Periodicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... 111 New Pallet Preparation Standards for Periodicals AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule... Mail Manual (DMM ) 705.8.10.2 to align pallet preparation standards for Periodicals with those currently required for Periodicals prepared in sacks and similar containers. The Postal Service will also...

  2. 77 FR 38759 - New Pallet Preparation Standards for Periodicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... 111 New Pallet Preparation Standards for Periodicals AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Proposed rule... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ), to align pallet preparation standards for Periodicals with those currently required for Periodicals prepared in sacks and similar containers. DATES: Submit comments on or...

  3. 24 CFR 35.1345 - Occupant protection and worksite preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the spread of leaded dust, paint chips, soil and debris shall be used during worksite preparation. (2... preparation. 35.1345 Section 35.1345 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of... protection and worksite preparation. This section establishes procedures for protecting dwelling unit...

  4. 26 CFR 40.7701-1 - Tax return preparer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax return preparer. 40.7701-1 Section 40.7701-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.7701-1 Tax return preparer. (a) In general. For the definition of a tax return preparer, see §...

  5. 48 CFR 315.372 - Preparation of negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of negotiation... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.372 Preparation of negotiation memorandum. The Contracting Officer shall prepare a negotiation memorandum, or summary of...

  6. How do medical students prepare for flipped classrooms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, RAM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370834747; de Kleijn, R.A.M.; ten Cate, TJ|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068931204; van Rijen, HVM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159038758; Westerveld, HE|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166246042

    A flipped classroom, an approach abandoning traditional lectures and having students come together to apply acquired knowledge, requires students to come to class well prepared. The nature of this preparation is currently being debated. Watching web lectures as a preparation has typically been

  7. The Good, the Bad, the Ugly: Internships in Principal Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald; Hudson, Martha

    A theme common to recommendations for change in school leader preparation is that preparation be grounded in practice and include field-based experience or internship. Despite recognition for reform, substantial change has been slow to emerge. This study was conducted in North Carolina in 1995 to assess revised leadership preparation programs…

  8. 76 FR 78816 - Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK16 Tax Return Preparer Penalties Under Section 6695... contains final regulations that modify existing regulations related to the tax return preparer penalties... and to improve compliance with the tax return preparer due diligence requirements of section 6695(g...

  9. Encouraging Autonomy and Preparing for IELTS: Mutually Exclusive Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Lennard, Siri

    1997-01-01

    Suggests foreign students in Australia may not be getting preparation needed to integrate successfully into university study. Research is reviewed that indicates these students not only need help preparing for the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) but also with learning at an Australian university. Academic preparation courses…

  10. 7 CFR 905.8 - Prepare for market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prepare for market. 905.8 Section 905.8 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.8 Prepare for market. Prepare for market means to wash, grade, size, or place fruit (whether or not wrapped) into any container whatsoever...

  11. Effect of preparation temperature and ions doping on size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Binary and quaternary amorphous nano powders are prepared by wet reduction method. Cobalt boride nano catalyst is synthesized at 10 and 60 ºC. Effect of preparation temperature on size and morphology was studied. Co-M-Zr-B (M: Cr, Mo and W) as quaternary catalysts are also prepared in order to studying ions ...

  12. Preparation for your Foreign Learning Experience : PREFLEX student guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuela Hernandez; Jos Walenkamp

    2015-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that a good preparation in the pre-departure stage can maximize the chances of a succesful foreign experience. But what is meant by a good preparation? And what are the expected results of such a preparation? This course focuses in internship and study abroad (pre-departure)

  13. Preparation for your Foreign Learning Experience : PREFLEX trainer's guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manuela Hernandez; Jos Walenkamp

    2012-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that a good preparation in the pre-departure stage can maximize the chances of a succesful foreign experience. But what is meant by a good preparation? And what are the expected results of such a preparation? This course focuses in internship and study abroad (pre-departure)

  14. 21 CFR 200.50 - Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic preparations and dispensers. 200.50... preparations and dispensers. (a)(1) Informed medical opinion is in agreement that all preparations offered or... of injury resulting from contamination during use. (c) Eye cups, eye droppers, and other dispensers...

  15. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this section...

  16. Preparing Elementary Prospective Teachers to Teach Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensee, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have argued that integrating early algebra into elementary grades will better prepare students for algebra. However, currently little research exists to guide teacher preparation programs on how to prepare prospective elementary teachers to teach early algebra. This study examines the insights and challenges that prospective teachers…

  17. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91... § 91.62 Preparing an Environmental Assessment. (a) In general. An Environmental Assessment (EA) is a.... (c) Draft environmental assessment. The grantee should prepare an EA after identifying the proposed...

  18. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATION OF LINEAR DEXTRINS .1. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMYLODEXTRIN, METASTABLE AMYLODEXTRINS, AND METASTABLE AMYLOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERIK, GHPT; EISSENS, AC; BESEMER, AC; LERK, CF

    The linear dextrin amylodextrin was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis from waxy maize. Four metastable amylodextrins were prepared by complexation with different volatile organic compounds. All products showed partial dissolution into water at room temperature, because of dissolution of molecules

  19. Evaluation of three different tooth preparation techniques for metal ceramic crowns by comparing preparation depths: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Hardik K.; Rupal J Shah; Agrawal, Hemal S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of three different tooth preparation techniques had on operator's ability to appropriately and consistently prepare teeth for metal ceramic crowns. Materials and Methods: Ninety maxillary left central incisor typodont teeth were allocated to three equal groups (A, B and C) of thirty and mounted in standard working model one at a time. A freehand approach was used to prepare the teeth in Group A, which acted as a control. Groups B and C were prepared with the assis...

  20. Corneal donor tissue preparation for endothelial keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Maria A; Titus, Michael; Mavin, Kyle; Shtein, Roni M

    2012-06-12

    Over the past ten years, corneal transplantation surgical techniques have undergone revolutionary changes. Since its inception, traditional full thickness corneal transplantation has been the treatment to restore sight in those limited by corneal disease. Some disadvantages to this approach include a high degree of post-operative astigmatism, lack of predictable refractive outcome, and disturbance to the ocular surface. The development of Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK), transplanting only the posterior corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium, has dramatically changed treatment of corneal endothelial disease. DSEK is performed through a smaller incision; this technique avoids 'open sky' surgery with its risk of hemorrhage or expulsion, decreases the incidence of postoperative wound dehiscence, reduces unpredictable refractive outcomes, and may decrease the rate of transplant rejection. Initially, cornea donor posterior lamellar dissection for DSEK was performed manually resulting in variable graft thickness and damage to the delicate corneal endothelial tissue during tissue processing. Automated lamellar dissection (Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, DSAEK) was developed to address these issues. Automated dissection utilizes the same technology as LASIK corneal flap creation with a mechanical microkeratome blade that helps to create uniform and thin tissue grafts for DSAEK surgery with minimal corneal endothelial cell loss in tissue processing. Eye banks have been providing full thickness corneas for surgical transplantation for many years. In 2006, eye banks began to develop methodologies for supplying precut corneal tissue for endothelial keratoplasty. With the input of corneal surgeons, eye banks have developed thorough protocols to safely and effectively prepare posterior lamellar tissue for DSAEK surgery. This can be performed preoperatively at the eye bank. Research shows no significant difference in

  1. Preparing Scientists to be Community Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Many students, especially students from historically under-represented communities, leave science majors or avoid choosing them because scientific careers do not offer enough opportunity to contribute to their communities. Citizen science, or public participation in scientific research, may address these challenges. At its most collaborative, it means inviting communities to partner in every step of the scientific process from defining the research question to applying the results to community priorities. In addition to attracting and retaining students, this level of community engagement will help diversify science, ensure the use and usability of our science, help buttress public support of science, and encourage the application of scientific results to policy. It also offers opportunities to tackle scientific questions that can't be accomplished in other way and it is demonstrably effective at helping people learn scientific concepts and methods. In order to learn how to prepare scientists for this kind of intensive community collaboration, we examined several case studies, including a project on disease and public health in Africa and the professionally evaluated experience of two summer interns in Southern Louisiana. In these and other cases, we learned that scientific expertise in a discipline has to be accompanied by a reservoir of humility and respect for other ways of knowing, the ability to work collaboratively with a broad range of disciplines and people, patience and enough career stability to allow that patience, and a willingness to adapt research to a broader set of scientific and non-scientific priorities. To help students achieve this, we found that direct instruction in participatory methods, mentoring by community members and scientists with participatory experience, in-depth training on scientific ethics and communication, explicit articulation of the goal of working with communities, and ample opportunity for personal reflection were essential

  2. Behavior and Classroom Management: Are Teacher Preparation Programs Really Preparing Our Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrea; McKenna, John William; Haring, Christa D.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that many teachers are underprepared for the behaviors that their students may bring to the classroom, resulting in challenges to teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the behavior management content included in preservice teacher preparation programs for general education and special education teachers.…

  3. Preparation of certain m-aminophenols and the use thereof for preparation of laser dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, P.R.

    1983-12-29

    Methods are provided for making certain m-aminophenols using a sulfonation/alkali fusion procedure. The aminophenols are key intermediates in the synthesis of dyes, particularly efficient, stable dyes for laser application. Preparations of some rhodamine and phenoxazone dyes from the m-aminophenols are described.

  4. Preparing Youth for the 21st Century Knowledge Economy: Youth Programs and Workforce Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the idea of preparing youth for the workforce has taken on new meaning. The shift to a knowledge economy has brought widespread concern that young people are entering the workforce without the skills employers value most, such as communication, critical thinking, leadership, and teamwork skills. As youth programs evaluate how…

  5. Pathways for Preparation: Locating Suicide Education in Preparing Professionals for Encounters with Suicidal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranahan, Patti

    2013-01-01

    Current suicide prevention strategies often include suicide education based on the premise that education can lead to recognition of those at risk of suicide and others who are prepared can respond and potentially save lives. As suicide is a leading cause of death for young people, it is relevant to explore how suicide education is made available…

  6. The Abacus: Teachers' Preparation and Beliefs about Their Abacus Preservice Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Hong, Sunggye; Amato, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article reports on a study of 196 teachers who shared their experiences and opinions related to how they were taught to use the Cranmer abacus. Methods: In February and March 2012, the participants completed an online survey to gather information about their preparation in using and beliefs about computation with the Cranmer…

  7. Preparation, Action, Recovery: A Conceptual Framework for Counselor Preparation and Response in Client Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Charles R.; Keener, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasing requirements for counselor proficiency in crisis response, there is an absence in the standards for counselor preparation, certification, and supervision of consistent criteria on which best practice in crisis prevention and intervention, and postcrisis recovery can be gauged. The authors present a conceptual framework that…

  8. Preparation of Proteoglycan Mimetic Graft Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, Matt J; Place, Laura W

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are proteins with pendant glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide side chains. The method described here enables the preparation of graft copolymers with glycosaminoglycan side chains, which mimic the structure and composition of proteoglycans. By controlling the stoichiometry, graft copolymers can be obtained with a wide range of glycosaminoglycan side-chain densities. The method presented here uses a three-step reaction mechanism to first functionalize a hyaluronic acid backbone, followed by reductive amination to couple the glycosaminoglycan side chain to the backbone, by the reducing end. Proteoglycan mimics like the ones proposed here could be used to study the structure-property relationships of proteoglycans and to introduce the biochemical and biomechanical properties of proteoglycans into biomaterials and therapeutic formulations.

  9. Preparation plant operators: the forgotten resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaro, P. [Sedgman Pty. Ltd. (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Coal Handling and Preparation Plant (CHPP) control systems are easier and faster to implement than ever before. Plant personnel are becoming more familiar with the elements which make up a control system. Control of the process is also becoming more advanced and enormous amounts of plant data are now captured and available to more people for analysis and continuous plant improvement. However, this paper is concerned with the lack of recognition of the operator`s role in a control system`s implementation, which will continue to hinder attempts at efficiency improvements, despite these advances. This paper briefly discusses the history of CHPP control systems and current trends in the technology and then presents examples of where the changing role of the operator is being addressed. 3 refs.

  10. Dynamical preparation of Floquet Chern insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Luca; Rigol, Marcos

    2015-10-01

    Realizing topological insulators is of great current interest because of their remarkable properties and possible future applications. There are recent proposals based on Floquet analyses that one can generate topologically non-trivial insulators by periodically driving topologically trivial ones. Here we address what happens if one follows the dynamics in such systems. Specifically, we present an exact study of the time evolution of a graphene-like system subjected to a circularly polarized electric field. We prove that for infinite (translationally invariant) systems the Chern number is conserved under unitary evolution. For systems with boundaries, on the other hand, we show that a properly defined topological invariant, the Bott index, can change. Hence, it should be possible to experimentally prepare topological states starting from non-topological ones. We show that the chirality of the edge current in such systems can be controlled by adjusting the filling.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kabiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is preparation of SnO2 nanowires by means of Thermal chemical reaction vapor transport deposition (TCRVTD method from SnO powders. The morphology, chemical composition and microstructure properties of the nanowires are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, EDS, and XRD. The XRD diffraction patterns reveal that the SnO2 nanowires have been grown in the form of tetragonal crystal structures with the lattice parameter of a=b=0.440 nm, and c=0.370 nm. The SEM images reveal that SnO2 nanowires have successfully been grown on the Si substrate. The EDS patterns show that only elements of Sn, O and Au are detected. Prior to the VLS process the substrate is coated by a thin layer of Au. The diameter of nanowires is measured to be something between 20-100 nm.

  12. Salicylate absorption from a bismuth subsalicylate preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S; Chen, S L; Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Ericsson, C D; Hulse, M

    1981-06-01

    The active ingredient in Pepto-Bismol (PB) (Norwich-Eaton), a common antidiarrheal, is bismuth subsalicylate. The absorption of salicylate after oral PB was studied in six fasted men. Plasma concentrations of total salicylate and the urinary excretion profile of salicylate were determined as a function of time and dose. After 60 ml PB, 500.1 +/- 33.6 mg (mean +/- SD) salicylate were recovered in urine, representing 95.0 +/- 6.4% of salicylic acid equivalents in 60 ml of the formulation. Peak plasma salicylate levels were reached 0.5 to 3 hr after ingestion and averaged 40.1 +/- 17.3 micrograms/ml. Absorption of salicylate was also essentially complete after 15- and 30-ml doses of the antidiarrheal preparation, and a linear relationship between dose and recovery of salicylate in the urine was found. Salicylate kinetics was nonlinear after a multiple-dose regimen of 60 ml every 6 hr for five doses.

  13. Preparation and evaluation of cilnidipine microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemal Tandel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilnidipine, a calcium channel blocker having neuroprotective action and BCS Class II drug, hence formulating in Microemulsion will increase solubility, absorption and bioavailability. The formulation was prepared using titration method by tocotrienol, tween 20 and transcutol HP as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant and characterized for dilutability, dye solubility, assay (98.39±0.06, pH (6.6±1.5, Viscosity (98±1.0 cps and Conductivity (0.2±0.09 μS/cm. The formulation was optimized on basis of percentage transmittance (99.269±0.23 at 700 nm, Globule size (13.31±4.3 nm and zeta potential (-11.4±2.3 mV. Cilnidipine microemulsion was found to be stable for 3 months.

  14. Preparation, properties and applications of nanocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Subrata

    2017-05-01

    Recently, nano materials derived from natural renewable resources have drawn much attention in the nanotechnology research thrust. Lignocelluloses are composed of cellulosic nano-fibrils which can be disintegrated by chemical, mechanical and enzymatic methods in order to obtain nanocellulose. Further, nanocellulose can also be synthesized by bacterial method in a suitable culture. Nanocelluloses have many interesting properties (viz. nano-dimension, renewability, low toxicity, biocompatibility, bio-degradability, easy availability and low cost) which make them ideal nanomaterials for diverse applications. In this paper, author reviewed researches on recent advances in nanocellulosic materials. Various methods of nanocellulose preparation and their properties, surface modifications of nanocellulose, and applications of nanocellulose in the diverse fields have been discussed in the paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and chromatographic analysis of phlorotannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, José Hipólito Isaza; Castañeda, Harlen Gerardo Torres

    2013-09-01

    In the 70s, reports began to appear of phenolic metabolites of brown algae with the characteristics of tannins; these compounds, initially termed phaeophyte tannins, marine algal polyphenols or polyphloroglucinols, are known as phlorotannins, the youngest group of plant polyphenolics. Despite over 40 years of research in phlorotannins, this area is still in the exponential growth phase; however, several reviews have appeared, primarily concerning their biological activity. This review focuses on techniques for the extraction, isolation and chromatographic purification of approximately 150 phlorotannins during these four decades. Due to the high structural diversity of these polyphenols and the difficulty of classification, these topics are also reviewed: structural diversity and classification, extraction and preparative chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry. These techniques have primarily been used for separation monitoring and qualitative profiles, and not too many reports have been published on the development of quantification or quality control.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Novel Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansa, Rola

    Clay minerals have historically played a consequential role in human health. While the beginnings were rooted in geophagy, a primitive act of consuming earth, the health-related uses of clay minerals have evolved and diversified over time.. As excipients in pharmaceutical formulations, clay minerals can attribute novel properties onto intercalated compounds. Intercalating oxybenzone, a UV filter, within the interlamellar space of montmorillonite is desirable in order to minimize direct contact with skin. Intercalating resveratrol, a compound known for attributing beneficial effects onto human health, may be advantageous since this compound is susceptible to cis-trans isomerisation. The strategy of using alkylammonium--modified clay was undertaken and proved successful for the intercalation of oxybenzone. The field of biopolymer/layered silicate nanocomposites is heavily researched for use in a multitude of applications. Novel montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared with neutral guar gum and cationic guar gum, using an environmentally friendly process and are fully characterized.

  17. Chemically prepared lead magnesium niobate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Olson, W.R.; Goy, D.M.

    1998-11-01

    A chemical solution powder synthesis technique has been developed that produces first, uniform powders of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) with 60 to 80 nm crystallite size. The synthesis technique was based on the dissolution of lead acetate and alkoxide precursors in acetic acid followed by precipitation with oxalic acid/propanol solutions. Lead magnesium niobate ceramics fabricated from these chemically derived powders had smaller, more uniform grain size and higher dielectric constants than ceramics fabricated from mixed oxide powders that were processed under similar thermal conditions. Chem-prep PMN dielectrics with peak dielectric constants greater than 22,000 and polarizations in excess of 29 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} were obtained for 1,100 C firing treatments. Substantial decreases in dielectric constant and polarization were measured for chemically prepared PMN ceramics fired at lower temperatures, consistent with previous work on mixed oxide materials.

  18. Teacher preparation in a constructivist context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Porlán

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Teacher change is a major variable in school change. Such a change depends on external and contextual factors (aspects of the teaching position, labor conditions, administrative and organizational conditions, etc. as well as on internal factors related to professional knowledge. In addition, both kind of factors are interdependent and mutually influencing and reinforcing. That is, there will be no generalized change among teachers until their labor conditions are changed, however, this change alone will not guarantee an innovative evolution in their professional practices. Having this in mind, our reserach program has the main of goal the construction of a more rigorous knowledge on teachers' professional knowledge and teacher preparation models that facilitate its evolution.

  19. Tellurium quantum dots: Preparation and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chaoyu; Li, Xueming; Tang, Libin; Lai, Sin Ki; Rogée, Lukas; Teng, Kar Seng; Qian, Fuli; Zhou, Liangliang; Lau, Shu Ping

    2017-08-01

    Herein, we report an effective and simple method for producing Tellurium Quantum dots (TeQDs), zero-dimensional nanomaterials with great prospects for biomedical applications. Their preparation is based on the ultrasonic exfoliation of Te powder dispersed in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Sonication causes the van der Waals forces between the structural hexagons of Te to break so that the relatively coarse powder breaks down into nanoscale particles. The TeQDs have an average size of about 4 nm. UV-Vis absorption spectra of the TeQDs showed an absorption peak at 288 nm. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) are used to study the optical properties of TeQDs. Both the PLE and PL peaks revealed a linear relationship against the emission and excitation energies, respectively. TeQDs have important potential applications in biological imaging and catalysis as well as optoelectronics.

  20. Composite perfluorohydrocarbon membranes, their preparation and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin

    2017-04-04

    Composite porous hydrophobic membranes are prepared by forming a perfluorohydrocarbon layer on the surface of a preformed porous polymeric substrate. The substrate can be formed from poly (aryl ether ketone) and a perfluorohydrocarbon layer can be chemically grafted to the surface of the substrate. The membranes can be utilized for a broad range of fluid separations, such as microfiltration, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration as membrane contactors for membrane distillation and for degassing and dewatering of fluids. The membranes can further contain a dense ultra-thin perfluorohydrocarbon layer superimposed on the porous poly (aryl ether ketone) substrate and can be utilized as membrane contactors or as gas separation. membranes for natural gas treatment and gas dehydration.

  1. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  2. Contingency planning: preparation of contingency plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, J M

    2008-01-01

    . The risk of introducing disease pathogens into a country and the spread of the agent within a country depends on a number of factors including import controls, movement of animals and animal products and the biosecurity applied by livestock producers. An adequate contingency plan is an important instrument......Outbreaks of infectious animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, Newcastle disease and avian influenza may have a devastating impact, not only on the livestock sector and the rural community in the directly affected areas, but also beyond agriculture and nation wide...... in the preparation for and the handling of an epidemic. The legislation of the European Union requires that all Member States draw up a contingency plan which specifies the national measures required to maintain a high level of awareness and preparedness and is to be implemented in the event of disease outbreak...

  3. Preparation and integration of nanostructured titanium dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Hua Chun

    2011-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a chemically stable nontoxic transition-metal oxide associated with a wide range of existing chemical engineering processes. In this short review, recent research endeavors in preparation and integration of nanostructured TiO2 materials system will be featured and discussed for their potential new applications. Because material development always plays pivotal roles in the progress of a particular engineering discipline, the reviewed subjects will provide useful information to stimulate nanoscale research of chemical engineering, linking established fundamentals with practical applications. Some critical issues and challenges regarding further development of this important functional material for nanotechnology will also be addressed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egelja A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new method for producing non-oxide ceramic using wood as a template. SiC with a woodlike microstructure has been prepared by carbothermal reduction reactions of Tilia wood/TEOS composite at 1873K. The porous carbon preform was infiltrated with TEOS (Si(OC2H54, as a source of silica, without pressure at 298K. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramics, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to SiC ceramics, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD. Obtained SiC ceramics consists of β-SiC with traces of α-SiC.

  5. Preparation of Conductive Polymer Graphite (PG) Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirah Abdullah, Nur; Saddam Kamarudin, M.; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Abdullah, M. F. L.

    2017-08-01

    The preparation of conductive polymer graphite (PG) composites thin film is described. The thickness of the PG composites due to slip casting method was set approximately ~0.1 mm. The optical microscope (OM) and fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) has been operated to distinguish the structure-property relationships scheme of PG composites. It shows that the graphite is homogenously dispersed in polymer matrix composites. The electrical characteristics of the PG composite were measured at room temperature and the electrical conductivity (σ) was discovered with respect of its resistivity (Ω). By achieving conductivity of 103 S/m, it is proven that at certain graphite weight loading (PG20, PG25 and PG30) attributes to electron pathway in PG composites.

  6. Preparation and Application of Fluorescent Carbon Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs are a novel type of fluorescent nanomaterials, which not only possess the specific quantum confinement effects of nanomaterials due to the small size of nanomaterials, but also have good biocompatibility and high fluorescence. Meanwhile, fluorescence CDs overcome the shortcomings of high toxicity of traditional nanomaterials. Moreover, the preparation procedure of fluorescent CDs is simple and easy. Therefore, fluorescent CDs have great potential applied in photocatalysis, biochemical sensing, bioimaging, drug delivery, and other related areas. In this paper, recent hot researches on fluorescent CDs are reviewed and some problems in the progress of fluorescent CDs are also summarized. At last, a future outlook in this direction is presented.

  7. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C). Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3–pH 9). Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings. PMID:28773909

  8. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-09-21

    In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C). Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3-pH 9). Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings.

  9. Generic hierarchical engine for mask data preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalus, Christian K.; Roessl, Wolfgang; Schnitker, Uwe; Simecek, Michal

    2002-07-01

    Electronic layouts are usually flattened on their path from the hierarchical source downstream to the wafer. Mask data preparation has certainly been identified as a severe bottleneck since long. Data volumes are not only doubling every year along the ITRS roadmap. With the advent of optical proximity correction and phase-shifting masks data volumes are escalating up to non-manageable heights. Hierarchical treatment is one of the most powerful means to keep memory and CPU consumption in reasonable ranges. Only recently, however, has this technique acquired more public attention. Mask data preparation is the most critical area calling for a sound infrastructure to reduce the handling problem. Gaining more and more attention though, are other applications such as large area simulation and manufacturing rule checking (MRC). They all would profit from a generic engine capable to efficiently treat hierarchical data. In this paper we will present a generic engine for hierarchical treatment which solves the major problem, steady transitions along cell borders. Several alternatives exist how to walk through the hierarchy tree. They have, to date, not been thoroughly investigated. One is a bottom-up attempt to treat cells starting with the most elementary cells. The other one is a top-down approach which lends itself to creating a new hierarchy tree. In addition, since the variety, degree of hierarchy and quality of layouts extends over a wide range a generic engine has to take intelligent decisions when exploding the hierarchy tree. Several applications will be shown, in particular how far the limits can be pushed with the current hierarchical engine.

  10. Bioequivalence of three florfenicol preparations in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husamettin Ekici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the bioequivalence of three different preparations of florfenicol using non-drugged broiler chickens. A total of 28 broiler chickens aging 30-day were divided into four equal groups; these were Group I, II, III, and IV. The birds of Group I (for effective substance were given intravenous (i.v. administration of florfenicol dosed at 40 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.. The birds of Group II (for reference drug, Group III (for test-1 drug, and Group IV (for test-2 drug received florfenicol preparations with water (dosed at 40 mg/kg b.wt. through intracrop administration. Blood samples were collected periodically from the birds of all four groups, and blood plasma was separated. Levels of florfenicol and its metabolite (florfenicol amine in the plasma were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. In this study, the limit of detection (LOD for florfenicol and florfenicol amine were recorded as 0.017 and 0.78 µg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the recovery of florfenicol and florfenicol amine were 83.4-84.6 and 82.2-83.8%, respectively. Based on the values of area under the curve (AUC, maximum concentration (Cmax, and time to maximum concentration (Tmax, test-1 drug was found to be acceptable, whereas test-2 drug was remained below the acceptable limits (80-125% of AUC and Cmax. Thus, it was concluded that test-1 drug was bioequivalent as compared to the reference drug.

  11. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Gould

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w and water-in-oil (w/o emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C. Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3–pH 9. Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings.

  12. Parenteral administration medicines: recommendations of preparation, administration and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gaspar Carreño

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop recommendations for the preparation of parenteral drugs (MAP, to assess the transferability of their preparation, from nursing units in the hospital ward to the pharmacy service (SF. Method: A table of stabilities of parenteral drugs included in the pharmacotherapeutic guideline was developed using the american and spanish guidelines. Information about MAP was collected (method of preparation, support, maintenance, validity, administration specifications and packaging by consulting product technical sheets, pharmaceutical industries, literature review and databases. Results: After reviewing 209 drugs, a list of recommendations was developed. According to the data, MAP will be prepared as follows: 89 drugs will be prepared from SF, 62 drugs at nursing units because of its immediate administration requirement and 58 are already packed for its administration by the industry. Of these 62 drugs prepared a nursing units, 14 of them will be prepared in the following doses by the SF. Therefore, 48 drugs will be prepared at nursing units from the 209 parenteral drugs reviewed. Conclusions: A standardized method of preparation, storage, administration and validity of MAP was established by the SF. The preparation of MAP in the SF extends its shelf life, by considering physicochemical stability, level of risk and product vulnerability to microbiological contamination. The information provided will contribute to a reduction of errors associated with the preparation and administration of MAP.

  13. [Parenteral administration medicines: recommendations of preparation, administration and stability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar Carreño, M; Torrico Martín, F; Novajarque Sala, L; Batista Cruz, M; Ribeiro Gonçalves, P; Porta Oltra, B; Sánchez Santos, J C

    2014-11-03

    To develop recommendations for the preparation of parenteral drugs (MAP), to assess the transferability of their preparation, from nursing units in the hospital ward to the pharmacy service (SF). A table of stabilities of parenteral drugs included in the pharmacotherapeutic guideline was developed using the american and spanish guidelines. Information about MAP was collected (method of preparation, support, maintenance, validity, administration specifications and packaging) by consulting product technical sheets, pharmaceutical industries, literature review and databases. After reviewing 209 drugs, a list of recommendations was developed. According to the data, MAP will be prepared as follows: 89 drugs will be prepared from SF, 62 drugs at nursing units because of its immediate administration requirement and 58 are already packed for its administration by the industry. Of these 62 drugs prepared a nursing units, 14 of them will be prepared in the following doses by the SF. Therefore, 48 drugs will be prepared at nursing units from the 209 parenteral drugs reviewed. A standardized method of preparation, storage, administration and validity of MAP was established by the SF. The preparation of MAP in the SF extends its shelf life, by considering physicochemical stability, level of risk and product vulnerability to microbiological contamination. The information provided will contribute to a reduction of errors associated with the preparation and administration of MAP. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05-0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  15. Prefilled syringes for intravitreal injection reduce preparation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Kjer, Birgit; Munch, Inger Christine

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The demand for intravitreal therapy has increased dramatically with the introduction of vascular endo-thelial growth factor inhibitors. Improved utilisation of existing resources is crucial to meeting the increased future demand. We investigated time spent preparing intravitreal...... injection treatment using either prefilled syringes or vials in routine clinical practice. METHODS: We video-recorded preparations of intravitreal injections (n = 172) for each preparation type (ranibizumab prefilled syringe (n = 56), ranibizumab vial (n = 56) and aflibercept vial (n = 60)) in a multi......-centre time and motion study. The preparation times for each step were extracted from videos and the three preparation types were compared. RESULTS: Prefilled syringes eliminated several steps in the preparation process. Total preparation time was 40.3-45.1 sec. using vials, and the use of prefilled syringes...

  16. Evaluation of three different tooth preparation techniques for metal ceramic crowns by comparing preparation depths: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Hardik K; Shah, Rupal J; Agrawal, Hemal S

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of three different tooth preparation techniques had on operator's ability to appropriately and consistently prepare teeth for metal ceramic crowns. Ninety maxillary left central incisor typodont teeth were allocated to three equal groups (A, B and C) of thirty and mounted in standard working model one at a time. A freehand approach was used to prepare the teeth in Group A, which acted as a control. Groups B and C were prepared with the assistance of silicon index and suitable depth gauge burs, respectively. A silicon index of unprepared teeth, into which contrasting colored silicon injected to occupy the space created by tooth preparation, was sectioned in the midline. Images of sectioned index were captured with optical microscope attached to a personal computer. A calibrated image analysis software was used to measure the depth of preparation (in millimeters) at five points (labial-cervical, mid-labial, incisal, mid-palatal and palatal cervical) on two occasions. These results were pooled and averaged to give a mean labial, incisal and palatal preparation depths in mm. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's post-hoc statistical test. The mean depth of labial and incisal preparation for Groups A, B and C was 1.23 and 1.72 mm, 1.45 and 1.96 mm, 1.47 and 1.95 mm, respectively. The difference between the groups' labial preparation depth was significant as well as the difference between groups' incisal preparation depth. The mean palatal preparation was 0.46 mm for Group A, 0.54 mm for Group B and 0.59 mm for Group C. Teeth preparation for metal ceramic crowns without any assistance can lead to under-preparation of labial and incisal surface. Whenever possible, considerable importance should be given to the use of index or depth gauge burs for preparing teeth for receiving metal ceramic crowns.

  17. Fracture Resistance of Composite Veneers with Different Preparation Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanovska Katerina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the fracture load of composite veneers using three different preparation designs. Material and methods: Fifteen extracted, intact, human maxillary central incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three groups with different preparation design: 1 feather preparation, 2 bevel preparation, and 3 incisal overlap- palatal chamfer. Teeth were restored with composite veneers, and the specimens were loaded to failure. The localization of the fracture was recorded as incisal, gingival or combined. Results: Composite veneers with incisal overlap - palatal chamfer showed higher fracture resistance compared to feather preparation and bevel preparation. The mean (SD fracture loads were: Group 1: 100.6±8.0 N, Group 2: 107.4±6.8 N, and Group 3: 122.0±8.8 N. The most common mode of failure was debonding for veneers with feather preparation and fracture when incisal edge is reduced. The most frequent localization of fracture was incisal. Conclusion: The type of preparation has a significant effect on fracture load for composite veneers. This study indicates that using an incisal overlap- palatal chamfer preparation design significantly increases the fracture resistance compared to feather and bevel preparation designs.

  18. Digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Zhong, Yicheng; Liu, Hao; Yuan, Fusong; Sun, Yuchun

    2016-04-01

    A dental defect is one of the most common oral diseases, and it often requires a full crown restoration. In this clinical operation, the dentist must manually prepare the affected tooth for the full crown so that it has a convergence angle between 4° and 10°, no undercuts, and uniform and even shoulder widths and depths using a high speed diamond bur in the patient׳s mouth within one hour, which is a difficult task that requires visual-manual operation. The quality of the tooth preparation has an important effect on the success rate of the subsequent prosthodontic treatment. This study involved research into digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation. First, the margin line of the tooth preparation was designed using a semi-automatic interactive process. Second, the inserting direction was automatically computed. Then, the characteristic parameters and the constraints on the tooth preparation were defined for the model. Next, the shoulder and axial surface of the tooth preparation were formed using parametric modeling. Finally, the implicit surface of a radial basis function was used to construct the tooth preparation׳s occlusal surface. The experimental results verified that the method of digital modeling for full crown preparation proposed in this study can quickly and accurately implement personalized designs of various parameters, such as the shoulder width and the convergence angle; it provides a digital design tool for full crown preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Target preparation at the ANTARES AMS Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, G.E.; Hua, Q.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.; Lawson, E.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Antares Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy Centre at ANSTO has two chemistry labs dedicated to preparing targets for measurement. Target preparation encompasses a variety of activities ranging from the curation of incoming samples to the numerous steps involved in the purification and processing of dissimilar samples. One of the two laboratories is set up for the physical and chemical pretreatment of {sup 14}C samples. Treatments include cleaning by sonification, sorting, grinding and sieving, and chemical treatments such as the standard AAA treatment, and solvent extraction. Combustion and graphitization are also carried out in this laboratory. The second laboratory is a clean room and is dedicated to the combustion, hydrolysis and graphitization of {sup 14}C samples as well as the process of the targets for the other isotopes. Combustion is achieved by heating the sample to 900 deg C in the presence of CuO, the resulting gas is purified by passing over Ag and Cu wire at 600 deg C. Graphitization is carried out by reducing the CO{sub 2} with an iron catalyst (600 deg C) in the presence of zinc (400 deg C) and a small amount of hydrogen. Samples such as charcoal, shell bone, wood, sediment, seawater and groundwater, containing 0.3-1 mg or more of original carbon, are processed routinely for radiocarbon analysis. The current {sup 14}C chemistry background for 1 mg carbon is {approx} 0.3 percent of modern carbon (pMC) enabling us to date materials up to 45 000 BP. Samples of 0.5 - 3 mg carbon or more are routinely performed with a precision < 1% At present, procedures are being tested for the treatment of samples containing a minimum of 20 {mu}g original carbon. Such small samples sre more likely to be affected by contamination with modern carbon. These laboratories are also being expanded to cater for the processing of a variety of samples for the measurement of other isotopes, ie {sup 129}I, {sup 10}Be, {sup 36}CI and {sup 26}Al. Initial tests for the extraction of

  20. Preparation and characterization of supported magnetic nanoparticles prepared by reverse micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Wiedwald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Monatomic (Fe, Co and bimetallic (FePt and CoPt nanoparticles were prepared by exploiting the self-organization of precursor loaded reverse micelles. Achievements and limitations of the preparation approach are critically discussed. We show that self-assembled metallic nanoparticles can be prepared with diameters d = 2–12 nm and interparticle distances D = 20–140 nm on various substrates. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the particle arrays were characterized by several techniques to give a comprehensive view of the high quality of the method. For Co nanoparticles, it is demonstrated that magnetostatic interactions can be neglected for distances which are at least 6 times larger than the particle diameter. Focus is placed on FePt alloy nanoparticles which show a huge magnetic anisotropy in the L10 phase, however, this is still less by a factor of 3–4 when compared to the anisotropy of the bulk counterpart. A similar observation was also found for CoPt nanoparticles (NPs. These results are related to imperfect crystal structures as revealed by HRTEM as well as to compositional distributions of the prepared particles. Interestingly, the results demonstrate that the averaged effective magnetic anisotropy of FePt nanoparticles does not strongly depend on size. Consequently, magnetization stability should scale linearly with the volume of the NPs and give rise to a critical value for stability at ambient temperature. Indeed, for diameters above 6 nm such stability is observed for the current FePt and CoPt NPs. Finally, the long-term conservation of nanoparticles by Au photoseeding is presented.

  1. Preparation and characterization of bioactive glass nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Gisela M.; Mano, João F.

    2011-12-01

    Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs), based on both ternary (SiO2-CaO-P2O5) and binary (SiO2-CaO) systems, were prepared via an optimized sol-gel method. The pH of preparation and the effect of heat treatment temperature were evaluated, as well as the effect of suppressing P in the bioactivity ability of the materials. The morphology and composition of the BG-NPs were studied using FTIR, XRD and SEM. The bioactive character of these materials was accessed in vitro by analyzing the ability for apatite formation onto the surface after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). XRD, EDX and SEM were used to confirm the bioactivity of the materials. The BG-NP effect on cell metabolic activity was assessed by seeding L929 cells with their leachables, proving the non-cytotoxicity of the materials. Finally the most bioactive BG-NPs developed (ternary system prepared at pH 11.5 and treated at 700 °C) were successfully combined with chitosan in the production of biomimetic nanocomposite osteoconductive membranes that could have the potential to be used in guided tissue regeneration.

  2. Preparation and characterization of bioactive glass nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Gisela M; Mano, João F

    2011-12-09

    Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs), based on both ternary (SiO(2)-CaO-P(2)O(5)) and binary (SiO(2)-CaO) systems, were prepared via an optimized sol-gel method. The pH of preparation and the effect of heat treatment temperature were evaluated, as well as the effect of suppressing P in the bioactivity ability of the materials. The morphology and composition of the BG-NPs were studied using FTIR, XRD and SEM. The bioactive character of these materials was accessed in vitro by analyzing the ability for apatite formation onto the surface after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). XRD, EDX and SEM were used to confirm the bioactivity of the materials. The BG-NP effect on cell metabolic activity was assessed by seeding L929 cells with their leachables, proving the non-cytotoxicity of the materials. Finally the most bioactive BG-NPs developed (ternary system prepared at pH 11.5 and treated at 700 °C) were successfully combined with chitosan in the production of biomimetic nanocomposite osteoconductive membranes that could have the potential to be used in guided tissue regeneration.

  3. Preparation and characterization of kefiran electrospun nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnaashari, Seyedeh Sara; Rezaei, Sasan; Mirzaei, Esmaeil; Afshari, Hamed; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Faridi-Majidi, Reza

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we report the first successful production of kefiran nanofibers through electrospinning process using distilled water as solvent. For this purpose, kefiran was extracted from cultured kefir grains, and homogenous kefiran solutions with different concentrations were prepared and then electrospun to obtain uniform nanofibers. The effect of main process parameters, including applied voltage, tip-to-collector distance, and feeding rate, on diameter and morphology of produced nanofibers, was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize electrospun mats. Rheological behavior of the kefiran solution was evaluated via a cone and plate rheometer too. The results exhibited that diameter of kefiran nanofibers increased with increasing polymer concentration, applied voltage, and polymer feeding rate, while tip-to-collector distance did not have significant effect on nanofiber diameter. ATR-FTIR spectra showed that kefiran has maintained its molecular structure during electrospinning process. Flow curves also demonstrated shear thinning behavior for kefiran solutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hedging against terrorism: Are US businesses prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Jerome H

    2015-01-01

    Private US companies face risks in connection with financial matters, but are not necessarily prepared to cope with risks that can seriously disrupt or even halt their operations, notably terrorist attacks and natural disasters. Enhancing the resilience of businesses when dealing with terrorism is especially challenging, as these groups or individuals can adapt tactics to exploit the vulnerabilities of companies they wish to target. Business managers need to formulate flexible preparedness plans that reduce risks from large-scale natural disasters as well as terrorist attacks. In doing so, they can take advantage of post-9/11 US government guidance for these endeavours as well as programmes that eliminate risks to private insurance entities so they can issue policies that cover terrorist strikes of high consequences. Just as business executives use hedging strategies in the world of finance, they also need operational hedging strategies as a means of exploiting as well as lowering the risks surrounding future uncertainties. Resources devoted to planning and hedging are investments that can increase the odds of businesses surviving and thriving, even if they experience high-impact terrorist attacks, threats or large-scale natural disasters, making suppliers, customers and stakeholders happy. The purpose of this paper is to give executives the incentive to take steps to do just that.

  5. Preparation of Biopolymer Aerogels Using Green Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Raman; Gurikov, Pavel; Meissner, Imke; Smirnova, Irina

    2016-07-04

    Although the first reports on aerogels made by Kistler(1) in the 1930s dealt with aerogels from both inorganic oxides (silica and others) and biopolymers (gelatin, agar, cellulose), only recently have biomasses been recognized as an abundant source of chemically diverse macromolecules for functional aerogel materials. Biopolymer aerogels (pectin, alginate, chitosan, cellulose, etc.) exhibit both specific inheritable functions of starting biopolymers and distinctive features of aerogels (80-99% porosity and specific surface up to 800 m(2)/g). This synergy of properties makes biopolymer aerogels promising candidates for a wide gamut of applications such as thermal insulation, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, drug delivery systems, functional foods, catalysts, adsorbents and sensors. This work demonstrates the use of pressurized carbon dioxide (5 MPa) for the ionic cross linking of amidated pectin into hydrogels. Initially a biopolymer/salt dispersion is prepared in water. Under pressurized CO2 conditions, the pH of the biopolymer solution is lowered to 3 which releases the crosslinking cations from the salt to bind with the biopolymer yielding hydrogels. Solvent exchange to ethanol and further supercritical CO2 drying (10 - 12 MPa) yield aerogels. Obtained aerogels are ultra-porous with low density (as low as 0.02 g/cm(3)), high specific surface area (350 - 500 m(2)/g) and pore volume (3 - 7 cm(3)/g for pore sizes less than 150 nm).

  6. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  7. Valproate preparations for agitation in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Edmund; Luxenberg, Jay

    2009-07-08

    Agitation affects up to 70% of older people with dementia. Valproic acid derivatives have been used for the past 10 years to control agitation in dementia, but no systematic review of the effectiveness of this treatment has been published to date. A systematic review of 2004 examined three randomised, placebo-controlled trials of the effect of valproate therapy on older people with dementia who were agitated. The review was updated (October 2008) to include two additional studies. To determine whether evidence supports the use of valproate preparations in the treatment of agitation of people with dementia. The Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS were searched on 7 February 2008 using the terms: valproic OR valproate OR divalproex* . The CDCIG Specialized Register contains records from all major health care databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS) as well as from many trials databases and grey literature sources. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials with concealed allocation where agitation and dementia of participants were assessed 1. Two reviewers extracted data from published trials 2. Odds ratios of average differences were calculated 3. Only "intention to treat" analyses were included 4. Analysis compared participants treated with valproic acid with controls Meta-analysis in 2004 of the pooled results was limited because of the following problems.In Porsteinsson 2001, although the physicians having direct responsibility for patient care were blinded, a non-blinded physician, who had no direct contact with these physicians, adjusted divalproex sodium dosage on the basis of reports from blinded raters and from confidential laboratory reports. Therefore, because the physician who controlled therapy knew which patients were receiving divalproex, the trial did not satisfy the criterion of concealed allocation

  8. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  9. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hakim T. Kandil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate solution (as initiator, 1/4 solid/liquid ratio at pH7 at an addition of an excess ammonium carbonate, and 150 rpm stirring speed for 4.0 h contact time at 55 °C as well as the 5 mg of barium chloride is added to remove the radium in the ammonium sulfate product. Finally, the ammonium sulfate is crystallized and the chemical analysis of the product shows 20% nitrogen and 23.6% sulfur. Therefore, the purity of the obtained ammonium sulfate is 95% from the purified phosphogypsum.

  10. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy CS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additional investigators created items that were pilot-tested with volunteers of both sexes and all socioeconomic strata. Surveys were telephone administered with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing (RDD. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification equaling provincial percent of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes. Results 5464 calls identified 559 eligible participants of whom 88.5% completed surveys. Over 90% of subjects agreed the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% endorsing saving lives solely in Canada and 50% endorsing saving lives globally as the highest priority. Older age (OR = 8.51, p Conclusions Results suggest trust in public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis on reciprocity and respect for individual rights.

  11. Characterization of biochar prepared from biogas digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Tien; Chen, Jie-Wei; Lin, Yu-Quan; Chang, Yuan-Ming

    2017-08-01

    In the study, the biogas digestate was evaluated as a potential feedstock for preparing biochars at a broad temperature range of 300-900°C. The physico-chemical and pore properties of the resulting biochars (denoted as SDBC, solid digestate biochar), including calorific value (higher heating value), surface area/pore volume/pore size distribution, true density, scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), were studied. It was found that the higher heating values of the SDBC products were on a decreasing trend as pyrolysis temperature increased, but they indicated an increase in true density. The results are probably associated with the active pyrolysis of the lignocellulosic fragments and the calcination (or shrinkage) processes, thus resulting in the increased contents of aromatic carbon clusters and main mineral constituents remained. Based on the pore properties, pyrolysis temperature at around 800°C seemed to be the optimal condition for producing SDBC, where its Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area (>100m 2 /g) largely increased as compared to that of the digestate feedstock (700°C) due to the high aromaticity via the thermal decomposition of lignocelluloses and the volatilization of inorganic minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. LHC Report: Preparing for a tighter squeeze

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The LHC is resuming operation after a planned period of machine development followed by a technical stop. The beams returned last Friday, in the evening of 2 September, and preparations are now being made to squeeze the beams further at the collision points, aiming for new luminosity records.   To obtain as many collisions as possible in the heart of the experiments, the beams are squeezed to very small beam sizes. The beam squeezing parameter is known by experts as beta-star: the smaller the ß*, the stronger the squeezing. During the machine development period that started on 24 August, tests were made for the high-luminosity experiments ATLAS and CMS with ß* values of 1 m instead of the 1.5 m used previously. Unfortunately these tests were only partially successful, as some of the beam was lost during the squeezing process. It is thought that the beam losses were caused by the collimators, which were moved closer to the beam, and by the reduced crossing angle of the beams at ...

  13. Preparation and Analysis of Biomass Lignins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    Lignin, comprised primarily of three randomly polymerized phenylpropenyl monomers, is, arguably, the second most common organic molecule on earth. In current biorefinery applications, lignin is burned, usually in concentrated pulping or hydrolysis liquor, as a source of process steam and both internal and exported electricity. The aromatic content of lignin makes it a potentially attractive feedstock for high-value aromatic chemicals, polymers, and carbon products (graphite, activated carbon, and carbon fiber). Revenue from production of lignin-based chemicals could play a major role in biorefinery profitability if cost-effective methods for lignin separation and purification can be developed. This chapter presents descriptions of methods for assessing and purifying biorefinery lignins so that they can be evaluated for use as feedstock for production of chemical products. Areas covered are: (1) initial evaluations of as-received lignin samples (visual, microscopic, separable organics); (2) analysis of common contaminants (bulk and filterable ash and particulate contaminants in liquid and dry lignin samples); (3) preparation of lignins for experimental use as chemical feedstock (prefiltration, filtration using bench-scale chemical apparatus and larger scale bag filters, one-step lignin precipitation, two-step carbohydrate and lignin precipitation, desalting of dry powdered or precipitated lignin, and lyophilization). These methods have been used successfully at the bench scale to produce the 1-50 kg amounts of wood and grass lignins typically required for bench-scale assessment as chemical feedstocks.

  14. Distributed processing in integrated data preparation flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Steffen F.; Bailey, George E.

    2004-12-01

    The era of week-long turn around times (TAT) and half-terabyte databases is at hand as seen by the initial 90 nm production nodes. A quadrupling of TAT and database volumes for the subsequent nodes is considered to be a conservative estimate of the expected growth by most mask data preparation (MDP) groups, so how will fabs and mask manufacturers address this data explosion with a minimal impact to cost? The solution is a multi-tiered approach of hardware and software. By shifting from costly Unix servers to cheaper Linux clusters, MDP departments can add hundreds to thousands of CPU"s at a fraction of the cost. This hardware change will require the corresponding shift from multithreaded (MT) to distributed-processing tools or even a heterogeneous configuration of both. Can the EDA market develop the distributed-processing tools to support the era of data explosion? This paper will review the progression and performance (run time and scalability) of the distributed-processing MDP tools (DRC, OPC, fracture) along with the impact to the hierarchy preservation. It will consider the advantages of heterogeneous processing over homogenous. In addition, it will provide insight to potential non-scalable overhead components that could eventually exist in a distributed configuration. Lastly, it will demonstrate the cost of ownership aspect of the Unix and Linux platforms with respect to targeting TAT.

  15. Preparation of embolic NEMs loading capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuangang; He, Peng; Wang, Shibin; Sun, Xuezhan; Chen, Aizheng

    2013-01-01

    The nanoparticles-embedded microcapsules (NEMs) with smooth surface, good sphericity, excellent dispersivity and uniform particle size distribution were prepared by emulsification combined with electrospraying to extend the sustained release performance of the embolic microcapsules loading capecitabine (CAP). The sodium alginate and chitosan with good biocompatibility were used as the materials and CAP as a small-molecule model drug. The drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and drug release of CAP in the NEMs were investigated. The results showed that the drug-loading and encapsulation efficiency both increased with the increment of chitosan and CAP concentration. The maximum values of drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 1.97 and 18.01 % respectively when initial CAP concentration was 5.0 g/L and chitosan molecular weight 100 kDa. The cumulative release rate of CAP released from the NEMs was lower than 30 % in 0.5 h, which indicated that there was no obvious initial burst release behavior. In the subsequent 240 h, the release results confirmed that the NEMs had better sustained release properties compared to pure microcapsules, and it might be a new anticancer drug delivery system in the future studies.

  16. Microparticles prepared from sulfenamide-based polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Mello, Sheetal R.; Yoo, Jun; Bowden, Ned B.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2015-01-01

    Polysulfenamides (PSN), with a SN linkage (RSNR2) along the polymer backbone, are a new class of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers. These polymers were unknown prior to 2012 when their synthesis and medicinally relevant properties were reported. The aim of this study was to develop microparticles as a controlled drug delivery system using polysulfenamide as the matrix material. The microparticles were prepared by a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation method. For producing drug-loaded particles, FITC-dextran was used as a model hydrophilic compound. At the optimal formulation conditions, the external morphology of the PSN microparticles was examined by scanning electron microscopy to show the formation of smooth-surfaced spherical particles with low polydispersity. The microparticles had a net negative surface charge (−23 mV) as analyzed by the zetasizer. The drug encapsulation efficiency of the particles and the drug loading were found to be dependent on the drug molecular weight, amount of FITC-dextran used in fabricating FITC-dextran loaded microparticles, concentration of PSN and surfactant, and volume of the internal and external water phases. FITC-dextran was found to be distributed throughout the PSN microparticles and was released in an initial burst followed by more continuous release over time. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to qualitatively observe the cellular uptake of PSN microparticles and indicated localization of the particles in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. PMID:23862723

  17. Preparing for the next influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullers, Jonathan A

    2008-10-01

    There are 3 requirements for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic. It must be antigenically novel, cause severe disease, and transmit easily from human to human. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype currently circulating in bird populations in Asia, Africa, and Europe have met 2 of these criteria, and there is significant concern that these viruses will be the cause of the next pandemic. International efforts to prepare for a possible pandemic are underway. Priorities for pandemic planning include surveillance of influenza viruses in wild bird populations and at the avian-human interface, research into factors affecting the pathogenicity of these strains, stockpiling effective antivirals for use as a stopgap until an appropriate vaccine can be developed and distributed, and gaining an improved understanding of the utility of nonpharmaceutical interventions to slow or prevent the spread of these viruses within humans. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years towards readying the world for such an event, there is more work to be done. Physicians and hospitals can begin by educating themselves on the problem and developing a pandemic plan for their own practice or organization.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Silica Aerogel Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qifeng; Wang, Hui; Sun, Luyi

    2017-04-20

    Silica aerogel microspheres based on alkali silica sol were synthesized using the emulsion method. The experimental results revealed that the silica aerogel microspheres (4-20 µm in diameter) were mesoporous solids with an average pore diameter ranging from 6 to 35 nm. The tapping densities and specific surface areas of the aerogel microspheres are in the range of 0.112-0.287 g/cm³ and 207.5-660.6 m²/g, respectively. The diameter of the silica aerogel microspheres could be tailored by varying the processing conditions including agitation rate, water/oil ratio, mass ratio of Span 80: Tween 80, and emulsifier concentration. The effects of these parameters on the morphology and textural properties of the synthesized silica aerogel microspheres were systematically investigated. Such silica aerogel microspheres can be used to prepare large-scale silica aerogels at an ambient pressure for applications in separation and high efficiency catalysis, which requires features of high porosity and easy fill and recovery.

  19. Macroscopic nonclassical-state preparation via postselection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Víctor; Coto, Raúl; Eremeev, Vitalie; Orszag, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Macroscopic quantum superposition states are fundamental to test the classical-quantum boundary and present suitable candidates for quantum technologies. Although the preparation of such states has already been realized, the existing setups commonly consider external driving and resonant interactions, predominantly by considering Jaynes-Cummings-like and beam-splitter-like interactions, as well as the nonlinear radiation pressure interaction in cavity optomechanics. In contrast to previous works on the matter, we propose a feasible probabilistic scheme to generate a macroscopic mechanical qubit, as well as phononic Schrödinger's cat states with no need of any energy exchange with the macroscopic mechanical oscillator. Essentially, we investigate an open dispersive spin-mechanical system in the absence of any external driving under nonideal conditions, such as the detrimental effects due to the oscillator and spin energy losses in a thermal bath at nonzero temperature. In our work, we show that the procedure to generate the mechanical qubit state is solely based on spin postselection in the weak to moderate coupling regime. Finally, we demonstrate that the mechanical superposition is related to the amplification of the mean values of the mechanical quadratures as they maximize the quantum coherence.

  20. Preparing online students for comprehensive examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuth, Michelle S; St John, E Camellia

    2010-01-01

    Identify and remedy difficulties in the preparation of online students for certification examination success. The final examination scores for the CLS Seminar course for the 2008 class of 27 on-campus and 10 online students were compared for statistical differences in seven examination areas. Problem areas were identified and changes in the CLS Seminar course were made in 2009 to improve the scores of the online students. The examination scores for the 2009 class of 33 on-campus and 10 online students were studied to determine improvement. Student's two-tailed t-test was used to determine statistical significance of differences between scores of on-campus and online students. Interactive video over the web; used to answer online student questions, review games, more class time, and more recorded review sessions; were added to the Seminar. The study guides provided during preceptorships were tied to the objectives of the seminar course and the questions on examinations. Specific objectives for each question missed on the final examinations were provided to the student. In 2008, examination scores for online students were lower in two of seven areas by a statistically significant amount than on-campus students. The difference approached significance in a third area. After interventions in 2009, the examinations scores had equalized with the exception of one area, Immunology. Increasing the amount and method of review in areas deemed important to online education was successful in improving examination scores.

  1. Facing the petrochemical competition. Are you prepared?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, P.E. [CMAI, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The factors that impact petrochemical supply, demand and economics were discussed. Petrochemicals are the basis for most commodities consumed in today`s society. The demand for these products is determined by the economy and by the population. Recent changes in the world`s political structure will have an impact on the petrochemical industry. There is evidence that petrochemical activity is shifting to the developing regions of the world as a result of the fall of communism, the fall of some dictatorships and the privatization of state enterprises. In 1980, the world`s economic strength was in Western Europe, North America, and Japan, with 78 per cent of the world`s GDP. It was forecast that by 2010, these three areas will only account for 70 per cent of the world`s GDP. Shifting population and economies will increase per capita incomes in Eastern Europe, South America, and Asia. These areas will see an increase in purchases of petrochemicals products. Demand for base petrochemicals is expected to increase by 106 million tons over the next ten years. However, to survive in a competitive market, companies will have to develop programs to reduce costs, integrate and be prepared to take advantage of opportunities created by the supply/demand cycles.

  2. Hydrogel: Preparation, characterization, and applications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Enas M.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogel products constitute a group of polymeric materials, the hydrophilic structure of which renders them capable of holding large amounts of water in their three-dimensional networks. Extensive employment of these products in a number of industrial and environmental areas of application is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, natural hydrogels were gradually replaced by synthetic types due to their higher water absorption capacity, long service life, and wide varieties of raw chemical resources. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the scientific areas of research. However, a number of publications and technical reports dealing with hydrogel products from the engineering points of view were examined to overview technological aspects covering this growing multidisciplinary field of research. The primary objective of this article is to review the literature concerning classification of hydrogels on different bases, physical and chemical characteristics of these products, and technical feasibility of their utilization. It also involved technologies adopted for hydrogel production together with process design implications, block diagrams, and optimized conditions of the preparation process. An innovated category of recent generations of hydrogel materials was also presented in some details. PMID:25750745

  3. ATLAS Data Preparation in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. Online data quality uses a new hybrid software release that incorporates the latest offline data quality monitoring software for the online environment. This is used to provide fast feedback in the control room during a data acquisition (DAQ) run, via a histogram-based monitoring framework as well as the online Event Display. Data are sent to several streams for offline processing at the dedicated Tier-0 computing facility, including dedicated calibration streams and an "express" physics stream containing approximately 2% of the main physics stream. This express stream is processed as data arrives, allowing a first look at the offline data quality within hours of a run end. A prompt calibration loop starts once an ATLAS DAQ run ends, nominally defining a 48 hour period in which calibrations and alignments can be derived using the dedicated calibration and express streams. The bulk processing of the main physics stream starts on expi...

  4. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we (HM found that most commercially available edible oils, which were processed by hexane extraction followed by a number of purification steps, were extremely low in anti-peroxy radical (ROO., or radical scavenging activity. This is a great contrast to the respective virgin oils as exemplified by extra-virgin olive oil or crude rape seed oil [1-4] (Figure 1. Therefore, such highly purified oils will became prooxidant and less desirable food components in terms of health oriented diet. Oxidized oils may eventually cause DNA cleavages, modification of proteins, RNA, and lipids, as well as cellular damage, or promote inflammation and carcinogenesis at later time [5-9]. These commercial oils of low antioxidant activity may be improved by adding functionally effective antioxidative components, by using dried vegetable-waste such as tomato-juice-waste-residues and wine-ferment-waste-residues. Their antioxiative components will be transferred into the functionally poor grade edible oils, and consequently, one can improve the quality of such functionally poor oils and thereby contributing human health [2,8,9]. The purpose of this paper is to report a practical procedure to fortify functionally low grade conventional edible oils to functionally enriched edible oils using dried vegetable-waste residues such as tomato juice waste, and wine-ferment-residues, or other vegetable-waste residues. Methods: (1 Preparation and measurements of lycopene and carotenoid enriched oils. To 5.0g or 1.0g of the dried residue of tomato juice waste, 100ml of commercial rape seed (canola oil was added respectively. Each mixture was incubated at room temperature in dark for several weeks. Amount of lycopene and carotenoids extracted into the oil was monitored by increase of absorption (400-550nm and fluorescence at 470nm of carotenoid. Grape-juice ferment (wine waste was similarly prepared after hot air drying, and immersed in canola oil. (2

  5. Use of dichloromethane for preparative supercritical fluid chromatographic enantioseparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    2014-10-10

    Preparative SFC is the technique of choice for small scale (mg to hundreds of grams) enantioseparations. Traditionally methanol, ethanol or isopropanol are used as a modifier for preparative SFC. When compounds being purified using preparative SFC exhibit poor solubility in carbon dioxide and these modifers, poor peak shape, low purification throughput, high solvent usage and potential sample precipitation and system blockage can occur. This paper discusses the use of dichlormethane as a modifier (alone or with other solvents) for analytical and preparative enantioseparations. It was shown that the use of dichloromethane as a modifier in preparative SFC can improve racemate solubility, leading to higher purification productivities and reduced solvent usage compared to traditional modifiers. Decreases in solvent consumption and decreased E factors were also realized. The applicability and advantages of this technique will be demonstrated during the preparative resolution of multiple enantiomers at the hundreds of gram scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparing Women for Strategic Leadership Roles in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT PREPARING WOMEN FOR STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ROLES IN THE ARMY by COL Susan R. Myers U.S. Army CDR Robert Kedney Project...to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Preparing Women for Strategic Leadership Roles in the Army Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ii iii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: COL Susan R. Myers TITLE: Preparing Women for Strategic Leadership Roles in the Army FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 01

  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION OF ATHLETES AS A HUMANIZING FACTOR OF SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Čokorilo; Zoran Milošević

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the role and importance of modern psychological preparation to achieve the best possible athletic performance while maintaining mental health and well being of athletes. In this sense, psychological preparation is perceived as an equal factor with the physical and technical-tactical preparation at all levels of competition. The achievement of equality can be achieved only by specialized (licensed) psychologists for specific areas that must understand the psychology of sport...

  8. CHANGES IN MEDIA WATER STATUS DURING PREPARATION AND STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, J.U.; Spomer, L. Art; Smith, M. A. L.

    1997-01-01

    Significant water loss from plant tissue culture media occurs during its preparation and storage. Because medium water status has a recognized influence on culture response, any water loss and resulting increase in gelling agent and other component concentrations should be allowed for or at least accounted for during media preparation, to ensure the final media composition is that specified or expected. Two formulations of gelled-agar plant tissue culture media were prepared according to stan...

  9. Automated preparation of chemotherapy: quality improvement and economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Carla; Nanni, Oriana; Antaridi, Sara; Gallegati, Davide; Marri, Mattia; Paolucci, Demis; Minguzzi, Martina; Altini, Mattia

    2014-04-01

    The quality and economic implications of manual versus automated preparation of antineoplastic drugs were compared. This four-week study evaluated 10 routinely used antineoplastic drugs (fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, gemcitabine, trastuzumab, bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, cisplatin, paclitaxel, irinotecan, and etoposide) prepared by manual and automated procedures. The accuracy of the dose of the active ingredient was calculated in terms of percent relative error for the difference between the nominal value indicated on the prescription and the actual value of the drug in the finished product. A comparative economic analysis of the manual and automated preparation procedures was performed by calculating the mean unit cost for each preparation at different production levels. Participating pharmacists and technicians completed a survey rating each preparation method in terms of performance, operator satisfaction, technology, and safety. Of the 2500 i.v. antineoplastic preparations made in the pharmacy during the four-week study period, 681 were analyzed (348 using the automated procedure and 333 manually). Of these, 17 varied by more than 5% of the prescribed dose, and 1 varied by over 10%. Accuracy, calculated in terms of average percent relative error, was the highest and lowest during manual preparation. The preparation time for individual drugs was always higher when prepared using the automated procedure. A lower mean variable unit cost was observed for preparations made using the automated procedure. Questionnaire results revealed that operators preferred the automated procedure over the manual procedure. Both the automated and manual procedures for preparing antineoplastic preparations proved to be accurate and precise. The automated procedure resulted in substantial advantages in terms of quality maintenance standards and risk lowering.

  10. Fracture resistance of ceramic veneers with different preparation designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoğlu, Burçin; Gemalmaz, Deniz

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the fracture load of ceramic veneers with different preparation designs. Seventy-five extracted, intact, human maxillary central incisors were prepared according to five preparation designs (P) (n: 15) as follows: (1) P2e: 2-mm incisal reduction, preparation entirely in enamel; (2) P4e: 4-mm incisal reduction, preparation entirely in enamel; (3) P2d: 2-mm incisal reduction, preparation entirely in dentin; (4) P4d: 4-mm incisal reduction, preparation entirely in dentin; and (6) Pc: Unrestored, intact teeth as control. All preparations had a butt joint incisal finish line, rounded internal line angles, and cervical finish lines 1 mm above the cementoenamel junction. Ceramic veneers were fabricated with IPS Empress (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and cemented with Syntac Classic Adhesive system and Variolink II (Ivoclar) resin cement. Veneers were loaded until fracture at a 90° angle to the lingual surface of the test tooth following the thermocycling process (5° to 55°, 3500 times). Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Multiple Range Test. The mean fracture loads (SD) were (in N) as follows: (1) P2e: 262 (63); (2) P4e: 189 (40); (3) P2d: 239 (53); (4) P4d: 162 (36); and (5) Pc: 277 (66). The amount of incisal reduction exhibited a significant influence on fracture resistance regardless of the preparation depth (p veneers with preparation designs entirely on dentin with 4-mm incisal reduction yielded lower fracture loads than those prepared with 2-mm incisal reduction. Veneers with 2-mm incisal reduction exhibited fracture resistance similar to that of intact teeth for preparation designs supplied on both enamel and dentin. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Technique for preparation of anaerobic microbes: Rodshaped cellulolytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of anaerobic-rod cellulolytic bacteria with coating technique has been conducted. Steps of the processes involved were cultivation, coating, evaporation, and drying. Coating agent used was Gum Arabic, and drying techniquesconducted were freeze drying and sun drying. pH of culture media was firstly optimized to obtain the maximal population ofbacteria. Both coated and uncoated preparates were subjected to drying. Morphological and Gram type identifications showed that uncoated preparate dried with freeze drying is not contaminated (ie. all bacteria are rod shape with Gram-negative type while the one dried with sun drying is not morphologically pure (ie. containing of both rod and coccus shapes with Gram negative and positive. The coated preparates dried by both freeze and sun drying, were not contaminated (ie. all are rods with Gram-negative. The coating and drying processes decreased viability of preparates significantly. However, the decreasing of viability of coated preparate are lower than uncoated preparate (ie. 89 vs. 97%. Total count of bacteria in sun-drying coated preparate are higher (P<0.05 than the uncoated preparate (ie. 3.38 x 1010 vs. 1.97 x 1010 colony/g DM. Activity of sun-drying coated preparate to digest elephant grass and rice straw was higher (P<0.01 than the sun-drying uncoated preparate with the in vitro DMD values were 42.7 vs. 35.5% for elephant grass substrate and 29.3 vs. 24.6% for rice straw substrate. Therefore, it is concluded that coating technique has a positive effects on the preparation of rumen bacteria.

  12. Parenteral administration medicines: recommendations of preparation, administration and stability

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gaspar Carreño; F. Torrico Martín; L. Novajarque Sala; M. Batista Cruz; P. Ribeiro Gonçalves; B. Porta Oltra; J. C. Sánchez Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop recommendations for the preparation of parenteral drugs (MAP), to assess the transferability of their preparation, from nursing units in the hospital ward to the pharmacy service (SF). Method: A table of stabilities of parenteral drugs included in the pharmacotherapeutic guideline was developed using the american and spanish guidelines. Information about MAP was collected (method of preparation, support, maintenance, validity, administration specifications and packaging...

  13. Methods of preparation of Swazi traditional fermented foods

    OpenAIRE

    Simatende, Protus; Gadaga, Tendekayi Henry; Jabulani Nkambule, Stanley; SIWELA,Muthulisi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fermentation is an age old technique of preserving food in many communities. A wide range of fermented products are prepared by varying the types of raw materials, utensils, and fermentation times. Several fermented foods are consumed in Swaziland. A survey of the types of fermented foods, preparation methods, and utensils used was done in the Hhohho region of Swaziland. The current study aimed at documenting the preparation methods of emahewu, emasi, umcombotsi, and buganu at hou...

  14. Use of gamma radiation for preparation of nutrient culture media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranskaya, I.D.; Tumanyan, M.A.; Mironova, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    A technique was developed for sterilization of nutrient culture media using ..gamma..-radiation. For this purpose, dry preparations were exposed to 3 to 6 Mrad radiation, then dissolved in sterile distilled water. The quality of media and solutions thus obtained is as good as that of preparations sterilized by filtration. The advantage of the proposed sterilization method is that liquid media can be rapidly prepared and dry sterile media can be stored at room temperature for long periods of time.

  15. Helpful Patterns to Prepare and Present A Scientific English Talk

    OpenAIRE

    Bilge Narin

    2012-01-01

    An English scientific presentation in front of audience is not always so easy. Practice and pre-preparation will improve and sharpen your presentation skills. In this article, helpful hints will introduce to help in preparation and delivery of a scientific talk. Early preparation and practice are the key points to make a good international talk. This article may help residents in dermatology training who are the first time english language presenter. A good talk should be informative and focu...

  16. Review on preparation techniques of particle reinforced metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Bin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the investigation status of the techniques for preparation of metal matrix composites and the research outcomes achieved recently. The mechanisms, characteristics, application ranges and levels of development of these preparation techniques are analyzed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each technique are synthetically evaluated. Lastly, the future directions of research and the prospects for the preparation techniques of metal matrix composites are forecasted.

  17. Effect of some medicinal plant preparations of adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambhole, V D

    1988-10-01

    Powder in fine suspension, water and alcoholic extract preparations of Cyperus Rotundus (Mustak), Iris versicolor (Haimavati) and Holoptelai integrifolia (Chirubilva) were used in adipose cell suspension and also administered orally to evaluate the effect of these plant preparations on adipose tissue metabolism in rats. The result, showed that the preparations from these medicinal plants exhibited lipolytic action to mobilize fat from adipose tissues in rats and consequently helped in the reduction of obesity.

  18. Finding even more anthropogenic indicators in mildly prepared sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Renée; Odgaard, Bent Vad

    2016-01-01

    NPPs in anthropogenic soils and archaeological samples are often numerous in types as well as in abundance. Preparing these soil samples with methods based on acid digestion holds the potential of severe bias leaving the NPP assemblages devoid of acid vulnerable NPPs. In many cases it might...... be worth the effort to prepare the NPP samples with as mild a preparation method as possible. We have mildly prepared NPP samples from a small forest hollow, Tårup Lund, Denmark. From the recovered NPP assemblages we attempt identifying anthropogenic indicators by comparing to the environmental information...

  19. Fuels preparation department monthly report for April 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-05-23

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of April 1957. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  20. Methods to Prepare Aluminum Salt-Adjuvanted Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Sachin G; Cui, Zhengrong

    2017-01-01

    Many human vaccines contain certain insoluble aluminum salts such as aluminum oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydroxyphosphate as vaccine adjuvants to boost the immunogenicity of the vaccines. Aluminum salts have been used as vaccine adjuvants for decades and have an established, favorable safety profile. However, preparing aluminum salts and aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines in a consistent manner remains challenging. This chapter discusses methods to prepare aluminum salts and aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines, factors to consider during preparation, and methods to characterize the vaccines after preparation.