WorldWideScience

Sample records for swan lake valley

  1. Water‐Data Report 3936360931115 SILVER LAKE AT SWAN LAKE NWR, WEST LEVEE, 2014-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2014 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393636093111501 SITE NAME: Silver Lake at Swan Lake NWR, West Levee COOPERATION: Swan...

  2. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) manages multiple water management units. Silver Lake is the largest unit that is utilized primarily as a water storage...

  3. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  4. Narrative Report : Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : September - December 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September to December 1957. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Swan Lake NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  6. [Disease Prevention and Control Plan Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Disease Prevention and Control Plan for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge provides background information on disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge...

  7. Grassland Management Plan : Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Grassland Management Plan for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge provides an overview of the Refuge, a list of special considerations affecting grassland...

  8. Narrative Report : Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : September - December 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September to December 1958. The report begins by summarizing the...

  9. Final report: Waterfowl activity and habitat use on the Swan Lake HREP Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied diurnal activity and habitat use patterns of waterfowl on Swan Lake in Calhoun County, IL during fall and spring migrations 1992-93. Swan Lake, a 1,255 ha...

  10. 75 FR 30422 - Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chariton County, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ..., 2006). For more about the initial process and the history of this refuge, see that notice. Swan Lake... photography, and environmental education and interpretation. CCP Alternatives and Our Preferred Alternative...

  11. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report for January - April 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the...

  12. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  13. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  14. Report on a Cannon Net Trap Workshop Held at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a report of material covered during a workshop on cannon net trapping and banding held at the Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Sumner, Missouri,...

  15. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  16. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  17. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  18. 1977-1984 Canada Goose Necropsy Data from Swan Lake NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Collection of data sheets detailing necropsy results from Canada Geese carcasses found at Swan Lake NWR. The data sheets give detailed reports on what was found...

  19. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an...

  20. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 2008 fiscal year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  2. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1997-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1997-2007 calendar years. The report begins with a...

  3. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  4. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report for January - April 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report for January - April 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  6. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  7. Primitive Weapons Deer Hunt Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge [Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Swan...

  8. Water‐Data Report 393556093132501 ELK CREEK NR SUMNER MO, DS ON SWAN LAKE REFUGE-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 390 35’ 56.0” N, long. 930 13’ 25” W, at Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillecothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is located near abandoned...

  9. Status report of the 1989 Survey of Hunter Activity and Harvest on the Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A half-day hunting restriction for the Swan Lake Public Hunting Area (SLPHA) has been recommended to- improve goose use of food resources within hunting zones. The...

  10. Water Data Analysis 394031093062801 ELK CREEK NR ROTHVILLE MO, STUTSMAN RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2013-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2013 TO 2016 SITE NUMBER: 394031093062801 SITE NAME: Elk Creek nr Rothville MO, Stutman Rd US of Swan Lake NWR...

  11. Water Data Analysis 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2013-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2013 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393937093090901 SITE NAME: Turkey Creek nr Sumner MO, Fulbright Rd COOPERATION: Swan Lake...

  12. Water Data Analysis 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2013-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2013 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393937093090901 SITE NAME: Turkey Creek nr Sumner MO, Fulbright Rd COOPERATION: Swan Lake...

  13. The influence of drought-induced acidification on the biotic recovery of Swan Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnott, S.E. [York Univ., Dorset, ON (Canada) Dept. of Biology; Yan, N.; Nicholls, K. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide emissions from Sudbury smelters have been reduced from greater than 2.2 million t/year in the 1960s, to less than 0.3 million t/year since1994, as a result of changes in industrial practices that were developed in accordance with government emission control regulations. In response, sulfate concentrations have decreased in hundreds of Sudbury area lakes and both alkalinity and pH values have risen. In some cases the pH changes were enough to begin to restore damaged biotic assemblages. There is no current understanding of how short term, drought- induced acidification effects affect the recovery of biota from historical acidification. A study was undertaken to determine if the biota of Swan Lake were recovering as water quality improved during the early to mid-1980s and to determine if the drought-driven acidification event influenced this recovery. As well, investigators wanted to determine if changes in the recovery patterns of planktonic algae, rotifers, and Crustacea in Swan Lake coincided with the 1988 re-acidification event. The plankton of Swan Lake began to recover from acid stress during the early 1980s as did the rotifer community, but, in contrast to the algae and rotifers, the crustacean zooplankton was both slow to recover and incomplete in the early 1980s. The slow pace of recovery in Swan Lake was probably not attributable to an absence of potential colonists. The drought-induced re-acidification of the lake had a dramatic effect in biological recovery through a multitude of factors. Reasons for expected plankton communities decline and unexpected Crustacean communities increases are speculated about. 52 refs., 4 figs.

  14. The queering of Swan Lake: a new male gaze for the performance of sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Kent G

    2003-01-01

    This essay argues that, by re-gendering the ballet classic Swan Lake, choreographer Matthew Bourne has also queered it. He thrusts center stage an unstable relationship between two male characters, and in so doing, de-centers the conventionally fixed categories of sex, gender and sexual desire. He also forces a long-simmering relationship between homosexuality and dance out of the closet and into mainstream popular culture. Applying Mulvey's theory of spectatorship and Butler's theory of gendered performance, the essay describes how viewers may be intrigued, rather than repulsed, by the ambiguities surrounding Bourne's portrayal of sexual identity.

  15. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  16. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  17. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  18. 75 FR 22620 - Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National..., Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) located in Klamath County..., Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake Refuges located in Klamath County, Oregon, and...

  19. Short report: Antibody prevalence of select arboviruses in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes region and Atlantic coast of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R; Arsnoe, Dustin M; Bevins, Sarah N; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C; Mickley, Randall M; DeLiberto, Thomas J

    2014-12-01

    Mute swans (Cygnus olor) are an invasive species in the United States. The dramatic increase in their populations in localized areas has led to various problems, among them competition with native species and attacks on humans by aggressive swans. However, very little is known about the ability of these swans to transmit pathogens to humans, domestic birds, or wildlife or participate in enzootic maintenance. To learn more about select pathogens that mute swans may harbor, a survey was conducted from April of 2011 to August of 2012 in the Great Lakes region and localized areas of the Atlantic coast, which revealed serologic evidence of arbovirus exposure in mute swans. Of 497 mute swans tested, antibodies were detected for eastern equine encephalitis (4.8%), St. Louis encephalitis (1.4%), West Nile (1.2%), and Turlock (0.6%) viruses. Samples were also tested for evidence of antibodies to La Crosse virus, but none were positive. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Evaluating the suitability of the SWAN/COSMO-2 model system to simulate short-crested surface waves for a narrow lake with complex bathymetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Graf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spectral wave model SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore was applied to Lake Zurich, a narrow pre-Alpine lake in Switzerland. The aim of the study is to investigate whether the model system consisting of SWAN and the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-2 is a suitable tool for wave forecasts for the pre-Alpine Lake Zurich. SWAN is able to simulate short-crested wind-generated surface waves. The model was forced with a time varying wind field taken from COSMO-2 with hourly outputs. Model simulations were compared with measured wave data at one near-shore site during a frontal passage associated with strong on-shore winds. The overall course of the measured wave height is well captured in the SWAN simulation: the wave amplitude significantly increases during the frontal passage followed by a transient drop in amplitude. The wave pattern on Lake Zurich is quite complex. It strongly depends on the inherent variability of the wind field and on the external forcing due to the surrounding complex topography. The influence of the temporal wind resolution is further studied with two sensitivity experiments. The first one considers a low-pass filtered wind field, based on a 2-h running mean of COSMO-2 output, and the second experiment uses simple synthetic gusts, which are implemented into the SWAN model and take into account short-term fluctuations of wind speed at 1-sec resolution. The wave field significantly differs for the 1-h and 2-h simulations, but is only negligibly affected by the gusts.

  1. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-05-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600.

  2. Pelicans transporting fish between Rift Valley Lakes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    out of the pelican's pouch and flipped their way down to the water into which they disappeared. By 1998 A. grahami were sufficiently well established in Lake Elementaita for local people to be catching them commercially. The only evidence on how they had reached this lake was the observed 'arrival by pelican' because, to.

  3. Hydrology of modern and late Holocene lakes, Death Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    Above-normal precipitation and surface-water runoff, which have been generally related to the cyclic recurrence of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, have produced modern ephemeral lakes in the closed-basin Death Valley watershed. This study evaluates the regional hydroclimatic relations between precipitation, runoff, and lake transgressions in the Death Valley watershed. Recorded precipitation, runoff, and spring discharge data for the region are used in conjunction with a closed-basin, lake-water-budget equation to assess the relative contributions of water from these sources to modern lakes in Death Valley and to identify the requisite hydroclimatic changes for a late Holocene perennial lake in the valley. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program, an evaluation of the Quaternary regional paleoflood hydrology of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was planned. The objectives of the evaluation were (1) to identify the locations and investigate the hydraulic characteristics of paleofloods and compare these with the locations and characteristics of modern floods, and (2) to evaluate the character and severity of past floods and debris flows to ascertain the potential future hazards to the potential repository during the pre-closure period (US Department of Energy, 1988). This study addresses the first of these objectives, and the second in part, by assessing and comparing the sizes, locations, and recurrence rates of modern, recorded (1962--83) floods and late Holocene paleofloods for the 8,533-mi{sup 2}, closed-basin, Death Valley watershed with its contributing drainage basins in the Yucca Mountain site area.

  4. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part I. Cultural Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Delmues (or Swiss Bob) Well where there was a station, then west across Dry Lake Valley toward Coyote Spring to another station (Lloyd, 1980). The line...in the recorded surface assemblages of the temporary camps. Further investigations may $ Etag E-TR-48-III-I 120 clarify the specific nature of the

  5. Limnology of Sawtooth Valley Lakes in 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke, C.; Slater, M.; Budy, P.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of the limnological characteristics of the four lakes in reference to their potential effect of growth and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon. Physical parameters included light penetration, Secchi transparency, and water temperature; chemical parameters included oxygen, and both dissolved and particulate forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Phytoplankton parameters included chlorophyll concentration, biovolume of dominant taxa, and rates of primary production; zooplankton parameters included density and biomass estimate, length frequencies, and the number of eggs carried by female cladocerans. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. 78 FR 20544 - Proposed Establishment of the Big Valley District-Lake County and Kelsey Bench-Lake County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... a later harvest date than those in his vineyard within the proposed Big Valley District--Lake County... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Part 9 RIN 1513-AB99 Proposed Establishment of the Big... establish the 11,000-acre Big Valley District-Lake County viticultural area and the 9,100-acre Kelsey Bench...

  7. Analysis of Summer Ozone Concentration in the Salt Lake Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Katherine Ansley

    Observations and analyses of ozone concentrations and near-surface wind are examined during the latter half of June 2015 when the highest ozone levels of the 2015 summer were observed in the urban areas of northern Utah referred to locally as the Wasatch Front. A novel mix of ozone observations from sensors at fixed sites as well as mobile platforms (vehicles, light rail car, and news helicopter) help to define the spatiotemporal distribution of ozone along the Wasatch Front and the nearby Great Salt Lake. The ozone and wind observations are assimilated separately using a two-dimensional variational analysis system to obtain ozone and 10-m wind analyses at 1-km horizontal resolution every hour to determine the best representation of ozone distribution throughout the region. Two case studies are used to illustrate the diurnal evolution and transportation of ozone concentrations relative to local wind circulations driven primarily by lake-land and mountain-valley thermal contrasts. Ozone pollution roses at the fixed sensor locations for day and night periods and composites of the 1-km resolution analyses during the 15-day period as a function of time of day help to define common diurnal patterns. This study provides information on how ozone is distributed throughout the region and indicates that areas of high ozone concentrations are a function of the complex interaction of thermal flows in urban, rural, and lake boundary layers.

  8. 78 FR 60686 - Establishment of the Big Valley District-Lake County and Kelsey Bench-Lake County Viticultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... 30 days from the publication date of this document. TTB also determines that the land within the Big... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Part 9 RIN 1513-AB99 Establishment of the Big Valley... approximately 11,000-acre ``Big Valley District-Lake County'' viticultural area and the approximately 9,100-acre...

  9. Swan Lake NWR ROCSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  10. Chemodenitrification in the cryoecosystem of Lake Vida, Victoria Valley, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, N E; Gandhi, H; Trubl, G; Murray, A E

    2016-11-01

    Lake Vida, in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica, is frozen, yet harbors liquid brine (~20% salt, >6 times seawater) intercalated in the ice below 16 m. The brine has been isolated from the surface for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, -13.4 °C, lack of O2 , and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. For example, nitrous oxide (N2 O) is present at a concentration among the highest reported for an aquatic environment. Only a minor 17 O anomaly was observed in N2 O, indicating that this gas was predominantly formed in the lake. In contrast, the 17 O anomaly in nitrate (NO3-) in Lake Vida brine indicates that approximately half or more of the NO3- present is derived from atmospheric deposition. Lake Vida brine was incubated in the presence of 15 N-enriched substrates for 40 days. We did not detect microbial nitrification, dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to ammonium (NH4+), anaerobic ammonium oxidation, or denitrification of N2 O under the conditions tested. In the presence of 15 N-enriched nitrite (NO2-), both N2 and N2 O exhibited substantial 15 N enrichments; however, isotopic enrichment declined with time, which is unexpected. Additions of 15 N-NO2- alone and in the presence of HgCl2 and ZnCl2 to aged brine at -13 °C resulted in linear increases in the δ15 N of N2 O with time. As HgCl2 and ZnCl2 are effective biocides, we interpret N2 O production in the aged brine to be the result of chemodenitrification. With this understanding, we interpret our results from the field incubations as the result of chemodenitrification stimulated by the addition of 15 N-enriched NO2- and ZnCl2 and determined rates of N2 O and N2 production of 4.11-41.18 and 0.55-1.75 nmol L-1  day-1 , respectively. If these rates are representative of natural production, the current concentration of N2 O in Lake Vida could have been reached between 6 and 465 years. Thus, chemodenitrification alone is sufficient to explain the high levels of N2 O

  11. Sediment toxicity of Long Meadow Lake Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Long Meadow Lake on the Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge - an important waterfowl production area - serves as a major urban stormwater receptor in the...

  12. Long Valley Caldera Lake and reincision of Owens River Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2016-12-16

    Owens River Gorge, today rimmed exclusively in 767-ka Bishop Tuff, was first cut during the Neogene through a ridge of Triassic granodiorite to a depth as great as its present-day floor and was then filled to its rim by a small basaltic shield at 3.3 Ma. The gorge-filling basalt, 200 m thick, blocked a 5-km-long reach of the upper gorge, diverting the Owens River southward around the shield into Rock Creek where another 200-m-deep gorge was cut through the same basement ridge. Much later, during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 22 (~900–866 ka), a piedmont glacier buried the diversion and deposited a thick sheet of Sherwin Till atop the basalt on both sides of the original gorge, showing that the basalt-filled reach had not, by then, been reexcavated. At 767 ka, eruption of the Bishop Tuff blanketed the landscape with welded ignimbrite, deeply covering the till, basalt, and granodiorite and completely filling all additional reaches of both Rock Creek canyon and Owens River Gorge. The ignimbrite rests directly on the basalt and till along the walls of Owens Gorge, but nowhere was it inset against either, showing that the basalt-blocked reach had still not been reexcavated. Subsidence of Long Valley Caldera at 767 ka produced a steep-walled depression at least 700 m deeper than the precaldera floor of Owens Gorge, which was beheaded at the caldera’s southeast rim. Caldera collapse reoriented proximal drainages that had formerly joined east-flowing Owens River, abruptly reversing flow westward into the caldera. It took 600,000 years of sedimentation in the 26-km-long, usually shallow, caldera lake to fill the deep basin and raise lake level to its threshold for overflow. Not until then did reestablishment of Owens River Gorge begin, by incision of the gorge-filling ignimbrite.

  13. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  14. Influence of geomorphic setting on sedimentation of two adjacent alpine lakes, Triglav Lakes Valley (Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuc, Andrej; Skabene, Dragomir; Muri, Gregor; Vreča, Polona; Jaćimović, Radojko; Čermelj, Branko; Turšič, Janja

    2013-04-01

    The Triglav Lakes Valley is elongated, 7km long depression, located high (at places over 2000 m.a.s.l.) in the central part of the Julian Alps (NW Slovenia). It hosts 6 small isolated lakes that formed due to the combination of Neogene tectonic and Pleistocene glaciation. The study is focused on the 5th and 6th Triglav Valley Lakes that characterize lower part of the valley. The lakes are located so close to each other that they are even connected in times of high water. Thus, they share the same bedrock geology, are subjected to the same climatic forcing and share similar vegetation communities. Despite their proximity, the lakes differ in their hydrologic and geomorphic setting. The lakes have no permanent surface tributaries; however 5th is fed periodically, at times of high water level, by the Močivec spring, while additional water flows from the swamp area near its northern shore. An underground spring on the eastern side of 5th represents the lake's only permanent freshwater inflow, while drainage takes place to the west via a small ponor. 6th has only one weak underground spring on the eastern side of the lake. Water levels may fluctuate between 2 and 3 m. Additionally, the lakes have different configuration of lakes shores; the northern shores of the 5th lake are low-angle soil and debris covered plateau, while southern shores of the 5th lake and shores of the 6th lake are represented by heavily karstified carbonate base rock and covered partly by trees. The detailed sedimentary analysis of the lakes record showed some similarities, but also some significant differences. Sediments of both lakes are represented by fine-grained turbidity current deposits that are transported from lake shores during snow melt or storms. The grain-size and sedimentary rates of the lakes are however markedly different. The 5th lake has coarser grained sediments, with mean ranging from 46 to 60 µm and records higher sedimentation rates of ~0,57 cm/year, compared to the 6th lake

  15. Underground water in the valleys of Utah Lake and Jordan River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George Burr

    1906-01-01

    The valleys of Utah Lake and Jordan River are situated in north-central Utah, in the extreme eastern part of the Great Basin. The lofty Wasatch Range (Pl. I), the westernmost of the Rocky Mountain system, limits the valleys on the east, and relatively low basin ranges - the Oquirrh, Lake, and East Tintic mountains - determine them on the west. The valleys trend north and south, and are almost separated by the low east-west Traverse Range, the slopes of which constitute a dam for Utah Lake, which drains through Jordan River to Great Salt Lake.The area under consideration is the most populous and flourishing part of the State, Salt Lake City and Provo, the first and third cities in the State, and many other thriving settlements are there located. At Bingham Junction and Murray a number of smelters treat the ores from near-by mines, but agriculture is the main industry. Water for irrigation is supplied by mountain streams, and intensive farming is successfully pursued. The practice of irrigation was begun by the Mormon pioneers in 1847, and has been discussed in several publications; little attention, however, has been given to the underground water resources, and, so far as the writer is aware, they have not before been described. The present paper outlines conditions of occurrence of the subterranean waters and describes their development in the valleys of Utah Lake and Jordan River.

  16. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from the Valley of the Great Lakes in Western Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. Edlund

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available T he Valley of the Great Lakes (VOGL in western Mongolia is dominated by two main (Uvs, Khyargas and many minor closed basin lake systems. In 2004 and 2005, we sampled diatom communities from the surfi cial sediment of 64 lakes in the western Mongolian provinces of Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, and Bayan-Ulgii. Lakes ranged in water chemistry from fresh to hypersaline, oligotrophic to hypertrophic, and from low elevation VOGL lakes to high elevation lakes in the Altai Mountains. Over 300 diatom species were identifi ed in the sediment samples including a diverse fl ora limited to saline lakes, many widespread taxa, many new reports for the Mongolian diatom fl ora, and several new and possibly endemic species. We also review recent diatom literature from Mongolia including fl oristic surveys, paleo-ecology, and water quality studies.

  17. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Swan River National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  18. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Swan River National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  19. Landslide susceptibility in the Tully Valley area, Finger Lakes region, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Stefan; Wieczorek, Gerald E.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of a large landslide in the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York, an investigation was undertaken to determine the factors responsible for the landslide in order to develop a model for regional landslide susceptibility. The April 27, 1993 Tully Valley landslide occurred within glacial lake clays overlain by till and colluvium on gentle slopes of 9-12 degrees. The landslide was triggered by extreme climatic events of prolonged heavy rainfall combined with rapid melting of a winter snowpack. A photoinventory and field checking of landslides within a 415 km2 study area, including the Tully Valley, revealed small recently-active landslides and other large dormant prehistoric landslides, probably Pleistocene in age. Similar to the larger Tully Valley landslide, the smaller recently-active landslides occurred in red, glacial lake clays very likely triggered by seasonal rainfall. The large dormant landslides have been stable for long periods as evidenced by slope denudational processes that have modified the landslides. These old and ancient landslides correspond with proglacial lake levels during the Pleistocene, suggesting that either inundation or rapid drainage was responsible for triggering these landslides. A logistic regression analysis was performed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment to develop a model of landslide susceptibility for the Tully Valley study area. Presence of glacial clays, slope angle, and glacial lake levels were used as explanatory variables for landslide incidence. The spatial probability of landsliding, categorized as low, moderate and high, is portrayed within 90-m square cells on the susceptibility map.

  20. Determinism in fish assemblages of floodplain lakes of the vastly disturbed Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Lucas, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley between southern Illinois and southern Louisiana contains hundreds of floodplain lakes, most of which have been adversely affected by landscape modifications used to control flooding and support agriculture. We examined fish assemblages in lakes of this region to determine whether deterministic patterns developed in relation to prominent abiotic lake characteristics and to explore whether relevant abiotic factors could be linked to specific assemblage structuring mechanisms. The distributions of 14 taxa in 29 lakes were governed primarily by two gradients that contrasted assemblages in terms of lake area, lake elongation, and water clarity. The knowledge of whether a lake was clear or turbid, large or small, and long or short helped determine fish assemblage characteristics. Abiotic factors influenced fish assemblage structures, plausibly through limitations on foraging and physiological tolerances. Determinism in assemblage organization of floodplain lakes relative to recurrence in physicochemical features has been documented for unaltered rivers. Whereas the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has been subjected to vast anthropogenic disturbances and is not a fully functional floodplain river, fish assemblages in its floodplain lakes remain deterministic and organized by the underlying factors that also dictate assemblages in unaltered rivers. In advanced stages of lake aging, fish assemblages in these lakes are expected to largely include species that thrive in turbid, shallow systems with few predators and low oxygen concentrations. The observed patterns related to physical characteristics of these lakes suggest three general conservation foci, including (1) watershed management to control erosion, (2) removal of sediments or increases in water level to alleviate depth reductions and derived detriments to water physicochemistry, and (3) management of fish populations through stockings, removals, and harvest regulations.

  1. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Raw data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Example of raw data submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks...

  2. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Batch 324NC Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Batch summaries from the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin...

  3. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Raw data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Example of raw data submitted from the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood...

  4. Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Seiler, R.L.; Solomon, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water-quality changes had occurred. The dissolved-solids concentration of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10 percent since 1962-67.

  5. Mercury in fish from three rift valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, L M; Osano, O; Hecky, R E; Dixon, D G

    2003-01-01

    Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for various fish species from Lakes Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo in the rift valley of Kenya. The highest THg concentration (636 ng g(-1) wet weight) was measured for a piscivorous tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii from Lake Turkana. THg concentrations for the Perciformes species, the Nile perch Lates niloticus from Lake Turkana and the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Naivasha ranged between 4 and 95 ng g(-1). The tilapiine species in all lakes, including the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, had consistently low THg concentrations ranging between 2 and 25 ng g(-1). In Lake Naivasha, the crayfish species, Procambrus clarkii, had THg concentrations similar to those for the tilapiine species from the same lake, which is consistent with their shared detritivore diet. THg concentrations in all fish species were usually consistent with their known trophic position, with highest concentrations in piscivores and declining in omnivores, insectivores and detritivores. One exception is the detritivore Labeo cylindricus from Lake Baringo, which had surprisingly elevated THg concentrations (mean=75 ng g(-1)), which was similar to those for the top trophic species (Clarias and Protopterus) in the same lake. Except for two Hydrocynus forskahlii individuals from Lake Turkana, which had THg concentrations near or above the international marketing limit of 500 ng g(-1), THg concentrations in the fish were generally below those of World Health Organization's recommended limit of 200 ng g(-1) for at-risk groups.

  6. Characterization of Water Level Variability of the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Dadi Belete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the water level fluctuations of eight Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes were analyzed for their hydrological stability in terms of water level dynamics and their controlling factors. Long-term water balances and morphological nature of the lakes were used as bases for the analyses. Pettit’s homogeneity test and Mann–Kendall trend analysis were applied to test temporal variations of the lake levels. It is found that the hydrological stability of most of the Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes is sensitive to climate variability. In terms of monotonic trends, Lake Ziway, Hawassa, Abaya and Beseka experienced significant increasing trend, while Ziway, Langano and Chamo do not. In addition, homogeneity test revealed that Lake Hawassa and Abaya showed significant upward shift around 1991/1992, which was likely caused by climate anomalies such as the El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomena. Lake Abiyata is depicted by its significant decreasing monotonic trend and downward regime shift around 1984/1985, which is likely related to the extended water abstraction for industrial consumption.

  7. Database compilation: hydrology of Lake Tiberias (Jordan Valley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shentsis, Izabela; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Magri, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    A long-term series of water balance data over the last 50 years is compiled to gain insights into the hydrology of the Lake Tiberias (LT) and surrounding aquifers. This database is used within the framework of a German-Israeli-Jordanian project (DFG Ma4450-2) in which numerical modeling is applied to study the mechanisms of deep fluid transport processes affecting the Tiberias basin. The LT is the largest natural freshwater lake in Israel. It is located in the northern part of the Dead Sea Rift. The behavior of the lake level is a result of the regional water balance caused mainly by interaction of two factors: (i) fluctuations of water inflow to the Lake, (ii) water exploitation in the adjacent aquifers and consumptions from the lake (pumping, diversion, etc). The replenishment of the lake occurs through drainage from surrounding mountains (Galilee, Golan Heights), entering the lake through the Jordan River and secondary streams (85%), direct precipitation (11%), fresh-saline springs discharging along the shoreline, divertion from Yarmouk river and internal springs and seeps. The major losses occur through the National Water Carrier (ca. 44%), evaporation (38%), local consumption and compensation to Jordan (in sum 12%). In spite of the increasing role of water exploitation, the natural inflow to the Lake remains the dominant factor of hydrological regime of the Tiberias Lake. Additionally, series of natural yield to the LT are reconstructed with precipitation data measured in the Tiberias basin (1922-2012). The earlier period (1877-1921) is evaluated considering long rainfall records at Beirut and Nazareth stations (Middle East Region). This data enables to use the LT yield as a complex indicator of the regional climate change. Though the data applies to the LT, this example shows the importance of large database. Their compilation defines the correct set-up of joint methodologies such as numerical modeling and hydrochemical analyses aimed to understand large

  8. Hierarchy in factors affecting fish biodiversity in floodplain lakes of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembkowski, D.J.; Miranda, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    River-floodplain ecosystems offer some of the most diverse and dynamic environments in the world. Accordingly, floodplain habitats harbor diverse fish assemblages. Fish biodiversity in floodplain lakes may be influenced by multiple variables operating on disparate scales, and these variables may exhibit a hierarchical organization depending on whether one variable governs another. In this study, we examined the interaction between primary variables descriptive of floodplain lake large-scale features, suites of secondary variables descriptive of water quality and primary productivity, and a set of tertiary variables descriptive of fish biodiversity across a range of floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Mississippi and Arkansas (USA). Lakes varied considerably in their representation of primary, secondary, and tertiary variables. Multivariate direct gradient analyses indicated that lake maximum depth and the percentage of agricultural land surrounding a lake were the most important factors controlling variation in suites of secondary and tertiary variables, followed to a lesser extent by lake surface area. Fish biodiversity was generally greatest in large, deep lakes with lower proportions of watershed agricultural land. Our results may help foster a holistic approach to floodplain lake management and suggest the framework for a feedback model wherein primary variables can be manipulated for conservation and restoration purposes and secondary and tertiary variables can be used to monitor the success of such efforts. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Balancing lake ecological condition and agriculture irrigation needs in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Omer, A.R.; Killgore, K.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley includes hundreds of floodplain lakes that support unique fish assemblages and high biodiversity. Irrigation practices in the valley have lowered the water table, increasing the cost of pumping water, and necessitating the use of floodplain lakes as a source of water for irrigation. This development has prompted the need to regulate water withdrawals to protect aquatic resources, but it is unknown how much water can be withdrawn from lakes before ecological integrity is compromised. To estimate withdrawal limits, we examined descriptors of lake water quality (i.e., total nitrogen, total phosphorus, turbidity, Secchi visibility, chlorophyll-a) and fish assemblages (species richness, diversity, composition) relative to maximum depth in 59 floodplain lakes. Change-point regression analysis was applied to identify critical depths at which the relationships between depth and lake descriptors exhibited a rapid shift in slope, suggesting possible thresholds. All our water quality and fish assemblage descriptors showed rapid changes relative to depth near 1.2–2.0 m maximum depth. This threshold span may help inform regulatory decisions about water withdrawal limits. Alternatives to explain the triggers of the observed threshold span are considered.

  10. Subsurface Constraints on Late Cenozoic Basin Geometry in Northern Fish Lake Valley and Displacement Transfer Along the Northern Fish Lake Valley Fault Zone, Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, N.; Kerstetter, S. R.; Katopody, D. T.; Oldow, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The NW-striking, right-oblique Fish Lake Valley fault zone (FLVFZ) forms the northern segment of the longest active structure in the western Great Basin; the Death Valley - Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley fault system. Since the mid-Miocene, 50 km of right-lateral displacement is documented on the southern FLVFZ and much of that displacement was and is transferred east and north on active WNW left-lateral faults. Prior to the Pliocene, displacement was transferred east and north on a low-angle detachment. Displacement on the northern part of the FLVFZ continues and is transferred to a fanned array of splays striking (west to east) WNW, NNW, ENE and NNE. To determine the displacement budget on these structures, we conducted a gravity survey to determine subsurface basin morphology and its relation to active faults. Over 2450 stations were collected and combined with existing PACES and proprietary data for a total of 3388 stations. The data were terrain corrected and reduced to a 2.67 g/cm3 density to produce a residual complete Bouguer anomaly. The eastern part of northern Fish Lake Valley is underlain by several prominent gravity lows forming several sub-basins with maximum RCBA values ranging from -24 to -28 mGals. The RCBA was inverted for depth using Geosoft Oasis Montaj GM-SYS 3D modeling software. Density values for the inversion were constrained by lithologic and density logs from wells that penetrate the entire Cenozoic section into the Paleozoic basement. Best fitting gravity measurements taken at the wellheads yielded an effective density of 2.4 g/cm3 for the basin fill. Modeled basement depths range between 2.1 to 3 km. The sub-basins form an arc opening to the NW and are bounded by ENE and NNE faults in the south and NS to NNW in the north. At the northern end of the valley, the faults merge with ENE left-lateral strike slip faults of the Mina deflection, which carries displacement to NW dextral strike-slip faults of the central Walker Lane.

  11. Anthrax in Lake Rukwa Valley, Tanzania: a persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, R H

    1985-10-01

    An epidemic of 239 human cases of anthrax is reported in the Rukwa Valley area of Tanzania. Although the infecting source was meat from animals dying of the disease, no intestinal cases occurred. Those infected were predominantly males between 15 and 35. The epidemic was seasonal, reaching a peak towards the end of the dry period when cattle were close grazing, and declining rapidly once the rains started and the grass began to grow. The increasing magnitude of annual epidemics suggests that the problem will get worse unless major efforts are made to vaccinate cattle before the epidemic period.

  12. Surface-water hydrology of Honey Lake Valley, Lassen County, California and Washoe County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    Honey Lake Valley straddles the State line of California and Nevada; it is about 35 mi north of Reno and about three-fourths of the area is in California. In this report, Honey Lake Valley (also referred to as “the basin") includes the entire area within the hydrographic boundary shown in figure 1. Susanville, Calif., in the northwestern part of the basin, is the largest town. Population is increasing rapidly in the Susanville area and in the Reno area of adjacent Washoe County, Nev. Lassen and Washoe Counties have identified water resources in Honey Lake Valley as a possible source to meet their needs for future development. An important component of an assessment of the availability of additional long-term supply is an appraisal of surface-water resources.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the California Department of Water Resources and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, began a hydrologic assessment of the area in 1987. The study was primarily an appraisal of ground-water resources, but it also included an assessment of surface-water resources. The purpose of this map report is to present the results of the surface-water assessment, including (1) a broad overview of surface-water conditions in the basin, (2) an estimate of mean annual streamflow to the valley floor, and (3) an evaluation of the characteristics of Honey lake. Results of the study related to ground-water resources of the basin are discussed in a separate report by Handman and others (1990) and are summarized in a short “Water Fact Sheet” by Handman (1990).

  13. Groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed study areas in southern California compose one of the study units being evaluated.

  14. Mercury in fish from three rift valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, L.M.; Osano, O.; Hecky, R.E.; Dixon, D.G

    2003-09-01

    Mercury concentrations in Kenyan fish vary with tropic position but, in general, do not pose an unacceptable risk to human consumers of wildlife. -Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for various fish species from Lakes Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo in the rift valley of Kenya. The highest THg concentration (636 ng g{sup -1} wet weight) was measured for a piscivorous tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii from Lake Turkana. THg concentrations for the Perciformes species, the Nile perch Lates niloticus from Lake Turkana and the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Naivasha ranged between 4 and 95 ng g{sup -1}. The tilapiine species in all lakes, including the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, had consistently low THg concentrations ranging between 2 and 25 ng g{sup -1}. In Lake Naivasha, the crayfish species, Procambrus clarkii, had THg concentrations similar to those for the tilapiine species from the same lake, which is consistent with their shared detritivore diet. THg concentrations in all fish species were usually consistent with their known trophic position, with highest concentrations in piscivores and declining in omnivores, insectivores and detritivores. One exception is the detritivore Labeo cylindricus from Lake Baringo, which had surprisingly elevated THg concentrations (mean=75 ng g{sup -1}), which was similar to those for the top trophic species (Clarias and Protopterus) in the same lake. Except for two Hydrocynus forskahlii individuals from Lake Turkana, which had THg concentrations near or above the international marketing limit of 500 ng g{sup -1}, THg concentrations in the fish were generally below those of World Health Organization's recommended limit of 200 ng g{sup -1} for at-risk groups.

  15. Reconnaissance of the shallow-unconfined aquifer in Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Waddell, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    The shallow-unconfined aquifer in Salt Lake (Jordan) Valley, Utah, seldom is used for domestic or industrial purposes because it yields water slowly and is readily contaminated. The water in the aquifer, however, can flood basements and is a potential source of contamination to other water supplies. In about one-half of the valley, water in the shallow-unconfined aquifer is less than 10 feet below land surface. The general direction of flow in the shallow aquifer is toward the Jordan River. Water levels in the north part of the valley and along the Jordan River are highest in March or April and in the south part of the valley are highest in late summer. The smallest concentrations of dissolved solids in water from wells along the east side of the valley, and the greatest concentrations are in the northwest part of the valley near the Great Salt Lake. Large dissolved-solids concentrations are found near some landfills and tailings areas. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 to 86 milligrams per liter and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations from less than 0.02 to 0.85 milligram per liter. Some of the largest nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were found in water wells near animal pens. The greatest concentrations of trace elements generally came from wells near landfills and tailings area. The greatest measured concentration of cadmium was 200 microgram per liter, of mercury 0.1 microgram per liter, of lead 46 micrograms per liter, of iron 37,000 micrograms per liter and of arsenic 360 micrograms per liter. Synthetic organic chemicals were found in water from several wells. The greatest measured concentration of benzene was 400 micrograms per liter, of phenol 660 micrograms per liter, of 1,1 dichloroethane 20 micrograms per liter, of tichloroethylene 8 micrograms per liter , and of chloroethylene, 11 micrograms per liter. The greatest concentrations were in water from wells near landfills. (USGS)

  16. Viable microbes in ice: Application of molecular assays to McMurdo Dry Valley lake ice communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieser, M.; Nocker, A.; Priscu, J.C.; Foreman, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The permanent ice covers of the McMurdo Dry Valley lakes, Antarctica, are colonized by a diverse microbial assemblage. We collected ice cores from Lakes Fryxell, Hoare and Bonney. Propidium monoazide (PMA) was used in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel

  17. Pore water chemistry of an alkaline rift valley lake: Lake Turkana, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerling, T.E.; Johnson, T.C.; Halfman, J.D.; Lister, G.

    1985-01-01

    Lake Turkana is the largest closed basin lake in the African rift system. It has evolved through the past 5000 years to become a moderately alkaline lake. Previous mass balance argument suggest that sulfate is removed from the lake by sulfate reduction in the sediments, and that the lake is accumulating in chloride, sodium, and alkalinity. Studies of pore water from 12 meter cores collected in November 1984 show that sulfate is reduced in the sediment column with a net production of alkalinity. Some sodium is lost from the lake and diffuses into the sediment to maintain charge balance. At several meters depth, organic matter is destroyed by methanogenic bacteria, as shown by the high delta /sup 13/C values for dissolved inorganic carbon. Magnesium and calcium molar ratios change with depth; chloride, sodium, and alkalinity also change with depth.

  18. The Origin of Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia: Glaciated Super Valley, Not Super Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; Otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2015-04-01

    Research for morphology, its origin of the Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia, is few and far between, particularly, any in recent years. The origin of the morphology of the basin presents a new study, combining previous study materials, their results and interpreting the digital photos. Also the main bases of theory is Pleistocene Last Glacial Maximum distribution. Many scholars have proven that global glaciation covered many areas of the Northern Hemisphere during the Pleistocene era. This global glaciation occurred in the northwest part of Mongolia to Mongolian Altay, Khangay and Khuvsgul mountain range. At the same time, the present appearance of basin that developed inheriting since the Mesozoic era, forms by global glaciation. The morphology of Basin of Great Lakes is super trough or glaciated super valley. At current day, "knock and lochan" topography (scoured region) and rock drumlins lie in the central part of the basin. Huge meltwater from this glaciation formed Shargasub-basin as a super kettle hole by erosion and overflowed water from it formed pluvial basins or big lakes in the Lake Valley.

  19. Spatial relationships of the Preajba Valley Lakes evolution reflected on cartographic documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga AVRAM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Preajba-Facai lacustrine system is located in the southern part of Craiova municipality and it is distinguished by a high level of originality conferred by both its hydro-geomorphological and biological features. The construction of this series of lakes along the Preajba river began during the Communist times (in the 1970s with the declared aim of serving as a recreational space for the inhabitants of this municipality. The river springs near Cârcea locality at an altitude of 192 metres and it flows into Craiova channel after 9.6 km, with a source-mouth level difference of 121.1 metres. Chronologically, the number of lakes situated along the Preajba river may vary, according to the analysed cartographic document, from 3 lakes (Military Topographic Maps to 11 lakes (Topographic Map, 1:25,000. With the development of the area covered by water, the human pressure has increased as a consequence of the intensive development of the surrounding area. This phenomenon gradually led to an involution of the lake surface (25.34 ha in 2014, Google Earth PRO. The aim of this research is to highlight the relational dynamic appearance-evolution-involution suffered by the lakes situated along the Preajba Valley, in correlation with the processes that occurred at the level of the constructed surface and in terms of respecting the status of this protected area of aqua-faunistic interest (The Lacustrine System of Preajba-Facai.

  20. Possible future lakes resulting from continued glacier shrinkage in the Aosta Valley Region (Western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, Cristina; Machguth, Horst; Huggel, Christian; Godio, Alberto; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Aosta Valley (NW-Alps, Italy) is the region with the largest glaciarized area of Italy (133.73 km2). Like the other alpine regions it has shown a significant glacier retreat starting from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA, ca. 1850 AD), by losing about 60% of its glaciarized area. As a direct consequence of glacier shrinkage, within glacially-sculpted landscapes, glacier-bed overdeepenings become exposed, offering suitable conditions for glacier lakes formation. In the Aosta Valley region, about 200 glacier lakes have been recognized in different time periods within LIA maximum extent boundaries, mainly dammed by bedrock landforms. With respect to human activities, glacier lakes represent both opportunities (e.g. Miage lake for tourism) and risks (e.g. outburst flood of the Gran Croux lake above Cogne in August 2016) in such a densely populated and developed region. The objective of this contribution is to assess locations of possible future glacier lakes in the Aosta Valley by using the GlabTop2 model (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2). Understanding where future lakes will appear is of fundamental importance for the identification of potential hazards and the interpretation of conditioning factors and dynamics. We first assessed ice thickness and consequently glacier bed topography over large glaciated areas of the region, by using both glaciers outlines related to 1999 (provided by the GlaRiskAlp project) and the regional DEM of 1990 (provided by the Aosta Valley Region) as input data. We performed several runs by varying different input parameters (e,g.: pixel size and basal shear stress). Then we compared modelled results on selected test glaciers (Rutor and Grand Etrèt) with available GPR data. As a validation, we also carried out a GPR survey during summer 2016 on the central area of Indren Glacier (Monte Rosa massif) where GlabTop2 shows the presence of a possible subglacial overdeepening morphology. We found that ice thickness and consequently the

  1. Quality and sources of ground water used for public supply in Salt Lake Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Manning, Andrew H.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water supplies about one-third of the water used by the public in Salt Lake Valley, Utah. The occurrence and distribution of natural and anthropogenic compounds in ground water used for public supply in the valley were evaluated. Water samples were collected from 31 public-supply wells in 2001 and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, methylene blue active substances, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. The samples also were analyzed for the stable isotopes of water (oxygen-18 and deuterium), tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and dissolved gases to determine recharge sources and ground-water age.Dissolved-solids concentration ranged from 157 to 1,280 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in water from the 31 public-supply wells. Comparison of dissolved-solids concentration of water sampled from the principal aquifer during 1988-92 and 1998-2002 shows a reduction in the area where water with less than 500 mg/L occurs. Nitrate concentration in water sampled from 12 of the 31 public-supply wells was higher than an estimated background level of 2 mg/L, indicating a possible human influence. At least one pesticide or pesticide degradation product was detected at a concentration much lower than drinking-water standards in water from 13 of the 31 wells sampled. Chloroform was the most frequently detected volatile organic compound (17 of 31 samples). Its widespread occurrence in deeper ground water is likely a result of the recharge of chlorinated public-supply water used to irrigate lawns and gardens in residential areas of Salt Lake Valley.Environmental tracers were used to determine the sources of recharge to the principal aquifer used for public supply in the valley. Oxygen-18 values and recharge temperatures computed from dissolved noble gases in the ground water were used to differentiate between mountain and valley recharge. Maximum recharge temperatures in the eastern part of the valley generally are below the range

  2. Water stage dynamics in Lake Wielki Staw in the Valley of Five Polish Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choiński Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of water stages in Lake Wielki Staw based on observations by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management conducted in the years 1968-1979. Water level (low and high variability was determined in the annual cycle, together with the variability of annual stages in the analysed 12-year period, and their amplitudes. Moreover, water stage variability trends were identified. Due to the vicinity of Lake Morskie Oko, comparisons of water stages in both lakes were performed for the purpose of determining the degree to which water supply (water stages is affected by local and climatic factors.

  3. A Comparison of the Seasonal Change of Albedo across Glaciers and Ice-Covered Lakes of the Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooseff, M. N.; Bergstrom, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are a polar desert ecosystem consisting of piedmont and alpine glaciers, ice-covered lakes, and vast expanses of bare soil. The ecosystem is highly dependent on glacial melt a water source. Because average summer temperatures are close to freezing, glacier ice and lake ice are very closely linked to the energy balance. A slight increase in incoming radiation or decrease in albedo can have large effects on the timing and volume of available liquid water. However, we have yet to fully characterize the seasonal evolution of albedo in the valleys. In this study, we used a camera, gps, and short wave radiometer to characterize the albedo within and across landscape types in the Taylor Valley. These instruments were attached to a helicopter and flown on a prescribed path along the valley at approximately 300 feet above the ground surface five different times throughout the season from mid-November to mid-January, 2015-2016. We used these data to calculate the albedo of each glacier, lake, and the soil surface of the lake basins in the valley for each flight. As expected, we found that all landscape types had significantly different albedo, with the glaciers consistently the highest throughout the season and the bare soils the lowest (p-value < 0.05). We hypothesized that albedo would decrease throughout the season with snow melt and increasing sediment exposure on the glacier and lake surfaces. However, small snow events (< 3 cm) caused somewhat persistent high albedo on the lakes and glaciers. Furthermore, there was a range in albedo across glaciers and each responded to seasonal snow and melt differently. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the spatial and temporal variability in albedo and the close coupling of climate and landscape response. We can use this new understanding of landscape albedo to better predict how the Dry Valley ecosystems will respond to changing climate at the basin scale.

  4. Lateral spread hazard mapping of the northern Salt Lake Valley, Utah, for a M7.0 scenario earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M.J.; Bartlett, S.F.; Solomon, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to develop a lateral spread-displacement hazard map for northern Salt Lake Valley, Utah, using a scenario M7.0 earthquake occurring on the Salt Lake City segment of the Wasatch fault. The mapping effort is supported by a substantial amount of geotechnical, geologic, and topographic data compiled for the Salt Lake Valley, Utah. ArcGIS?? routines created for the mapping project then input this information to perform site-specific lateral spread analyses using methods developed by Bartlett and Youd (1992) and Youd et al. (2002) at individual borehole locations. The distributions of predicted lateral spread displacements from the boreholes located spatially within a geologic unit were subsequently used to map the hazard for that particular unit. The mapped displacement zones consist of low hazard (0-0.1 m), moderate hazard (0.1-0.3 m), high hazard (0.3-1.0 m), and very high hazard (> 1.0 m). As expected, the produced map shows the highest hazard in the alluvial deposits at the center of the valley and in sandy deposits close to the fault. This mapping effort is currently being applied to the southern part of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, and probabilistic maps are being developed for the entire valley. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  5. Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Oligo-Miocene sediments of the Valley of Lakes, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richoz, Sylvain; Baldermann, Andre; Frauwallner, Andreas; Harzhauser, Mathias; Daxner-Höck, Gudrun; Klammer, Dietmar; Piller, Werner E

    2017-01-01

    The Valley of Lakes is approximately a 500-km elongate depression in Central Mongolia, where Eocene to Miocene continental sediments are long known for their outstanding fossil richness. The palaeontological record of this region is an exceptional witness for the evolution of mammalian communities during the Cenozoic global cooling and regional aridification. In order to precisely elucidate the climatic evolution of the region, we studied the mostly siliciclastic sediments with several levels of paleosols for their sedimentology, mineralogy, major and trace element composition and δ13C and δ18O composition. The obtained results show that temperate hydrothermal fluids induced a strong illitization of the fluvial and lacustrine sediments. This finding contradicts the current conceptual view that the fine fraction of the sediments is of aeolian origin. Moreover, the diagenetic growth of illite resulted in a strong overprinting of the sediments and, subsequently, largely disturbed the pristine mineralogical and geochemical composition of the sediments that could have carried any palaeo-climatic information. An exception is the δ13C (and δ18O) isotope values of authigenic carbonate found in calcrete horizons that still record the ambient climatic conditions prevailing during paleosol formation. Our novel δ13C and δ18O record suggests an early Oligocene aridification in Central Asia at ∼31 Ma, whereas the Oligocene glacial maximum shows no increase in aridification. A second, regional-scale aridification occurs at ~25 Ma and corresponds to a late Oligocene marked mammalian turnover in the Valley of Lakes sediments.

  6. Fish as bioindicators for trace element pollution from two contrasting lakes in the Eastern Rift Valley, Kenya: spatial and temporal aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Plessl, Christof; Otachi, Elick O.; K?rner, Wilfried; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemari?; Jirsa, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Lake Turkana and Lake Naivasha are two freshwater lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley that differ significantly in water chemistry and anthropogenic influence: Lake Turkana is believed to be rather pristine and unpolluted, but a previous study has shown rather high levels of Li, Zn, and Cd in the migratory fish species Hydrocynus forskahlii, questioning this pristine status. Lake Naivasha is heavily influenced by agricultural activity in its catchment area and by direct water use, and high levels...

  7. Henrietta Swan Leavitt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page 1. CPMG/KNBGE-340/2001. Licenced to post WPP(E) NO.6. Resonance - June 2001. Henrietta Swan Leavitt. (1868 - 1921). Registered with Registrar of Newspapers in India vide Regn. No. 66273/96. ISSN 0971-8044.

  8. Large-eddy simulations of a Salt Lake Valley cold-air pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2017-09-01

    Persistent cold-air pools are often poorly forecast by mesoscale numerical weather prediction models, in part due to inadequate parameterization of planetary boundary-layer physics in stable atmospheric conditions, and also because of errors in the initialization and treatment of the model surface state. In this study, an improved numerical simulation of the 27-30 January 2011 cold-air pool in Utah's Great Salt Lake Basin is obtained using a large-eddy simulation with more realistic surface state characterization. Compared to a Weather Research and Forecasting model configuration run as a mesoscale model with a planetary boundary-layer scheme where turbulence is highly parameterized, the large-eddy simulation more accurately captured turbulent interactions between the stable boundary-layer and flow aloft. The simulations were also found to be sensitive to variations in the Great Salt Lake temperature and Salt Lake Valley snow cover, illustrating the importance of land surface state in modelling cold-air pools.

  9. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  10. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and in preparing emergency response plans. The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group of California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping (NSHM) Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault to the east of the study area. Earthquake scenarios are intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. They are not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquakes possible. Earthquake scenarios are both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider them in regional emergency response plans. Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM).For the Hilton Creek Fault, two alternative scenarios were developed in addition to the NSHM scenario to account for different opinions in how far north the fault extends into the Long Valley Caldera. For each scenario, ground motions were calculated using the current standard practice

  11. Micro-hole and multigrain quartz luminescence dating of Paleodeltas at Lake Fryxell, McMurdo Dry Valleys (Antarctica), and relevance for lake history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, G.W.; Doran, P.T.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2013-01-01

    Relict (perched) lacustrine deltas around the perennially ice-covered lakes in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, imply that these lakes were up to 40 times larger in area than at present since the last glacial maximum (LGM). These deltas have been used to constrain ice-margin positions in Taylor......-stimulated-luminescence (PSL) sediment dating to polymineral fine silt and sand-size quartz from 7 perched-delta and 3 active delta sites of different elevations along 3 major meltwater streams entering Lake Fryxell. Our PSL dating of 4 quartz-sand samples from core tops in the seasonal ice-free moat of Lake Fryxell......-age micro-hole age estimates for the deltas range from ∼50 to 100 a near the present lake level up to 13.4 ± 1.3 ka at 240 m. These are systematically younger than the comparable, reservoir-uncorrected, 14C ages that range from 7 ka (cal yr BP) to 13 ka (cal yr BP) near lake level up to 20 ka (cal yr BP...

  12. Satellite tracking of the migration of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hijikata, N.; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Hupp, Jerry; Flint, Paul L.; Tokita, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Go; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Sato, F.; Kurechi, Masayuki; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We satellite-tracked Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in northern Japan to document their migration routes and timing, and to identify breeding areas. From 47 swans that we marked at Lake Izunuma-Uchinuma, Miyagi Prefecture, northeast Honshu, and at Lake Kussharo, east Hokkaido, we observed 57 spring and 33 autumn migrations from 2009-2012. In spring, swans migrated north along Sakhalin Island from eastern Hokkaido using stopovers in Sakhalin, at the mouth of the Amur River and in northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk. They ultimately reached molting/breedmg areas along the Indigirka River and the lower Kolyma River in northern Russia. In autumn, the swans basically reversed the spring migration routes. We identified northern Honshu, eastern Hokkaido, coastal areas in Sakhalin, the lower Amur River and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk as the most frequent stopover sites, and the middle reaches of the Indigirka and the lower Kolyma River as presumed breeding sites. Our results are helpful in understanding the distribution of the breeding and stopover sites of Whooper Swans wintering in Japan and in identifying their major migration habitats. Our findings contribute to understanding the potential transmission process of avian influenza viruses potentially carried by swans, and provide information necessary to conserve Whooper Swans in East Asia.

  13. Migration of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) Wintering in Japan Using Satellite Tracking: Identification of the Eastern Palearctic Flyway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbo; Doko, Tomoko; Fujita, Go; Hijikata, Naoya; Tokita, Ken-Ichi; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Konishi, Kan; Hiraoka, Emiko; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Migration through the Eastern Palearctic (EP) flyway by tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) has not been thoroughly documented. We satellite-tracked the migration of 16 tundra swans that winter in Japan. The objectives of this study were 1) to show the migration pattern of the EP flyway of tundra swans; 2) to compare this pattern with the migration pattern of whooper swans; and 3) to identify stopover sites that are important for these swans' conservation. Tundra swans were captured at Kutcharo Lake, Hokkaido, in 2009-2012 and satellite-tracked. A new method called the "MATCHED (Migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) method" was developed. Based on median, the spring migration began on 18 April and ended on 27 May. Autumn migration began on 9 September and ended on 2 November. The median duration of the spring and autumn migrations were 48 and 50 days, respectively. The mean duration at one stopover site was 5.5 days and 6.8 days for the spring and autumn migrations, respectively. The number of stopover sites was 3.0 and 2.5 for the spring and autumn migrations, respectively. The mean travel distances for the spring and autumn migrations were 6471 and 6331 km, respectively. Seven migration routes passing Sakhalin, the Amur River, and/or Kamchatka were identified. There were 15, 32, and eight wintering, stopover, and breeding sites, respectively. The migration routes and staging areas of tundra swans partially overlap with those of whooper swans, whose migration patterns have been previously documented. The migration patterns of these two swan species that winter in Japan confirm the importance of the Amur River, Udyl' Lake, Shchastya Bay, Aniva Bay, zaliv Chayvo Lake, zal Piltun Lake, zaliv Baykal Lake, Kolyma River, Buyunda River, Sen-kyuyel' Lake, and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk.

  14. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Batches 651NC and 670NC Summaries.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Batch summaries from the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin...

  15. Composition and secondary formation of fine particulate matter in the Salt Lake Valley: winter 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprov, Roman; Eatough, Delbert J; Cruickshank, Tyler; Olson, Neal; Cropper, Paul M; Hansen, Jaron C

    2014-08-01

    Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), put in place as a result of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990, three regions in the state of Utah are in violation of the NAAQS for PM10 and PM2.5 (Salt Lake County, Ogden City, and Utah County). These regions are susceptible to strong inversions that can persist for days to weeks. This meteorology, coupled with the metropolitan nature of these regions, contributes to its violation of the NAAQS for PM during the winter. During January-February 2009, 1-hr averaged concentrations of PM10-2.5, PM2.5, NO(x), NO2, NO, O3, CO, and NH3 were measured. Particulate-phase nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate and gas-phase HONO, HNO3, and SO2 were also measured on a 1-hr average basis. The results indicate that ammonium nitrate averages 40% of the total PM2.5 mass in the absence of inversions and up to 69% during strong inversions. Also, the formation of ammonium nitrate is nitric acid limited. Overall, the lower boundary layer in the Salt Lake Valley appears to be oxidant and volatile organic carbon (VOC) limited with respect to ozone formation. The most effective way to reduce ammonium nitrate secondary particle formation during the inversions period is to reduce NO(x) emissions. However, a decrease in NO(x) will increase ozone concentrations. A better definition of the complete ozone isopleths would better inform this decision. Implications: Monitoring of air pollution constituents in Salt Lake City, UT, during periods in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the NAAQS, reveals that secondary aerosol formation for this region is NO(x) limited. Therefore, NO(x) emissions should be targeted in order to reduce secondary particle formation and PM2.5. Data also indicate that the highest concentrations of sulfur dioxide are associated with winds from the north-northwest, the location of several small refineries.

  16. A 28,000 year history of vegetation and climate from Lower Red Rock Lake, Centennial Valley, Southwestern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Stephanie Ann; Whitlock, Cathy; Pierce, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A sediment core extending to 28,000 cal yr BP from Lower Red Rock Lake in the Centennial Valley of southwestern Montana provides new information on the nature of full-glacial vegetation as well as a history of late-glacial and Holocene vegetation and climate in a poorly studied region. Prior to 17,000 cal yr BP, the eastern Centennial Valley was occupied by a large lake (Pleistocene Lake Centennial), and valley glaciers were present in adjacent mountain ranges. The lake lowered upon erosion of a newly formed western outlet in late-glacial time. High pollen percentages of Juniperus, Poaceae, Asteraceae, and other herbs as well as low pollen accumulation rates suggest sparse vegetation cover. Inferred cold dry conditions are consistent with a strengthened glacial anticyclone at this time. Between 17,000 and 10,500 cal yr BP, high Picea and Abies pollen percentages suggest a shift to subalpine parkland and warmer conditions than before. This is attributed to the northward shift of the jet stream and increasing summer insolation. From 10,500 to 7100 cal yr BP, pollen evidence of open dry forests suggests warm conditions, which were likely a response to increased summer insolation and a strengthened Pacific subtropical high-pressure system. From 7100 to 2400 cal yr BP, cooler moister conditions promoted closed forest and wetlands. Increases in Picea and Abies pollen percentages after 2400 cal yr BP suggest increasing effective moisture. The postglacial pattern of Pseudotsuga expansion indicates that it arrived later on the Atlantic side of the Continental Divide than on the Pacific side. The Divide may have been a physical barrier for refugial populations or it delimited different climate regions that influenced the timing of Pseudotsuga expansion.

  17. 76 FR 77890 - Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C.-Operation Exemption-Swan Industrial Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C.--Operation Exemption--Swan Industrial Park Swan... located within the Swan Industrial Park, in Cheyenne, Wyo. The track over which SRR will operate is...

  18. Guide to user modification of a three-dimensional digital ground-water model for Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Waddell, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    A digital-computer model was calibrated to simulate, in three dimensions, the ground-water flow in the principal and shallow-unconfined aquifers in Salt Lake Valley, Utah. The model can be used to predict water-level and waterbudget changes that would be caused by changes in well recharge or discharge. This report shows how a user can revise the input data so that recharging or discharging wells may be simulated and how stress-period intervals can be varied to simulate different periods of recharge or discharge.

  19. Investigations into the Fish Lake Valley Fault Zone (FLVFZ) and its interactions with normal faulting within Eureka and Deep Springs Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, M. J.; Rhodes, E.; Yin, A.

    2016-12-01

    In most textbooks, the San Andreas Fault is stated to be the plate boundary between the North American and the Pacific plates, as plate tectonics assumes that boundaries are essentially discrete. In the Western United States this is not the case, as up to 25% of relative plate motion is accommodated on other structures within the Walker Lane Shear Zone (WLSZ) in a diffuse 100 km margin (Faulds et al., 2005; Oldow et al., 2001). Fish Lake Valley Fault Zone (FLVFZ), situated at the northern border of Death Valley National Park, is the northern continuation of the Furnace Creek Fault Zone (FCFZ), and is an important transfer structure within the Walker Lane Shear Zone. Though the FLVFZ has a long term rate (since 10 Ma) of 5 mm/yr (Reheis and Sawyer, 1997), it has a highly variable slip rate. In the middle Pleistocene, the rate has a maximum of up to 11 mm/yr which would accommodate nearly the entirety of slip within the Walker Lane, and yet this rate decreases significantly ( 2.5 to 3 mm/yr) by the late Pleistocene due to unknown causes (Frankel et al. 2007). This variation in slip rate has been proposed by previous workers to be due to strain transience, an increase in the overall strain rate, or due to other unknown structures (Lee et al., 2009). Currently, we are investigating the cause of this variation, and the possibility of the transfer of slip to faults south of the FLVFZ on oblique normal faults within Eureka and Deep Springs Valleys. Preliminary data will be shown utilizing scarp transects, geomorphic scarp modeling, and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating techniques.

  20. Mute swans: Natural (?) environmental indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the Chesapeake Bay's population of feral mute swans (Cygnus olar), coupled with a dramatic Bay-wide decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), has fueled much of the current debate surrounding the need for a management plan to protect the aquatic food resources that are critical to many species native to the Bay. Crucial to this decision process is a sound understanding of the ecological ramifications of having the year-round presence of a large, nonnative, aquatic herbivore on the Bay. Ultimately, this will require a quantitative assessment of the ecological harm currently posed by mute swans before a biologically defensible management strategy can be developed. Unfortunately, very little new information specific to the Bay's mute swan population has been gathered since Reese first studied them in the late 1960s and 1970s. While the debate over what to do about the rapidly expanding mute swan population continues, there is much that can be gained from study of this beautiful intruder. Several recent studies of the feeding habits of mute swans have shown that mutes can provide a unique barometer, or indicator, of environmental conditions. Because of their reliance on SAV as a primary food source, monitoring the density of swans utilizing a particular area can give some indication of the status of the area's grass beds. This phenomenon was clearly demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when there was a dramatic decline in the number of swans observed around the Eastern Neck NWR, a traditional population stronghold. The shift in bird use was precipitated by a rapid, large-scale collapse of the area's aquatic grass beds, possibly the result of a prolonged drought. During the winter of 2000/2001, a similar ecological assessment was conducted by comparing body weights of swans collected from Tangier Sound, an area with relatively abundant grass beds, and swans from the waters adjacent to Eastern Neck Island. Swans weights tended to reflect the

  1. Ciliate diversity, community structure, and novel taxa in lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Vick-Majors, Trista; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael; Priscu, John C; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2014-10-01

    We report an in-depth survey of next-generation DNA sequencing of ciliate diversity and community structure in two permanently ice-covered McMurdo Dry Valley lakes during the austral summer and autumn (November 2007 and March 2008). We tested hypotheses on the relationship between species richness and environmental conditions including environmental extremes, nutrient status, and day length. On the basis of the unique environment that exists in these high-latitude lakes, we expected that novel taxa would be present. Alpha diversity analyses showed that extreme conditions-that is, high salinity, low oxygen, and extreme changes in day length-did not impact ciliate richness; however, ciliate richness was 30% higher in samples with higher dissolved organic matter. Beta diversity analyses revealed that ciliate communities clustered by dissolved oxygen, depth, and salinity, but not by season (i.e., day length). The permutational analysis of variance test indicated that depth, dissolved oxygen, and salinity had significant influences on the ciliate community for the abundance matrices of resampled data, while lake and season were not significant. This result suggests that the vertical trends in dissolved oxygen concentration and salinity may play a critical role in structuring ciliate communities. A PCR-based strategy capitalizing on divergent eukaryotic V9 hypervariable region ribosomal RNA gene targets unveiled two new genera in these lakes. A novel taxon belonging to an unknown class most closely related to Cryptocaryon irritans was also inferred from separate gene phylogenies. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  2. Multispectral Remote Sensing Technologies Applied to Assess Recent Aeolian Activity and Thaw Lake Changes in Kobuk River Valley, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necsoiu, M.; Dinwiddie, C. L.; Walter, G. R.; Hooper, D. M.; McGinnis, R. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Kobuk River Valley, within the continuous permafrost zone at 67° north latitude in Kobuk Valley National Park, northwestern Alaska, is an aeolian-influenced fluvial system with boreal forest, thaw lakes, polygonal ground, loess deposits, and active and stabilized cold-climate dune fields. We used multispectral remote sensing data to study recent geomorphic and hydrogeologic processes acting on this landscape, and developed a new methodology for remote monitoring of active morphological processes using precise orthorectification, coregistration, and subpixel correlation. Ubiquitous thaw lakes (scales range from 0.2 to 1.5 km) in the valley at 15 to 50 m amsl are evidence of longstanding, local permafrost degradation. As permafrost thaws, land subsidence occurs, developing topographic lows in which thaw lakes may form. While further degradation at lake margins may initially increase lake size, continued permafrost degradation may lead to increased net infiltration and reduction or total depletion of lake surface area. Unsupervised classification performed on Landsat TM, ASTER, and AVNIR-2 imagery quantified surface water (i.e., thaw lake) areal changes within two distinct land cover areas (wetlands and Quaternary noncarbonate deposits). The estimated 14 and 20 percent decrease in surface water area from 1985 to 2008 is attributed, in part, to climate warming effects on permafrost stability. For related results attained using ALOS polarimetry data, see Hooper et al. (this meeting). Using our new multispectral data displacement analysis method, based on the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) technique, we retrieved the subpixel displacements between ASTER and SPOT 5 images to estimate the migration rates and directions for the 62 km2, dominantly transverse and barchanoid Great Kobuk Sand Dunes over a recent 5-year period. This method corrects offsets due to sensor distortions, attitude drifts, and orbital errors, enabling data

  3. Occurrence, distribution, and ecological risk assessment of DDTs and heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Awassa--Ethiopian Rift Valley Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Watanabe, Kensuke P; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-12-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and heavy metals are ubiquitous contaminants with high bioaccumulation and persistence in the environment, which can have adverse effects on humans and animals. Although applications of DDTs have been banned in many countries, developing countries like Ethiopia are still using these for agricultural and medicinal purposes. In addition, heavy metals are naturally present in the aquatic environment and distributed globally. In this study, the occurrence, distribution, and ecological risk of DDTs and heavy metals in surface sediments from one of the Ethiopian rift valley lakes were studied. Twenty-five surface sediment samples from Lake Awassa, Ethiopia were collected and analyzed for DDTs and heavy metals. Results showed that concentrations of total DDTs ranged from 3.64 to 40.2 ng/g dry weight. High levels of DDTs were observed in the vicinity of inflow river side and coastal areas with agricultural activities. The heavy metals content were followed the order Zn>Ni>Pb>Cu>Cr>Co>As>Cd>Hg. Correlation analysis and principal components analysis demonstrated that heavy metals were originated from both natural and anthropogenic inputs. The levels of DDE and DDD in surface sediments exceeded the sediment quality guideline values, indicating that adverse effects may occur to the lake. A method based on toxic-response factor for heavy metals revealed that the calculated potential ecological risk indices showed low ecological risk for the water body.

  4. Limnology of the Green Lakes Valley: Phytoplankton ecology and dissolved organic matter biogeochemistry at a long-term ecological research site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surface waters are the lowest points in the landscape, and therefore serve as excellent integrators and indicators of changes taking place in the surrounding terrestrial and atmospheric environment.Aims: Here we synthesise the findings of limnological studies conducted during the past 15 years in streams and lakes in the Green Lakes Valley, which is part of the Niwot Ridge Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) Site.Methods: The importance of these studies is discussed in the context of aquatic ecosystems as indicators, integrators, and regulators of environmental change. Specifically, investigations into climatic, hydrologic, and nutrient controls on present-day phytoplankton, and historical diatom, community composition in the alpine lake, Green Lake 4, are reviewed. In addition, studies of spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved organic matter (DOM) biogeochemistry and reactive transport modelling that have taken place in the Green Lakes Valley are highlighted.Results and conclusions: The findings of these studies identify specific shifts in algal community composition and DOM biogeochemistry that are indicative of changing environmental conditions and provide a framework for detecting future environmental change in the Green Lakes Valley and in other alpine watersheds. Moreover, the studies summarised here demonstrate the importance of long-term monitoring programmes such as the LTER programme.

  5. New structural/tectonical model and its implication on hydrological thinking and groundwater management - the Lake Tiberias, Jordan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Möller, Peter; Siebert, Christian; Guttman, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Lake Tiberias is a fresh water lake located at the Kinneret basin which is approximately 30 km long and 10 km wide. It comprises a link in the chain of pull-apart basins that characterizes the structure of the conspicuous Jordan Rift Valley (JRV). The basin surface is about 200 m below mean sea level (msl) and basin-fill attains a thickness of up to 8 km. Until recently, studies focused mainly on the upper strata of basin fill. Consequently, a complete three dimensional geological model, including clear view of the tectonic framework at the Kinneret Basin was incomplete. This situation imposes great difficulty in understanding the local hydrological system and as consequence enforce constrains on groundwater management of the regional aquifers that flows towards the lake. A recently proposed structural/tectonical model (Inbar, 2012) enables revaluation of several geohydrological aspects at Sea of Galilee and its surroundings and a new hydrological model based on those findings aims to clarify those aspects with relation to groundwater management. The deep-seated stratigraphical units were seismically studied at the Kinnarot Valley (southern part of Kinneret basin) where sufficient information is available (Inbar, 2012). This study shows the subsidence and northwestward tilting of the basin floor (pre-rift formations) and the flow of thick Late Miocene salt accumulation accordingly. Furthermore, shallower seismic data, collected at the lake itself, shows a suspected salt dome close to the western boundary fault of the basin (Resnikov et al., 2004). Salt flow is now suggested to be a substantial factor in the tectonic play. At the lake surroundings there are several springs and boreholes where brine immerges from an estimated depth of about 2-3 kilometers. Significant differences in brine characteristics raised questions regarding the location of brine traps, flow mechanism and the mixture process between the fresh water and the brine. However, the effect of the

  6. Hydrogeology of a drift-filled bedrock valley near Lino Lakes, Anoka County, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, T.C.; Pfannkuch, H.O.

    1976-01-01

    The bedrock surface of east-central Minnesota is dissected by an intricate network of valleys. Outside the bedrock valley at site B, 3 mi (4. 8 km) from site A, 100 ft (30 m) of drift overlies the bedrock surface. Observation wells were installed at the two sites to determine the vertical ground-water movement between the various aquifer units and the lateral movement between the two sites. An aquifer test of the lowest valley-fill aquifer at site A showed that the observation well completed in the same aquifer as the pumping well responded immediately; whereas a lag of about 100 min occurred between the lower valley fill and uppermost body of sand and gravel. This indicates that the hydraulic connection between these two layers is poor at the immediate site. Test results show that the lower sand-and-gravel aquifer has a transmissivity between 14,000 and 27,000 ft2/d (1,300 and 2,500 m2/d). Although the hydraulic gradient is vertically downward in the valley, much of the drift fill is poorly permeable. This suggests that the quantity of downward-percolating water reaching the lowest valley-fill aquifer is relatively small at the test site. Because valley cut through a number of bedrock aquifers in the region, they could potentially be an important avenue of contamination from land-surface waste. In addition, the vast network of bedrock valleys in the Twin Cities area might cause contaminants to disseminate rather rapidly throughout a large area.

  7. Level of mercury in fish from the Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes: Its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental contaminants in fish pose a potential human health hazard. The level of mercury (Hg) was investigated in three fish species, i.e., Labeobarbus intermedius, Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus, from Lake Koka and Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. The concentrations of Hg found in C. gariepinus and O.

  8. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  9. Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Carbon Dioxide In The Urban Salt Lake Valley, Utah USA: Source And Long-Term Monitoring Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehleringer, J.; Lai, C.; Strong, C.; Pataki, D. E.; Bowling, D. R.; Schauer, A. J.; Bush, S.

    2011-12-01

    A high-precision, decadal record of carbon isotope ratios in atmospheric carbon dioxide has been produced for the urbanized Salt Lake Valley, Utah USA. These data complement a similar time series of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations for different locations in the same urban region. This isotopic record includes diurnal and nocturnal observations based on flask (IRMS-based) and continuous (TDL-based) measurement systems. These data reveal repeatable diurnal and seasonal variations in the anthropogenic and biogenic carbon sources that can be used to reconstruct different source inputs. As the Salt Lake Valley is an isolated urban region, the impacts of local anthropogenic inputs can be distinguished from regional patterns as measured by NOAA at the rural Wendover monitoring station 200 km to the west of the Salt Lake Valley. Complementary data, such as vehicle exhaust, emission from power plants and household furnaces, plant and soil organic matter, are also provided to quantify the carbon isotope ratios of the predominant anthropogenic and biogenic sources within the Salt Lake Valley. The combined source and long-term observational values will be made freely available and their utility is discussed for modeling efforts including urban metabolism modeling and atmospheric trace gas modeling.

  10. Model for trace metal exposure in filter-feeding flamingos at alkaline Rift Valley Lake, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Y.M.; DiSante, C.J.; Lion, L.W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Thampy, R.J.; Raini, J.A. [Worldwide Fund for Nature, Nakuru (Kenya). Lake Nakuru Conservation and Development Project; Motelin, G.K. [Egerton Univ., Njoro (Kenya). Dept. of Animal Health

    1998-11-01

    Toxic trace metals have been implicated as a potential cause of recent flamingo kills at Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) have accumulated in the lake sediments as a result of unregulated discharges and because this alkaline lake has no natural outlet. Lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) at Lake Nakuru feed predominantly on the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, and because of their filter-feeding mechanism, they are susceptible to exposure to particle-bound metals. Trace metal adsorption isotherms to lake sediments and S. platensis were obtained under simulated lake conditions, and a mathematical model was developed to predict metal exposure via filter feeding based on predicted trace metal phase distribution. Metal adsorption to suspended solids followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cr > Cu, and isotherms were linear up to 60 {micro}g/L. Adsorption to S. platensis cells followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cu > Cr and fit Langmuir isotherms for Cr, Cu and Zn and a linear isotherm for Pb. Predicted phase distributions indicated that Cr and Pb in Lake Nakuru are predominantly associated with suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn are distributed more evenly between the dissolved phase and particulate phases of both S. platensis and suspended solids. Based on established flamingo feeding rates and particle size selection, predicted Cr and Pb exposure occurs predominantly through ingestion of suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn exposure occurs through ingestion of both suspended solids and S. platensis. For the lake conditions at the time of sampling, predicted ingestion rates based on measured metal concentrations in lake suspended solids were 0.71, 6.2, 0.81, and 13 mg/kg-d for Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively.

  11. Spatial variation in tuber depletion by swans explained by differences in net intake rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; Langevoord, O; Bevan, RM; Engelaar, KR; Klaassen, M; Mulder, RJW

    We tested whether the spatial variation in resource depletion by Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) foraging on belowground tubers of sage pondweed (Potnmogeton pectinatus) was caused by differences in net energy intake rates. The variation in giving up densities within the confines of one lake was

  12. Spatial variation in tuber depletion by swans explained by differences in net intake rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Langevoord, O.; Bevan, R.M.; Engelaar, K.R.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Mulder, R.J.W.; Van Dijk, S.

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether the spatial variation in resource depletion by Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) foraging on belowground tubers of sage pondweed (Potnmogeton pectinatus) was caused by differences in net energy intake rates. The variation in giving up densities within the confines of one lake was

  13. Concentrations and human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in edible fish species from a Rift Valley lake-Lake Ziway, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Yared B; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Watanabe, Kensuke P; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Fish consumption is known to have several health benefits for humans. However, the accumulation of organic pollutants, like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) could pose health hazards. Thus, OCPs in edible fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, Carassius spp., and Clarias gariepinus) from Lake Ziway, an Ethiopian Rift Valley Lake were investigated to assess the potential human health hazards of these contaminants. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes, and heptachlors were observed with ΣOCPs concentration ranging from 1.41 to 63.8 ng g(-1) ww. DDTs were the predominant contaminants (0.9 to 61.9 ng g(-1) ww), followed by HCHs. The predominance of DDTs may be attributed to their current use in vector control and contamination from past usage. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCPs from all fish species were much lower than the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), indicating that consumption of fish is at little risk to human health at present. However, the cancer risk estimates in the area of concern and the hazard ratios (HRs) of HCHs, DDTs, and heptachlors exceeded the threshold value of one, indicating daily exposure to these compounds is a potential concern. This may result in a lifetime cancer risk greater than of 1 in 10(6). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 1989 Annual water management plan : Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1988 Annual Water Management Report 1989 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes 1988 weather summary, water availability forecast, summary of 1988...

  15. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge Ruby Valley, Nevada Annual Narrative Report Calendar Year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ruby Lake outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  16. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge Ruby Valley, Nevada - Annual Narrative Report - Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Fish as bioindicators for trace element pollution from two contrasting lakes in the Eastern Rift Valley, Kenya: spatial and temporal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessl, Christof; Otachi, Elick O; Körner, Wilfried; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè; Jirsa, Franz

    2017-08-01

    Lake Turkana and Lake Naivasha are two freshwater lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley that differ significantly in water chemistry and anthropogenic influence: Lake Turkana is believed to be rather pristine and unpolluted, but a previous study has shown rather high levels of Li, Zn, and Cd in the migratory fish species Hydrocynus forskahlii, questioning this pristine status. Lake Naivasha is heavily influenced by agricultural activity in its catchment area and by direct water use, and high levels of metal pollutants have been reported in fish. This study presents the distribution of nine important trace elements in liver and muscle of the nonmigratory red belly tilapia Tilapia zillii from Lake Turkana and from Lake Naivasha (before and after a significant rise in water level due to as yet not fully understood reasons). In addition, trace element levels in the common carp Cyprinus carpio from Lake Naivasha are presented. Metal concentrations measured in the liver and muscle of T. zillii collected in Lake Turkana confirm the pristine status of the study site, but contrast with the results obtained for the migratory H. forskahlii. Comparing T. zillii from the two lakes reveals a clear difference in accumulation patterns between essential and nonessential trace elements: physiologically regulated essential elements are present in a very similar range in fish from both lakes, while levels of nonessential metals reflect short- or long-term exposure to those elements. The comparison of trace element concentrations in the fish samples from Lake Naivasha showed lower levels of most trace elements after the significant increase of the water level. This study demonstrates that fish are valuable bioindicators for evaluating trace element pollution even in contrasting lakes as long as the way-of-life habits of the species are taken into account.

  18. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Biospecimen Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Repository is the biospecimen bank of the SWAN study. All stored specimens are from the 3,302 SWAN participants, collected across the 14 clinic visits...

  19. Stochastic and cyclic deposition of multiple subannual laminae in an urban lake (Twin Lake, Golden Valley, Minnesota, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Ustipak, K.; Demet, B.

    2013-12-01

    Twin Lake, a small, deep, meromictic urban lake in Minneapolis, Minnesota, annually deposits two to 10 laminae that are distinguished from one another by composition and resulting color. Sediment sources are both autochthonous and allochthonous, including pure and mixed laminae of authigenic calcite, algal organic matter, and diatoms, as well as at least three distinct types of sediment gravity flow deposits. Diagenetic iron sulfide and iron phosphate phases are minor components, but can affect color out of proportion to their abundance. We used L*a*b* color from digital images of a freeze core slab, and petrographic smear slides of individual laminae, to categorize 1080 laminae deposited between 1963 and 2010 CE (based on lead-210 dating). Some causal relationships exist between the ten categories identified: diatom blooms often occur directly above the debris of gravity flows that probably disrupt the phosphate-rich monimolomnion and fertilize the surface waters; calcite whitings only occur after diatom blooms that increase calcite saturation. Stochastic events, as represented by laminae rich in siliciclastics and other terrigenous material, or shallow-water microfossils and carbonate morphologies, are the dominant sediment source. The patterns of cyclic deposition (e.g., summer and winter sedimentation) that produce 'normal' varve couplets in some lakes are continually interrupted by these stochastic events, to such an extent that spectral analysis finds only a weak one-year cycle. Sediments deposited before about 1900, and extending through the entire Holocene sequence (~10m) are varve couplets interrupted by thick (20-90 cm) debris layers, indicating that gravity flows were lower in frequency but greater in magnitude before the historical period, probably due to an increased frequency of disturbance under urban land-use.

  20. Analysing the temporal water quality dynamics of Lake Basaka, Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumana Dinka, Megersa

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the general water quality status and temporal quality dynamics of Lake Basaka water in the past about 5 decades. Water samples were collected and analysed for important physico-chemical quality parameters following standard procedures. The result showed that Lake Basaka water is highly saline and alkaline and experiencing a general reducing trends in ionic concentrations of quality parameters due to the dilution effect. About 10-fold reduction of total ionic concentration occurred in the Lake over the period of 2 decades (1960-1980). There was a sharp and fast decline in EC, Cl, SO4, Na, and K ions from early 1960s up to the late 1980s, and then became relatively stable. Some ions (eg. Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4) are showing increment in recent years. This characteristics of the lake water is terrible in relation to its potential to inundate the nearby areas in the near future. The expansion of such quality water has negative effects on the water resources of the region, especially soil quality, drainage and groundwater, in terms of salinity, sodicity and specific ion toxicity. The regimes of soil moisture, solute and groundwater could be affected, concurrently affecting the productivity and sustainability of the sugar estate. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify the potential sources of water and chemicals to the lake and devise an appropriate mitigation and/or remedial measures.

  1. The SWAN biomedical discourse ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Paolo; Wu, Elizabeth; Wong, Gwen; Ocana, Marco; Kinoshita, June; Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim

    2008-10-01

    Developing cures for highly complex diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, requires extensive interdisciplinary collaboration and exchange of biomedical information in context. Our ability to exchange such information across sub-specialties today is limited by the current scientific knowledge ecosystem's inability to properly contextualize and integrate data and discourse in machine-interpretable form. This inherently limits the productivity of research and the progress toward cures for devastating diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. SWAN (Semantic Web Applications in Neuromedicine) is an interdisciplinary project to develop a practical, common, semantically structured, framework for biomedical discourse initially applied, but not limited, to significant problems in Alzheimer Disease (AD) research. The SWAN ontology has been developed in the context of building a series of applications for biomedical researchers, as well as in extensive discussions and collaborations with the larger bio-ontologies community. In this paper, we present and discuss the SWAN ontology of biomedical discourse. We ground its development theoretically, present its design approach, explain its main classes and their application, and show its relationship to other ongoing activities in biomedicine and bio-ontologies.

  2. Impact of Flooding on Land Use/ Land Cover Transformation in Wular Lake and its Environs, Kashmir Valley, India Using Geoinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, T.; Pandey, A. C.; Kumar, A.

    2017-11-01

    Wular lake, located at an elevation of 1520 m above sea level in Kashmir valley, India. In the present study, the immediate and long term impact of flood (2014) over the Wular lake environs was analyzed by using satellite images and employing supervised classification technique in GIS environment. The LULC classification was performed on the images of 25th August 2014 (pre flood) and 13th September 2015 (post flood) and was compared, which indicated marked decrease in terrestrial vegetation (23.7 %), agriculture (43.7 %) and water bodies (39.9 %). Overlaying analysis was performed with pre and post flood classified images with reference to the satellite image of 10th September 2014(during flood) which indicated total area inundated during flood was 88.77 km2. With the pre-flood situation, the aquatic vegetation of 34.06 km2, 13.89 km2 of agriculture land and terrestrial vegetation of 3.13 km2 was inundated. In the post flood situation, it was also came into focus that more than the half of the area under water bodies was converted into sand deposits (22.76 km2) due to anomalous increase in siltation. The overlay analysis on post flood classified image indicated that aquatic vegetation followed by agriculture and sand deposits lie within the flood inundated area. Further spatial analysis was performed within the flood inundated area (88.77 km2) with pre and post classified image to understand the situation before and after the flood and to calculate the changes. These land use-land cover transformations signifies the ill effect of flooding on the biodiversity of Wular Lake.

  3. Numerous Unpaired Meteorites Exposed on a Deflating Playa Lake at Lucerne Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Verish, Robert S.; Moore, Carleton B.; Oriti, Ronald A.

    2000-01-01

    Out of 16 well-characterized 1 to 37 g meteorite specimens recovered from Lucerne Dry Lake (an approximately 3 7 km playa in the southern Mojave Desert of California), there are 9 separate ordinary chondrite finds. The ratio of independent meteorites to total number of specimens (0.6) is among the highest in the world. This is due to lack of initial deep burial of the small meteorites, significant deflation of the lake exposing falls of individual stones (or small numbers of paired meteorites), and the absence of a large meteorite shower in the region. Playas appear to be excellent candidates for high-yield meteorite-collecting areas.

  4. Pluriannual evolution of the hydrochemistry of two Alpine lakes (Lake Paione Inferiore and Lake Paione Superiore, Ossola Valley in relation to atmospheric loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele A. TARTARI

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Lakes Paione Inferiore and Paione Superiore (LPI, LPS are extremely sensitive to acidification, so they are useful as indicators in studying changes in atmospheric pollutant fluxes on waterbodies. Regular trends observed in the last 3-4 years cannot merely be a consequence of seasonal or interannual variations. Increasing pH and alkalinity are mainly driven by a decrease in acidic inputs from the atmosphere, which have been halved over the last 10 years. This trend of atmospheric deposition chemistry has emerged in several sampling stations in the subalpine and Alpine area, in the watershed of Lake Maggiore. The decrease in deposition acidity is mainly related to a decrease in sulphate, while nitrate and ammonium deposition is still high, resulting in high nitrate concentrations in lake waters.

  5. Environmental and human influences on trumpeter swan habitat occupancy in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J.H.; Lindberg, M.S.; Johnson, D.S.; Schmultz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 70-80% of the entire population of the Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus huccinator) depends for reproduction on wetlands in Alaska. This makes the identification of important habitat features and the effects of human interactions important for the species' long-term management. We analyzed the swan's habitat preferences in five areas throughout the state and found that swan broods occupied some wetland types, especially larger closed-basin wetlands such as lakes and ponds, at rates much higher than they occupied other wetland types, such as shrubby or forested wetlands. We also found a negative effect of transportation infrastructure on occupancy by broods in and around the Minto Flats State Game Refuge, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, and Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge. This finding is of particular interest because much of the Minto Flats refuge has recently been licensed for oil and gas exploration and parts of the Kenai refuge have been developed in the past. We also investigated the potential effects of the shrinkage of closed-basin ponds on habitat occupancy by nesting Trumpeter Swans. We compared nesting swans' use of ponds with changes in the ponds' size and other characteristics from 1982 to 1996 and found no relationships between occupancy and changes in pond size. However, we believe that the recent and rapid growth of Trumpeter Swan populations in Alaska may become limited by available breeding habitat, and anthropogenic and climate-induced changes to the swan's breeding habitats have the potential to limit future production. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Connections Between Cold Air Pools and Mountain Valley Fog Events in Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the connection between cold air pools and fog events in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Statistical analyses are conducted using soundings and reported automated surface observing system data from Salt Lake International Airport for the last eighteen cold seasons (October to March, during 1997-2015). A Chi-square test of independence is performed on identified cold air pool, and fog events to determine whether the two events are correlated. Conditional probabilities are then computed to investigate the occurrence of fog, given the presence of a cold pool. These probabilities are compared against that of random fog generation in the mid-winter. It is concluded that the dependence between cold air pools and fog events is statistically significant. The presence of a cold pool makes the formation of fog more likely than random generation.

  7. Over-winter ecology of Oncorhynchus nerka in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhart, G.B.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995. The winter is usually a very harsh period for animals, and little is know about the over-winter ecology os sockeye salmon. They are active a temperatures below 4 F. The chapter discusses methods and results. 14 figs, 4 tabs.

  8. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-125 (Echo Lake-Maple Valley #1 [Mile 1-9], Adno 8258)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Aaron [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-02-18

    Vegetation Management for portion of the Echo Lake – Maple Valley #1 500 kV transmission line located from tower structure 1/1 to 9/2. BPA proposes to clear targeted vegetation within the Right-of-Ways along access roads and around towers that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. See Section 1.4 of the attached checklists for a complete description of the proposed action.

  9. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-124 (Echo Lake-Maple Valley #1 [Mile 9-16], Adno 8258)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Aaron [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-02-18

    Vegetation Management for portion of the Echo Lake – Maple Valley #1 500 kV transmission line located from tower structure 9/2 to 16/5. BPA proposes to clear targeted vegetation within the Right-of-Ways along access roads and around towers that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. See Section 1.4 of the attached checklists for a complete description of the proposed action.

  10. Glacial erosion in limestone, yes or no? A comment on the black and white geotectonic interpretation of geomorphological settings of the Triglav Lakes Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Kunaver

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers some critical remarks on the tectonic interpretation of the geomorphologi-cal evolution of the Triglav Lakes Valley (the southern part of Julian Alps, Slovenia which denies not only the importance of the glacial erosion during the last Pleistocene glaciation, but also other morphogenetic agents during the Pleistocene and before (Šmuc, Rožič, 2009. By our opinion, the glacial and non-glacial morphogenetic factors were completely neglected in this paper.

  11. Metals and Histopathological Alterations in the Kidneys of Schizothorax niger, Heckel from the Dal Lake of Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya Yousuf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the metal induced abnormalities in the kidneys of Schizothorax niger, Heckel from Dal lake seasonally for a period of two years. The varied seasonal metal concentrations for copper (64.61 ± 3.10 to 78.90 ± 3.42 ppm, zinc (88.77 ± 3.52 to 101.99 ± 4.03 ppm, iron (200.99 ± 5.04 to 292.61 ± 4.25 ppm and manganese (0.84 ± 0.06 to 06.95 ± 0.93 ppm were observed during the entire period of study. The highest concentration of metals was observed in the summer seasons and the lowest concentrations in the winter seasons during the study period. Further, histochemical analysis demonstrated high levels of metal ion (Cu, Fe and Zn in the kidneys of the fish in summer seasons during the study period. Analysis of these levels demonstrated by wet digestion-based Atomic Absorption and combined with histochemical methods, showed probable relationship between these high metallic levels and gill pathology. The general changes in the kidneys of the host included atrophy of the glomerulus with hypercellularity and hyperplasia. The other changes in the kidneys included mild congestion during winter seasons to severe tubular degeneration during summer seasons. The accumulation of different metals in the kidneys of the host can be attributed to the water pollution of Dal Lake by various metals and the subsequent histological abnormalities can be speculated to be due to the higher sensitivity of the host to different contaminants. From the present study it was concluded that the metals in the environment are polluting the water bodies and their subsequent deleterious effects harm the aquatic fauna particularly the native fish Schizothorax niger which would be one of the reasons for its decline from fresh water resources of the Kashmir Valley. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(2.000: 74-80

  12. Part 2: Sedimentary geology of the Valles, Marineris, Mars and Antarctic dry valley lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed mapping of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars from high-resolution Viking orbiter images revealed that they from plateaus of rhythmically layered material whose bases are in the lowest elevations of the canyon floors, and whose tops are within a few hundred meters in elevation of the surrounding plateaus. Four hypotheses for the origin of the layered deposits were considered: that they are eolian deposits; that they are remnants of the same material as the canyon walls; that they are explosive volcanic deposits; or that they were deposited in standing bodies of water. There are serious morphologic objections to each of the first three. The deposition of the layered deposits in standing bodies of water best explains their lateral continuity, horizontality, great thickness, rhythmic nature, and stratigraphic relationships with other units within the canyons. The Martian climatic history indicated that any ancient lakes were ice covered. Two methods for transporting sediment through a cover of ice on a martian lake appear to be feasible. Based on the presently available data, along with the theoretical calculations presented, it appears most likely that the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris were laid down in standing bodies of water.

  13. The Dry Valley Lakes, Antarctica: from sulfur stains on Earth to sulfur stains in the Jovian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chela-Flores, Julian; Seckbach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Most organisms dwell in what we consider to be "normal" environments, while others, which are called extremophiles, may thrive in harsher conditions. These living organisms are mainly of unicellular (both prokaryotes and, to a lesser extent, there are some eukaryotes) But the extremophiles also include multicellular organisms, including worms, insects and crustaceans. In the present work we survey specific extremophiles in some detail. Astrobiology is concerned with all of these extremophiles, as they may be models for extant life in similar environments elsewhere in the universe. In the more restricted search for life through exploration of the Solar System, the main focus is on the preparation of suites of experiments that may attempt to discover the habitability of planets and their satellites. In this context we ask ourselves: What biosignatures can facilitate life detection, both unicellular and multicellular, in extreme environments? The environments that are within reach of present and future space missions include the Jupiter satellite Europa. The icecovered lakes of Antarctica's McMurdo Dry Valleys have long been of interest to astrobiology. These environments harbor unique microbial ecosystems that could orient us how to plan our experiments on Europa.

  14. Numerical Simulations of an Inversion Fog Event in the Salt Lake Valley during the MATERHORN-Fog Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2018-01-01

    An advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is employed to simulate a wintertime inversion fog event in the Salt Lake Valley during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations Program (MATERHORN) field campaign during January 2015. Simulation results are compared to observations obtained from the field program. The sensitivity of numerical simulations to available cloud microphysical (CM), planetary boundary layer (PBL), radiation, and land surface models (LSMs) is evaluated. The influence of differing visibility algorithms and initialization times on simulation results is also examined. Results indicate that the numerical simulations of the fog event are sensitive to the choice of CM, PBL, radiation, and LSM as well as the visibility algorithm and initialization time. Although the majority of experiments accurately captured the synoptic setup environment, errors were found in most experiments within the boundary layer, specifically a 3° warm bias in simulated surface temperatures compared to observations. Accurate representation of surface and boundary layer variables are vital in correctly predicting fog in the numerical model.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Quantitative Trait Loci for Shattering in Japonica Rice Landrace Jiucaiqing from Taihu Lake Valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Easy shattering reduces yield from grain loss during rice ( L. harvest. We characterized a nonshattering rice landrace Jiucaiqing from Taihu Lake valley in China. The breaking tensile strength (BTS; grams force, gf of the grain pedicel was measured using a digital force gauge to evaluate the degree of shattering at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d after heading (DAH. The BTS of Jiucaiqing did not significantly decrease with increasing DAH, maintaining a level of 152.2 to 195.9 gf, while that of IR26 decreased greatly during 0 to 14 DAH and finally stabilized at ∼100 gf. Then the chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs and near isogenic lines (NILs of Jiucaiqing in IR26 background were developed for quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping. Four putative QTL (, , , and for shattering were detected, and the was confirmed on chromosome 1. We further mapped to a 98.4-kb region, which contains 14 genes. Os01g62920 was considered to be a strong candidate for , which colocated with . Further quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses confirmed that the QTL can significantly decrease the expression of shattering related genes (, , , , and especially at the middle development stage at 10 and 15 cm panicle length, which causes rice shattering decrease. The elite allele and the NIL with desirable agronomic traits identified in this study could be useful for rice breeding.

  16. Glacier lake outburst floods caused by glacier shrinkage: case study of Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz Ala Too, northern Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakov, D.; Erochin, S. A.; Harbor, J.; Ivanov, M.; Rogozhina, I.; Stroeven, A. P.; Usubaliev, R.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in glacier extent and runoff in Central Asia increase socio-economic stress and may result in political conflict between donors of freshwater (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) and recipients of freshwater (Uzbekistan, China). Glaciers in the Pamir and Tian Shan regions have experienced an unprecedented downwasting due to regional climate changes over the past decades. This is because air temperature increases are in some areas accompanied by a decrease in precipitation. Such conditions have already resulted in a reduction of glacier runoff, especially in the northern and western Tian Shan, and an increase of the number and area of glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan. Even though glacial lakes in the mountains are in general relatively small and located far from densely populated areas, their outbursts often produce destructive debris flows. Such debris flows are especially common in Kyrgyzstan because of its steep river channels and abundance of Holocene and Quaternary glacier deposits that can be remobilized. The glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in the Shakhimardan river catchment in 1999, for example, resulted in 100 fatalities in Uzbekistan, and the GLOF from the Zyndan glacial lake led to substantial economic losses in 2009. According to the latest inventory, there are more than 350 glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan of which about 70 occur in the Kyrgyz Ala Too. The Ala-Archa valley is among the most important glacierized catchments in Kyrgyzstan. Despite the presence of a relatively small glacier-covered area of 36 km2, the Ala-Archa river is of critical importance to the Bishkek area, its agriculture, and its population which currently exceeds one million. GLOFs are therefore a threat to both numerous settlements of touristic value in the Ala-Archa headwaters and to Bishkek. The Teztor lake in the Adygene catchment of the Ala-Archa river system experienced an outburst during 1988 and 2005. On the early morning of July 31, 2012, this lake began draining through a dam

  17. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Data: Investigator Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Coordinating Center provides SWAN data access to SWAN Investigators through the study website. The SWAN website provides access to longitudinal data...

  18. Mute swans and their Chesapeake Bay habitats: proceedings of a symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The symposium 'Mute Swans and their Chesapeake Bay Habitats,' held on June 7, 2001, provided a forum for biologists and managers to share research findings and management ideas concerning the exotic and invasive mute swan (Cygnus olar). This species has been increasing in population size and is considered by many to be a problem in regard to natural food resources in the Bay that are used by native waterfowl during the winter months. Other persons, however, feel that resource managers are attempting to create a problem to justify more killing of waterfowl by hunters. Some persons also believe that managers should focus on the larger issues causing the decline of native food resources, such as the unabated human population increase in the Bay watershed and in the immediate coastal areas of the Bay. The symposium, sponsored by the Wildfowl Trust of North America and the U.S. Geological Survey, provided the atmosphere for presentation of mute swan data and opinions in a collegial setting where discussion was welcomed and was often informative and enthusiastic. An interesting historic review of the swan in regard to the history of mankind was presented, followed by a discussion on the positive and negative effects of invasive species. Biologists from different parts of the continent discussed the population status of the species in several states in the east and in the Great Lakes area. Data on the food habits of this species were presented in regard to submerged aquatic vegetation, and an interesting discussion on the role that the food habits of Canada geese in regard to native vegetation was presented. Findings and recommendations of the Mute Swan Task Force were presented. Finally, a representative of the Friends of Animals gave a thought-provoking presentation in defense of the mute swan. The presentations, in general, provided the necessary information and recommendations to allow managers to proceed with management of this controversial species with new and

  19. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada : 1991 Annual water management report 1992 Annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1991 Annual Water Management Report 1992 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes Ruby Lake 1991 weather summary, summary of 1991 water levels, water...

  20. Review of SOP's for Prodcutivity Surveys for EP tundra swans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report reviews the SOPs for productivity surveys of tundra swans to identify areas of improvement. An average of 18,700 swans has been surveyed in the Atlantic...

  1. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Trumpeter Swan - Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The survey estimates recruitment of trumpeter swan on the refuge. The survey should be conducted in August and September, before migratory swans arrive on the Refuge...

  2. Valley formation by groundwater seepage, pressurized groundwater outbursts and crater-lake overflow in flume experiments with implications for Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Wouter A.; Braat, Lisanne; Baar, Anne W.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    2014-01-01

    Remains of fluvial valleys on Mars reveal the former presence of water on the surface. However, the source of water and the hydrological setting is not always clear, especially in types of valleys that are rare on Earth and where we have limited knowledge of the processes involved. We investigated

  3. Decadal-scale changes in dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater used for public supply, Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Spangler, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Basin-fill aquifers are a major source of good-quality water for public supply in many areas of the southwestern United States and have undergone increasing development as populations have grown over time. During 2005, the basin-fill aquifer in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, provided approximately 75,000 acre-feet, or about 29 percent of the total amount of water used by a population of 967,000. Groundwater in the unconsolidated basin-fill deposits that make up the aquifer occurs under unconfined and confined conditions. Water in the shallow unconfined part of the groundwater system is susceptible to near-surface contamination and generally is not used as a source of drinking water. Groundwater for public supply is withdrawn from the deeper unconfined and confined parts of the system, termed the principal aquifer, because yields generally are greater and water quality is better (including lower dissolved-solids concentrations) than in the shallower parts of the system. Much of the water in the principal aquifer is derived from recharge in the adjacent Wasatch Range (mountain-block recharge). In many areas, the principal aquifer is separated from the overlying shallow aquifer by confining layers of less permeable, fine-grained sediment that inhibit the downward movement of water and any potential contaminants from the surface. Nonetheless, under certain hydrologic conditions, human-related activities can increase dissolved-solids concentrations in the principal aquifer and result in groundwater becoming unsuitable for consumption without treatment or mixing with water having lower dissolved-solids concentrations. Dissolved-solids concentrations in areas of the principal aquifer used for public supply typically are less than 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) secondary (nonenforceable) drinking-water standard. However, substantial increases in dissolved-solids concentrations in the principal aquifer have been documented in some

  4. Mortality in tundra swans Cygnus columbianus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.; Serie, J.R.; Converse, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Our paper identifies and examines the significance of hunting and non-hunting mortality affecting the Eastern Population (EP) and Western Population (WP) (see Serie & Bartonek 1991a) of Tundra Swans. Sport hunting (Serie & Bartonek 1991b), native subsistence hunting (Copp 1989, Stewart & Bernier 1989), malicious shooting (McKelvey & MacNeill 1981), avian cholera (Friend et al. 1981, Schroeder 1983), ecto- and endoparasites (Trauger & Bartonek 1977, Woebeser 1981), lead poisoning (Sherwood 1960, Friend et al. 1981), collision (Willard 1978), and drowning (Miller et al. 1986) have been documented as being direct or indirect causes of mortality in fledged Tundra Swans; but their relative importance remains unknown.

  5. Characterizing Microbial Mat Morphology with Structure from Motion Techniques in Ice-Covered Lake Joyce, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, T. J.; Leidman, S. Z.; Allen, B.; Hawes, I.; Lawrence, J.; Jungblut, A. D.; Krusor, M.; Coleman, L.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Structure from Motion (SFM) techniques can provide quantitative morphological documentation of otherwise inaccessible benthic ecosystems such as microbial mats in Lake Joyce, a perennially ice-covered lake of the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV). Microbial mats are a key ecosystem of MDV lakes, and diverse mat morphologies like pinnacles emerge from interactions among microbial behavior, mineralization, and environmental conditions. Environmental gradients can be isolated to test mat growth models, but assessment of mat morphology along these gradients is complicated by their inaccessibility: the Lake Joyce ice cover is 4-5 m thick, water depths containing diverse pinnacle morphologies are 9-14 m, and relevant mat features are cm-scale. In order to map mat pinnacle morphology in different sedimentary settings, we deployed drop cameras (SeaViewer and GoPro) through 29 GPS referenced drill holes clustered into six stations along a transect spanning 880 m. Once under the ice cover, a boom containing a second GoPro camera was unfurled and rotated to collect oblique images of the benthic mats within dm of the mat-water interface. This setup allowed imaging from all sides over a ~1.5 m diameter area of the lake bottom. Underwater lens parameters were determined for each camera in Agisoft Lens; images were reconstructed and oriented in space with the SFM software Agisoft Photoscan, using the drop camera axis of rotation as up. The reconstructions were compared to downward facing images to assess accuracy, and similar images of an object with known geometry provided a test for expected error in reconstructions. Downward facing images identify decreasing pinnacle abundance in higher sedimentation settings, and quantitative measurements of 3D reconstructions in KeckCAVES LidarViewer supplement these mat morphological facies with measurements of pinnacle height and orientation. Reconstructions also help isolate confounding variables for mat facies trends with measurements

  6. Free Will, Black Swans and Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Ted; Wiers, Reinout W

    2017-01-01

    The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black. We argue that, for example, people suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome, can be described as having a brain disease, often caused by alcohol addiction. Moreover, the brain changes occurring with addiction are related to choice-behaviour (and the related notions of willed action), habit formation and insight, hence essential mental abilities to break the addiction. We argue for a more graded perspective, where both black swans (severe brain disease which makes recovery virtually impossible) and white swans (unaffected brain) are rare, and most cases of addiction come as geese in different shades of gray.

  7. 1989 Annual water management report 1990 Annual water management plan : Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1989 Annual Water Management Report 1990 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes 1989 weather summary, water availability forecast, summary of 1989...

  8. Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Ruby Valley Nevada : 1992 Annual water management report 1993 Annual water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ruby Lake NWR 1992 Annual Water Management Report 1993 Annual Water Management Plan. Includes summary of 1992 weather, 1992 water levels, water availability forecast...

  9. Reconstructing historical changes in the environmental health of watersheds by using sediment cores from lakes and reservoirs in Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Stephens, Doyle W.; Callender, Edward; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2000-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins study area of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, which began in 1997, is increasing the scientific understanding of factors that affect surface-water quality within the study-area boundaries (fig. 1). One way to improve the understanding of these factors is to look at historical trends in existing water-quality data. Unfortunately, short record lengths, in- consistent analytical methods, numerous measurements at less than detection levels, and questionable accuracy limit the usefulness of historical monitoring data for most trace inorganic and organic contaminants found in streams, rivers, and lakes in the study area.

  10. Comparison of Skylab and LANDSAT images for geologic mapping in Northern Arizona. [Shivwits Plateau, Verde Valley, Coconino Plateau, and Red Lake in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, A. F. H. (Principal Investigator); Abrams, M. J.; Gillespie, A. R.; Siegal, B. S.; Elston, D. P.; Lucchitta, I.; Wu, S. S. C.; Sanchez, A.; Dipaola, W. D.; Schafer, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was found that based on resolution, the Skylab S190A products were superior to LANDSAT images. Based on measurements of shoreline features in Lake Mead S190A images had 1.5 - 3 times greater resolution than LANDSAT. In general, the higher resolution of the Skylab data yielded better discrimination among rock units, but in the case of structural features, lower sun angle LANDSAT images (50 deg) were superior to higher sun angle Skylab images (77 deg). The most valuable advantage of the Skylab over the LANDSAT image products is the capability of producing stereo images. Field spectral reflectance measurements on the Coconino Plateau were made in an effort to determine the best spectral band for discrimination of the six geologic units in question, and these bands were 1.3, 1.2, 1.0, and 0.5 microns. The EREP multispectral scanner yielded data with a low signal to noise ratio which limited its usefulness for image enhancement work. Sites that were studied in Arizona were Shivwits Plateau, Verde Valley, Coconino Plateau, and Red Lake. Thematic maps produced by the three classification algorithms analyzed were not as accurate as the maps produced by photointerpretation of composites of enhanced images.

  11. Stromatolites Record Changing Primary Productivity in Perennially Ice-Covered Lake Joyce, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, T. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Hawes, I.; Jungblut, A. D.; Leidman, S. Z.; Andersen, D. T.

    2016-12-01

    Calcite-rich dm-scale columnar stromatolites grew in perennially ice-covered Lake Joyce, Antarctica, and their calcite contains carbon isotopic records of microbial activity during recent lake level rise. Stromatolite growth initiated in water depths stromatolites were at 20-22 m water depth and received insufficient irradiance for net photosynthetic growth. Some calcite layers in the stromatolites contain cyanobacterial microfossils as well as sediment laminae, which indicate that this calcite precipitated at the stromatolite surface in association with photosynthesizing communities. The innermost stromatolite layers have variable δ13C values ranging from 3.9 to 9.6‰ in coeval calcite. Regions such as topographic highs and parts of stromatolites growing into open water have both thicker calcite layers and δ13C values that are 0.3 to 1.0‰ higher than other areas. Outer stromatolite layers have a smaller range of δ13Ccalcite values spanning 1.3‰. Variations in carbon isotopes can be attributed to photosynthetic effects. Photosynthetic shallow modern mats in Lake Joyce have pH up to 0.4 units higher than the water column, and pH increases and decreases with irradiance through diurnal cycles. Irradiance also varies laterally; light transmission through the Lake Joyce ice cover varied over 500% laterally in 2014. If the modern mats reflect conditions present during early stromatolite growth, high photosynthetic rates likely enhanced calcite precipitation and produced a photosynthetic δ13C signature in stromatolitic calcite. Variability in innermost stromatolite δ13C values is consistent with different rates of photosynthesis due to laterally variable light transmission through the ice. With lake level rise, incident irradiance decreased and became more uniform, leading to more consistent δ13Ccalcite values. Lake Joyce stromatolites thus record the effects of changing irradiance on photosynthetic signatures.

  12. Mammal Inventory of the Mojave Network Parks-Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Charles A.; Hart, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of a mammal inventory study of National Park Service units in the Mojave Desert Network, including Death Valley National Park, Joshua Tree National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve. Fieldwork for the inventory focused on small mammals, primarily rodents and bats. Fieldwork for terrestrial small mammals used trapping with Sherman and Tomahawk small- and medium-sized mammal traps, along with visual surveys for diurnal species. The majority of sampling for terrestrial small mammals was carried out in 2002 and 2003. Methods used in field surveys for bats included mist-netting at tanks and other water bodies, along with acoustic surveys using Anabat. Most of the bat survey work was conducted in 2003. Because of extremely dry conditions in the first two survey years (and associated low mammal numbers), we extended field sampling into 2004, following a relatively wet winter. In addition to field sampling, we also reviewed, evaluated, and summarized museum and literature records of mammal species for all of the Park units. We documented a total of 59 mammal species as present at Death Valley National Park, with an additional five species that we consider of probable occurrence. At Joshua Tree, we also documented 50 species, and an additional four 'probable' species. At Lake Mead National Recreation Area, 57 mammal species have been positively documented, with 10 additional probable species. Manzanar National Historic Site had not been previously surveyed. We documented 19 mammal species at Manzanar, with an additional 11 probable species. Mojave National Preserve had not had a comprehensive list previously, either. There are now a total of 50 mammal species documented at Mojave, with three additional probable species. Of these totals, 23 occurrences are new at individual park units (positively documented for the first time), with most of these being at Manzanar

  13. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California (ver. 2.0, January 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-06-30

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and also for preparing emergency response plans.The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault Zone to the east of the study area.In this report, an earthquake scenario is intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. A scenario earthquake is not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquake possible on a recognized fault. Rather it is both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider it in regional emergency response plans. In particular, the ground motion predicted for a given scenario earthquake does not represent a full probabilistic hazard assessment, and thus it does not provide the basis for hazard zoning and earthquake-resistant building design.Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM). Alternatives

  14. Ecological response to hydrological variability and catchment development: Insights from a shallow oxbow lake in Lower Mississippi Valley, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Ruchi; Hausmann, Sonja; Hubeny, J Bradford; Gell, Peter; Black, Jessica L

    2016-11-01

    The ecological response of shallow oxbow lakes to variability in hydrology and catchment development in large river floodplain ecosystems (RFE) in Arkansas remains largely unknown. Investigating these responses will advance our understanding of ecological evolution of oxbow lakes in response to the major environmental drivers, which will establish baseline conditions required to develop effective management practices for RFE. In this pilot study, we examined the potential of using a dated surface sediment core from Adams Bayou, a floodplain lake located within the Cache-Lower White River Ramsar site in SE Arkansas. Stratigraphic records of diatoms and sediment geochemistry were used to ascertain variation in Adams Bayou's ecological condition. During 1968-2008, in response to hydrological and anthropogenic changes, Adams Bayou's diatom assemblages progressed from predominantly benthic (Gomphonema parvulum and Meridion circulare) to primarily planktonic assemblage (Aulacoseira granulata and Cyclotella meneghiniana), along with a decrease in magnetic susceptibility (k) and % silt. Statistical analyses reveled that during 1968-2000, higher hydrological connectivity and catchment alterations drove Adams Bayou's ecosystem. After 2000, lower hydrological connectivity and increase in cultivation were the major drivers. The potential impact of increasing air temperature was also noted. The shift in Adams Bayou from a connected, clear, mesotrophic state to a relatively isolated, turbid and nutrient enriched state is consistent with regime shift models and highlights its sensitivity to a combination of environmental stresses prevalent in the catchment. Although fluvial systems pose challenges in establishing clear chronologies, oxbow lake sediments can be a effective paleoecological archives. Our work provides clear evidence for the change in the ecological character of this wetland of international significance and flags the need for a wider assessment of water bodies

  15. Simulations of a Cold-Air Pool in Utah's Salt Lake Valley: Sensitivity to Land Use and Snow Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Christopher S.; Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2017-02-01

    Obtaining realistic land-surface states for initial and boundary conditions is important for the numerical weather prediction of many atmospheric phenomena. Here we investigate model sensitivity to land use and snow cover for a persistent wintertime cold-air pool in northern Utah during 1-8 January 2011. A Weather Research and Forecast model simulation using the 1993 United States Geological Survey land-use and North American Mesoscale model reanalysis snow-cover datasets is compared to an improved configuration using the modified 2011 National Land Cover Database and a more realistic representation of snow cover. The improved surface specification results in an increase (decrease) in urban land cover (Great Salt Lake surface area), and changes to the snow-cover initialization, depth, extent, and albedo. The results obtained from the model simulations are compared to observations collected during the Persistent Cold-Air Pool Study. The changes in land use and snow cover and the resulting impacts on the surface albedo and surface heat fluxes contributed to near-surface air temperature increases of 1-2°C in urban areas and decreases of 2-4°C in areas surrounding the Great Salt Lake. Although wind speeds in the boundary layer were overestimated in both simulations, shallow thermally-driven and terrain-forced flows were generally lessened in intensity and breadth in response to the decreased areal extent of the Great Salt Lake and increases in the urban footprint.

  16. SWANS: A Prototypic SCALE Criticality Sequence for Automated Optimization Using the SWAN Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, E.

    2001-01-11

    SWANS is a new prototypic analysis sequence that provides an intelligent, semi-automatic search for the maximum k{sub eff} of a given amount of specified fissile material, or of the minimum critical mass. It combines the optimization strategy of the SWAN code with the composition-dependent resonance self-shielded cross sections of the SCALE package. For a given system composition arrived at during the iterative optimization process, the value of k{sub eff} is as accurate and reliable as obtained using the CSAS1X Sequence of SCALE-4.4. This report describes how SWAN is integrated within the SCALE system to form the new prototypic optimization sequence, describes the optimization procedure, provides a user guide for SWANS, and illustrates its application to five different types of problems. In addition, the report illustrates that resonance self-shielding might have a significant effect on the maximum k{sub eff} value a given fissile material mass can have.

  17. Monitoring of heavy metal burden in mute swan (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grúz, Adrienn; Szemerédy, Géza; Kormos, Éva; Budai, Péter; Majoros, Szilvia; Tompai, Eleonóra; Lehel, József

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (especially arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury and lead) were measured in the contour (body) feathers of mute swans (Cygnus olor) and in its nutrients (fragile stonewort [Chara globularis], clasping leaf pondweed [Potamogeton perfoliatus], Eurasian watermilfoil [Myriophyllum spicatum], fennel pondweed [Potamogeton pectinatus]) to investigate the accumulation of metals during the food chain. The samples (17 feathers, 8 plants) were collected at Keszthely Bay of Lake Balaton, Hungary. Dry ashing procedure was used for preparing of sample and the heavy metal concentrations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Copper (10.24 ± 2.25 mg/kg) and lead (1.11 ± 1.23 mg/kg) were detected the highest level in feathers, generally, the other metals were mostly under the detection limit (0.5 mg/kg). However, the concentrations of the arsenic (3.17 ± 1.87 mg/kg), cadmium (2.41 ± 0.66 mg/kg) and lead (2.42 ± 0.89 mg/kg) in the plants were low but the chromium (198.27 ± 102.21 mg/kg) was detected in high concentration.

  18. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed Study Unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater quality in the 112-square-mile Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed (BEAR) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit comprises two study areas (Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed) in southern California in San Bernardino County. The GAMA-PBP is conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA BEAR study was designed to provide a spatially balanced, robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater from the primary aquifer systems in the two study areas of the BEAR study unit. The assessment is based on water-quality collected by the USGS from 38 sites (27 grid and 11 understanding) during 2010 and on water-quality data from the SWRCB-Division of Drinking Water (DDW) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by springs and the perforation intervals of wells listed in the SWRCB-DDW water-quality database for the BEAR study unit.This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resource as of 2010 by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the BEAR study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers. Bear Valley study area and the Lake Arrowhead Watershed study area were also compared statistically on the basis of water-quality results and factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality.Relative concentrations (RCs

  19. Geohydrology, water quality, and simulation of groundwater flow in the stratified-drift aquifer system in Virgil Creek and Dryden Lake Valleys, Town of Dryden, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tompkins County Planning Department and the Town of Dryden, New York, began a study of the stratified-drift aquifer system in the Virgil Creek and Dryden Lake Valleys in the Town of Dryden, Tompkins County. The study provided geohydrologic data needed by the town and county to develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. In this study area, three extensive confined sand and gravel aquifers (the upper, middle, and lower confined aquifers) compose the stratified-drift aquifer system. The Dryden Lake Valley is a glaciated valley oriented parallel to the direction of ice movement. Erosion by ice extensively widened and deepened the valley, truncated bedrock hillsides, and formed a nearly straight, U-shaped bedrock trough. The maximum thickness of the valley fill in the central part of the valley is about 400 feet (ft). The Virgil Creek Valley in the east part of the study area underwent less severe erosion by ice than the Dryden Lake Valley, and hence, it has a bedrock floor that is several hundred feet higher in altitude than that in the Dryden Lake Valley. The sources and amounts of recharge were difficult to identify in most areas because the confined aquifers are overlain by confining units. However, in the vicinity of the Virgil Creek Dam, the upper confined aquifer crops out at land surface in the floodplain of a gorge eroded by Virgil Creek, and this is where the aquifer receives large amounts of recharge from precipitation that directly falls over the aquifer and from seepage losses from Virgil Creek. The results of streamflow measurements made in Virgil Creek where it flows through the gorge indicated that the stream lost 1.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) or 0.78 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water in the reach extending from 220 ft downstream from the dam to 1,200 ft upstream from the dam. In the southern part of the study area, large amounts of recharge also replenish the

  20. Public Hunting and Fishing Plan Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting and fishing activities and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and...

  1. Public Use Reports from 1989 at Swan Lake NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Public use reports detailing the number of visitors to the refuge in 1989. The recorded information details the type of visitor traffic (foot, car, etc.) that...

  2. Public Use Reports From 1990 at Swan Lake NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Public use reports detailing the number of visitors to the refuge in 1990. The recorded information details the type of visitor traffic (foot, car, etc.) that...

  3. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bullheads (Ictalurus sp.), carp (Cyprinus carpio), a quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus), a bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), and a turtle were collected from Elk,...

  4. Carrying capacity of a heterogeneous lake for migrating swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyimesi, A.

    2010-01-01

    One way to express the value of a natural habitat is its capacity to harbour a particular target species. In the case of migratory birds, the cumulative number of birds that can be accommodated at a site for a given period of time (‘bird-days’) became an accepted currency for this carrying capacity.

  5. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse Noel; de Glanville, William Anson; Thomas, Lian Francesca; Kariuki, Samuel; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Wamae, Claire Njeri; LaBeaud, Angelle Desiree; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5–1.3). The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1–1.4, pslaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5–4.2). Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal’s throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0–12.1, p = 0.047), was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further evidence for RVFV circulation in western Kenya. PMID:28686589

  6. 27 CFR 9.23 - Napa Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located within Napa County, California. From the beginning point at the conjuction of the Napa County-Sonoma County line and the Napa County-Lake County line, the boundary runs along— (1) The Napa County-Lake County line; (2) Putah Creek and the western and southern shores of Lake...

  7. Tundra swan avian infuenza surveillance and banding effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Alaska Peninsula as part of statewide Avian Influenza (AI) investigations in mid to late July 2008. This...

  8. The swans and geese of Alaska's arctic slope

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A mid-summer aerial search was made on the 23,000 square miles of waterfowl habitat on Alaska's Arctic slope. Observations included 159 whistling swan (Olor...

  9. SWAN: a Service for Interactive Analysis in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piparo, Danilo; Mato, Pere; Mascetti, Luca; Moscicki, Jakub; Lamanna, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    SWAN (Service for Web based ANalysis) is a platform to perform interactive data analysis in the cloud. SWAN allows users to write and run their data analyses with only a web browser, leveraging on the widely-adopted Jupyter notebook interface. The user code, executions and data live entirely in the cloud. SWAN makes it easier to produce and share results and scientific code, access scientific software, produce tutorials and demonstrations as well as preserve analyses. Furthermore, it is also a powerful tool for non-scientific data analytics. This paper describes how a pilot of the SWAN service was implemented and deployed at CERN. Its backend combines state-of-the-art software technologies with a set of existing IT services such as user authentication, virtual computing infrastructure, mass storage, file synchronisation and sharing, specialised clusters and batch systems. The added value of this combination of services is discussed, with special focus on the opportunities offered by the CERNBox service and it...

  10. Tundra swan avian influenza surveillance and banding effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAKP) as part of statewide Avian Influenza (AI) investigations in late July 2009....

  11. Tundra swan avian influenza surveillance and banding effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAKP) and the Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAKP) in late July 2010 as part of...

  12. Tundra swan avain influenza surveillance and banding effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Alaska Peninsula as part of statewide Avian Influenza (AI) investigations in late July 2006. At Caribou River,...

  13. Tundra swan avian influenza surveillance and banding effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Alaska Peninsula as part of statewide Avian Influenza (AI) investigations in late July 2007. On the Northern...

  14. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  16. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  20. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  1. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  2. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  3. The sero-epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in people in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting livestock and people. This study was conducted in western Kenya where RVFV outbreaks have not previously been reported. The aims were to document the seroprevalence and risk factors for RVFV antibodies in a community-based sample from western Kenya and compare this with slaughterhouse workers in the same region who are considered a high-risk group for RVFV exposure. The study was conducted in western Kenya between July 2010 and November 2012. Individuals were recruited from randomly selected homesteads and a census of slaughterhouses. Structured questionnaire tools were used to collect information on demographic data, health, and risk factors for zoonotic disease exposure. Indirect ELISA on serum samples determined seropositivity to RVFV. Risk factor analysis for RVFV seropositivity was conducted using multi-level logistic regression. A total of 1861 individuals were sampled in 384 homesteads. The seroprevalence of RVFV in the community was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.3. The variables significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in the community were increasing age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p<0.001, and slaughtering cattle at the homestead (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-10.5, p = 0.047. A total of 553 slaughterhouse workers were sampled in 84 ruminant slaughterhouses. The seroprevalence of RVFV in slaughterhouse workers was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5-4.2. Being the slaughterman, the person who cuts the animal's throat (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.0-12.1, p = 0.047, was significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity. This study investigated and compared the epidemiology of RVFV between community members and slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya. The data demonstrate that slaughtering animals is a risk factor for RVFV seropositivity and that slaughterhouse workers are a high-risk group for RVFV seropositivity in this environment. These risk factors have been previously reported in other studies providing further

  4. Estimating travel times of nitrate from the root zone to the water table at the basin scale: Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, D. B.; Harter, T.; Fogg, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) in agriculture are developed for a number of reasons, often with the intent of minimizing the release of chemical pollutants to surface and ground water. There is a lag time from when a BMP is enacted, and when its effects can be seen at a particular location. Nitrate, being the most pervasive pollutant in agricultural areas of California, has been extensively researched regarding the improved efficiency and management of its use. The goal of this investigation is to determine areas within the Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas Valley where the effect of BMPs will be observed the soonest at the water table, and to identify which areas will experience significant lag. Although heterogeneity can cause preferential flow through the vadose zone, resolving detailed soil structure for 2D and 3D simulations is not feasible at the scale of 1000's of sq. miles. In light of this, three maps were created based on three homogeneous soil types: sand, loam, and clay soil, representing the quickest, intermediate, and slowest probable travel times, respectively. HYDRUS 1D was used to model travel times to the water table by specifying annual leachate fluxes and depth to the water table. Annual fluxes of agricultural return water were determined by mass balance using the differences between calculated evapotranspiration from a field and the amount of water applied through natural precipitation and irrigation (including various irrigation technologies and their associated efficiencies). The result of this modeling effort is a regional scale map of the spatial distribution of travel times to the water table. This provides a helpful tool for regional planners, distinguishing where adjusted BMPs can have a relatively quick impact to water quality at the water table compared to areas which will likely experience longer time lags to show a response.

  5. Cardiac filariosis in migratory Mute swans (Cygnus olor in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Manno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarconema eurycerca is a common parasitic disease of North America swans and geese. The infection has been correlated with severe heart lesions, often resulting in cardiac failure and death of the animals. Heartworms infections have been previously reported in European swans, and specifically in the United Kingdom and Nederland. Both the countries are characterized by a cold temperate weather, similar to the one that can be found in swan wintering areas of U.S.A. and Canada. The first record of cardiac filariasis associated with Sarconema eurycerca infection in four swans in Italy. Twelve mute swans were examined during avian influenza surveillance activities on migratory birds. Birds were collected in the year 2006, in wintering areas of Eastern Sicily (Italy. Four of the twelve swans showed necrotic-haemorrhagic myocarditis with intra-lesional nematodes. Morphological characteristics identified the parasite as a filarial nematode. Birds lungs samples were used for parasites DNA extraction. The latter was used as template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and sequencing of part of the 12S rDNA gene. Comparison of genomic DNA extracted from a reference S. eurycerca isolate confirmed parasite identity and provided the first sequence resources for this species of value to future diagnostic and epidemiological studies.

  6. Coexistence and population genetic structure of the whooper swan Cygnus cygnus and mute swan Cygnus olor in Lithuania and Latvia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butkauskas, Dalius; Švažas, Saulius; Tubelytė, Vaida; Morkūnas, Julius; Sruoga, Aniolas; Boiko, Dmitrijs; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Stanevičius, Vitas; Baublys, Vykintas

    2012-01-01

    .... Marked differences in the genetic population structure of both species may partially explain the dominance of the whooper swan, as genetic population divergence can be a major factor affecting inter...

  7. When is the Swan Knight not the Swan Knight? 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Alastair

    2017-01-01

    Berthold von Holle wrote three thirteenth-century romances that straddle the boundary between Low and High German. This article addresses the challenges posed by his position on the northern perimeter of the medieval German literary canon. It argues against a reductive focus on Arthurian romance...... when contextualizing Berthold, describing instead an apparent reworking of the Swan Knight story in Demantin. The article thereby reassesses Berthold’s significance, proposing that research on European literatures would be better able to deal with such authors if it deployed an abstract concept...... of literary space alongside approaches that focus on the material world and manuscript transmission....

  8. Overview of efforts to expand the range of the Rocky Mountain population of trumpeter swans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Near extinction in 1900, by 1992 the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) contained +2200 swans. The foremost problem facing the...

  9. Population structure and productivity of whistling swans on the Yukon Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Whistling swans Cygnus colombianus are the most conspicuous of wildfowl of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the principal nesting grounds for swans wintering in western...

  10. Ballet in the Dark: A Critical Review of Black Swan by Darren Aronofsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Angela Corpus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Choreographing the life of a ballerina in an ominous psychological thriller is a highly gendered project that takes us to well-established suspects in the patriarchal schema of the ballet world. Black Swan’s filmmakers created a narrative out of a performance of the classic ballet Swan Lake, making it a mimicry of the life of the tragic heroine Nina Sayers (Natalie Portman. The symptomatic pathology of perfectionism haunts the lead character, revealing her manifest hubris while unmasking the systemic social conditioning of women in the ballet system. These women are driven to become tenacious competitors, pleasant and willing objects of a gaze and patronage that are traditionally male-defined and controlled.

  11. Artificial intelligence based decision support for trumpeter swan management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojda, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    The number of trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) breeding in the Tri-State area where Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming come together has declined to just a few hundred pairs. However, these birds are part of the Rocky Mountain Population which additionally has over 3,500 birds breeding in Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, and Yukon Territory. To a large degree, these birds seem to have abandoned traditional migratory pathways in the flyway. Waterfowl managers have been interested in decision support tools that would help them explore simulated management scenarios in their quest towards reaching population recovery and the reestablishment of traditional migratory pathways. I have developed a decision support system to assist biologists with such management, especially related to wetland ecology. Decision support systems use a combination of models, analytical techniques, and information retrieval to help develop and evaluate appropriate alternatives. Swan management is a domain that is ecologically complex, and this complexity is compounded by spatial and temporal issues. As such, swan management is an inherently distributed problem. Therefore, the ecological context for modeling swan movements in response to management actions was built as a multiagent system of interacting intelligent agents that implements a queuing model representing swan migration. These agents accessed ecological knowledge about swans, their habitats, and flyway management principles from three independent expert systems. The agents were autonomous, had some sensory capability, and could respond to changing conditions. A key problem when developing ecological decision support systems is empirically determining that the recommendations provided are valid. Because Rocky Mountain trumpeter swans have been surveyed for a long period of time, I was able to compare simulated distributions provided by the system with actual field observations across 20 areas for the period 1988

  12. 50 CFR 20.107 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tundra swans. 20.107 Section 20.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.107 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. This section provides for the annual hunting of tundra swans in designated portions of the 48 contiguous United...

  13. Black swans and dragon kings: A unified model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-09-01

    The term “black swan” is a metaphor for outlier events whose statistics are characterized by Pareto's Law and by Zipf's Law; namely, statistics governed by power-law tails. The term “dragon king” is a metaphor for a singular outlier event which, in comparison with all other outlier events, is in a league of its own. As an illustrative example consider the wealth of a family that is sampled at random from a medieval society: the nobility constitutes the black-swan category, and the royal family constitutes the dragon-king category. In this paper we present and analyze a dynamical model that generates, universally and jointly, black swans and dragon kings. According to this model, growing from the microscopic scale to the macroscopic scale, black swans and dragon kings emerge together and invariantly with respect to initial conditions.

  14. Characterization of microsatellite loci isolated in trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, J. St; Ransler, F.A.; Quinn, T.W.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Primers for 16 microsatellite loci were developed for the trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator), a species recovering from a recent population bottleneck. In a screen of 158 individuals, the 16 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from two to seven alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although two loci repeatedly revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amplification in the closely related tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) was successful for all except one locus. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses and ultimately aid in management efforts. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  15. Susan swan and the female grotesque Susan swan and the female grotesque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Bornéo Funck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics. Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics.

  16. Arsenic and selenium in soils and shallow ground water in the Turtle Lake, New Rockford, Harvey Pumping, Lincoln Valley, and LaMoure irrigation areas of the Garrison Diversion Unit, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkas, W.R.; Komor, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Garrison Diversion Unit project was authorized as part of the Pick-Sloan Missouri River Basin program to divert water from Lake Sakakawea to irrigation areas in North Dakota. A special GarrisonCommission was created to evaluate an environmental concern that return flow from the irrigation areas might contain metals in toxic concentrations. This report summarizes the results of detailed investigations of the Turtle Lake, New Rockford, Harvey Pumping, Lincoln Valley, and LaMoure irrigation areas. A total of 223 soil samples were collected from the irrigation areas and analyzed for elemental composition. Water extractions were done on 40 of the 223 soil samplesusing a 1:5 soil-to-water extraction method, and the solution from the extraction was analyzed for elemental composition. A total of 52 ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic carbon. Average arsenic concentrations in the entire soil column ranged from 1.0 milligram per kilogram in the Harvey Pumping irrigation area to 70milligrams per kilogram in the New Rockford irrigation area. Average selenium concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 milligram per kilogramin the Turtle Lake, New Rockford, Harvey Pumping, and Lincoln Valley irrigation areas to 6.0 milligrams per kilogram in the Turtle Lakeirrigation area. In the Turtle Lake irrigation area, average arsenic and selenium concentrations generally increased with depth through the topsoil, oxidized soil, and transition soil but decreased in the reduced soil at the bottom of the sampled horizons.Average arsenic concentrations in the New Rockford irrigation area follow the same pattern as in the Turtle Lake irrigation area, but selenium concentrations do not show a clear pattern of variation with depth. In the Harvey Pumping and Lincoln Valley irrigation areas, arsenic andselenium concentrations do not appear to vary systematically with depth. No correlation is shown between the concentrations in soils and

  17. The use of a wave boundary layer model in SWAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2017-01-01

    A Wave Boundary Layer Model (WBLM) is implemented in the third-generation ocean wave model SWAN to improve the wind-input source function under idealized, fetch-limited condition. Accordingly, the white capping dissipation parameters are re-calibrated to fit the new wind-input source function...

  18. The black swan the impact of the highly improbable

    CERN Document Server

    Taleb, Nassim Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    A black swan is a highly improbable event with three principal characteristics: It is unpredictable; it carries a massive impact; and, after the fact, we concoct an explanation that makes it appear less random, and more predictable, than it was. The astonishing success of Google was a black swan; so was 9/11. For Nassim Nicholas Taleb, black swans underlie almost everything about our world, from the rise of religions to events in our own personal lives. Why do we not acknowledge the phenomenon of black swans until after they occur? Part of the answer, according to Taleb, is that humans are hardwired to learn specifics when they should be focused on generalities. We concentrate on things we already know and time and time again fail to take into consideration what we don’t know. We are, therefore, unable to truly estimate opportunities, too vulnerable to the impulse to simplify, narrate, and categorize, and not open enough to rewarding those who can imagine the “impossible.” For years, Taleb has studi...

  19. 27 CFR 9.76 - Knights Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Valley viticultural area is located in northeastern Sonoma County, California. From the beginning point lying at the intersection of the Sonoma/Lake County line and the north line of Section 11, Township 10...,” and “Mount St. Helena Quadrangle” maps to the point of intersection with the Lake County line on the...

  20. Reconstruction of a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in the Engaño Valley, Chilean Patagonia: Lessons for GLOF risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacona, Pablo Iribarren; Mackintosh, Andrew; Norton, Kevin

    2015-09-15

    Floods from moraine-dammed lake failures can have long standing effects not only on riverine landscapes but also on mountain communities due to the high intensity (i.e. great depth and high velocities) and damaging capacity of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). GLOFs may increase in frequency as glaciers retreat and new lakes develop and there is an urgent need to better understand GLOF dynamics and the measures required to reduce their negative outcomes. In Patagonia at least 16 moraine-dammed lakes have failed in historic time, however, data about GLOF dynamics and impacts in this region are limited. We reconstruct a GLOF that affected a small village in Chilean Patagonia in March 1977, by semi structured interviews, interpretation of satellite images and 2D hydraulic modelling. This provides insight into the GLOF dynamics and the planning issues that led to socioeconomic consequences, which included village relocation. Modelling shows that the water released by the GLOF was in the order of 12-13 × 10(6)m(3) and the flood lasted for about 10h, reaching a maximum depth of ~1.5m in Bahía Murta Viejo, ~ 26 km from the failed lake. The lake had characteristics in common with failed lakes worldwide (e.g. the lake was in contact with a retreating glacier and was dammed by a narrow-steep moraine). The absence of land-use planning and the unawareness of the GLOF hazard contributed to the village flooding. The Río Engaño GLOF illustrates how small-scale and short-distance migration is a reasonable coping strategy in response to a natural hazard that may increase in frequency as atmospheric temperature rises and glaciers retreat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mute swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Morton, Alexandra; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Most ecotoxicological risk assessments of wildlife emphasize contaminant exposure through ingestion of food and water. However, the role of incidental ingestion of sediment-bound contaminants has not been adequately appreciated in these assessments. This study evaluates the toxicological consequences of contamination of sediments with metals from hard-rock mining and smelting activities. Lead-contaminated sediments collected from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in Idaho were combined with either a commercial avian maintenance diet or ground rice and fed to captive mute swans (Cygnus olor) for 6 weeks. Experimental treatments consisted of maintenance or rice diets containing 0, 12 (no rice group), or 24% highly contaminated (3,950 ug/g lead) sediment or 24% reference (9.7 ug/g lead) sediment. Although none of the swans died, the group fed a rice diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment were the most severely affected, experiencing a 24% decrease in mean body weight, including three birds that became emaciated. All birds in this treatment group had nephrosis; abnormally dark, viscous bile; and significant (p fast intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are diagnostic of lead poisoning in waterfowl. Body weight and hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations in swans on control (no sediment) and reference (uncontaminated) sediment diets remained unchanged. These data provide evidence that mute swans consuming environmentally relevant concentrations of Coeur d'Alene River Basin sediment developed severe sublethal lead poisoning. Furthermore, toxic effects were more pronounced when the birds were fed lead contaminated sediment combined with rice, which closely resembles the diet of swans in the wild.

  2. An inter-basinal comparison of the sedimentology of Late Holocene to recent sediments in the Rift Valley, Lake Turkana, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olago, D. O.; Odada, E. O.

    2000-08-01

    Grain size variations, sediment chemistry and general mineralogical assemblages of sediments in Lake Turkana reflect provenance. Allogenic sediments in Lake Turkana are mainly supplied by the Omo and Kerio-Turkwel Rivers. Minor inputs are from seasonal streams and strong southeasterly winds. The depth profiles of the grain size distributions in lake sediment cores exhibit enantiomorphism, which is interpreted as being diagnostic both of shifts in the equilibrium energy regime of the transporting media and of the dominant provenance of particular size grades within the specific basins of the lake. The North Sub-basin is dominated by fine-grained sediments, which reflect the texture of the volcanic rocks of the Omo River drainage basin. The Central Sub-basin sediments reflect, as sources, the coarser metamorphic terrane of the Kerio-Turkwel Rivers drainage basin. Kaolinite and fine-grained iron oxides are brought into the lake mainly by the two large fluvial input systems: the Omo River in the North Sub-basin and the Kerio-Turkwel Rivers in the Central Sub-basin. Some fine-grained overflow of this material makes its way into the South Sub-basin. Illite in the North and Central Sub-basins is strongly related to transport of material from near-shore sediments and, in the Central Sub-basin and northern reaches of the South Sub-basin, from the Kerio and Turkwel Rivers input. Smectite and calcite are mainly authigenic. In the South Sub-basin, however, the relatively coarser detrital particles are derived from silt and sand-sized in situ biogenic (calcitic and siliceous) debris and ˦olian-transported particles from regions southeast of the lake. The ˦olian fraction accounts largely for the ubiquitous and distinct very fine sand size grade, and consists of quartz, feldspar and blue-green amphiboles.

  3. Late-glacial to Early Holocene lake basin and river valley formation within Pomeranian moraine belt near Dobbertin (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, NE Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Lorenz, Sebastian; Börner, Andreas; Niessner, Dominique; Słowiński, Michał; Theuerkauf, Martin; Pieper, Hagen; Lampe, Reinhard

    2014-05-01

    In central Mecklenburg-Vorpommern vast areas between the terminal moraine belts of the Frankfurt (W1F) and Pomeranian Phase (W2) were covered by glaciolacustrine basins which were embedded in the outwash plains. With deglaciation of the Pomeranian Phase around 17-18 ka BP the basins north to the villages Dobbertin and Dobbin were part of a glaciofluvial river system in combination with ice-dammed lake basins. During the late-glacial after ~14 ka cal BP the melting of buried dead ice reshaped the lake basin morphology by new depressions, in- and outlets. We study late-glacial basin and landscape development using cores collected along a pipeline trench crossing the Dobbin-Dobbertin basin. Core analysis includes sedimentological (carbon content, grainsize distribution) and palaeoecological (pollen, plant macrofossils, Cladocera) proxies. Radiocarbon dates indicate that peat formation started soon after the start of the Weichselian late-glacial. High resolution analysis of a basal peat layer indicates that initial organic and lacustrine sedimentation started in shallow ponding mires, evolving from buried dead ice sinks in the glaciofluvial sequence, in which telmatic plants (Carex aquatilis, Schoenoplectus lacustris) dominated. Chydorus sphaericus, the only cladocera species recorded, is ubiquitous and can survive in almost all reservoir types in very harsh conditions. Findings of Characeae than point at the formation of shallow lakes. The expansion of rich fen communities, including Scorpidium scorpoides, and a decline in Cladocera diversity show that these lakes soon again terrestrialised with peat formation. The appearance of Alona costata points at a lowering of pH values in that process. A tree trunk of birch (14.2 ka cal. BP) shows that first trees established during this first telmatic period. At this position in the basin, the basal peat layer is covered by minerogenic sediments, which points at a period of higher water levels and fluvial dynamics, possibly

  4. Forecasting, Foresight and Strategic Planning for Black Swans

    OpenAIRE

    Kostas Nikolopoulos; F. Petropoulos

    2015-01-01

    In this research essay we propose a methodological innovation through: a) advocating for the broader use of OR forecasting tools and in specific intermittent demand estimators for forecasting black and grey swans, as a simpler, faster and quite robust alternative to econometric probabilistic methods like EVT; b) demonstrating the use in such a context of a rather popular forecasting paradigm: the Naive method (forecasting short horizons) and the SBA method (foresight long horizons) through th...

  5. Financial black swans driven by ultrafast machine ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Neil; Hunsader, Eric; Meng, Jing; Ravindar, Amith; Carran, Spencer; Tivnan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Society's drive toward ever faster socio-technical systems, means that there is an urgent need to understand the threat from 'black swan' extreme events that might emerge. On 6 May 2010, it took just five minutes for a spontaneous mix of human and machine interactions in the global trading cyberspace to generate an unprecedented system-wide Flash Crash. However, little is known about what lies ahead in the crucial sub-second regime where humans become unable to respond or intervene sufficiently quickly. Here we analyze a set of 18,520 ultrafast black swan events that we have uncovered in stock-price movements between 2006 and 2011. We provide empirical evidence for, and an accompanying theory of, an abrupt system-wide transition from a mixed human-machine phase to a new all-machine phase characterized by frequent black swan events with ultrafast durations (<650ms for crashes, <950ms for spikes). Our theory quantifies the systemic fluctuations in these two distinct phases in terms of the diversity of the...

  6. Valley City Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Valley City WMD, Hobart Lake NWR, Sibley Lake NWR, Stoney Slough NWR, and Tomahawk NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  7. Valley City Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Valley City WMD, Hobart Lake NWR, Sibley Lake NWR, Stoney Slough NWR, and Tomahawk NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  8. Valley City Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Valley City WMD, Hobart Lake NWR, Sibley Lake NWR, Stoney Slough NWR, and Tomahawk NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  9. Valley City Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Valley City WMD, Hobart Lake NWR, Sibley Lake NWR, Stoney Slough NWR, and Tomahawk NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  10. Valley City Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Valley City WMD, Hobart Lake NWR, Sibley Lake NWR, Stoney Slough NWR, and Tomahawk NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  11. Landsat evaluation of trumpeter swan historical nesting sites in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Laura Elizabeth

    The trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) has historically nested in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Declines in habitat quality may be limiting the growth of the Tri-State Flock. The purpose of this study was to map historical nesting areas for trumpeter swans in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and evaluate Landsat images for changes to habitat. Historical nesting sites were evaluated through image classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and compared to field conditions. Swan nesting records were analyzed in comparison to drought index and human visitation rates to determine if these factors may contribute to the decline of trumpeter swans nesting in YNP. Vegetation type and water quality were evaluated at 36 wetlands identified as historical nesting locations. Potamogetonaceae was the largest family represented in plant samples and had the highest frequency of occurrence in samples. There was no significant difference in whether swans were present or absent in wetlands with regards to water quality parameters tested or physical parameters identified. There was an association between certain drought index values and the number of cygnets fledged and the number of territories occupied by swan pairs. I was unsuccessful in using image classification to define pixel characteristics common among historical nesting territories of swans in YNP based on 5 Landsat images from 1975, 1979, 1990, 1999, and 2005. I was also unable to distinguish aquatic plant species composition, emergent and submergent plants, open water versus aquatic vegetation, wetland classification, or swan preference using image classification. No relationship was found in a regression model of NDVI values and swan pair occupancy or number of swans fledged, with the exception of a weak, positive relationship between pair occupancy and positive NDVI values, and a strong, positive relationship between swan fledge rates and positive NDVI values

  12. An integrated study of photochemical function and expression of a key photochemical gene (psbA) in photosynthetic communities of Lake Bonney (McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kong, W.; Wei, L.; Romancová, Ingrid; Prášil, Ondřej; Morgan-Kiss, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 6 (2014), s. 293-302 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110 Grant - others:NSF Office of Polar Programs(US) OPP-0631659, OPP-1056396 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : photochemistry * lake Bonnney * communities Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.568, year: 2014

  13. Tracking long-distance atmospheric deposition of trace metal emissions from smelters in the upper Columbia River valley using Pb isotope analysis of lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Andrew Wright; Moore, Barry C; Vervoort, Jeffrey D; Beutel, Marc W

    2017-12-07

    Heavy metal discharge from mining and smelting operations into aquatic ecosystems can cause long-term biological and ecological impacts. The upper Columbia River is highly contaminated with heavy metal wastes from nearby smelting operations in Trail, British Columbia, Canada, and to a lesser extent, Northport (Le Roi smelter), Washington, USA. Airborne emissions from the Trail operations were historically and are currently transported by prevailing winds down the Columbia River canyon, where particulate metals can be deposited into lakes and watersheds. In lakes, sediment cores contain records of past environmental conditions, providing a timeline of fundamental chemical and biological relationships within aquatic ecosystems, including records of airborne metal depositions. We analyzed trace metal concentrations (Ni, Cd, Zn, As, Cu, Sb, Pb, Hg) and Pb isotope compositions of sediment cores from six remote eastern Washington lakes to assess potential sources of atmospheric heavy metal deposition. Sediment cores displayed evidence to support trace metal loading as a direct consequence of smelting operations in Trail. Smelter contamination was detected 144 km downwind of the Trail Smelter. Cd, Sb, Pb (p isotope compositions, suggesting that the Trail operations were likely the main source for these trace metals.

  14. Ledeniška erozija v apnenčasti podlagi, da ali ne? Ob rob črnobeli geotektonski interpretaciji geomorfološke podobe Doline Triglavskih jezer = Glacial erosion in limestone, yes or no? A comment on the black and white geotectonic interpretation of geomorphological settings of the Triglav Lakes Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Kunaver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers some critical remarks on the tectonic interpretation of the geomorphologicalevolution of the Triglav Lakes Valley (the southern part of Julian Alps, Slovenia whichdenies not only the importance of the glacial erosion during the last Pleistocene glaciation,but also other morphogenetic agents during the Pleistocene and before (Šmuc, Rožič,2009. By our opinion, the glacial and non-glacial morphogenetic factors were completelyneglected in this paper.

  15. Valley fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially the first trimester) People of Native American, African, or Philippine descent may also get more severe ... that causes Valley fever) Chest x-ray Sputum culture Sputum smear (KOH test) Tests done for more ...

  16. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss Headache Valley fever Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  17. Significance of the White Sea as a Stopover for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolet, B. A.; Andreev, V. A.; Clausen, P.

    2001-01-01

    We searched for a major stopover site of Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in the White Sea following the suggestion that one should exist on the stretch between Estonia and the breeding grounds (1750 km). We discovered 733 Swans in Dvina Bay during a late aerial survey in spring 1993...

  18. A hybrid version of swan for fast and efficient practical wave modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Genseberger (Menno); J. Donners

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the Netherlands, for coastal and inland water applications, wave modelling with SWAN has become a main ingredient. However, computational times are relatively high. Therefore we investigated the parallel efficiency of the current MPI and OpenMP versions of SWAN. The MPI version is

  19. Cardiac output monitoring by echocardiography: should we pass on Swan-Ganz catheters?

    OpenAIRE

    Perrino, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography offers a noninvasive technique for the continuous monitoring of cardiac performance. The combination of 2-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler velocitometry provide assessment of cardiac anatomy, valve function and, ventricular loading conditions. Although transesophageal echocardiography has become accepted for perioperative monitoring, it is typically used in conjunction with Swan-Ganz catheterization. To supplant Swan-Ganz catheters, an echocardiographi...

  20. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  1. Fishery Management Plan: Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) contains a limited fishery resource. Hogback Ponds, Round Lake, Bituminous Pond, and Blick Estate Stream have fishery...

  2. Coupling between Chemical and Meteorological Processes under Persistent Cold-Air Pool Conditions: Evolution of Wintertime PM2.5 Pollution Events and N2O5 Observations in Utah's Salt Lake Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Hoch, Sebastian W; Bares, Ryan; Lin, John C; Brown, Steven S; Millet, Dylan B; Martin, Randal; Kelly, Kerry; Zarzana, Kyle J; Whiteman, C David; Dube, William P; Tonnesen, Gail; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina; Sohl, John

    2017-06-06

    The Salt Lake Valley experiences severe fine particulate matter pollution episodes in winter during persistent cold-air pools (PCAPs). We employ measurements throughout an entire winter from different elevations to examine the chemical and dynamical processes driving these episodes. Whereas primary pollutants such as NOx and CO were enhanced twofold during PCAPs, O3 concentrations were approximately threefold lower. Atmospheric composition varies strongly with altitude within a PCAP at night with lower NOx and higher oxidants (O3) and oxidized reactive nitrogen (N2O5) aloft. We present observations of N2O5 during PCAPs that provide evidence for its role in cold-pool nitrate formation. Our observations suggest that nighttime and early morning chemistry in the upper levels of a PCAP plays an important role in aerosol nitrate formation. Subsequent daytime mixing enhances surface PM2.5 by dispersing the aerosol throughout the PCAP. As pollutants accumulate and deplete oxidants, nitrate chemistry becomes less active during the later stages of the pollution episodes. This leads to distinct stages of PM2.5 pollution episodes, starting with a period of PM2.5 buildup and followed by a period with plateauing concentrations. We discuss the implications of these findings for mitigation strategies.

  3. The reversibility of swan neck deformity in chronic atlantoaxial dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passias, Peter G; Wang, Shenglin; Zhao, Deng; Wang, Shaobai; Kozanek, Michal; Wang, Chao

    2013-04-01

    Prospective case series and radiographical analysis. This study aimed to characterize the changes in subaxial alignment after surgical correction of occipitoaxial kyphosis, establish normal parameters, and report on clinical outcomes in a population of patients with chronic atlantoaxial dislocation patients presenting with swan neck deformities. Swan neck deformity of the cervical spine is a term used to describe the simultaneous development of both abnormal kyphosis and hyperlordosis malalignments. Currently, there are no published series that discuss their outcomes after treatment and, more specifically, the subsequent changes that occur in the subaxial spine after the correction of the primary deformity in cases of chronic hyperkyphosis at the occipitoaxial segment. This was a prospective clinical and radiographical study in a population of patients with chronic atlantoaxial dislocation presenting with swan neck deformities. C0-C2 and C2-C7 angles were measured using plain radiographs pre- and postsurgery. The relationship between the alignment of the occipitoaxial joint and the subaxial cervical spine was evaluated. Japanese Orthopaedic Society scores were used to assess functional outcomes. C0-C2 improved from a mean of -14.4° (SD, 9.5°) preoperatively to a mean of 7.8° (SD, 1.0°) postoperatively (P = 0.02). C2-C7 changed from a mean of 43° (SD, 2.8°) to a mean of 18.6° (SD, 11.2°) postoperatively (P = 0.02). A significant correlation was detected between the changes that occurred in the upper and lower cervical alignments (R = 0.133; P atlantoaxial dislocation are favorable and associated with a low complication rate.

  4. Public history and mass incarceration: interview with Martha Swan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Martha; Rizzo, Mary

    2014-02-01

    Nonprofit human rights organization John Brown Lives! uses local and regional history as a tool to raise contemporary questions around racial injustice, inspired by the work of controversial abolitionist leader John Brown. In this interview, founder Martha Swan discusses how John Brown Lives! uses public history, from a series of community conversations around mass incarceration and drug laws to a traveling exhibit on voting rights in nineteenth century New York State, to encourage people to question the narrative of American history, the meaning of freedom, the role of policy in racial issues, and the connections between history and place.

  5. The RMI Space Weather and Navigation Systems (SWANS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnant, Rene; Lejeune, Sandrine; Wautelet, Gilles; Spits, Justine; Stegen, Koen; Stankov, Stan

    The SWANS (Space Weather and Navigation Systems) research and development project (http://swans.meteo.be) is an initiative of the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) under the auspices of the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE). The RMI SWANS objectives are: research on space weather and its effects on GNSS applications; permanent mon-itoring of the local/regional geomagnetic and ionospheric activity; and development/operation of relevant nowcast, forecast, and alert services to help professional GNSS/GALILEO users in mitigating space weather effects. Several SWANS developments have already been implemented and available for use. The K-LOGIC (Local Operational Geomagnetic Index K Calculation) system is a nowcast system based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition, data screening, and calculating the local geomagnetic K index. Simultaneously, the planetary Kp index is estimated from solar wind measurements, thus adding to the service reliability and providing forecast capabilities as well. A novel hybrid empirical model, based on these ground-and space-based observations, has been implemented for nowcasting and forecasting the geomagnetic index, issuing also alerts whenever storm-level activity is indicated. A very important feature of the nowcast/forecast system is the strict control on the data input and processing, allowing for an immediate assessment of the output quality. The purpose of the LIEDR (Local Ionospheric Electron Density Reconstruction) system is to acquire and process data from simultaneous ground-based GNSS TEC and digital ionosonde measurements, and subsequently to deduce the vertical electron density distribution. A key module is the real-time estimation of the ionospheric slab thickness, offering additional infor-mation on the local ionospheric dynamics. The RTK (Real Time Kinematic) status mapping provides a quick look at the small-scale ionospheric effects on the RTK

  6. Earthquake History of the Northern Imperial Fault, Imperial Valley, California, since the last Lake Cahuilla Highstand, circa A.D. 1680

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzner, A. J.; Rockwell, T. K.; Verdugo, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    The Imperial fault (IF) is the only fault in southern California to have ruptured in two major earthquakes in the 20th century. In 1940, it ruptured end-to-end (both north and south of the international border) in an M 6.9 earthquake, and in 1979, the northern segment of the fault (north of the border) ruptured again in an M 6.4 event. Slip in 1940 was highest (5-6 m) along the central portion of the fault and lowest (<1 m) along the northern portion, with a high slip gradient between these two segments just north of the border. The 1979 earthquake involved surface rupture along only the northern 30 km of the fault, with dextral offsets being <1 m and being nearly identical to 1940 offsets along the northern 20 km of the rupture. The similarities and differences of the two events led Sieh (1996) to propose a "slip-patch model" for the Imperial fault, whereby the fault ruptures with frequent moderate earthquakes along its northern end, like in 1979, and with less frequent larger events like 1940 along its entire length. According to the model, the central patch, which experienced high slip in 1940 and did not rupture in 1979, would rupture with relatively infrequent events (roughly every 260 years) with typically 5-6 m of slip per event; meanwhile, the northern patch, which corresponds to the 1979 rupture, would rupture more frequently (roughly every 40 years) with up to 1 m of slip per event. This model is consistent with the slip distribution observed in 1940 and in 1979. Paleoseismic investigations along the central patch also support this model, as the penultimate event there occurred shortly after the last Lake Cahuilla (LC) highstand at around A.D. 1680 (Thomas and Rockwell, 1996). Prior to the present investigation, however, there were no data on events prior to 1940 on the northern patch, which could serve to either support or refute the slip-patch model. We have opened a trench across the IF south of Harris Road, adjacent to Mesquite Basin, where the fault

  7. Lead toxicosis in tundra swans near a mining and smelting complex in northern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Die-offs of waterfowl have occurred in the Coeur d`Alene River system in northern Idaho since at least the early 1900`s. We investigated causes of mortality and lead and cadmium contamination of 46 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) from 1987 to 1989; an additional 22 swans found dead in 1990 were not examined. We necropsied 43 of the 46 birds found from 1987 to 1989; 38 of these were from the Coeur d`Alene River system, which has been contaminated with mining and smelting wastes for a century, and the other 5 were from a nearby, relatively uncontaminated area. Of the 36 livers of swans from the contaminated area that were analyzed, 32 contained lethal levels of lead (6 to 40 micrograms/g, wet weight) and all birds exhibited several symptoms of lead poisoning, notably enlarged gall bladders containing viscous, darkgreen bile. Only 13% of the lead-poisoned birds (10% when data were included from other studies of swans in the area) contained shot, compared to 95% of lead-poisoning swans in studies outside northern Idaho. Lead concentrations in blood samples from 16 apparently healthy swans (0.5 to 2.3 micrograms/g, and 4 leadpoisoned birds found moribund (1.3 to 9.6 micrograms/g) indicating that tundra swans accumulated high levels of lead from ingestion of sediment that contained up to 8,700 micrograms/g of lead and plants that contained up to 400 micrograms/g. The swans spend only a few weeks in the area staging during the spring migration. The five tundra swans from the uncontaminated area had low levels of lead and essentially no symptoms of lead poisoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Climate Change Impacts on the Los Angeles Aqueducts Water Sources: 21st Century Hydrologic Projections for Owens Valley and Mono Lake Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Roy, S. B.; Maurer, E. P.; Mills, W. B.; Chen, L.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation from the Eastern Sierra Nevada watersheds of Owens Lake and Mono Lake is one of the main water sources, and the one of highest quality, for Los Angeles' more than 4 million people. Winter snow is stored in the large snowpack reservoir, and meltwater (~0.2-0.5 million acre-feet) is delivered annually to the city in the dry season by the 340-mile long Los Angeles Aqueduct system, operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. We identify plausible scenarios of future climate conditions in the Owens-Mono watersheds over the 21st century based on CMIP3 results for 16 global climate models (GCMs) statistically downscaled to 1/8° and greenhouse gas emission scenarios A2 and B1; and we evaluate the consequent hydrologic impacts using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. Such climate scenarios have large and unquantifiable associated uncertainty and do not represent predictions, but are considered to be plausible under the current state of knowledge. We applied VIC to the Owens-Mono watersheds and calibrated the model using monthly streamflow records provided by LADWP. Of most interest to Los Angeles' water supply are the projections for the snowpack and the dry-season hydrograph that relies on snowmelt. Our results indicate future increases in the fraction of precipitation falling as rain rather than snow, from a historical value of about 20% to 20-30% by mid-century and 28-52% by end of century (depending on the GCM) for scenario A2. As a result, the snowpack's peak snow water equivalent (SWE) is projected to decline by most GCMs. The SWE peak is also projected to shift toward earlier dates (by a few days by mid-century and by a GCM-average of 2 weeks by end of century under emissions scenario A2). The diminished SWE, earlier SWE peak and earlier melt associated with rising temperatures result in earlier hydrograph peaks, a shift in the date marking the passage of half of the year's hydrograph volume (by more than one

  9. Simulation of the effects of management alternatives on the stream-aquifer system, South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, R.D.; Reed, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    With extensive irrigation use of both surface water and groundwater in the South Fork Solomon River valley shortages of these water supplies have been created. A two-dimensional digital model of transient groundwater flow was applied to investigate the potential effects on the stream aquifer system of seven management alternatives. These alternatives included proposals to conserve surface water supplies by lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay, replacing the lateral canals with pipe, removing phreatophytes, decreasing surface water use by 75%, 50%, or 25% and replacing it with groundwater sources, and continuing 1978 groundwater use and 1970-78 average surface water use until the end of the 20th century. Results were assessed by comparison of drawdowns of hydraulic head in the alluvial aquifer and base flow for each simulation. As listed in order of the smallest to the greatest potential effects on the system relative to drawdown and base flow the alternatives are: (1) removal of one-half of the phreatophytes; (2) continuation of 1978 groundwater withdrawals and average 1970-78 surface water supply; (3) replacement of the lateral canals with pipe; (4) lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay; (5) decrease of surface water use by 25% and replacement of it with groundwater; (6) decrease of surface water use by 50% and replacement of it with groundwater; and (7) decrease of surface water use by 75% and replacement of it with groundwater. The removal of one-half of the phreatophytes would result in a decrease in average drawdown in the alluvial aquifer to about 1.74 ft and an increase in base flow of the Solomon River to about 12.3 cu ft/sec. The decrease of surface water supply by 75 % and a corresponding increase in groundwater withdrawal would result in an increase in drawdown in the aquifer to about 2.5 ft and a decrease in base flow to about 6.8 cu ft/sec. (Lantz-PTT)

  10. Diet overlap of top-level predators in recent sympatry: bull trout and nonnative lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Christopher S.; McMahon, Thomas E.; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Smith, Clinton J.; Garfield, David W.; Cox, Benjamin S.

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of nonnative lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lakes containing lacustrine–adfluvial bull trout Salvelinus confluentus often results in a precipitous decline in bull trout abundance. The exact mechanism for the decline is unknown, but one hypothesis is related to competitive exclusion for prey resources. We had the rare opportunity to study the diets of bull trout and nonnative lake trout in Swan Lake, Montana during a concomitant study. The presence of nonnative lake trout in Swan Lake is relatively recent and the population is experiencing rapid population growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diets of bull trout and lake trout during the early expansion of this nonnative predator. Diets were sampled from 142 bull trout and 327 lake trout during the autumn in 2007 and 2008. Bull trout and lake trout had similar diets, both consumed Mysis diluviana as the primary invertebrate, especially at juvenile stages, and kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka as the primary vertebrate prey, as adults. A diet shift from primarily M. diluviana to fish occurred at similar lengths for both species, 506 mm (476–545 mm, 95% CI) for bull trout and 495 mm (470–518 mm CI) for lake trout. These data indicate high diet overlap between these two morphologically similar top-level predators. Competitive exclusion may be a possible mechanism if the observed overlap remains similar at varying prey densities and availability.

  11. Pacific Flyway management plan for the Western Population of tundra swans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to establish guidelines for the cooperative management of the Western Population (WP) of tundra swans (Cygnus c. columbianus). This...

  12. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with Refuge...

  13. Whistling swan dyeing program, Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, fall, 1961-spring, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the whistling swan dyeing program on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, in the fall of 1961 to trap birds which, owing to the absence of food in...

  14. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge trumperter swan translocation project : Issues/action items

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Background information and current issues regarding the trumpeter swan translocation project at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge. Major issues include harvesting of...

  15. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  16. Tundra swan avian influenza surveillance and banding effort, Alaska Peninsula, 18-28 July, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAKP) and the Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAKP) in late July20 10 as part of...

  17. Tundra swan population survey in Bristol Bay, Northern Alaska Peninsula, 2003 and 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) population surveys were conducted in spring and late summer of 2003 and 2008 according to the schedule established in the Alaska...

  18. Tundra swan population survey in Bristol Bay, northern Alaska Peninsula, 2003 and 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) population surveys were conducted in spring and late summer of 2003 and 2008 according to the schedule established in the Alaska...

  19. Tundra swan populations, productivity, and local movements on Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, northwest Alaska, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the monitoring of populations and production of tundra swans on Selawik National Wildlife Refuge in 1985 as part of a long-term study. Radio...

  20. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with Refuge...

  1. [Swan Song: The Advent of the Psychotic Nucleus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Fernando Muñoz

    2012-09-01

    Different forms of artistic expression, such as literature and cinema, constitute an inexhaustible source for the study of mental illness. The use of psychodynamic models may contribute to a better understanding of the spectrum between personality disorders and the psychosis spectrum, thus enriching the phenomenological approach in the psychiatric clinical practice. To examine from psychodynamic standpoints the main character of the American film Black Swan, and the nature of her psychotic symptoms. Reviewing of sources and relevant theoretical currents. Analysis shows the usefulness of a psychodynamically- oriented dimensional model for understanding the so-called psychotic breaks as well as the applicability of psychoanalytic psychosis theories in general psychiatric practice, as they may provide a more flexible clinical approach, closer to the patient's subjective experience. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Society environmental economic benefits of swan-labelled workwear service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Dall, Ole; Thomsen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    was funded and published by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2009-2011. The assessment illustrates the problems to find reliable documentation for the environmental performance of eco-labelled versus conventional products. The assessment mainly focuses on the use-phase since this has been proven......This paper presents an environmental and socio-economic comparison of textile supply of workwear with and without the Nordic Swan labelling scheme. The study is part of a project for development of a methodology for the environmental and socio-economic comparison for product groups. The study...... to be the most important part of the lifecycle. For the use-phase a significant difference in environmental performance can be demonstrated between the European average figures and the figures for the Danish company providing the ecolabelled service. By application of the developed methodology this difference...

  3. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low ( < 0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  4. Geology and ground-water resources of Ogden Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggette, R.M.; Taylor, G.H.

    1937-01-01

    Ogden Valley is a fault trough bounded on both the east and west by faults that dip toward the middle of the valley. This fault trough contains unconsolidated deposits of clay, sand, and gravel, whose thickness is more than 600 feet. These materials are stream and lake deposits and in places are well sorted and stratified. The lake sediments were laid down in a small lake that occupied Ogden Valley and that was connected with glacial Lake Bonneville at its high stage by an arm of water that occupied Ogden Canyon. During this stage of Lake Bonneville the Ogden Valley was completely filled with lake sediments up to an altitude of about 4,900 feet. These sediments include about 70 feet of clay, sand, and gravel in alternating layers, below which is a bed of varved clay whose maximum thickness is about 70 feet. This clay is continuous under the lower parts of the valley and is the confining bed that produces the artesian conditions. Below the varved clay is a deposit of silt, sand, and gravel of unknown thickness, most of which is believed to be pre-Bonneville alluvium.In most summers the streams entering Ogden Valley are diverted for irrigation, and the upper parts of their channels are generally dry during the irrigation season. Lower down in the valley seepage water appears in the channels, and below these points there is continuous flow. The flow of the Ogden River increases as it passes through Ogden Canyon. This gain in flow is believed to be derived chiefly from ground-water seepage from the canyon walls, although there is probably some groundwater underflow from Ogden Valley at the head of Ogden Canyon. Some of the gain is also due to leakage from pipe lines in the canyon.Of the 146 wells whose records are given in this report, 70 are flowing wells.

  5. Hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and biochemical values for mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, B; Włodarczyk, R; Zbikowski, A; Dolka, I; Szeleszczuk, P; Kluciński, W

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the correct morphological and biochemical parameters in mute swans is an important indicator of their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and serum biochemistry values in wild-living mute swans. We found the significant differences in the erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in relation to age of mute swans. There were no differences in hematological values between males and females. The leukogram and H/L ratio did not vary by age and sex in swans. Among of biochemical parameters the slightly increased AST, ALP, CK, K, urea, decreased CHOL and TG values were recorded. As far as we know, this is the first study in which the morphometric parameters of blood cells in mute swans were presented. We found extremely low concentration of lead in blood (at subthreshold level). No blood parasites were found in blood smears. The analysis of body mass and biometric parameters revealed a significant differences dependent on age and sex. No differences in the scaled mass index were found. Our results represent a normal hematologic and blood chemistry values and age-sex related changes, as reference values for the mute swan.

  6. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for six weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, to estimate the sediment?s toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses were detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies, but these elements did not accumulate in the livers of the treated swans and probably were not readily available in the sediment. Although ingestion of the Anacostia River sediment caused subtle toxicological effects in swans, we concluded from pathological examinations and weight data that the treated swans remained basically healthy.

  7. Subsurface stratigraphy of the eastern Hollister Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMasters, Catherine R.; Herd, Darrell G.; Throckmorton, Constance K.; Heusser, Linda E.

    1987-01-01

    In September 1977, four cores were recovered by shallow auger drilling from Hollister Valley, California, near the Calaveras fault. The wells were drilled to search for evidence that Hollister Valley may have been occupied by a large lake during the late Pleistocene or Holocene. This small valley, near Monterey Bay, may have been dammed by a large landslide on the San Andreas fault (Jenkins, 1973; Herd and Helley, 1977). The cores sampled the first 38 m of sediment below the valley floor, but no lacustrine deposits were found at these sites; a very detailed record to Holocene alluviation in a tectonically subsiding basin. 

  8. New explorations along the northern shores of Lake Bonneville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    This field trip begins in Salt Lake City and makes a clockwise circuit of Great Salt Lake, with primary objectives to observe stratigraphie and geomorphic records of Lake Bonneville. Stops include Stansbury Island, Puddle Valley, gravel pits at Lakeside and the south end of the Hogup Mountains, several stops in Curlew Valley and Hansel Valley, and a final stop at the north end of Great Salt Lake east of the Promontory Mountains. Stratigraphie observations at gravel-pit and natural exposures will be linked to interpretations of lake-level change, which were caused by climate change. Evidence of paleoseismic and volcanic activity will be discussed at several sites, and will be tied to the lacustrine stratigraphic record. The trip provides an overview of the history of Lake Bonneville and introduces participants to some new localities with excellent examples of Lake Bonneville landforms and stratigraphy.

  9. Lake Naivasha Sustainability : Ecosystem Improvement for Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lake Naivasha basin located in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya is the site of increasing economic activity, especially floriculture. The floriculture industry provides economic benefits but increases the demand on ecosystem services. The industry and associated settlements depend on lake water for geothermal energy, ...

  10. Limnology of southern African coastal lakes — new vistas from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristically relict estuarine/marine fauna (a calanoid copepod, crown crab, amphipod and fish) were present in two oligotrophic lakes, including the largest — putatively a drowned-valley lake. ... Survey findings were used to assess the suitability of these lakes as prospective habitats for exotic grass and silver carp.

  11. Summary and interpretation of dye-tracer tests to investigate the hydraulic connection of fractures at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Dye-tracer tests were done during 1985-92 to investigate the hydraulic connection between fractures in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Ky. Fluorescent dye was injected into a core hole penetrating near-surface and mining- induced fractures near the crest of the ridge. The rate and direction of migration of dye in the subsurface were determined by measuring the relative concentration of dye in water samples collected from piezometers completed in conductive fracture zones and fractured coal beds at various stratigraphic horizons within the ridge. Dye-concentration data and water-level measurements for each piezometer were plotted as curves on dye- recovery hydrographs. The dye-recovery hydrographs were used to evaluate trends in the fluctuation of dye concentrations and hydraulic heads in order to identify geologic and hydrologic factors affecting the subsurface transport of dye. The principal factors affecting the transport of dye in the subsurface hydrologic system were determined to be (1) the distribution, interconnection, and hydraulic properties of fractures; (2) hydraulic-head conditions in the near-fracture zone at the time of dye injection; and (3) subsequent short- and long-term fluctuations in recharge to the hydrologic system. In most of the dye-tracer tests, dye-recovery hydrographs are characterized by complex, multipeaked dye-concentration curves that are indicative of a splitting of dye flow as ground water moved through fractures. Intermittent dye pulses (distinct upward spikes in dye concentration) mark the arrivals of dye-labeled water to piezometers by way of discrete fracture-controlled flow paths that vary in length, complexity, and hydraulic conductivity. Dye injections made during relatively high- or increasing-head conditions resulted in rapid transport of dye (within several days or weeks) from near-surface fractures to piezometers. Injections made during relatively low- or

  12. Projected ground-water development, ground-water levels, and stream-aquifer leakage in the South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas, 1979-2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Jack; Lindgren, R.J.; Stullken, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite difference computer model was used to project changes in the potentiometric surface, saturated thickness, and stream aquifer leakage in an alluvial aquifer resulting from four instances of projected groundwater development. The alluvial aquifer occurs in the South Fork Solomon River valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake in north-central Kansas. In the first two projections, pumpage for irrigation was held constant at 1978 rates throughout the projection period (1979-2020). In the second two projections, the 1978 pumpage was progressively increased each yr through 2020. In the second and fourth projections, surface water diversions in the Osborne Irrigation Canal were decreased by 50 %. For the third and fourth projections, each grid-block in the modeled area was classified initially as one of six types according to whether it represented irrigable or nonirrigable land, to its saturated thickness, to its location inside or outside the canal-river area, and to its pumping rate. The projected base-flow rates (leakage from the aquifer to the river) were lower during the irrigation season (June, July, and August) than during the other months of the yr because of the decline in hydraulic head produced by groundwater pumpage. Stream depletion, calculated as a decrease below the average (1970-78) estimated winter base-flow rate of 16.5 cu ft/sec, varied inversely with base flow. For the first two projections, a constant annual cycle of well pumpage and recharge was used throughout the projection period. Aquifer leakage to the river was nearly constant by the mid-to-late 1990's, implying that flow conditions had attained a stabilized annual cycle. The third and fourth projections never attained an annual stabilized cycle because the irrigation pumpage rate was increased each year. By the early 1980's, the hydraulic head had fallen below river stage, reversing the hydraulic gradient at the stream-aquifer interface and resulting in net

  13. Dragon-Kings, Black-Swans and Prediction (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme fluctuations or events are often associated with power law statistics. Indeed, it is a popular belief that "wild randomness'' is deeply associated with distributions with power law tails characterized by small exponents. In other words, power law tails are often seen as the epitome of extreme events (the "Black Swan'' story). Here, we document in very different systems that there is life beyond power law tails: power laws can be superseded by "dragon-kings'', monster events that occur beyond (or changing) the power law tail. Dragon-kings reveal hidden mechanisms that are only transiently active and that amplify the normal fluctuations (often described by the power laws of the normal regime). The goal of this lecture is to catalyze the interest of the community of geophysicists across all fields of geosciences so that the "invisible gorilla" fallacy may be avoided. Our own research illustrates that new statistics or representation of data are often necessary to identify dragon-kings, with strategies guided by the underlying mechanisms. Paradoxically, the monsters may be ignored or hidden by the use of inappropriate analysis or statistical tools that amount to cut a mamooth in small pieces, so as to lead to the incorrect belief that only mice exist. In order to stimulate further research, we will document and discuss the dragon-king phenomenon on the statistics of financial losses, economic geography, hydrodynamic turbulence, mechanical ruptures, avalanches in complex heterogeneous media, earthquakes, and epileptic seizures. The special status of dragon-kings open a new research program on their predictability, based on the fact that they belong to a different class of their own and express specific mechanisms amplifying the normal dynamics via positive feedbacks. We will present evidence of these claims for the predictions of material rupture, financial crashes and epileptic seizures. As a bonus, a few remarks will be offered at the end on how the dragon

  14. The Health Valley: Global Entrepreneurial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    In the space of a decade, the Lake Geneva region has become the Health Valley, a world-class laboratory for discovering and developing healthcare of the future. Through visionary individuals and thanks to exceptional infrastructure this region has become one of the most dynamic in the field of innovation, including leading scientific research and exceptional actors for the commercialization of academic innovation to industrial applications that will improve the lives of patients and their families. Here follows the chronicle of a spectacular expansion into the Health Valley.

  15. Drivers of waterfowl population dynamics: from teal to swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, David N.; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Schmutz, Joel A.; Rotella, Jay J.

    2014-01-01

    Waterfowl are among the best studied and most extensively monitored species in the world. Given their global importance for sport and subsistence hunting, viewing and ecosystem functioning, great effort has been devoted since the middle part of the 20th century to understanding both the environmental and demographic mechanisms that influence waterfowl population and community dynamics. Here we use comparative approaches to summarise and contrast our understanding ofwaterfowl population dynamics across species as short-lived as the teal Anas discors and A.crecca to those such as the swans Cygnus sp. which have long life-spans. Specifically, we focus on population responses to vital rate perturbations across life history strategies, discuss bottom-up and top-down responses of waterfowlpopulations to global change, and summarise our current understanding of density dependence across waterfowl species. We close by identifying research needs and highlight ways to overcome the challenges of sustainably managing waterfowl populations in the 21st century.

  16. Long-term Results of Lateral Band Translocation for the Correction of Swan Neck Deformity in Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Marije; van Vliet, Daphne C.; Smeulders, Mark J.; Kreulen, Mick

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of lateral band translocation for correcting swan neck deformity in patients with cerebral palsy at a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Methods: Swan neck deformities of 62 fingers were corrected using a modified lateral band

  17. Commensal foraging with Bewick’s Swans Cygnus bewickii doubles instantaneous intake rate of Common Pochards Aythya ferina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyimesi, A.; van Lith, B.; Nolet, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aquatically foraging Bewick’s Swans Cygnus bewickii have been repeatedly reported to be accompanied by diving ducks, but the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. Based on field observations, we found a strong correlation between the number of foraging swans and the number of foraging Common

  18. Southwestern Alaska archeological survey, Kagati Lake, Kisarilik-Kwethluk Rivers: A final research report to the National Geographic Society

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Discusses archeological survey of the east of Kagati Lake to Nenevok Lake, north to Trail Creek and Kwethluk River valleys, west along the Kwethluk and Kisaralik...

  19. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  20. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  1. Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Managment Plan Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In June of 2007 there was an electro-fishing survey done within a small lake at the Laurel Grove Tract of the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge....

  2. Stormwater Runoff and Associated Sediment Contamination in the Pond C Watershed, Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A nearshore area of Long Meadow Lake on the Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge receiving stormwater runoff from a 2600-acre urban watershed was found in 1988...

  3. 2016 Deer Spotlight Survey Report For Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) numbers have increased greatly throughout Missouri over the past century due to the abundant habitat and conservation...

  4. 2014 Deer Spotlight Survey Report For Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) numbers have increased greatly throughout Missouri over the past century due to the abundant habitat and conservation...

  5. 2015 Deer Spotlight Survey Report For Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) numbers have increased greatly throughout Missouri over the past century due to the abundant habitat and conservation...

  6. 2013 Deer Spotlight Survey Report For Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) numbers have increased greatly throughout Missouri over the past century due to the abundant habitat and conservation...

  7. 2010 Deer Spotlight Survey Report For Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) numbers have increased greatly throughout Missouri over the past century due to the abundant habitat and conservation...

  8. 2012 Deer Spotlight Survey Report For Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) numbers have increased greatly throughout Missouri over the past century due to the abundant habitat and conservation...

  9. 2008 Deer Spotlight Survey Report For Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) numbers have increased greatly throughout Missouri over the past century due to the abundant habitat and conservation...

  10. 76 FR 29259 - Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chariton County, MO; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... would be additional study on methods for increasing the amount of native foods for waterfowl within a 2... Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), announce the availability of the Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and Finding of No...

  11. Determination of hydrologic properties needed to calculate average linear velocity and travel time of ground water in the principal aquifer underlying the southeastern part of Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freethey, G.W.; Spangler, L.E.; Monheiser, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    A 48-square-mile area in the southeastern part of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, was studied to determine if generalized information obtained from geologic maps, water-level maps, and drillers' logs could be used to estimate hydraulic conduc- tivity, porosity, and slope of the potentiometric surface: the three properties needed to calculate average linear velocity of ground water. Estimated values of these properties could be used by water- management and regulatory agencies to compute values of average linear velocity, which could be further used to estimate travel time of ground water along selected flow lines, and thus to determine wellhead protection areas around public- supply wells. The methods used to estimate the three properties are based on assumptions about the drillers' descriptions, the depositional history of the sediments, and the boundary con- ditions of the hydrologic system. These assump- tions were based on geologic and hydrologic infor- mation determined from previous investigations. The reliability of the estimated values for hydro- logic properties and average linear velocity depends on the accuracy of these assumptions. Hydraulic conductivity of the principal aquifer was estimated by calculating the thickness- weighted average of values assigned to different drillers' descriptions of material penetrated during the construction of 98 wells. Using these 98 control points, the study area was divided into zones representing approximate hydraulic- conductivity values of 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, and 250 feet per day. This range of values is about the same range of values used in developing a ground-water flow model of the principal aquifer in the early 1980s. Porosity of the principal aquifer was estimated by compiling the range of porosity values determined or estimated during previous investigations of basin-fill sediments, and then using five different values ranging from 15 to 35 percent to delineate zones in the study area that were assumed to

  12. Assessment of Wastewater in Duhok Valley, Kurdistan Region/Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmaldin E. Hassan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the waste water in Duhok valley in Duhok governorate, during 25km, seven sites were selected in Duhok valley, to represent their water quality. Monthly samples were collected from the Duhok valley for the period from, April to September, 2015. The qualitative study of Duhok valley water tested, as considered one of the main sources of water pollution for Musol Lake. The physical and chemical test for water samples are taken from different locations in Duhok valley. To know the degree of pollution, and the impact of self-purification processes to improve water quality before arriving to the Mosul Lake, and the indicated results of the study a lack of dissolved oxygen in the water (DO. And high organic load values, (BOD and most of the bad qualities during water passage within the city of Duhok, while meat a significant improvement in the quality of water downstream before arriving at the dam Lake, is attributed to the effect of operations of self- purification ability of water. In spite of salinity problems and toxicity, the quality of water is suitable for irrigation crops on both sides of the valley .The all samples were tested for conductivity, TDS, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity, sulfate, BOD, and phosphate, according to the standard methods.

  13. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  14. Near-surface heat flow in Saline Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mase, C.W.; Galanis, S.P. Jr.; Munroe, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    With the exception of values from one borehole drilled at Palm Spring and three boreholes drilled around Saline Valley dry lake, eight new heatflow values in Saline Valley, California, are within or somewhat below the range one would expect for this region of the Basin and Range heat-flow province. The lack of recent volcanism in the area and the apparently normal Basin and Range heat flow suggest that geothermal systems within the valley are stable stationary phases supported by high regional heat flow and forced convection.

  15. Energy valley in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwayen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Valley foundation was born in 2004. It functions as a catalyst and platform for private and public organisations. It has a supporting and facilitating role in realising projects on energy conservation and sustainable energy. The Energy Valley a

  16. Results of a conservation agreement and strategy for Rabbit Valley gilia (Gilia caespitosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. A. Armstrong; T. O. Clark; R. B. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    Gilia caespitosa Gray (Rabbit Valley gilia) is a rare species restricted to scattered occurrences from the northern Waterpocket Fold to Thousand Lakes Mountain and Rabbit Valley in Wayne County, Utah. This species is a very narrow endemic, known only from unstable and faulting soils of detrital Navajo Sandstone. Species occurrences are often found with limited numbers...

  17. SWAN-Fly : A flexible cloud-enabled framework for context-aware applications in smartphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharath Das, R.; van Halteren, A.T.; Bal, H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are equipped with various hardware sensors to enrich the user experience. SWAN is a middleware framework that supports easy collection and processing of sensor data. However, the limited resources of the smartphones prevent the apps from supporting big data applications that need to

  18. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M; Beekman, JH; Kontiokorpi, J; Mulder, RJW; Nolet, BA

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewick's swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern

  19. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Beekman, J.H.; Kontiokorpi, J.; Mulder, R.J.W.; Nolet, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewicks swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern

  20. Black swan risk management : The moderation effect of risk mitigation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Q; Krikke, H.R.; Caniels, M.C.J.; Giannakis, M.; Johnsen, T.; Miemczyk, J.; Kamann, D.-J.; Bernardin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many scholars have discussed supply chain risk mitigation on operational risks, but less on rare, highly influential, and retrospective predictable risks, such as natural disasters, epidemics, and socio-political crises. They are Black Swan risks (Taleb, 2007). More than disrupting supply chains,

  1. Teaching migration routes to canada geese and trumpeter swans using ultralight aircraft, 1990-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Ellis, D.H.; Shire, G.G.; Rininger, D.L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes eleven years (1990-2001) of experiments to teach Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) and Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) pre-selected migration routes using ultralight aircraft. When Canada Geese were trained to follow an ultralight aircraft for southward autumn migrations of 680 or 1,320 km, 81% (83/103) returned on their own in the next spring to near their place of training. In contrast, none returned of 21 similarly raised geese that were transported south in a closed truck over a route of 680 km. Trumpeter Swans have proven more difficult to train. However, in two experiments in which Trumpeter Swans followed an ultralight for the entire pre-selected route, one of three and two of four returned close to their training area. A stage-by-stage method, in which swans were transported in trucks between stops, flown in the vicinity and penned with a view of the night sky, has shown some promise. So far an established migration route (north and south twice) has been confirmed in only two geese

  2. SWAN-mud: engineering model for mud-induced wave damping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Winterwerp, J.C.; de Boer, G.J.; Cornelisse, JM.; Zijlema, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a new dispersion relation and energy-dissipation equation obtained from a viscous two-layer model schematization in the state-of-the-art wave forecasting model SWAN to simulate wave damping in coastal areas by fluid mud deposits. This new dispersion

  3. The C3 Framework: One Year Later - an Interview with Kathy Swan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    On September 17, 2013 (Constitution Day), the C3 Framework was released under the title "The College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and lead writer was NCSS member Kathy Swan, who is…

  4. On the Development of an Operational SWAN Model for the Black Sea (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, A.; Van Vledder, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the results of some studies performed on the development of an efficient and operational SWAN model for the Black Sea. This model will be used to study the wind-wave climate and wave energy potential in the region and will provide boundary conditions for coastal engineering and

  5. Mutual ornamentation, sexual selection, and social dominance in the black swan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, K; Gregurke, J; Hall, C; Komdeur, J; Mulder, RA

    We investigated the adaptive significance of a sexually monomorphic ornament in the black swan Cygnus atratus. Both sexes grow curled feathers on their wings (range 7-22 curled feathers per wing), which are displayed prominently in a range of social interactions. The number of curled feathers

  6. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  7. SWAN: NGC 253’s Nucleated Star Bursting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Mark; Ott, Juergen; Meier, David; Momjian, Emmanuel; Walter, Fabian; Rand, Richard

    2015-08-01

    We present the first results from SWAN: Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies. Nearby galaxies are conveniently located to probe molecular gas properties on scales of 10 to 200 pc, which are appropriate for Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs). The resolution of the VLA in D and C configurations maps to a few 10’s of parsecs in these galaxies. To advance studies of galaxy evolution it is paramount to understand how processes in the molecular ISM and star formation are linked on these scales. We have observed the metastable transitions of ammonia and the 22GHz water maser line in four nearby galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, NGC 2146, and NGC 6946. These galaxies were chosen to span an order of magnitude in star formation rate, and a range of galactic ecosystems. We use the ammonia transitions to derive kinetic temperatures, which exposes the heating and cooling balance of the ISM. We then aim to relate these conditions to energetic feedback from star formation indicated by water masers. Currently our analysis is focused on NGC 253. NGC 253 is a barred spiral galaxy with a nucleated starburst of ≈3M⊙ per year. We have observed ammonia transitions (1,1) to (5,5) and the 22GHz water maser line with a resolution of ≈63pc. We have identified nine regions across the nucleated starburst for study. The ammonia (3,3) line appears to be masing in the centermost 200pc. In combination with Large Velocity Gradient models (LVG) we find that the properties of the molecular gas is warm, ranging from 100K to 160K, with molecular hydrogen densities from 2.2e3 cm-3 to 4.8e3 cm-3. We have identified two regions of water maser emission. The first region is a north south extension, about the center of the galaxy, with a major axis of ≈7”(150pc) and a minor axis of ≈3”(90pc), and the second is a nearby region ≈6”(100pc) to the southeast of the galaxy center. By means of these measurements, we gain an understanding of the molecular ISM associated with the nucleated

  8. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-03-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for 6 weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, USA, to estimate the sediment's toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets, but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses was detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg, and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies. However, the lack of accumulation in the livers of the treated swans suggested that these elements were not readily available from the ingested sediment. The authors did not study all potential toxic effects, but, on the basis of those that they did consider, they concluded that the treated swans were basically healthy after a chronic exposure to the sediment.

  9. Swan foraging shapes spatial distribution of two submerged plants, favouring the preferred prey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandsten, Håkan; Klaassen, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Compared to terrestrial environments, grazing intensity on belowground plant parts may be particularly strong in aquatic environments, which may have great effects on plant-community structure. We observed that the submerged macrophyte, Potamogeton pectinatus, which mainly reproduces with tubers, often grows at intermediate water depth and that P. perfoliatus, which mainly reproduces with rhizomes and turions, grows in either shallow or deep water. One mechanism behind this distributional pattern may be that swans prefer to feed on P. pectinatus tubers at intermediate water depths. We hypothesised that when swans feed on tubers in the sediment, P. perfoliatus rhizomes and turions may be damaged by the uprooting, whereas the small round tubers of P. pectinatus that escaped herbivory may be more tolerant to this bioturbation. In spring 2000, we transplanted P. perfoliatus rhizomes into a P. pectinatus stand and followed growth in plots protected and unprotected, respectively, from bird foraging. Although swan foraging reduced tuber biomass in unprotected plots, leading to lower P. pectinatus density in spring 2001, this species grew well both in protected and unprotected plots later that summer. In contrast, swan grazing had a dramatic negative effect on P. perfoliatus that persisted throughout the summer of 2001, with close to no plants in the unprotected plots and high densities in the protected plots. Our results demonstrate that herbivorous waterbirds may play a crucial role in the distribution and prevalence of specific plant species. Furthermore, since their grazing benefitted their preferred food source, the interaction between swans and P. pectinatus may be classified as ecologically mutualistic.

  10. Age-specific survival of tundra swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Conn, Paul B.; Dau, Christian P.; Sarvis, John E.; Sowl, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    The population of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) breeding on the lower Alaska Peninsula represents the southern extremity of the species' range and is uniquely nonmigratory. We used data on recaptures, resightings, and recoveries of neck-collared Tundra Swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula to estimate collar loss, annual apparent survival, and other demographic parameters for the years 1978–1989. Annual collar loss was greater for adult males fitted with either the thinner collar type (0.34) or the thicker collar type (0.15) than for other age/sex classes (thinner: 0.10, thicker: 0.04). The apparent mean probability of survival of adults (0.61) was higher than that of immatures (0.41) and for both age classes varied considerably by year (adult range: 0.44–0.95, immature range: 0.25–0.90). To assess effects of permanent emigration by age and breeding class, we analyzed post hoc the encounter histories of swans known to breed in our study area. The apparent mean survival of known breeders (0.65) was generally higher than that of the entire marked sample but still varied considerably by year (range 0.26–1.00) and indicated that permanent emigration of breeding swans was likely. We suggest that reductions in apparent survival probability were influenced primarily by high and variable rates of permanent emigration and that immigration by swans from elsewhere may be important in sustaining a breeding population at and near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge.

  11. The isolation and characterization of a novel telomerase immortalized first trimester trophoblast cell line, Swan 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straszewski-Chavez, S L; Abrahams, V M; Alvero, A B; Aldo, P B; Ma, Y; Guller, S; Romero, R; Mor, G

    2009-11-01

    Studies using first trimester trophoblast cells may be limited by the inability to obtain patient samples and/or adequate cell numbers. First trimester trophoblast cell lines have been generated by SV40 transformation or similar methods, however, this approach is known to induce phenotypic and karyotypic abnormalities. The introduction of telomerase has been proposed to be a viable alternative for the immortalization of primary human cells. To investigate whether telomerase-induced immortalization might be a more feasible approach for the generation of first trimester trophoblast cell lines, we isolated primary trophoblast cells from a 7-week normal placenta and infected the cells with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Although this hTERT-infected first trimester trophoblast cell line, which we have named Swan 71, has been propagated for more than 100 passages, it still has attributes that are characteristic of primary first trimester trophoblast cells. The Swan 71 cells are positive for the expression of cytokeratin 7, vimentin and HLA-G, but do not express CD45, CD68 or the Fibroblast Specific Antigen (FSA), CD90/Thy-1. In addition, we also demonstrated that the Swan 71 cells secrete fetal fibronectin (FFN) as well as low levels of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG). Moreover, the Swan 71 cells exhibit a cytokine and growth factor profile that is similar to primary trophoblast cells and are resistant to Fas, but not TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. This suggests that the Swan 71 cells may represent a valuable model for future in vitro trophoblast studies.

  12. The Trumpeter, Company 424 Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Redington in Swan Quarter, North Carolina; October Issue, Volume 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a historic monthly report of Camp Redington Civilian Conservation Corps located in Swan Quarter, North Carolina. It describes the progress and...

  13. 78 FR 76781 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ...; Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Salt Lake City Class B surface area and the Hill Air Force Base (AFB) Class D airspace area. This... north and south through the Salt Lake Valley over Interstate 15. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  14. Behaviour of wintering Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jeffrey M.; Gress, Carol; Byers, Jacob W.; Jennings, Emily; Ely, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbinanus phenology and behaviour at the Eel River delta and southern Humboldt Bay in northern California, USA, is described. Counts made each January from 1963 onwards peaked at 1,502 swans in 1988. Monthly counts recorded during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 winters peaked in February, at 1,033 and 772 swans respectively. Swans roosted on ephemeral ponds at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, on ephemeral ponds within grassland pastures in the vicinity of the Refuge, and perhaps also used the Eel River as a roost. Flights between Refuge roosts and the pastures and ponds occurred in the two hours after sunrise and before dark. In winters 2008/09 and 2009/10, the percentage of cygnets in the flocks was 10.6% and 21.4% respectively, and increased to =31% cygnets each year after most swans had departed from the area in March. Average brood size in 2009/10 was 2.1 cygnets. Daily activities consisted of foraging (44.9% of activities recorded), comfort behaviour (22.1%), locomotion (16.2%) and vigilance (15.5%). Eight neck-collared swans identified in the wintering flock were marked at four locations in different parts of Alaska, up to 1,300 km apart.

  15. Molecular detection of hematozoa infections in tundra swans relative to migration patterns and ecological conditions at breeding grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Heard, Darryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) are broadly distributed in North America, use a wide variety of habitats, and exhibit diverse migration strategies. We investigated patterns of hematozoa infection in three populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska using satellite tracking to infer host movement and molecular techniques to assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of parasites. We evaluated whether migratory patterns and environmental conditions at breeding areas explain the prevalence of blood parasites in migratory birds by contrasting the fit of competing models formulated in an occupancy modeling framework and calculating the detection probability of the top model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). We described genetic diversity of blood parasites in each population of swans by calculating the number of unique parasite haplotypes observed. Blood parasite infection was significantly different between populations of Alaska tundra swans, with the highest estimated prevalence occurring among birds occupying breeding areas with lower mean daily wind speeds and higher daily summer temperatures. Models including covariates of wind speed and temperature during summer months at breeding grounds better predicted hematozoa prevalence than those that included annual migration distance or duration. Genetic diversity of blood parasites in populations of tundra swans appeared to be relative to hematozoa prevalence. Our results suggest ecological conditions at breeding grounds may explain differences of hematozoa infection among populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska.

  16. Hydrologic data and description of a hydrologic monitoring plan for the Borax Lake area, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tiffany Rae; McFarland, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Borax Lake is located in southeastern Oregon, within the Alvord Valley Known Geothermal Resource Area. Borax Lake is a large hot spring; there are more than 50 smaller hot springs within about one-half mile to the north of the lake. Several geothermal exploration wells have been drilled near Borax Lake, and there is concern that development of the geothermal resources could affect the lake and nearby hot springs. A factor to consider in developing the resource is that the Borax Lake chub is an endangered species of fish that is found exclusively in Borax Lake.

  17. THE SOMEŞAN PLATEAU LAKES: GENESIS, EVOLUTION AND TERRITORIAL REPARTITION

    OpenAIRE

    Victor SOROCOVSCHI; Gheorghe ŞERBAN

    2010-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the genesis of the lake depressions in the Someşan Plateau and the way they evolved in time and space, as well as the morphometric elements characteristic of the different genetic types of lakes. The natural lakes in this region are few and their dimensions are small; they generally appear solitarily and only rarely as lake complexes. In this category have been included the valley lakes, the lakes formed in abandoned meanders and the lakes formed in areas with lands...

  18. Persistence of high lead concentrations and associated effects in Tundra Swans captured near a mining and smelting complex in northern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl, particularly tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus), has been documented in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho for nearly a century. Over 90% of the lead-poisoned tundra swans in this area that were necropsied have no ingested lead shot. Spent lead shot from hunting activities over the years is therefore a minor source of lead in these swans. The migrating swans accumulated lethal burdens of lead from ingestion of sediments and aquatic vegetation during a short stopover in the spring. The lead originated from mining and smelting activities. Lead concentrations and physiological characteristics of blood were compared in swans captured in swim-in traps, with moribund swans caught by hand in the lead-contaminated area in 1987 and 1994-1995 and with birds captured by night-lighting in reference areas in 1994-1995. Blood lead concentrations in swans were highest in moribund birds (3.3 ?g g-1 in 1987 and 1995), intermediate in those trapped in the contaminated area (0.82 ?g g-1 in 1987 and 1.8 ?g g-1 in 1995), and lowest (0.11 ?g g-1) in those trapped in the reference areas. daminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was significantly inhibited in swans from the contaminated area. Hematocrit and hemoglobin were significantly depressed only in moribund swans. Of the 19 swans found moribund and euthanized, 18 were classified as having lead toxicosis on the basis of lead levels in blood (1.3 to 9.6 ?g g-1) and livers (6 to 40 ?g g-1) and necropsy findings. The 19th swan had aspergillosis. There was no evidence that effects of lead on tundra swans had diminished from 1987 to 1995.

  19. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution of ...... domestic or captive animals may provide biased information on the occurrence, prevalence, host selection, and host-ectoparasite interactions from those on wild hosts.......Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution...

  20. Microbial impact of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and whistling swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) on aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, D; Damaré, J M; Limpert, R J; Sladen, W J; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the intestinal bacterial flora of Canada geese and whistling swans were carried out with the finding that wild birds harbor significantly more fecal coliforms than fecal streptococci. The reverse was typical of captive and fasting birds. Neither Salmonella spp. nor Shigella spp. were isolated from 44 migratory waterfowl that were wintering in the Chesapeake Bay region. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli were detected in seven birds. Geese eliminated 10(7) and swans 10(9) fecal coliforms per day. Results of in situ studies showed that large flocks of waterfowl can cause elevated fecal coliform densities in the water column. From the data obtained in this study, it is possible to predict the microbial impact of migratory waterfowl upon aquatic roosting sites.

  1. Gender equity programmes in academic medicine: a realist evaluation approach to Athena SWAN processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Louise; Wyatt, David; Fudge, Nina; Mattingley, Helena; Williamson, Catherine; McKevitt, Christopher

    2016-09-08

    Gender inequity has persisted in academic medicine. Yet equity is vital for countries to achieve their full potential in terms of translational research and patient benefit. This study sought to understand how the gender equity programme, Athena SWAN, can be enabled and constrained by interactions between the programme and the context it is implemented into, and whether these interactions might produce unintended consequences. Multimethod qualitative case studies using a realist evaluation approach. 5 departments from a university medical school hosting a Translational Research Organisation. 25 hours of observations of gender equality committee meetings, 16 in-depth interviews with Heads of Departments, Committee Leads and key personnel involved in the initiative. 4 focus groups with 15 postdoctoral researchers, lecturers and senior lecturers. The implementation of Athena SWAN principles was reported to have created social space to address gender inequity and to have highlighted problematic practices to staff. However, a number of factors reduced the programme's potential to impact gender inequity. Gender inequity was reproduced in the programme's enactment as female staff was undertaking a disproportionate amount of Athena SWAN work, with potential negative impacts on individual women's career progression. Early career researchers experienced problems accessing Athena SWAN initiatives. Furthermore, the impact of the programme was perceived to be undermined by wider institutional practices, national policies and societal norms, which are beyond the programme's remit. Gender equity programmes have the potential to address inequity. However, paradoxically, they can also unintentionally reproduce and reinforce gender inequity through their enactment. Potential programme impacts may be undermined by barriers to staff availing of career development and training initiatives, and by wider institutional practices, national policies and societal norms. Published by the

  2. Lessons in Adaptability and Preparing for Black Swan Risks from the Military and Hedge Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    U.S. forces.50 Getting bureaucracy to loosen up to enable adaptability is difficult, especially with the federal government’s regulatory labyrinth ...this at a time when both men were in essential jobs, one running the entire war and the other operating from the shadows to defeat the most...for Black Swan Risks from the Military and Hedge Funds William R. Burns, Jr. Drew Miller Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

  3. Ancient DNA and morphometric analysis reveal extinction and replacement of New Zealand's unique black swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J; Kardamaki, Afroditi; Easton, Luke J; Tennyson, Alan J D; Scofield, R Paul; Waters, Jonathan M

    2017-07-26

    Prehistoric human impacts on megafaunal populations have dramatically reshaped ecosystems worldwide. However, the effects of human exploitation on smaller species, such as anatids (ducks, geese, and swans) are less clear. In this study we apply ancient DNA and osteological approaches to reassess the history of Australasia's iconic black swans ( Cygnus atratus ) including the palaeo-behaviour of prehistoric populations. Our study shows that at the time of human colonization, New Zealand housed a genetically, morphologically, and potentially ecologically distinct swan lineage ( C. sumnerensis , Poūwa), divergent from modern (Australian) C. atratus Morphological analyses indicate C. sumnerensis exhibited classic signs of the 'island rule' effect, being larger, and likely flight-reduced compared to C. atratus Our research reveals sudden extinction and replacement events within this anatid species complex, coinciding with recent human colonization of New Zealand. This research highlights the role of anthropogenic processes in rapidly reshaping island ecosystems and raises new questions for avian conservation, ecosystem re-wilding, and de-extinction. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Black Swans and Many Worlds: Contemporary models in music, the arts and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black Swans and Many Worlds are new models to help explain musical structures, and by extension, events in the social environment and in internal human experience. Many Worlds takes its departure point from quantum physics, and especially the work of Hugh Everett III, who used the defining point of a measurement in the sub-atomic world as initiating alternative courses of action. Everett extrapolated this idea to the macro-world: a defining point may initiate multiple outcomes, each with its own character and events, as parallel worlds. One application of this model is to consider musical works within a genre as Many Worlds. Black Swans derive from Nassim Taleb, who proposes that social, political, and in fact all aspects of today’s world are not understandable by logical processes or incremental change but are often rocked by extreme, unpredictable shocks. If Many Worlds provide new ways of thinking about potentiality, probability and innovation, Black Swans arrest us in our tracks by eruptions that threaten to derail contemporary life, and with it, music, the arts and ideas.

  5. Implementing Lumberjacks and Black Swans Into Model-Based Tools to Support Human-Automation Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Angelia; Wickens, Christopher D

    2017-03-01

    The objectives were to (a) implement theoretical perspectives regarding human-automation interaction (HAI) into model-based tools to assist designers in developing systems that support effective performance and (b) conduct validations to assess the ability of the models to predict operator performance. Two key concepts in HAI, the lumberjack analogy and black swan events, have been studied extensively. The lumberjack analogy describes the effects of imperfect automation on operator performance. In routine operations, an increased degree of automation supports performance, but in failure conditions, increased automation results in more significantly impaired performance. Black swans are the rare and unexpected failures of imperfect automation. The lumberjack analogy and black swan concepts have been implemented into three model-based tools that predict operator performance in different systems. These tools include a flight management system, a remotely controlled robotic arm, and an environmental process control system. Each modeling effort included a corresponding validation. In one validation, the software tool was used to compare three flight management system designs, which were ranked in the same order as predicted by subject matter experts. The second validation compared model-predicted operator complacency with empirical performance in the same conditions. The third validation compared model-predicted and empirically determined time to detect and repair faults in four automation conditions. The three model-based tools offer useful ways to predict operator performance in complex systems. The three tools offer ways to predict the effects of different automation designs on operator performance.

  6. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur cyc...

  7. Silicon Valley: Planet Startup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. P. Ester; dr. A. Maas

    2016-01-01

    For decades now, Silicon Valley has been the home of the future. It's the birthplace of the world's most successful high-tech companies-including Apple, Yahoo, Google, Facebook, Twitter, and many more. So what's the secret? What is it about Silicon Valley that fosters entrepreneurship and

  8. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  9. Cold-active halophilic bacteria from the ice-sealed Lake Vida, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondino, Lindsay J; Asao, Marie; Madigan, Michael T

    2009-10-01

    Lake Vida is a large, permanently ice-covered lake in the Victoria Valley of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica and is unique among Dry Valley lakes because it is ice-sealed, with an ice-cover of nearly 19 m. Enrichment cultures of melt-water from Lake Vida 15.9 m ice yielded five pure cultures of aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria. Of these, one strain grew at -8 degrees C and the four others at -4 degrees C. All isolates were either halotolerant or halophilic, with two strains capable of growth at 15% NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Lake Vida isolates to be Gammaproteobacteria, related to species of Psychrobacter and Marinobacter. This is the first report of pure cultures of bacteria from Lake Vida, and the isolates displayed a phenotype consistent with life in a cold hypersaline environment.

  10. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  11. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  12. 75 FR 62445 - Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Otter Tail County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... (Sub-No. 4X)] Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-- in Otter Tail County, MN Otter Tail Valley Railroad Company, Inc. (OTVR) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part... milepost 48.422 near Fergus Falls, and milepost 47.60 near Hoot Lake, in Otter Tail County, Minn.\\1\\ The...

  13. Advanced seismic imaging of overdeepened alpine valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burschil, Thomas; Buness, Hermann; Tanner, David; Gabriel, Gerald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Major European alpine valleys and basins are densely populated areas with infrastructure of international importance. To protect the environment by, e.g., geohazard assessment or groundwater estimation, understanding of the geological structure of these valleys is essential. The shape and deposits of a valley can clarify its genesis and allows a prediction of behaviour in future glaciations. The term "overdeepened" refers to valleys and basins, in which pressurized melt-water under the glacier erodes the valley below the fluvial level. Most overdeepened valleys or basins were thus refilled during the ice melt or remain in the form of lakes. The ICDP-project Drilling Overdeepened Alpine Valleys (DOVE) intends to correlate the sedimentary succession from boreholes between valleys in the entire alpine range. Hereby, seismic exploration is essential to predict the most promising well path and drilling site. In a first step, this DFG-funded project investigates the benefit of multi-component techniques for seismic imaging. At two test sites, the Tannwald Basin and the Lienz Basin, the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics acquired P-wave reflection profiles to gain structural and facies information. Built on the P-wave information, several S-wave reflection profiles were acquired in the pure SH-wave domain as well as 6-C reflection profiles using a horizontal S-wave source in inline and crossline excitation and 3-C receivers. Five P-wave sections reveal the structure of the Tannwald Basin, which is a distal branch basin of the Rhine Glacier. Strong reflections mark the base of the basin, which has a maximum depth of 240 metres. Internal structures and facies vary strongly and spatially, but allow a seismic facies characterization. We distinguish lacustrine, glacio-fluvial, and deltaic deposits, which make up the fill of the Tannwald Basin. Elements of the SH-wave and 6-C seismic imaging correlate with major structures in the P-wave image, but vary in detail. Based on

  14. Habitat degradation and subsequent fishery collapse in Lakes Naivasha and Baringo, Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Hickley, P.; Muchiri, M.; Boar, R.; Britton, R.; Adams, C.; Gichuru, N.; Harper, D.

    2004-01-01

    Lakes Naivasha and Baringo in the eastern Rift Valley of Kenya are shallow, freshwater lakes that are subject to major fluctuations in water level and suffer from habitat degradation as a consequence of riparian activity. Lake Naivasha is approximately 160 km2, is bordered by Cyperus papyrus and its aquatic macrophytes are in a state of flux. The most significant riparian activity is the large scale production of flowers for the European market. Lake Baringo is approximately 140 km2 and lies ...

  15. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, Volume I, Summary, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Enk, Michael D.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to develop and apply methods to evaluate the cumulative effects of 20 proposed small hydro projects on the fisheries resources of the Swan River drainage located in northwestern Montana. Fish population and reach classification information was used to estimate total populations of 107,000 brook trout, 65,000 cut-throat trout and 31,000 juvenile bull trout within the tributary system. Distribution, abundance, and life history of fish species in the drainage and their contribution to the sport fishery were considered in the cumulative impact analysis. Bull trout were chosen as the primary species of concern because of their extensive use of project areas, sensitivity to streambed sedimentation, and their importance to the lake and river sport fisheries. Dewatering of hydroelectric diversion zones and streambed sedimentation (resulting from forest and small hydro development) were the major impacts considered. The developer proposed to divert up to the entire streamflow during low flow months because maintenance of recommended minimum bypass flows would not allow profitable project operation. Dewatering was assumed to result in a total loss of fish production in these areas. 105 refs., 19 figs., 38 tabs.

  16. Geometry of Valley Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  17. The Importance of Lake Overflow Floods for Early Martian Landscape Evolution: Insights From Licus Vallis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, T. A.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    Open-basin lake outlet valleys are incised when water breaches the basin-confining topography and overflows. Outlet valleys record this flooding event and provide insight into how the lake and surrounding terrain evolved over time. Here we present a study of the paleolake outlet Licus Vallis, a >350 km long, >2 km wide, >100 m deep valley that heads at the outlet breach of an approx.30 km diameter impact crater. Multiple geomorphic features of this valley system suggest it records a more complex evolution than formation from a single lake overflow flood. This provides unique insight into the paleohydrology of lakes on early Mars, as we can make inferences beyond the most recent phase of activity..

  18. A glimpse into the littoral nutrient dynamics of a lake system connected to the sea

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available small percentage of the country’s estuaries (< 3%) comprise larger estuarine lakes mostly evolved from drowned river valleys. The physical properties of these systems suggest relatively low flushing rates, and the potentially stronger influence of in...

  19. Metals and trace elements in pondweed and aquatic invertebrates at Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Nevada Division of Wildlife operates the Gallagher Fish Hatchery in the Ruby Lake NWR in Ruby Valley, Nevada. The results of previous sampling of water, sediment...

  20. Intermontane valley fills

    OpenAIRE

    Mey, Jürgen (Diplom-Geologe)

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentary valley fills are a widespread characteristic of mountain belts around the world. They transiently store material over time spans ranging from thousands to millions of years and therefore play an important role in modulating the sediment flux from the orogen to the foreland and to oceanic depocenters. In most cases, their formation can be attributed to specific fluvial conditions, which are closely related to climatic and tectonic processes. Hence, valley-fill deposits constitute v...

  1. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  2. Geology and water resources of Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Kenneth J.; Danskin, Wesley R.; McCaffrey, William F.; Walti, Caryl L.

    1991-01-01

    that is structurally separated into the Bishop Basin to the north and the Owens Lake Basin to the south. These two structural basins are separated by (1) a bedrock high that is the upper bedrock block of an east-west normal fault, (2) a horst block of bedrock (the Poverty Hills), and (3) Quaternary basalt flows and cinder cones that intercalate and intrude the sedimentary deposits of the valley fill. The resulting structural separation of the basins allowed separate development of fluvial and lacustrine depositional systems in each basin. Nearly all the ground water in Owens Valley flows through and is stored in the saturated valley fill. The bedrock, which surrounds and underlies the valley fill, is virtually impermeable. Three hydrogeologic units compose the valley-fill aquifer system, a defined subdivision of the ground-water system, and a fourth represents the valley fill below the aquifer system and above the bedrock. The aquifer system is divided into horizontal hydrogeologic units on the basis of either (1) uniform hydrologic characteristics of a specific lithologic layer or (2) distribution of the vertical hydraulic head. Hydrogeologic unit 1 is the upper unit and represents the unconfined part of the system, hydrogeologic unit 2 represents the confining unit (or units), and hydrogeologic unit 3 represents the confined part of the aquifer system. Hydrogeologic unit 4 represents the deep part of the ground-water system and lies below the aquifer system. Hydrogeologic unit 4 transmits or stores much less water than hydrogeologic unit 3 and represents either a moderately consolidated valley fill or a geologic unit in the valley fill defined on the basis of geophysical data. Nearly all the recharge to the aquifer system is from infiltration of runoff from snowmelt and rainfall on the Sierra Nevada. In contrast, little recharge occurs to the system by runoff from the White and Inyo Mountains or from direct precipitation on the valley floor. Ground wat

  3. Role of manganese oxides in the exposure of mute swans (Cygnus olor) to Pb and other elements in the Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study are to estimate exposure of waterfowl to elements in contaminated sediments in the Chesapeake Bay and to consider the potential role of Mn in influencing bioavailability and exposure. Mute swans living on the Aberdeen Proving Ground were collected and samples of swan digesta were analyzed and compared to samples of feces collected from mute swans living at a nearby reference site. Sediments from the proving ground had elevated concentrations of Cu, S, Se, Zn, As, Co, Cr, Hg and Pb, but concentrations of only the first four of these elements were elevated in swan digesta. Sediments from the proving ground had an elevated mean concentration of total As, about seven times the concentration at the reference site, but the swans from that site were not ingesting more As than were reference swans. Swans at both sites were feeding on submerged aquatic vegetation and ingested about 4% sediment at the proving ground and about 5% sediment at the reference site. None of the concentrations detected in the digesta or livers of the swans was considered toxic, although the concentrations of Cu and Se were high compared to those concentrations reported in other waterfowl. A remarkably high mean concentration of Mn (6900 mg/kg, dry weight) detected in the feces of the reference swans was attributed to the deposition of manganese oxides on vegetation. The ingestion of Pb by swans at the reference site was correlated with Mn and Fe concentrations, rather than with markers of sediment ingestion. The Pb was presumably scavenged by Mn and Fe oxides from the water and deposited on the surface of vegetation. Under some environmental chemical conditions, this route of exposure for Pb is more important than sediment ingestion, which was previously thought to be the main route of exposure.

  4. SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

  5. Computed tomography of coxofemoral injury in five mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpenberger, Michaela; Scope, Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Five mute swans (Cygnus olor) were presented with inability to stand or with abnormal positioning of a leg. Clinical examinations indicated the possibility of femoral fractures or coxofemoral luxations. The suspected diagnosis was proven by means of computed tomography (CT), while superimposition of gastrointestinal contents or other artefacts limited radiographic diagnosis in three birds. A typical CT sign for lesions of the coxofemoral joint apart from femoral displacement was haemorrhage within the pelvic bones (especially around the acetabulum), found in four of the five birds. Small femoral head avulsion fractures could be detected only with CT.

  6. Demographic outcomes of diverse migration strategies assessed in a metapopulation of tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R; Meixell, Brandt W

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a prominent aspect of the life history of many avian species, but the demographic consequences of variable migration strategies have only infrequently been investigated, and rarely when using modern technological and analytical methods for assessing survival, movement patterns, and long-term productivity in the context of life history theory. We monitored the fates of 50 satellite-implanted tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) over 4 years from five disparate breeding areas in Alaska, and used known-fate analyses to estimate monthly survival probability relative to migration distance, breeding area, migratory flyway, breeding status, and age. We specifically tested whether migratory birds face a trade-off, whereby long-distance migrants realize higher survival rates at the cost of lower productivity because of reduced time on breeding areas relative to birds that migrate shorter distances and spend more time on breeding areas. Annual migration distances varied significantly among breeding areas (1020 to 12720 km), and were strongly negatively correlated with time spent on breeding areas (r = -0.986). Estimates of annual survival probability varied by wintering area (Pacific coast, Alaska Peninsula, and Eastern seaboard) and ranged from 0.79 (95%CI: 0.70-0.88) to 1.0, depending on criteria used to discern mortalities from radio failures. We did not find evidence for a linear relationship between migration distance and survival as swans from the breeding areas with the shortest and longest migration distances had the highest survival probabilities. Survival was lower in the first year post-marking than in subsequent years, but there was not support for seasonal differences in survival. Productivity varied among breeding populations and was generally inversely correlated to survival, but not migration distance or time spent on breeding areas. Tundra swans conformed to a major tenet of life history theory, as populations with the highest survival

  7. Delineation of Tundra Swan Cygnus c. columbianus populations in North America: geographic boundaries and interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Sladen, William J. L.; Wilson, Heather M.; Savage, Susan E.; Sowl, Kristine M.; Henry, Bill; Schwitters, Mike; Snowden, James

    2014-01-01

    North American Tundra Swans Cygnus c. columbianus are composed of two wellrecognised populations: an Eastern Population (EP) that breeds across northern Canada and north of the Brooks Range in Alaska, which migrates to the eastern seaboard of the United States, and a Western Population (WP) that breeds in coastal regions of Alaska south of the Brooks Range and migrates to western North America. We present results of a recent major ringing effort from across the breeding range in Alaska to provide a better definition of the geographic extent of the migratory divide in Alaska. We also reassess the staging and winter distributions of these populations based on locations of birds tracked using satellite transmitters, and recent recoveries and sightings of neck-collared birds. Summer sympatry of EP and WP Tundra Swans is very limited, and largely confined to a small area in northwest Alaska. Autumn migration pathways of EP and WP Tundra swans abut in southwest Saskatchewan, a region where migrating WP birds turn west, and EP birds deviate abruptly eastward. Overall, from 1989 to 2013 inclusive, 2.6% of recoveries or resightings reported to the USGS Bird Banding Laboratory were of birds that moved from the domain of the population in which they were initially captured to within the range of the other population; a proportion roughly comparable to the results of Limpert et al. (1991) for years before 1990. Of the 70 cross-boundary movements reported since 1989, 39% were of birds marked on breeding areas and 61% were of birds marked on wintering areas. Dispersing swans (i.e. those that made crossboundary movements) did not differ with respect to age or sex from those that did not move between populations. The Brooks Range in northern Alaska effectively separates the two populations within Alaska, but climate-induced changes in tundra breeding habitats and losses of wetlands on staging areas may alter the distribution for both of these populations.

  8. Sea level variability influencing coastal flooding in the Swan River region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Matt

    2012-02-01

    Coastal flooding refers to the incidence of high water levels produced by water level fluctuations of marine origin, rather than riverine floods. An understanding of the amplitude and frequency of high water level events is essential to foreshore management and the design of many coastal and estuarine facilities. Coastal flooding events generally determine public perception of sea level phenomena, as they are commonly associated with erosion events. This investigation has explored the nature of coastal flooding events affecting the Swan River Region, Western Australia, considering water level records at four sites in the estuary and lower river, extending from the mouth of the Swan River to 40 km upstream. The analysis examined the significance of tides, storms and mean sea level fluctuations over both seasonal and inter-annual time scales. The relative timing of these processes is significant for the enhanced or reduced frequency of coastal flooding. These variations overlie net sea level rise previously reported from the coastal Fremantle record, which is further supported by changes to the distribution of high water level events at an estuarine tidal station. Seasonally, coastal flooding events observed in the Swan River region are largely restricted to the period from May to July due to the relative phases of the annual mean sea fluctuation and biannual tidal cycle. Although significant storm surge events occur outside this period, their impact is normally reduced, as they are superimposed on lower tidal and mean sea level conditions. Over inter-annual time scales tide, storminess and mean sea level produce cycles of enhanced and depressed frequency of coastal flooding. For the Swan River region, the inter-annual tidal variation is regular, dominated by the 18.6 year lunar nodal cycle. Storminess and mean sea level variations are independent and irregular, with cycles from 3 to 10 year duration. Since 1960, these fluctuations have not occurred in phase

  9. The Role of Source Material in Basin Sedimentation, as Illustrated within Eureka Valley, Death Valley National Park, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, M. J.; Yin, A.; Rhodes, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Steep landscapes are known to provide sediment to sink regions, but often petrological factors can dominate basin sedimentation. Within Eureka Valley, in northwestern Death Valley National Park, normal faulting has exposed a steep cliff face on the western margin of the Last Chance range with four kilometers of vertical relief from the valley floor and an angle of repose of nearly 38 degrees. The cliff face is composed of Cambrian limestone and dolomite, including the Bonanza King, Carrara and Wood Canyon formations. Interacting with local normal faulting, these units preferentially break off the cliff face in coherent blocks, which result in landslide deposits rather than as finer grained material found within the basin. The valley is well known for a large sand dune, which derives its sediment from distal sources to the north, instead of from the adjacent Last Chance Range cliff face. During the Holocene, sediment is sourced primary from the northerly Willow Wash and Cucomungo canyon, a relatively small drainage (less than 80 km2) within the Sylvan Mountains. Within this drainage, the Jurassic quartz monzonite of Beer Creek is heavily fractured due to motion of the Fish Valley Lake - Death Valley fault zone. Thus, the quartz monzonite is more easily eroded than the well-consolidated limestone and dolomite that forms the Last Change Range cliff face. As well, the resultant eroded material is smaller grained, and thus more easily transported than the limestone. Consequently, this work highlights an excellent example of the strong influence that source material can have on basin sedimentation.

  10. Reinterpretation of the exposed record of the last two cycles of Lake Bonneville, Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W.E.; McCoy, W.D.; Shroba, R.R.; Rubin, M.

    1983-01-01

    A substantially modified history of the last two cycles of Lake Bonneville is proposed. The Bonneville lake cycle began prior to 26,000 yr B.P.; the lake reached the Bonneville shoreline about 16,000 yr B.P. Poor dating control limits our knowledge of the timing of subsequent events. Lake level was maintained at the Bonneville shoreline until about 15,000 yr B.P., or somewhat later, when catastrophic downcutting of the outlet caused a rapid drop of 100 m. The Provo shoreline was formed as rates of isostatic uplift due to this unloading slowed. By 13,000 yr B.P., the lake had fallen below the Provo level and reached one close to that of Great Salt Lake by 11,000 yr B.P. Deposits of the Little Valley lake cycle are identified by their position below a marked unconformity and by amino acid ratios of their fossil gastropods. The maximum level of the Little Valley lake was well below the Bonneville shoreline. Based on degree of soil development and other evidence, the Little Valley lake cycle may be equivalent in age to marine oxygenisotope stage 6. The proposed lake history has climatic implications for the region. First, because the fluctuations of Lake Bonneville and Lake Lahontan during the last cycle of each were apparently out of phase, there may have been significant local differences in the timing and character of late Pleistocene climate changes in the Great Basin. Second, although the Bonneville and Little Valley lake cycles were broadly synchronous with maximum episodes of glaciation, environmental conditions necessary to generate large lakes did not exist during early Wisconsin time. ?? 1983.

  11. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    . Groundwater flows from the high-altitude recharge areas downward toward the basin-fill aquifer in Parowan Valley. Almost all groundwater discharge occurs as withdrawals from irrigation wells in the valley with a small amount of discharge from phreatophytic evapotranspiration. Subsurface groundwater discharge to Cedar Valley is likely minimal. Withdrawals from wells during 2013 were about 32,000 acre-ft. The estimated withdrawals from wells from 1994 to 2013 have ranged from 22,000 to 39,000 acre-ft per year. Declining water levels are an indication of the estimated average annual decrease in groundwater storage of 15,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013.Groundwater and surface-water samples were collected from 46 sites in Parowan Valley and Cedar Valley near the town of Enoch during June 2013. Groundwater samples from 34 wells were submitted for geochemical analysis. The total dissolved-solids concentration in water from these wells ranged from 142 to 886 milligrams per liter. Results of stable isotope analysis of oxygen and deuterium from groundwater and surface-water samples indicate that most of the groundwater in Parowan Valley and in Cedar Valley near Enoch is similar in isotopic composition to water from mountain streams, which reflects meteoric water recharged in high-altitude areas east of the valley. In addition, results of stable isotope analysis of a subset of samples from wells located near Little Salt Lake may indicate recharge of precipitation that occurred during cooler climatic conditions of the Pleistocene Epoch.

  12. Surficial geologic map of the Red Rock Lakes area, southwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Sojda, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The Centennial Valley and Centennial Range continue to be formed by ongoing displacement on the Centennial fault. The dominant fault movement is downward, creating space in the valley for lakes and the deposition of sediment. The Centennial Valley originally drained to the northeast through a canyon now represented by a chain of lakes starting with Elk Lake. Subsequently, large landslides blocked and dammed the drainage, which created Lake Centennial, in the Centennial Valley. Sediments deposited in this late Pleistocene lake underlie much of the valley floor and rest on permeable sand and gravel deposited when the valley drained to the northeast. Cold Pleistocene climates enhanced colluvial supply of gravelly sediment to mountain streams and high peak flows carried gravelly sediment into the valley. There, the lower gradient of the streams resulted in deposition of alluvial fans peripheral to Lake Centennial as the lake lowered through time to the level of the two present lakes. Pleistocene glaciers formed in the high Centennial Range, built glacial moraines, and also supplied glacial outwash to the alluvial fans. Winds from the west and south blew sand to the northeast side of the valley building up high dunes. The central part of the map area is flat, sloping to the west by only 0.6 meters in 13 kilometers (2 feet in 8 miles) to form a watery lowland. This lowland contains Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes, many ponds, and peat lands inside the “water plane,” above which are somewhat steeper slopes. The permeable sands and gravels beneath Lake Centennial sediments provide a path for groundwater recharged from the adjacent uplands. This groundwater leaks upward through Lake Centennial sediments and sustains wetland vegetation into late summer. Upper and Lower Red Rock Lakes are formed by alluvial-fan dams. Alluvial fans converge from both the south and the north to form outlet thresholds that dam the two shallow lakes upstream. The surficial geology aids in

  13. Stable isotopic biogeochemistry of carbon and nitrogen in a perennially ice-covered Antarctic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, R. A. Jr; Lyons, W. B.; Des Marais, D. J.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Lake Hoare (77 degrees 38' S, 162 degrees 53' E) is an amictic, oligotrophic, 34-m-deep, closed-basin lake in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. Its perennial ice cover minimizes wind-generated currents and reduces light penetration, as well as restricts sediment deposition into the lake and the exchange of atmospheric gases between the water column and the atmosphere. The biological community of Lake Hoare consists solely of microorganisms -- both planktonic populations and benthic microbial mats. Lake Hoare is one of several perennially ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys that represent the end-member conditions of cold desert and saline lakes. The dry valley lakes provide a unique opportunity to examine lacustrine processes that operate at all latitudes, but under an extreme set of environmental conditions. The dry valley lakes may also offer a valuable record of catchment and global changes in the past and present. Furthermore, these lakes are modern-day equivalents of periglacial lakes that are likely to have been common during periods of glacial maxima at temperate latitudes. We have analyzed the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of Lake Hoare for delta 13C and the organic matter of the sediments and sediment-trap material for delta 13C and delta 15N. The delta 13C of the DIC indicates that 12C is differentially removed in the shallow, oxic portions of the lake via photosynthesis. In the anoxic portions of the lake (27-34 m) a net addition of 12C to the DIC pool occurs via organic matter decomposition. The dissolution of CaCO3 at depth also contributes to the DIC pool. Except near the Canada Glacier where a substantial amount of allochthonous organic matter enters the lake, the organic carbon being deposited on the lake bottom at different sites is isotopically similar, suggesting an autochthonous source for the organic carbon. Preliminary inorganic carbon flux calculations suggest that a high percentage of the organic carbon fixed in the water column is

  14. Mass production of `Swan`s Golden`, Cupressus sempervirens by tissue culture and its radiation breeding. 2. Study on growth regulating substance to stimulate the elongation of shoot apex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    Some species of `Swan`s Golden` have been propagated by means of grafting because propagation by cutting is difficult. However, not a few species of the plant are easily lodged, resulting that spreading of `Swan`s Golden` is difficult. Here, an investigation was made on growth regulating substances added into the basal medium in respects of their kinds and concentrations and also the kind of medium for successive culture. As the basal medium, SH medium supplemented with 4 g/l of gel-light and 3 g/l of carbon-powder was used. The optimum medium for the initiation of culture was the basal medium added with zeatin (Ze) and gibberellin (GA) and it was also suitable for successive culture after the 14 day. The medium added with Ze and benzyladenine (BA) or Ze alone was found to be most suitable for the culture after the 28 day. The concentration was optimum at 1 - 2.5 mg/l for either of these growth regulating substances. (M.N.)

  15. A STRUGGLE FOR LOVE OF BELLA SWAN REFLECTED IN NEW MOON MOVIE: AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Riska Lestari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper described the struggle for love of Bella Swan reflected in New Moon movie by using Alfred Adler’s individual psychology and analyzed the plot of the movie. It used qualitative research method and the object of this study was a major character named Bella Swan. Primary data sources were the New Moon movie directed by Christopher Weitz and the script of the movie, while secondary data sources were collected from many sources such as dictionary, articles from internet, and books related to this study. Methods of data collecting were observation and library research. The method of data analysis was descriptive analysis. Based on the analysis, It reflected the condition of a person who had a goal and struggle to get it. It concluded that Bella had high struggles to reach her goals. The plot of New Moon movie is complicated and stimulating, therefore it made the story was not flat and boring. By analyzing the plot, the viewers could easily understand the story and the message of the movie and catch up the moral lesson of it.

  16. Treatment of giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema by ipsilateral bronchial occlusion with a Swan-Ganz catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Shantanu [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Gupta, Archana; Wung, Jen-Tien [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Pediatric Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Unilateral giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) can be seen as a complication of chronic ventilation in extremely low-birth-weight babies. Many can be managed by conventional pulmonary care which includes positioning, suctioning, chest physiotherapy, gentle conventional ventilation and high-frequency ventilation. Some may need invasive procedures such as lung puncture, pleurotomies and excisional surgery. This is the group in which single-lung ventilation may be beneficial and circumvent the need for an invasive procedure. We describe the technique of single-lung ventilation using a Swan-Ganz catheter to block the main stem bronchus on the diseased side in air-leak syndromes. A retrospective chart review was done on 17 newborns undergoing single-lung ventilation using this technique at the Children's Hospital of New York, Columbia University, from 1986 to 2000. The technique was successful in the management of severe, neonatal unilateral lung disease not responsive to conventional modes of therapy in all but two neonates as seen by a significant improvement in pH and a decrease in PaCO{sub 2} levels. In one neonate malpositioning of the Swan-Ganz catheter balloon could have contributed to the development of pneumothorax. The described technique of single-lung ventilation provides a safe, minimally invasive and economically feasible method of management of unilateral giant PIE in newborns not responsive to conventional modes of therapy with minimal complications. (orig.)

  17. Tourism today: Between the black swan and the reality of the fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Sánchez Arciniegas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present essay begins by adapting the metaphor of Nassim Taleb, The Black Swan to the phenomenon of tourism in order to inquire the effects that terrorism acts have on the world´s tourist behaviour. This article was finished on June 2016 and is consistent with the unpredictability of subsequent events. You won’t find an analysis of statistics based on tourism models or analysis methods; nonetheless it presents a deductive approximation based on news reviews and social network publications that circulate about tourism. On the one hand, the news related to the impacts of terrorist attacks disturb the world at global scale making an impact on tourism destinations and on the other hand, there are cities with a parallel reality, one that shows an idyllic world, with positive and encouraging statistics of tourist visitors, travel promotion and circulation of travel experiences in social networks. Resembling the novel, the fiction of real characters. The sources triangulation, is not conclusive but indicative about the vast information that exists, the elaborated circulation of images and the broad literature of tourism; (some of them showing an interdisciplinary relation between terrorism and tourism however, some of it lacks research and do not contribute to the knowledge of this phenomenon in social and economic aspects, beyond the marketing, a thematic highly privilege by the production of texts. The current swan disturbs, but the reaction of the travel industry is to settle.

  18. Heterogeneous glacial lake changes and links of lake expansions to the rapid thinning of adjacent glacier termini in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Sheng, Yongwei; Wang, Jida; Ke, Linghong; Madson, Austin; Nie, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Glacier mass loss in the Himalayas has far-reaching implications for the alteration of regional hydrologic regimes, an increased risk of glacial lake outburst, downstream water resource abundance, and contributions to sea level rise. However, the mass losses of Himalayan glaciers are not well understood towing to the scarcity of observations and the heterogeneous responses of Himalayan glaciers to climate change and local factors (e.g., glacier surge, interacting with proglacial lakes). In particular, there is a lack of understanding on the unique interactions between moraine-dammed glacial lakes and their effects on debris cover on valley glacier termini. In this study, we examined the temporal evolution of 151 large glacial lakes across the Himalayas and then classified these glacial lakes into three categories: proglacial lakes in contact with full or partial debris-covered glaciers (debris-contact lakes), ice cliff-contact lakes, and non-glacier-contact lakes. The results show that debris-contact lakes experienced a dramatic areal increase of 36.5% over the years 2000 to 2014, while the latter two categories of lakes remained generally stable. The majority of lake expansions occurred at the glacier front without marked lake level rises. This suggests that the rapid expansion of these debris-contact lakes can be largely attributed to the thinning of debris-covered ice as caused by the melting of glacial fronts and the subsequent glacial retreat. We reconstructed the height variations of glacier fronts in contact with 57 different proglacial lakes during the years 2000 to 2014. These reconstructed surface elevation changes of debris-covered, lake-contact glacier fronts reveal significant thinning trends with considerable lowering rates that range from 1.0 to 9.7 m/y. Our study reveals that a substantial average ice thinning of 3.9 m/y occurred at the glacier fronts that are in contact with glacial lakes.

  19. Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors questionnaire (SWAN) when compared with DISC-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Grace Fong-Chun; Lai, Kelly Yee-Ching; Luk, Ernest Siu-Luen; Hung, Se-Fong; Leung, Patrick Wing-Leung

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN) questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV) and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined. A total of 290 children aged 6-12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN. Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder. SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample.

  20. Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock, poultry and humans: a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmberg, Johan; Berg, Charlotte; Lerner, Henrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Hessel, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans. Research thus far suggests that these birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, at present there is no evidence that geese and swans play a role in transmission of Newcastle disease, duck plague, West Nile virus, Vibrio, Yersinia, Clostridium, Chlamydophila, and Borrelia. Finally, based on present knowledge it is not possible to say if geese and swans play a role in transmission of Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Helicobacter, Brachyspira, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Microsporidia. This is largely due to changes in classification and taxonomy, rapid development of identification methods and lack of knowledge about host specificity. Previous research tends to overrate the role of geese and swans as disease vectors; we do not find any evidence that they are significant transmitters to humans or livestock of any of the pathogens considered in this review. Nevertheless, it is wise to keep poultry and livestock separated from small volume waters used by many wild waterfowl, but there is no need to discourage livestock grazing in nature reserves or pastures where geese and swans are present. Under some circumstances it is warranted to discourage swans and geese from using wastewater ponds, drinking water reservoirs, and public beaches. Intensified screening of swans and geese for AIV, West Nile virus and anatid herpesvirus is warranted. PMID:28567210

  1. Gulf of Mexico hurricane wave simulations using SWAN : Bulk formula-based drag coefficient sensitivity for Hurricane Ike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Weisberg, R.H.; Zheng, L.; Zijlema, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of wind input parameterizations on wave estimations under hurricane conditions are examined using the unstructured grid, third-generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Experiments using Hurricane Ike wind forcing, which impacted the Gulf of Mexico in 2008, illustrate

  2. Bagging grey swans : A supply network approach to identifying and managing low-probability high-impact supply chain events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossetti, Christian; Akkermans, Henk; Bhakoo, Vikram; Carnovale, Steven

    Over the past decade practitioners and researchers have become increasingly focused on managing risks in extended supply chains. Whether these risks involve supply disruptions, financial liabilities for a supplier’s actions, or large market shifts; Grey Swan events, defined as unforeseen

  3. Lake Bogoria, Kenya: Hot and warm springs, geysers and Holocene stromatolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    I carried out the first regional geological survey of the central Gregory Rift Valley in Kenya in 1958-60, and review here the numerous subsequent specialised studies focused on the unique endoreic Lake Bogoria (formerly Hannington), studies which embraced the sedimentology of the Holocene sediments around the lake shores, the hot-spring and geyser activities and the coring of the sediments beneath the lake. I focus on the occurrences of stromatolites in a hydrothermal environment, both in two closely spaced late Holocene (~ 4500 yr BP) generations at the lake margin, associated with algae and cyanobacteria, which represent a final more humid climatic phase after the several interglacial more humid phases (also represented by stromatolite occurrences in other rift valley lakes); and also at present being formed, at the edge of the now highly saline lake, in the very hot springs in association with thermophilic bacteria and with silica. I briefly mention the older occurrences in Lake Magadi to the south, which are quite different; and form three generations; and also present-day occurrences of stromatolites in a flood-plain environment, unlike the present-day environment at Lake Bogoria. Other stromatolite occurrences are mentioned, around Lake Turkana and the former lake in the Suguta River valley to the north. I suggest that the hot waterfall at Kapedo, at the head of the Suguta River, and the central island of Ol Kokwe (with hot springs, amidst the fresh water Lake Baringo) could well be investigated for stromatolite occurrences. Lake Bogoria, an empty wilderness occupied only by flamingos when I mapped it, is now more accessible and provides a unique open-air laboratory for such researches, but like all the Rift Valley lakes, is unique, sui generis. Results of detailed investigations of the type reviewed here, can only be applied to other occurrences of stromatolites elsewhere in the rift system or beyond the rift system with reservation.

  4. Subsurface imaging reveals a confined aquifer beneath an ice-sealed Antarctic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugan, H. A.; Doran, P. T.; Tulaczyk, S.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid water oases are rare under extreme cold desert conditions found in the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys. Here we report geophysical results that indicate that Lake Vida, one of the largest lakes in the region, is nearly frozen and underlain by widespread cryoconcentrated brine. A ground penet...

  5. 77 FR 56608 - Designation for the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Designation for the Pocatello, ID; Evansville, IN; and Salt Lake City, UT Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection....... 10/1/2012 9/30/2015 Ohio Valley Evansville, IN (812) 423-9010... 10/1/2012 9/30/2015 Utah Salt Lake...

  6. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  7. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur...... cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  8. Ice-dammed lateral lake and epishelf lake insights into Holocene dynamics of Marguerite Trough Ice Stream and George VI Ice Shelf, Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bethan J.; Hambrey, Michael J.; Glasser, Neil F.; Holt, Tom; Rodés, Angél; Smellie, John L.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Blockley, Simon P. E.

    2017-12-01

    We present new data regarding the past dynamics of Marguerite Trough Ice Stream, George VI Ice Shelf and valley glaciers from Ablation Point Massif on Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula. This ice-free oasis preserves a geological record of ice stream lateral moraines, ice-dammed lakes, ice-shelf moraines and valley glacier moraines, which we dated using cosmogenic nuclide ages. We provide one of the first detailed sediment-landform assemblage descriptions of epishelf lake shorelines. Marguerite Trough Ice Stream imprinted lateral moraines against eastern Alexander Island at 120 m at Ablation Point Massif. During deglaciation, lateral lakes formed in the Ablation and Moutonnée valleys, dammed against the ice stream in George VI Sound. Exposure ages from boulders on these shorelines yielded ages of 13.9 to 9.7 ka. Following recession of the ice stream, George VI Ice Shelf formed in George VI Sound. An epishelf lake formed at 15-20 m asl in Ablation and Moutonnée valleys, dated from 9.4 to 4.6 ka, suggesting that the lake was stable and persistent for some 5000 years. Lake-level lowering occurred after this, with the lake level at 12 m at 3.1 ± 0.4 ka and at 5 m asl today. A readvance of the valley glaciers on Alexander Island at 4.4 ± 0.7 ka is recorded by valley glacier moraines overlying epishelf lake sediments. We speculate that the glacier readvance, which occurred during a period of warmth, may have been caused by a dynamic response of the glaciers to a lowering in surface elevation of George VI Ice Shelf.

  9. Boyne Valley Tombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Frank

    The passage tombs of the Boyne Valley exhibit the greatest level of development of the megalithic tomb building tradition in Ireland in terms of their morphology, embellishment, burial tradition, grave goods, clustering, and landscape siting. This section examines these characteristics and gives a summary archaeoastronomical appraisal of their orientation and detected astronomical alignment.

  10. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  11. Surficial Geology of the Floor of Lake Mead (Arizona and Nevada) as Defined by Sidescan-Sonar Imagery, Lake-Floor Topography, and Post-Impoundment Sediment Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, D.C.; Cross, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    Sidescan-sonar imagery collected in Lake Mead during 1999-2001, a period of high lake level, has been used to map the surficial geology of the floor of this large reservoir that formed upon completion of the Hoover Dam in 1935. Four surficial geologic units were identified and mapped: rock exposures and alluvial deposits that existed prior to the formation of the lake and thin post-impoundment sediments ( 1 m) deposited since the lake formed. Exposures of rock are most extensive in the narrow, steep-sided sections of the lake, while alluvial deposits are most extensive on the gentle flanks of the broader basin sections of the lake. Post-impoundment sediment is restricted to the floors of the original river valleys that now lie below lake level. These sediments are thickest in the deltas that form at the mouths of the Colorado River and its tributaries, but cover the entire length of the valley floors of the lake. This sediment distribution is consistent with deposition from turbidity currents. Lake level has dropped more than 30 m between collection of the sidescan imagery and publication of this report. During this time, thick delta deposits have been eroded and redistributed to deeper parts of the lake by turbidity currents. While present-day post-impoundment sediment distribution should be similar to what it was in 2001, the thickness may be greater in some of the deeper parts of the lake now.

  12. Bringing Silicon Valley inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  13. A new low molecular mass alkaline cyclodextrin glucanotransferase from Amphibacillus sp. NRC-WN isolated from an Egyptian soda lake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Sharawi, Samar Z.R; Ibrahim, Abdelnasser S.S; El-Shatoury, Einas H; Gebreel, Hassan M; Eldiwany, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    ...: Screening for CGTase-producing alkaliphilic bacteria from sediment and water samples collected from Egyptian soda lakes located in the Wadi Natrun valley resulted in the isolation of a potent CGTase...

  14. White Lake AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  15. Report to the Pacific Flyway Committee on 1985-2004 Coastal Zone Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Goose Survey of geese, swans and sandhill cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese, tundra swans and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) for the 20th consecutive year. The...

  16. Report to the Pacific Flyway Committee on 1985-2002 Coastal Zone Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Goose Survey of geese, swans and sandhill cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese, tundra swans and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) for the 18th consecutive year. The...

  17. Temperature data from buoy casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from the COLUMBUS and HMAS SWAN from 01 August 1928 to 04 September 1932 (NODC Accession 0000242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using buoy casts from the COLUMBUS and HMAS SWAN from August 1, 1928 to September 4, 1932 in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were...

  18. Testing The ‘Black Swan Effect’ on Croatian Stock Market Between 2000 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Radman Peša

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We tested the economic activity and stock exchange of Croatia as a new country of EU in order to investigate the ‘Black Swan effect’ from 2000 to 2013. The empirical findings obtained in application of OLS methodology and Chow breaking point test provide evidence and show that resignation of the Croatian ex Prime Minister lead country successfully to EU, but were also ‘The Black Swan’ event, being unpredictable and having huge impact on political and economic environment in Croatia obtained through CROBEX, Croatian stock exchange indices. Authors conclude that the resignation was connected to one of the first significant cases of corruption in Croatia which has got the negative impact on the economic development of the country in general, dealing at the same time with global recession.

  19. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  20. Sleep duration and weight change in midlife women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Janssen, Imke; Cursio, John F.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica; Gold, Ellen B.; Burns, John W.; Kravitz, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been associated with higher current body mass index (BMI) and subsequent weight gain. However, most prior longitudinal studies are limited by reliance on self-reported sleep duration, and none accounted for the potential confounding effect of sleep-disordered breathing. The associations of sleep duration with current BMI and BMI change were examined among 310 midlife women in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study (2003–2005). Sleep duration was assessed for approximately one month with concurrent wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries. The presence and severity of sleep-disordered breathing was quantified using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) based on in-home polysomnography. BMI was assessed annually through core SWAN visit 10 (2006 and 2008). Mean BMI increased from 29.6 (SD=7.8) kg/m2 to 30.0 (SD=8.0) kg/m2 over an average of 4.6 years (SD=1.0) of follow up. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for AHI, demographic variables, and several potential confounding variables, actigraphy (estimate=−1.22, 95%C.I.: −2.03, −.42) and diary (estimate=−.86, 95%C.I. −1.62, −.09) measures of sleep duration were inversely associated with BMI. Each hour of less sleep was associated with 1.22 kg/m2 greater BMI for actigraphy sleep duration, and a 0.86 kg/m2 greater BMI for diary sleep duration. Longitudinal associations between sleep duration and annual BMI change were non-significant in unadjusted and fully-adjusted models. In this cohort of midlife women, cross-sectional associations between sleep duration and current BMI were independent of sleep-disordered breathing, but sleep duration was not prospectively associated with weight change. PMID:23505171

  1. Clonal diversity and structure within a population of the pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus foraged by Bewick's swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangelbroek, H H; Ouborg, N J; Santamaría, L; Schwenk, K

    2002-10-01

    Clonal diversity within plant populations is affected by factors that influence genet (clone) survival and seed recruitment, such as resource availability, disturbance, seed dispersal mechanism, propagule predation and the age of the population. Here we studied a population of Potamogeton pectinatus, a pseudo-annual aquatic macrophyte. Within populations reproduction appears to be mainly asexually through subterranean propagules (tubers), while recruitment via seeds is believed to be relatively unimportant. RAPD markers were used to analyse clonal diversity and genetic variation within the population. Ninety-seven genets were identified among 128 samples taken from eight plots. The proportion of distinguishable genets (0.76) and Simpson's diversity index (0.99) exhibited high levels of clonal diversity compared to other clonal plants. According to an analysis of molecular variance (amova) most genetic variation occurred between individuals within plots (93-97%) rather than between plots (8-3%). These results imply that sexual reproduction plays an unexpectedly important role within the population. Nevertheless, autocorrelation statistics revealed a spatial genetic structure resulting from clonal growth. In contrast to genetic variation, clonal diversity was affected by several ecological factors. Water depth and silt content had direct negative effects on clonal diversity. Tuber predation by Bewick's swans had an unexpected indirect negative effect on clonal diversity through reducing the tuber-bank biomass in spring, which on its turn was positively correlated to clonal diversity. The disturbance by swans, therefore, did not enhance seed recruitment and thus clonal diversity; on the contrary, heavily foraged areas are probably more prone to stochastic loss of genets leading to reduced clonal diversity.

  2. Sleep duration and weight change in midlife women: the SWAN sleep study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Janssen, Imke; Cursio, John F; Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica; Gold, Ellen B; Burns, John W; Kravitz, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been associated with higher current BMI and subsequent weight gain. However, most prior longitudinal studies are limited by reliance on self-reported sleep duration, and none accounted for the potential confounding effect of sleep-disordered breathing. The associations of sleep duration with current BMI and BMI change were examined among 310 midlife women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study (2003-2005). Sleep duration was assessed for approximately one month with concurrent wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries. The presence and severity of sleep-disordered breathing was quantified using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) based on in-home polysomnography. BMI was assessed annually through core SWAN visit 10 (2006 and 2008). Mean BMI increased from 29.6 (SD = 7.8) kg/m(2) to 30.0 (SD = 8.0) kg/m(2) over an average of 4.6 years (SD = 1.0) of follow-up. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for AHI, demographic variables, and several potential confounding variables, actigraphy (estimate = -1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.03, -0.42) and diary (estimate = -0.86, 95% CI -1.62, -0.09) measures of sleep duration were inversely associated with BMI. Each hour of less sleep was associated with 1.22 kg/m(2) greater BMI for actigraphy sleep duration, and a 0.86 kg/m(2) greater BMI for diary sleep duration. Longitudinal associations between sleep duration and annual BMI change were nonsignificant in unadjusted and fully adjusted models. In this cohort of midlife women, cross-sectional associations between sleep duration and current BMI were independent of sleep-disordered breathing, but sleep duration was not prospectively associated with weight change. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  3. Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-behaviors questionnaire (SWAN when compared with DISC-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan GFC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grace Fong-Chun Chan,1 Kelly Yee-Ching Lai,2 Ernest Siu-Luen Luk,3 Se-Fong Hung,2 Patrick Wing-Leung Leung4 1Department of Psychiatry, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Private practice, 4Clinical and Health Psychology Centre, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. Objective: In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined.Method: A total of 290 children aged 6–12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN.Results: Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder.Conclusion: SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample. Keywords: ADHD, SWAN, DISC-IV, validity

  4. Site records of softshell turtles (Chelonia: Trionychidae from Barak Valley, Assam, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Das

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time the occurrence of four species of Trionychid turtles Nilssonia gangetica, N. hurum, Chitra indica and Lissemys punctata andersonii from 57 sites in the Barak Valley region of Assam, northeastern India. Sites of occurrence include rivers, small streams, floodplain lakes and ox-bows.

  5. Water‐Data Report 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39 deg 39’ 37”N, long. 93 deg 9’ 9”W, 23 miles east southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is on the right bank, 75 feet south of bridge...

  6. Water‐Data Report 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39 deg 39’ 37”N, long. 93 deg 9’ 9”W, 23 miles east southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is on the right bank, 75 feet south of bridge...

  7. Water‐Data Report 394031093062801 ELK CREEK NEAR ROTHVILLE MO, STUTMAN RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39040’31”N, Long. 9306’28”W, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is located at southwest corner of bridge crossing on...

  8. Water‐Data Report 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39 deg 39’ 37”N, long. 93 deg 9’ 9”W, 23 miles east southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is on the right bank, 75 feet south of bridge...

  9. Water‐Data Report 394031093062801 ELK CREEK NEAR ROTHVILLE MO, STUTMAN RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39040’31”N, Long. 9306’28”W, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is located at southwest corner of bridge crossing on...

  10. Water‐Data Report 394031093062801 ELK CREEK NEAR ROTHVILLE MO, STUTMAN RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39040’31”N, Long. 9306’28”W, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is located at southwest corner of bridge crossing on...

  11. Water‐Data Report 394031093062801 ELK CREEK NEAR ROTHVILLE MO, STUTMAN RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39040’31”N, Long. 9306’28”W, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is located at southwest corner of bridge crossing on...

  12. Water‐Data Report 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39 deg 39’ 37”N, long. 93 deg 9’ 9”W, 23 miles east southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is on the right bank, 75 feet south of bridge...

  13. Water‐Data Report 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39 deg 39’ 37”N, long. 93 deg 9’ 9”W, 23 miles east southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is on the right bank, 75 feet south of bridge...

  14. Water‐Data Report 394031093062801 ELK CREEK NEAR ROTHVILLE MO, STUTMAN RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39040’31”N, Long. 9306’28”W, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, Charlton County. Gage is located at southwest corner of bridge crossing on...

  15. 77 FR 31843 - Swan Lake North Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted For Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... vertical shaft; (7) a 30-foot-diameter, 1,000-foot-long high pressure steel-lined penstock branching into... application, can be viewed or printed on the ``eLibrary'' link of Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov...

  16. Advancing gender equality through the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science: an exploratory study of women's and men's perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Chapple, Alison; Edmunds, Laurel D; Ziebland, Sue

    2017-02-21

    While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensive university in Oxford, United Kingdom. The study is based on the secondary analysis of data from two projects: 59 respondents to an anonymous online survey (42 women, 17 men) provided relevant free-text comments and, separately, 37 women participated in face-to-face narrative interviews. Free-text survey comments and narrative interviews were analysed thematically using constant comparison. Both women and men said that participation in Athena SWAN had brought about important structural and cultural changes, including increased support for women's careers, greater appreciation of caring responsibilities, and efforts to challenge discrimination and bias. Many said that these positive changes would not have happened without linkage of Athena SWAN to government research funding, while others thought there were unintended consequences. Concerns about the programme design and implementation included a perception that Athena SWAN has limited ability to address longstanding and entrenched power and pay imbalances, persisting lack of work-life balance in academic medicine, questions about the sustainability of positive changes, belief that achieving the award could become an end in itself, resentment about perceived positive discrimination, and perceptions that further structural and cultural changes were needed in the university and wider society. The findings from this study suggest that Athena SWAN has a positive impact in advancing gender equality, but there may be limits to how much it can

  17. Tackling community undernutrition at Lake Bogoria, Kenya: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a feasibility study on the harvest of Spirulina from Lake Bogoria in the Kenyan Rift Valley for use as a food supplement for undernutrition mitigation in the surrounding rural communities. A nutrition survey revealed the local population to be deficient in a number of micronutrients, specifically vitamins E ...

  18. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  19. Floodplain lakes and alluviation cycles of the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmon, D.; Felger, T. J.; Howard, K. A.

    2007-05-01

    The broad valleys along the lower Colorado River contain numerous bodies of still water that provide critical habitat for bird, fish, and other species. This chain of floodplain lakes is an important part of the Pacific Flyway - the major north-south route of travel for migratory birds in the western Hemisphere - and is also used by many resident bird species. In addition, isolated floodplain lakes may provide the only viable habitat for endangered native fish such as the razorback sucker, vulnerable to predation by introduced species in the main stem of the Colorado River. Floodplain lakes typically occupy former channel courses of the river and formed as a result of river meandering or avulsion. Persistent fluvial sediment deposition (aggradation) creates conditions that favor rapid formation and destruction of floodplain lakes, while long term river downcutting (degradation) inhibits their formation and evolution. New radiocarbon dates from wood recovered from drill cores near Topock, AZ indicate that the river aggraded an average of 3 mm/yr in the middle and late Holocene. Aggradational conditions before Hoover Dam was built were associated with rapid channel shifting and frequent lake formation. Lakes had short life spans due to rapid infilling with fine-grained sediment during turbid floods on the unregulated Colorado River. The building of dams and of armored banks had a major impact on floodplain lakes, not only by drowning large portions of the valley beneath reservoirs, but by preventing new lake formation in some areas and accelerating it in others. GIS analyses of three sets of historical maps show that both the number and total area of isolated (i.e., not linked to the main channel by a surface water connection) lakes in the lower Colorado River valley increased between 1902 and the 1950s, and then decreased though the 1970s. River bed degradation below dams inhibits channel shifting and floodplain lake formation, and the capture of fines behind the

  20. Late Cenozoic geology and lacustrine history of Searles Valley, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Smith, G. I.; Robinson, J. E.; Stauffer, P. H.; Zigler, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    George Smith’s career-long study of the surface geology of the Searles Valley was recently published by the USGS (Smith, 2009, online and printed). The co-authors of this abstract are the team responsible for completing the publication from the original materials. Searles Valley is an arid, closed basin lying 70 km east of the south end of the Sierra Nevada, California. During those parts of late Pliocene and Pleistocene time when precipitation and runoff from the east side of the Sierra Nevada into the Owens River were much greater than at present, a chain of as many as five large lakes was created, of which Searles Lake was third. The stratigraphic record left in Searles Valley when that lake expanded, contracted, or desiccated is fully revealed by cores taken from beneath the surface of Searles (dry) Lake and partly recorded by sediments cropping out around the edge of the valley. Although this outcrop record is discontinuous, it provides direct evidence of the lake’s water depths during each expansion, which the subsurface record does not. Maximum-depth lakes rose to the 2,280-ft (695 m) contour, the level of the spillway that led overflowing waters to Panamint Valley; that spillway is about 660 ft (200 m) above the present dry-lake surface. Most of this study concerns sediments of the newly described Searles Lake Formation, whose deposition spanned the period between about 150 ka and 2 ka. The outcrop record is documented in six geologic maps (scales: 1:50,000 and 1:10,000). The Searles Lake Formation is divided into seven main units. The depositional intervals of the units that make up the Searles Lake Formation are determined primarily by correlation with subsurface deposits that are dated by radiocarbon ages on organic carbon and U-series dates on salts. Shorelines, the most obvious geologic expressions of former lakes, are abundant around Searles Valley. Erosional shorelines have cut as much as 100 m into brecciated bedrock; depositional shorelines

  1. The 2005 Lake Malawi Scientific Drilling Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. King and Kathryn Moran

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lake Malawi, located in the southern part of the East African Rift Valley, is one of the world’s largest, deepest (700 m and oldest (>7 Ma lakes and is renowned for its biodiversity, especially its unique ecosystem including hundreds of species of fi sh and invertebrates found nowhere else on Earth. Geologists and paleolimnologists have sought for several decades to establish a high-resolution East African geologic and climatic history through scientific drilling of the East African Rift Valley lakes. The Lake Malawi Scientific Drilling Project reached this goal by acquiring more than 623 m of core at two sites—one highresolution site and one deep site extending back to 1.5 Ma. A total of seven holes, including one hole in 600 m water depth that reached a subbottom depth of 380 m, were cored with an average recovery of 92%. The high-resolution site was triplecoredand extends back ~80 ky. The deep site was double cored in the upper part that covers the past ~200 ky and then single-cored to its target depth of 380 m (Figs. 1 and 2.

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  3. Fluvial valleys and Martian palaeoclimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Virginia C.; Baker, Victor R.

    1989-10-01

    Theoretical models of early Martian atmospheric evolution describe the maintenance of a dense CO2 atmosphere and a warm, wet climate until the end of the heavy-bombardment phase of impacting. However, the presence of very young, earthlike fluvial valleys on the northern flank of Alba Patera conflicts with this scenario. Whereas the widespread ancient Martian valleys generally have morphologies indicative of sapping erosion by the slow outflow of subsurface water, the local Alba valleys were probably formed by surface-runoff processes. Because subsurface water flow might be maintained by hydrothermal energy inputs and because surface-runoff valleys developed late in Martian history, it is not necessary to invoke drastically different planet-wide climatic conditions to explain valley development on Mars. The Alba fluvial valleys can be explained by hydrothermal activity or outflow-channel discharges that locally modified the atmosphere, including precipitation and local overland flow on low-permeability volcanic ash.

  4. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  5. Using Wind Setdown and Storm Surge on Lake Erie to Calibrate the Air-Sea Drag Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The air-sea drag coefficient controls the transfer of momentum from wind to water. In modeling storm surge, this coefficient is a crucial parameter for estimating the surge height. This study uses two strong wind events on Lake Erie to calibrate the drag coefficient using the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system and the the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Simulated waves are generated on the lake with Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Wind setdown provides the opportunity to eliminate wave setup as a contributing factor, since waves are minimal at the upwind shore. The study finds that model results significantly underestimate wind setdown and storm surge when a typical open-ocean formulation without waves is used for the drag coefficient. The contribution of waves to wind setdown and storm surge is 34.7%. Scattered lake ice also increases the effective drag coefficient by a factor of 1.1. PMID:23977309

  6. Using wind setdown and storm surge on Lake Erie to calibrate the air-sea drag coefficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Drews

    Full Text Available The air-sea drag coefficient controls the transfer of momentum from wind to water. In modeling storm surge, this coefficient is a crucial parameter for estimating the surge height. This study uses two strong wind events on Lake Erie to calibrate the drag coefficient using the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST modeling system and the the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS. Simulated waves are generated on the lake with Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN. Wind setdown provides the opportunity to eliminate wave setup as a contributing factor, since waves are minimal at the upwind shore. The study finds that model results significantly underestimate wind setdown and storm surge when a typical open-ocean formulation without waves is used for the drag coefficient. The contribution of waves to wind setdown and storm surge is 34.7%. Scattered lake ice also increases the effective drag coefficient by a factor of 1.1.

  7. Semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model for mapping lake water depths from partially clouded satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    Information on the variability in surface water is critical to understand the impact of climate change and global water cycle. Surface water features such as lakes, or reservoirs can affect local weather and regional climate. Hence, there is a widespread demand for accurate and quantitative global observations of surface water variability. Satellite imagery provides a direct way to monitor variations in surface water. However, estimating accurate surface area from satellite imagery can be a problem due to clouds. Hence, the use of optical imagery for operational implementation has been a challenge for monitoring variations in surface water. In this research, a semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model is developed to derive lake/reservoir water levels from partially covered satellite imagery. SRTM elevation combined with bathymetry was used to derive the relationships between lake depth vs. surface area and shore line (L). Using these relationships, lake level/depth (D) was estimated from the surface area (A) and/or shore line (L) delineated from Landsat and MODIS data. The SELL model was applied on Lake Turkana, one of the rift valley lakes in East Africa. First, Lake Turkana water levels were delineated using cloud-free or partially clouded Landsat and MODIS imagery over 1993-2009 and 2002-2009 time periods respectively. Historic lake depths were derived using 1972-1992 Landsat imagery. Lake depths delineated using this approach were validated using TOPEX/Poseidon/Jason satellite altimetry data. It was found that lake depths derived using SELL model matched reasonably well with the satellite altimetry data. The approach presented in this research can be used to (a) simulate lake water level variations in data scarce regions (b) increase the frequency of observation in regions where cloud cover is a problem (c) operationally monitor lake water levels in ungauged basins (d) derive historic lake level information using satellite data.

  8. Deeply Frozen Lakes in a Terrestrial Peri-Glacial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, P. T.; Fritsen, C. H.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the largest lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, have largely been ignored during past limnological studies because they were thought to be frozen solid. However, recent investigations have revealed the presence of saline water bodies beneath up to 19 m of permanent ice in two of these so-called "ice block" lakes (Lake Vida and Lake House). Lakes throughout the dry valleys that have been studied in detail more typically have ice covers ranging between 3 and 5 m. The existence of saline lakes with extremely thick ice covers is atypical, even among lakes in this region, which are themselves unique aquatic systems. These "deeply ice-covered" lakes are aquatic systems on the edge of cold-termination, and they warrant study as analogs of lakes purported to have existed on the surface of Mars in the past. Several lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys were presumed in the past to be frozen solid based largely on attempts at drilling the lake ice covers. Lake Vida has been the most intriguing because it is one of the two largest (in terms of surface area) lakes in the dry valleys, and yet it apparently contained no year-round liquid water at depth. Recently a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey was carried out on Lake Vida and another purported ice block lake, Lake House. In a large central portion of Lake Vida, the survey showed attenuation of the radar signal at approximately 19 m, suggesting saline water at this depth. Because GPR radar signals are absorbed by saline water, the depth of the water body (i.e., distance from the ice bottom to sediments) could not be determined. In Lake House, a similar water body was inferred at about 12 m depth. Ice Coring and Physical Properties: Ice cores (to 14 and 15.8 in depth) extracted in 1996 from Lake Vida contained ice bubbles with unique morphologies that were atypical when compared to other vapor inclusions in 3-5 in ice covers. Most of the vapor inclusions at depths greater than about 6 m contained hoar frost

  9. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  10. Trace Elements (Pb, Zn, Cu in Blood of Mute Swan (Cygnus olor from the Isonzo River Nature Reserve (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Isani*, M Cipone, G Andreani, E Carpenè, E Ferlizza, K Kravos1 and F Perco1

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead concentrations in blood of 45 specimens of mute swan from the molting area of the Isonzo River Mouth Nature Reserve (Italy were determined in two consecutive years (2006-2007, some birds were neck ringed to identify their homing behavior. The second sampling included whole body X-ray radiography and Cu and Zn plasma analyses to investigate the health impact of putative Pb exposure. X-ray images of all investigated specimens did not show any radiopacity due to the ingestion of metal bodies. Lead levels (0.08-0.44 g/ml were in the range of those reported for swans living in unpolluted or slightly polluted environments and excluded acute intoxication, as confirmed by clinical investigation. Zinc concentrations ranged between 2.93 and 7.59 g/ml and were one order of magnitude higher than Cu concentrations (0.21-0.42 g/ml. The negative correlation between Pb and Zn concentrations could be indicative of adverse health effects caused by chronic lead exposure. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting Pb, Zn and Cu blood levels, X-ray radiographies and data on the origin of swan populations.

  11. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schaaf, Nicole A.; Cunningham, Anna M. G.; Cluff, Brandon P.; Kraemer, CodyJo K.; Reeves, Chelsea L.; Riester, Carli J.; Slater, Lauren K.; Madigan, Michael T.; Sattley, W. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m) are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes. PMID:27682095

  12. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Vander Schaaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes.

  13. Uncertainty analysis of wind-wave predictions in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouee, Navid; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Hamidi, Sajad Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    With all the improvement in wave and hydrodynamics numerical models, the question rises in our mind that how the accuracy of the forcing functions and their input can affect the results. In this paper, a commonly used numerical third-generation wave model, SWAN is applied to predict waves in Lake Michigan. Wind data are analyzed to determine wind variation frequency over Lake Michigan. Wave predictions uncertainty due to wind local effects are compared during a period where wind has a fairly constant speed and direction over the northern and southern basins. The study shows that despite model calibration in Lake Michigan area, the model deficiency arises from ignoring wind effects in small scales. Wave prediction also emphasizes that small scale turbulence in meteorological forces can increase prediction errors by 38%. Wave frequency and coherence analysis show that both models can predict the wave variation time scale with the same accuracy. Insufficient number of meteorological stations can result in neglecting local wind effects and discrepancies in current predictions. The uncertainty of wave numerical models due to input uncertainties and model principals should be taken into account for design risk factors.

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Gilgel Gibe Dam on the Lake Turkana Water Levels: An Illustration from an Endorheic Lake in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.

    2010-12-01

    Lake Turkana is one of the lakes in the Great Rift Valley, Africa. This lake has no outlet hence it is considered as closed or endorheic lake. To meet the demand of electricity in the east African region, Ethiopia is currently building Gilgel Gibe-III dam on the Omo River, which supplies up to 80% of the inflows to the Lake Turkana. On completion, this dam would be the tallest dam in Africa with a height of 241 m. As Lake Turkana is highly dependent on the inflows from the Omo River, the construction of this dam could potentially pose a threat to the downstream river valley and to Lake Turkana. This hydroelectric project is arguably one of the most controversial projects in the region. The impact of the dam on the lake is evaluated using Remote Sensing datasets and hydrologic modeling. First, lake water levels (1998-2007) were estimated using the Simplified Lake Water Balance (SLAB) approach which takes in satellite based rainfall estimates, modeled runoff and evapotranspiration data over the Turkana basin. Modeled lake levels were validated against TOPEX/POSIEDON/Jason-1 satellite altimeter data. Validation results showed that the model could capture observed trends and seasonal variations in lake levels. The fact that the lake is endorheic makes it easy to model the lake levels. Using satellite based estimates for the years 1998-2009, future scenarios for rainfall and evapotranspiration were generated using the Monte Carlo simulation approach and the impact of Gilgel Gibe-III dam on the Lake Turkana water levels is evaluated using SLAB approach. Preliminary results indicate that the impact of the dam on the lake would vary with the initial water level in the lake at the time of dam commissioning. It was found that during the initial period of dam/reservoir filling the lake level would drop up to 2-3 m (95% confidence interval). However, on average the lake would stabilize within 10 years from the date of commissioning. The variability within the lake levels due

  15. Soil Geochemical Control Over Nematode Populations in Bull Pass, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poage, M. A.; Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Wall, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys occupy the largest ice-free region of Antarctica and are characterized by climatic conditions among the most extreme on Earth. Despite the harsh environmental conditions, some soils of the dry valleys host simple low-diversity ecosystems dominated by microbes and several taxa of metazoans, predominantly nematodes. Distributions, abundance, and diversity of these biota appear to be related to the highly variable soil geochemistry (pH, conductivity, nitrate, sulfate, chloride) of the dry valleys. Bull Pass is a glacially carved valley within the dry valleys. An ancient lake margin near the valley floor creates a continuous gradient spanning the full range of geochemical parameters found across the entire McMurdo Dry Valleys system. This unique setting provides the opportunity to systematically investigate the soil geochemical control on local biodiversity and establish, on the spatial scale of hundreds of meters, correlations between nematode populations and individual geochemical parameters that have application at the regional scale. We measured soil geochemistry and nematode population data from a 1500-meter transect across this ancient lake margin. There were significant negative correlations between live nematode abundance and concentrations of soil nitrate, sulfate and chloride as well as total soil salinity, consistent with recent laboratory experiments showing strong salinity inhibition of nematode survival. A logistical regression analysis based on a compilation of published datasets from across the dry valleys was designed to calculate the probably of live nematode populations occurring given a particular soil chemistry, using the dataset from the Bull Pass transect as a case study to field-test the model. Small-scale chemical and biological gradients can provide insights on the distribution of soil biota at much larger regional scales.

  16. Diagnosis and Chemotherapy of Human Trypanosomiasis and Vector Ecology of Rift Valley and Congo-Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-27

    for antibodies to RVF virus from 34 sheep, 40 goats, 6 cows and 5 camels in Turkana District near Lake Turkana in 1991. Two animals, one sheep and one... Lake Turkana and from a seasonal roadside pool. These eggs conformed in size and appearance with eggs of Aedes mcintoshi. However, we were KETRI Final...to be widespread (12) with the highest RVF antibody prevalence rate in humans in Kenya found in the northwest in Turkana District (13). Rift Valley

  17. Analysis of overdeepened valleys using the digital elevation model of the bedrock surface of Northern Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, P.

    2010-11-15

    Based on surface and borehole information, together with pre-existing regional and local interpretations, a 7,150 square kilometre Raster Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface of northern Switzerland was constructed using a 25 m cell size. This model represents a further important step in the understanding of Quaternary sediment distribution and is open to a broad field of application and analysis, including hydrogeological, geotechnical and geophysical studies as well as research in the field of Pleistocene landscape evolution. An analysis of the overdeepened valleys in the whole model area and, more specifically in the Reuss area, shows that, in most cases, overdeepening is restricted to the areas covered by the Last Glaciation Maximum (LGM). However, at various locations relatively narrow overdeepened valleys outreach the tongue basins and the LGM ice shield limits. Therefore, an earlier and further-reaching glacial event has probably contributed significantly to the overdeepening of these valleys. No significant overdeepening has been identified downstream of Boettstein (Aare) and Kaiserstuhl (Rhine), although the ice extended considerably further downstream, at least during the most extensive glaciation. Except for the bedrock between Brugg and Boettstein, no overdeepened valleys are found significantly north of the outcrop of Mesozoic limestone of the Folded and Tabular Jura. A detailed analysis of the Reuss area shows that the Lake and Suhre valleys are separated from the Emmen-Gisikon Reuss valley basin by a significant bedrock barrier. The individual bedrock valleys are divided into several sub-basins, indicating a multiphase evolution of the valleys. Some of the swells or barriers separating the sub-basins coincide with known late LGM retreat stages. In the Suhre valley, an old fluvial valley floor with restricted overdeepened sections is documented. (author)

  18. Wright Valley Sediments as Potential Analogs for Martian Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, P. A. J.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) may provide a unique terrestrial analog for current Martian surface processes. The Wright Valley located in the ADV contains streams, lakes and ponds that host highly saline, sedimentary environments. This project highlights comparisons of formation and salt accumulation processes at the Don Juan Pond (DJP) and Don Quixote Pond (DQP). These are located in the north and south forks of the Wright Valley, which are unique areas where unusual terrestrial processes can be studied. DQP is located in the western part of the north fork about 100 m above mean seawater level. The DQP Valley walls are up to 2500 m high and the brine is seasonally frozen. DJP from the south fork is located ~9 km west of Lake Vanda. The basin floor is 117 m above mean seawater level with activity to the north and south rising above 1000 m. The DJP brine does not freeze and may be a model environment for Ca and Cl weathering and distribution on Mars. Our findings indicate that DJP and DQP have formed in similar climatic and geological environments, but likely experienced different formation conditions. Samples were collected from surface, soil pits and depth profiles during the 1979/1980, the 1990/1991 and the 2005/2006 field seasons. Elemental abundances and mineralogy were evaluated for several sets of sediments. The DJP basin shows low surface abundances of halite and relatively high abundances of sulfates throughout with gypsum or anhydrite dominating at different locations. The DQP area has high surface abundances of halite with gypsum present as the major sulfate. Two models have been proposed to explain these differences: DQP may have formed through a combination of shallow and some deep groundwater influx, while deep groundwater upwelling likely played the dominant role of salt formation at DJP. Our study seeks to understand the formation of DQP and DJP as unique terrestrial processes and as models for Ca, Cl, and S weathering and distribution on Mars.

  19. Lake Pend Oreille Fishery Recovery Project, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Ament, William J.; Harryman, Bill (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2000-05-01

    The elevation of Lake Pend Oreille was kept 1.2 m higher during the winter of 1997-1998 in an attempt to recover the impacted kokanee fishery. This was the second winter of a scheduled three-year test. Hydroacoustic surveys and trawling were conducted in the fall of 1998 to assess the kokanee population. We estimated the abundance of wild and hatchery fry in the lake at 3.71 million by hydroacoustics. These originated from an estimated 11.2 million eggs spawned during the fall of 1997. The survival from wild spawned eggs to wild fry was 9.7%, which is the highest egg-to-fry survival rate on record. This is the strongest indication to date that higher lake levels were having a direct benefit to the kokanee population. By trawling, we found that total kokanee abundance in the lake dropped to a new record low of 2.8 million fish. The number of adult kokanee in the lake was below average: 100,000 age 4 kokanee (100% mature) and 730,000 age 3 kokanee (29% mature). These fish laid an estimated 52.1 million eggs in 1998. Hatchery personnel collected 9.0 million eggs which were cultured, marked by cold branding the otoliths, and the resulting fry stocked into the lake in 1999. Peak counts of spawning kokanee were 5,100 fish on the shoreline and 9,700 fish in tributary streams; unusually high considering the low population in the lake. Opossum shrimp Mysis relicta declined in the southern two sections of the lake but increased in the northern end. Immature and mature shrimp (excluding young-of-the-year [YOY] shrimp) densities averaged 426 shrimp/m{sup 2}. The number of waterfowl using the lake in the winter of 1998-1999 increased from the previous three years to over 30,000 ducks, geese, and swans.

  20. A National Wildlife Refuge Proposal : Proposed Establishment of a National Wildlife Refuge at the Confluence of the Red and Red Lake Rivers of North Dakota and Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Red River Valley experienced catastrophic flooding in April of 1997 from the Red and Red Lake Rivers, and Congressional delegations and the U.S. Army Corps of...

  1. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  2. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  3. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  4. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  5. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  6. Using Black Carbon as a Tracer of Human Impact in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. L.; Ding, Y.; Jaffe, R.; McKnight, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on quantifying human impact in the McMurdo Dry Valleys through studying black carbon in the dissolved phase in water. Robust efforts and policies exist to minimize human impact in Antarctica, the most remote and pristine continent. Previous studies have been conducted to quantify various tracers of human impact from McMurdo Station, however, no known studies have looked at Black Carbon, soot particles, or products of in-complete combustion of fossil fuels, in the dissolved phase in the lakes of the Dry Valleys. One might expect the lakes to be completely void of black carbon; however, preliminary samples from Lake Fryxell and Lake Hoare show that some BC is present in the lakes, at approximately 4-6 mg/L, one-third of the concentration of temperate lakes. Potential local sources include field camps, relatively heavy helicopter traffic, especially compared to other regions of the Antarctic, as well as generator use. During the height of the austral summer, the edges of these perennially frozen lakes thaw, enabling wind deposition of debris and particles including black carbon, onto the surface of the water. Long range transport is also potential, though previous studies have shown that few particles have the ability to make it through the strong polar vortex, additionally the southern hemisphere has much less industrial production than the north. Therefore, our assumption is that most of the BC we find in the lakes, could be traced to human impact.

  7. Chemical characterization of microbial-dominated soil organic matter in the Garwood Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Simpson, André J.; Gregorich, Edward G.; Elberling, Bo; Hopkins, David W.; Sparrow, Ashley D.; Novis, Philip M.; Greenfield, Lawrence G.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2010-11-01

    Despite its harsh environmental conditions, terrestrial Antarctica contains a relatively large microbial biomass. Natural abundance carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures of organic materials in the dry valleys indicate mixed provenance of the soil organic matter (SOM) with varying proportions of contributions from lichens, mosses, lake-derived algae and cyanobacteria. Here we employed two complementary analytical techniques, biomarker measurements by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and solution-state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to provide further information at a molecular-level about the composition and possible source of SOM in the Garwood Valley, Antarctica. The predominance of branched alkanes and short-chain lipids in the solvent extracts indicates that the primary contribution to the SOM was microbial-derived. Chemical structures in the NaOH extracts from soils were also dominated by amide, peptides, and a CH 3-dominating aliphatic region that were characteristic of microbial signatures. Furthermore, the SOM in the Garwood Valley contained compounds that were different from those in the cyanobacteria-dominated mat from a nearby lake (including monoethyl alkanes and enriched side-chain protons). This observation suggests that easily degradable carbon sources from the nearby lake did not dominate the SOM, which is consistent with a fast turnover of the mat-derived organic matter found in the valley. This study highlights the important role of native soil microbes in the carbon transformation and biogeochemistry in terrestrial Antarctica.

  8. Ground-water quality in the western Snake River basin, Swan Falls to Glenns Ferry, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parliman, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from 92 wells in the western Snake River basin, Swan Falls to Glenns Ferry, Idaho. Current data were compiled with pre-1980 data from 116 wells to define water-quality conditions in major aquifers. Factors affecting water quality are composition of aquifer materials, water temperature, and source of recharge. Mixing of water by interaquifer flow, from confined, hot water aquifers (40 degrees Celsius or greater) with water from cold water aquifers (less than 20 degrees Celsius) occurs along regional complex fault systems, and through partially cased boreholes. Cold water generally contains calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions; hot water generally contains sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions. Warm water (between 20 degrees and 40 degrees Celsius) has an intermediate chemical composition resulting from mixing. Ground-water quality is acceptable for most uses, although it locally contains chemical constituents or physical properties that may restrict its use. Effects of thermal water used for irrigation on quality of shallow ground water are inconclusive. Long-term increase in concentrations of several constituents in parts of the study area may be due to effects of land- and water-use activities, such as infiltration of septic-tank effluent. (USGS)

  9. Expression of TGF-β in Fractures Fixed by Nitinol Swan-like Memory Compressive Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Zhang, C. C.; Xu, S. G.; Fu, Q. G.

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the effect of internal fixation of a Nitinol swan-like memory compressive connector (SMC) on the temporal expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) at fracture sites is evaluated. Specimens were collected from 35 New Zealand rabbits modeled for bilateral humeral fracture fixed with either SMC or stainless dynamic compression plate (DCP). Five rabbits each were killed at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56. The local positive staining potency, positive area ratio, and positive index of TGF-β were measured using an immunohistochemistry approach (EnVision) in combination with a computerized image analysis system. TGF-β staining was seen in mesenchymal cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and in the extracellular matrix of fractures fixed in both the SMC and the DCP samples without a significant difference in staining at both the early stages (days 1 and 3) and day 56. A higher TGF-β content was observed in the fractures fixed with SMC when compared to that of DCP from day 7 to 28. As a conclusion, TGF-β is highly expressed in fractures fixed with SMC during chondrogenesis stage and entochondrostosis stage. Finally, the mechanism of how SMC promoting synthesis and secretion of TGF-β in the process of fracture healing has been discussed.

  10. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoudary, Samar R; Shields, Kelly J; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Powell, Lynda H; Matthews, Karen A

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P menopausal status. In final models, lower estradiol concentrations were associated with greater volumes of PAT and TAT (P obesity, and other covariates. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause.

  11. Detailed Aggregate Resources Study, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-29

    southernmost Class CAl deposit are typically subangular and equidimensional to thick- tabular in shape . Approximately 77 percent of the gravel clasts are...rounded to subangular and approximately equidi- mensional to thick-tabular in shape . Approximately 62 percent of the gravel clasts are of satisfactory...generally not represented as the maximum particle size. Particle Shape Shape of clasts are classified into the following six categories. Angular (ANG

  12. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  13. Supraglacial lakes on Himalayan debris-covered glacier (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A.; Fujita, K.

    2013-12-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are common in many of the world's mountain ranges, including in the Himalayas. Himalayan debris-covered glacier also contain abundant glacial lakes, including both proglacial and supraglacial types. We have revealed that heat absorption through supraglacial lakes was about 7 times greater than that averaged over the whole debris-covered zone. The heat budget analysis elucidated that at least half of the heat absorbed through the water surface was released with water outflow from the lakes, indicating that the warm water enlarge englacial conduits and produce internal ablation. We observed some portions at debris-covered area has caved at the end of melting season, and ice cliff has exposed at the side of depression. Those depression has suggested that roof of expanded water channels has collapsed, leading to the formation of ice cliffs and new lakes, which would accelerate the ablation of debris-covered glaciers. Almost glacial lakes on the debris-covered glacier are partially surrounded by ice cliffs. We observed that relatively small lakes had non-calving, whereas, calving has occurred at supraglacial lakes with fetch larger than 80 m, and those lakes expand rapidly. In the Himalayas, thick sediments at the lake bottom insulates glacier ice and lake water, then the lake water tends to have higher temperature (2-4 degrees C). Therefore, thermal undercutting at ice cliff is important for calving processes in the glacial lake expansion. We estimated and subaqueous ice melt rates during the melt and freeze seasons under simple geomorphologic conditions. In particular, we focused on valley wind-driven water currents in various fetches during the melt season. Our results demonstrate that the subaqueous ice melt rate exceeds the ice-cliff melt rate above the water surface when the fetch is larger than 20 m with the water temperature of 2-4 degrees C. Calculations suggest that onset of calving due to thermal undercutting is controlled by water

  14. Dark Valley in Newton Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  15. Robinson Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan; Middletown Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan, Scotts Valley Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan, Elem Indian Colony Strategic Energy Plan, Upperlake Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan, Big Valley Rancheria Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis and Associates LLC

    2008-08-01

    The Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians is located in Lake County in Northern California. Similar to the other five federally recognized Indian Tribes in Lake County participating in this project, Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians members are challenged by generally increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. Currently, Tribal decision makers lack sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribes have committed to the Lake County Tribal Energy Program, a multi Tribal program to be based at the Robinson Rancheria and including The Elem Indian Colony, Big Valley Rancheria, Middletown Rancheria, Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake and the Scotts Valley Pomo Tribe. The mission of this program is to promote Tribal energy efficiency and create employment opportunities and economic opportunities on Tribal Lands through energy resource and energy efficiency development. This program will establish a comprehensive energy strategic plan for the Tribes based on Tribal specific plans that capture economic and environmental benefits while continuing to respect Tribal cultural practices and traditions. The goal is to understand current and future energy consumption and develop both regional and Tribe specific strategic energy plans, including action plans, to clearly identify the energy options for each Tribe.

  16. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    to for Crops or Fans Silica- Lime Hardpan Moderately 8.8 pasture Cemented 10-20 in. Rapid to Hardpan (23-SI ca Hardpan Gravelly Well Sandy Otained...Side- blotched lizard Uta stansburiana Desert horned lizard Phrynosoma platyrhinos Great Basin whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus tigris tigris Striped...side- blotched lizard, Great Basin fence lizard, sagebrush lizard, desert horned lizard, Great Basin whiptail, long-nosed leopard lizard, Great Basin

  17. Heterogeneous Status of Glacial Terminal-Contacted Lakes in Himalayas Due to Different Geomorphology and Glacier Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Nie, Y.; Liu, S.

    2014-12-01

    Widespread expanding of glacial lakes around the Himalayas, which has led (or will lead) to hazard risks in their downstream valleys due to the potential glacial outburst flood (GLOF), has been widely reported during the past decades. Among all type of glacial lakes, those lakes contacted with the terminals of modern glaciers are generally found experienced most remarkable area increases. That is mostly due to the coupled processes, such as calving, between the lake growths and ice tongue retreats. Thermal absorption and convection of lake water are important for calving at the ice cliff or sub-marine melting under the supra-ponded water bodies. Currently, many larger moraine dammed lakes, e. g., Imja Tsho (Nepal) and Longbasaba Lake (China), are observed undergoing remarkable growths and synchronically with the rapid ice margin collapses due to calving. Some newly formed and rapidly growing supraglacial lakes are also identified on the debris-covered region of Himalayan glaciers, e. g., the Rongbuk Glacier (China), Ngozumpa Glacier (Nepal) and Thorthormi Glacier (Butan), which are speculated to experience accelerated expanding in the near future and finally developing as bigger terminal-calving lakes. However, not all such lake-glacier systems present the same scenes. After experienced the phases of rapid lake growth and terminal retreat, despite the contacting and calving still existing, the positions of the calving lines may be balanced by the positive advances of the ice tongue. We have observed several lakes with stagnation of growth or even shrinkage in lake area as the advance of the calving ice margin. The heterogeneous status of these ice-contacted glacial lakes are mainly due to the different local geomorphology (e. g., slope, lake-basin shape and valley aspect) and glacier characters (e. g., debris cover, velocity and mass balance). These related factors are important for both the prediction of lake and glacier changes and the evaluation of GLOF hazards

  18. Detailed review and analysis of complex radiotherapy clinical trial planning data: evaluation and initial experience with the SWAN software system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Martin A; Haworth, Annette; Kearvell, Rachel; Hooton, Ben; Coleman, Rhonda; Spry, Nigel; Bydder, Sean; Joseph, David

    2008-02-01

    Contemporary radiotherapy clinical trials typically require complex three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning. This produces large amounts of data relating technique and dose delivery for correlation with patient outcomes. Assessment of the quality of this information is required to ensure protocol compliance, to quantify the variation in treatments given to patients and to enhance the power of studies to determine correlates of patient outcomes. A software system ('SWAN') was developed to facilitate the objective analysis, quality-assurance and review of digital treatment planning data from multi-centre radiotherapy trials. The utility of this system was assessed on the basis of its functionality and our experience of its use in the context of multi-centre clinical trials and trials-support activities. The SWAN system has been shown to have the functionality required for use in several multi-centre trials, including automated review and archive processes. Approximately 800 treatment plans from over 30 participating institutions have so far been assessed with the system for several treatment planning scenarios. To illustrate this we include a description of the use of the system for a large-recruitment prostate radiotherapy trial being undertaken in Australasia, including examples of how the review process has changed clinical practice. The successful implementation of SWAN has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. The software provides an opportunity for comprehensive review of treatment parameters that could impact on clinical outcomes and trial results. Such quality-assurance (QA) has previously been difficult or impossible to achieve, particularly for a clinical trial involving large numbers of patients. Such reviews have highlighted inconsistencies in clinical practice that have since been addressed through feedback from the review process. The process of data collection and review should be undertaken by dedicated, experienced and skilled staff in

  19. Crop intensification options and trade-offs with the water balance in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debas, Mezegebu

    2016-01-01

    The Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia is a closed basin for which claims on land and water have strongly increased over the past decade resulting in over-exploitation of the resources. A clear symptom is the declining trend in the water level of the terminal Lake Abyata. The actual productivity

  20. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  1. Implementation of viscoelastic mud-induced energy attenuation in the third-generation wave model, SWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyramzade, Mostafa; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2017-11-01

    The interaction of waves with fluid mud can dissipate the wave energy significantly over few wavelengths. In this study, the third-generation wave model, SWAN, was advanced to include attenuation of wave energy due to interaction with a viscoelastic fluid mud layer. The performances of implemented viscoelastic models were verified against an analytical solution and viscous formulations for simple one-dimensional propagation cases. Stationary and non-stationary test cases in the Surinam coast and the Atchafalaya Shelf showed that the inclusion of the mud-wave interaction term in the third-generation wave model enhances the model performance in real applications. A high value of mud viscosity (of the order of 0.1 m2/s) was required in both field cases to remedy model overestimation at high frequency ranges of the wave spectrum. The use of frequency-dependent mud viscosity value improved the performance of model, especially in the frequency range of 0.2-0.35 Hz in the wave spectrum. In addition, the mud-wave interaction might affect the high frequency part of the spectrum, and this part of the wave spectrum is also affected by energy transfer from wind to waves, even for the fetch lengths of the order of 10 km. It is shown that exclusion of the wind input term in such cases might result in different values for parameters of mud layer when inverse modeling procedure was employed. Unlike viscous models for wave-mud interaction, the inverse modeling results to a set of mud parameters with the same performance when the viscoelastic model is used. It provides an opportunity to select realistic mud parameters which are in more agreement with in situ measurements.

  2. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H; Casement, Melynda D; Troxel, Wendy M; Matthews, Karen A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Kravitz, Howard M; Krafty, Robert T; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Prospective cohort study. Four sites across the United States. 330 women (46-57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. N/A. Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. Bedtime Variability and Metabolic Health in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Briana J; Matthews, Karen A; Hasler, Brant P; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Kline, Christopher E; Buysse, Daniel J; Kravitz, Howard M; Tiani, Alaina G; Harlow, Sioban D; Hall, Martica H

    2016-02-01

    Circadian misalignment, as seen in shift workers, can disrupt metabolic processes. Associations between sleep timing in nonshift workers and metabolic health are unknown. We examined sleep timing and indices of metabolic health in a community sample of midlife women. Caucasian (n = 161), African American (n = 121) and Chinese (n = 56) non-shift-working women aged 48-58 y who were not taking insulin-related medications, participated in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study and were subsequently examined approximately 5.39 (standard deviation = 0.71) y later. Daily diary-reported bedtimes were used to calculate four measures of sleep timing: mean bedtime, bedtime variability, bedtime delay and bedtime advance. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) were measured at two time points. Linear regressions evaluated whether sleep timing was associated with BMI and HOMA-IR cross-sectionally and prospectively. In cross-sectional models, greater variability in bedtime and greater bedtime delay were associated with higher HOMA-IR (β = 0.128; P = 0.007, and β = 0.110; P = 0.013, respectively) and greater bedtime advance was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.095; P = 0.047). Prospectively, greater bedtime delay predicted increased HOMA-IR at Time 2 (β = 0.152; P = 0.003). Results were partially explained by shifted sleep timing on weekends. Frequent shifts in sleep timing may be related to metabolic health among non-shift working midlife women. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 269. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Sediment deposition and sources into a Mississippi River floodplain lake; Catahoula Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latuso, Karen D.; Keim, Richard F.; King, Sammy L.; Weindorf, David C.; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain lakes are important wetlands on many lowland floodplains of the world but depressional floodplain lakes are rare in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley. One of the largest is Catahoula Lake, which has existed with seasonally fluctuating water levels for several thousand years but is now in an increasingly hydrologically altered floodplain. Woody vegetation has been encroaching into the lake bed and the rate of this expansion has increased since major human hydrologic modifications, such as channelization, levee construction, and dredging for improvement of navigation, but it remains unknown what role those modifications may have played in altering lake sedimentation processes. Profiles of thirteen 137Cs sediment cores indicate sedimentation has been about 0.26 cm y− 1 over the past 60 years and has been near this rate since land use changes began about 200 years ago (210Pb, and 14C in Tedford, 2009). Carbon sequestration was low (10.4 g m− 2 y− 1), likely because annual drying promotes mineralization and export. Elemental composition (high Zr and Ti and low Ca and K) and low pH of recent (<~60 y) or surface sediments suggest Gulf Coastal Plain origin, but below the recent sediment deposits, 51% of sediment profiles showed influence of Mississippi River alluvium, rich in base cations such as K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +. The recent shift to dominance of Coastal Plain sediments on the lake-bed surface suggests hydrologic modification has disconnected the lake from sediment-bearing flows from the Mississippi River. Compared to its condition prior to hydrologic alterations that intensified in the 1930s, Catahoula Lake is about 15 cm shallower and surficial sediments are more acidic. Although these results are not sufficient to attribute ecological changes directly to sedimentological changes, it is likely the altered sedimentary and hydrologic environment is contributing to the increased dominance of woody vegetation.

  5. Microseisms from the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, K. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, V.

    2014-12-01

    . Further work will be done comparing wind and lake level to the seismic data for the years of 2001-2012 over a broader range of periods. We are currently investigating whether this noise source can be used to image the basin structure of the Salt Lake Valley via cross-correlation.

  6. Measurements of windblown dust characteristics and ocean fertilization potential: The ephemeral river valleys of Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansie, A. P.; Wiggs, G. F. S.; Thomas, D. S. G.; Washington, R.

    2017-12-01

    Delivery of nutrients to the ocean by mineral aerosol deposition involves complex biogeochemical interactions that include atmospheric processing, dissolution and biotic uptake of available nutrients in the surface waters. Research into the fertilization potential of aeolian dust is currently constrained by a lack of understanding of the nutrient composition and bioavailability in dust source areas. Further, research into hot-spots of dust emission has largely focused on paleo-lacustrine sources and pans, to the detriment of other potential sources such as ephemeral river valleys in desert regions. Here, we investigate the sediment characteristics and nutrient content of windblown and surface sediments of a largely overlooked southern African dust source, Namibia's ephemeral river valleys. We deployed monitoring equipment in three river valleys to capture deflated sediments and monitor airborne dust concentration and meteorological conditions throughout an annual dust season. Our results show that windblown dust within the river valleys is easily transportable offshore from Namibia over the Benguela Upwelling System, an intensely productive region of the South Atlantic Ocean. We demonstrate that the windblown dust contains iron, phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients, each of which may positively impact primary production rates when deposited in the complex upwelling system. The river valley dust has a significantly higher content of nutrients than either of southern Africa's major dry lake bed dust sources, Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans. This aeolian work builds on previous source sediment findings proposing the ephemeral river valleys of Namibia as regionally important sources of dust with enhanced ocean fertilisation potential.

  7. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... & morphometry - Physical & chemical characteristics - Calcite precipitation & solution in Lake Laacher See - Investigations using sediment traps in Lake Gemundener Maar - Phytoplankton of Lake Weinfelder Maar...

  8. STS-55 Earth observation of Lake Natron, Tanzania, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Lake Natron. Taken with color infrared (CIR) film, the typical red-colored water appears greenish. The drying soda salts in the lakebed are seen in greater detail in this CIR view. From the signatures seen in this photograph, the lake appears to be highly saline and to contain aquatic biota with little or no chlorophyll. The biomass over the rift valley escarpment is clearly defined by the reddish color in this CIR photo. Refer to STS055-93-037 for a comparative view photographed in regular color.

  9. Deep groundwater and potential subsurface habitats beneath an Antarctic dry valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikucki, J A; Auken, E; Tulaczyk, S; Virginia, R A; Schamper, C; Sørensen, K I; Doran, P T; Dugan, H; Foley, N

    2015-04-28

    The occurrence of groundwater in Antarctica, particularly in the ice-free regions and along the coastal margins is poorly understood. Here we use an airborne transient electromagnetic (AEM) sensor to produce extensive imagery of resistivity beneath Taylor Valley. Regional-scale zones of low subsurface resistivity were detected that are inconsistent with the high resistivity of glacier ice or dry permafrost in this region. We interpret these results as an indication that liquid, with sufficiently high solute content, exists at temperatures well below freezing and considered within the range suitable for microbial life. These inferred brines are widespread within permafrost and extend below glaciers and lakes. One system emanates from below Taylor Glacier into Lake Bonney and a second system connects the ocean with the eastern 18 km of the valley. A connection between these two basins was not detected to the depth limitation of the AEM survey (∼350 m).

  10. One hour of catastrophic landscape change in the upper Rhine River valley 9400 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, John; von Poschinger, Andreas; Calhoun, Nancy

    2017-04-01

    The Flims rockslide, which happened about 9400 years ago in the eastern Swiss Alps, is the largest postglacial terrestrial landslide in Europe. The landslide and the huge secondary mass flow it induced completely changed the floor and lower slopes of the Vorderrhein valley over a distance of several tens of kilometres, probably in one hour or less. The landslide began with the sudden detachment of 10-12 km3 of Jurassic and Cretaceous limestone from the north wall of the Vorderrhein valley. The detached rock mass rapidly fragmented as it accelerated and then struck the Rhein valley floor and the opposing valley wall. Tongues of debris traveled up and down the Vorderrhein. The impact liquefied approximately 1 km3 of valley-fill sediments, mainly fluvial and deltaic gravel and sand. The liquefied sediment moved as a slurry - the Bonaduz gravel - tens of kilometres downvalley from the impact site, carrying huge fragments of rockslide debris that became stranded on the valley floor, forming hills termed 'tumas'. Part of the flow was deflected by a cross-valley barrier and flowed 16 km up the Hinterrhein valley (the main tributary of the Vorderrhein), carrying tumas with it. Bonaduz gravel is >65 m thick and fines upward from massive sandy cobble gravel at its base to silty sand at its top. Sedimentologic and geomorphic evidence indicates that the liquefied sediment was transported as a hyperconcentated flow, possibly above a basal carpet of coarse diamictic sediment that behaved as a debris flow. The large amount of water involved in the Bonaduz flow indicates that at least part of the Flims rockslide entered a former lake in Vorderrhein valley. The rockslide debris impounded the Vorderrhein and formed Lake Ilanz, which persisted for decades or longer before the dam was breached in series of outburst floods. These floods further changed the valley floor below the downstream limit of the landslide. Today, Vorderrhein flows in a spectacular 8-km-long gorge incised up to

  11. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  12. Glacial lakes in South Tyrol: distribution, evolution and potential for GLOFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Marie-Claire; Mergili, Martin

    2017-04-01

    All over the world glaciers are currently retreating, leading to the formation or growth of glacial lakes. Some of these lakes are susceptible to sudden drainage. In order to assess the danger of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in South Tyrol in the Italian Alps, we present (i) an inventory of lakes, (ii) an analysis of the development of selected glacial lakes since 1945, and (iii) the susceptibility to and the possible impact areas of GLOFs. The inventory includes 1010 lakes that are larger than 250 m2 at an elevation above 2000 m asl, most of them of glacial origin. These lakes are mapped manually from orthophotos. Apart from collecting information on the spatial distribution of these lakes, the inventory lists dam material, glacier contact, and further parameters. 89% of the lakes in the investigation area are impounded by bedrock, whereas 93% of the lakes are detached from the associated glacier. The majority of lakes is small to medium sized (debris flows or significant flood waves which could locally interfere with people or structures. Flood waves could possibly travel for long distances to the major valleys - albeit they would likely only incur rising water levels in already existing streambeds down there.

  13. Fishes in paleochannels of the Lower Mississippi River alluvial valley: A national treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.

    2016-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphology of the alluvial valley of the Lower Mississippi River reveals a fascinating history. A prominent occupant of the valley was the Ohio River, estimated to have flowed 25,000 years ago over western Tennessee and Mississippi to join the Mississippi River north of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 750–800 km south of the present confluence. Over time, shifts in the Mississippi and Ohio rivers toward their contemporary positions have left a legacy of abandoned paleochannels supportive of unique fish assemblages. Relative to channels abandoned in the last 500 years, paleochannels exhibit harsher environmental conditions characteristic of hypereutrophic lakes and support tolerant fish assemblages. Considering their ecological, geological, and historical importance, coupled with their primordial scenery, the hundreds of paleochannels in the valley represent a national treasure. Altogether, these waterscapes are endangered by human activities and would benefit from the conservation attention afforded to our national parks and wildlife refuges.

  14. Changing distribution and abundance of Swan Goose Anser cygnoides in the Yangtze River floodplain: the likely loss of a very important wintering site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Cao, L.; Barter, M.; Fox, A.D.; Zhao, M.; Meng, F.; Shi, H.; Jiang, Y.; Zhu, W.

    2011-01-01

    Virtually the entire population of the globally ‘Vulnerable’ Swan Goose Anser cygnoides winters in the Yangtze floodplain. Historically, the species was widely distributed throughout the floodplain but now approximately 95% of the population is confined to three closely-situated wetlands in Anhui

  15. Luminescence dating of paleolake deltas and glacial deposits in Garwood Valley, Antarctica: Implications for climate, Ross ice sheet dynamics, and paleolake duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joseph S.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Fountain, Andrew G.; O'Connor, Jim E.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of perched deltas and other lacustrine deposits in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is widely considered to be evidence of valley-filling lakes dammed by the grounded Ross Sea ice sheet during the local Last Glacial Maximum, with lake drainage interpreted as a record of grounding line retreat. We used luminescence dating to determine the age of paleolake deltas and glacial tills in Garwood Valley, a coastal dry valley that opens to the Ross Sea. Luminescence ages are stratigraphically consistent with radiocarbon results from algal mats within the same delta deposits but suggest radiocarbon dates from lacustrine carbonates may overestimate deposit ages by thousands of years. Results suggest that late Holocene delta deposition into paleolake Howard in Garwood Valley persisted until ca. 3.5 ka. This is significantly younger than the date when grounded ice is thought to have retreated from the Ross Sea. Our evidence suggests that the local, stranded ice-cored till topography in Garwood Valley, rather than regional ice-sheet dynamics, may have controlled lake levels for some McMurdo Dry Valleys paleolakes. Age control from the supraglacial Ross Sea drift suggests grounding and up-valley advance of the Ross Sea ice sheet into Garwood valley during marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 4 (71–78 ka) and the local Last Glacial Maximum (9–10 ka). This work demonstrates the power of combining luminescence dating with existing radiocarbon data sets to improve understanding of the relationships among paleolake formation, glacial position, and stream discharge in response to climate change.

  16. Speculations on the spatial setting and temporal evolution of a fjord-style lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnthein, M.; Spötl, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Inn Valley, a classical region of Quaternary research in the Alps, is bordered by terraces that extend over almost 70 km and record an ancient lake with a lake level near 750-830 m above sea level (a.s.l.), about 250-300 m above the modern valley floor. Over large distances, the terrace sediments consist mainly of laminated "Banded Clays", above ~750 m a.s.l. overlain by glaciofluvial gravel and finally, by tills that record the Upper Würmian ice advance of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2. In the (former) clay pit of Baumkirchen this boundary forms the Alpine type locality for the onset of the Upper Würmian, well supported by 14C-based age control first established by Fliri (1971). On the basis of a recently cored sediment section at Baumkirchen, the >200 m thick "Banded Clays" store a continuous, largely undisturbed, highly resolved, and widely varved climatic archive of MIS 3. Major unknowns concern the location and origin of dams that may have barred the vast and deep Inn Valley lake. We discuss potential linkages to the pattern of moraines and ice advance of MIS 4 glaciers, which was less prominent than during MIS 2, thus leading to a distinct east-west segment¬ation of the run-off systems in Tyrol. East of Imst, for example, the lake was possibly barred by both a rock sill reaching up to 830 m a.s.l. and a lateral moraine deposited by an Ötz Valley glacier. 80 km further east, a lateral moraine of a glacier advancing from the Ziller Valley may have barred the ancient Inn Valley lake to the east. The final rapid coarsening of clastic lake sediments at the end of MIS 3 is widely ascribed to major climatic deter¬ioration. However, the MIS 3-2 boundary was linked to an only modest change of global climates and accordingly, different forcings may be considered. In turn, the rapid coarsening may document a date, when the Central Alpine glaciers had already filled the basin of Imst to the west of the Inn Valley lake. This ice mass may have forced the melt

  17. Catéter de Swan Ganz: Opinión de expertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Cohen Arazi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen dudas sobre la seguridad del uso del catéter de Swan Ganz (CSG. Para definir la opinión de los cardiólogos de nuestro país, el Consejo de Emergencias Cardiovasculares de la Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología (SAC realizó una reunión para evaluar la opinión de expertos en diferentes escenarios (cirugía no cardíaca, cardíaca, síndromes coronarios e insuficiencia cardíaca, usando el método RAND-UCLA appropiateness. Se envió la evidencia bibliográfica previa a la reunión en la SAC y en la misma los panelistas seleccionaron las variables para conformar las situaciones clínicas que luego fueron enviadas para que individualmente, en una segunda etapa, determinaran si consideraban beneficioso o perjudicial la utilización del catéter con una escala de 1 a 9 (1 significaba que los potenciales perjuicios superaban a los beneficios, 9 que los beneficios eran mayores y 5 que podía considerarse indistintamente beneficioso o perjudicial. Dos expertos analizaron los resultados, describiendo la tasa de acuerdo/desacuerdo. Finalmente, cada indicación se clasificó como “apropiada”, “dudosa” o inapropiada de acuerdo a la mediana definida por los panelistas: 1-3 se clasificó como inapropiado, 4-6 dudoso y 7-9 como indicación apropiada. Observamos gran discrepancia en la opinión sobre la indicación de CSG entre los expertos. Sin embargo, los panelistas estuvieron a favor de su utilización en situaciones que incluían shock y disfunción miocárdica, especialmente cuando se asoció disfunción orgánica. Hubo situaciones en las que los panelistas consideraron inapropiada la indicación del CSG, en pacientes sin disfunción orgánica.

  18. Inland diatoms from the McMurdo Dry Valleys and James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.M.M.; Spaulding, S.A.; McKnight, Diane M.; Van De Vijver, B.; Kopalova, K.; Lubinski, D.; Hall, B.; Whittaker, T.

    2008-01-01

    Diatom taxa present in the inland streams and lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and James Ross Island, Antarctica, are presented in this paper. A total of nine taxa are illustrated, with descriptions of four new species (Luticola austroatlantica sp. nov., Luticola dolia sp. nov., Luticola laeta sp. nov., Muelleria supra sp. nov.). In the perennially ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, diatoms are confined to benthic mats within the photic zone. In streams, diatoms are attached to benthic surfaces and within the microbial mat matrix. One species, L. austroatlantica, is found on James Ross Island, of the southern Atlantic archipelago, and the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The McMurdo Dry Valley populations are at the lower range of the size spectrum for the species. Streams flow for 6-10 weeks during the austral summer, when temperatures and solar radiation allow glacial ice to melt. The diatom flora of the region is characterized by species assemblages favored under harsh conditions, with naviculoid taxa as the dominant group and several major diatom groups conspicuously absent. ?? 2008 NRC.

  19. Hypsometry and the distribution of high-alpine lakes in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasicek, Günther; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Buckel, Johannes; Keuschnig, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Climate change strongly affects alpine landscapes. Cold-climate processes shape the terrain in a typical way and ice-free overdeepenings in cirques and glacial valleys as well as different types of moraines favor the formation of lakes. These water bodies act as sediment sinks and high-alpine water storage but may also favor outburst and flooding events. Glacier retreat worldwide is associated with an increasing number and size of high-alpine lakes which implies a concurrent expansion of sediment retention and natural hazard potential. Rising temperatures are regarded to be the major cause for this development, but other factors such as the distribution of area over elevation and glacier erosional and depositional dynamics may play an important role as well. While models of ice flow and glacial erosion are employed to understand the impact of glaciers on mountain landscapes, comprehensive datasets and analyses on the distribution of existing high-alpine lakes are lacking. In this study we present an exhaustive database of natural lakes in the European Alps and analyze lake distribution with respect to hypsometry. We find that the distribution of lake number and lake area over elevation only weakly coincides with hypsometry. Unsurprisingly, largest lakes are often tectonically influenced and located at the fringe of the mountain range and in prominent inter-montane basins. With increasing elevation, however, the number of lakes, lake area and total area decrease until a local minimum is reached around the equilibrium line latitude (ELA) of the last glacial maximum (LGM). Above the LGM ELA, total area further decreases, but lake number and area increase again. A local maximum in lake area coincides with an absolute maximum in lake number between the ELAs of the LGM and the little ice age around 2500 m. We conclude that glacial erosional and depositional dynamics control the distribution and size of high-alpine lakes and thus demand for exceptional attention when

  20. Modelling photochemistry in alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brulfert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a serious problem in the Chamonix Valley, France: traffic, noise and above all air pollution worry the inhabitants. The big fire in the Mont-Blanc tunnel made it possible, in the framework of the POVA project (POllution in Alpine Valleys, to undertake measurement campaigns with and without heavy-vehicle traffic through the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys, towards Italy (before and after the tunnel re-opening. Modelling is one of the aspects of POVA and should make it possible to explain the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction model ARPS 4.5.2 (Advanced Regional Prediction System, developed at the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms of the University of Oklahoma, enables to resolve the dynamics above a complex terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model code developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The numerical codes MM5 and CHIMERE are used to compute large scale boundary forcing. This paper focuses on modelling Chamonix valley using 300-m grid cells to calculate the dynamics and the reactive chemistry which makes possible to accurately represent the dynamics in the Chamonix valley (slope and valley winds and to process chemistry at fine scale. The summer 2003 intensive campaign was used to validate the model and to study chemistry. NOy according to O3 reduction demonstrates a VOC controlled regime, different from the NOx controlled regime expected and observed in the nearby city of Grenoble.

  1. Numerical simulation of local atmospheric circulations in the pre-Alpine area between Lake Garda and Verona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiti, L.; Serafin, S.; Zardi, D.

    2010-09-01

    The pre-Alpine area between Lake Garda and Verona displays a very complex and heterogeneous territory, allowing the development of several interacting systems of thermally driven local winds, the major being the lake/land breeze system on the coasts of Lake Garda and the up/down-valley wind system between the plain and the river Adige Valley. In order to investigate the local wind patterns, a series of nested numerical simulations with a horizontal resolution of 500 m were carried out using the ARPS 5.2.9 model (Xue et al. 2000, 2001), considering a fair weather day suitable for a clear development of the expected circulations (15th July 2003). The simulated wind speed and direction, pressure, temperature and water vapour mixing ratio were compared to synoptic scale meteorological charts, to vertical profiles from radiosoundings taken at the major sounding stations of the alpine region and to local scale measurements performed at the surface station of Dolcè (at the inlet of the Adige Valley). Numerical results at all scales were found to be in very good agreement with the available sets of meteorological observations. The analysis of the diurnal evolution of the 3D fields of temperature, moisture content, wind and turbulent kinetic energy allowed the identification of a very shallow and clearly defined breeze front of cold and humid air moving from off-shore towards the Lake Garda coast, from the late morning (10:00 LST) until the evening (20:00 LST). The diurnal up-valley breeze was also well reproduced: the valley atmosphere displays a thick mixed layer dominated by shallow turbulent convection between 11:00 LST and 21:00 LST. Lateral slope winds were also recognized, as they created cross-valley convective cells. While no clear evidence of a nocturnal land breeze was found in the simulations, the nocturnal down-valley wind in the Adige Valley was clearly reproduced. Finally, a scalar transport equation was added to the ARPS model in order to simulate transport

  2. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1. Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model...

  3. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  4. National Lakes Assessment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  5. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  6. The Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  7. Testing whether macroevolution follows microevolution: are colour differences among swans (Cygnus) attributable to variation at the MCIR locus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Marie A; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2008-09-12

    The MC1R (melanocortin-1 receptor) locus underlies intraspecific variation in melanin-based dark plumage coloration in several unrelated birds with plumage polymorphisms. There is far less evidence for functional variants of MC1R being involved in interspecific variation, in which spurious genotype-phenotype associations arising through population history are a far greater problem than in intraspecific studies. We investigated the relationship between MC1R variation and plumage coloration in swans (Cygnus), which show extreme variation in melanic plumage phenotypes among species (white to black). The two species with melanic plumage, C. atratus and C. melanocoryphus (black and black-necked swans respectively), both have amino acid changes at important functional sites in MC1R that are consistent with increased MC1R activity and melanism. Reconstruction of MC1R evolution over a newly generated independent molecular phylogeny of Cygnus and related genera shows that these putative melanizing mutations were independently derived in the two melanic lineages. However, interpretation is complicated by the fact that one of the outgroup genera, Coscoroba, also has a putative melanizing mutation at MC1R that has arisen independently but has nearly pure white plumage. Epistasis at other loci seems the most likely explanation for this discrepancy. Unexpectedly, the phylogeny shows that the genus Cygnus may not be monophyletic, with C. melanocoryphus placed as a sister group to true geese (Anser), but further data will be needed to confirm this. Our study highlights the difficulty of extrapolating from intraspecific studies to understand the genetic basis of interspecific adaptive phenotypic evolution, even with a gene whose structure-function relationships are as well understood as MC1R as confounding variation make clear genotype/phenotype associations difficult at the macroevolutionary scale. However, the identification of substitutions in the black and black-necked swan

  8. Testing whether macroevolution follows microevolution: Are colour differences among swans (Cygnus attributable to variation at the MC1R locus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MC1R (melanocortin-1 receptor locus underlies intraspecific variation in melanin-based dark plumage coloration in several unrelated birds with plumage polymorphisms. There is far less evidence for functional variants of MC1R being involved in interspecific variation, in which spurious genotype-phenotype associations arising through population history are a far greater problem than in intraspecific studies. We investigated the relationship between MC1R variation and plumage coloration in swans (Cygnus, which show extreme variation in melanic plumage phenotypes among species (white to black. Results The two species with melanic plumage, C. atratus and C. melanocoryphus (black and black-necked swans respectively, both have amino acid changes at important functional sites in MC1R that are consistent with increased MC1R activity and melanism. Reconstruction of MC1R evolution over a newly generated independent molecular phylogeny of Cygnus and related genera shows that these putative melanizing mutations were independently derived in the two melanic lineages. However, interpretation is complicated by the fact that one of the outgroup genera, Coscoroba, also has a putative melanizing mutation at MC1R that has arisen independently but has nearly pure white plumage. Epistasis at other loci seems the most likely explanation for this discrepancy. Unexpectedly, the phylogeny shows that the genus Cygnus may not be monophyletic, with C. melanocoryphus placed as a sister group to true geese (Anser, but further data will be needed to confirm this. Conclusion Our study highlights the difficulty of extrapolating from intraspecific studies to understand the genetic basis of interspecific adaptive phenotypic evolution, even with a gene whose structure-function relationships are as well understood as MC1R as confounding variation make clear genotype/phenotype associations difficult at the macroevolutionary scale. However, the identification

  9. A simple DEM assessment procedure for gully system analysis in the Lake Manyara area, northern Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maerker, Michael; Quénéhervé, Geraldine; Bachofer, Felix; Mori, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Gully erosion is a major threat concerning landscape degradation in large areas along the northern Tanzanian Rift valley. It is the dominant erosion process producing large parts of the sediments that are effectively conducted into the river network. The study area is located in the Lake

  10. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-02-01

    Feb 1, 1984 ... Salisbury. COCHRANE, K.L. 1978. Seasonal fluctuations in the catches of Lim- nothrissa miodon (Boulenger) in Lake Kariba. Lake Kariba Fish. Res. Inst. Proj. Rept. 29: 1-163 (cyclostyled). DONNELLY, B.G. 1971. The fish population changes on Lake. Kariba between 1960 and 1968. Part I Cichlidae.

  11. Yellowstone and Long Valley - A Comparison of Two Restless Calderas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D. P.; Smith, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    occurred 600 and 250 ybp. Unrest at both calderas is characterized by strong regional seismicity, recurring intra-caldera earthquake swarms, deformation measured in decimeters, changes in the hydrothermal systems, and elevated CO2 emissions. Extra-caldera seismicity at Yellowstone includes the 1959 M=7.5 Hebgen Lake earthquake, and at Long Valley, four M~6 earthquakes in May 1980 immediately south of the caldera. In both cases, the extra-caldera seismicity is more energetic and persistent than intra-caldera activity underscoring the importance of tectonic-magmatic interactions. Long Valley seismicity includes long-period (LP) "volcanic" earthquakes, spasmodic bursts, and very-long-period (VLP) earthquakes. Seismicity in Yellowstone is limited to brittle-failure earthquakes. Deformation in Yellowstone has shown alternating episodes of inflation and subsidence while that in Long Valley has shown several episodes of rapid uplift with negligible subsidence. In both cases, peak uplifts reached 70 to 80 cm. Among the many outstanding questions for both calderas include 1) the nature of the process driving deformation and whether the active agent involves hydrous magmatic fluids and volatiles or the intrusion of magma into the upper crust, 2) the configuration of the magmatic plumbing system within the crust, and 3) regional tectonic-magmatic interactions.

  12. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1999 breeding ground survyes of geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of nesting geese, tundra swans, and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta for the 15th consecutive year. The...

  13. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-2000 breeding ground survyes of geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese, tundra swans, and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta for the 16th consecutive year. The survey...

  14. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1996 breeding ground surveys of geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone, Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of nesting geese, swans and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta for the 12th consecutive year. The survey...

  15. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1995 breeding ground surveys of geese and swans in the coastal zone, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of nesting geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta were conducted for the eleventh consecutive year. The...

  16. The Central Valley Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, C.; Belitz, K.; Hanson, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Historically, California’s Central Valley has been one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California’s expanding urban population. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, subsidence, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS made a detailed assessment of the Central Valley aquifer system that includes the present status of water resources and how these resources have changed over time. The principal product of this assessment is a tool, referred to as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM), that simulates surface-water flows, groundwater flows, and land subsidence in response to stresses from human uses and from climate variability throughout the entire Central Valley. The CVHM utilizes MODFLOW combined with a new tool called “Farm Process” to simulate groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture, land subsidence, and other key processes in the Central Valley on a monthly basis. This model was discretized horizontally into 20,000 1-mi2 cells and vertically into 10 layers ranging in thickness from 50 feet at the land surface to 750 feet at depth. A texture model constructed by using data from more than 8,500 drillers’ logs was used to estimate hydraulic properties. Unmetered pumpage and surface-water deliveries for 21 water-balance regions were simulated with the Farm Process. Model results indicate that human activities, predominately surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumping for irrigated agriculture, have dramatically influenced the hydrology of the Central Valley. These human activities have increased flow though the aquifer system by about a factor of six compared to pre-development conditions. The simulated hydrology reflects spatial

  17. Theoretical electronic transition moments for the Ballik-Ramsay, Fox-Herzberg, and Swan systems of C2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electronic transition moments and their variation with internuclear separation are calculated for the Ballik-Ramsay (b 3 Sigma g - a 3 Pi u), Fox-Herzberg (e 3 Pi g-a 3 Pi u) and Swan (d 3 Pi g-a 3 Pi u) band systems of C2, which appear in a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical sources. Electronic wave functions of the a 3 Pi u, b 2 Sigma g -, d 3 Pi g and e 3 Pi g states of C2 are obtained by means of a self-consistent field plus configuration interaction calculation using an atomic basis of 46 Slater-type orbitals, and theoretical potential energy curves and spectroscopic constants for the four electronic states were computed. The results obtained for both the potential energy curves and electronic transition moments are found to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Are predictions of cancer response to targeted drugs, based on effects in unrelated tissues, the 'Black Swan' events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Beatrica; Golem, Ante Zvonimir; Kurbel, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Adverse effects of targeted drugs on normal tissues can predict the cancer response. Rash correlates with efficacy of erlotinib, cetuximab and gefitinib and onset of arterial hypertension with response to bevacizumab, sunitinib, axitinib and sorafenib, possible examples of 'Black Swan' events, unexpected scientific observations, as described by Karl Popper in 1935. The proposition is that our patients have individual intrinsic variants of cell growth control, important for tumor response and adverse effects on tumor-unrelated tissue. This means that the lack of predictive side effects in healthy tissue is linked with poor results of tumor therapy when tumor resistance is caused by mechanisms that protect all cells of that patient from the targeted drug effects.

  19. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Catherine J; Jessop, Tim S; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  20. Identification of two novel reassortant avian influenza a (H5N6) viruses in whooper swans in Korea, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; Woo, Chanjin; Ip, Hon S.; An, Injung; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kwanghee; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; Lee, Saemi; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeonghwa; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Jheong, Weonhwa

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundOn November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identification of HPAIVs in wild birds is significant as there is a potential risk of transmission of these viruses to poultry and humans.ResultsPhylogenetic analysis revealed that Gangjin H5N6 viruses classified into Asian H5 clade 2.3.4.4 lineage and were distinguishable from H5N8 and H5N1 HPAIVs previously isolated in Korea. With the exception of the polymerase acidic (PA) gene, the viruses were most closely related to A/duck/Guangdong/01.01SZSGXJK005-Y/2016 (H5N6) (98.90 ~ 99.74%). The PA genes of the two novel Gangjin H5N6 viruses were most closely related to AIV isolates previously characterized from Korea, A/hooded crane/Korea/1176/2016 (H1N1) (99.16%) and A/environment/Korea/W133/2006 (H7N7) (98.65%). The lack of more recent viruses to A/environment/Korea/W133/2006 (H7N7) indicates the need for analysis of recent wild bird AIVs isolated in Korea because they might provide further clues as to the origin of these novel reassortant H5N6 viruses.ConclusionsAlthough research on the origins and epidemiology of these infections is ongoing, the most likely route of infection for the whooper swans was through direct or indirect contact with reassortant viruses shed by migratory wild birds in Korea. As H5N6 HPAIVs can potentially be transmitted to poultry and humans, continuous monitoring of AIVs among wild birds will help to mitigate this risk.

  1. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Payne

    Full Text Available Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  2. Is Upper Lake Merzbacher (Central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) the result of a fluctuating glacier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, H.; Leber, D.; Kopecny, A.

    2012-04-01

    Based on time series analysis of topographic maps, aerial photos and satellite images, and on fieldwork at the Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher", we reconstruct the retreat and advance of the Northern Inylchek Glacier and the development of supraglacial and proglacial lakes respectively. The aerial photo of 1943 reveals a Northern Inylchek Glacier with abundant supraglacial lakes. Change detection since 1943 documents the formation of a proglacial lake, which until 1981 increased in size and was termed Upper Lake Merzbacher. In contrast to the increase of the Upper Lake, an undulated terrain with a dozen of small lakes did not change at all during the last 70 years. We term this area of about one square kilometre in size the "stable-moraine-lake-ensemble". It is situated northeast of the terminal moraine of the Northern Inylchek Glacier. Regarding its geomorphologic features, this stable-moraine-lake-ensemble represents an old stage of glacier karst. Since this area is covered by several meters of fine-grained and thin-layered lake sediments we postulate a former proglacial lake, which was dammed by both the Northern and Southern Inylchek Glacier. In view of the fact that a meter thick massive till, rich in striated pebbles, overlies these lake sediments, we conclude that the Northern Inylchek Glacier overthrusted these lake sediments; a process which must have happened before 1943, and hence long before the (present) Upper Lake Merzbacher came to exist. From our findings we postulate the following fluctuations of the Northern Inylchek Glacier: 1) An ice stream net consisting of both the Northern and Southern Inylchek Glaciers jointly flowing down the Inylchek Valley existed during Würm glaciation. 2) At the end of the Little Ice Age, the moraines of which are poorly dated in the Central Tien Shan, the glaciers rapidly retreated. As soon as the Southern Inylchek Glacier stagnated and the Northern Inylchek Glacier separated and retreated, part of the

  3. Some Lake Level Control Alternatives for the Great Salt Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Marvin E.; Christensen, Ronald K.; Riley, J. Paul

    1983-01-01

    Fluctuations of the level of the Great Salt Lake cause large changes in both surface area and shoreline. Developments adjacent to the lake have been damaged by both high and low lake levels; and unless measures are implemented to regulate lake level fluctuations or otherwise to protect these developments, damages will continue. Various possible managment alternatives for mitigating potential damages from lake leve...

  4. Measurements of Refractory Black Carbon (rBC) Aerosols in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. L.; McMeeking, G. R.; Lyons, W. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Welch, K. A.; McKnight, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of light absorbing particles in the boundary layer of the high southern latitudes are scarce. During the 2013-2014 austral summer field season refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols were quantified by a single particle soot photometer (SP2) in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The dark rBC particles absorb more radiation thereby increasing atmospheric heating, as well as reducing surface albedo and enhancing hydrologic melt when deposited on highly reflective surfaces such as snow and ice. Quantifying both local and long-range atmospheric transport of rBC to this region of a remote continent mostly covered by ice and snow would be useful in understanding meltwater generation as climate changes. Although the Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region of Antarctica, they contain many alpine glaciers, some of which are fed from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Continuous rBC measurements were collected at Lake Hoare Camp in the Taylor Valley for two months, along with shorter periods at more remote locations within the Dry Valleys. Conditions at the Lake Hoare Camp were dominated by up-valley winds from McMurdo Sound, however, winds also brought air down-valley from the EAIS polar plateau. Here we investigated periods dominated by both up and down-valley winds to explore differences in rBC concentrations, size distributions, and scattering properties. The average background rBC mass concentration was 1ng/m3, though concentrations as high as 50 ng/m3 were observed at times, likely due to local sources.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  6. Ma'adim Vallis Revisited through New Topographic Data: Evidence for an Ancient Intravalley Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond A.; Dawidowicz, Gilles

    1996-10-01

    Based on a comprehensive study of the recent topographic map USGS MC-23 SE I-2119 (USGS, 1991,Topographical Map of Aeolis) plus geomorphic and digital elevation, we have constructed a geometric model of Ma'adim Vallis. The sedimentary history of the valley was determined by the damming of the valley by two impact craters, one by the southern crater over Gusev rim and the second located 120 km upstream. The presence of an intravalley lake system is inferred from independent sedimentary analysis and from geomorphic evidence for valley benches. Peripheral and parallel topographic contour intervals of the putative intravalley lake shores suggest that the lake was covered by a thick ice sheet. The longitudinal profile of the valley floor shows a peculiar reverse slope located 300 km upstream from the southern Gusev crater rim. We conclude that this is an accumulation of sedimentary deposits adjacent to the crater rampart which defined the northern boundary of the lake. When the water level reached the lowest point of the west bank, which is 0.4 km below the top of the rim of Gusev crater, it began to floor the surrounding plateau. As the intravalley lake level raised, its ice cover formed a wide lateral bench. Later, this ponded water was funneled into Gusev crater through the breaching of the southern Gusev rampart by an impact crater. The paleolacustrine sediments transported by the lake water that channeled through the rampart debris slope mantled the floor of Gusev crater. The sublacustrine sediments are promising targets for future missions and of high priority in the search for past life.

  7. Quaternary fossil fish from the Kibish Formation, Omo Valley, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Josh

    2008-09-01

    The late Quaternary Kibish Formation of the Omo Valley, southwestern Ethiopia, preserves environments reflecting a history of fluctuations in the level of nearby Lake Turkana over the past 200,000 years. The Kibish Formation has yielded a diverse mammalian fauna (as well as birds and crocodiles), stone tools, and the oldest anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Fish, the most common vertebrate fossils in this unit, are reported in this study. Catfish (especially clariids and Synodontis) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) predominate, but the gymnarchid Gymnarchus, a cyprinid (Barbus), tigerfish (Hydrocynus), pufferfish (Tetraodon), and other catfish are also present. In total, nine teleost genera are found in the Kibish Formation, representing a subset of the 37 genera that constitute the modern Omo-Turkana ichthyofauna. Several taxa present in the modern fauna, including Polypterus and members of the family Cichlidae, are not found in the Kibish deposits. Most specimens are preserved as disarticulated or broken skeletal elements, but some preservation of articulated elements (e.g., sets of vertebrae, crania with lower jaws or cleithra) also occurs. Many of the catfish and Nile perch specimens are larger than the largest reported from the modern river or lake. Faunas of Kibish Members I and III closely resemble one another; the fauna from Member IV contains only the three most common taxa (Clarias, Synodontis, Lates), though this may result from insufficient sampling. Barbed bone points have been collected from the upper part of the formation, indicating a long association between the human inhabitants and the fish fauna of the Omo Valley.

  8. Salting our freshwater lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Sarah L.; Burke, Samantha M.; Doubek, Jonathan P.; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E.; Skaff, Nicholas K.; Summers, Jamie C.; Farrell, Kaitlin J.; McCullough, Ian M.; Morales-Williams, Ana M.; Roberts, Derek C.; Ouyang, Zutao; Scordo, Facundo; Hanson, Paul C.; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2017-01-01

    The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown, leading us to first identify spatial patterns and then investigate the drivers of these patterns. Significant decadal trends in lake salinization were identified using a dataset of long-term chloride concentrations from 371 North American lakes. Landscape and climate metrics calculated for each site demonstrated that impervious land cover was a strong predictor of chloride trends in Northeast and Midwest North American lakes. As little as 1% impervious land cover surrounding a lake increased the likelihood of long-term salinization. Considering that 27% of large lakes in the United States have >1% impervious land cover around their perimeters, the potential for steady and long-term salinization of these aquatic systems is high. This study predicts that many lakes will exceed the aquatic life threshold criterion for chronic chloride exposure (230 mg L−1), stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the next 50 y if current trends continue. PMID:28396392

  9. Surprising prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity, community structure and biogeography of Ethiopian soda lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lanzén

    Full Text Available Soda lakes are intriguing ecosystems harboring extremely productive microbial communities in spite of their extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems for studying the connection between community structure and abiotic parameters such as pH and salinity. For the first time, we apply high-throughput sequencing to accurately estimate phylogenetic richness and composition in five soda lakes, located in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. The lakes were selected for their contrasting pH, salinities and stratification and several depths or spatial positions were covered in each lake. DNA was extracted and analyzed from all lakes at various depths and RNA extracted from two of the lakes, analyzed using both amplicon- and shotgun sequencing. We reveal a surprisingly high biodiversity in all of the studied lakes, similar to that of freshwater lakes. Interestingly, diversity appeared uncorrelated or positively correlated to pH and salinity, with the most "extreme" lakes showing the highest richness. Together, pH, dissolved oxygen, sodium- and potassium concentration explained approximately 30% of the compositional variation between samples. A diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic taxa could be identified, including several putatively involved in carbon-, sulfur- or nitrogen cycling. Key processes like methane oxidation, ammonia oxidation and 'nitrifier denitrification' were also confirmed by mRNA transcript analyses.

  10. Mechanically and optically controlled graphene valley filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Fenghua; Jin, Guojun, E-mail: gjin@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the valley-dependent electronic transport through a graphene monolayer modulated simultaneously by a uniform uniaxial strain and linearly polarized light. Within the Floquet formalism, we calculate the transmission probabilities and conductances of the two valleys. It is found that valley polarization can appear only if the two modulations coexist. Under a proper stretching of the sample, the ratio of the light intensity and the light frequency squared is important. If this quantity is small, the electron transport is mainly contributed by the valley-symmetric central band and the conductance is valley unpolarized; but when this quantity is large, the valley-asymmetric sidebands also take part in the transport and the valley polarization of the conductance appears. Furthermore, the degree of the polarization can be tuned by the strain strength, light intensity, and light frequency. It is proposed that the detection of the valley polarization can be realized utilizing the valley beam splitting. Thus, a graphene monolayer can be used as a mechanically and optically controlled valley filter.

  11. The Microclimate of Valley Glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Oerlemans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers have fascinated mankind throughout history. Glaciers look solid and robust, but observing them for only a couple of years shows that they are dynamic and change shape all the time. The lower glaciers come, the greater the contrast with the surrounding landscape. Many glaciers in the world enter pastures and forests. It is not surprising that laymen, artists and scientists have reported on the behaviour of large valley glaciers. A wealth of information on glacier fluctuations in histo...

  12. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  13. Catastrophic valley fills record large Himalayan earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2017-12-01

    Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhara basin, which has the largest and most extensively dated archive of earthquake-triggered valley fills in the Himalayas. These sediments form a 148-km2 fan that issues from the steep Seti Khola gorge in the Annapurna Massif, invading and plugging 15 tributary valleys with tens of meters of debris, and impounding several lakes. Nearly a dozen new radiocarbon ages corroborate at least three episodes of catastrophic sedimentation on the fan between ∼700 and ∼1700 AD, coinciding with great earthquakes in ∼1100, 1255, and 1344 AD, and emplacing roughly >5 km3 of debris that forms the Pokhara Formation. We offer a first systematic sedimentological study of this formation, revealing four lithofacies characterized by thick sequences of mid-fan fluvial conglomerates, debris-flow beds, and fan-marginal slackwater deposits. New geochemical provenance analyses reveal that these upstream dipping deposits of Higher Himalayan origin contain lenses of locally derived river clasts that mark time gaps between at least three major sediment pulses that buried different parts of the fan. The spatial pattern of 14C dates across the fan and the provenance data are key to distinguishing these individual sediment pulses, as these are not evident from their sedimentology alone. Our study demonstrates how geomorphic and sedimentary evidence of catastrophic valley infill can help to independently verify and augment paleoseismological fault-trench records of great Himalayan earthquakes, while offering unparalleled insights into their long-term geomorphic impacts on major drainage basins.

  14. Spin-Valley Beam Splitter in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yu; Shi, Zhi-Gui; Li, Shun; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The fourfold spin-valley degenerate degrees of freedom in bulk graphene can support rich physics and novel applications associated with multicomponent quantum Hall effects and linear conductance filtering. In this work, we study how to break the spin-valley degeneracy of electron beams spatially. We propose a spin-valley beam splitter in a gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We demonstrate that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all spin-valley beam components, the formation of quasi-standing waves can lead four giant lateral Goos-H\\"{a}nchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the two modulated regions can lead difference of resonant angles or energies for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting an effective spin-valley beam splitting effect. The beam splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  15. Lake Mead, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Lake Mead, Nevada, (36.0N, 114.5E) where the water from the Colorado River empties after it's 273 mile journey through the Grand Canyon of Arizona is the subject of this photo. Other features of interest are Hoover Dam on the south shore of Lake Mead where cheap hydroelectric power is secondary to the water resources made available in this northern desert region and the resort city of Las Vegas, just to the west of Lake Mead.

  16. Tropical Lake Levels and Their Relationship to Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricko, M.; Carton, J.; Birkett, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    , except Lake Turkana, have pronounced seasonal cycles, with the largest seasonal cycles occurring for the lakes in high rainfall regions: Kainji in Africa, Balbina in South America, and Lake Tonle Sap in Southeast Asia. With the seasonal cycle removed, the east African rift valley lakes (Turkana, Tanganyika, Mweru) show pronounced rises in 1997-8 in response to the combined effects of El Niño and the Indian Ocean dipole. In contrast, the Central and South American lakes (Nicaragua and Balbina) show significant level decrease for the same time period. There is also evidence of rapid increases in lake level in response to tropical cyclones (Nicaragua and Malawi). At short intraseasonal periods, Lake Tonle Sap shows evidence of a 30-60 day fluctuation driven by rainfall fluctuations partly associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation. These results show noticeable climate impacts on tropical lake levels.

  17. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  18. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  19. T2 Star-weighted Angiography (SWAN) Allows to Concomitantly Assess the Prostate Contour While Detecting Fiducials Before MR-based Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy in Prostate Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirajlal, Pierre-Antoine; Jambon, Eva; Albat-Esquirou, Agnes; Galmiche, Chloe; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Grenier, Nicolas; Haaser, Thibaud; Cornelis, François H

    2017-08-22

    To evaluate the performance of T2 star-weighted angiography (SWAN) to concomitantly assess the prostate contour while detecting fiducials before magnetic resonance (MR)-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in prostate carcinoma. Forty patients (mean age: 73.1 ± 7.5 years; average Gleason score: 7 ± 1; average prostate-specific antigen: 14.7 ± 11.6 ng/mL) underwent MR and computed tomography imaging before fiducial-based IMRT. MR protocol included SWAN, T2-weighted (T2w) and diffusion-weighted imaging in a first group (n = 20) and SWAN, T2w and T2-star weighted imaging in a second group (n = 20). In group 1, the depiction of fiducials, image sharpness and visibility of prostate boundaries were independently evaluated by 2 readers on SWAN, T2w or diffusion-weighted images. In group 2, a similar evaluation was performed by 2 other readers on SWAN and T2-star images only. Depiction of fiducials was compared to computed tomography findings. The median scores of visibility of prostate boundaries, image sharpness and depiction of fiducials by SWAN were above average to excellent for all readers. In group 1, readers correctly located 56 of 57 (98.2%) and 47 of 57 (82.5%) fiducials, respectively; and 50 of 51 (98%), and 48 of 51 (88.2%) fiducials in group 2, respectively. By allowing adequate visualization of the prostate boundaries and high depiction of fiducial markers concomitantly, SWAN might be used for treatment planning of IMRT. The use of this sequence might simplify the registration process and limit any errors associated with image fusion. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A giant dune-dammed lake on the North Platte River, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinehart, J.B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Conservation and Survey Div.); Loope, D.B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The recent work in the Nebraska Sand Hills, just north of the North Platte Valley, has revealed the presence of numerous dune dams--sites where eolian sand has filled Pleistocene paleovalleys and caused the formation of lake basins containing abundant small, interdunal lakes. Although the Platte River is considered the southern margin of the Sand Hills, there is a 1,200 sq km triangular area of large dunes in Lincoln County just south of the South Platte. The authors hypothesize that large dunes migrated southward to fill the North Platte Valley during glacial maximum when both the North and South Platte were dry. As Rocky Mountain snowmelt and Great Plains precipitation increased during deglaciation, a single 65 km-long, 15 km-wide, 50 m-deep lake formed behind the massive dune dam. The tentative chronology suggests that the lake was in existence for at least several thousand years. They have not yet found compelling evidence of catastrophic flooding downstream of the former lake. Evidence of two large Quaternary lakes on the White Nile between Khartoum and Malakal (Sudan) was discovered in the 1960's. Shoreline deposits indicate the lakes were 400--600 km long and up to 50 km wide. Although the lakes have been attributed to repeated blockage of the White Nile by clay-rich Blue Nile deposits, the distribution and age of dune sand near the confluence of these rivers suggest that, as in the Nebraska example, the course of the White Nile was blocked by dunes when the region was desiccated in the Late Pleistocene. Lakes behind permeable dams rise to a level where input equals output. Earthen dams are vulnerable to overtopping and piping. The relatively high permeability of dune sand prevents or delays overtopping, and piping is prevented by the extremely high low hydraulic gradients that typify extant sand dams.

  1. The drainage and glacial history of the Still River Valley, southwestern Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Woodrow B.

    1971-01-01

    The Still River is located in southwestern Connecticut. From its origin on the New York border, it passes through Danbury and flows northward to its junction with the Housatonic River in New Milford. Interpretation of the Still River's history is based on its surficial geology and bedrock topography. High bedrock surfaces to the south, east, and west of the river show that its preglacial direction was probably to the north. The Still River has developed along the easily eroded Inwood Marble as a subsequent tributary to the Housatonic. Pleistocene glaciation left a variety of deposits in the Still Valley. The oldest of these is the 'lower' till, of either Illinoian or Altonian age. This till unit is overlain in turn by the Woodfordian 'upper' till. The upper till has basal and ablation facies. Ice-contact deposits formed in the fringing stagnation zone of the last retreating ice sheet. As the glacier withdrew along the Still Valley, preglacial Lake Danbury was impounded against the highlands to the south. Glacial retreat opened progressively lower outlets for this lake. Its final stage was contained by a till (?) barrier at the Housatonic Gorge in New Milford. Filling of the lake by glacial outwash was soon followed by downcutting of the dam and establishment of the modern Housatonic and Still River channels.

  2. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... : Species composition & seasonal periodicity - Qualitative & quantitative investigations on cladoceran zooplankton of oligotrophic maar lakes - Population dynamics of pelagic copepods in maar lakes - Population dynamics...

  3. A landscape scale valley confinement algorithm: Delineating unconfined valley bottoms for geomorphic, aquatic, and riparian applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Nagel; John M. Buffington; Sharon L. Parkes; Seth Wenger; Jaime R. Goode

    2014-01-01

    Valley confinement is an important landscape characteristic linked to aquatic habitat, riparian diversity, and geomorphic processes. This report describes a GIS program called the Valley Confinement Algorithm (VCA), which identifies unconfined valleys in montane landscapes. The algorithm uses nationally available digital elevation models (DEMs) at 10-30 m resolution to...

  4. Development of remote sensing tools to improve understanding and management of Lake Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavula, Geoffrey Mudolole

    Degradation of land resources in the drainage basin of Lake Malawi and other lakes of the African Rift Valley has been widespread over the past several decades. Causes for this degradation include inappropriate agricultural practices, indiscriminate disposal of wastes, and increasing population pressure. These factors pose serious threats to water quality in these important lakes. It is difficult and costly to monitor relevant water quality conditions, such as concentrations of chlorophyll-alpha in these large lakes using ground-based methods, and consequently, information on temporal and spatial variations in water quality conditions of these water bodies is quite limited. Methods that use satellite-based remote sensing data to infer lake clarity and chlorophyll levels have been developed in recent years and have potential for alleviating the problem of inadequate water monitoring data in large lakes in poor and developing countries. In addition to providing data on water quality and trophic state conditions of lakes, satellite imagery has potential for determining water circulation patterns in lakes through maps of lake surface temperature (LST). In turn, LST can be used to locate upwelling zones that may enhance commercial fishing in large deep lakes. Satellite imagery also may be used to characterize and map land use and land cover (LULC). Such information can serve as a basis for studies of the relationships between changes in LULC and lake conditions, such as lake level and water quality. This paper describes results of research to develop remote sensing tools to improve the understanding and management of Lake Malawi. It includes three major components, namely: estimating chlorophyll-alpha concentrations in Lake Malawi from MODIS/Terra satellite imagery; assessing the accuracy of existing split-window algorithms to estimate lake surface temperature from AVHRR and MODIS/Terra satellite data; and determining trends in forest cover and other categories of land

  5. 27 CFR 9.189 - High Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Oaks Quadrangle, California—Lake County; edition of 1958; photorevised 1975, minor revision 1994; (2) Benmore Canyon Quadrangle, California—Lake County; provisional edition of 1989, minor revision 1994; and (3) Lucerne Quadrangle, California—Lake County; edition of 1958, photorevised 1975, minor revision...

  6. 27 CFR 9.176 - Capay Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... located in Yolo County, California. The beginning point is the junction of the Yolo, Napa, and Lake County lines. (1) From the beginning point, proceed north then east along the Yolo-Lake County line; (2) At the junction of the Yolo, Lake, and Colusa County lines, continue east along the Yolo-Colusa County line to its...

  7. Allelopathy-mediated competition in microbial mats from Antarctic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Marc; Lesser, Michael P

    2017-05-01

    Microbial mats are vertically stratified communities that host a complex consortium of microorganisms, dominated by cyanobacteria, which compete for available nutrients and environmental niches, within these extreme habitats. The Antarctic Dry Valleys near McMurdo Sound include a series of lakes within the drainage basin that are bisected by glacial traverses. These lakes are traditionally independent, but recent increases in glacial melting have allowed two lakes (Chad and Hoare) to become connected by a meltwater stream. Microbial mats were collected from these lakes, and cultured under identical conditions at the McMurdo Station laboratory. Replicate pairings of the microbial mats exhibited consistent patterns of growth inhibition indicative of competitive dominance. Natural products were extracted from the microbial mats, and a disk diffusion assay was utilized to show that allelochemical compounds mediate competitive interactions. Both microscopy and 16S rRNA sequencing show that these mats contain significant populations of cyanobacteria known to produce allelochemicals. Two compounds were isolated from these microbial mats that might be important in the chemical ecology of these psychrophiles. In other disk:mat pairings, including extract versus mat of origin, the allelochemicals exhibited no effect. Taken together, these results indicate that Antarctic lake microbial mats can compete via allelopathy. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Geology of the Lake Pillsbury area, northern coast ranges, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etter, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Rock units in the Lake Pillsbury area are Franciscan Complex and non-Franciscan (Great Valley Sequence-type) strata and surficial deposits. Franciscan units include relatively coherent sequences, broken-formations, and malanges comprising chiefly graywackes and mudstone, with variable abundances of both native and exotic blocks. Non-Franciscan units comprise generally mildly deformed coherent sequences of graywacke, shale, conglomerate, and limestone. A larger portion of the Lake Pillsbury area is underlain by non-Franciscan lithologies than had been indicated by previous mapping. Franciscan strata range in age from Mid-Jurassic or older to Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian .); non-Franciscan strata range from Jurassic (Tithonian) to Middle Tertiary. The distributions of metamorphic minerals in graywackes (chiefly lawsonite, aragonite, jadeitic pyroxene, glaucophane, pumpellyite, and laumontite) indicate that most Franciscan rocks have undergone high pressure - low temperature blue-schist metamorphism, and that non-Franciscan rocks have undergone lower pressure, zeolite metamorphism. Franciscan rocks are, on average, more dense than non-Franciscan rocks. Franciscan graywackes contain virtually no detrital K-feldspar; K-feldspar content of non-Franciscan sandstones increases with decreasing age and inferred depth of burial. Overall, compositions and physical properties of Lake Pillsbury non-Franciscan sandstones are similar to those of sandstones of the same age from Great Valley Sequence strata.

  9. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  10. Extinction of water plants in the Hula Valley: Evidence for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Yoel; Kislev, Mordechai; Weiss, Ehud; Simchoni, Orit

    2011-04-01

    We describe two events of water plant extinction in the Hula Valley, northern Israel: the ancient, natural extinction of 3 out of 14 extinct species at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, which occurred some 800-700 k.yr., and an anthropogenic, near contemporary extinction of seven species in the artificial drainage of the Hula Lake in the 1950s. We conclude that the considerable fraction of water plants that disappeared from the Hula Valley in the Early-Middle Pleistocene was the result of habitat desiccation and not global warming. Thus, there is evidence that the hominins who lived in the Hula Valley inhabited a comparatively dry place. The disappearance of water plant species was partially the result of reduced seed dispersal by birds (ornitochory) as a result of the shrinkage of water bodies and their number along the Rift Valley. We suggest that the disappearance of a group of rare, local water plants can be used as an indicator of climate drying and impacts on the local vegetation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus strain AHT2(T), a haloalkaliphilic sulfidogen from Egyptian hypersaline alkaline lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melton, E.D.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Overmars, L.; Chertkov, O.; Clum, A.; Pillay, M.; Ivanova, N.; Shapiro, N.; Kyrpides, N.C.; Woyke, T.; Lapidus, A.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus strain AHT2T is a strictly anaerobic sulfidogenic haloalkaliphile isolated from a composite sediment sample of eight hypersaline alkaline lakes in the Wadi al Natrun valley in the Egyptian Libyan Desert. D. alkaliphilus AHT2T is Gram-negative and belongs to the family

  12. 78 FR 71026 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Lake Tahoe Passenger Ferry Project, Placer and El Dorado...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... Tahoe and provides access to nearby ski resorts, including Squaw Valley USA, Alpine Meadows Resort... Terminal at the Ski Run Marina in South Lake Tahoe, El Dorado County, California, and a North Shore Ferry... Camp Richardson Resort and Lakeside Marina; however, it does not stop at Ski Run Marina. The absence of...

  13. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  14. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  15. Evaporation From Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.

    2009-05-01

    Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

  16. Lake Superior revisited 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Wayne R.; Selgeby, James H.

    1987-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community has changed substantially since the early 1960s, when control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) became effective. Self-reproducing stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in many inshore areas, although they have not yet reached pre-sea lamprey abundance; offshore lake trout are probably at or near pre-sea lamprey abundance. Stocks of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) appear to have fully recovered; commercial catches are at or above historical levels. Lake herring (Coregonus artedii) are recovering rapidly in U.S. waters and are abundant in western Canadian waters. The population of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which declined in the 1970s, is recovering. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) are becoming more abundant as a result of increased stocking in U.S. waters and are reproducing in most suitable tributaries; they have become significant in anglers' creels.

  17. Body image satisfaction and depression in midlife women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kathryn L; Janssen, Imke; Appelhans, Bradley M; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Karavolos, Kelly; Dugan, Sheila A; Avery, Elizabeth A; Shipp-Johnson, Karla J; Powell, Lynda H; Kravitz, Howard M

    2014-06-01

    With aging, women's bodies undergo changes that can affect body image perception, yet little is known about body image in midlife. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between body image and depressive symptoms in Caucasian and African-American midlife women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Chicago site. Body image was measured using the Stunkard Adult Female Figure Rating Scale, and a clinically significant level of depressive symptoms was defined as Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of ≥16 (N=405; N=63 (15.6%) with clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms). Differences between perceived actual, perceived ideal, and actual body size and responses to questions concerning weight satisfaction and attractiveness were examined using logistic regression for associations with a CES-D score of ≥16. Women with body image dissatisfaction (odds ratio (OR)=1.91; p=0.04) or who perceived themselves as "unattractive" (OR=7.74; pbody image may be more likely to have clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Larger prospective studies are needed to better understand this association.

  18. Swan-shaped bone fixation device made of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy for treating humeral fracture in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qing-lin; Zhang, Chun-cai; Gao, Tang-cheng; Xu, Shuo-gui; Ren, Ke

    2003-07-01

    To establish the animal model for treating humeral fracture with swan-shaped bone fixation device made of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy. Models of humeral fractures was established in 30 rabbits and on one side the fracture was fixed with the Ni-Ti shape memory alloy device (SMC side) and on the other with 4-hole dynamic compression plate (DCP side). Anteroposterior radiograph of both humeri were taken at the time points of 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks respectively after operation. All the rabbits survived the experiment and their forelimbs bore obviously less weight than hindlimb. In SMC side, the humeral fracture healed without either osteoporosis or external callus. The fracture healing in DCP side gave rise to obvious external callus formation, and the healing process took significantly longer time than in SMC group. The humerus of rabbit is similar to human humerus in view of their anatomic morphology and biomechanical properties, therefore rabbit humeral fracture models can be ideal for exploring the mechanism of fracture healing induced by the alloy device.

  19. An ugly duckling becomes a swan {hor_ellipsis}: How an organization becomes customer focused through listening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asercion, R.E.; Myer, V.J. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The story we`re about to tell is true and the names have not been changed to protect the innocent because BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR), a subsidiary of the Boeing Company, is proud of its metamorphosis from the ugly duckling of computer support to the shining swan-like star of the Help Desk industry. The transformation occurred in the midst of an all but antiquated computer technology environment, rapid technology changes, low employee morale, and high amount of customer frustration. BCSR, located at the Hanford site in the southeastern corner of Washington State, provides information resource management and computer support to the Department of Energy (DOE) complex located at the site. The primary mission of DOE is environmental restoration and waste clean-up. End User Support (EUS), an organization within BCSR, is tasked with all aspects of microcomputer support, both hardware and software. EUS efficiently and effectively supports approximately 12,000 computer users across the entire 560 square mile site. With a small staff of 50 consultants and technicians, EUS provides support to a diverse customer base that includes engineers and scientists, as well as financial personnel, managers, and clerical support. But it wasn`t always this way. BCSR management recognized it and empowered the EUS staff to make the necessary changes. Here`s how they did it.

  20. Wave energy balance in wave models (SWAN) for semi-enclosed domains-Application to the Catalan coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Elena; Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Espino, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    This study has been motivated by the limited accuracy of wave models under short-duration, fetch-limited conditions. This applies particularly to the wave period, in semi-enclosed domains with highly variable wind patterns as along the Catalan coast. The wave model SWAN version 40.91A is used here in three nested grids covering all the North-western Mediterranean Sea with a grid resolution from 9 to 1 km, forced with high resolution wind patterns from BSC (Barcelona Supercomputing Center) for two study periods, the winter 2010 and the spring 2011. The results are validated in eight locations with different types of instrumentations. In order to improve the results, a modification of the whitecapping term parameters is performed. Also the appropriate frequency integral range used to calculate the integral wave parameters is tested to be sure to compare the simulation results and the measurements for the same frequency interval. The results obtained show a clear improvement of the mean wave period and the peak period for the study area, decreasing considerably the negative bias observed previously, while almost no change is observed in wave height due to the proposed modifications. These results can be generalized to the Spanish Mediterranean coast and may be applicable to study areas with similar characteristics as the ones presented here: semi-enclosed domains with fetch-limited conditions and young sea waves.