WorldWideScience

Sample records for swan cygnus columbianus

  1. Significance of the White Sea as a stopover for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; Andreev, VA; Clausen, P; Poot, MJM; Wessel, EGJ

    We searched for a major stopover site of Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in the White Sea following the suggestion that one should exist on the stretch between Estonia and the breeding grounds (1750 km). We discovered 733 Swans in Dvina Bay during a late aerial survey in spring 1993.

  2. Significance of the White Sea as stopover for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Andreev, V.A; Clausen, P.; Poot, M.; Wessel, E.G.J.

    2001-01-01

    We searched for a major stopover site of Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in the White Sea following the suggestion that one should exist on the stretch between Estonia and the breeding grounds (1750 km). We discovered 733 Swans in Dvina Bay during a late aerial survey in spring 1993.

  3. Significance of the White Sea as a Stopover for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolet, B. A.; Andreev, V. A.; Clausen, P.

    2001-01-01

    We searched for a major stopover site of Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in the White Sea following the suggestion that one should exist on the stretch between Estonia and the breeding grounds (1750 km). We discovered 733 Swans in Dvina Bay during a late aerial survey in spring 1993. S...... migration. However, in spring the birds probably need this stopover to be able to carry reserves to the breeding grounds. At present, the preservation of the submerged vegetation in Dvina Bay seems to be crucial to the conservation of this Bewick's Swan population....

  4. Behaviour of wintering Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jeffrey M.; Gress, Carol; Byers, Jacob W.; Jennings, Emily; Ely, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbinanus phenology and behaviour at the Eel River delta and southern Humboldt Bay in northern California, USA, is described. Counts made each January from 1963 onwards peaked at 1,502 swans in 1988. Monthly counts recorded during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 winters peaked in February, at 1,033 and 772 swans respectively. Swans roosted on ephemeral ponds at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, on ephemeral ponds within grassland pastures in the vicinity of the Refuge, and perhaps also used the Eel River as a roost. Flights between Refuge roosts and the pastures and ponds occurred in the two hours after sunrise and before dark. In winters 2008/09 and 2009/10, the percentage of cygnets in the flocks was 10.6% and 21.4% respectively, and increased to =31% cygnets each year after most swans had departed from the area in March. Average brood size in 2009/10 was 2.1 cygnets. Daily activities consisted of foraging (44.9% of activities recorded), comfort behaviour (22.1%), locomotion (16.2%) and vigilance (15.5%). Eight neck-collared swans identified in the wintering flock were marked at four locations in different parts of Alaska, up to 1,300 km apart.

  5. Hematology, plasma chemistry, and bacteriology of wild Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Juliana F; Wilson, Heather; Ziccardi, Michael; LeFebvre, Rance; Scott, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Blood and cloacal swabs were collected from 100 (66 female, 34 male) wild Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) molting in northwestern Alaska, USA, 25-28 July 2008, to establish hematologic and serum chemistry reference values and to isolate enteric Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Plasma biochemistry and hematology values did not vary significantly by sex or age. Tundra swans had high levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, and alkaline phosphatase compared with some other avian species (values were up to 7 times greater), possibly indicating capture myopathy. However, concentrations were much lower (up to 8 times lower) than in other waterfowl exposed to similar or more intensive capture methods. White blood cell count and hematocrit values were similar to other waterfowl species, and enteric Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 were not present among birds sampled. Our data provide the first biochemical, hematologic, and bacteriologic reference values for wild Tundra Swans.

  6. Delineation of Tundra Swan Cygnus c. columbianus populations in North America: geographic boundaries and interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Sladen, William J. L.; Wilson, Heather M.; Savage, Susan E.; Sowl, Kristine M.; Henry, Bill; Schwitters, Mike; Snowden, James

    2014-01-01

    North American Tundra Swans Cygnus c. columbianus are composed of two wellrecognised populations: an Eastern Population (EP) that breeds across northern Canada and north of the Brooks Range in Alaska, which migrates to the eastern seaboard of the United States, and a Western Population (WP) that breeds in coastal regions of Alaska south of the Brooks Range and migrates to western North America. We present results of a recent major ringing effort from across the breeding range in Alaska to provide a better definition of the geographic extent of the migratory divide in Alaska. We also reassess the staging and winter distributions of these populations based on locations of birds tracked using satellite transmitters, and recent recoveries and sightings of neck-collared birds. Summer sympatry of EP and WP Tundra Swans is very limited, and largely confined to a small area in northwest Alaska. Autumn migration pathways of EP and WP Tundra swans abut in southwest Saskatchewan, a region where migrating WP birds turn west, and EP birds deviate abruptly eastward. Overall, from 1989 to 2013 inclusive, 2.6% of recoveries or resightings reported to the USGS Bird Banding Laboratory were of birds that moved from the domain of the population in which they were initially captured to within the range of the other population; a proportion roughly comparable to the results of Limpert et al. (1991) for years before 1990. Of the 70 cross-boundary movements reported since 1989, 39% were of birds marked on breeding areas and 61% were of birds marked on wintering areas. Dispersing swans (i.e. those that made crossboundary movements) did not differ with respect to age or sex from those that did not move between populations. The Brooks Range in northern Alaska effectively separates the two populations within Alaska, but climate-induced changes in tundra breeding habitats and losses of wetlands on staging areas may alter the distribution for both of these populations.

  7. Migration of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) Wintering in Japan Using Satellite Tracking: Identification of the Eastern Palearctic Flyway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbo; Doko, Tomoko; Fujita, Go; Hijikata, Naoya; Tokita, Ken-Ichi; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Konishi, Kan; Hiraoka, Emiko; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Migration through the Eastern Palearctic (EP) flyway by tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) has not been thoroughly documented. We satellite-tracked the migration of 16 tundra swans that winter in Japan. The objectives of this study were 1) to show the migration pattern of the EP flyway of tundra swans; 2) to compare this pattern with the migration pattern of whooper swans; and 3) to identify stopover sites that are important for these swans' conservation. Tundra swans were captured at Kutcharo Lake, Hokkaido, in 2009-2012 and satellite-tracked. A new method called the "MATCHED (Migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) method" was developed. Based on median, the spring migration began on 18 April and ended on 27 May. Autumn migration began on 9 September and ended on 2 November. The median duration of the spring and autumn migrations were 48 and 50 days, respectively. The mean duration at one stopover site was 5.5 days and 6.8 days for the spring and autumn migrations, respectively. The number of stopover sites was 3.0 and 2.5 for the spring and autumn migrations, respectively. The mean travel distances for the spring and autumn migrations were 6471 and 6331 km, respectively. Seven migration routes passing Sakhalin, the Amur River, and/or Kamchatka were identified. There were 15, 32, and eight wintering, stopover, and breeding sites, respectively. The migration routes and staging areas of tundra swans partially overlap with those of whooper swans, whose migration patterns have been previously documented. The migration patterns of these two swan species that winter in Japan confirm the importance of the Amur River, Udyl' Lake, Shchastya Bay, Aniva Bay, zaliv Chayvo Lake, zal Piltun Lake, zaliv Baykal Lake, Kolyma River, Buyunda River, Sen-kyuyel' Lake, and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk.

  8. The exotic mute swan (Cygnus olor) in Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The exotic mute swan (Cygnus olor) has increased its population size in Chesapeake Bay (Maryland and Virginia) to approximately 4,500 since 1962 when five swans were released in the Bay. The Bay population of mute swans now represents 30% of the total Atlantic Flyway population (12,600) and has had a phenomenal increase of 1,200% from 1986 to 1999. Unlike the tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) that migrate to the Bay for the winter, the mute swan is a year-long resident, and, therefore, reports of conflicts with nesting native waterbirds and the consumption of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) have raised concerns among resource managers. Populations of black skimmers (Rynchops niger) and least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting on beaches and oyster shell bars have been eliminated by molting mute swans. Although data on the reduction of SAV by nesting mute swans and their offspring during the spring and summer are limited, food habits data show that mute swans rely heavily on SAV during these months. Widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) constituted 56% and eel grass (Zostera marina) constituted 43% of the gullet food of mute swans. Other SAV and invertebrates (including bryozoans, shrimp, and amphipods) formed a much smaller amount of the food percentage (1%). Invertebrates are believed to have been selected accidently within the vegetation eaten by the swans. Corn (Zea mays) fed to swans by Bay residents during the winter probably supplement limited vegetative food resources in late winter. A program to control swan numbers by the addling of eggs and the killing of adult swans has been a contentious issue with some residents of the Bay area. A management plan is being prepared by a diverse group of citizens appointed by the Governor to advise the Maryland Department of Natural Resources on viable and optimum options to manage mute swans in the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay. Hopefully, the implementation of the plan will alleviate the existing conflicts to the

  9. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of white phosphorus in mute swans, Cygnus olor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Day, D.; Klein, P.

    1999-01-01

    Among the waterfowl affected by white phosphorus (P4) at a military base in Alaska are tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter (C. buccinator) swans. To estimate the toxicity of P4 to swans and compare the toxic effects to those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we dosed 30 juvenile mute swans (C. olor) with 0 to 5.28 mg P4 /kg body weight. The estimated LD50 was 3.65 mg/kg (95% CI: 1.40 to 4.68 mg/kg). However, many of the swans still had P4 in their gizzards after dying, as determined by 'smoking gizzards', and a lower LD50 might be calculated if all of the P4 had passed into the small intestines. We attribute the retention of P4 in swans to the presence of coarse sandlike particles of grit which were of similar size as the P4 pellets. Most swans took 1 to 4.5 days to die in contrast to the few hours normally required in mallards and death appeared to related more to liver dysfunction than to hemolysis. White phosphorus affected several plasma constituents, most notably elevated aspartate amiontransferase, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and alanine aminotransferase.

  10. Trace element exposure of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) wintering in a marine lagoon (Swan Lake), northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Xu, Shaochun; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Pengmei; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2017-06-30

    Trace element poisoning remains a great threat to various waterfowl and waterbirds throughout the world. In this study, we determined the trace element exposure of herbivorous whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) wintering in Swan Lake (Rongcheng), an important swan protection area in northern China. A total of 70 samples including abiotic factors (seawater, sediments), food sources (seagrass, macroalgae), feathers and feces of whooper swans were collected from the marine lagoon during the winters of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, Hg and As were determined to investigate the trace element exposure of whooper swans wintering in the area. Results showed that there was an increasing trend in sediment trace element concentrations, compared with historical data. The trace element concentrations in swan feces most closely resembled those of Zostera marina leaves, especially for Cd and Cr. The Zn and Hg concentrations in the swan feces (49.57 and 0.01mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the minimum values reported in the literature for other waterfowls, waterbirds and terrestrial birds. However, the concentrations of the other five trace elements fell within the lower and mediate range of values reported for birds across the world. These results suggest that the whooper swans wintering in Swan Lake, Rongcheng are not suffering severe trace element exposure; however, with the increasing input of trace elements to the lagoon, severe adverse impacts may occur in the future, and we therefore suggest that the input of trace elements to this area should be curbed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Satellite tracking of the migration of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hijikata, N.; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Hupp, Jerry; Flint, Paul L.; Tokita, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Go; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Sato, F.; Kurechi, Masayuki; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We satellite-tracked Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in northern Japan to document their migration routes and timing, and to identify breeding areas. From 47 swans that we marked at Lake Izunuma-Uchinuma, Miyagi Prefecture, northeast Honshu, and at Lake Kussharo, east Hokkaido, we observed 57 spring and 33 autumn migrations from 2009-2012. In spring, swans migrated north along Sakhalin Island from eastern Hokkaido using stopovers in Sakhalin, at the mouth of the Amur River and in northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk. They ultimately reached molting/breedmg areas along the Indigirka River and the lower Kolyma River in northern Russia. In autumn, the swans basically reversed the spring migration routes. We identified northern Honshu, eastern Hokkaido, coastal areas in Sakhalin, the lower Amur River and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk as the most frequent stopover sites, and the middle reaches of the Indigirka and the lower Kolyma River as presumed breeding sites. Our results are helpful in understanding the distribution of the breeding and stopover sites of Whooper Swans wintering in Japan and in identifying their major migration habitats. Our findings contribute to understanding the potential transmission process of avian influenza viruses potentially carried by swans, and provide information necessary to conserve Whooper Swans in East Asia.

  12. Pathogenesis of venous hypertrophy associated with schistosomiasis in whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagami, Masataka; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Nishino, Hiroto; Seki, Satoko; Shimizu, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Yu

    2010-03-01

    Thirteen whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) affected with schistosomiasis were examined pathologically. Venous hypertrophy, characterized by marked nodular proliferation of medial smooth muscle fibers with frequent obliteration of the vascular lumen, was observed in eight of the 13 whooper swans. Venous hypertrophy was located in the medium-sized veins of the mesentery, the serosa, and the muscular layer of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum. In addition, vascular lesions were seen in the capsule and parenchymal interstitia of the liver, spleen, kidney, heart, aorta, air sac, and pleura. In mild lesions, segmental proliferation of medial smooth muscles was observed in the venous medium of the mesentery and serosa. Moderate lesions had a proliferation of smooth muscles in the veins with obliteration of venous lumens. In marked lesions, more severe proliferation of veins extended into the intestinal muscular layers and depressed them. Schistosome parasites were found in the venous lumens of each of the eight whooper swans with vascular lesions. Bile pigments and hemosiderin were observed in the livers of whooper swans. In addition, adult nematodes (Sarconema sp.) were localized in the myocardium of four of the eight whooper swans. The venous hypertrophy may be caused by the proliferation of medial smooth muscle fibers induced by schistosomiasis.

  13. First detection of Allobilharzia visceralis (Schistosomatidae, Trematoda) from Cygnus cygnus in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Ohari, Yuma; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Aita, Junya; Satoh, Hiroshi; Ehara, Shiori; Tokashiki, Minami; Shiroma, Tomoko; Azuta, Ayumi; Oka, Nozomi; Watanabe, Takuya; Harasawa, Ryo; Inohana, Satoshi; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2017-02-01

    Adult schistosomes were detected in the veins or capillaries of the large intestine, mesentery, liver, and adrenal glands in eight of 13 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) examined in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. However, neither eggs nor severe tissue injuries were observed in any of the swans. The schistosomes were definitively identified as Allobilharzia visceralis based on the nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Allobilharzia visceralis infections have been reported in whooper swan in Iceland and tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) in North America. These detections suggest that A. visceralis is distributed extensively along the swan flyways because the swans are migratory birds. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of A. visceralis infection in Asia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Bewick's Swans refuelling on pondweed tubers in the Dvina Bay (White Sea) during their spring migration: first come, first served

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Drent, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Current models of bird migration consider the optimal decision making of individuals irrespective of the behaviour of conspecifics. We observed the foraging behaviour of Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus during their stop-over in the Dvina Bay in the White Sea in spring 1995 and 1996. Here the swans

  15. Bewick's Swans refuelling on pondweed tubers in the Dvina Bay (White Sea) during their spring migration : first come, first served

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; Drent, RH

    1998-01-01

    Current models of bird migration consider the optimal decision making of individuals irrespective of the behaviour of conspecifics. We observed the foraging behaviour of Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus during their stop-over in the Dvina Bay in the White Sea in spring 1995 and 1996. Here the swans

  16. Food habits of mute swans in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike the tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) that migrate to the Bay for the winter, the mute swan (Cygnus olor) is a year long resident and therefore has raised concerns among research managers over reports of conflicts with nesting native water birds and the consumption of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Although data on the reduction of SAV by nesting mute swans and their offspring during the spring and summer are limited, food-habits data show that mute swans rely heavily on SAV during these months. Analyses of the gullet and gizzard of mute swans indicate that widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) and eelgrass (Zostera marina) were the most important food items to mute swans during the winter and spring. Other organisms were eaten by mute swans, but represent small percentages of food. Corn (Zea mays) fed to the swans by Bay residents in late winter probably supplements their limited vegetative food resources at that time of year.

  17. Fatal verminous pharyngitis and esophagitis caused by Streptocara incognita in mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alić, A; Prasović, S; Hodzić, A; Besirović, H; Residbegović, Emina; Omeragić, J

    2013-03-01

    Streptocara spp. infections are reported to cause gastritis, proventriculitis, esophagitis, and pharyngitis in various waterfowls, especially diving ducks. In the present paper, we describe severe fatal diphtheritic pharyngitis and esophagitis caused by Streptocara incognita in three female mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Prior to death, the swans were showing signs of lethargy, anorexia, and reluctance to move. At necropsy, in all swans severe diphtheritic pharyngitis and esophagitis with deep, dark red hemorrhagic ulcerations were observed. Numerous thin, white, up to 1-cm-long nematodes, identified as S. incognita, were observed embedded in the pharyngeal and esophageal mucosa under the diphtheritic membranes. Histopathology revealed severe fibrinonecrotic inflammation with numerous cross-sections of the parasites. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of severe, fatal streptocariasis in mute swans.

  18. Commensal foraging with Bewick’s Swans Cygnus bewickii doubles instantaneous intake rate of Common Pochards Aythya ferina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyimesi, A.; van Lith, B.; Nolet, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aquatically foraging Bewick’s Swans Cygnus bewickii have been repeatedly reported to be accompanied by diving ducks, but the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. Based on field observations, we found a strong correlation between the number of foraging swans and the number of foraging Common

  19. Cardiac filariosis in migratory Mute swans (Cygnus olor in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Manno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarconema eurycerca is a common parasitic disease of North America swans and geese. The infection has been correlated with severe heart lesions, often resulting in cardiac failure and death of the animals. Heartworms infections have been previously reported in European swans, and specifically in the United Kingdom and Nederland. Both the countries are characterized by a cold temperate weather, similar to the one that can be found in swan wintering areas of U.S.A. and Canada. The first record of cardiac filariasis associated with Sarconema eurycerca infection in four swans in Italy. Twelve mute swans were examined during avian influenza surveillance activities on migratory birds. Birds were collected in the year 2006, in wintering areas of Eastern Sicily (Italy. Four of the twelve swans showed necrotic-haemorrhagic myocarditis with intra-lesional nematodes. Morphological characteristics identified the parasite as a filarial nematode. Birds lungs samples were used for parasites DNA extraction. The latter was used as template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and sequencing of part of the 12S rDNA gene. Comparison of genomic DNA extracted from a reference S. eurycerca isolate confirmed parasite identity and provided the first sequence resources for this species of value to future diagnostic and epidemiological studies.

  20. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M; Beekman, JH; Kontiokorpi, J; Mulder, RJW; Nolet, BA

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewick's swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern

  1. The use of a flexible patch leaving rule under exploitative competition: a field test with swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Klaassen, R.H.G.; Mooij, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Learning animals are predicted to use a flexible patch-leaving threshold (PLT) while foraging in a depletable environment under exploitative competition. This prediction was tested in flock-feeding Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) depleting hidden tubers of fennel pondweed (Potamogeton

  2. Burial depth distribution of fennel pondweed tubers (Potamogeton pectinatus) in relation to foraging by Bewick's swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidding, B.; Nolet, B.A.; van Eerden, M.R.; Guillemain, M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Deep burial in the sediment of tubers of fennel pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) has been explained in terms of avoidance by escape against consumption by Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) in autumn. We therefore expected changes in foraging pressure to ultimately result in a change in

  3. Spatial variation in tuber depletion by swans explained by differences in net intake rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; Langevoord, O; Bevan, RM; Engelaar, KR; Klaassen, M; Mulder, RJW

    We tested whether the spatial variation in resource depletion by Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) foraging on belowground tubers of sage pondweed (Potnmogeton pectinatus) was caused by differences in net energy intake rates. The variation in giving up densities within the confines of one lake was

  4. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Beekman, J.H.; Kontiokorpi, J.; Mulder, R.J.W.; Nolet, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewicks swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern

  5. Impacts of mute swans (Cygnus olor) on submerged aquatic vegetation in Illinois River Valley backwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Michael W. Eichholz,; Adam C. Phillips,

    2012-01-01

    Wetland loss in North America has been considerable and well documented, and the establishment of exotic species in remaining wetlands can further reduce their ability to support native flora and fauna. In the Chesapeake Bay and Great Lakes ecosystems, exotic mute swans (Cygnus olor) have been found to negatively impact wetlands through degradation of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) communities. Mute swan populations have expanded into many areas of mid-continental North America outside the Great Lakes ecosystem, but the environmental impact of these populations is not well known. Mid-continental wetlands in North America differ in physical characteristics (e.g., size, depth, and permanency) and aquatic vegetation species composition compared to wetlands in other areas where mute swans have been studied and, thus, may be more or less susceptible to degradation from swan herbivory. To investigate the impact of mute swan herbivory on SAV communities in mid-continent wetlands, we used exclosures to prevent swans from foraging in 2 wetland complexes in central Illinois. Above-ground biomass of vegetation did not differ between exclosures and controls; however, mean below-ground biomass was greater in exclosures (52.0 g/m2, SE = 6.0) than in controls (34.4 g/m2 SE = 4.0). Thus, although swan densities were lower in our study region compared to that of previous studies, we observed potentially detrimental impacts of swan herbivory on below-ground biomass of SAV. Our results indicate that both above-ground and below-ground impacts of herbivory should be monitored, and below-ground biomass may be most sensitive to swan foraging.

  6. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for six weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, to estimate the sediment?s toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses were detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies, but these elements did not accumulate in the livers of the treated swans and probably were not readily available in the sediment. Although ingestion of the Anacostia River sediment caused subtle toxicological effects in swans, we concluded from pathological examinations and weight data that the treated swans remained basically healthy.

  7. Detection ratios on winter surveys of Rocky Mountain Trumpeter Swans Cygnus buccinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, J.; Mitchell, C.D.; Fisher, M.N.; Dubovsky, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We estimated the detection ratio for Rocky Mountain Trumpeter Swans Cygnus buccinator that were counted during aerial surveys made in winter. The standard survey involved counting white or grey birds on snow and ice and thus might be expected to have had low detection ratios. On the other hand, observers were permitted to circle areas where the birds were concentrated multiple times to obtain accurate counts. Actual numbers present were estimated by conducting additional intensive aerial counts either immediately before or immediately after the standard count. Surveyors continued the intensive surveys at each area until consecutive counts were identical. The surveys were made at 10 locations in 2006 and at 19 locations in 2007. A total of 2,452 swans were counted on the intensive surveys. Detection ratios did not vary detectably with year, observer, which survey was conducted first, age of the swans, or the number of swans present. The overall detection ratio was 0.93 (90% confidence interval 0.82-1.04), indicating that the counts were quite accurate. Results are used to depict changes in population size for Rocky Mountain Trumpeter Swans from 1974-2007. ?? Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

  8. Computed tomography of coxofemoral injury in five mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpenberger, Michaela; Scope, Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Five mute swans (Cygnus olor) were presented with inability to stand or with abnormal positioning of a leg. Clinical examinations indicated the possibility of femoral fractures or coxofemoral luxations. The suspected diagnosis was proven by means of computed tomography (CT), while superimposition of gastrointestinal contents or other artefacts limited radiographic diagnosis in three birds. A typical CT sign for lesions of the coxofemoral joint apart from femoral displacement was haemorrhage within the pelvic bones (especially around the acetabulum), found in four of the five birds. Small femoral head avulsion fractures could be detected only with CT.

  9. Genetic consequences of trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) reintroductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransler, F.A.; Quinn, T.W.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Relocation programs are often initiated to restore threatened species to previously occupied portions of their range. A primary challenge of restoration efforts is to translocate individuals in a way that prevents loss of genetic diversity and decreases differentiation relative to source populations-a challenge that becomes increasingly difficult when remnant populations of the species are already genetically depauperate. Trumpeter swans were previously extirpated in the entire eastern half of their range. Physical translocations of birds over the last 70 years have restored the species to portions of its historical range. Despite the long history of management, there has been little monitoring of the genetic outcomes of these restoration attempts. We assessed the consequences of this reintroduction program by comparing patterns of genetic variation at 17 microsatellite loci across four restoration flocks (three wild-released, one captive) and their source populations. We found that a wild-released population established from a single source displayed a trend toward reduced genetic diversity relative to and significant genetic differentiation from its source population, though small founder population effects may also explain this pattern. Wild-released flocks restored from multiple populations maintained source levels of genetic variation and lacked significant differentiation from at least one of their sources. Further, the flock originating from a single source revealed significantly lower levels of genetic variation than those established from multiple sources. The distribution of genetic variation in the captive flock was similar to its source. While the case of trumpeter swans provides evidence that restorations from multiple versus single source populations may better preserve natural levels of genetic diversity, more studies are needed to understand the general applicability of this management strategy. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside

  10. Migratory Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus Transmit H5N1 Virus between China and Mongolia: Combination Evidence from Satellite Tracking and Phylogenetics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhong; Meng, Weiyue; Liu, Dongping; Yang, Qiqi; Chen, Lixia; Dai, Qiang; Ma, Tian; Gao, Ruyi; Ru, Wendong; Li, Yunfeng; Yu, Pengbo; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Guogang; Tian, Huaiyu; Chai, Hongliang; Li, Yanbing

    2018-05-04

    In late 2014, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hereafter HPAI) H5N1 outbreak infected whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering at the Sanmenxia Reservoir area, China, and raised concerns about migratory linkages between wintering and breeding grounds of whooper swans. In this study, 61 swans were satellite tracked from 2013 to 2016 to determine the spatial association of their migration routes and H5N1 outbreaks, and 3596 fecal samples were collected along the migration routes for virology testing. Swans departed the wintering grounds and migrated along the Yellow River, and flew over the Yin Mountains in China. The Brownian bridge movement model showed there was a high degree of spatiotemporal overlap between the core use area along the spring migration pathway and historical H5N1 events in China and Mongolia from 2005 to 2015. The H5N1 strain was isolated and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the HA gene sequence generated is genetically similar to that of the epidemic strain at a previous wintering site (the Sanmenxia Reservoir area) along its flyway. Our results identified a previously unknown migratory link of whooper swans in central China with Mongolia and confirmed that the swans could carry the HPAI H5N1 virus during migration, resulting in long-distance transmission.

  11. Influenza A virus H5-specific antibodies in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Whitney M; Stallknecht, David E; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R; Mickley, Randy; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Yabsley, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The use of serologic assays for influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance in wild birds has increased because of the availability of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Recently, an H5-specific blocking ELISA (bELISA) was shown to reliably detect H5-specific antibodies to low- and high-pathogenic H5 viruses in experimentally infected waterfowl. Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) were frequently associated with highly pathogenic H5N1 outbreaks in Europe and may have a similar role if highly pathogenic H5N1 is introduced into North America. We measured the prevalence of antibodies to the nucleoprotein and H5 protein in Mute Swans using three serologic assays. We collected 340 serum samples from Mute Swans in Michigan, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode Island, US. We detected antibodies to the IAV nucleoprotein in 66.2% (225/340) of the samples. We detected H5-specific antibodies in 62.9% (214/340) and 18.8% (64/340) using a modified H5 bELISA protocol and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, respectively. The modified H5 bELISA protocol detected significantly more positive samples than did the manufacturer's protocol. We also tested 46 samples using virus neutralization. Neutralization results had high agreement with the modified H5 bELISA protocol and detected a higher prevalence than did the HI assay. These results indicate that North American Mute Swans have high nucleoprotein and H5 antibody prevalences.

  12. Effect of malnutrition on iron homeostasis in black-necked swans (Cygnus melanocoryphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, M Cecilia; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2009-12-01

    The Cayumapu River black-necked swan (Cygnus melanocoryphus) population in southern Chile suffered a syndrome of malnutrition and hyperferremia in 2005. The iron metabolic imbalance could not be explained on the basis of the quality of their diet. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between malnutrition and iron homeostasis in black-necked swans. It was proposed that catabolic processes could increase serum iron levels due to the release of endogenous iron from tissues. A free-living swan population undergoing natural nutritional imbalance due to molting was studied. In addition, swans captured were subjected to a diet restriction until they became emaciated. The results revealed that neither lipolytic activity nor emaciation affected serum iron concentrations. The increment of total iron binding capacity observed was in agreement with the reduction of endogenous iron stored, with the increase of erythropoeitic demand, or with both. Future studies are needed to determine the effect of incremental erythropoietic activity on iron homeostasis in anemic, malnourished birds.

  13. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-03-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for 6 weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, USA, to estimate the sediment's toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets, but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses was detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg, and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies. However, the lack of accumulation in the livers of the treated swans suggested that these elements were not readily available from the ingested sediment. The authors did not study all potential toxic effects, but, on the basis of those that they did consider, they concluded that the treated swans were basically healthy after a chronic exposure to the sediment.

  14. Zinc toxicosis in a free-flying trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Andrews, G.A.; Beyer, W.N.

    2004-01-01

    A trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) was observed near it mill pond in Picher, Oklahoma. USA. It became weakened and emaciated after about 1 mo, was captured with little resistance, and taken into captivity for medical care. Serum chemistry results were consistent with hepatic, renal, and muscular damage. Serum zinc concentration was elevated at 11.2 parts per million (ppm). The swan was treated for suspected heavy-metal poisoning, but died overnight. Gross postmortem findings were emaciation and pectoral muscle atrophy. Histopathologic lesions in the pancreas included mild diffuse disruption of acinar architecture, severe diffuse depletion or absence of zymogen granules, occasional apoptotic bodies ics in acinar epithelial cells, and mild interstitial and capsular fibrosis. Zinc concentration in pancreas was 3,200 ppm wet weight, and was similar to that reported in the pancreases of waterfowl known to be killed by zinc toxicity. Zinc concentrations in liver (154 ppm) and kidneys (145 ppm) also were elevated. Acute tubular necrosis of the collecting tubules of the kidneys was also possibly due to zinc toxicity. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of zinc poisoning in a trumpeter swan associated with mining wastes..

  15. Antigenic, genetic, and pathogenic characterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from dead whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) found in northern Japan in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Takashi; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Isoda, Norikazu; Kokumai, Norihide; Takada, Ayato; Umemura, Takashi; Kida, Hiroshi

    2010-12-01

    In April and May 2008, whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) were found dead in Hokkaido in Japan. In this study, an adult whooper swan found dead beside Lake Saroma was pathologically examined and the identified H5N1 influenza virus isolates were genetically and antigenically analyzed. Pathological findings indicate that the swan died of severe congestive edema in the lungs. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes of the isolates revealed that they are the progeny viruses of isolates from poultry and wild birds in China, Russia, Korea, and Hong Kong. Antigenic analyses indicated that the viruses are distinguished from the H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds and poultry before 2007. The chickens vaccinated with A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) survived for 14 days after challenge with A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008 (H5N1), although a small amount of the challenge virus was recovered from the tissues of the birds. These findings indicate that H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are circulating in wild birds in addition to domestic poultry in Asia and exhibit antigenic variation that may be due to vaccination.

  16. Speed of spring migration of Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus in accordance with income or capital breeding strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Large migratory birds may bring along stores in order to survive adverse conditions and produce a clutch upon arrival (‘capital breeders’) or they may acquire all the necessary resources on the breeding grounds (‘income breeders’). Whether birds are capital- or income-breeders may depend on the

  17. Tundra swan habitat preferences during migration in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnst, Susan L.

    1994-01-01

    I studied tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) habitat preference in North Dakota during autumn migration, 1988-89. Many thousand tundra swans stop in the Prairie Pothole region during autumn migration, but swan resource use has not been quantified. I examined habitat preference in relation to an index of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) presence, extent of open water, and wetland size. I compared habitat preference derived from counts of all swans to those derived from foraging swans only and cygnets only. Foraging swans preferred wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.03); the number of foraging swans per wetland was >4 times higher on wetlands with sago pondweed than on wetlands without sago. In contrast, nonforaging swans did not prefer wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.85) but preferred large wetlands (P = 0.02) and those with a high proportion of contiguous open water (P feeding than adults (P = 0.03) and occurred proportionately more often in smaller flocks (P = 0.04), but cygnets and adults had similar habitat preferences.

  18. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Central Bosnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletić, Teufik; Gagić, Abdulah; Residbegović, Emina; Kustura, Aida; Kavazović, Aida; Savić, Vladimir; Harder, Timm; Starick, Elke; Prasović, Senad

    2010-03-01

    In order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds in Bosnia and Herzegovina, extensive surveillance was carried out between October 2005 and April 2006. A total of 394 samples representing 41 bird species were examined for the presence of influenza A virus using virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs, PCR, and nucleotide sequencing. AIV subtype H5N1 was detected in two mute swans (Cygnus olor). The isolates were determined to be highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and the hemagglutinin sequence was closely similar to A/Cygnus olor/Astrakhan/ Ast05-2-10/2005 (H5N1). This is the first report of HPAI subtype H5N1 in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  19. Lead poisoning in whooper and tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Tetsuya; Tomura, Yoshihiro; Jin, Kazuo; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Mutsuki; Kikkawa, Aya; Miyagi, Kunitaro; Uchida, Eiji; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Mukai, Takeshi; Shirasawa, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Mamoru

    2005-01-01

    Six weak whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) and two weak tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were found at Swamp Miyajima (Hokkaido, Japan) in May 1998. Anorexia, depression, green watery feces, pale conjunctiva, and anemia were observed. Radiographs showed from six to 38 suspected lead pellets in the gizzard. Blood lead concentrations were 2.5-6.7 microg/g (mean+/-SD=4.6+/-1.14 microg/g) on day 1. After blood collection, the birds were treated with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA) given intravenously and force fed. Despite treatment, seven birds died the next day. Green, bile-stained livers and pale or green kidneys were observed on necropsy. Microscopically, bile pigment was widespread in the liver and acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in renal tubular epithelium. Lead concentrations in livers and kidneys were 14.0-30.4 microg/g and 30.2-122 microg/g wet weight, respectively. Only one bird survived and this whooper swan continued to be treated with CaEDTA and activated charcoal. No lead shot was observed in the proventriculus and gizzard by radiography on day 64 and the blood lead concentration decreased from 2.9 microg/g to 0.09 microg/g during that same period. After 4 mo of rehabilitation, the whooper swan was returned to the wild. Lead intoxication continues to be a problem at Swamp Miyajima.

  20. Copper storage in the liver of the wild mute swan (Cygnus olor). Its possible relation to pollution of harbor waters by antifouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, J J

    1983-12-01

    Postmortem examination of three wild mute swans (Cygnus olor) from a harbor area disclosed an unusual black discoloration of the liver. Chemical, histochemical, and microscopic studies, along with electron-probe microanalysis, showed that cytoplasmic pigment granules in the liver cells contained a copper-protein complex. Similar findings have been reported in Danish and English studies on large numbers of wild mute swans. Two control mute swans from The Bronx Zoo had negligible amounts of hepatic copper. The striking difference between the wild and the captive swans in hepatic copper content suggests that the copper in the wild swans was of environmental origin, most likely from copper-rich antifouling paint used extensively in the marine industry. Flakes of this paint may be ingested by swans searching for food in the sediment of harbor waters.

  1. Antibody Prevalence of Select Arboviruses in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes Region and Atlantic Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R.; Arsnoe, Dustin M.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C.; Mickley, Randall M.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Mute swans (Cygnus olor) are an invasive species in the United States. The dramatic increase in their populations in localized areas has led to various problems, among them competition with native species and attacks on humans by aggressive swans. However, very little is known about the ability of these swans to transmit pathogens to humans, domestic birds, or wildlife or participate in enzootic maintenance. To learn more about select pathogens that mute swans may harbor, a survey was conducted from April of 2011 to August of 2012 in the Great Lakes region and localized areas of the Atlantic coast, which revealed serologic evidence of arbovirus exposure in mute swans. Of 497 mute swans tested, antibodies were detected for eastern equine encephalitis (4.8%), St. Louis encephalitis (1.4%), West Nile (1.2%), and Turlock (0.6%) viruses. Samples were also tested for evidence of antibodies to La Crosse virus, but none were positive. PMID:25266351

  2. Size and mass of grit in gizzards of sandhill cranes, tundra swans, and mute swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hansen, Scott P.; Duerr, Adam E.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Because it has been suggested that waterbirds may ingest lost or discarded lead fishing weights as grit, we examined grit in the gizzards of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis), Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus), and Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), three species where individuals have been poisoned by the ingestion of lead fishing weights. The greatest proportion (by mass) of grit in gizzards of Sandhill Cranes consisted of particles with a minimum dimension of 2.36-4.75 mm. Grit particles in swans were much smaller, with the most prevalent (by mass) being 0.6-1.18 mm. The greatest dimension of the largest grit particle found in cranes and swans was 17.4 mm and 14.0 mm, respectively. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a ban on lead fishing weights of ≤25.4 mm in any dimension. Based on the size of grit particles that we found in gizzards of Sandhill Cranes, Mute Swans, and Tundra Swans, we believe it is unlikely that individuals of those species would ingest, as grit, lead fishing weights larger than 25.4 mm in any dimension.

  3. Testing whether macroevolution follows microevolution: are colour differences among swans (Cygnus) attributable to variation at the MCIR locus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Marie A; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2008-09-12

    The MC1R (melanocortin-1 receptor) locus underlies intraspecific variation in melanin-based dark plumage coloration in several unrelated birds with plumage polymorphisms. There is far less evidence for functional variants of MC1R being involved in interspecific variation, in which spurious genotype-phenotype associations arising through population history are a far greater problem than in intraspecific studies. We investigated the relationship between MC1R variation and plumage coloration in swans (Cygnus), which show extreme variation in melanic plumage phenotypes among species (white to black). The two species with melanic plumage, C. atratus and C. melanocoryphus (black and black-necked swans respectively), both have amino acid changes at important functional sites in MC1R that are consistent with increased MC1R activity and melanism. Reconstruction of MC1R evolution over a newly generated independent molecular phylogeny of Cygnus and related genera shows that these putative melanizing mutations were independently derived in the two melanic lineages. However, interpretation is complicated by the fact that one of the outgroup genera, Coscoroba, also has a putative melanizing mutation at MC1R that has arisen independently but has nearly pure white plumage. Epistasis at other loci seems the most likely explanation for this discrepancy. Unexpectedly, the phylogeny shows that the genus Cygnus may not be monophyletic, with C. melanocoryphus placed as a sister group to true geese (Anser), but further data will be needed to confirm this. Our study highlights the difficulty of extrapolating from intraspecific studies to understand the genetic basis of interspecific adaptive phenotypic evolution, even with a gene whose structure-function relationships are as well understood as MC1R as confounding variation make clear genotype/phenotype associations difficult at the macroevolutionary scale. However, the identification of substitutions in the black and black-necked swan

  4. Testing whether macroevolution follows microevolution: Are colour differences among swans (Cygnus attributable to variation at the MC1R locus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MC1R (melanocortin-1 receptor locus underlies intraspecific variation in melanin-based dark plumage coloration in several unrelated birds with plumage polymorphisms. There is far less evidence for functional variants of MC1R being involved in interspecific variation, in which spurious genotype-phenotype associations arising through population history are a far greater problem than in intraspecific studies. We investigated the relationship between MC1R variation and plumage coloration in swans (Cygnus, which show extreme variation in melanic plumage phenotypes among species (white to black. Results The two species with melanic plumage, C. atratus and C. melanocoryphus (black and black-necked swans respectively, both have amino acid changes at important functional sites in MC1R that are consistent with increased MC1R activity and melanism. Reconstruction of MC1R evolution over a newly generated independent molecular phylogeny of Cygnus and related genera shows that these putative melanizing mutations were independently derived in the two melanic lineages. However, interpretation is complicated by the fact that one of the outgroup genera, Coscoroba, also has a putative melanizing mutation at MC1R that has arisen independently but has nearly pure white plumage. Epistasis at other loci seems the most likely explanation for this discrepancy. Unexpectedly, the phylogeny shows that the genus Cygnus may not be monophyletic, with C. melanocoryphus placed as a sister group to true geese (Anser, but further data will be needed to confirm this. Conclusion Our study highlights the difficulty of extrapolating from intraspecific studies to understand the genetic basis of interspecific adaptive phenotypic evolution, even with a gene whose structure-function relationships are as well understood as MC1R as confounding variation make clear genotype/phenotype associations difficult at the macroevolutionary scale. However, the identification

  5. Pathology of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) infected with H5N1 avian influenza virus in Akita, Japan, in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shuji; Yamamoto, Yu; Yamada, Manabu; Mase, Masaji; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

    2009-10-01

    Two (1 adult and 1 young bird) of 4 H5N1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza (HPAI)-virus-infected whooper swans in Akita, Japan, in 2008 were investigated pathologically. Macroscopically, white spots with hemorrhages were scattered in the pancreas in the adult bird. Histologically, the adult bird had severe necrotizing pancreatitis and mild nonpurulent encephalitis. The young bird had severe nonpurulent encephalitis and nonpurulent enteric ganglionitis, and intestinal venous wall thickening. Virus antigens were detected in the lesions of pancreatitis in the adult bird and of encephalitis in adult and young birds. These findings suggest that the swans died or became moribund due to neurological disorders and necrotizing pancreatitis caused by H5N1 HPAI virus infection.

  6. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newth, J.L.; Rees, E.C.; Cromie, R.L.; McDonald, R.A.; Bearhop, S.; Pain, D.J.; Norton, G.J.; Deacon, C.; Hilton, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL"−"1) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. - Highlights: • Elevated blood lead levels of >20 μg dL"−"1 were found in 41.7% of whooper swans. • Blood lead levels of ≥44 μg dL"−"1 were negatively associated with body condition. • Clinical effects were at lower levels than previously described for Anseriformes. • Reduction of lead shot in the environment would reduce the risk of lead exposure. - Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with the body condition of free-living whooper swans in winter when levels were ≥44 μg dL"−"1 (27/260 = 10% of birds were above this threshold).

  7. Body size mediated coexistence in swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Katharina A M; Ritchie, Mark E; Powell, James A

    2014-01-01

    Differences in body sizes may create a trade-off between foraging efficiency (foraging gains/costs) and access to resources. Such a trade-off provides a potential mechanism for ecologically similar species to coexist on one resource. We explored this hypothesis for tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator), a federally protected species, feeding solely on sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) tubers during fall staging and wintering in northern Utah. Foraging efficiency was higher for tundra swans because this species experienced lower foraging and metabolic costs relative to foraging gains; however, trumpeter swans (a) had longer necks and therefore had access to exclusive resources buried deep in wetland sediments and (b) were more aggressive and could therefore displace tundra swans from lucrative foraging locations. We conclude that body size differentiation is an important feature of coexistence among ecologically similar species feeding on one resource. In situations where resources are limiting and competition for resources is strong, conservation managers will need to consider the trade-off between foraging efficiency and access to resources to ensure ecologically similar species can coexist on a shared resource.

  8. Body Size Mediated Coexistence in Swans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina A. M. Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in body sizes may create a trade-off between foraging efficiency (foraging gains/costs and access to resources. Such a trade-off provides a potential mechanism for ecologically similar species to coexist on one resource. We explored this hypothesis for tundra (Cygnus columbianus and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator, a federally protected species, feeding solely on sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata tubers during fall staging and wintering in northern Utah. Foraging efficiency was higher for tundra swans because this species experienced lower foraging and metabolic costs relative to foraging gains; however, trumpeter swans (a had longer necks and therefore had access to exclusive resources buried deep in wetland sediments and (b were more aggressive and could therefore displace tundra swans from lucrative foraging locations. We conclude that body size differentiation is an important feature of coexistence among ecologically similar species feeding on one resource. In situations where resources are limiting and competition for resources is strong, conservation managers will need to consider the trade-off between foraging efficiency and access to resources to ensure ecologically similar species can coexist on a shared resource.

  9. Widespread exposure to lead affects the body condition of free-living whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newth, J L; Rees, E C; Cromie, R L; McDonald, R A; Bearhop, S; Pain, D J; Norton, G J; Deacon, C; Hilton, G M

    2016-02-01

    Lead poisoning, through the ingestion of spent lead gunshot, is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in waterbirds globally, but the thresholds at which blood levels begin to affect the physiology of birds in the wild are less well known. Here we determine the prevalence of lead exposure in whooper swans and, for the first time, identify the level of blood lead associated with initial reductions in body condition. Blood lead elevated above background levels (i.e. >20 μg dL(-1)) was found in 41.7% (125/300) of swans tested. Blood lead was significantly negatively associated with winter body condition when levels were ≥44 μg dL(-1) (27/260 = 10%). Our findings indicating that sub-lethal impacts of lead on body condition occur at the lower end of previously established clinical thresholds and that a relatively high proportion of individuals in this population may be affected, reaffirm the importance of reducing contamination of the environment with lead shot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood biochemistry reveals malnutrition in black-necked swans (Cygnus melanocoryphus) living in a conservation priority area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artacho, Paulina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Verdugo, Claudio; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2007-02-01

    The application of clinical biochemical techniques to determine the products of intermediary metabolism has proved to be a reliable approach for the study of the physiological state of animals in nature. More specifically, the determination of plasma metabolites, such as glucose, total proteins (PRO), albumin (ALB), globulins (GL), urea, uric acid, triglycerides (TG) and beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BHB), and plasma enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in wild animals is a valuable possibility for a non-destructive assessment of health in endangered populations. Since August 2004 to January 2005, we conducted a temporal study in a conservation priority site, the "Carlos Anwandter Nature Sanctuary" to determine blood biochemistry of a wild population of black-necked swans (Cygnus melanocoryphus). This population was experiencing a drastic reduction, according to the actual knowledge about yearly fluctuations in numbers and breeding pairs. In six months, we periodically sampled about 12 swans (a total of 122 individuals), which exhibited a reduction near 30% in body mass (body mass corrected by total length). Our results showed reductions in most plasma biochemical parameters (glucose, PRO, ALB, uric acid, TG) and increase in BHB, which taken together indicated signs of chronic malnutrition. Also, the increase in AST and CK that we found, together with additional evidences of sub-lethal hepatic damage (in dead individuals), and iron pollution in aquatic plants and water confirmed that water pollution was the ultimate cause of this population reduction.

  11. Pathology and diagnosis of avian bornavirus infection in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) and mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Canada: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Ojkic, Davor; Delay, Josepha; Campbell, Doug; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2013-04-01

    Nine hundred and fifty-five pathology cases collected in Ontario between 1992 and 2011 from wild free-ranging Canada geese, trumpeter swans and mute swans were retrospectively evaluated for the pathology associated with avian bornavirus (ABV) infection. Cases were selected based on the presence of upper gastrointestinal impaction, central nervous system histopathology or clinical history suggestive of ABV infection. The proportion of birds meeting at least one of these criteria was significantly higher at the Toronto Zoo (30/132) than elsewhere in Ontario (21/823). Central, peripheral and autonomic nervous tissues were examined for the presence of lymphocytes and plasma cells on histopathology. The presence of virus was assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on frozen brains and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Among selected cases, 86.3% (44/51) were considered positive on histopathology, 56.8% (29/51) were positive by immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR was positive on 88.2% (15/17) of the frozen brains and 78.4% (40/51) of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Histopathological lesions included gliosis and lymphoplasmacytic perivascular cuffing in brain (97.7%), spinal cord (50%), peripheral nerves (55.5%) and myenteric ganglia or nerves (62.8%), resembling lesions described in parrots affected with proventricular dilatation disease. Partial amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid gene from seven geese were 100% identical amongst themselves and 98.1 to 100% identical to the waterfowl sequences recently described in the USA. Although ABV has been identified in apparently healthy geese, our study confirmed that ABV can also be associated with significant disease in wild waterfowl species.

  12. Total intravenous anaesthesia by boluses or by continuous rate infusion of propofol in mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kerstin; Holzapfel, Judith; Brunnberg, Leo

    2011-07-01

    To investigate intravenous (IV) propofol given by intermittent boluses or by continuous rate infusion (CRI) for anaesthesia in swans. Prospective randomized clinical study. Twenty mute swans (Cygnus olor) (eight immature and 12 adults) of unknown sex undergoing painless diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Induction of anaesthesia was with 8 mg kg(-1) propofol IV. To maintain anaesthesia, ten birds (group BOLI) received propofol as boluses, whilst 10 (group CRI) received propofol as a CRI. Some physiological parameters were measured. Anaesthetic duration was 35 minutes. Groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results are median (range). Anaesthetic induction was smooth and tracheal intubation was achieved easily in all birds. Bolus dose in group BOLI was 2.9 (1.3-4.3) mg kg(-1); interval between and number of boluses required were 4 (1-8) minutes and 6 (4-11) boluses respectively. Total dose of propofol was 19 (12.3-37.1) mg kg(-1). Awakening between boluses was very abrupt. In group CRI, propofol infusion rate was 0.85 (0.8-0.9) mg kg(-1) minute(-1), and anaesthesia was stable. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturation (by pulse oximeter) and reflexes did not differ between groups. Oxygen saturations (from pulse oximeter readings) were low in some birds. Following anaesthesia, all birds recovered within 40 minutes. In 55% of all, transient signs of central nervous system excitement occurred during recovery. 8 mg kg(-1) propofol appears an adequate induction dose for mute swans. For maintenance, a CRI of 0.85 mg kg(-1) minute(-1) produced stable anaesthesia suitable for painless clinical procedures. In contrast bolus administration, was unsatisfactory as birds awoke very suddenly, and the short intervals between bolus requirements hampered clinical procedures. Administration of additional oxygen throughout anaesthesia might reduce the incidence of low arterial haemoglobin saturation. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and

  13. Pathology of natural infections by H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mute (Cygnus olor) and whooper (Cygnus cygnus) swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teifke, J P; Klopfleisch, R; Globig, A; Starick, E; Hoffmann, B; Wolf, P U; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C; Harder, T C

    2007-03-01

    Mortality in wild aquatic birds due to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) is a rare event. During the recent outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Germany, mortality due to H5N1 HPAIV was observed among mute and whooper swans as part of a rapid spread of this virus. In contrast to earlier reports, swans appeared to be highly susceptible and represented the mainly affected species. We report gross and histopathology and distribution of influenza virus antigen in mute and whooper swans that died after natural infection with H5N1 HPAIV. At necropsy, the most reliable lesions were multifocal hemorrhagic necrosis in the pancreas, pulmonary congestion and edema, and subepicardial hemorrhages. Major histologic lesions were acute pancreatic necrosis, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis, and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis with neuronal necrosis. Adrenals displayed consistently scattered cortical and medullary necrosis. In spleen and Peyer's patches, mild lymphocyte necrosis was present. Immunohistochemical demonstration of HPAIV nucleoprotein in pancreas, adrenals, liver, and brain was strongly consistent with histologic lesions. In the brain, a large number of neurons and glial cells, especially Purkinje cells, showed immunostaining. Occasionally, ependymal cells of the spinal cord were also positive. In the lungs, influenza virus antigen was identified in a few endothelial cells but not within pneumocytes. The infection of the central nervous system supports the view that the neurotropism of H5N1 HPAIV leads to nervous disturbances with loss of orientation. More investigations are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of the final circulatory failure, lung edema, and rapid death of the swans.

  14. Hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and biochemical values for mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, B; Włodarczyk, R; Zbikowski, A; Dolka, I; Szeleszczuk, P; Kluciński, W

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the correct morphological and biochemical parameters in mute swans is an important indicator of their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and serum biochemistry values in wild-living mute swans. We found the significant differences in the erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in relation to age of mute swans. There were no differences in hematological values between males and females. The leukogram and H/L ratio did not vary by age and sex in swans. Among of biochemical parameters the slightly increased AST, ALP, CK, K, urea, decreased CHOL and TG values were recorded. As far as we know, this is the first study in which the morphometric parameters of blood cells in mute swans were presented. We found extremely low concentration of lead in blood (at subthreshold level). No blood parasites were found in blood smears. The analysis of body mass and biometric parameters revealed a significant differences dependent on age and sex. No differences in the scaled mass index were found. Our results represent a normal hematologic and blood chemistry values and age-sex related changes, as reference values for the mute swan.

  15. The response of mute swans (Cygnus olor, Gm. 1789) to vaccination against avian influenza with an inactivated H5N2 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, Beata; Żbikowski, Artur; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2016-10-22

    Recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in European countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the H5N1 virus. The HPAI outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. After preventive vaccination had been approved in the European Union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild birds or exotic birds in zoos against HPAI. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response of wild mute swans to immunization with an inactivated AI H5N2 vaccine approved for use in poultry. The serological responses of mute swans were assessed by comparison with racing pigeons (Columba livia), a species which is characterized by different susceptibility to infection with the H5N1 HPAI virus and plays a questionable role in the ecology of influenza (H5N1) viruses. Swans were vaccinated once or twice at an interval of 4 weeks. The humoral immune response was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and NP-ELISA. The lymphocyte blast transformation test was used to determine the cell-mediated immune response. Higher values of the geometric mean titer (GMT) and 100 % seroconversion (HI ≥32) were noted in double vaccinated swans (1448.2) than in single vaccinated swans (128.0) or in double vaccinated pigeons (215.3). Significant differences in HI titers were observed between swans and pigeons, but no variations in ELISA scores were noted after the booster dose. Immunization of swans had no effect on the proliferative activity of lymphocytes. The inactivated H5N2 vaccine was safe and immunogenic for mute swans and pigeons. Vaccination may have practical implications for swans kept in zoos, wildlife parks or rehabilitation centers. However, challenge studies are needed to prove the efficacy of the H5N2 AI vaccine.

  16. Short report: Antibody prevalence of select arboviruses in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes region and Atlantic coast of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R; Arsnoe, Dustin M; Bevins, Sarah N; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C; Mickley, Randall M; DeLiberto, Thomas J

    2014-12-01

    Mute swans (Cygnus olor) are an invasive species in the United States. The dramatic increase in their populations in localized areas has led to various problems, among them competition with native species and attacks on humans by aggressive swans. However, very little is known about the ability of these swans to transmit pathogens to humans, domestic birds, or wildlife or participate in enzootic maintenance. To learn more about select pathogens that mute swans may harbor, a survey was conducted from April of 2011 to August of 2012 in the Great Lakes region and localized areas of the Atlantic coast, which revealed serologic evidence of arbovirus exposure in mute swans. Of 497 mute swans tested, antibodies were detected for eastern equine encephalitis (4.8%), St. Louis encephalitis (1.4%), West Nile (1.2%), and Turlock (0.6%) viruses. Samples were also tested for evidence of antibodies to La Crosse virus, but none were positive. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Health and nutritional status of a perturbed black-necked swan (Cygnus melanocoryphus) population: diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, M Cecilia; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2009-12-01

    The Cayumapu River's black-necked swan population in southern Chile lost its main dietary item, Egeria densa, during an environmental crisis which occurred in 2004 in the Carlos Andwanter Nature Sanctuary. The main goal of this study was to test the effect of diet on the physiologic response to this new ecologic challenge. The results revealed that the new diet of this population was composed primarily of roots and sedimentary microalgae, with chemical and energetic content similar to the diet of the control population. Nevertheless, the mean body mass of the Cayumapu River swans was 25% lower than that of control birds. In addition, the biochemical and hematologic profiles of the study population were indicative of malnutrition and a hyperferremic, hyperphosphatemic, and lymphopenic condition. Liver enzyme activities did not support that the malnutrition was a secondary consequence of liver dysfunction, as is expected under hemochromatosis or environmental toxics exposure.

  18. Pathobiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálmai, Nimród; Erdélyi, Károly; Bálint, Adám; Márton, Lázár; Dán, Adám; Deim, Zoltán; Ursu, Krisztina; Löndt, Brandon Z; Brown, Ian H; Glávits, Róbert

    2007-06-01

    The results of pathological, virological and polymerase chain reaction examinations carried out on 35 mute swans (Cygnus olor) that succumbed to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection during an outbreak in Southern Hungary are reported. The most frequently observed macroscopic lesions included: haemorrhages under the epicardium, in the proventricular and duodenal mucosa and pancreas; focal necrosis in the pancreas; myocardial degeneration; acute mucous enteritis; congestion of the spleen and lung, and the accumulation of sero-mucinous exudate in the body cavity. Histopathological lesions comprised: lymphocytic meningo-encephalomyelitis accompanied by gliosis and occasional perivascular haemorrhages; multi-focal myocardial necrosis with lympho-histiocytic infiltration; pancreatitis with focal necrosis; acute desquamative mucous enteritis; lung congestion and oedema; oedema of the tracheal mucosa and, in young birds, the atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius as a result of lymphocyte depletion and apoptosis. The observed lesions and the moderate to good body conditions were compatible with findings in acute highly pathogenic avian influenza infections of other bird species reported in the literature. Skin lesions and lesions typical for infections caused by strains of lower pathogenicity (low pathogenic avian influenza virus) such as emaciation or fibrinous changes in the reproductive and respiratory organs, sinuses and airsacs were not observed. The H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus was isolated in embryonated fowl eggs from all cases and it was identified by classical and molecular virological methods.

  19. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and dose assessment of Cefquinome against Escherichia coli in black swans (Cygnus atratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong-Hao; Wang, Xu-Feng; Wang, Qiang; Li, Liu-Dong

    2017-07-28

    The objective of this study is to investigate pharmacokinetics and dose regimens of cefquinome in black swans following intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration at a single dose of 2 mg/kg. The MICs of cefquinome against 49 Escherichia coli isolates from black swans were determined. Monte Carlo simulation was applied to conduct the dose regimen assessment and optimization of cefquinome against E. coli in black swans, and a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) cutoff was established for E. coli isolates obtained in this study. The PK parameters of T 1/2α (0.31 h), T 1/2β (1.69 h) and Cl B (0.13 L/kg·h) indicated a rapid distribution and elimination of cefquinome in black swans after IV administration. After IM injection, the corresponding PK parameters of T 1/2Ka , T 1/2Ke , T max , C max , and F were 0.12 h, 1.62 h, 0.39 h, 5.71 μg/mL and 74.2%, respectively. The MICs of cefquinome against black swans E. coli ranged from 0.03 to 8 μg/mL, with MIC 50 and MIC 90 of 0.06 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively. The PK/PD cutoff of cefquinome against E. coli was determined to be 0.2 μg/mL. Monte Carlo simulation showed that the nominal dose regimen (2 mg/kg/24 h) could not achieve a satisfactory probability of target attainment (PTA) for %T MIC  ≥ 50%, indicating a risk of treatment failure and the development of potential drug resistance. The current daily dosage of cefquinome when divided into 12-h interval (1 mg/kg/12 h) may be effective for the treatment of E. coli infections with an MIC ≤0.5 μg/mL.

  20. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  1. Population estimates and geographical distributions of swans and geese in East Asia based on counts during the non-breeding season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Qiang; Koyama, Kazuo; Choi, Chang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we estimated the population sizes of two swan species and four goose species from observations during the non-breeding period in East Asia. Based on combined counts from South Korea, Japan and China, we estimated the total abundance of these species as follows: 42,000–47,000 W......For the first time, we estimated the population sizes of two swan species and four goose species from observations during the non-breeding period in East Asia. Based on combined counts from South Korea, Japan and China, we estimated the total abundance of these species as follows: 42......,000–47,000 Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus ; 99,000–141,000 Tundra Swans C. columbianus bewickii ; 56,000–98,000 Swan Geese Anser cygnoides ; 157,000–194,000 Bean Geese A. fabalis ; 231,000–283,000 Greater White-fronted Geese A. albifrons ; and 14,000–19,000 Lesser White-fronted Geese A. erythropus. While the count data...... from Korea and Japan provide a good reflection of numbers present, there remain gaps in the coverage in China, which particularly affect the precision of the estimates for Bean, Greater and Lesser White-fronted Geese as well as Tundra Swans. Lack of subspecies distinction of Bean Geese in China until...

  2. Hampered foraging and migratory performance in swans infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza A virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A van Gils

    Full Text Available It is increasingly acknowledged that migratory birds, notably waterfowl, play a critical role in the maintenance and spread of influenza A viruses. In order to elucidate the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in their natural hosts, a better understanding of the pathological effects in these hosts is required. Here we report on the feeding and migratory performance of wild migratory Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii Yarrell naturally infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI A viruses of subtypes H6N2 and H6N8. Using information on geolocation data collected from Global Positioning Systems fitted to neck-collars, we show that infected swans experienced delayed migration, leaving their wintering site more than a month after uninfected animals. This was correlated with infected birds travelling shorter distances and fuelling and feeding at reduced rates. The data suggest that LPAI virus infections in wild migratory birds may have higher clinical and ecological impacts than previously recognised.

  3. The involvement of prolactin in avian molt: the effects of gender and breeding success on the timing of molt in Mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A; Perrins, C M; Sharp, P J; Wheeler, D; Groves, S

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that decreasing plasma prolactin stimulates or permits the initiation of avian molt. Changes in the concentration of plasma prolactin in Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were compared in non-breeding singletons and breeding pairs. In breeding swans, the onset of molt is delayed compared to non-breeders, and is delayed further in breeding males compared to their female partners. The seasonal decrease in prolactin in non-breeding birds of both sexes started at the end of May and was associated with the initiation of molt 4 weeks later. The decrease in plasma prolactin in incubating females was more pronounced, as a consequence of increased prolactin secretion associated with incubation behavior, but also started at end of May, and was associated the onset of molt 6 weeks later. In breeding males, plasma prolactin increased at the end of May when they started to care for their newly hatched cygnets. Correspondingly, prolactin began to decrease 3-5 weeks later in males than in females. These males started to molt in mid August, at least 4 weeks later than females. It is concluded that molt is related to decreasing plasma prolactin, and is inhibited when plasma prolactin is increasing or high.

  4. Lead toxicosis in tundra swans near a mining and smelting complex in northern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Die-offs of waterfowl have occurred in the Coeur d`Alene River system in northern Idaho since at least the early 1900`s. We investigated causes of mortality and lead and cadmium contamination of 46 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) from 1987 to 1989; an additional 22 swans found dead in 1990 were not examined. We necropsied 43 of the 46 birds found from 1987 to 1989; 38 of these were from the Coeur d`Alene River system, which has been contaminated with mining and smelting wastes for a century, and the other 5 were from a nearby, relatively uncontaminated area. Of the 36 livers of swans from the contaminated area that were analyzed, 32 contained lethal levels of lead (6 to 40 micrograms/g, wet weight) and all birds exhibited several symptoms of lead poisoning, notably enlarged gall bladders containing viscous, darkgreen bile. Only 13% of the lead-poisoned birds (10% when data were included from other studies of swans in the area) contained shot, compared to 95% of lead-poisoning swans in studies outside northern Idaho. Lead concentrations in blood samples from 16 apparently healthy swans (0.5 to 2.3 micrograms/g, and 4 leadpoisoned birds found moribund (1.3 to 9.6 micrograms/g) indicating that tundra swans accumulated high levels of lead from ingestion of sediment that contained up to 8,700 micrograms/g of lead and plants that contained up to 400 micrograms/g. The swans spend only a few weeks in the area staging during the spring migration. The five tundra swans from the uncontaminated area had low levels of lead and essentially no symptoms of lead poisoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Molecular detection of hematozoa infections in tundra swans relative to migration patterns and ecological conditions at breeding grounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Ramey

    Full Text Available Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus are broadly distributed in North America, use a wide variety of habitats, and exhibit diverse migration strategies. We investigated patterns of hematozoa infection in three populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska using satellite tracking to infer host movement and molecular techniques to assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of parasites. We evaluated whether migratory patterns and environmental conditions at breeding areas explain the prevalence of blood parasites in migratory birds by contrasting the fit of competing models formulated in an occupancy modeling framework and calculating the detection probability of the top model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC. We described genetic diversity of blood parasites in each population of swans by calculating the number of unique parasite haplotypes observed. Blood parasite infection was significantly different between populations of Alaska tundra swans, with the highest estimated prevalence occurring among birds occupying breeding areas with lower mean daily wind speeds and higher daily summer temperatures. Models including covariates of wind speed and temperature during summer months at breeding grounds better predicted hematozoa prevalence than those that included annual migration distance or duration. Genetic diversity of blood parasites in populations of tundra swans appeared to be relative to hematozoa prevalence. Our results suggest ecological conditions at breeding grounds may explain differences of hematozoa infection among populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska.

  6. Molecular detection of hematozoa infections in tundra swans relative to migration patterns and ecological conditions at breeding grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Ely, Craig R; Schmutz, Joel A; Pearce, John M; Heard, Darryl J

    2012-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) are broadly distributed in North America, use a wide variety of habitats, and exhibit diverse migration strategies. We investigated patterns of hematozoa infection in three populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska using satellite tracking to infer host movement and molecular techniques to assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of parasites. We evaluated whether migratory patterns and environmental conditions at breeding areas explain the prevalence of blood parasites in migratory birds by contrasting the fit of competing models formulated in an occupancy modeling framework and calculating the detection probability of the top model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). We described genetic diversity of blood parasites in each population of swans by calculating the number of unique parasite haplotypes observed. Blood parasite infection was significantly different between populations of Alaska tundra swans, with the highest estimated prevalence occurring among birds occupying breeding areas with lower mean daily wind speeds and higher daily summer temperatures. Models including covariates of wind speed and temperature during summer months at breeding grounds better predicted hematozoa prevalence than those that included annual migration distance or duration. Genetic diversity of blood parasites in populations of tundra swans appeared to be relative to hematozoa prevalence. Our results suggest ecological conditions at breeding grounds may explain differences of hematozoa infection among populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska.

  7. Molecular detection of hematozoa infections in tundra swans relative to migration patterns and ecological conditions at breeding grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Heard, Darryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) are broadly distributed in North America, use a wide variety of habitats, and exhibit diverse migration strategies. We investigated patterns of hematozoa infection in three populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska using satellite tracking to infer host movement and molecular techniques to assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of parasites. We evaluated whether migratory patterns and environmental conditions at breeding areas explain the prevalence of blood parasites in migratory birds by contrasting the fit of competing models formulated in an occupancy modeling framework and calculating the detection probability of the top model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). We described genetic diversity of blood parasites in each population of swans by calculating the number of unique parasite haplotypes observed. Blood parasite infection was significantly different between populations of Alaska tundra swans, with the highest estimated prevalence occurring among birds occupying breeding areas with lower mean daily wind speeds and higher daily summer temperatures. Models including covariates of wind speed and temperature during summer months at breeding grounds better predicted hematozoa prevalence than those that included annual migration distance or duration. Genetic diversity of blood parasites in populations of tundra swans appeared to be relative to hematozoa prevalence. Our results suggest ecological conditions at breeding grounds may explain differences of hematozoa infection among populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska.

  8. Age-specific survival of tundra swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Conn, Paul B.; Dau, Christian P.; Sarvis, John E.; Sowl, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    The population of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) breeding on the lower Alaska Peninsula represents the southern extremity of the species' range and is uniquely nonmigratory. We used data on recaptures, resightings, and recoveries of neck-collared Tundra Swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula to estimate collar loss, annual apparent survival, and other demographic parameters for the years 1978–1989. Annual collar loss was greater for adult males fitted with either the thinner collar type (0.34) or the thicker collar type (0.15) than for other age/sex classes (thinner: 0.10, thicker: 0.04). The apparent mean probability of survival of adults (0.61) was higher than that of immatures (0.41) and for both age classes varied considerably by year (adult range: 0.44–0.95, immature range: 0.25–0.90). To assess effects of permanent emigration by age and breeding class, we analyzed post hoc the encounter histories of swans known to breed in our study area. The apparent mean survival of known breeders (0.65) was generally higher than that of the entire marked sample but still varied considerably by year (range 0.26–1.00) and indicated that permanent emigration of breeding swans was likely. We suggest that reductions in apparent survival probability were influenced primarily by high and variable rates of permanent emigration and that immigration by swans from elsewhere may be important in sustaining a breeding population at and near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge.

  9. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R; Franson, J Christian

    2014-04-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  10. Nesting ecology of tundra swans on the coastal Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, C.A.; Fowler, A.C.; Ely, Craig R.

    2002-01-01

    Nesting ecology of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) was studies the Kashunuk River near Old Chevak (61A?26a??N, 165A?27a??W), on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of western Alaska from 1988-2000. Annual variation in snow-melt chronology, nesting phenology, nesting density, clutch size and nest success was examined. The same area (approximately 23 kmA?) was searched each year and nests were found as early as possible in the laying period. Laying initiation dates ranged from 1-27 May and hatch dates from 12 June a?? 4 July among pairs and years of study. The peak arrival of Tundra Swans and the phenology of nest initiation and hatch were highly correlated with the progression of ice and snow melt in spring. Nest density averaged 0.71 kmA? and 89% of nesting pairs hatched at least one egg. Incubation period ranged from 26 to 33 days with a median of 30 days. Clutch size varied significantly among years, driven by a low mean value of 3.4 eggs in 1999. Clutch sizes were generally larger than found in previous investigations on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and nearly one egg larger than reported for clutches from Alaskaa??s North Slope (=70A?N). There was no indication of reduced clutch size in years of late spring snow melt, although nesting density tended to be lower.

  11. Trace Elements (Pb, Zn, Cu in Blood of Mute Swan (Cygnus olor from the Isonzo River Nature Reserve (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Isani*, M Cipone, G Andreani, E Carpenè, E Ferlizza, K Kravos1 and F Perco1

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead concentrations in blood of 45 specimens of mute swan from the molting area of the Isonzo River Mouth Nature Reserve (Italy were determined in two consecutive years (2006-2007, some birds were neck ringed to identify their homing behavior. The second sampling included whole body X-ray radiography and Cu and Zn plasma analyses to investigate the health impact of putative Pb exposure. X-ray images of all investigated specimens did not show any radiopacity due to the ingestion of metal bodies. Lead levels (0.08-0.44 g/ml were in the range of those reported for swans living in unpolluted or slightly polluted environments and excluded acute intoxication, as confirmed by clinical investigation. Zinc concentrations ranged between 2.93 and 7.59 g/ml and were one order of magnitude higher than Cu concentrations (0.21-0.42 g/ml. The negative correlation between Pb and Zn concentrations could be indicative of adverse health effects caused by chronic lead exposure. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting Pb, Zn and Cu blood levels, X-ray radiographies and data on the origin of swan populations.

  12. Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus), avian influenza virus, and Salmonella spp. in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes region and Atlantic Coast of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R; Arsnoe, Dustin M; Afonso, Claudio L; Bevins, Sarah N; Miller, Patti J; Randall, Adam R; DeLiberto, Thomas J

    2014-03-01

    Since their introduction to the United States in the late 19th century, mute swans (Cygnus olor) have become a nuisance species by causing damage to aquatic habitats, acting aggressively toward humans, competing with native waterfowl, and potentially transmitting or serving as a reservoir of infectious diseases to humans and poultry. In an effort to investigate their potential role as a disease reservoir and to establish avian health baselines for pathogens that threaten agricultural species or human health, we collected samples from 858 mute swans and tested them for avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), avian influenza virus (AIV), and Salmonella spp. when possible. Our results indicate that exposure to APMV-1 and AIV is common (60%, n = 771, and 45%, n = 344, antibody prevalence, respectively) in mute swans, but detection of active viral shedding is less common (8.7%, n = 414, and 0.8%, n = 390, respectively). Salmonella was isolated from three mute swans (0.6%, n = 459), and although the serovars identified have been implicated in previous human outbreaks, it does not appear that Salmonella is commonly carried by mute swans.

  13. Parental care in Tundra Swans during the pre-fledgling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnst, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    Among studies that have quantified the care of precocial young, few have investigated forms of parental care other than vigilance. During the pre-fledging period, Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) parents provided simultaneous biparental care by foraging near each other and their cygnets, and cygnets spent more time foraging during bouts in which both parents were foraging nearby than when only one parent was foraging nearby. Parents spent nearly twice as much foraging time on land than did non-parents, a habitat in which cygnets foraged more intensely than parents (i.e., spent more time foraging during foraging bouts) and could graze on protein-rich sedges rather than use more difficult below-water foraging methods. Parents also spent more than twice as much time being vigilant and more than three times as much time defending their territory than non-parents, behaviors that presumably benefited cygents by decreasing predation risk and indirect foraging competition, respectively. Parents therefore incurred the costs of foraging less intensely during foraging bouts, spending more time interacting, more time in vigilance, and less time sleeping/preening than non-parents.

  14. Host behaviour and physiology underpin individual variation in avian influenza virus infection in migratory Bewick's swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Bethany J; Fouchier, Ron A M; Klaassen, Marcel

    2012-02-07

    Individual variation in infection modulates both the dynamics of pathogens and their impact on host populations. It is therefore crucial to identify differential patterns of infection and understand the mechanisms responsible. Yet our understanding of infection heterogeneity in wildlife is limited, even for important zoonotic host-pathogen systems, owing to the intractability of host status prior to infection. Using novel applications of stable isotope ecology and eco-immunology, we distinguish antecedent behavioural and physiological traits associated with avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in free-living Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii). Swans infected with AIV exhibited higher serum δ13C (-25.3±0.4) than their non-infected counterparts (-26.3±0.2). Thus, individuals preferentially foraging in aquatic rather than terrestrial habitats experienced a higher risk of infection, suggesting that the abiotic requirements of AIV give rise to heterogeneity in pathogen exposure. Juveniles were more likely to be infected (30.8% compared with 11.3% for adults), shed approximately 15-fold higher quantity of virus and exhibited a lower specific immune response than adults. Together, these results demonstrate the potential for heterogeneity in infection to have a profound influence on the dynamics of pathogens, with concomitant impacts on host habitat selection and fitness.

  15. Predicting Effects of Water Regime Changes on Waterbirds: Insights from Staging Swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Bart A; Gyimesi, Abel; van Krimpen, Roderick R D; de Boer, Willem F; Stillman, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the environmental impact of a proposed development is notoriously difficult, especially when future conditions fall outside the current range of conditions. Individual-based approaches have been developed and applied to predict the impact of environmental changes on wintering and staging coastal bird populations. How many birds make use of staging sites is mostly determined by food availability and accessibility, which in the case of many waterbirds in turn is affected by water level. Many water systems are regulated and water levels are maintained at target levels, set by management authorities. We used an individual-based modelling framework (MORPH) to analyse how different target water levels affect the number of migratory Bewick's swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii staging at a shallow freshwater lake (Lauwersmeer, the Netherlands) in autumn. As an emerging property of the model, we found strong non-linear responses of swan usage to changes in water level, with a sudden drop in peak numbers as well as bird-days with a 0.20 m rise above the current target water level. Such strong non-linear responses are probably common and should be taken into account in environmental impact assessments.

  16. Predicting Effects of Water Regime Changes on Waterbirds: Insights from Staging Swans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart A Nolet

    Full Text Available Predicting the environmental impact of a proposed development is notoriously difficult, especially when future conditions fall outside the current range of conditions. Individual-based approaches have been developed and applied to predict the impact of environmental changes on wintering and staging coastal bird populations. How many birds make use of staging sites is mostly determined by food availability and accessibility, which in the case of many waterbirds in turn is affected by water level. Many water systems are regulated and water levels are maintained at target levels, set by management authorities. We used an individual-based modelling framework (MORPH to analyse how different target water levels affect the number of migratory Bewick's swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii staging at a shallow freshwater lake (Lauwersmeer, the Netherlands in autumn. As an emerging property of the model, we found strong non-linear responses of swan usage to changes in water level, with a sudden drop in peak numbers as well as bird-days with a 0.20 m rise above the current target water level. Such strong non-linear responses are probably common and should be taken into account in environmental impact assessments.

  17. Role of manganese oxides in the exposure of mute swans (Cygnus olor) to Pb and other elements in the Chesapeake Bay, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Day, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study are to estimate exposure of waterfowl to elements in contaminated sediments in the Chesapeake Bay and to consider the potential role of Mn in influencing bioavailability and exposure. Metal concentrations were measured in livers and digesta taken from mute swans living on the Aberdeen Proving Ground, whose sediment had elevated concentrations of Cu, S, Se, Zn, As, Co, Cr, Hg and Pb. Concentrations of only the first four of these elements were elevated in swan digesta. None of the concentrations detected in the digesta or livers of the swans was considered toxic, although the concentrations of Cu and Se were high compared to concentrations of these elements reported in other waterfowl. Lead was found to be scavenged by Mn and Fe oxides from the water and deposited on the surface of vegetation at a reference site. Under some environmental chemical conditions, this is an important route of exposure to Pb in waterfowl, not previously recognized. - Lead was scavenged by Mn and Fe oxides and deposited on aquatic vegetation

  18. Role of manganese oxides in the exposure of mute swans (Cygnus olor) to Pb and other elements in the Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Day, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    The aims of this study are to estimate exposure of waterfowl to elements in contaminated sediments in the Chesapeake Bay and to consider the potential role of Mn in influencing bioavailability and exposure. Metal concentrations were measured in livers and digesta taken from mute swans living on the Aberdeen Proving Ground, whose sediment had elevated concentrations of Cu, S, Se, Zn, As, Co, Cr, Hg and Pb. Concentrations of only the first four of these elements were elevated in swan digesta. None of the concentrations detected in the digesta or livers of the swans was considered toxic, although the concentrations of Cu and Se were high compared to concentrations of these elements reported in other waterfowl. Lead was found to be scavenged by Mn and Fe oxides from the water and deposited on the surface of vegetation at a reference site. Under some environmental chemical conditions, this is an important route of exposure to Pb in waterfowl, not previously recognized. - Lead was scavenged by Mn and Fe oxides and deposited on aquatic vegetation.

  19. Cygnus History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, David J.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Good, Douglas E.; Hansen, Mark D.; Mitton, Charles V.; Nelson, Daniel S.; Ormond, Eugene C.; Cordova, Steve R.; Molina, Isidro; Smith, John R.; Rose, Evan A.

    2009-01-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders)

  20. Longer guts and higher food quality increase energy intake in migratory swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Jan A; Beekman, Jan H; Coehoorn, Pieter; Corporaal, Els; Dekkers, Ten; Klaassen, Marcel; van Kraaij, Rik; de Leeuw, Rinze; de Vries, Peter P

    2008-11-01

    1. Within the broad field of optimal foraging, it is increasingly acknowledged that animals often face digestive constraints rather than constraints on rates of food collection. This therefore calls for a formalization of how animals could optimize food absorption rates. 2. Here we generate predictions from a simple graphical optimal digestion model for foragers that aim to maximize their (true) metabolizable food intake over total time (i.e. including nonforaging bouts) under a digestive constraint. 3. The model predicts that such foragers should maintain a constant food retention time, even if gut length or food quality changes. For phenotypically flexible foragers, which are able to change the size of their digestive machinery, this means that an increase in gut length should go hand in hand with an increase in gross intake rate. It also means that better quality food should be digested more efficiently. 4. These latter two predictions are tested in a large avian long-distance migrant, the Bewick's swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), feeding on grasslands in its Dutch wintering quarters. 5. Throughout winter, free-ranging Bewick's swans, growing a longer gut and experiencing improved food quality, increased their gross intake rate (i.e. bite rate) and showed a higher digestive efficiency. These responses were in accordance with the model and suggest maintenance of a constant food retention time. 6. These changes doubled the birds' absorption rate. Had only food quality changed (and not gut length), then absorption rate would have increased by only 67%; absorption rate would have increased by only 17% had only gut length changed (and not food quality). 7. The prediction that gross intake rate should go up with gut length parallels the mechanism included in some proximate models of foraging that feeding motivation scales inversely to gut fullness. We plea for a tighter integration between ultimate and proximate foraging models.

  1. Demographic outcomes of diverse migration strategies assessed in a metapopulation of tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R; Meixell, Brandt W

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a prominent aspect of the life history of many avian species, but the demographic consequences of variable migration strategies have only infrequently been investigated, and rarely when using modern technological and analytical methods for assessing survival, movement patterns, and long-term productivity in the context of life history theory. We monitored the fates of 50 satellite-implanted tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) over 4 years from five disparate breeding areas in Alaska, and used known-fate analyses to estimate monthly survival probability relative to migration distance, breeding area, migratory flyway, breeding status, and age. We specifically tested whether migratory birds face a trade-off, whereby long-distance migrants realize higher survival rates at the cost of lower productivity because of reduced time on breeding areas relative to birds that migrate shorter distances and spend more time on breeding areas. Annual migration distances varied significantly among breeding areas (1020 to 12720 km), and were strongly negatively correlated with time spent on breeding areas (r = -0.986). Estimates of annual survival probability varied by wintering area (Pacific coast, Alaska Peninsula, and Eastern seaboard) and ranged from 0.79 (95%CI: 0.70-0.88) to 1.0, depending on criteria used to discern mortalities from radio failures. We did not find evidence for a linear relationship between migration distance and survival as swans from the breeding areas with the shortest and longest migration distances had the highest survival probabilities. Survival was lower in the first year post-marking than in subsequent years, but there was not support for seasonal differences in survival. Productivity varied among breeding populations and was generally inversely correlated to survival, but not migration distance or time spent on breeding areas. Tundra swans conformed to a major tenet of life history theory, as populations with the highest survival

  2. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in experimentally infected adult mute swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalthoff, Donata; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens P; Globig, Anja; Harder, Timm; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Beer, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Adult, healthy mute swans were experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Cygnus cygnus/Germany/R65/2006 subtype H5N1. Immunologically naive birds died, whereas animals with preexisting, naturally acquired avian influenza virus-specific antibodies became infected asymptomatically and shed virus. Adult mute swans are highly susceptible, excrete virus, and can be clinically protected by preexposure immunity.

  3. Mute swans: Natural (?) environmental indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the Chesapeake Bay's population of feral mute swans (Cygnus olar), coupled with a dramatic Bay-wide decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), has fueled much of the current debate surrounding the need for a management plan to protect the aquatic food resources that are critical to many species native to the Bay. Crucial to this decision process is a sound understanding of the ecological ramifications of having the year-round presence of a large, nonnative, aquatic herbivore on the Bay. Ultimately, this will require a quantitative assessment of the ecological harm currently posed by mute swans before a biologically defensible management strategy can be developed. Unfortunately, very little new information specific to the Bay's mute swan population has been gathered since Reese first studied them in the late 1960s and 1970s. While the debate over what to do about the rapidly expanding mute swan population continues, there is much that can be gained from study of this beautiful intruder. Several recent studies of the feeding habits of mute swans have shown that mutes can provide a unique barometer, or indicator, of environmental conditions. Because of their reliance on SAV as a primary food source, monitoring the density of swans utilizing a particular area can give some indication of the status of the area's grass beds. This phenomenon was clearly demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when there was a dramatic decline in the number of swans observed around the Eastern Neck NWR, a traditional population stronghold. The shift in bird use was precipitated by a rapid, large-scale collapse of the area's aquatic grass beds, possibly the result of a prolonged drought. During the winter of 2000/2001, a similar ecological assessment was conducted by comparing body weights of swans collected from Tangier Sound, an area with relatively abundant grass beds, and swans from the waters adjacent to Eastern Neck Island. Swans weights tended to reflect the

  4. Tissue tropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in naturally infected mute swans (Cygnus Olor ), domestic geese (Aser Anser var. domestica), pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and mulard ducks ( Cairina moschata x anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeredi, Levente; Dán, Adám; Pálmai, Nimród; Ursu, Krisztina; Bálint, Adám; Szeleczky, Zsófia; Ivanics, Eva; Erdélyi, Károly; Rigó, Dóra; Tekes, Lajos; Glávits, Róbert

    2010-03-01

    The 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. The presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = 6) and Pekin ducks (n = 5)] collected during the epidemic. H5N1 subtype HPAIV was isolated from all birds examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) was also applied on a subset of samples [domestic geese (n = 3), mulard (n = 4) and Pekin duck (n = 4)] in order to compare its sensitivity with IHC. Viral antigen was detected by IHC in all cases. However, the overall presence of viral antigen in tissue samples was quite variable: virus antigen was present in 56/81 (69%) swan, 22/38 (58%) goose, 28/46 (61%) mulard duck and 5/43 (12%) Pekin duck tissue samples. HPAIV subtype H5N1 was detected by qRRT-PCR in all birds examined, in 19/19 (100%) goose, 7/28 (25%) mulard duck and 12/28 (43%) Pekin duck tissue samples. As compared to qRRTPCR, the IHC was less sensitive in geese and Pekin ducks but more sensitive in mulard ducks. The IHC was consistently positive above 4.31 log10 copies/reaction but it gave very variable results below that level. Neurotropism of the isolated virus strains was demonstrated by finding the largest amount of viral antigen and the highest average RNA load in the brain in all four waterfowl species examined.

  5. Mutual ornamentation, sexual selection, and social dominance in the black swan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, K; Gregurke, J; Hall, C; Komdeur, J; Mulder, RA

    We investigated the adaptive significance of a sexually monomorphic ornament in the black swan Cygnus atratus. Both sexes grow curled feathers on their wings (range 7-22 curled feathers per wing), which are displayed prominently in a range of social interactions. The number of curled feathers

  6. Migration of whooper swans and outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in eastern Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott H Newman

    Full Text Available Evaluating the potential involvement of wild avifauna in the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (hereafter H5N1 requires detailed analyses of temporal and spatial relationships between wild bird movements and disease emergence. The death of wild swans (Cygnus spp. has been the first indicator of the presence of H5N1 in various Asian and European countries; however their role in the geographic spread of the disease remains poorly understood. We marked 10 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus with GPS transmitters in northeastern Mongolia during autumn 2006 and tracked their migratory movements in relation to H5N1 outbreaks. The prevalence of H5N1 outbreaks among poultry in eastern Asia during 2003-2007 peaked during winter, concurrent with whooper swan movements into regions of high poultry density. However outbreaks involving poultry were detected year round, indicating disease perpetuation independent of migratory waterbird presence. In contrast, H5N1 outbreaks involving whooper swans, as well as other migratory waterbirds that succumbed to the disease in eastern Asia, tended to occur during seasons (late spring and summer and in habitats (areas of natural vegetation where their potential for contact with poultry is very low to nonexistent. Given what is known about the susceptibility of swans to H5N1, and on the basis of the chronology and rates of whooper swan migration movements, we conclude that although there is broad spatial overlap between whooper swan distributions and H5N1 outbreak locations in eastern Asia, the likelihood of direct transmission between these groups is extremely low. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that swans are best viewed as sentinel species, and moreover, that in eastern Asia, it is most likely that their infections occurred through contact with asymptomatic migratory hosts (e.g., wild ducks at or near their breeding grounds.

  7. Migration of whooper swans and outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H; Iverson, Samuel A; Takekawa, John Y; Gilbert, Martin; Prosser, Diann J; Batbayar, Nyambyar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Douglas, David C

    2009-05-28

    Evaluating the potential involvement of wild avifauna in the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (hereafter H5N1) requires detailed analyses of temporal and spatial relationships between wild bird movements and disease emergence. The death of wild swans (Cygnus spp.) has been the first indicator of the presence of H5N1 in various Asian and European countries; however their role in the geographic spread of the disease remains poorly understood. We marked 10 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) with GPS transmitters in northeastern Mongolia during autumn 2006 and tracked their migratory movements in relation to H5N1 outbreaks. The prevalence of H5N1 outbreaks among poultry in eastern Asia during 2003-2007 peaked during winter, concurrent with whooper swan movements into regions of high poultry density. However outbreaks involving poultry were detected year round, indicating disease perpetuation independent of migratory waterbird presence. In contrast, H5N1 outbreaks involving whooper swans, as well as other migratory waterbirds that succumbed to the disease in eastern Asia, tended to occur during seasons (late spring and summer) and in habitats (areas of natural vegetation) where their potential for contact with poultry is very low to nonexistent. Given what is known about the susceptibility of swans to H5N1, and on the basis of the chronology and rates of whooper swan migration movements, we conclude that although there is broad spatial overlap between whooper swan distributions and H5N1 outbreak locations in eastern Asia, the likelihood of direct transmission between these groups is extremely low. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that swans are best viewed as sentinel species, and moreover, that in eastern Asia, it is most likely that their infections occurred through contact with asymptomatic migratory hosts (e.g., wild ducks) at or near their breeding grounds.

  8. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  9. Artificial intelligence based decision support for trumpeter swan management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojda, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    The number of trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) breeding in the Tri-State area where Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming come together has declined to just a few hundred pairs. However, these birds are part of the Rocky Mountain Population which additionally has over 3,500 birds breeding in Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, and Yukon Territory. To a large degree, these birds seem to have abandoned traditional migratory pathways in the flyway. Waterfowl managers have been interested in decision support tools that would help them explore simulated management scenarios in their quest towards reaching population recovery and the reestablishment of traditional migratory pathways. I have developed a decision support system to assist biologists with such management, especially related to wetland ecology. Decision support systems use a combination of models, analytical techniques, and information retrieval to help develop and evaluate appropriate alternatives. Swan management is a domain that is ecologically complex, and this complexity is compounded by spatial and temporal issues. As such, swan management is an inherently distributed problem. Therefore, the ecological context for modeling swan movements in response to management actions was built as a multiagent system of interacting intelligent agents that implements a queuing model representing swan migration. These agents accessed ecological knowledge about swans, their habitats, and flyway management principles from three independent expert systems. The agents were autonomous, had some sensory capability, and could respond to changing conditions. A key problem when developing ecological decision support systems is empirically determining that the recommendations provided are valid. Because Rocky Mountain trumpeter swans have been surveyed for a long period of time, I was able to compare simulated distributions provided by the system with actual field observations across 20 areas for the period 1988

  10. T-cell responses in oiled guillemots and swans in a rehabilitation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Gera M

    2013-07-01

    Aquatic birds are commonly affected by oil spills. Despite rehabilitation efforts, the majority of rehabilitated common guillemots (Uria aalge) do not survive, whereas mute swans (Cygnus olor) tend to have higher postrelease survival. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil and diesel are immunotoxic in birds affecting cell-mediated responses to immunogens. Because it is a target of PAH toxicity, T-lymphocyte response to controlled mitogen administration (phytohemagglutinnin test) was investigated in a scoping study as a potentially useful minimally invasive in vivo test of cell-mediated immunity. The test was performed on 69 mute swans and 31 common guillemots stranded on the Norfolk and Lincolnshire coastline and inland waterways in England (UK) either due to injury or to contamination with crude or diesel oil. T-lymphocyte response was significantly decreased in swans with greater oil scores. T-lymphocyte responses were also decreased in guillemots, but this finding was not statistically significant.

  11. The swan's dark heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croswell, Ken

    2013-02-01

    Astronomers discovered what they thought was the first black hole more than 40 years ago but have only recently verified its identity by establishing its distance, mass and spin. These fascinating observations are yielding new insights into Cygnus X-1's past and future, as Ken Croswell explains.

  12. Post-embryonic development stages of Tityus columbianus (Thorell, 1846, (Scorpiones, Buthidae: morphometric estimation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Gómez C.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Poca información existe sobre el ciclo de vida y número de mudas por los cuales pasa Tityus columbianus (Thorell, 1846 para alcanzar la madurez. En este studio, el número de estados de desarrollo posembriónico fue determimnado usando herramientas de morfometría geométrica y a través de las ecuaciones clàsicas de Pzibram & Megusâr (1984. Los análisis incluyeron digitalización de imagenes, definición de puntos de referencia homólogos (o “landmarks” y derivación de matrices basadas en distancias Euclidianas. Los análisis permiten esatablecer que T. columbianus pasa por seis a siete estados (mudas en su desarrollo post-embrionario.

  13. Conferences are like swans

    OpenAIRE

    Corker, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Chris Corker was the lead on bringing the 2011 Higher Education Research Scholarship Group Conference to fruition, both in the months preceding the event and on the day. In this viewpoint, Chris shares his experiences of conference administration and delivery, and explores how conferences and swans have more in common that you would imagine.

  14. Cygnus Performance in Subcritical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G Corrow; M Hansen; D Henderson; S Lutz; C Mitton

    2008-01-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources with the following specifications: 4-rad dose at 1 m, 1-mm spot size, 50-ns pulse length, 2.25-MeV endpoint energy. The facility is located in an underground tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site. Here SubCritical Experiments (SCEs) are performed to study the dynamic properties of plutonium. The Cygnus sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for these tests. Since SCEs are single-shot, high-value events - reliability and reproducibility are key issues. Enhanced reliability involves minimization of failure modes through design, inspection, and testing. Many unique hardware and operational features were incorporated into Cygnus to insure reliability. Enhanced reproducibility involves normalization of shot-to-shot output also through design, inspection, and testing. The first SCE to utilize Cygnus, Armando, was executed on May 25, 2004. A year later, April - May 2005, calibrations using a plutonium step wedge were performed. The results from this series were used for more precise interpretation of the Armando data. In the period February - May 2007 Cygnus was fielded on Thermos, which is a series of small-sample plutonium shots using a one-dimensional geometry. Pulsed power research generally dictates frequent change in hardware configuration. Conversely, SCE applications have typically required constant machine settings. Therefore, while operating during the past four years we have accumulated a large database for evaluation of machine performance under highly consistent operating conditions. Through analysis of this database Cygnus reliability and reproducibility on Armando, Step Wedge, and Thermos is presented

  15. Cygnus Performance in Subcritical Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, S. Lutz, C. Mitton, et al.

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources with the following specifications: 4-rad dose at 1 m, 1-mm spot size, 50-ns pulse length, 2.25-MeV endpoint energy. The facility is located in an underground tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site. Here SubCritical Experiments (SCEs) are performed to study the dynamic properties of plutonium. The Cygnus sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for these tests. Since SCEs are single-shot, high-value events - reliability and reproducibility are key issues. Enhanced reliability involves minimization of failure modes through design, inspection, and testing. Many unique hardware and operational features were incorporated into Cygnus to insure reliability. Enhanced reproducibility involves normalization of shot-to-shot output also through design, inspection, and testing. The first SCE to utilize Cygnus, Armando, was executed on May 25, 2004. A year later, April - May 2005, calibrations using a plutonium step wedge were performed. The results from this series were used for more precise interpretation of the Armando data. In the period February - May 2007 Cygnus was fielded on Thermos, which is a series of small-sample plutonium shots using a one-dimensional geometry. Pulsed power research generally dictates frequent change in hardware configuration. Conversely, SCE applications have typically required constant machine settings. Therefore, while operating during the past four years we have accumulated a large database for evaluation of machine performance under highly consistent operating conditions. Through analysis of this database Cygnus reliability and reproducibility on Armando, Step Wedge, and Thermos is presented.

  16. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mute swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Morton, Alexandra; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Most ecotoxicological risk assessments of wildlife emphasize contaminant exposure through ingestion of food and water. However, the role of incidental ingestion of sediment-bound contaminants has not been adequately appreciated in these assessments. This study evaluates the toxicological consequences of contamination of sediments with metals from hard-rock mining and smelting activities. Lead-contaminated sediments collected from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in Idaho were combined with either a commercial avian maintenance diet or ground rice and fed to captive mute swans (Cygnus olor) for 6 weeks. Experimental treatments consisted of maintenance or rice diets containing 0, 12 (no rice group), or 24% highly contaminated (3,950 ug/g lead) sediment or 24% reference (9.7 ug/g lead) sediment. Although none of the swans died, the group fed a rice diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment were the most severely affected, experiencing a 24% decrease in mean body weight, including three birds that became emaciated. All birds in this treatment group had nephrosis; abnormally dark, viscous bile; and significant (p < 0.05) reductions in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations compared to their pretreatment levels. This group also had the greatest mean concentrations of lead in blood (3.2 ug/g), brain (2.2 ug/g), and liver (8.5 ug/g). These birds had significant (alpha = 0.05) increases in mean plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, cholesterol, and uric acid concentrations and decreased plasma triglyceride concentrations compared to all other treatment groups. After 14 days of exposure, mean protoporphyrin concentrations increased substantially, and mean delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity decreased by more than 95% in all groups fed diets containing highly contaminated sediments. All swans fed diets that contained 24% lead-contaminated sediment had renal acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are diagnostic of lead poisoning in waterfowl. Body

  17. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  18. Chronic lead poisoning in a herd of mute swans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, V.R.; Hunt, A.E.; French, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    Lead poisoning due to the ingestion of lead fishing shot was shown to be the cause of death of a number of mute swans Cygnus olor Gmelin. The area in which they were feeding was shown to be heavily contaminated with fishing shot. The results of clinical, histopathological, haematological and analytical examinations are reported. The kidneys of the dead birds contained from 350 to 6650 ..mu..g/g DM of lead and blood lead levels in the remainder of the herd were greatly elevated, rising to 3290 ..mu..g/100 ml. Consistently elevated liver levels of iron and zinc and a marked loss of body weight were all directly proportional to the increase in kidney lead concentration. 17 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Chernobyl and the Slimbridge swans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, R.; Woolam, P.

    1987-11-01

    Radioactivity measurements were carried out on 46 live Bewick swans to determine if they had ingested any of the Chernobyl fallout deposits. The swans migrate each autumn from their breeding grounds in Artic Russia to spend the winter at Slimbridge, United Kingdom. At the time of the Chernobyl accident, the swans were at least 2500 km from Chernobyl. However on their migratory flight in the autumn, the swans would have stopped for several days on the Baltic Sea/North Sea coasts, which are known to be contaminated with fallout from the initial Chernobyl plume. The measurements were made in January 1987 on swans in the Slimbridge area, and the levels of radioactivity were so low that detection was very difficult.

  20. Chernobyl and the Slimbridge swans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Woolam, P.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements were carried out on 46 live Bewick swans to determine if they had ingested any of the Chernobyl fallout deposits. The swans migrate each autumn from their breeding grounds in Artic Russia to spend the winter at Slimbridge, United Kingdom. At the time of the Chernobyl accident, the swans were at least 2500 km from Chernobyl. However on their migratory flight in the autumn, the swans would have stopped for several days on the Baltic Sea/North Sea coasts, which are known to be contaminated with fallout from the initial Chernobyl plume. The measurements were made in January 1987 on swans in the Slimbridge area, and the levels of radioactivity were so low that detection was very difficult. (UK)

  1. A rangewide population genetic study of trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Ransler, F.A.; Berkman, L.K.; Quinn, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    For management purposes, the range of naturally occurring trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) has been divided into two populations, the Pacific Coast Population (PP) and the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP). Little is known about the distribution of genetic variation across the species' range despite increasing pressure to make difficult management decisions regarding the two populations and flocks within them. To address this issue, we used rapidly evolving genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA sequence and 17 nuclear microsatellite loci) to elucidate the underlying genetic structure of the species. Data from both markers revealed a significant difference between the PP and RMP with the Yukon Territory as a likely area of overlap. Additionally, we found that the two populations have somewhat similar levels of genetic diversity (PP is slightly higher) suggesting that the PP underwent a population bottleneck similar to a well-documented one in the RMP. Both genetic structure and diversity results reveal that the Tri-State flock, a suspected unique, non-migratory flock, is not genetically different from the Canadian flock of the RMP and need not be treated as a unique population from a genetic standpoint. Finally, trumpeter swans appear to have much lower mitochondrial DNA variability than other waterfowl studied thus far which may suggest a previous, species-wide bottleneck. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  2. Cygnus experiment at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingus, B.L.; Goodman, J.A.; Gupta, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The Cygnus experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been designed to study, with high angular accuracy, point sources of gamma rays of energy above 10 14 eV. The experimental detector consists of an air shower array to observe gamma-ray showers and a shielded, large-area track detector to study the muon content of the showers. In this paper we present preliminary data from the array and describe its performance. 9 refs., 3 figs

  3. Mute swans and their Chesapeake Bay habitats: proceedings of a symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The symposium 'Mute Swans and their Chesapeake Bay Habitats,' held on June 7, 2001, provided a forum for biologists and managers to share research findings and management ideas concerning the exotic and invasive mute swan (Cygnus olar). This species has been increasing in population size and is considered by many to be a problem in regard to natural food resources in the Bay that are used by native waterfowl during the winter months. Other persons, however, feel that resource managers are attempting to create a problem to justify more killing of waterfowl by hunters. Some persons also believe that managers should focus on the larger issues causing the decline of native food resources, such as the unabated human population increase in the Bay watershed and in the immediate coastal areas of the Bay. The symposium, sponsored by the Wildfowl Trust of North America and the U.S. Geological Survey, provided the atmosphere for presentation of mute swan data and opinions in a collegial setting where discussion was welcomed and was often informative and enthusiastic. An interesting historic review of the swan in regard to the history of mankind was presented, followed by a discussion on the positive and negative effects of invasive species. Biologists from different parts of the continent discussed the population status of the species in several states in the east and in the Great Lakes area. Data on the food habits of this species were presented in regard to submerged aquatic vegetation, and an interesting discussion on the role that the food habits of Canada geese in regard to native vegetation was presented. Findings and recommendations of the Mute Swan Task Force were presented. Finally, a representative of the Friends of Animals gave a thought-provoking presentation in defense of the mute swan. The presentations, in general, provided the necessary information and recommendations to allow managers to proceed with management of this controversial species with new and

  4. Teaching migration routes to canada geese and trumpeter swans using ultralight aircraft, 1990-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Ellis, D.H.; Shire, G.G.; Rininger, D.L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes eleven years (1990-2001) of experiments to teach Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) and Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) pre-selected migration routes using ultralight aircraft. When Canada Geese were trained to follow an ultralight aircraft for southward autumn migrations of 680 or 1,320 km, 81% (83/103) returned on their own in the next spring to near their place of training. In contrast, none returned of 21 similarly raised geese that were transported south in a closed truck over a route of 680 km. Trumpeter Swans have proven more difficult to train. However, in two experiments in which Trumpeter Swans followed an ultralight for the entire pre-selected route, one of three and two of four returned close to their training area. A stage-by-stage method, in which swans were transported in trucks between stops, flown in the vicinity and penned with a view of the night sky, has shown some promise. So far an established migration route (north and south twice) has been confirmed in only two geese

  5. How old is Cygnus A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, M.J.; Rees, W.G.; Duffett-Smith, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have mapped the extragalactic radio source Cygnus A at 81.5 MHz using a two-element interferometer with variable orientation and spacing (maximum 45 km). The data provide new information about the radiation spectrum. By comparing this map with one made at 2.7 GHz, the two-point spectral index has been measured as a function of distance along the source axis. The age of the radio source is estimated by using a model in which two oppositely directed beams ram their way out through the surrounding medium, depositing relativistic plasma as they do so. (author)

  6. Variation at the DRD4 locus is associated with wariness and local site selection in urban black swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Wouter F D; Robinson, Randall W; Weston, Michael A; Mulder, Raoul A; Guay, Patrick-Jean

    2015-12-11

    Interactions between wildlife and humans are increasing. Urban animals are often less wary of humans than their non-urban counterparts, which could be explained by habituation, adaptation or local site selection. Under local site selection, individuals that are less tolerant of humans are less likely to settle in urban areas. However, there is little evidence for such temperament-based site selection, and even less is known about its underlying genetic basis. We tested whether site selection in urban and non-urban habitats by black swans (Cygnus atratus) was associated with polymorphisms in two genes linked to fear in animals, the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and serotonin transporter (SERT) genes. Wariness in swans was highly repeatable between disturbance events (repeatability = 0.61) and non-urban swans initiated escape from humans earlier than urban swans. We found no inter-individual variation in the SERT gene, but identified five DRD4 genotypes and an association between DRD4 genotype and wariness. Individuals possessing the most common DRD4 genotype were less wary than individuals possessing rarer genotypes. As predicted by the local site selection hypothesis, genotypes associated with wary behaviour were over three times more frequent at the non-urban site. This resulted in moderate population differentiation at DRD4 (FST = 0.080), despite the sites being separated by only 30 km, a short distance for this highly-mobile species. Low population differentiation at neutrally-selected microsatellite loci and the likely occasional migration of swans between the populations reduces the likelihood of local site adaptations. Our results suggest that wariness in swans is partly genetically-determined and that wary swans settle in less-disturbed areas. More generally, our findings suggest that site-specific management strategies may be necessary that consider the temperament of local animals.

  7. Swan-Ganz - right heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003870.htm Swan-Ganz - right heart catheterization To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Swan-Ganz catheterization is the passing of a thin ...

  8. Underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Underground detectors, intended for searches for nucleon decay and other rare processes, have recently begun searching for evidence of astrophysical sources, particularly Cygnus X-3, in the cosmic ray muons they record. Some evidence for signals from Cygnus X-3 has been reported. The underground observations are reported here in the context of previous (surface) observations of the source at high energies. 25 refs., 8 figs

  9. Skipping swans : Fuelling rates and wind conditions determine differential use of migratory stopover sites of Bewick's Swans Cygnus bewickii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, JH; Nolet, BA; Klaassen, M

    2002-01-01

    Some migratory birds refuel at stopover sites that they by-pass on the return trip. In theory, this skipping behaviour is only expected in time-selected migrants when the overflown site is of a lower quality than the departure site. We provide empirical evidence that quality differences in stopover

  10. Skipping swans: Fuelling rates and wind conditions determine differential use of migratory stopover sites of Bewick's Swans Cygnus bewickii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, J.H.; Nolet, B.A.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Some migratory birds refuel at stopover sites that they by-pass on the return trip. In theory, this skipping behaviour is only expected in time-selected migrants when the overflown site is of a lower quality than the departure site. We provide empirical evidence that quality differences in stopover

  11. Ancient DNA and morphometric analysis reveal extinction and replacement of New Zealand's unique black swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J; Kardamaki, Afroditi; Easton, Luke J; Tennyson, Alan J D; Scofield, R Paul; Waters, Jonathan M

    2017-07-26

    Prehistoric human impacts on megafaunal populations have dramatically reshaped ecosystems worldwide. However, the effects of human exploitation on smaller species, such as anatids (ducks, geese, and swans) are less clear. In this study we apply ancient DNA and osteological approaches to reassess the history of Australasia's iconic black swans ( Cygnus atratus ) including the palaeo-behaviour of prehistoric populations. Our study shows that at the time of human colonization, New Zealand housed a genetically, morphologically, and potentially ecologically distinct swan lineage ( C. sumnerensis , Poūwa), divergent from modern (Australian) C. atratus Morphological analyses indicate C. sumnerensis exhibited classic signs of the 'island rule' effect, being larger, and likely flight-reduced compared to C. atratus Our research reveals sudden extinction and replacement events within this anatid species complex, coinciding with recent human colonization of New Zealand. This research highlights the role of anthropogenic processes in rapidly reshaping island ecosystems and raises new questions for avian conservation, ecosystem re-wilding, and de-extinction. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  13. Can SOHO SWAN Detect CMEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Malayeri, M. L.; Yashiro, S.; Quemerais, E.; Bertaux, J.; Howard, R.

    2003-12-01

    We have investigated the possibility that the Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) remote sensing instrument on SOHO may be able to detect coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in neutral Hydrogen Lyman-α emission. We have identified CMEs near the Sun in observations by the SOHO LASCO white-light coronagraphs and in extreme ultraviolet emissions using SOHO EIT. There are very few methods of tracking CMEs after they leave the coronagraph's field-of-view, so this is an important topic to study. The primary science goal of the SWAN investigation is the measurement of large-scale structures in the solar wind, and these are obtained by detecting intensity fluctuations in Lyman-α . SWAN consists of a pair of sensors on opposite panels of SOHO. The instantaneous field-of-view of each sensor unit is a 5° x 5° square, divided into 1° pixels. A gimbaled periscope system allows each sensor to map the intensity distribution of Lyman-α , and the entire sky can be scanned in less than one day. This is the typical mode of operation for this instrument (Bertaux et al., Solar Physics, 162, 403-439, 1995). Beginning in May 2002 the sky-scan mode of the SWAN detectors was interrupted, and they were held stationary for one-or-more 15-hour campaigns each week. During those campaigns the SWAN sensors were positioned above the East or West equator of the Sun at locations chosen to be as close to the Sun as possible (typically 50 solar radii from Sun-center). Based on the LASCO and EIT data, we have identified CMEs whose extrapolated height-time measurements indicated that the events would cross the SWAN field during the campaign period. During 12 months' observation, there were ˜10 CMEs that met two criteria: (1) an event low in the corona near the solar limb could be unambiguously identified in EIT; and (2) the CME could be tracked beyond 20 R⊙ in LASCO C3. We consider these CMEs to be particularly well-observed since the speed measured in LASCO could be reliably extrapolated to the SWAN

  14. Search for UHE emission from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the CYGNUS experiment has been searched for evidence of ultra high energy (UHE) emission from Cygnus X-3. An upper limit to continuous flux from the source is given. In addition, we find no evidence for episodic emission from Cygnus X-3 on any time scale from 3.3 minutes to 4 years. The results of searches for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 will be presented at the conference

  15. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Biospecimen Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Repository is the biospecimen bank of the SWAN study. All stored specimens are from the 3,302 SWAN participants, collected across the 14 clinic visits...

  16. Recovery of black-necked swans, macrophytes and water quality in a Ramsar wetland of southern Chile: Assessing resilience following sudden anthropogenic disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Eduardo; Lagos, Nelson A; Labra, Fabio A; Paredes, Enrique; Acuña, Emilio; Melnick, Daniel; Manzano, Mario; Velásquez, Carlos; Duarte, Cristian

    2018-07-01

    In 2004 migration and mortality for unknown reasons of the herbivorous Black necked swan (Cygnus melancorhyphus (Molina, 1782)) occurred within the Río Cruces wetland (southern Chile), a Ramsar Site and nature sanctuary. Before 2004, this wetland hosted the largest breeding population of this water bird in the Neotropic Realm. The concurrent decrease in the spatial occurrence of the aquatic plant Egeria densa Planch. 1849 - the main food source of swans - was proposed as a cause for swan migration and mortality. Additionally, post-mortem analyses carried out on swans during 2004 showed diminished body weight, high iron loads and histopathological abnormalities in their livers, suggesting iron storage disease. Various hypotheses were postulated to describe those changes; the most plausible related to variations in water quality after a pulp mill located upstream the wetland started to operate in February 2004. Those changes cascaded throughout the stands of E. densa whose remnants had high iron contents in their tissues. Here we present results of a long-term monitoring program of the wetland components, which show that swan population abundance, body weights and histological liver conditions recovered to pre-disturbance levels in 2012. The recovery of E. densa and iron content in plants throughout the wetland, also returned to pre-disturbance levels in the same 8-year time period. These results show the temporal scale over which resilience and natural restoring processes occur in wetland ecosystems of temperate regions such as southern Chile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 77890 - Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C.-Operation Exemption-Swan Industrial Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35574] Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C.--Operation Exemption--Swan Industrial Park Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C. (SRR),\\1\\ a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to operate, pursuant to an agreement with Cheyenne Logistics Hub, LLC (CLH), all...

  18. Black-swan events in animal populations

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Sean C.; Branch, Trevor A.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Dulvy, Nicholas K.

    2017-01-01

    Black swans?statistically improbable events with profound consequences?happen more often than expected in financial, social, and natural systems. Our work demonstrates the rare but systematic presence of black-swan events in animal populations around the world (mostly birds, mammals, and insects). These events are predominantly downward, implying that unexpected population crashes occur more frequently than increases. Black-swan events are not driven by life history (e.g., lifespan) but by ex...

  19. Drivers of waterfowl population dynamics: from teal to swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, David N.; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Schmutz, Joel A.; Rotella, Jay J.

    2014-01-01

    Waterfowl are among the best studied and most extensively monitored species in the world. Given their global importance for sport and subsistence hunting, viewing and ecosystem functioning, great effort has been devoted since the middle part of the 20th century to understanding both the environmental and demographic mechanisms that influence waterfowl population and community dynamics. Here we use comparative approaches to summarise and contrast our understanding ofwaterfowl population dynamics across species as short-lived as the teal Anas discors and A.crecca to those such as the swans Cygnus sp. which have long life-spans. Specifically, we focus on population responses to vital rate perturbations across life history strategies, discuss bottom-up and top-down responses of waterfowlpopulations to global change, and summarise our current understanding of density dependence across waterfowl species. We close by identifying research needs and highlight ways to overcome the challenges of sustainably managing waterfowl populations in the 21st century.

  20. Accidents, 'black swans' and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxat, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Major accidents and natural disasters with severe consequences have occurred in all sectors of industrial activity with relatively high frequency. The severe consequences of concern involve either significant loss of life or major economic loss, or both loss of life and economic loss. Such events have the last two years been referred to as 'black swan' events following publication of Taleb's bestselling book. These events demonstrate limits to PRA application that arise from the underlying high uncertainty associated with the estimation of frequency of occurrence of such events. An approach is proposed in this paper that, consistent with the concept of defense in depth employed by the nuclear industry, augments probabilistic risk assessment with a methodology based upon 'threat - risk assessment'. This approach shifts these very low frequency high consequence 'black swan' events out of the probabilistic risk assessment domain into a deterministic emergency response assessment domain. (author)

  1. Heartworm of swans and geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.

    1999-01-01

    Heartworm in swans and geese is caused by a filarial nematode or a roundworm of the superfamily Filarioidea which is transmitted to the bird by a biting louse. The nematode and the louse both are parasites. Sarconema eurycerca is the only one of several species of microfilaria or the first stage juvenile of the parasite found in the circulating blood of waterfowl that is known to be pathogenic or cause clinical disease.

  2. Elemental contaminants in livers of mute swans on lakes Erie and St. Clair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Michael L; Petrie, Scott A; Badzinski, Shannon S; Deming, Misty; Chen, Yu-Wei; Belzile, Nelson

    2011-11-01

    Contaminant inputs to the lower Great Lakes (LGL) have decreased since the 1960s and 1970s, but elemental contaminants continue to enter the LGL watershed at levels that are potentially deleterious to migratory waterfowl. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) using the LGL primarily eat plants, are essentially nonmigratory, forage exclusively in aquatic systems, and have increased substantially in number in the last few decades. Therefore, mute swans are an ideal sentinel species for monitoring elemental contaminants available to herbivorous and omnivorous waterfowl that use the LGL. We investigated hepatic concentrations, seasonal dynamics, and correlations of elements in mute swans (n = 50) collected at Long Point, Lake Erie, and Lake St. Clair from 2001 to 2004. Elements detected in liver at levels potentially harmful to waterfowl were copper (Cu) [range 60.3 to 6063.0 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw)] and selenium (SE; range 1.6 to 37.3 μg g(-1) dw). Decreases in aluminum, Se, and mercury (Hg) concentrations were detected from spring (nesting) through winter (nonbreeding). Elemental contaminants may be more available to waterfowl during spring than fall and winter, but study of seasonal availability of elements within LGL aquatic systems is necessary. From April to June, 68% of mute swans had Se levels >10 μg g(-1), whereas only 18% of swans contained these elevated levels of Se from July to March. An increase in the number of mute swans at the LGL despite elevated levels of Cu and Se suggests that these burdens do not substantially limit their reproduction or survival. Se was correlated with Cu (r = 0.85, p < 0.01) and Hg (r = 0.65, p < 0.01), which might indicate interaction between these elements. Some element interactions decrease the toxicity of both elements involved in the interaction. We recommend continued research of elemental contaminant concentrations, including detailed analyses of biological pathways and element forms (e.g., methylmercury) in LGL waterfowl to help

  3. 27 CFR 9.211 - Swan Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swan Creek. 9.211 Section 9.211 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.211 Swan Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural are...

  4. A review of lead poisoning in swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

  5. The CYGNUS extensive air-shower experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.D.; Delay, R.S.; Dion, G.M.; Lu, X.Q.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Berley, D.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Gupta, S.; Krakauer, D.A.; Stark, M.J.; Talaga, R.L. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Burman, R.L.; Butterfield, K.; Cady, R.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Sinnis, C.; Stanislaus, S.; Thompson, T.N.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Zhang, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The CYGNUS extensive air-shower experiment is described. The design criteria, construction and operation details, and performance characteristics are presented. A discussion of the data analysis techniques is given. Finally, several enhancements and improvements in the apparatus are described. (orig.).

  6. Search paths of swans foraging on spatially autocorrelated tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Mooij, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    1. Tundra swans forage on below-ground pondweed tubers that are heterogeneously distributed in space. The swans have no visual cues to delineate patches. It was tested whether swans employ an area-restricted search tactic. Theory predicts that swans should alternate between an intensive (low-speed,

  7. Black Swans æstetiske kvaliteter

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Anna; Sørensen, Line; Clausen, Yunas; Lerche-Jensen, Natascha; van Cuyl Kuylenstierna, Christine; Mikkelsen, Camilla; Kristensen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Projektet beskæftiger sig med Black Swan i forhold til David Bordwells filmteori og Immanuel Kants æstetikteori, som er behandlet med henblik på at undersøge om disse er kompatible trods tidsspændet. Teorierne er brugt til at analysere Black Swans æstetiske kvaliteter. Grundet metodiske overvejelser er Kants teori om det skønne blevet udvidet til ligeledes at omfatte det hæslige, fordi dette utvivlsomt er en stor del af Black Swan, og det er derved nødvendigt, at vi i vores projekt kan dømme ...

  8. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Data: Investigator Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Coordinating Center provides SWAN data access to SWAN Investigators through the study website. The SWAN website provides access to longitudinal data...

  9. Monopoles, muons, neutrinos, and Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Corbato, S.; Kieda, D.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    The deep underground large area scintillation detector and the surface air shower array at the Homestake Gold Mine are now in operation. Beginning in January 1985, the underground detector has been searching for muons from Cygnus X-3; we have seen no excess signal with the characteristic 4.8 hour period from the direction of Cygnus X-3, with an upper limit below that of the NUSEX result. The surface array has been collecting high energy cosmic ray data, in coincidence with the underground detector, since July of 1985. The authors describe the initial surface-underground data, and discuss the experiments to search for magnetic monopolies at the level of the Parker limit, neutrinos, and high energy cosmic ray air showers with these instruments and with a new atmospheric Cerenkov detector

  10. First INTEGRAL observations of Cygnus X-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhu, O.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Zdziarski, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present the first INTEGRAL results on Cyg X-3 from the PV phase observations of the Cygnus region. The source was clearly detected by the JEM-X, ISGRI and SPI. The INTEGRAL observations were supported by simultaneous pointed RXTE observations. Their lightcurves folded over the 4.8 hour binary ...... with parameters similar to those found for black-hole binaries at high Eddington rates....

  11. Radioactivity measurements on live Bewick's Swans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Wollam, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements made on 46 live swans at Slimbridge using portable high resolution hyperpure germanium gamma ray spectrometry equipment are described. Laboratory measurements are also reported on two swans which died of natural causes or of flying accidents. The implications of the measured radioactivity levels are discussed in relation to the suggestion that they might have been affected by the Chernobyl accident on their migration. (UK)

  12. Hiding from swans: optimal burial depth of sago pondweed tubers foraged by Bewick's swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaría, L.; Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    1 We used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to test the hypothesis that the burial depth of Potamogeton pectinatus tubers will vary with local sediment type and swan predation pressure. 2 In the field, mortality due to predation by swans decreased linearly with burial depth (from 100

  13. MINIX SYSTEM TRANSPORTATION TO CYGNUS COMPUTER

    OpenAIRE

    GUILHERMO ESTEBAN SOSA BELTRAN

    1988-01-01

    O sistema operacional MINIX é uma nova implementação do sistema UNIX, versão 7, feito para fins didáticos. Ele está formado por uma coleção de processos, estruturados em 4 niveis: administração de processos, processos básicos do sistema, processos servidores de memória e arquivos, e processos usuários. A presente dissertação descreve o transporte do sistema MINIX, do microcomputador IBM PC XT para o computador CYGNUS do laboratório de Sistema de Computação do D...

  14. Statistical characteristics of breakthrough discoveries in science using the metaphor of black and white swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Carl J.; Qi, Eric P.; Li, Simon S.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Ye, Fred Y.

    2017-12-01

    A publication that reports a breakthrough discovery in a particular scientific field is referred to as a ;black swan;, and the most highly-cited papers previously published in the same field ;white swans;. Important scientific progress occurs when ;white swans; meet a ;black swan;, and the citation patterns of the ;white swans; change. This metaphor combines scientific discoveries and scientometric data and suggests that breakthrough scientific discoveries are either ;black swans; or ;grey-black swans;.

  15. Identification of Two novel reassortant avian influenza a (H5N6) viruses in whooper swans in Korea, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; Woo, Chanjin; Ip, Hon S; An, Injung; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kwanghee; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; Lee, Saemi; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeonghwa; Sleeman, Jonathan; Jheong, Weonhwa

    2017-03-21

    On November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identification of HPAIVs in wild birds is significant as there is a potential risk of transmission of these viruses to poultry and humans. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Gangjin H5N6 viruses classified into Asian H5 clade 2.3.4.4 lineage and were distinguishable from H5N8 and H5N1 HPAIVs previously isolated in Korea. With the exception of the polymerase acidic (PA) gene, the viruses were most closely related to A/duck/Guangdong/01.01SZSGXJK005-Y/2016 (H5N6) (98.90 ~ 99.74%). The PA genes of the two novel Gangjin H5N6 viruses were most closely related to AIV isolates previously characterized from Korea, A/hooded crane/Korea/1176/2016 (H1N1) (99.16%) and A/environment/Korea/W133/2006 (H7N7) (98.65%). The lack of more recent viruses to A/environment/Korea/W133/2006 (H7N7) indicates the need for analysis of recent wild bird AIVs isolated in Korea because they might provide further clues as to the origin of these novel reassortant H5N6 viruses. Although research on the origins and epidemiology of these infections is ongoing, the most likely route of infection for the whooper swans was through direct or indirect contact with reassortant viruses shed by migratory wild birds in Korea. As H5N6 HPAIVs can potentially be transmitted to poultry and humans, continuous monitoring of AIVs among wild birds will help to mitigate this risk.

  16. Dendropsophin 1, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the skin secretion of the endemic Colombian frog Dendropsophus columbianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Vidal, Luz Elena; Castro, Mariana Souza; Pires Júnior, Osmindo Rodrigues; Álvares, Alice Cunha Morales; de Freitas, Sonia Maria; Fontes, Wagner; Vargas, Jimmy Alexander Guerrero; Zúñiga-Baos, Jorge Alberto; Correia Batista, Isabel de Fátima; Grellier, Philippe; Charneau, Sébastien

    2018-06-01

    In efforts to find new antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), we studied the skin secretion of the endemic Colombian frog Dendropsophus columbianus belonging to a genus that has not been investigated previously. From HPLC-fractionated secretion, we identified one peptide with slightly antibacterial activity. Its peptide sequence showed no sequence similarity to current annotated peptides. We named this novel peptide dendropsophin 1 (Dc1). Afterward, two analogues were designed (Dc1.1 and Dc1.2) to improve the cationic and amphipathic features. Then, their antiproliferative and cytotoxic properties were evaluated against several pathogens including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and also mammalian cells. Dc1 and its two analogues exhibited moderate antibacterial activities and no hemolytic and cytotoxic effects on mammalian cells. Analogue Dc1.2 showed slightly improved antibacterial properties. Their secondary structures were characterised using CD spectroscopy and Dc1.2 displayed a higher α-helix content and thermal stability compared to Dc1 and Dc1.1 in hydrophobic experimental conditions.

  17. SWANS: A Prototypic SCALE Criticality Sequence for Automated Optimization Using the SWAN Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    2001-01-01

    SWANS is a new prototypic analysis sequence that provides an intelligent, semi-automatic search for the maximum k eff of a given amount of specified fissile material, or of the minimum critical mass. It combines the optimization strategy of the SWAN code with the composition-dependent resonance self-shielded cross sections of the SCALE package. For a given system composition arrived at during the iterative optimization process, the value of k eff is as accurate and reliable as obtained using the CSAS1X Sequence of SCALE-4.4. This report describes how SWAN is integrated within the SCALE system to form the new prototypic optimization sequence, describes the optimization procedure, provides a user guide for SWANS, and illustrates its application to five different types of problems. In addition, the report illustrates that resonance self-shielding might have a significant effect on the maximum k eff value a given fissile material mass can have

  18. Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiyama, Genta; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio; Hagey, Lee R; Schteingart, Claudio D; Hofmann, Alan F

    2006-07-01

    By HPLC, a taurine-conjugated bile acid with a retention time different from that of taurocholate was found to be present in the bile of the black-necked swan, Cygnus melanocoryphus. The bile acid was isolated and its structure, established by (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry, was that of the taurine N-acyl amidate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. The compound was shown to have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties that were identical to those of the taurine conjugate of authentic 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid, previously synthesized by us from ursodeoxycholic acid. By HPLC, the taurine conjugate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid was found to be present in 6 of 6 species in the subfamily Dendrocygninae (tree ducks) and in 10 of 13 species in the subfamily Anserinae (swans and geese) but not in other subfamilies in the Anatidae family. It was also not present in species from the other two families of the order Anseriformes. 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid is a new primary bile acid that is present in the biliary bile acids of swans, tree ducks, and geese and may be termed 15alpha-hydroxy-chenodeoxycholic acid.

  19. Free Will, Black Swans and Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Ted; Wiers, Reinout W

    2017-01-01

    The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black. We argue that, for example, people suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome, can be described as having a brain disease, often caused by alcohol addiction. Moreover, the brain changes occurring with addiction are related to choice-behaviour (and the related notions of willed action), habit formation and insight, hence essential mental abilities to break the addiction. We argue for a more graded perspective, where both black swans (severe brain disease which makes recovery virtually impossible) and white swans (unaffected brain) are rare, and most cases of addiction come as geese in different shades of gray.

  20. A status report on Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eardley, D.M.; Lightman, A.P.; Shakura, N.I.; Shapiro, S.L.; Sunyaev, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Detailed models of gas flow and X-ray production are discussed, but it is concluded that the strongest argument in favour of a black hole is that Cygnus X-1 is a compact object, and has a mass larger than that allowed for a neutron star or white dwarf. Evidence for the former feature is associated with the observation of very rapid time variability in X-rays. Evidence for the latter follows from a union of various types of observations of the Cyg X-1 star system, in which the visible star is the single-line spectroscopic binary HDE 226868, a normal supergiant. The evidence is reviewed under the following headings: geometry of the accretion flow; emission mechanism; time variability. (U.K.)

  1. Lead poisoning and other mortality factors in trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Stroud, R.K.; Reiswig, B.; McEneaney, T.

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning and other causes of mortality of trumpeter swans were investigated. Necropsies or Pb concentrations in livers were available for 72 trumpeter swans found dead in seven western states from 1976 to 1987; data from other published and unpublished sources also are summarized. Ingestion of lead artifacts accounted for about 20% of the known mortality of trumpeter swans in the tri-state area of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming, where the population has been declining for several decades.

  2. The Cygnus region of the galaxy: A VERITAS perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cygnus-X star-forming region (“Cygnus” is the richest star-forming region within 2 kpc of Earth and is home to a wealth of potential cosmic ray accelerators, including supernova remnants, massive star clusters, and pulsar wind nebulae. Over the past five years, discoveries by several gamma-ray observatories sensitive in different energy bands, including the identification by Fermi-LAT of a potential cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays, have pinpointed this region as a unique laboratory for studying the early phases of the cosmic ray life cycle. From 2007 to 2009 VERITAS, a very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV observatory in southern Arizona, undertook an extensive survey of the Cygnus region from 67 to 82 degrees Galactic longitude and from −1 to 4 degrees in Galactic latitude. In the years since, VERITAS has continued to accumulate data at specific locations within the survey region. We will review the discoveries and insights that this rich dataset has already provided. We will also consider the key role that we expect these data to play in interpreting the complex multiwavelength picture we have of the Cygnus region, particularly in the vicinity of the Cygnus cocoon. As part of this discussion we will summarize ongoing studies of VERITAS data in the Cygnus region, including the development of new data analysis techniques that dramatically increase VERITAS' sensitivity to sources on scales larger than a square degree.

  3. A Multiwavelength Study of Cygnus X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, M. L; Robinson, C. R.; Zhang, S. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Harmon, B. A.; Hjellming, R. M.; Rupen, M.; Waltman, E. B.; Foster, R. S.; Ghigo, F. D.

    1997-01-01

    We present a global comparison of long term observations of the hard X-ray (20-100 keV), soft X-ray (1.5-12 keV), infrared (1-2 micron) and radio (2.25, 8.3 and 15 GHz) bands for the unusual X-ray binary Cygnus X-3. Data were obtained in the hard X-ray band from CGRO/BATSE, in the soft X-ray band from Rossi Xray Timing Explorer (RXTE)/ASM, in the radio band from the Green Bank Interferometer and Ryle Telescope and in the infrared band from various ground based observatories. Radio flares, quenched radio states and quiescent radio emission can all be associated with changes in the hard and soft X-ray intensity. The injection of plasma into the radio jet is directly related to changes in the hard and soft X-ray emission. The infrared observations are examined in the context of these findings.

  4. Searching for self-enrichment in Cygnus OB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlanas, Sara R.; Herrero, Artemio; Comerón, Fernando; Pasquali, Anna; Simón-Díaz, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Cygnus OB2 is a rich and relatively close (d~1.4 kpc) OB association in our Galaxy. It represents an ideal testbed for our theories about self-enrichment processes produced by pollution of the interstellar medium by successive generations of massive stars. Comerón & Pasquali (2012, A&A, 543, A101) found a correlation between the age of young stellar groups in Cygnus OB2 and their Galactic longitude. If is associated with a chemical composition gradient, it could support these self-enrichment processes.

  5. When is the Swan Knight not the Swan Knight? 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Alastair

    2017-01-01

    when contextualizing Berthold, describing instead an apparent reworking of the Swan Knight story in Demantin. The article thereby reassesses Berthold’s significance, proposing that research on European literatures would be better able to deal with such authors if it deployed an abstract concept...

  6. SWANS: A Prototypic SCALE Criticality Sequence for Automated Optimization Using the SWAN Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, E.

    2001-01-11

    SWANS is a new prototypic analysis sequence that provides an intelligent, semi-automatic search for the maximum k{sub eff} of a given amount of specified fissile material, or of the minimum critical mass. It combines the optimization strategy of the SWAN code with the composition-dependent resonance self-shielded cross sections of the SCALE package. For a given system composition arrived at during the iterative optimization process, the value of k{sub eff} is as accurate and reliable as obtained using the CSAS1X Sequence of SCALE-4.4. This report describes how SWAN is integrated within the SCALE system to form the new prototypic optimization sequence, describes the optimization procedure, provides a user guide for SWANS, and illustrates its application to five different types of problems. In addition, the report illustrates that resonance self-shielding might have a significant effect on the maximum k{sub eff} value a given fissile material mass can have.

  7. Offspring sex ratios in relation to mutual ornamentation and extra-pair paternity in the Black Swan Cygnus atratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Ming, Ma; Komdeur, Jan; Mulder, Raoul A.

    In sexually dichromatic birds, females may adaptively adjust the sex ratio of their offspring prior to hatching in relation to male ornamentation, for example, by producing more sons when paired to a highly attractive partner. However, to our knowledge no studies have investigated offspring sex

  8. Cosmic ray observations of Cygnus X-3: some theoretical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Halzen, F.

    1986-01-01

    We describe how the discovery of surface showers from Cygnus X-3 and other compact X-ray binaries may resolve the long-standing question of the origin of cosmic rays above 10 15 eV. In contrast, we show how possible underground muon observations raise rather than answer questions. 5 figs.; 17 refs

  9. Unexpected observations of muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbert, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    One surface experiment (Kiel) and two underground experiments (Soudan and Mt. Blanc) have detected unexpectedly large fluxes of cosmic ray muons from the approximate direction of Cygnus X-3, with signals showing the precise period of the system. The muon signals cannot be produced by any known type of elementary particle unless unexpected processes are involved

  10. CYGNUS X-3: ITS LITTLE FRIEND’S COUNTERPART, THE DISTANCE TO CYGNUS X-3, AND OUTFLOWS/JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollough, M. L.; Dunham, M. M. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Corrales, L., E-mail: mmccollough@cfa.harvard.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Chandra observations have revealed a feature within 16″ of Cygnus X-3 that varied in phase with Cygnus X-3. This feature was shown to be a Bok globule that is along the line of sight to Cygnus X-3. We report on observations made with the Submillimeter Array to search for molecular emission from this globule, also known as Cygnus X-3's “Little Friend.” We have found a counterpart in both {sup 12}CO (2-1) and {sup 13}CO (2-1) emission. From the velocity shift of the molecular lines we are able to find two probable distances based on the Bayesian model of Milky Way kinematics of Reid et al. For the LF velocity of −47.5 km s{sup −1}, we find distances of 6.1 ± 0.6 kpc (62% probability) and 7.8 ± 0.6 kpc (38% probability). This yields distances to Cyg X-3 of 7.4 ± 1.1 kpc and 10.2 ± 1.2 kpc, respectively. Based on the probabilities entailed, we take 7.4 ± 1.1 kpc as the preferred distance to Cyg X-3. We also report the discovery of bipolar molecular outflow, suggesting that there is active star formation occurring within the Little Friend.

  11. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Catherine J; Jessop, Tim S; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  12. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Payne

    Full Text Available Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  13. SWAN: a Service for Interactive Analysis in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piparo, Danilo; Mato, Pere; Mascetti, Luca; Moscicki, Jakub; Lamanna, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    SWAN (Service for Web based ANalysis) is a platform to perform interactive data analysis in the cloud. SWAN allows users to write and run their data analyses with only a web browser, leveraging on the widely-adopted Jupyter notebook interface. The user code, executions and data live entirely in the cloud. SWAN makes it easier to produce and share results and scientific code, access scientific software, produce tutorials and demonstrations as well as preserve analyses. Furthermore, it is also a powerful tool for non-scientific data analytics. This paper describes how a pilot of the SWAN service was implemented and deployed at CERN. Its backend combines state-of-the-art software technologies with a set of existing IT services such as user authentication, virtual computing infrastructure, mass storage, file synchronisation and sharing, specialised clusters and batch systems. The added value of this combination of services is discussed, with special focus on the opportunities offered by the CERNBox service and it...

  14. User's Manual for the Simulating Waves Nearshore Model (SWAN)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model is a numerical wave model used to obtain realistic estimates of wave parameters in coastal areas, lakes, and estuaries from given wind, bottom, and current conditions...

  15. Underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, K.; Marshak, M.L.; Peterson, E.A.; Ruddick, K.; Shupe, M.

    1989-01-01

    We report on 3.2 years live time of underground muon observations taken between 1981 and 1989 using the Soudan 1 proportional tube detector, located at a depth of 1800 m water equivalent. The post-1984 observations are consistent with our earlier data on an excess signal apparently correlated with the Cygnus X-3 orbital period. The signal-to-background ratio in the entire data sample is 1 to 3 percent, depending on phase width. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. The status of the CYGNUS experiment: Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, T.J.; Berley, D.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Goodman, J.A.; Stark, M. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA)); Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.; Sandberg, V.D.; Wilkinson, C.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.; Dion, G.M.; Lu, X.Q.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B. (California Univ., Irvine (USA)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (USA)); CYGNUS Collaboration

    1990-03-01

    The CYGNUS experiment, located in Los Alamos, NM, has been continuously operating since April 2, 1986. The experiment consists of an air shower array and an associated 44 m{sup 2} detector; its large size, good angular resolution, muon detection, and low energy threshold make it a unique experiment among those currently operating. The experiment has undergone continuous expansion in several stages since it began operation. The experiment, its expansion, and further plans for the future will be described. (orig.).

  17. Difficulties with interpretation of underground muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinskij, V.S.; Ioffe, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A possibility are analysed to explain the underground muon flux detected from Cygnus X-3, using new particles (cygnets). The following constraints on the cygnet properties are obtained: on the life-time τ>1.3x10 6 (Γ/10 6 )s where Γ is the cygnet Lorentz factor, on the mass, m 7 e and on the mean scattering angle (due to an arbitrary process) on the way from Cygnus X-3 to the Sun Θ -3 grad. It is shown that the NUSEX data (the angular spread of muons within 10 0 x10 0 box of observation and the dependence of the Cygnus X-3 exposition time on the depth of the matter along the observation line) contradict muon generation in the atmosphere and require muon generation in the ground. These data determine narrow boundaries for the cygnet-nucleon interaction cross section 2μb 10(E c /1TeV) 1.1 μb where E c is the energy of cygnets responsible for the muon flux observed by NUSEX

  18. Cygnus X-3 transition from the ultrasoft to the hard state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, V.; Soldi, S.; Belanger, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. The nature of Cygnus X-3 is still not understood well. This binary system might host a black hole or a neutron star. Recent observations by INTEGRAL have shown that Cygnus X- 3 was again in an extremely ultrasoft state. Here we present our analysis of the transition from the ultrasoft state...

  19. The SWAN coupling code: user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.

    1988-11-01

    Coupling of slow waves in a plasma near the lower hybrid frequency is well known and linear theory with density step followed by a constant gradient can be used with some confidence. With the aid of the computer code SWAN, which stands for 'Slow Wave Antenna', the following parameters can be numerically calculated: n parallel power spectrum, directivity (weighted by the current drive efficiency), reflection coefficients (amplitude and phase) both before and after the E-plane junctions, scattering matrix at the plasma interface, scattering matrix at the E-plane junctions, maximum electric fields in secondary waveguides and location where it occurs, effect of passive waveguides on each side of the antenna, and the effect of a finite magnetic field in front of the antenna (for homogeneous plasma). This manual gives the basic information on the main assumptions of the coupling theory and on the use and general structure of the code itself. It answers the questions what are the main assumptions of the physical model? how to execute a job? what are the input parameters of the code? and what are the output results and where are they written? (author)

  20. Black swans and dragon kings: A unified model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-09-01

    The term “black swan” is a metaphor for outlier events whose statistics are characterized by Pareto's Law and by Zipf's Law; namely, statistics governed by power-law tails. The term “dragon king” is a metaphor for a singular outlier event which, in comparison with all other outlier events, is in a league of its own. As an illustrative example consider the wealth of a family that is sampled at random from a medieval society: the nobility constitutes the black-swan category, and the royal family constitutes the dragon-king category. In this paper we present and analyze a dynamical model that generates, universally and jointly, black swans and dragon kings. According to this model, growing from the microscopic scale to the macroscopic scale, black swans and dragon kings emerge together and invariantly with respect to initial conditions.

  1. UHE Cosmic Ray Observations Using the Cygnus Water - Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Cynthia L.

    1995-01-01

    The CYGNUS water-Cerenkov array, consisting of five surface water-Cerenkov detectors, was built in the CYGNUS extensive air shower array at Los Alamos, New Mexico (latitude 36^circ N, longitude 107^circ W, altitude 2310 meters) to search for point sources of ultra-high energy particles (>1014 eV per particle) with the CYGNUS extensive air shower array. The water-Cerenkov detectors are used to improve the angular resolution of the extensive air shower array. This experiment searches for point sources of UHE gamma-radiation that may be of galactic or extra-galactic origin. The data set from December 1991 to January 1994 consists of data from both the water-Cerenkov array and the CYGNUS extensive air shower array. These data are combined, and the angular resolution of this combined data set is measured to be 0.34^circ+0.03 ^circ-0.04^circ. The measurement is made by observing the cosmic-ray shadowing of the Sun and the Moon. Using a subset of these data, three potential sources of UHE emission are studied: the Crab Pulsar, and the active galactic nuclei Markarian 421 and Markarian 501. A search is conducted for continuous emission from these three sources, and emission over shorter time scales. This experiment is particularly sensitive to emission over these shorter time scales. There is no evidence of UHE emission from these three sources over any time scales studied, and upper bounds to the flux of gamma radiation are determined. The flux upper limit for continuous emission from the Crab Pulsar is found to be 1.2times10^ {-13}/rm cm^2/s above 70 TeV. The flux upper limit for continuous emission from Markarian 421 is found to be 1.3times10^ {-13}/rm cm^2/s above 50 TeV. The flux upper limit for continuous emission from Markarian 501 is found to be 3.8times10^ {-13}/rm cm^2/s above 50 TeV.

  2. The 17-d periodicity of Cygnus X-3; and Reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, A.J.; Holt, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Some comments are offered on the communication by Holt and others (Nature; 260:592 (1976)) reporting a possible 16.75 day periodicity in the flux of Cygnus X-3. The present author states that he has subjected Holt's data to digitisation and power spectrum analysis, with the results shown, and states that there is about a 50% likelihood of the existence of a 16.75 day periodicity. This periodicity, if real, would account for about 10% of the fluctuations and have an r.m.s. amplitude of about 4% of the total flux. A reply by Holt is appended. (U.K.)

  3. Long term variability of HDE 226868 = Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liller, W.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of blue-sensitive photographs of HDE 226868 = Cygnus X-1 reveal no (+-0.06 mag) long-term changes in brightness since the beginning of the century nor any abrupt intensity changes similar to what has been observed at x-ray and radio frequencies. From the double sinusoidal fluctuation with 5.6 day period, an attempt is made to derive a more precise value for the orbital period, but problems are encountered and discussed. There exists evidence that the amplitude of the orbital fluctuations is increasing slowly with time

  4. Study of underground muons during the January 1991 radio flare of Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Dye, S.T.; Gajewski, W.; Goldhaber, M.; Haines, T.J.; Halverson, P.G.; Kielczewska, D.; Kropp, W.R.; Learned, J.G.; LoSecco, J.M.; Matsuno, S.; McGrath, G.; McGrew, C.; Miller, R.S.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.W.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Svoboda, R.

    1993-01-01

    Muons recorded by the IMB proton decay detector during the radio outburst from Cygnus X-3 in January 1991 are studied. Data are examined for both aperiodic excesses and those phase modulated at the x-ray period of Cygnus X-3. No correlation between the muon data and Cygnus X-3 is found. Further, this observation provides flux limits of Φ 90% C.L.≤2x10 -10 μ cm -2 s -1 at 1570 meters of water equivalent on the 20th and 23rd, in contrast with other reported signals

  5. ADDITIONAL MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Ewing, Ian; Lundquist, Michael; Alexander, Michael; Vargas-Alvarez, Carlos; Choi, Heather; Bagley Kiminki, Megan M.; Henderson, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery and orbital solutions for two new OB binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association, MT311 (B2V + B3V) and MT605 (B0.5V + B2.5:V). We also identify the system MT429 as a probable triple system consisting of a tight eclipsing 2.97 day B3V+B6V pair and a B0V at a projected separation of 138 AU. We further provide the first spectroscopic orbital solutions to the eclipsing, double-lined, O-star binary MT696 (O9.5V + B1:V), the double-lined, early B binary MT720 (B0-1V + B1-2V), and the double-lined, O-star binary MT771 (O7V + O9V). These systems exhibit orbital periods between 1.5 days and 12.3 days, with the majority having P <6 days. The two new binary discoveries and six spectroscopic solutions bring the total number of known massive binaries in the central region of the Cygnus OB2 Association to 20, with all but two having full orbital solutions.

  6. ADDITIONAL MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Ewing, Ian; Lundquist, Michael; Alexander, Michael; Vargas-Alvarez, Carlos; Choi, Heather [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070 (United States); Bagley Kiminki, Megan M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Henderson, C. B. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We report the discovery and orbital solutions for two new OB binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association, MT311 (B2V + B3V) and MT605 (B0.5V + B2.5:V). We also identify the system MT429 as a probable triple system consisting of a tight eclipsing 2.97 day B3V+B6V pair and a B0V at a projected separation of 138 AU. We further provide the first spectroscopic orbital solutions to the eclipsing, double-lined, O-star binary MT696 (O9.5V + B1:V), the double-lined, early B binary MT720 (B0-1V + B1-2V), and the double-lined, O-star binary MT771 (O7V + O9V). These systems exhibit orbital periods between 1.5 days and 12.3 days, with the majority having P <6 days. The two new binary discoveries and six spectroscopic solutions bring the total number of known massive binaries in the central region of the Cygnus OB2 Association to 20, with all but two having full orbital solutions.

  7. Variability of Massive Young Stellar Objects in Cygnus-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy H.; Hora, J. L.; Smith, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Young stellar objects (YSOs) are stars in the process of formation. Several recent investigations have shown a high rate of photometric variability in YSOs at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Theoretical models for the formation of massive stars (1-10 solar masses) remain highly idealized, and little is known about the mechanisms that produce the variability. An ongoing Spitzer Space Telescope program is studying massive star formation in the Cygnus-X region. In conjunction with the Spitzer observations, we have conducted a ground-based near-infrared observing program of the Cygnus-X DR21 field using PAIRITEL, the automated infrared telescope at Whipple Observatory. Using the Stetson index for variability, we identified variable objects and a number of variable YSOs in our time-series PAIRITEL data of DR21. We have searched for periodicity among our variable objects using the Lomb-Scargle algorithm, and identified periodic variable objects with an average period of 8.07 days. Characterization of these variable and periodic objects will help constrain models of star formation present. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 0754568 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  8. Susan swan and the female grotesque Susan swan and the female grotesque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Bornéo Funck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics. Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics.

  9. The black swan the impact of the highly improbable

    CERN Document Server

    Taleb, Nassim Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    A black swan is a highly improbable event with three principal characteristics: It is unpredictable; it carries a massive impact; and, after the fact, we concoct an explanation that makes it appear less random, and more predictable, than it was. The astonishing success of Google was a black swan; so was 9/11. For Nassim Nicholas Taleb, black swans underlie almost everything about our world, from the rise of religions to events in our own personal lives. Why do we not acknowledge the phenomenon of black swans until after they occur? Part of the answer, according to Taleb, is that humans are hardwired to learn specifics when they should be focused on generalities. We concentrate on things we already know and time and time again fail to take into consideration what we don’t know. We are, therefore, unable to truly estimate opportunities, too vulnerable to the impulse to simplify, narrate, and categorize, and not open enough to rewarding those who can imagine the “impossible.” For years, Taleb has studi...

  10. Betsy Byars'"The Summer of the Swans."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Pat

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the plot of "The Summer of the Swans," the 1971 Newbery Medal winner; provides discussion questions; outlines activities in drama, art, and language arts; and provides an annotated bibliography of picture books, fiction, and nonfiction dealing with physical, mental, and emotional disabilities. Includes an interview with Betsy…

  11. The use of a wave boundary layer model in SWAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2017-01-01

    A Wave Boundary Layer Model (WBLM) is implemented in the third-generation ocean wave model SWAN to improve the wind-input source function under idealized, fetch-limited condition. Accordingly, the white capping dissipation parameters are re-calibrated to fit the new wind-input source function...

  12. Search for underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3 in the Frejus detector. Cygnus X-3 at high energies: to be or not to be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chardin, G.

    1987-04-01

    The 900 ton Frejus calorimetric detector is described; it comprises one million detection flash and Geiger tubes. The Cygnus X-3 system is described at low energy, and particularly in the X-ray and radio range where its observation is well established. The analysis realized with the data accumulated by the Frejus detector is presented in order to search for muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3. This negative result is compared to that of the other underground experiments. This result is shown to be clearly in contradiction with the observation reported by the NUSEX experiment, in similar experimental conditions. The widely accepted observations from Cygnus X-3 at high energies are reevaluated in a critical review. It is shown that, in all energy ranges above 1 MeV, the observations cannot be considered as convincing. Concerning the satellite based experiments, the positive result reported by the SAS-2 group can be made compatible with the negative result by the COS-B experiment if the gamma-ray background in the vicinity of Cygnus X-3 is reinterpreted. In the domain of atmospheric Cerenkov experiments, it is shown that none of the observations is convincing and that the agreement between these experiments is only superficial. Air shower experiments appear to present important contradictions. It has been proposed that the emission of Cygnus X-3 could be decreasing with a characteristic time of a few years; a more convincing interpretation is proposed. The fact that the source escapes a totally convincing detection with such a regularity is shown to be highly improbable. Finally, the characteristics of experiments which would allow an inambiguous detection of Cygnus X-3 at high energies are reviewed [fr

  13. Jets from Young Stars in Cygnus-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    How do you spot very young, newly formed stars? One giveaway is the presence of jets and outflows that interact with the stars environments. In a new study, scientists have now discovered an unprecedented number of these outflows in a nearby star-forming region of our galaxy.Young Stars Hard at WorkCO map of the Cygnus-X region of the galactic plane, with the grid showing the UWISH2 coverage and the black triangles showing the positions of the detected outflows. [Makin Froebrich 2018]The birth and evolution of young stars is a dynamic, energetic process. As new stars form, material falls inward from the accretion disks surrounding young stellar objects, or YSOs. This material can power collimated streams of gas and dust that flow out along the stars rotation axes, plowing through the surrounding material. Where the outflows collide with the outside environment, shocks form that can be spotted in near-infrared hydrogen emission.Though weve learned a lot about these outflows, there remain a number of open questions. What factors govern their properties, such as their lengths, luminosities, and orientations? What is the origin of the emission features we see within the jets, known as knots? What roles do the driving sources and the environments play in the behavior and appearance of the jets?A selection of previously unknown outflows discovered as a result of this survey. Click for a closer look. [Makin Froebrich 2018]To answer these questions, we need to build a large, unbiased statistical sample of YSOs from across the galactic plane. Now, a large infrared survey known as the UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for H2 (UWISH2) is working toward that goal.Jackpot in Cygnus-XIn a recent publication, Sally Makin and Dirk Froebrich (University of Kent, UK), present results from UWISH2s latest release: a survey segment targeting a 42-square-degree region in the galactic plane known as the Cygnus-X star-forming region.The teams search for shock-excited emission in Cygnus

  14. The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-01-01

    Remarkably, an astronomical black hole is completely described by the two numbers that specify its mass and its spin. Knowledge of spin is crucial for understanding how, for example, black holes produce relativistic jets. Recently, it has become possible to measure the spins of black holes by focusing on the very inner region of an accreting disk of hot gas orbiting the black hole. According to General Relativity (GR), this disk is truncated at an inner radius 1 that depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. We measure the radius of the inner edge of this disk by fitting its continuum X-ray spectrum to a fully relativistic model. Using our measurement of this radius, we deduce that the spin of Cygnus X-1 exceeds 97% of the maximum value allowed by GR.

  15. Pion production In The Inner Disk Around Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirelles Filho, C.; Miyake, H.; Timoteo, V.S.; Lima, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron production via 4He breakup and p(p, nπ+)p is considered in the innermost region of an accretion disk surrounding a Kerr Black Hole. Close to the horizon, the contribution from p(p, nπ+)p to the neutron production is comparable to that from the breakup. It is shown that the viscosity generated by the collisions of the accreting matter with the neutrons may drive stationary accretion, for accretion rates below a critical value. In this case, solution to the disk equations is double-valued and for both solutions protons overnumber the pairs. We suggest that these solutions may mimic the states of high and low luminosity observed in Cygnus X-1

  16. Hard X-ray observation of cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendziorra, E.; Staubert, R.; Reppin, C.; Pietsch, W.; Truemper, J.; Voges, W.

    1979-05-01

    During a balloon observation on October 18, 1977 the high energy X-ray spectrum (20 - 90 keV) of Cyg X-3 has been measured with high statistical accuracy. It is found to be consistent with a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with kT = 17.5 +3.1/-2.6 keV or a power law Esup(γ) of the differential photon flux spectrum with γ=3.6 +-0.3. The extrapolation of the observed spectrum to approximately 100 MeV yields a gamma ray intensity which is at least three orders of magnitude below the intensity found by SAS-2 (Lamb et al. 1977). This indicates that the overall spectral behaviour of Cygnus X-3 is much different from that of the Crab- and Vela-pulsar. (orig.) [de

  17. The Black Swan and the owl of Minerva: Nassim Nicholas Taleb and the historians

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    In The Black Swan, Nassim Nicholas Taleb considers the importance in human affairs of "Black Swan" events of low probability but high impact. In the process he argues, in a confrontational manner, that historians' causal narratives are mainly invalid on a number of grounds but especially because the unpredictability of Black Swan (or other) events implies that subsequent narratives connecting events are merely "good-sounding stories". This article analyses Taleb's arguments against historical...

  18. Implications of black swans to the foundations and practice of risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how to deal with black swans in a risk context. A black swan is here understood as a surprising extreme event relative to one's knowledge/beliefs, and can be of different types: a) unknown unknowns, b) unknown knowns (we do not have the knowledge but others do) and c) events that are judged to have a negligible probability of occurrence and thus are not believed to occur. In the article, we review the current approaches for confronting black swans, the aim being to gain new insights by addressing the three types of black swans separately, motivated by the fact that they require different types of measures. The main conclusions of the article are that there is a need to i) extend the current risk conceptualisation and treatment frameworks to include the black swan risk, ii) develop a new generation of risk assessment and decision support methods that place more emphasis on the black swan risk and iii) better understand what analysis captures and what lies within the management domain. - Highlights: • The article provides further clarifications on the meaning of black swans. • It reviews and discusses current approaches for confronting black swans. • It provides new insights by addressing three types of black swans separately. • It points to the need for improvements on concepts, assessment and management

  19. Blood chemistry of wild Brazilian Coscoroba Swans during molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabuig, Cecilia Pérez; Ferrer, Miguel; Muriel, Roberto

    2010-04-01

    The Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) is an unusual member of the Anatidae found in South America, from the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego through Chile and Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay as far north as Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. The species is not threatened globally, but some local populations have declined and the status of others is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the plasma chemistry of a wild population of Coscoroba Swans in southern Brazil during their molting period. We captured 12 chicks, 14 juveniles, and 31 mature birds. The following blood parameters were measured: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, creatine-kinase, aspartate amino transferase, alanine-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and pancreatic amylase. Significant differences between males and females were not observed for any of the parameters, and only the levels of alkaline phosphatase differed significantly among age groups.

  20. Accidents, 'black swans' and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxat, J.C. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Major accidents and natural disasters with severe consequences have occurred in all sectors of industrial activity with relatively high frequency. The severe consequences of concern involve either significant loss of life or major economic loss, or both loss of life and economic loss. Such events have the last two years been referred to as 'black swan' events following publication of Taleb's bestselling book. These events demonstrate limits to PRA application that arise from the underlying high uncertainty associated with the estimation of frequency of occurrence of such events. An approach is proposed in this paper that, consistent with the concept of defense in depth employed by the nuclear industry, augments probabilistic risk assessment with a methodology based upon 'threat - risk assessment'. This approach shifts these very low frequency high consequence 'black swan' events out of the probabilistic risk assessment domain into a deterministic emergency response assessment domain. (author)

  1. Multimedia information processing in the SWAN mobile networked computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prathima; Hyden, Eoin; Krzyzanowsji, Paul; Srivastava, Mani B.; Trotter, John

    1996-03-01

    Anytime anywhere wireless access to databases, such as medical and inventory records, can simplify workflow management in a business, and reduce or even eliminate the cost of moving paper documents. Moreover, continual progress in wireless access technology promises to provide per-user bandwidths of the order of a few Mbps, at least in indoor environments. When combined with the emerging high-speed integrated service wired networks, it enables ubiquitous and tetherless access to and processing of multimedia information by mobile users. To leverage on this synergy an indoor wireless network based on room-sized cells and multimedia mobile end-points is being developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories. This research network, called SWAN (Seamless Wireless ATM Networking), allows users carrying multimedia end-points such as PDAs, laptops, and portable multimedia terminals, to seamlessly roam while accessing multimedia data streams from the wired backbone network. A distinguishing feature of the SWAN network is its use of end-to-end ATM connectivity as opposed to the connectionless mobile-IP connectivity used by present day wireless data LANs. This choice allows the wireless resource in a cell to be intelligently allocated amongst various ATM virtual circuits according to their quality of service requirements. But an efficient implementation of ATM in a wireless environment requires a proper mobile network architecture. In particular, the wireless link and medium-access layers need to be cognizant of the ATM traffic, while the ATM layers need to be cognizant of the mobility enabled by the wireless layers. This paper presents an overview of SWAN's network architecture, briefly discusses the issues in making ATM mobile and wireless, and describes initial multimedia applications for SWAN.

  2. Society environmental economic benefits of swan-labelled workwear service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Dall, Ole; Thomsen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental and socio-economic comparison of textile supply of workwear with and without the Nordic Swan labelling scheme. The study is part of a project for development of a methodology for the environmental and socio-economic comparison for product groups. The study...... is transferred into economic impacts demonstrating a substantial saving for the society when purchasing the eco-labelled service....

  3. Migration strategies of Swan Geese Anser cygnoides from northeast Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Prosser, Diann J.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2011-01-01

    In 2006–2008, 25 Swan Geese Anser cygnoides were marked with solar-powered GPS satellite transmitters in northeast Mongolia to examine the timing and pathways of their migration. Most geese began their autumn migration in August, flying southeast toward a staging area at the Yalu River Estuary on the China-North Korea border. After staging for several weeks, the Swan Geese continued to their wintering grounds at wetlands along the Yangtze River Basin of eastern China in December. Spring migration commenced in late February, and the birds following either a same-route or loop migration to arrive at the breeding grounds in mid April. Swan Geese used a larger number of staging areas for a longer duration when they were north of 42°N latitude; they seemed to avoid staging for extended periods in the highly urbanised areas of eastern China. Further research should examine threats and disturbances to the geese in relation to human population growth and increasing urbanisation.

  4. Black Swans and the Effectiveness of Remediating Groundwater Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. I.; Otz, M. H.; Otz, I.

    2013-12-01

    Black swans, outliers, dominate science far more than do predictable outcomes. Predictable success constitutes the Black Swan in groundwater remediation. Even the National Research Council concluded that remediating groundwater to drinking water standards has failed in typically complex hydrogeologic settings where heterogeneities and preferential flow paths deflect flow paths obliquely to hydraulic gradients. Natural systems, be they biological or physical, build upon a combination of large-scale regularity coupled to chaos at smaller scales. We show through a review of over 25 case studies that groundwater remediation efforts are best served by coupling parsimonious site characterization to natural and induced geochemical tracer tests to at least know where contamination advects with groundwater in the subsurface. In the majority of our case studies, actual flow paths diverge tens of degrees from anticipated flow paths because of unrecognized heterogeneities in the horizontal direction of transport, let alone the vertical direction. Consequently, regulatory agencies would better serve both the public and the environment by recognizing that long-term groundwater cleanup probably is futile in most hydrogeologic settings except to relaxed standards similar to brownfielding. A Black Swan

  5. Experimental search for a time-modulated muon flux from the direction of Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worstell, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Two underground experiments have recently reported detection of an anomalously large muon flux from the direction of the binary X-ray source cygnus X-3, with the 4.8-hour period characteristic of this source. A muon flux of the claimed magnitude, combined with constraints from surface observations, is inconsistent with the production of these muons by photons from Cygnus X-3 in normal air showers. This flux would require either unexpected photon interactions at very high energy (>5 TeV)( or a new type of neutral particle in the flux from Cygnus X-3. This thesis documents measurements with the HPW (Harvard-Purdue-Wisconsin) large underground water Cerenkov detector which do not confirm the claimed muon flux. The author places an upper limit on the flux of time-modulated muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3 of 5 x 10 -11 muons-cm -2 sec -1 at a vertical depth of 1450 MWE meters of water equivalent, with 90% confidence. This upper limit may be compared with the flux of 7 x 10 -11 muons-cm 2 sec -1 at a vertical depth of 1800 MWE which was claimed by another experiment. The HPW measurements are consistent with no anomalous muon flux from Cygnus X-3

  6. The SWAN Captures Variance at the Negative and Positive Ends of the ADHD Symptom Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Friend, Angela; Willcutt, Erik G.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior (SWAN) Rating Scale differs from previous parent reports of ADHD in that it was designed to also measure variability at the positive end of the symptom spectrum. Method: The psychometric properties of the SWAN were tested and compared with an established measure of ADHD,…

  7. A hybrid version of swan for fast and efficient practical wave modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Genseberger (Menno); J. Donners

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the Netherlands, for coastal and inland water applications, wave modelling with SWAN has become a main ingredient. However, computational times are relatively high. Therefore we investigated the parallel efficiency of the current MPI and OpenMP versions of SWAN. The MPI version is

  8. Movement of foraging Tundra Swans explained by spatial pattern in cryptic food densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.H.G.; Nolet, B.A.; Bankert, D.

    2006-01-01

    We tested whether Tundra Swans use information on the spatial distribution of cryptic food items (belowground Sago pondweed tubers) to shape their movement paths. In a continuous environment, swans create their own food patches by digging craters, which they exploit in several feeding bouts. Series

  9. Synchrotron and Coulomb Boiler in Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malzac, Julien; Belmont, Renaud

    2009-01-01

    We use a new code to simulate the radiation and kinetic processes in the X-ray emitting region around accreting black holes and constrain the magnetic field and temperature of the hot protons in the corona of Cygnus X-1. In the hard state we find a magnetic field below equipartition with radiation, suggesting that the corona is not powered through magnetic field dissipation (as assumed in most accretion disc corona models). On the other hand, our results also point toward proton temperatures that are substantially lower than typical temperatures of the ADAF models. Finally, we show that in both spectral states Comptonising plasma could be powered essentially through power-law acceleration of non-thermal electrons, which are then partly thermalised by the synchrotron and Coulomb boiler. This suggests that, contrary to current beliefs, the corona of the HSS and that of the LHS could be of very similar nature. The differences between the LHS and HSS coronal spectra would then be predominantly caused by the strong disc soft cooling emission which is present in the HSS and absent in the LHS.

  10. Optical photometry of Cygnus X-1: 1972-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, E.N.; Quintanilla, A.R.

    1978-01-01

    The blue (Johnson B) magnitude of HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cygnus X-1, has been measured on 349 nights between 1972 April and 1976 December. The best-fit period to these data is 5.6015 +- 0.0006 days and the light-curve obtained by folding these data with this period shows features with duration < 0.1 P in addition to the well-established double maxima and minima. It is found that the mean brightness of the star changes by 0.02 mag on a timescale of approximately 150 day and that the extremes of this brightness range are associated with two forms of the light-curve which in combination yield much of the detailed structure of the five-year mean curve. The observations show that there was no change much greater than 0.001 mag in either the 5.6 or 150-day light-curves associated with the X-ray high states. However, a unique form of the 5.6-day light-curve did occur just at the start of the 1975 November X-ray high state. There is some evidence for an overall brightness change during the five years of approximately 0.01 mag. (author)

  11. Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Micro-quasar Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A.A.; Cheung, C.C.; Dermer, C.D.; Grove, J.E.; Johnson, W.N.; Lovellette, M.N.; Makeev, A.; Ray, P.S.; Strickman, M.S.; Wood, K.S.; Abdo, A.A.; Cheung, C.C.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Focke, W.B.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Focke, W.B.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Axelsson, M.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Axelsson, M.; Conrad, J.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Jackson, M.S.; Meurer, C.; Ryde, F.; Ylinen, T.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Chaty, S.; Corbel, S.; Grenier, I.A.; Koerding, E.; Rodriguez, J.; Starck, J.L.; Tibaldo, L.

    2009-01-01

    Micro-quasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and micro-quasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets. (authors)

  12. Observation of γ rays > 1015 eV from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd-Evans, J.; Coy, R.N.; Lambert, A.; Lapikens, J.; Patel, M.; Reid, R.J.O.; Watson, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The X-ray binary system Cygnus X-3 is a source of particular interest. As well as emitting X-rays which are modulated with a 4.8-h period, it has been observed in 30-100 MeV γ rays by the SAS II satellite and several groups have detected γ rays in the TeV range showing the same period. Most recently, using the small extensive air shower array at Kiel, workers have found that the γ-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-3 extends above 2 x 10 15 eV, with an integral flux of (7.4 +- 3.2) x 10 -14 cm -2 s -1 . This paper confirms the Kiel observations and presents evidence that the γ-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-3 steepens above 10 16 eV. (author)

  13. Absorption dips at low x-ray energies in Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdin, P.

    1976-01-01

    Three more looks with the Copernicus satellite at Cygnus X-1 have produced four more examples of absorption dips, decreases in the 2 to 7 keV flux from Cygnus X-1 with an increase of spectral hardness consistent with photoelectric absorption (Mason et al 1974). The nine now seen, including one by OSO-7 (Li and Clark 1974), are listed in Table 1. Their phase in the spectroscopic binary HD 226868 is also listed, calculated from a newer ephemeris than that in Mason et al (1974), adding the radial velocities by Bolton (1975) and unpublished RGO radial velocities from the 1975 season. (These elements do not differ significantly from Bolton's

  14. Study of Cygnus X-3 at ultrahigh energies during the 1989 radio outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Berley, D.; Biller, S.D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Lu, X.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Stark, M.J.; Talaga, R.L.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B.; Zhang, W.

    1990-01-01

    A unique feature of Cygnus X-3 is that occasionally it has large radio outbursts that begin very abruptly and last for several days. Several experiments in the past have claimed to observe signals above 1 TeV correlated with these radio bursts; the most recent bursts occurred in June and July 1989. No significant signal was observed by the CYGNUS experiment over time scales longer than a day during this time; a 90%-confidence-level limit of 3.0x10 -13 cm -2 s -1 is placed on the flux above 50 TeV during the period from 15 May to 31 July 1989

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WSRT survey of Cygnus OB2 (Setia Gunawan+, 2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia Gunawan, D. Y. A.; de Bruyn, A. G.; van der Hucht, K. A.; Williams, P. M.

    2003-11-01

    The Cygnus region is too large to be imaged with a single pointing of the 25m dishes of the WSRT. The half-power beamwidths (HPBW) of the WSRT at 350 and 1400MHz are about 2.4{deg} and 0.6{deg}, respectively. Therefore, we used a mosaicking technique at both frequencies. The 350MHz observations were taken in 1994 as part of a larger survey of the Galactic plane in the Cygnus area (Vashist & de Bruyn, unpublished); only a small part of it is used in this study. (2 data files).

  16. Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ER D C/ CE RL S R- 16 -1 Net Zero Planning for Fort Leonard Wood Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri Co ns...search for other technical reports published by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Net Zero Planning for...1.8 degrees Celsius knots 0.5144444 meters per second miles (US statute) 1,609.347 meters miles per hour 0.44704 meters per second ERDC/CERL SR

  17. 10 microsecond time resolution studies of Cygnus X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, H. C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Time variability analyses have been applied to data composed of event times of X-rays emitted from the binary system Cygnus X-1 to search for unique black hole signatures. The X-ray data analyzed was collected at ten microsecond time resolution or better from two instruments, the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory (HEAO) A-1 detector and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA). HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA collected data from 1977--79 and from 1996 on with energy sensitivity from 1--25 keV and 2--60 keV, respectively. Variability characteristics predicted by various models of an accretion disk around a black hole have been searched for in the data. Drop-offs or quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the Fourier power spectra are expected from some of these models. The Fourier spectral technique was applied to the HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA data with careful consideration given for correcting the Poisson noise floor for instrumental effects. Evidence for a drop-off may be interpreted from the faster fall off in variability at frequencies greater than the observed breaks. Both breaks occur within the range of Keplerian frequencies associated with the inner edge radii of advection-dominated accretion disks predicted for Cyg X-1. The break between 10--20 Hz is also near the sharp rollover predicted by Nowak and Wagoner`s model of accretion disk turbulence. No QPOs were observed in the data for quality factors Q > 9 with a 95% confidence level upper limit for the fractional rms amplitude at 1.2% for a 16 M⊙ black hole.

  18. Accidents, 'Black Swans' and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxat, J.C., E-mail: luxatj@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Major accidents and natural disasters with severe consequences have occurred in all sectors of industrial activity with relatively high frequency. The severe consequences of concern involve either significant loss of life or major economic loss, or both loss of life and economic loss. Such events have in the last two years often been referred to as 'Black Swan' events following publication of a best-selling book. The events demonstrate limits to the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) that arise from the underlying unquantifiable uncertainty associated with the estimation of the frequency of occurrence of such events. An approach is proposed in this paper that, consistent with the concept of defense in depth employed by the nuclear industry, augments probabilistic risk assessment with a methodology based upon 'threat -risk assessment'. This approach shifts these very low frequency, high uncertainty, and high consequence 'Black Swan' events out of the probabilistic risk assessment domain and into a deterministic emergency response assessment domain. (author)

  19. SWAN-PPL, Fusion Reactor 1-D Particle Transport Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, P.; Greenspan, E.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Given the material density profiles which describe a one-dimensional reference system with a neutron source, SWAN will calculate, and optionally implement, density changes so as to optimize a single functional parameter of the system. 2 - Method of solution: The one-dimensional discrete-ordinate transport code ANISN is used to calculate flux and adjoint distributions for specified sources. The code SWIF calculates first-order estimates of the effect of material density changes on a goal functional, and from these evaluates effectiveness functions for the substitution of one material for another. Density distribution changes are then calculated which would optimize the goal functional, optionally subject to a constraint of holding another functional constant (to first order). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: SWAN is not designed to analyze critical systems; it assumes that there is a fixed source, as in shielding or fusion reactor applications. Otherwise it is compatible with ANISN. All arrays are variably-dimensioned, so that there are no restrictions on individual dimensions

  20. Accidents, 'Black Swans' and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxat, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Major accidents and natural disasters with severe consequences have occurred in all sectors of industrial activity with relatively high frequency. The severe consequences of concern involve either significant loss of life or major economic loss, or both loss of life and economic loss. Such events have in the last two years often been referred to as 'Black Swan' events following publication of a best-selling book. The events demonstrate limits to the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) that arise from the underlying unquantifiable uncertainty associated with the estimation of the frequency of occurrence of such events. An approach is proposed in this paper that, consistent with the concept of defense in depth employed by the nuclear industry, augments probabilistic risk assessment with a methodology based upon 'threat -risk assessment'. This approach shifts these very low frequency, high uncertainty, and high consequence 'Black Swan' events out of the probabilistic risk assessment domain and into a deterministic emergency response assessment domain. (author)

  1. The RMI Space Weather and Navigation Systems (SWANS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnant, Rene; Lejeune, Sandrine; Wautelet, Gilles; Spits, Justine; Stegen, Koen; Stankov, Stan

    The SWANS (Space Weather and Navigation Systems) research and development project (http://swans.meteo.be) is an initiative of the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) under the auspices of the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE). The RMI SWANS objectives are: research on space weather and its effects on GNSS applications; permanent mon-itoring of the local/regional geomagnetic and ionospheric activity; and development/operation of relevant nowcast, forecast, and alert services to help professional GNSS/GALILEO users in mitigating space weather effects. Several SWANS developments have already been implemented and available for use. The K-LOGIC (Local Operational Geomagnetic Index K Calculation) system is a nowcast system based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition, data screening, and calculating the local geomagnetic K index. Simultaneously, the planetary Kp index is estimated from solar wind measurements, thus adding to the service reliability and providing forecast capabilities as well. A novel hybrid empirical model, based on these ground-and space-based observations, has been implemented for nowcasting and forecasting the geomagnetic index, issuing also alerts whenever storm-level activity is indicated. A very important feature of the nowcast/forecast system is the strict control on the data input and processing, allowing for an immediate assessment of the output quality. The purpose of the LIEDR (Local Ionospheric Electron Density Reconstruction) system is to acquire and process data from simultaneous ground-based GNSS TEC and digital ionosonde measurements, and subsequently to deduce the vertical electron density distribution. A key module is the real-time estimation of the ionospheric slab thickness, offering additional infor-mation on the local ionospheric dynamics. The RTK (Real Time Kinematic) status mapping provides a quick look at the small-scale ionospheric effects on the RTK

  2. Cygnus X-3 and the problem of the missing Wolf-Rayet X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, D.; Yungelson, L.; van den Heuvel, E.; Nelemans, G.A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cygnus X-3 is a strong X-ray source (LX ≈ 1038 erg s-1) which is thought to consist of a compact object accreting matter from a helium star. We analytically find that the estimated ranges of mass-loss rate and orbital-period derivative for Cyg X-3 are consistent

  3. On the nature of giant lubbles of the Cygnus X source type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silich, S.A.; Fomin, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    An observational criterion for selecting between two models (single supernova explosion or supernova cascade process) of the origin of giant bubbles of the Cygnus X source type is proposed. It is based on qualitative difference of x-ray radial brightness distribution in these two cases

  4. Correlation between X-ray and high energy gamma-ray emission form Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.; Danaher, S.; Fegan, D.J.; Porter, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    In May-June 1980, the 4.8 hour modulated X-ray flux from Cygnus X-3 underwent a significant change in the shape of the light curve; this change correlates with the peak in the high-energy (E > 2 x 10 12 eV) gamma ray emission at the same epoch. (orig.)

  5. A search for interplanetary scintillation of Cygnus A at 81.5 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsien, S.C.; Duffett-Smith, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    IPS observations of Cygnus A at 81.5 MHz with the Cambridge 3.6-hectare array set an upper limit on the scintillation of 0.07 per cent of the total flux density. This suggests that the hotspots seen at high frequencies are much less prominent at low frequencies. (author)

  6. Status of the expansion of the CYGNUS array at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    The CYGNUS air shower array, located in Los Alamos, New Mexico, has been operating since April, 1986. The expansion of the array from 108 to 200 counters is described along with the increase in muon detection area. The new array, to be fully operational by the end of 1989, will have three times the sensitivity to UHE sources. 5 refs., 2 figs

  7. Photometric Observations of 6000 Stars in the Cygnus Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, W.; Caldwell, D.; Koch, D.; Jenkins, J.; Ninkov, Z.

    1999-01-01

    A small photometer to detect transits by extrasolar planets has been assembled and is being tested at Lick Observatory on Mt. Hamilton, California. The Vulcan photometer is constructed from a 30 cm focal length, F/2.5 AeroEktar reconnaissance lens and Photometrics PXL16800 CCD camera. A spectral filter is used to confine the pass band from 480 to 763 mn. It simultaneously monitors 6000 stars brighter than 12th magnitude within a single star field in the galactic plane. When the data are folded and phased to discover low amplitude transits, the relative precision of one-hour samples is about 1 part per thousand (10 x l0(exp -3)) for many of the brighter stars. This precision is sufficient to find jovian-size planets orbiting solar-like stars, which have signal amplitudes from 5 to 30 x l0(exp -3) depending on the inflation of the planet and the size of the star. Based on the frequency of giant inner-planets discovered by Doppler-velocity method, one or two planets should be detectable in a rich star field. The goal of the observations is to obtain the sizes of giant extrasolar planets in short-period orbits and to combine these with masses determined from Doppler velocity measurements to determine the densities of these planets. A further goal is to compare the measured planetary diameters with those predicted from theoretical models. From August 10 through September 30 of 1998, a forty nine square degree field in the Cygnus constellation centered at RA and DEC of 19 hr 47 min, +36 deg 55 min was observed. Useful data were obtained on twenty-nine nights. Nearly fifty stars showed some evidence of transits with periods between 0.3 and 8 days. Most had amplitudes too large to be associated with planetary transits. However, several stars showed low amplitude transits. The data for several transits of each of these two stars have been folded and been folded into 30 minute periods. Only Cygl433 shows any evidence of a flattened bottom that is expected when a small object

  8. Diet and nutrition of western rock lobsters, Panulirus cygnus, in shallow coastal waters: the role of habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalist consumers often have diets that vary considerably over time and space, which reflects changes in resource availability. Predicting diets of consumers can therefore be difficult. The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is an omnivorous generalist consumer that uses ...

  9. Folding paper swans, modeling lives: the ritual of Filipina eldercare in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuz, Keren

    2013-06-01

    This article examines the practices of folding paper swans by Filipina migrants employed as live-in caregivers for elderly, dying patients in Israel. These practices create a microsystem model of adjustment through precise, small-scale, and repetitive movements. This microsystem synchronizes a tripartite process: the swan's process of construction, the patient's process of decay, and the caregiver's process of self-creation. In the short term, the microsystem is sustained, but in the long term, the microsystem contains within it the seeds of its own self-destruction, as the patient eventually dies, the caregiver is reassigned to another patient or deported, and the swans are gifted. Therefore, the swan folding expands both medical anthropology understanding of caregiving as a ritual and the phenomenology of global caregivers who use immediately accessible materials-paper and glue-as an imaginative tool for ordering their daily experiences as dislocated and marginalized workers. © 2013 by the American Anthropological Association.

  10. Maize stubble as foraging habitat for wintering geese and swans in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper; Nolet, Bart, A.

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging in this r......Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging...... in this region, little is known about the abundance and energetic value of this resource to foraging birds. In this study we quantify food availability, intake rates and energetic profitability of the maize stubble habitat, and describe the value of this increasingly cultivated crop to wintering geese and swans...... of geese and swans wintering in northern Europe....

  11. The SWAN/NPSOL code system for multivariable multiconstraint shield optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, E.F.; Greenspan, E.

    1995-01-01

    SWAN is a useful code for optimization of source-driven systems, i.e., systems for which the neutron and photon distribution is the solution of the inhomogeneous transport equation. Over the years, SWAN has been applied to the optimization of a variety of nuclear systems, such as minimizing the thickness of fusion reactor blankets and shields, the weight of space reactor shields, the cost for an ICF target chamber shield, and the background radiation for explosive detection systems and maximizing the beam quality for boron neutron capture therapy applications. However, SWAN's optimization module can handle up to a single constraint and was inefficient in handling problems with many variables. The purpose of this work is to upgrade SWAN's optimization capability

  12. Centenarians and supercentenarians: a black swan. Emerging social, medical and surgical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacante, Marco; D'Agata, Velia; Motta, Massimo; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Biondi, Antonio; Basile, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Michele; Gagliano, Caterina; Drago, Filippo; Salamone, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The Black Swan Theory was described by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his book "The Black Swan". This theory refers to "high-impact, hard-to-predict, and rare events beyond the realm of normal expectations". According to Taleb's criteria, a Black Swan Event is a surprise, it has a major impact and after the fact, the event is rationalized by hindsight, as if it had been expected. For most of human history centenarians were a rare and unpredictable phenomenon. The improvements of the social-environmental conditions, of medical care, and the quality of life caused a general improvement of the health status of the population and a consequent reduction of the overall morbidity and mortality, resulting in an overall increase of life expectancy. The study of centenarians and supercentenarians had the objective to consider this black swan and to evaluate the health, welfare, social and economic consequences of this phenomenon.

  13. Ruffled feathers: Costume, gender and authorship in the Black Swan controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the popular and trade press reported a dispute between costume designer Amy Westcott and creators of fashion label Rodarte, Kate and Laura Mulleavy, following the decision that the fashion designers were only to receive a back-end credit for their work on psychological thriller Black Swan (Aronofsky, 2010). This article traces the coverage of the Black Swan controversy in order to demonstrate that press discourses surrounding the costume designer perform a series of cultural function...

  14. [Swan Song: The Advent of the Psychotic Nucleus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Fernando Muñoz

    2012-09-01

    Different forms of artistic expression, such as literature and cinema, constitute an inexhaustible source for the study of mental illness. The use of psychodynamic models may contribute to a better understanding of the spectrum between personality disorders and the psychosis spectrum, thus enriching the phenomenological approach in the psychiatric clinical practice. To examine from psychodynamic standpoints the main character of the American film Black Swan, and the nature of her psychotic symptoms. Reviewing of sources and relevant theoretical currents. Analysis shows the usefulness of a psychodynamically- oriented dimensional model for understanding the so-called psychotic breaks as well as the applicability of psychoanalytic psychosis theories in general psychiatric practice, as they may provide a more flexible clinical approach, closer to the patient's subjective experience. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. [Book review] Ducks, geese and swans of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    1983-01-01

    This is the 3rd edition of the classic work "The Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America," which was first published in December 1942.  The original edition was authored by Francis C. Kortright with color plates by T. M. Shortt. An authoritative reference on North American waterfowl for many years, the book had become outdated as a result of major advances in the field of waterfowl biology. The need to update the 1st edition culminated in the publication in 1976 of a 2nd edition authored by Frank Bellrose. Readers interested in comparing features of the 1976 edition with other major recent works on North American waterfowl by P. A. Johnsgard and R. S. Palmer should read Weller (1977, Auk 94: 173).

  16. Globules and pillars in Cygnus X. I. Herschel far-infrared imaging of the Cygnus OB2 environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Blazere, A.; André, Ph.; Anderson, L. D.; Arzoumanian, D.; Comerón, F.; Didelon, P.; Di Francesco, J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Guarcello, M. G.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Marston, A.; Minier, V.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Röllig, M.; Roy, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Tremblin, P.; White, G. J.; Wright, N. J.

    2016-06-01

    The radiative feedback of massive stars on molecular clouds creates pillars, globules and other features at the interface between the H II region and molecular cloud. Optical and near-infrared observations from the ground as well as with the Hubble or Spitzer satellites have revealed numerous examples of such cloud structures. We present here Herschel far-infrared observations between 70 μm and 500 μm of the immediate environment of the rich Cygnus OB2 association, performed within the Herschel imaging survey of OB Young Stellar objects (HOBYS) program. All of the observed irradiated structures were detected based on their appearance at 70 μm, and have been classified as pillars, globules, evaporating gasous globules (EGGs), proplyd-like objects, and condensations. From the 70 μm and 160 μm flux maps, we derive the local far-ultraviolet (FUV) field on the photon dominated surfaces. In parallel, we use a census of the O-stars to estimate the overall FUV-field, that is 103-104 G0 (Habing field) close to the central OB cluster (within 10 pc) and decreases down to a few tens G0, in a distance of 50 pc. From a spectral energy distribution (SED) fit to the four longest Herschel wavelengths, we determine column density and temperature maps and derive masses, volume densities and surface densities for these structures. We find that the morphological classification corresponds to distinct physical properties. Pillars and globules are massive (~500 M⊙) and large (equivalent radius r ~ 0.6 pc) structures, corresponding to what is defined as "clumps" for molecular clouds. EGGs and proplyd-likeobjects are smaller (r ~ 0.1 and 0.2 pc) and less massive (~10 and ~30 M⊙). Cloud condensations are small (~0.1 pc), have an average mass of 35 M⊙, are dense (~6 × 104 cm-3), and can thus be described as molecular cloud "cores". All pillars and globules are oriented toward the Cyg OB2 association center and have the longest estimated photoevaporation lifetimes, a few million

  17. Movement of foraging Tundra Swans explained by spatial pattern in cryptic food densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Raymond H G; Nolet, Bart A; Bankert, Daniëlle

    2006-09-01

    We tested whether Tundra Swans use information on the spatial distribution of cryptic food items (below ground Sago pondweed tubers) to shape their movement paths. In a continuous environment, swans create their own food patches by digging craters, which they exploit in several feeding bouts. Series of short (1 m). Tuber biomass densities showed a positive spatial auto-correlation at a short distance (25 g/m2) and to a more distant patch (at 7-8 m) if the food density in the current patch had been low (3 m) from a low-density patch and a short distance (<3 m) from a high-density patch. The quantitative agreement between prediction and observation was greater for swans feeding in pairs than for solitary swans. The result of this movement strategy is that swans visit high-density patches at a higher frequency than on offer and, consequently, achieve a 38% higher long-term gain rate. Swans also take advantage of spatial variance in food abundance by regulating the time in patches, staying longer and consuming more food from rich than from poor patches. We can conclude that the shape of the foraging path is a reflection of the spatial pattern in the distribution of tuber densities and can be understood from an optimal foraging perspective.

  18. The SWAN-SCALE code for the optimization of critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.; Regev, D.; Petrie, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    The SWAN optimization code was recently developed to identify the maximum value of k eff for a given mass of fissile material when in combination with other specified materials. The optimization process is iterative; in each iteration SWAN varies the zone-dependent concentration of the system constituents. This change is guided by the equal volume replacement effectiveness functions (EVREF) that SWAN generates using first-order perturbation theory. Previously, SWAN did not have provisions to account for the effect of the composition changes on neutron cross-section resonance self-shielding; it used the cross sections corresponding to the initial system composition. In support of the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, the authors recently removed the limitation on resonance self-shielding by coupling SWAN with the SCALE code package. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe the resulting SWAN-SCALE code and to illustrate the effect that neutron cross-section self-shielding could have on the maximum k eff and on the corresponding system composition

  19. Use of a neutrino detector for muon identification by the CYGNUS air-shower array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.C.; DeLay, R.S.; Lu, X.Q.; Yodh, G.B. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Sena, A.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Gupta, S.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)); Potter, M.E.; Thompson, T.N. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States) Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers observed by the CYGNUS experiment are measured by a well-shielded apparatus originally used for accelerator neutrino detection. Primary identification and counting of muons relies on a 44 m{sup 2} array of multiwire proportional counters that has operated continously since the experiment's inception to the present time. During the experiment's first 20 months, the central detector, consisting of flash-tube chambers, was used for high-resolution reconstruction of muon trajectories for a limited subsample of air showers. The ability to distinguish individual muons in the tracking device enabled verification and calibration of the muon counting by the proportional-counter system. The tracking capability was also used to verify the systematic pointing accuracy of the extensive air-shower arrival direction, as determined, as determined by the CYGNUS array, to better than 0.5{sup 0}. (orig.).

  20. Line structures in the X-ray spectra of Cygnus X-2 observed with Exosat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, P. E.; Kahn, S. M.; Chiappetti, L.; Tanzi, E. G.; Ciapi, A.; Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Branduardi-Raymont, E. G.; Ercan, E. N.

    1990-01-01

    Cygnus X-2 was observed with Exosat at five phases of a single orbital cycle in September of 1983. The results of spectral fits of the LE + ME (Argon) data are summarized in terms of a superposition of thermal bremsstrahlung and blackbody components. During the first observation, a grating spectrum was obtained, and this is described in some detail. The GSPC data are used to investigate the presence of iron features and their behavior during dips.

  1. Infrared, radio, and x-ray observations of Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becklin, E.E.; Hawkins, F.J.; Mason, K.O.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Packman, D.; Sanford, P.W.; Schupler, B.; Stark, A.; Wynn-Williams, C.G.

    1974-01-01

    The x-ray source Cygnus X-3 has been interpreted as being a binary system on the basis of extensive x-ray observations of periodic variability. At radio wavelengths, the source displays erratic outbursts. Cyg x-3 has not been detected visually but at infrared wavelengths periodic variations in phase with the x-ray variations have been reported. Infrared, x-ray and radio observations of Cyg X-3 made during 1973 through 1973 October are presented. (U.S.)

  2. uvby and JHKL photometry of OB stars in the association Cygnus OB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Dodgen, A.V.; Carroll, M.; Tapia, M.

    1991-01-01

    We have obtained uvby and JHK photometry of about 80 stars in the association Cygnus OB2 (VI Cygni), including some foreground stars and three infrared sources. We present colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams from which we derive the interstellar extinction and approximate spectral types. We confirm that the interstellar extinction law in the direction of Cyg OB2 is similar to the galactic mean. (author)

  3. The x-ray spectrum of the Cygnus Loop measured with Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Manabe, Makoto; Yamashita, Koujun; Koyama, Katsuji.

    1988-01-01

    We report the results of an observation of the whole Cygnus Loop performed with the Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters (GSPC) on board the Tenma satellite. Line emissions around 1.9 keV and 2.5 keV, probably originating from silicon and sulfur Kα line blends, were detected. The continuum spectrum in the energy range 1-3 keV can be represented by a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 7 x 10 6 K. This is the highest value for the Cygnus Loop reported so far. The Tenma data were also combined with those from a sounding rocket flight performed previously, in which a similar detector system was employed. Thus, we obtain a wide-band X-ray spectrum for the whole Cygnus Loop with the best energy resolution reported so far. The combined data could not be fitted by a single temperature component in the thermal collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) model or a single-temperature nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) model. A good fit is obtained if at least two temperature components are included in both the CIE and NEI models. However, only the NEI model allows a self consistent interpretation. Taking into account the emission measures for both components, we can conclude that the low-temperature, high-density component arises mainly from the shell region and that the high-temperature, low-density component arises from the interior of the shell. (author)

  4. The X-ray ribs within the cocoon shock of Cygnus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, R. T.; Worrall, D. M.; Birkinshaw, M.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Wise, M. W.; de Vries, M. N.; Snios, B.; Mathews, W. G.; Perley, R. A.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Rafferty, D. A.; McNamara, B. R.; Edge, A. C.; McKean, J. P.; Carilli, C. L.; Croston, J. H.; Godfrey, L. E. H.; Laing, R. A.

    2018-06-01

    We use new and archival Chandra observations of Cygnus A, totalling ˜1.9 Ms, to investigate the distribution and temperature structure of gas lying within the projected extent of the cocoon shock and exhibiting a rib-like structure. We confirm that the X-rays are dominated by thermal emission with an average temperature of around 4 keV, and have discovered an asymmetry in the temperature gradient, with the southwestern part of the gas cooler than the rest by up to 2 keV. Pressure estimates suggest that the gas is a coherent structure of single origin located inside the cocoon, with a mass of roughly 2 × 1010 M⊙. We conclude that the gas is debris resulting from disintegration of the cool core of the Cygnus A cluster after the passage of the jet during the early stages of the current epoch of activity. The 4 keV gas now lies on the central inside surface of the hotter cocoon rim. The temperature gradient could result from an offset between the centre of the cluster core and the Cygnus A host galaxy at the switch-on of current radio activity.

  5. An unidentified TeV source in the vicinity of Cygnus OB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Beilicke, M.; Bernlöhr, K.; Börst, H.; Bojahr, H.; Bolz, O.; Coarasa, T.; Contreras, J.; Cortina, J.; Denninghoff, S.; Fonseca, V.; Girma, M.; Götting, N.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hermann, G.; Heusler, A.; Hofmann, W.; Horns, D.; Jung, I.; Kankanyan, R.; Kestel, M.; Kettler, J.; Kohnle, A.; Konopelko, A.; Kornmeyer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lampeitl, H.; Lopez, M.; Lorenz, E.; Lucarelli, F.; Magnussen, N.; Mang, O.; Meyer, H.; Milite, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Ona, E.; Panter, M.; Plyasheshnikov, A.; Prahl, J.; Pühlhofer, G.; Rauterberg, G.; Reyes, R.; Rhode, W.; Ripken, J.; Röhring, A.; Rowell, G. P.; Sahakian, V.; Samorski, M.; Schilling, M.; Schröder, F.; Siems, M.; Sobzynska, D.; Stamm, W.; Tluczykont, M.; Völk, H. J.; Wiedner, C. A.; Wittek, W.; Uchiyama, Y.; Takahashi, T.; HEGRA Collaboration

    2002-10-01

    Deep observation ( ~ 113 hrs) of the Cygnus region at TeV energies using the HEGRA stereoscopic system of air Čerenkov telescopes has serendipitously revealed a signal positionally inside the core of the OB association Cygnus OB2, at the edge of the 95% error circle of the EGRET source 3EG J2033+4118, and ~ 0.5o north of Cyg X-3. The source centre of gravity is RA alphaJ2000: 20h 32m 07s+/- 9.2sstat +/-2.2ssys, Dec deltaJ2000: +41o 30' 30''+/- 2.0'stat +/- 0.4'sys. The source is steady, has a post-trial significance of +4.6sigma , indication for extension with radius 5.6' at the ~ 3sigma level, and has a differential power-law flux with hard photon index of -1.9 +/-0.3stat +/-0.3sys. The integral flux above 1 TeV amounts ~ 3% that of the Crab. No counterpart for the TeV source at other wavelengths is presently identified, and its extension would disfavour an exclusive pulsar or AGN origin. If associated with Cygnus OB2, this dense concentration of young, massive stars provides an environment conducive to multi-TeV particle acceleration and likely subsequent interaction with a nearby gas cloud. Alternatively, one could envisage gamma -ray production via a jet-driven termination shock.

  6. Cygnus Loop supernova remnant: new observations and a framework for understanding its structure and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    New observational data on the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant (SNR) include: (1) a detailed high resolution comparison of x-ray and optical emission for a field in the SE; (2) a map of the [O III] electron temperature for the field previously studied by Hester, Parker, and Dufour (1983); and (3) CCD imagery of the NE limb in the light of four emission lines. A wide range of new and existing observations of the Loop are for the first time interpreted within the context of a single physical description. The Cygnus Loop is not an evaporative SNR evolving into the McKee and Ostriker (1977) ISM, nor are tiny cloudlets necessary to explain its morphology. The data show the Cygnus Loop to be evolving into a medium consisting primarily of an intercloud phase with N 0 approx. 0.1 cm -3 containing clouds with parsec dimensions and N 0 less than or equal to 10 cm -3 . The optical emission arises from extensive sheet like radiative shock fronts driven into the clouds. These fronts locally form the outer boundary of the remnant. The appearance of x-ray emission outside the optical emission on the limbs is due solely to projection effects. The distorted and bumpy shock front is shown to give rise in projection to the filamentary morphology of the remnant

  7. Discovery of a Pulsar Wind Nebula Candidate in the Cygnus Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Petre, Robert; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    We report on a discovery of a diffuse nebula containing a point-like source in the southern blowout region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. The X-ray spectra from the nebula and the point-like source are well represented by an absorbed power-law model with photon indices of 2.2+/-0.1 and 1.6+/-0.2, respectively. The photon indices as well as the flux ratio of F(sub nebula)/F(sub point-like) approx. 4 lead us to propose that the system is a pulsar wind nebula, although pulsations have not yet been detected. If we attribute its origin to the Cygnus Loop supernova, then the 0.5-8 keV luminosity of the nebula is computed to be 2.1x10(exp 31)(d/540pc)(exp 2)ergss/2, where d is the distance to the Loop. This implies a spin-down loss-energy E approx. 2.6x10(exp 35)(d/540pc)(exp 2)ergs/s. The location of the neutron star candidate, approx.2deg away from the geometric center of the Loop, implies a high transverse velocity of approx.1850(theta/2deg)(d/540pc)(t/10kyr)/k/s assuming the currently accepted age of the Cygnus Loop.

  8. Dragon-Kings, Black-Swans and Prediction (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme fluctuations or events are often associated with power law statistics. Indeed, it is a popular belief that "wild randomness'' is deeply associated with distributions with power law tails characterized by small exponents. In other words, power law tails are often seen as the epitome of extreme events (the "Black Swan'' story). Here, we document in very different systems that there is life beyond power law tails: power laws can be superseded by "dragon-kings'', monster events that occur beyond (or changing) the power law tail. Dragon-kings reveal hidden mechanisms that are only transiently active and that amplify the normal fluctuations (often described by the power laws of the normal regime). The goal of this lecture is to catalyze the interest of the community of geophysicists across all fields of geosciences so that the "invisible gorilla" fallacy may be avoided. Our own research illustrates that new statistics or representation of data are often necessary to identify dragon-kings, with strategies guided by the underlying mechanisms. Paradoxically, the monsters may be ignored or hidden by the use of inappropriate analysis or statistical tools that amount to cut a mamooth in small pieces, so as to lead to the incorrect belief that only mice exist. In order to stimulate further research, we will document and discuss the dragon-king phenomenon on the statistics of financial losses, economic geography, hydrodynamic turbulence, mechanical ruptures, avalanches in complex heterogeneous media, earthquakes, and epileptic seizures. The special status of dragon-kings open a new research program on their predictability, based on the fact that they belong to a different class of their own and express specific mechanisms amplifying the normal dynamics via positive feedbacks. We will present evidence of these claims for the predictions of material rupture, financial crashes and epileptic seizures. As a bonus, a few remarks will be offered at the end on how the dragon

  9. Heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, mercury) in mute swans from Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvestad, K.; Karlog, O.; Clausen, B.

    1982-03-01

    During the severe winter of 1978-79, large numbers of mute swans died in coastal areas of Denmark. Of these, 2111 were collected for examination. The analyses confirm previous findings of relatively high copper levels in mute swans (mean for 178 livers was 2680 mg/kg dry weight (Dw) and for 110 kidneys 34 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 1). The copper content was not related to sex or age (Table II). The highest liver levels of copper were found in swans from Western Jutland. Cadmium was found at the same relatively low levels as recorded for waterfowl elsewhere (mean for 178 livers was 12 mg/kg Dw, for 110 kidneys 24 mg/kg Dw) (Table I, Fig. 2). The cadmium content was not sex-related, but it increased with age (Table II). The mean mercury content (liver) was 1.4 mg/kg Dw in the 10 birds analysed (Table I). The mean lead content was 15 mg/kg Dw in the 178 livers analysed and 31 mg/kg Dw in 110 sternum (Table I and Fig. 3). The lead content was not sex-related. In sternum, but not in livers, it was related to age (Table II). One third of the swans were found lead-contaminated probably after ingestion of lead pellets. None of the swans carried high levels of both copper, cadmium, and lead (Table III).

  10. A novel surgical correction and innovative splint for swan neck deformity in hypermobility syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Vishwanathan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Splinting is a great domain of occupational therapy profession. Making a splint for the patient would depend on the need or requirement of the problems and deformities. Swan neck deformity is an uncommon condition, and it can be seen in rheumatoid arthritis, cerebral palsy, and after trauma. Conservative treatment of the swan neck deformity is available by different static splints only. There are very few reports of surgical correction of swan-neck deformity in benign hypermobility syndrome. This case report describes the result of novel surgical intervention and an innovative hand splint in a 20-year-old female with a history of cardiovascular stroke with no residual neurological deficit. She presented with correctable swan neck deformity and failed to improve with static ring splints to correct the deformity. She underwent volar plate plication of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left ring finger along with hemitenodesis of ulnar slip of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS tendon whereby, the ulnar slip of FDS was passed through a small surgically created rent in A2 pulley and sutured back to itself. Postoperatively, the patient was referred to occupational therapy for splinting with the instruction that the splint would work sometimes for as static and some time as dynamic for positional and correction of the finger. After occupational therapy intervention and splinting, the patient had a full correction of the swan-neck deformity with near full flexion of the operated finger and can work independently.

  11. 77 FR 31843 - Swan Lake North Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted For Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13318-002] Swan Lake North Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted For Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions to Intervene, and Competing Applications On April 3, 2012, Swan Lake North Hydro, LLC, filed an application for a successive preliminary permit...

  12. Sedimentary facies and depositional history of the Swan Islands, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Marvin L.; Breyer, John A.; Britton, Joseph C.

    1980-10-01

    Swan Island is a Honduran possession in the western Caribbean, located on the southeastern side of the Cayman Trench. Two sedimentary assemblages are found on the island: an older bedded sequence of mid-Tertiary age (Aquitanian or Burdigalian) and a younger sedimentary sequence of Late Pleistocene age. The older sequence is composed of a series of calcarenites, calcilutites, and siliciclastic mudstones; capping these are cliff-forming reefal carbonates of the younger sequence. The rocks of the older bedded sequence accumulated in deep water. Sedimentation consisted of a constant rain of pyroclastic debris interrupted by the episodic introduction of upslope carbonate material by turbidity currents. Uplift and deformation of this sequence was initiated sometime after the Early Miocene. By the Late Pleistocene, uplift had brought the rocks into water depths conducive to coral growth. Pleistocene sedimentation on the island was controlled by the interaction between tectonic uplift and eustatic sea-level changes. The primary controlling force on the tectonic history of the island is its proximity to the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates.

  13. Swan Queen, shipping, and boundary regulation in fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M. Gonzalez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of fan activities and practices that are subject to regulation. The mechanisms of regulation in shipping, however, are not always clear. Shipping, the fan activity of romantically pairing two fictional characters, has become a popular and contentious facet of fan interaction. The case that will be examined in this article is that of the Swan Queen ship, which pairs two female characters from Once Upon a Time (2011–. The lengths that fans have gone to support and promote this ship led to rather intense discussion and infighting among members of the Once Upon a Time fandom. I utilize comments and posts made on Tumblr to examine the mechanisms that dictate inclusion and exclusion in shipper communities. In doing so, I hope to identify the kinds of shipper activities that are subject to regulation and the kinds of boundaries that this regulation establishes. Shipping is dictated not only by fans' imaginations but also by boundaries that are performed and regulated on digital forums.

  14. ``Dual Society Ever Precedes through Trevor SWAN & Wassily Leontief''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    ``Dual Society'' introduced by E.F. Schumacher are classified as non-stabile society who easy to shakes by politics uncertainties.in Robert J. Barro & X. Sala-i-Martin: ``Convergence''states: `` a key economic issue is whether poor countries or regions tend to grow faster than rich ones''.For growth models from Roy Forbes Herrod & EvseyDomar, three assumptions described by Eduardo Ley are?[U+2639]i). output is proportional to capital,(ii). Investment ex anteequals saving & (iii) saving proportional to output. Underlines Trevor SWAN, developing countries differ significantly among themselves. Economic growth models comprises Herrod-Domar growth model, Solow growth model & endogenous growth model.Further, for five stages of economic groeth from Rostov of Leontief technology, ever retrieves the Jens Beckert:''Institutional Isomorphism revisited: Convergence & Divergence in Institutional Change''instead Frumkin's ``Institutional Isomorphism & Public Sector Organizations''. Acknowledgment devotes to theLates HE. Mr. BrigadierGeneral-TNI[rtd].Prof. Ir. HANDOJO.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  16. Experimental infection of swans and geese with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) of Asian lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D; Stallknecht, David E; Swayne, David E

    2008-01-01

    The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of the Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 epizootic and their contribution to the spread of the responsible viruses in Eurasia and Africa are unclear. To better understand the potential role of swans and geese in the epidemiology of this virus, we infected 4 species of swans and 2 species of geese with an HPAI virus of Asian lineage recovered from a whooper swan in Mongolia in 2005, A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/2005 (H5N1). The highest mortality rates were observed in swans, and species-related differences in clinical illness and viral shedding were evident. These results suggest that the potential for HPAI (H5N1) viral shedding and the movement of infected birds may be species-dependent and can help explain observed deaths associated with HPAI (H5N1) infection in anseriforms in Eurasia.

  17. Susceptibility-weighted angiography (SWAN) of cerebral veins and arteries compared to TOF-MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckh-Behrens, T.; Lutz, J.; Lummel, N.; Burke, M.; Wesemann, T.; Schöpf, V.; Brückmann, H.; Linn, J.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: High resolution, non-contrast imaging of both cerebral veins and arteries by use of gradient echo T2 star weighted angiography (SWAN) is a new method for susceptibility-weighted imaging with short acquisition times. We assessed the potential of this sequence for the depiction of both cerebral veins and arteries. Methods: 15 healthy volunteers were included in the study. MRI was performed on a 3 T MR scanner using the following sequences: (1) a 3D multi-echo gradient echo T2 star weighted angiography (SWAN), (2) an arterial 3D TOF MR angiography and (3) a venous 2D TOF. With regard to the SWAN sequence, both MinIP and MIP images were reconstructed and systematically compared to MIP reconstructions of the artTOF and the venTOF. To suggest possible clinical implications of our findings, we additionally included two illustrative cases. Results: With regard to the visualization of the cerebral veins, the MinIP reconstructions of the SWAN sequence were considerably superior compared to the venTOF. Concerning the depiction of the main segments of the big cerebral arteries the value of the MIP reconstructions of the SWAN was comparable to that of the artTOF with limitations in the homogenity and in the depiction of smaller arteries. Conclusions: SWAN allows for high-resolution visualization of both cerebral veins and arteries in one sequence without application of contrast agent and with significantly shortened scan time compared to the combined scan time of TOF-MRA and TOF-MRV. By use of either MinIP or MIP reconstructions, the arteries can be distinguished from the veins.

  18. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution...... of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius...

  19. Coil Embolization Treatment in Pulmonary Artery Branch Rupture During Swan-Ganz Catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottwalles, Yannick; Wunschel-Joseph, Marie-Eve; Hanssen, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Rupture of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches during Swan-Ganz catheterization is a complication that is rare but remains fatal in almost 50% of cases. The risk factors and mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this accident have been widely reported. Management is twofold: resuscitation procedures and specific medical or even surgical treatment. We report a case of pulmonary artery rupture occurring during Swan-Ganz catheterization that was treated by coil embolization. This technique, which is quick and simple to use, would appear to be very promising. This is the first case of successful emergency treatment of pulmonary artery rupture using an endovascular technique

  20. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  1. Centenarians and supercentenarians: a black swan. Emerging social, medical and surgical problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vacante, Marco; D’Agata, Velia; Motta, Massimo; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Biondi, Antonio; Basile, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Michele; Gagliano, Caterina; Drago, Filippo; Salamone, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Black Swan Theory was described by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his book “The Black Swan”. This theory refers to “high-impact, hard-to-predict, and rare events beyond the realm of normal expectations”. According to Taleb’s criteria, a Black Swan Event is a surprise, it has a major impact and after the fact, the event is rationalized by hindsight, as if it had been expected. For most of human history centenarians were a rare and unpredictable phenomenon. The improvements of the social...

  2. Compound Extremes and Bunched Black (or Grouped Grey) Swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, N. W.

    2014-12-01

    Observed "wild" natural fluctuations may differ substantially in their character. Some events may be genuinelyunforeseen (and unforeseeable), as with Taleb's "black swans". These may occur singly, or may have their impactfurther magnified by being "bunched" in time. Some of the others may, however, be the rare extreme events from alight-tailed underlying distribution. Studying their occurrence may then be tractable with the methods of extremevalue theory [e.g. Coles, 2001], suitably adapted to allow correlation if that is observed to be present. Yet others may belong to a third broad class, described in today's presentation [ reviewed in Watkins, GRLFrontiers, 2013, doi: 10.1002/grl.50103]. Such "bursty" time series may show comparatively frequent highamplitude events, and/or long range correlations between successive values. The frequent large values due to thefirst of these effects, modelled in economics by Mandelbrot in 1963 using heavy- tailed probability distributions,can give rise to an "IPCC type I" burst composed of successive wild events. Conversely, long range dependence,even in a light-tailed Gaussian model like Mandelbrot and van Ness' fractional Brownian motion, can integrate"mild" events into an extreme "IPCC type III" burst. I will show how a standard statistical time series model, linear fractional stable motion (LFSM), which de-scends from the two special cases advocated by Mandelbrot, allows these two effects to be varied independently,and will present results from a preliminary study of such bursts in LFSM. The consequences for burst scaling whenlow frequency effects due to dissipation (FARIMA models), and multiplicative cascades (such as multifractals)are included will also be discussed, and the physical assumptions and constraints associated with making a givenchoice of model.

  3. New Evidence for a Black Hole in the Compact Binary Cygnus X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrader, Chris R.; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The bright and highly variable X-ray and radio source known as Cygnus X-3 was among the first X-ray sources discovered, yet it remains in many ways an enigma. Its known to consist of a massive. Wolf-Rayet primary in an extremely tight orbit with a compact object. Yet one of the most basic of pa.ranietern the mass of the compact object - is not known. Nor is it even clear whether its is a neutron star or a black hole. In this Paper we present our analysis of the broad-band high-energy continua covering a substantial range in luminosity and spectral morphology. We apply these results to a recently identified scaling relationship which has been demonstrated to provide reliable estimates of the compact object mass in a number of accretion powered binaries. This analysis leads us to conclude that the compact object in Cygnus X-3 has a mass greater than 4.2 solar mass thus clearly indicative of a black hole and as such resolving a longstanding issue. The full range of uncertainty in our analysis and from using a. range of recently published distance estimates constrains the compact object mass to lie between 4.2 solar mass and 14.4 solar mass. Our favored estimate, based on a 9.0 kpc distance estimate is approx. l0 solar mass, with the. error margin of 3.2 solar masses. This result may thus pose challenges to shared-envelope evolutionary models of compact binaries. as well as establishing Cygnus X-3 as the first confirmed accretion-powered galactic gamma: ray source.

  4. Gulmarg estimate of PeV photon flux from Cygnus X-3 and its relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.L.; Sapru, M.L.; Razdan, H.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of atmospheric Cerenkov pulses recorded during January 1976 - December 1977, by a wide-angle photomultiplier system at Gulmarg (India), reveals a phase-dependent component exhibiting the characteristic Cygnus X-3 modulation period of 4.8h. Its amplitude, given by the number of excess events in the phase peak relative to the total phase-independent events, is found to be (1.8 ± 0.4)per cent, corresponding to a detected average flux of (1.6 ± 0.4) x 10 -12 γcm -2 s -1 above 0.5 PeV (1PeV = 10 15 eV). Taken together with the spectral data for the following years from several other experiments, there is the suggestion of a long-term reduction in the luminosity of the PeV source by a factor of ∼ 1.5 y -1 (exponential decay law with a time constant of ∼ 2.3y). This intriguing possibility is further strengthened by an examination of the Haverah Park phase-histograms of Cygnus X-3 for the period January 1979 to December 1984 and the Plateau Rosa data recorded between December 1981 - March 1985, which display analogous long-term behaviour at > 10 15 eV and > 2 x 10 13 eV respectively. After accounting for losses in the PeV photon beam due to γ-γ interactions with the 2.7deg K microwave background, a comparison of the ultra high energy photon fluxes from Cygnus X-3 with those in 10 11 - 10 12 eV energy region shows that the latter are significant by lower. This suggests that the TeV photons undergo servere circumstellar abnsorption through interactions with optical/infrared photons or/and have a production spectrum which differs in some significant manner from the one responsible for generating the PeV flux. (author)

  5. SMM/HXRBS observations of Cygnus X-1 from 1986 December to 1988 April

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R. A.; Orwig, L. E.; Dennis, B. R.; Ling, J. C.; Wheaton, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission's Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer made 30 measurements of Cygnus X-1 from December, 1986 to April, 1988, yielding a data set of broad synoptic coverage but limited duration for each data point. The hard X-ray intensity was found to be between the gamma(2) and gamma(3) levels, with a range of fluctuations about the average intensity level. The shape of the photon spectrum was found to be closest to that reported by Ling et al. (1983, 1987) during the time of the gamma(3) level emission, although the spectral shapes reported for the gamma(2) and gamma(1) levels were not precluded.

  6. Enhanced gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3 detected by AGILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, G.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Tavani, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Zoli, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Donnarumma, I.; Vercellone, S.; Striani, E.; Cardillo, M.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2016-04-01

    Integrating from 2016-04-16 00:00 UT to 2016-04-19 00:00 UT, the AGILE-GRID detector is revealing gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV from a source positionally consistent with Cygnus X-3 at Galactic coordinates (l, b) = (79.4, 0.2) +/- 0.6 (stat.) +/- 0.1 (syst.) deg, with flux F( > 100 MeV) = (2.0 +/- 0.8) x 10^-6 photons/cm^2/s, as determined by a multi-source likelihood analysis.

  7. Photometry of Cygnus A at 800 and 1100 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eales, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    We have measured the fluxes of the hotspots and core of the archetypical radio galaxy Cygnus A at 800 and 1100 μm. The values for the hotspots lie on the extrapolation of the spectrum from cm-wavelengths, and are consistent with a model in which the relativistic electrons are continuously injected into a reservoir from which they escape to fill the lobes. For the central source, our data are also consistent with an extrapolation from longer wavelengths and therefore suggest that the far-infrared emission discovered by IRAS from the nucleus is from heated dust. (author)

  8. Gamma rays from Cygnus X-1: Modeling and nonthermal pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Liang, E.P.

    1988-02-01

    The gamma-ray bump observed between 0.5 and 2 MeV in the spectrum of Cygnus X-1 can be interpreted as the thermal emissions from a hot (kT/approximately/400 keV) pair-dominated cloud. We argue that the X-rays and gamma rays are produced in separate emission regions, and calculate the photon-photon pair production rate from X-ray and gamma-ray interactions in the vicinity of Cyg X-1 by employing a simplified geometry for the two emitting regions

  9. X-ray and UV spectroscopy of Cygnus X-1 = HDE226868

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, S. H.; White, N. E.; Kondo, Y.; Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Mccluskey, B. G.

    1980-01-01

    Observations are presented of Cygnus X-1 with the solid-state spectrometer on the Einstein Observatory. The X-ray spectra of two intensity dips viewed near superior conjunction did not exhibit increased photoelectric absorption. Rather the data support a model in which an increase in the electron scattering optical depth modifies both the observed spectrum and the intensity. The characteristic temperature of the intervening material is greater than 5 x 10 to the 7th power K. These measurements were in part simultaneous with observations by IUE. The ultra violet spectrum and intensity remained relatively constant during an X-ray intensity dip.

  10. High-energy X-ray spectra of Cygnus XR-1 observed from OSO 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray spectra of Cygnus XR-1 were measured with the scintillation spectrometer aboard the OSO 8 satellite during a period of one-and-one-half to three weeks in each of the years from 1975 to 1977. Typical spectra of the source between 15 and 250 keV are presented and the spectra are found to be well represented by a single power-law expression whose photon number spectral index is different for the two intensity states that were considered. The observed pivoting effect is consistent with two-temperature accretion disk models of the X-ray emitting region.

  11. The 4.8 hour variation of Cygnus X-3 at high X-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, W.; Kendziorra, E.; Staubert, R.; Trumper, J.

    1976-01-01

    During a balloon observation of Cygnus X-3 on 1975 February 20, an intensity variation has been found which is in phase with the low-energy X-ray 4.8 hour sinusoidal light curve. The measured relative amplitude in the range 32--64 keV is 0.37 (+0.31, -0.29). Compared with the results at lower energies there is no indication for an energy dependence of the relative amplitude up to 64 keV. The encountered low-intensity source spectrum is compared with previous measurements

  12. Discovery of an infrared nucleus in Cygnus A - An obscured quasar revealed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djorgovski, S.; Weir, N.; Matthews, K.; Graham, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the discovery of a compact, unresolved infrared nucleus, coincident with the radio core, in the prototypical powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A (3C 405). The infrared colors and magnitudes of the nucleus can be explained as a highly reddened extension of the radio continuum. The implied restframe extinction is A(V) equal to about 50 + or - 30 magnitudes. The extinction-corrected luminosity of the object is in the quasar range. This discovery gives some support to the unification models for quasars and powerful radio galaxies. 35 refs

  13. Evidence for a TDE Origin for the Radio Transient in Cygnus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michael W.; de Vries, Martijn; Rowlinson, Antonia; Nulsen, Paul; Snios, Bradford; Birkinshaw, Mark; Worrall, Diana

    2017-08-01

    Recently new JVLA observations by Perley et al. (2017) have revealed evidence for a luminous radio transient at a projected distance of 0.46 kpc from the nucleus of Cygnus A. Based on data taken between 1989 and 2016, the flux density of this radio transient has risen from an upper limit of dimming on this timescale, which we interpret as fading reflected nuclear emission from surrounding dust. In this presentation, we summarize these results and their implications in light of a TDE origin for the observed X-ray and radio variability.

  14. Chewing lice of swan geese (Anser cygnoides): New host-parasite associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Smith, Lacy M.; Ely, Craig R.; Fox, Anthony D.; Cao, Lei; Wang, Xin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius domesticus Arnold, 2005, and 1 Anaticola anseris (Linnaeus, 1758). These species are known from other geese and swans, but all of them were new to the swan goose. This result also indicates no overlap in lice species between older records and our findings from wild birds. Thus, ectoparasites collected from domestic or captive animals may provide biased information on the occurrence, prevalence, host selection, and host-ectoparasite interactions from those on wild hosts.

  15. Percutaneous untying of a knot in a retained Swan-Ganz catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Waqar A.; Sinha, Sankar; Rowlands, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A patient was referred to us with a tightly knotted Swan-Ganz catheter. The catheter could not be removed by conventional simple methods. We describe a minimally invasive means of removal of the catheter using an Amplatz gooseneck snare and an angioplasty balloon. This allowed the Catheter to be removed without trauma.

  16. The effect of lead poisoning on hematologic and biochemical values in trumpeter swans and Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavolos, P; Staempfli, S; Sears, W; Gancz, A Y; Smith, D A; Bienzle, D

    2007-12-01

    Lead is a persistent contaminant in the environment, and waterfowl are susceptible to lead toxicity from ingestion of lead pellets and fishing weights. Lead affects numerous physiologic processes through inhibition of enzyme activity and protein function, but its effects on commonly assessed avian blood values are incompletely understood. Our aim was to evaluate hematologic and biochemical changes associated with blood lead concentrations in trumpeter swans and Canada geese. Data for CBCs, plasma biochemical profiles (total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, total bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT], aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, amylase, and lipase), and whole blood lead concentrations were retrospectively analyzed for 69 trumpeter swans and 52 Canada geese. Laboratory data obtained prospectively from an additional 20 trumpeter swans also were included. RBC morphology was semiquantitated in blood smears from 70 of the birds. Data were analyzed initially by ANOVA and covariance. A statistical model then was constructed to determine the relationship between each parameter and lead concentration. In both avian species, PCV, hemoglobin concentration, and MCHC decreased significantly (P < .05) with increasing blood lead concentration. Uric acid concentration and GGT activity were increased in trumpeter swans and phosphorus concentration was decreased in Canada geese in association with high blood lead concentration (P < .05). Lead toxicosis induced significant changes in the values of commonly measured hematologic parameters in waterfowl. These changes may be useful indicators of severe lead intoxication during routine laboratory assessment. Changes in clinical chemistry values, although statistically significant, were too inconsistent to serve as indicators of lead toxicosis.

  17. 50 CFR 20.107 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. 20.107 Section 20.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS ...

  18. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) isolated from whooper swans, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuko; Mase, Masaji; Yoneda, Kumiko; Kimura, Atsumu; Obara, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Seikou; Saito, Takehiko; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo

    2008-09-01

    On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree.

  19. 76 FR 29259 - Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chariton County, MO; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of the Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Environmental Assessment (EA) for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Goals and objectives in the CCP describe how the agency intends to manage the refuge over the next 15 years.

  20. 76 FR 28024 - Swan Falls Hydroelectric Project, Idaho Power Company; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 503-048-ID] Swan Falls Hydroelectric Project, Idaho Power Company; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Tuesday, May 24, 2011 at 10 a.m. (Mountain Time). b. Place: By copy of this notice we are inviting all interested parties to attend a teleconference from...

  1. On the Development of an Operational SWAN Model for the Black Sea (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, A.; Van Vledder, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the results of some studies performed on the development of an efficient and operational SWAN model for the Black Sea. This model will be used to study the wind-wave climate and wave energy potential in the region and will provide boundary conditions for coastal engineering and

  2. Water‐Data Report 393556093132501 ELK CREEK NR SUMNER MO, DS ON SWAN LAKE REFUGE-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 390 35’ 56.0” N, long. 930 13’ 25” W, at Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillecothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is located near abandoned...

  3. Black swan risk management : The moderation effect of risk mitigation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Q; Krikke, H.R.; Caniels, M.C.J.; Pawar, K.S.; Rogers, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many scholars have discussed supply chain risk mitigation on operational risks, but less on rare, highly influential, and retrospective predictable risks, such as natural disasters, epidemics, and socio-political crises. They are Black Swan risks (Taleb, 2007). More than disrupting supply chains,

  4. Maize stubble as foraging habitat to wintering geese and swans in northern Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausen, K.K.; Madsen, J.; Nolet, B.A.; Haugaard, L.

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging in this

  5. The C3 Framework: One Year Later - an Interview with Kathy Swan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    On September 17, 2013 (Constitution Day), the C3 Framework was released under the title "The College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and lead writer was NCSS member Kathy Swan, who is…

  6. Climate, ENSO and 'Black Swans' over the Last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Davis, M. E.; Kenny, D. V.; Lin, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical rainfall patterns influence the lives of billions of people both north and south of the Equator. Evidence of major ENSO events such as droughts is often recorded in the oxygen isotopic ratios and aerosol concentrations in tropical ice cores. Here we examine unusual events recorded in three ice cores, two (Quelccaya and Coropuna) in the Southern Hemisphere on the Peruvian Altiplano and the third (Dasuopu) located 22,000 km away on the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau at the top of the Himalayas. These records suggest that the unique lower and middle tropospheric air flow over chloride (Cl-) and fluoride (F-) enriched areas upwind of the sites during ENSO events leads to enhanced deposition of these species on these glaciers. Linkages are demonstrated between ice-core chemistry and drought indicators, changes in lake levels, and ENSO and monsoon indices. Two unusual events, in the late 18th and mid-14th Centuries, are marked by abnormally high concentrations of F- and Cl- in at least two of the ice core records. All three records document a drought from 1789 to 1800 CE in which increases in these anionic concentrations reflect the abundance of continental atmospheric dust derived from arid regions upwind of the core sites. The earlier event, apparent only in the Quelccaya and Dasuopu ice cores, begins abruptly in 1343 and tapers off by 1375. The interaction between high frequency El Niños and low frequency shifts in the inter-tropical convergence zone may have resulted in these unusually severe and extended droughts. These "Black Swan" events correspond to historically documented, devastating population disruptions that were in part climate related. The 1789 to 1800 CE event was concurrent with the Doji Bara famine resulting from extended droughts that led to over 600,000 deaths in central India by 1792. Similarly extensive climate disruptions are documented in Central and South America. The mid-14th Century drought is concomitant with major monsoon

  7. The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole in Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-01-01

    The compact primary in the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 was the first black hole to be established via dynamical observations. We have recently determined accurate values for its mass and distance, and for the orbital inclination angle of the binary. Building on these results, which are based on our favored (asynchronous) dynamical model, we have measured the radius of the inner edge of the black hole s accretion disk by fitting its thermal continuum spectrum to a fully relativistic model of a thin accretion disk. Assuming that the spin axis of the black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum vector, we have determined that Cygnus X-1 contains a near-extreme Kerr black hole with a spin parameter a* > 0.95 (3(sigma)). For a less probable (synchronous) dynamical model, we find a. > 0.92 (3 ). In our analysis, we include the uncertainties in black hole mass, orbital inclination angle, and distance, and we also include the uncertainty in the calibration of the absolute flux via the Crab. These four sources of uncertainty totally dominate the error budget. The uncertainties introduced by the thin-disk model we employ are particularly small in this case given the extreme spin of the black hole and the disk s low luminosity.

  8. Infrared spectroscopy of a Cygnus A - Implications for the obscured active nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Martin J.; Blanco, Philip R.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Nishida, Minoru

    1991-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the central regions of the luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A are presented and interpreted in terms of an obscured quasar nucleus. Strong emission is detected in the molecular hydrogen lines 1-0 S(1) and 1-0 S(3), the strengths of which are accounted for through heating by the nuclear hard X-ray source. The large equivalent widths of these molecular hydrogen lines and the near-infrared narrow hydrogen recombination lines suggest that the observed nuclear continuum is strongly attenuated at 2 microns. The observed upper limit to the flux of broad Pa-alpha implies an extinction to the putative broad line region AV(BL) of at least 24 mag, and the observed continuum intensity of the nuclear point source at 2.2 microns gives an extinction of 43 +/-9 mag toward the optical-infrared continuum. These estimates are consistent with the gas column density inferred from the low-energy X-ray cutoff. Strong forbidden Si VI 1.962-micron line emission from Cygnus A is also reported.

  9. NuSTAR Observations of the Powerful Radio-Galaxy Cygnus A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Ogle, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    We present NuSTAR observations of the powerful radio galaxy Cygnus A,focusing on the central absorbed active galactic nucleus (AGN). Cygnus A is embedded in a cool-core galaxy cluster, and hence we also examine archival XMM-Newton data to facilitate the decomposition of the spectrum into the AGN...... and intracluster medium (ICM) components. NuSTAR gives a source-dominated spectrum of the AGN out to >70keV. In gross terms, the NuSTAR spectrum of the AGN has the form of a power law (Γ~1.6-1.7) absorbed by a neutral column density of NH~1.6x1023 cm-2. However, we also detect curvature in the hard (>10ke......V (90% confidence). Interestingly, the absorbed power-law plus reflection modelleaves residuals suggesting the absorption/emission from a fast(15,000-26,000km/s), high column-density (NW>3x1023 cm-2), highly ionized (ξ~2,500 erg cm/s-1) wind. A second, even faster ionized wind component is also...

  10. Dissecting the Cygnus region with TeV gamma rays and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beacom, John F.; Kistler, Matthew D.

    2007-01-01

    Recent Milagro observations of the Cygnus region have revealed both diffuse TeV gamma-ray emission and a bright and extended TeV source, MGRO J2019+37, which seems to lack an obvious counterpart at other wavelengths. Additional study of this curious object also promises to provide important clues concerning one of the Milky Way's most active environments. We point out some of the principal facts involved by following three modes of attack. First, to gain insight into this mysterious source, we consider its relation to known objects in both the Cygnus region and the rest of the Galaxy. Second, we find that a simple hadronic model can easily accommodate Milagro's flux measurement (which is at a single energy), as well as other existing observations spanning nearly 7 orders of magnitude in gamma-ray energy. Third, since a hadronic gamma-ray spectrum necessitates an accompanying TeV neutrino flux, we show that IceCube observations may provide the first direct evidence of a Galactic cosmic-ray accelerator

  11. Hard X-ray Flux from Low-Mass Stars in the Cygnus OB2 Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramazza, M.; Drake, J. J.; Micela, G.; Flaccomio, E.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the X-ray emission in the 20-40 keV band expected from the flaring low-mass stellar population in Cygnus OB2 assuming that the observed soft X-ray emission is due to a superposition of flares and that the ratio of hard X-ray to soft X-ray emission is described by a scaling found for solar flares by Isola and co-workers. We estimate a low-mass stellar hard X-ray flux in the 20-40 keV band in the range ~7×1031-7×1033 erg/s and speculate the limit of this values. Hard X-ray emission could lie at a level not much below the current observed flux upper limits for Cygnus OB2. Simbol-X, with its broad energy band (10-100 keV) and its sensitivity should be able to detect this emission and would provide insights into the hard X-ray production of flares on pre-main sequence stars.

  12. Long term variability of Cygnus X-1. VI. Energy-resolved X-ray variability 1999-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinberg, V.; Pottschmidt, K.; Böck, M.; Schmid, C.; Nowak, M.A.; Uttley, P.; Tomsick, J.A.; Rodriguez, J.; Hell, N.; Markowitz, A.; Bodaghee, A.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Rothschild, R.E.; Wilms, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present the most extensive analysis of Fourier-based X-ray timing properties of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 to date, based on 12 years of bi-weekly monitoring with RXTE from 1999 to 2011. Our aim is a comprehensive study of timing behavior across all spectral states, including the elusive

  13. Discovery of a Luminous Radio Transient 460 pc from the Central Supermassive Black Hole in Cygnus A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, R. A.; Dhawan, V.; Carilli, C. L., E-mail: d.a.perley@ljmu.ac.uk [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We report the appearance of a new radio source at a projected offset of 460 pc from the nucleus of Cygnus A. The flux density of the source (which we designate Cygnus A-2) rose from an upper limit of <0.5 mJy in 1989 to 4 mJy in 2016 ( ν = 8.5 GHz), but is currently not varying by more than a few percent per year. The radio luminosity of the source is comparable to the most luminous known supernovae, it is compact in Very Long Baseline Array observations down to a scale of 4 pc, and it is coincident with a near-infrared point source seen in pre-existing adaptive optics and HST observations. The most likely interpretation of this source is that it represents a secondary supermassive black hole in a close orbit around the Cygnus A primary, though an exotic supernova model cannot be ruled out. The gravitational influence of a secondary SMBH at this location may have played an important role in triggering the rapid accretion that has powered the Cygnus A radio jet over the past 10{sup 7} years.

  14. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed With NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Madsen, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variabilit...

  15. The Reflection Component from Cygnus X-1 in the Soft State Measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomsick, John A.; Nowak, Michael A.; Parker, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late-2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ~1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power-law, and reflection components along...

  16. Water Data Analysis 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2013-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2013 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393937093090901 SITE NAME: Turkey Creek nr Sumner MO, Fulbright Rd COOPERATION: Swan Lake...

  17. Development and applications of the SWAN rating scale for assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, C; Salgado-Azoni, C A; Ferreira, T L; Lima, R F; Ciasca, S M

    2015-11-01

    This study reviewed the use of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-symptoms and Normal-behaviors (SWAN) rating scale in diagnostic and evolutive approaches to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in correlational studies of the disorder. A review of articles published in indexed journals from electronic databases was conducted and 61 articles on the SWAN scale were analyzed. From these, 27 were selected to a) examine use of SWAN in research on attention disorders and b) verify evidence of its usefulness in the areas of genetics, neuropsychology, diagnostics, psychiatric comorbidities, neuroimaging, pharmacotherapy, and to examine its statistical reliability and validity in studies of diverse populations. This review of articles indicated a growing use of the SWAN scale for diagnostic purposes, for therapy, and in research on areas other than ADHD, especially when compared with other reliable scales. Use of the scale in ADHD diagnosis requires further statistical testing to define its psychometric properties.

  18. Development and applications of the SWAN rating scale for assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brites

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed the use of the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-symptoms and Normal-behaviors (SWAN rating scale in diagnostic and evolutive approaches to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and in correlational studies of the disorder. A review of articles published in indexed journals from electronic databases was conducted and 61 articles on the SWAN scale were analyzed. From these, 27 were selected to a examine use of SWAN in research on attention disorders and b verify evidence of its usefulness in the areas of genetics, neuropsychology, diagnostics, psychiatric comorbidities, neuroimaging, pharmacotherapy, and to examine its statistical reliability and validity in studies of diverse populations. This review of articles indicated a growing use of the SWAN scale for diagnostic purposes, for therapy, and in research on areas other than ADHD, especially when compared with other reliable scales. Use of the scale in ADHD diagnosis requires further statistical testing to define its psychometric properties.

  19. SWAN - Detection of explosives by means of fast neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierlik, M., E-mail: m.gierlik@ncbj.gov.pl; Borsuk, S.; Guzik, Z.; Iwanowska, J.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Korolczuk, S.; Kozłowski, T.; Krakowski, T.; Marcinkowski, R.; Swiderski, L.; Szeptycka, M.; Szewiński, J.; Urban, A.

    2016-10-21

    In this work we report on SWAN, the experimental, portable device for explosives detection. The device was created as part of the EU Structural Funds Project “Accelerators & Detectors” (POIG.01.01.02-14-012/08-00), with the goal to increase beneficiary's expertise and competencies in the field of neutron activation analysis. Previous experiences and budged limitations lead toward a less advanced design based on fast neutron interactions and unsophisticated data analysis with the emphasis on the latest gamma detection and spectrometry solutions. The final device has been designed as a portable, fast neutron activation analyzer, with the software optimized for detection of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. SWAN's performance in the role of explosives detector is elaborated in this paper. We demonstrate that the unique features offered by neutron activation analysis might not be impressive enough when confronted with practical demands and expectations of a generic homeland security customer.

  20. SWAN - Detection of explosives by means of fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierlik, M.; Borsuk, S.; Guzik, Z.; Iwanowska, J.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Korolczuk, S.; Kozłowski, T.; Krakowski, T.; Marcinkowski, R.; Swiderski, L.; Szeptycka, M.; Szewiński, J.; Urban, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on SWAN, the experimental, portable device for explosives detection. The device was created as part of the EU Structural Funds Project “Accelerators & Detectors” (POIG.01.01.02-14-012/08-00), with the goal to increase beneficiary's expertise and competencies in the field of neutron activation analysis. Previous experiences and budged limitations lead toward a less advanced design based on fast neutron interactions and unsophisticated data analysis with the emphasis on the latest gamma detection and spectrometry solutions. The final device has been designed as a portable, fast neutron activation analyzer, with the software optimized for detection of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. SWAN's performance in the role of explosives detector is elaborated in this paper. We demonstrate that the unique features offered by neutron activation analysis might not be impressive enough when confronted with practical demands and expectations of a generic homeland security customer.

  1. Widespread avian bornavirus infection in mute swans in the Northeast United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne SL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jianhua Guo,1 Lina Covaleda,1 J Jill Heatley,1 John A Baroch,2 Ian Tizard1, Susan L Payne,11Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2USDA/APHIS Wildlife Services, Fort Collins, CO, USAAbstract: Avian bornavirus (ABV matrix (M genes were detected by RT-PCR on brain tissue obtained from 192 mute swans harvested from several Northeastern states. A RT-PCR product was detected in 45 samples. Sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the presence of ABV belonging to the ‘goose’ genotype. The prevalence of positive samples ranged from 28% in Michigan to 0% in northern New York State. Two Rhode Island isolates were cultured. Their M, N, and X-P gene sequences closely matched recently published sequences from Canada geese.Keywords: avian bornavirus, proventricular dilatation disease, reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction, mute swans

  2. Canards and black swans in a model of a 3-D autocatalator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepakina, E.

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical model of a 3-D autocatalator is studied using the geometric theory of singular perturbations, namely, the black swan and canard techniques. Critical regimes are modeled by canards (one-dimensional stable-unstable slow integral manifolds). The meaning of criticality here is as follows. The critical regime corresponds to a chemical reaction which separates the domain of self-accelerating reactions from the domain of slow reactions. A two-dimensional stable-unstable slow integral manifold (black swan) consisting entirely of canards, which simulate the critical phenomena for different initial data of the dynamical system, is constructed. It is shown that this procedure leads to the phenomenon of auto-oscillations in the chemical system. The geometric approach combined with asymptotic and numerical methods permits us to explain the strong parametric sensitivity and to obtain asymptotic representations of the critical behavior of the chemical system.

  3. Canards and black swans in a model of a 3-D autocatalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchepakina, E

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical model of a 3-D autocatalator is studied using the geometric theory of singular perturbations, namely, the black swan and canard techniques. Critical regimes are modeled by canards (one-dimensional stable-unstable slow integral manifolds). The meaning of criticality here is as follows. The critical regime corresponds to a chemical reaction which separates the domain of self-accelerating reactions from the domain of slow reactions. A two-dimensional stable-unstable slow integral manifold (black swan) consisting entirely of canards, which simulate the critical phenomena for different initial data of the dynamical system, is constructed. It is shown that this procedure leads to the phenomenon of auto-oscillations in the chemical system. The geometric approach combined with asymptotic and numerical methods permits us to explain the strong parametric sensitivity and to obtain asymptotic representations of the critical behavior of the chemical system

  4. Polarized Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galactic Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, P.; Rodriquez, J.; Wilms, J.; Bel, M. Cadolle; Pottschmidt, K.; Grinberg, V.

    2011-01-01

    Because of their inherently high flux allowing the detection of clear signals, black hole X-ray binaries are interesting candidates for polarization studies, even if no polarization signals have been observed from them before. Such measurements would provide further detailed insight into these sources' emission mechanisms. We measured the polarization of the gamma-ray emission from the black hole binary system Cygnus X-I with the INTEGRAL/IBIS telescope. Spectral modeling ofthe data reveals two emission mechanisms: The 250-400 keY data are consistent with emission dominated by Compton scattering on thermal electrons and are weakly polarized. The second spectral component seen in the 400keV-2MeV band is by contrast strongly polarized, revealing that the MeV emission is probably related to the jet first detected in the radio band.

  5. Disentangling the gamma-ray emission towards Cygnus X: Sh2-104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Eric

    2015-09-01

    We have just discovered distinct X-ray emission coincident with VER J2018+363, a TeV source recently resolved from the giant gamma-ray complex MGRO J2019+37 in the Cygnus region. NuSTAR reveals a hard point source and a diffuse nebula adjacent to and possibly part of Sh2-104, a compact HII region containing several young massive stellar clusters. There is reasonable evidence that these X-rays probe the origin of the gamma-ray flux, however, unrelated extragalactic sources need to be excluded. We propose a short Chandra observation to localize the X-ray emission to identify a putative pulsar or stellar counterpart(s). This is an important step to fully understand the energetics of the MGRO J2019+37 complex and the production of gamma-rays in star formation regions, in general.

  6. Ultraviolet, X-ray, and infrared observations of HDE 226868 equals Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, A.; Chiappetti, L.; Tanzi, E. G.; Tarenghi, M.; Gursky, H.; Dupree, A. K.; Hartmann, L. W.; Raymond, J.; Davis, R. J.; Black, J.

    1980-01-01

    During April, May, and July of 1978, HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cygnus X-1, was repeatedly observed in the ultraviolet with the IUE satellite. Some X-ray and infrared observations have been made during the same period. The general shape of the spectrum is that expected from a late O supergiant. Strong absorption features are apparent in the ultraviolet, some of which have been identified. The equivalent widths of the most prominent lines appear to be modulated with the orbital phase. This modulation is discussed in terms of the ionization contours calculated by Hatchett and McCray, for a binary X-ray source in the stellar wind of the companion.

  7. Ultra high energy gamma rays and observations with CYGNUS/MILAGRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.D.; Yodh, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    This talk discusses high-energy observations of the Crab pulsar/nebula and the pulsar in the X-ray binary, Hercules X-1, and makes the case for continued observations with ground-based γ-ray detectors. The CYGNUS Air Shower Array has a wide field of view on monitors several astrophysical γ-ray sources at the same time, many of which are prime objects observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and air Cerenkov telescopes. This array and the future MILAGRO Water Cerenkov Detector can perform observations that are simultaneous with similar experiments to provide confirmation of emission, and can measure source spectra at a range of high energies previously unexplored

  8. A cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays detected by Fermi in the Cygnus Superbubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, A.; Allafort, A.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P.S.; Focke, W.B.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Kerr, M.; Lande, J.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Okumura, A.; Orlando, E.; Paneque, D.; Prokhorov, D.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.G.; Thayer, J.B.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vianello, G.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Tibaldo, L.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of Galactic cosmic rays is a century-long puzzle. Indirect evidence points to their acceleration by supernova shock waves, but we know little of their escape from the shock and their evolution through the turbulent medium surrounding massive stars. Gamma rays can probe their spreading through the ambient gas and radiation fields. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed the star-forming region of Cygnus X. The 1- to 100-giga-electron-volt images reveal a 50-parsec-wide cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays that flood the cavities carved by the stellar winds and ionization fronts from young stellar clusters. It provides an example to study the youth of cosmic rays in a superbubble environment before they merge into the older Galactic population. (authors)

  9. Faraday rotation measure variations in the Cygnus region and the spectrum of interstellar plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph; Spangler, Steven R.; Cordes, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Linear polarization observations were made of eight double-lobed radio galaxies viewed through the galactic plane in the Cygnus region. These observations have been used to determine intra- and intersource rotation measure differences; in some cases, unambiguous rotation measures have been extracted. The rotation measures are dominated by foreground magnetoionic material. The differences in rotation measure between pairs of sources correlate with angular separation for separations from 10 arcsec to 1.5 deg. These rotation measure fluctuations are consistent with a model in which the electron density varies on roughly 0.1-200 pc scales. The amplitudes of these variations are, in turn, consistent with those electron density variations that cause diffractive interstellar scattering on scales less than 10 to the 11th cm.

  10. X-ray emission from supernova remnants with particular reference to the Cygnus Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronenschild, E.H.B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Observational or theoretical results related to the study of supernova remnants (SNRs) are described. Some background information is given by reviewing the present status of our knowledge of supernovae and supernova remnants, both from theory and observations. Also the distribution of all known radio, optical, and X-ray SNRs in the Galaxy is shown and a comparison is made. The X-ray observations of the well-known X-ray SNR the Cygnus Loop are discussed in detail and the discovery of a new X-ray emitting SNR W44 is described. Other radio sources are investigated, and the observed X-ray emission of SNRs are analysed using thermal spectra like exponential or bremsstrahlung spectra. The X-ray line spectrum that emerges from SNRs is described in detail. (Auth.)

  11. Multiwavelength study of Cygnus A. V. The hotspots in the lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrzas, S.; Steenbrugge, K. C.; Blundell, K. M.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The jets in Faranoff-Riley type II AGN are supposed come to an abrupt halt in hotspots on opposite sides of the nucleus. Quite commonly, two hotspots are observed in each lobe. The origin of the second hotspot is currently poorly understood. Aims: Our aims are to determine the origin of the secondary hotspot in the western lobe of Cygnus A from high resolution multifrequency radio images; to determine the minimum Lorentz factor of the electrons in the hotspots, often referred to as the low-energy turnover; and to study the magnetic field configuration of the hotspots. Methods: We used 151 MHz Merlin and 327 MHz, 1.4, 5, 8, 15, and 43 GHz VLA images to determine the centroid of the peak luminosity, the spectral shape, and polarization fraction of both hotspots in the western lobe of Cygnus A. Results: We find a spatial shift in peak luminosity between the lower and higher frequency images for both hotspots. We determine the minimum Lorentz factor of the electrons to be ~1000, and show that most of the emission from the primary hotspot is linearly polarized. The minimum energy magnetic field strength is found to range between ~0.14 and ~0.5 mG in both the primary and secondary hotspots. Conclusions: From the low polarization and the determined outflow velocity, we conclude that the secondary hotspot is no longer a strong shock, and is an expanding, and hence a fading hotspot. This hotspot has an age that is of the same order of magnitude as the jet precession period.

  12. Gender equity programmes in academic medicine: a realist evaluation approach to Athena SWAN processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Louise; Wyatt, David; Fudge, Nina; Mattingley, Helena; Williamson, Catherine; McKevitt, Christopher

    2016-09-08

    Gender inequity has persisted in academic medicine. Yet equity is vital for countries to achieve their full potential in terms of translational research and patient benefit. This study sought to understand how the gender equity programme, Athena SWAN, can be enabled and constrained by interactions between the programme and the context it is implemented into, and whether these interactions might produce unintended consequences. Multimethod qualitative case studies using a realist evaluation approach. 5 departments from a university medical school hosting a Translational Research Organisation. 25 hours of observations of gender equality committee meetings, 16 in-depth interviews with Heads of Departments, Committee Leads and key personnel involved in the initiative. 4 focus groups with 15 postdoctoral researchers, lecturers and senior lecturers. The implementation of Athena SWAN principles was reported to have created social space to address gender inequity and to have highlighted problematic practices to staff. However, a number of factors reduced the programme's potential to impact gender inequity. Gender inequity was reproduced in the programme's enactment as female staff was undertaking a disproportionate amount of Athena SWAN work, with potential negative impacts on individual women's career progression. Early career researchers experienced problems accessing Athena SWAN initiatives. Furthermore, the impact of the programme was perceived to be undermined by wider institutional practices, national policies and societal norms, which are beyond the programme's remit. Gender equity programmes have the potential to address inequity. However, paradoxically, they can also unintentionally reproduce and reinforce gender inequity through their enactment. Potential programme impacts may be undermined by barriers to staff availing of career development and training initiatives, and by wider institutional practices, national policies and societal norms. Published by the

  13. Testing The ‘Black Swan Effect’ on Croatian Stock Market Between 2000 and 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Radman Peša, Anita; Brajković, Ana

    2015-01-01

    We tested the economic activity and stock exchange of Croatia as a new country of European Union (EU) in order to investigate the ‘Black Swan effect’ from 2000 to 2013. The empirical findings obtained in application of OLS methodology and Chow breaking point test provide evidence and show that resignation of the Croatian ex-Prime Minister did lead country successfully to EU. Also, ‘The Black Swan’ event, being unpredictable and having huge impact on political and economic environm...

  14. The Black Swan di Darren Aronofsky. Lo specchio come indagine psicanalitica sulla pazzia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Casella

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Darren Aronofsky's 'The Black Swan' is certainly one of the most emblematic and controversial movie of the recent years. Considered a masterpiece or panned brutally, echo’s a long line of films that led themselves to a psychoanalytic analysis. In attempt to give a proper interpretation of the imaginary film work, strongly linked to the theme of the double and the mirror, were used two founders of the philosophy of mind: Singmund Freud and Otto Rank.

  15. Emerging risk – Conceptual definition and a relation to black swan type of events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flage, R.; Aven, T.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of emerging risk has gained increasing attention in recent years. The term has an intuitive appeal and meaning but a consistent and agreed definition is missing. We perform an in-depth analysis of this concept, in particular its relation to black swan type of events, and show that these can be considered meaningful and complementary concepts by relating emerging risk to known unknowns and black swans to unknown knowns, unknown unknowns and a subset of known knowns. The former is consistent with saying that we face emerging risk related to an activity when the background knowledge is weak but contains indications/justified beliefs that a new type of event (new in the context of that activity) could occur in the future and potentially have severe consequences to something humans value. The weak background knowledge among other things results in difficulty specifying consequences and possibly also in fully specifying the event itself; i.e. in difficulty specifying scenarios. Here knowledge becomes the key concept for both emerging risk and black swan type of events, allowing for taking into consideration time dynamics since knowledge develops over time. Some implications of our findings in terms of risk assessment and risk management are pointed out. - Highlights: • We perform an in-depth analysis of the concept of emerging risk. • Emerging risk and black swan type of events are shown to be complementary concepts. • We propose a definition of emerging risk where knowledge becomes the key term. • Some implications for risk assessment and risk management are pointed out.

  16. Introduction to nickel sulfide orebodies and komatiites of the Black Swan area, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, S. J.

    2004-11-01

    The Black Swan district, 70 km north east of Kalgoorlie in the Archaean Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia, hosts massive and disseminated nickel sulfide orebodies associated with komatiites. The host rocks and ores preserve some remarkable primary igneous features, which provide important clues as to the origin of komatiite-hosted nickel ores. The series of papers that follow report an extremely detailed study of the petrology, volcanology and geochemistry of these unusually well-preserved orebodies and their host rocks.

  17. Fragments on black swan: money, credit and finance in The Arcades Project of Walter Benjamin

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a reading of The Arcades Project by Walter Benjamin in the context of the financial crisis, in particular, reflect from a few fragments of Benjamin's work appear to lie around a Black Swan. The recovery of the fragments of The Arcades seems appropriate at a time when the financial crisis should be taught as a deeper crisis. Walter Benjamin is placed beyond its time, with a powerful sense of observation worthy of emulation analytical.

  18. Black Swans and Many Worlds: Contemporary models in music, the arts and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black Swans and Many Worlds are new models to help explain musical structures, and by extension, events in the social environment and in internal human experience. Many Worlds takes its departure point from quantum physics, and especially the work of Hugh Everett III, who used the defining point of a measurement in the sub-atomic world as initiating alternative courses of action. Everett extrapolated this idea to the macro-world: a defining point may initiate multiple outcomes, each with its own character and events, as parallel worlds. One application of this model is to consider musical works within a genre as Many Worlds. Black Swans derive from Nassim Taleb, who proposes that social, political, and in fact all aspects of today’s world are not understandable by logical processes or incremental change but are often rocked by extreme, unpredictable shocks. If Many Worlds provide new ways of thinking about potentiality, probability and innovation, Black Swans arrest us in our tracks by eruptions that threaten to derail contemporary life, and with it, music, the arts and ideas.

  19. Implementing Lumberjacks and Black Swans Into Model-Based Tools to Support Human-Automation Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Angelia; Wickens, Christopher D

    2017-03-01

    The objectives were to (a) implement theoretical perspectives regarding human-automation interaction (HAI) into model-based tools to assist designers in developing systems that support effective performance and (b) conduct validations to assess the ability of the models to predict operator performance. Two key concepts in HAI, the lumberjack analogy and black swan events, have been studied extensively. The lumberjack analogy describes the effects of imperfect automation on operator performance. In routine operations, an increased degree of automation supports performance, but in failure conditions, increased automation results in more significantly impaired performance. Black swans are the rare and unexpected failures of imperfect automation. The lumberjack analogy and black swan concepts have been implemented into three model-based tools that predict operator performance in different systems. These tools include a flight management system, a remotely controlled robotic arm, and an environmental process control system. Each modeling effort included a corresponding validation. In one validation, the software tool was used to compare three flight management system designs, which were ranked in the same order as predicted by subject matter experts. The second validation compared model-predicted operator complacency with empirical performance in the same conditions. The third validation compared model-predicted and empirically determined time to detect and repair faults in four automation conditions. The three model-based tools offer useful ways to predict operator performance in complex systems. The three tools offer ways to predict the effects of different automation designs on operator performance.

  20. Use of mediation to resolve the dispute over low-head hydroelectric development at Swan Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, D.

    1980-08-01

    In 1978, the Maine Hydroelectric Development Corporation announced that the company planned to renovate five dams on the Goose River near Belfast, Maine to generate electricity. The most important part of the plan involved the use of the first of the dams, at the lower end of Swan Lake, to regulate the flow of water to the downstream dams. For Maine Hydro, management of the Swan Lake dam could make an otherwise marginal proposal lucrative. However, Swan Lake is vitally important to the residents of Swanville. The town was so concerned about the impact of this proposed hydroelectric project that it petitioned the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deny Maine Hydro's application on the grounds that it would damage the environment, reduce property values and eliminate recreational opportunities for its citizens. This report was written by the mediator of the dispute and represents the views and behavior of the parties as the mediator understood them. It is intended to present the mediator's observations in a way which will inform and assist others who may someday face a difficult situation like the one the Town of Swanville and Maine Hydroelectric Development Corporation faced, and successfully resolved, in the spring and summer of 1979.

  1. Evaluation of the numerical wave model (SWAN) for wave simulation in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpınar, Adem; van Vledder, Gerbrant Ph.; Kömürcü, Murat İhsan; Özger, Mehmet

    2012-12-01

    This study summaries the implementation of the SWAN model forced by the ECMWF ERA Interim dataset reanalyzed 10 m winds over the Black Sea which will be used to study the wind-wave climate and wave energy potential in the region, and its verification. The SWAN model results were compared with directional buoy measurements at three locations along the north and south coasts of the Black Sea, parametric model results based on the JONSWAP growth relations, and the results of previous studies. The SWAN model has been applied in a third generation and non-stationary mode with spherical coordinates. The linear and exponential growth from wind input, depth-induced wave breaking, bottom friction, whitecapping, four-wave (for deep water) and triad-wave (for shallow water) nonlinear interactions have been activated in the simulations. The results of this study indicate that agreement between simulated and observed wave parameters is satisfactory and it is slightly more accurate than the results of the previous studies. However, it still has lower estimates for the maximum values of both wave parameters. These lower estimates are probably due to too low wind speeds in the applied ECMWF wind fields, which is probably caused by orographic effects, and due to the relatively course resolution in time and space of the ECMWF (ERA-Interim) wind fields for the Black Sea.

  2. Search for very high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-1 with the MAGIC telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Bhattacharyya, W.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Maggio, C.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ninci, D.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Righi, C.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Zarić, D.; MAGIC Collaboration; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Pooley, G. G.; Trushkin, S. A.; Zanin, R.

    2017-12-01

    The microquasar Cygnus X-1 displays the two typical soft and hard X-ray states of a black hole transient. During the latter, Cygnus X-1 shows a one-sided relativistic radio-jet. Recent detection of the system in the high energy (HE; E ≳ 60 MeV) gamma-ray range with Fermi-LAT associates this emission with the outflow. Former MAGIC observations revealed a hint of flaring activity in the very high-energy (VHE; E ≳ 100 GeV) regime during this X-ray state. We analyse ∼97 h of Cygnus X-1 data taken with the MAGIC telescopes between July 2007 and October 2014. To shed light on the correlation between hard X-ray and VHE gamma rays as previously suggested, we study each main X-ray state separately. We perform an orbital phase-folded analysis to look for variability in the VHE band. Additionally, to place this variability behaviour in a multiwavelength context, we compare our results with Fermi-LAT, AGILE, Swift-BAT, MAXI, RXTE-ASM, AMI and RATAN-600 data. We do not detect Cygnus X-1 in the VHE regime. We establish upper limits for each X-ray state, assuming a power-law distribution with photon index Γ = 3.2. For steady emission in the hard and soft X-ray states, we set integral upper limits at 95 per cent confidence level for energies above 200 GeV at 2.6 × 10-12 photons cm-2 s-1 and 1.0 × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1, respectively. We rule out steady VHE gamma-ray emission above this energy range, at the level of the MAGIC sensitivity, originating in the interaction between the relativistic jet and the surrounding medium, while the emission above this flux level produced inside the binary still remains a valid possibility.

  3. A Multiwavelength Study of Cygnus X-1: The First Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Detection of Compact Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hines, Dean C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern

    2011-01-01

    We report on a Spitzer/IRS (mid-infrared), RXTE /PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multi-wavelength study of the micro quasar Cygnus X-I, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break - where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place - at about 2.9 x 10(exp 13) Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for the Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keY, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 micron mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-I stems from the blue supergiant companion star HD 226868. Indeed, the emission can then be understood as the combination of the photospheric Raleigh-Jeans tail and the bremsstrahlung from the expanding stellar wind. Moreover, the stellar wind is found to be clumpy, with a filling factor f(sub infinity) approx.= 0.09-0.10. Its bremsstrahlung emission is likely anti-correlated to the soft X-ray emission, suggesting an anticorrelation between the mass-loss and mass-accretion rates. Nevertheless, we do not detect any mid-infrared spectroscopic evidence of interaction between the jets and the Cygnus X-1's environment and/or companion star's stellar wind.

  4. The Use of Simulation to Reduce the Domain of "Black Swans" with Application to Hurricane Impacts to Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Christine L; Staid, Andrea; Flage, Roger; Guikema, Seth D

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the concept of black swans has gained increased attention in the fields of risk assessment and risk management. Different types of black swans have been suggested, distinguishing between unknown unknowns (nothing in the past can convincingly point to its occurrence), unknown knowns (known to some, but not to relevant analysts), or known knowns where the probability of occurrence is judged as negligible. Traditional risk assessments have been questioned, as their standard probabilistic methods may not be capable of predicting or even identifying these rare and extreme events, thus creating a source of possible black swans. In this article, we show how a simulation model can be used to identify previously unknown potentially extreme events that if not identified and treated could occur as black swans. We show that by manipulating a verified and validated model used to predict the impacts of hazards on a system of interest, we can identify hazard conditions not previously experienced that could lead to impacts much larger than any previous level of impact. This makes these potential black swan events known and allows risk managers to more fully consider them. We demonstrate this method using a model developed to evaluate the effect of hurricanes on energy systems in the United States; we identify hurricanes with potentially extreme impacts, storms well beyond what the historic record suggests is possible in terms of impacts. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. A New Polarimetric Study of Cygnus A Using JVLA from 2-18GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerato Sebokolodi, Makhuduga; Perley, Rick; Carilli, Chris; Smirnov, Oleg M.; Makhathini, Sphesihle

    2018-01-01

    Polarimetric studies of Cygnus A [5, 1, 2, 3] have shown that this radio galaxy has unusually large rotation measures ranging from -4000 to +3000 rad m -2 for the eastern lobe (E-lobe) and -2000 to +1300 rad m -2 for western lobe(W-lobe). A challenge since then has been to identify the medium(s) responsible for these high Faraday rotations (FR). Although a majority of the FR must arise from the surrounding cluster gas, an unknown portion may arise either in the sheath or within the lobes. In these cases, some depolarization must result, along with a non λ 2 rotation of the plane of polarization. Detecting such a depolarization will enable an estimate of the internal (and/or sheath) thermal gas density. [1] found significant depolarization associated with the inner regions of the E-lobe and no depolarization associated with the W-lobe. This depolarization could be either internal to the source (Faraday depolarization) or due to unresolved small-scale fluctuations in the foreground screen (beam depolarization) [1]. The former is expected to impose significant deviations in the λ2 -law, none of which have been found to date, nor could have been found due to the limited number of frequencies employed in these studies.Since 2015, new JVLA polarimetric observations of Cygnus A have been taken, in all four configurations, covering the frequency range from 2 to 18GHz. These new data provide thousands of frequency channels at high resolution and sensitivity – opening a new opportunity to study in great detail the physics of the jets, lobes and the magnetic field of the X-ray cluster medium and lobes. Our objective is to analyze these new polarimetric data with the expectation of extending the previous work and more importantly, to investigate the possibility of any significantdeviations from the λ2-law. Initial analysis shows significant deviations from λ2 -law associated with the W-lobe. We will present these results in detail, and also the results from RM

  6. Synthetic profile analysis of the observed (0,0) Swan band of Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna swamy, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    The time-dependent rotational population distribution for the (0,0) band of the Swan system was carried out. These population distributions are used to calculate the synthetic spectra over the wavelength region 5165-5132 A for comparing with the excellent spectra of Lambert et al. (1990) for Comet Halley. The synthetic spectra for the rotational population distribution corresponding to a time interval of about 8000 sec gives a good fit to the observed spectra over the whole special region. This seems to indicate that the level population does not appear to have reached the steady state values. 16 refs

  7. Swan ganz catheter for diagnosis of transient central diabetes insipidus after mitral valve replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, I.; Sinha, L.M.; Younus, A.

    2012-01-01

    Transient Diabetes Insipidus (DI) occurring in a patient undergoing open heart surgery is a rare occurrence. In this case report, we are presenting a 30 years old female patient with past history of stroke who underwent redo mitral valve replacement developed polyuria. The diagnosis of hypovolemia was made with the help of swan ganz catheter. The patient responded to desmopressin and completely recovered seven days after surgery. It is possible that transient cerebral ischemia given her history of Stroke resulted in the dysfunction of osmotic receptors in the hypothalamus or hypothalamus - pituitary axis during Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB). Therefore, we concluded that central DI is a probable cause of polyuria after CPB. (author)

  8. Lead exposure from lead pellets: age-related accumulation in mute swans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskildsen, J.; Grandjean, P.

    1984-05-01

    In a cross-sectional study of adult swans and their successfully fledged young in Ringkobing Fjord, West Jutland, Denmark, 128 venous blood samples were taken during the moulting period and analyzed for lead. While the juveniles generally showed blood lead levels below 15 micrograms/100 ml (median, 11 micrograms/100 ml), the values were significantly higher in adults (median, 25 micrograms/100 ml). Adult females showed slightly higher levels than did adult males. None of the birds examined showed signs of acute lead toxicity, and increased blood levels in adults may reflect increased lead body burdens from previous ingestion of lead shot as gizzard stones.

  9. Aerogel Cherenkov detector for characterizing the intense flash x-ray source, Cygnus, spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y., E-mail: yhkim@lanl.gov; Herrmann, H. W.; McEvoy, A. M.; Young, C. S.; Hamilton, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Schwellenbach, D. D.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.; Smith, A. S. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An aerogel Cherenkov detector is proposed to measure the X-ray energy spectrum from the Cygnus—intense flash X-ray source operated at the Nevada National Security Site. An array of aerogels set at a variety of thresholds between 1 and 3 MeV will be adequate to map out the bremsstrahlung X-ray production of the Cygnus, where the maximum energy of the spectrum is normally around 2.5 MeV. In addition to the Cherenkov radiation from aerogels, one possible competing light-production mechanism is optical transition radiation (OTR), which may be significant in aerogels due to the large number of transitions from SiO{sub 2} clusters to vacuum voids. To examine whether OTR is a problem, four aerogel samples were tested using a mono-energetic electron beam (varied in the range of 1–3 MeV) at NSTec Los Alamos Operations. It was demonstrated that aerogels can be used as a Cherenkov medium, where the rate of the light production is about two orders magnitude higher when the electron beam energy is above threshold.

  10. Gemini/GNIRS infrared spectroscopy of the Wolf-Rayet stellar wind in Cygnus X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, K. I. I.; Maccarone, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    The microquasar Cygnus X-3 was observed several times with the Gemini North Infrared Spectrograph while the source was in the hard X-ray state. We describe the observed 1.0-2.4 μm spectra as arising from the stellar wind of the companion star and suggest its classification as a WN 4-6 Wolf-Rayet star. We attribute the orbital variations of the emission line profiles to the variations in the ionization structure of the stellar wind caused by the intense X-ray emission from the compact object. The strong variability observed in the line profiles will affect the mass function determination. We are unable to reproduce earlier results, from which the mass function for the Wolf-Rayet star was derived. Instead, we suggest that the system parameters are difficult to obtain from the infrared spectra. We find that the near-infrared continuum and the line spectra can be represented with non-LTE Wolf-Rayet atmosphere models if taking into account the effects arising from the peculiar ionization structure of the stellar wind in an approximative manner. From the representative models we infer the properties of the Wolf-Rayet star and discuss possible mass ranges for the binary components.

  11. Innate Immunity in Lobsters: Partial Purification and Characterization of a Panulirus cygnus Anti-A Lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Robert L P

    2012-01-01

    A lectin detected in haemolymph from the Australian spiny lobster Panulirus cygnus agglutinated human ABO Group A cells to a higher titre than Group O or B. The lectin also agglutinated rat and sheep erythrocytes, with reactivity with rat erythrocytes strongly enhanced by treatment with the proteolytic enzyme papain, an observation consistent with reactivity via a glycolipid. The lectin, purified by affinity chromatography on fixed rat-erythrocyte stroma, was inhibited equally by N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Comparison of data from gel filtration of haemolymph (behaving as a 1,800,000 Da macromolecule), and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified lectin (a single 67,000 Da band), suggested that in haemolymph the lecin was a multimer. The purified anti-A lectin autoprecipitated unless the storage solution contained chaotropic inhibitors (125 mmol/L sucrose: 500 mmol/L urea). The properties of this anti-A lectin and other similar lectins are consistent with a role in innate immunity in these invertebrates.

  12. The Aro 1 mm Survey of the Oxygen-Rich Envelope of Supergiant Star NML Cygnus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica L.; Ziurys, L. M.; Woolf, N. J.

    2011-06-01

    Although a number of molecular line surveys of carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes (CSE) have been performed, only one oxygen-rich CSE, that of VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), has been studied in depth. The Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 1 mm survey of VY CMa showed a very different and interesting chemistry dominated by sulfur- and silicon-bearing compounds as well as a number of more exotic species. A similar survey of the oxygen rich star NML Cygnus (NML Cyg) from 215 to 285 GHz is currently under way using the ARO Sub-millimeter Telescope. Initial observations show that this circumstellar envelope appears to be as chemically rich as that of VY CMa. Molecules including 12CO, 13CO, 12CN, 13CN, HCN, HCO+, CS, SO{_2}, SiO and 30SiO have been observed in NML Cyg. Line profiles of this source also suggest that there may be multiple outflows and that the circumstellar envelope is not spherically symmetric. Current results will be presented.

  13. SOFT X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CYGNUS LOOP SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Phil [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., 37-582F, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); McEntaffer, Randall [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Van Allen Hall, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Cash, Webster, E-mail: Oakley@mit.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    We present the results of a suborbital rocket flight whose scientific target was the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant. The payload consists of wire grid collimators, off-plane grating arrays, and gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. The system is designed for spectral measurements in the 17-107 A bandpass with a resolution up to {approx}60 ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}). The Extended X-ray Off-plane Spectrometer (EXOS) was launched on a Terrier-Black Brant rocket on 2009 November 13 from White Sands Missile Range and obtained 340 s of useable scientific data. The X-ray emission is dominated by O VII and O VIII, including the He-like O VII triplet at {approx}22 A. Another emission feature at {approx}45 A is composed primarily of Si XI and Si XII. The best-fit model to this spectrum is an equilibrium plasma model at a temperature of log(T) = 6.4 (0.23 keV).

  14. Modelling hard and soft states of Cygnus X-1 with propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, S.; Ingram, A.; van der Klis, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a timing analysis of three Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 with the propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations model PROPFLUC. The model simultaneously predicts power spectra, time lags and coherence of the variability as a function of energy. The observations cover the soft and hard states of the source, and the transition between the two. We find good agreement between model predictions and data in the hard and soft states. Our analysis suggests that in the soft state the fluctuations propagate in an optically thin hot flow extending up to large radii above and below a stable optically thick disc. In the hard state, our results are consistent with a truncated disc geometry, where the hot flow extends radially inside the inner radius of the disc. In the transition from soft to hard state, the characteristics of the rapid variability are too complex to be successfully described with PROPFLUC. The surface density profile of the hot flow predicted by our model and the lack of quasi-periodic oscillations in the soft and hard states suggest that the spin of the black hole is aligned with the inner accretion disc and therefore probably with the rotational axis of the binary system.

  15. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE CYGNUS LOOP SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, H.; Tibaldo, L.; Ballet, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Giordano, F.; Porter, T. A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Roth, M.; Tibolla, O.; Yamazaki, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0–8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is ∼1 × 10 33 erg s –1 between 1 and 100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0. 0 7 ± 0. 0 1 and 1. 0 6 ± 0. 0 1. Given the association among X-ray rims, Hα filaments, and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  16. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, H.; /Ibaraki U., Mito; Tibaldo, L.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII; Ballet, J.; /Paris U., VI-VII; Giordano, F.; /Bari U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Grenier, I.A.; /Paris U., VI-VII; Porter, T.A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Roth, M.; /Washington U., Seattle; Tibolla, O.; /Wurzburg U.; Uchiyama, Y.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Yamazaki, R.; /Sagamihara, Aoyama Gakuin U.

    2011-11-08

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0-8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is {approx} 1 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} between 1-100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0{sup o}.7 {+-} 0{sup o}.1 and 1{sup o}.6 {+-} 0{sup o}.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, H{alpha} filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  17. Alternative Explanations for Extreme Supersolar Iron Abundances Inferred from the Energy Spectrum of Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, John A.; Parker, Michael L.; García, Javier A.; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Barret, Didier; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; Fabian, Andrew; Fürst, Felix; Gandhi, Poshak; Grinberg, Victoria; Miller, Jon M.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Walton, Dominic J.

    2018-03-01

    Here we study a 1–200 keV energy spectrum of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 taken with NuSTAR and Suzaku. This is the first report of a NuSTAR observation of Cyg X-1 in the intermediate state, and the observation was taken during the part of the binary orbit where absorption due to the companion’s stellar wind is minimal. The spectrum includes a multi-temperature thermal disk component, a cutoff power-law component, and relativistic and nonrelativistic reflection components. Our initial fits with publicly available constant density reflection models (relxill and reflionx) lead to extremely high iron abundances (>9.96 and {10.6}-0.9+1.6 times solar, respectively). Although supersolar iron abundances have been reported previously for Cyg X-1, our measurements are much higher and such variability is almost certainly unphysical. Using a new version of reflionx that we modified to make the electron density a free parameter, we obtain better fits to the spectrum even with solar iron abundances. We report on how the higher density ({n}e=({3.98}-0.25+0.12)× {10}20 cm‑3) impacts other parameters such as the inner radius and inclination of the disk.

  18. RAPID SPECTRAL CHANGES OF CYGNUS X-1 IN THE LOW/HARD STATE WITH SUZAKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S.; Makishima, K. [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Negoro, H. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Torii, S.; Noda, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mineshige, S. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-04-20

    Rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray on a timescale down to {approx}0.1 s are studied by applying a ''shot analysis'' technique to the Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1, performed on 2008 April 18 during the low/hard state. We successfully obtained the shot profiles, covering 10-200 keV with the Suzaku HXD-PIN and HXD-GSO detector. It is notable that the 100-200 keV shot profile is acquired for the first time owing to the HXD-GSO detector. The intensity changes in a time-symmetric way, though the hardness changes in a time-asymmetric way. When the shot-phase-resolved spectra are quantified with the Compton model, the Compton y-parameter and the electron temperature are found to decrease gradually through the rising phase of the shot, while the optical depth appears to increase. All the parameters return to their time-averaged values immediately within 0.1 s past the shot peak. We have not only confirmed this feature previously found in energies below {approx}60 keV, but also found that the spectral change is more prominent in energies above {approx}100 keV, implying the existence of some instant mechanism for direct entropy production. We discuss possible interpretations of the rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray band.

  19. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, H.; Tibaldo, L.; Ballet, J.; Giordano, F.; Grenier, I.A.; Porter, T.A.; Roth, M.; Tibolla, O.; Uchiyama, Y.; Yamazaki, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0-8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is ∼ 1 x 10 33 erg s -1 between 1-100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0 o .7 ± 0 o .1 and 1 o .6 ± 0 o .1. Given the association among X-ray rims, Hα filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  20. Discovery of a new Wolf-Rayet star and its ring nebula in Cygnus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Fabrika, S.; Hamann, W.-R.; Sholukhova, O.; Valeev, A. F.; Goranskij, V. P.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.; Bomans, D. J.; Oskinova, L. M.

    2009-11-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a ring nebula around a candidate Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, HBHA4202-22, in Cygnus using the Spitzer Space Telescope archival data. Our spectroscopic follow-up observations confirmed the WR nature of this star (we named it WR138a) and showed that it belongs to the WN8-9h subtype. We thereby add a new example to the known sample of late WN stars with circumstellar nebulae. We analysed the spectrum of WR138a by using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmospheres, obtaining a stellar temperature of 40kK. The stellar wind composition is dominated by helium with 20 per cent of hydrogen. The stellar spectrum is highly reddened and absorbed (EB- V = 2.4mag, AV = 7.4mag). Adopting a stellar luminosity of logL/Lsolar = 5.3, the star has a mass-loss rate of 10-4.7Msolaryr-1, and resides in a distance of 4.2 kpc. We measured the proper motion for WR138a and found that it is a runaway star with a peculiar velocity of ~=50kms-1. Implications of the runaway nature of WR138a for constraining the mass of its progenitor star and understanding the origin of its ring nebula are discussed.

  1. Mass production of `Swan`s Golden`, Cupressus sempervirens by tissue culture and its radiation breeding. 2. Study on growth regulating substance to stimulate the elongation of shoot apex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    Some species of `Swan`s Golden` have been propagated by means of grafting because propagation by cutting is difficult. However, not a few species of the plant are easily lodged, resulting that spreading of `Swan`s Golden` is difficult. Here, an investigation was made on growth regulating substances added into the basal medium in respects of their kinds and concentrations and also the kind of medium for successive culture. As the basal medium, SH medium supplemented with 4 g/l of gel-light and 3 g/l of carbon-powder was used. The optimum medium for the initiation of culture was the basal medium added with zeatin (Ze) and gibberellin (GA) and it was also suitable for successive culture after the 14 day. The medium added with Ze and benzyladenine (BA) or Ze alone was found to be most suitable for the culture after the 28 day. The concentration was optimum at 1 - 2.5 mg/l for either of these growth regulating substances. (M.N.)

  2. Therapist adherence in the strong without anorexia nervosa (SWAN) study: A randomized controlled trial of three treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andony, Louise J; Tay, Elaine; Allen, Karina L; Wade, Tracey D; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen; McIntosh, Virginia V W; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike H; Fairburn, Christopher G; Erceg-Hurn, David M; Fursland, Anthea; Crosby, Ross D; Byrne, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    To develop a psychotherapy rating scale to measure therapist adherence in the Strong Without Anorexia Nervosa (SWAN) study, a multi-center randomized controlled trial comparing three different psychological treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa. The three treatments under investigation were Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT-E), the Maudsley Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adults (MANTRA), and Specialist Supportive Clinical Management (SSCM). The SWAN Psychotherapy Rating Scale (SWAN-PRS) was developed, after consultation with the developers of the treatments, and refined. Using the SWAN-PRS, two independent raters initially rated 48 audiotapes of treatment sessions to yield inter-rater reliability data. One rater proceeded to rate a total of 98 audiotapes from 64 trial participants. The SWAN-PRS demonstrated sound psychometric properties, and was considered a reliable measure of therapist adherence. The three treatments were highly distinguishable by independent raters, with therapists demonstrating significantly more behaviors consistent with the actual allocated treatment compared to the other two treatment modalities. There were no significant site differences in therapist adherence observed. The findings provide support for the internal validity of the SWAN study. The SWAN-PRS was deemed suitable for use in other trials involving CBT-E, MANTRA, or SSCM. The Authors. International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tourism today: Between the black swan and the reality of the fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Sánchez Arciniegas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present essay begins by adapting the metaphor of Nassim Taleb, The Black Swan to the phenomenon of tourism in order to inquire the effects that terrorism acts have on the world´s tourist behaviour. This article was finished on June 2016 and is consistent with the unpredictability of subsequent events. You won’t find an analysis of statistics based on tourism models or analysis methods; nonetheless it presents a deductive approximation based on news reviews and social network publications that circulate about tourism. On the one hand, the news related to the impacts of terrorist attacks disturb the world at global scale making an impact on tourism destinations and on the other hand, there are cities with a parallel reality, one that shows an idyllic world, with positive and encouraging statistics of tourist visitors, travel promotion and circulation of travel experiences in social networks. Resembling the novel, the fiction of real characters. The sources triangulation, is not conclusive but indicative about the vast information that exists, the elaborated circulation of images and the broad literature of tourism; (some of them showing an interdisciplinary relation between terrorism and tourism however, some of it lacks research and do not contribute to the knowledge of this phenomenon in social and economic aspects, beyond the marketing, a thematic highly privilege by the production of texts. The current swan disturbs, but the reaction of the travel industry is to settle.

  4. Treatment of giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema by ipsilateral bronchial occlusion with a Swan-Ganz catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Shantanu [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Gupta, Archana; Wung, Jen-Tien [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Pediatric Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Unilateral giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) can be seen as a complication of chronic ventilation in extremely low-birth-weight babies. Many can be managed by conventional pulmonary care which includes positioning, suctioning, chest physiotherapy, gentle conventional ventilation and high-frequency ventilation. Some may need invasive procedures such as lung puncture, pleurotomies and excisional surgery. This is the group in which single-lung ventilation may be beneficial and circumvent the need for an invasive procedure. We describe the technique of single-lung ventilation using a Swan-Ganz catheter to block the main stem bronchus on the diseased side in air-leak syndromes. A retrospective chart review was done on 17 newborns undergoing single-lung ventilation using this technique at the Children's Hospital of New York, Columbia University, from 1986 to 2000. The technique was successful in the management of severe, neonatal unilateral lung disease not responsive to conventional modes of therapy in all but two neonates as seen by a significant improvement in pH and a decrease in PaCO{sub 2} levels. In one neonate malpositioning of the Swan-Ganz catheter balloon could have contributed to the development of pneumothorax. The described technique of single-lung ventilation provides a safe, minimally invasive and economically feasible method of management of unilateral giant PIE in newborns not responsive to conventional modes of therapy with minimal complications. (orig.)

  5. Treatment of giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema by ipsilateral bronchial occlusion with a Swan-Ganz catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Shantanu; Gupta, Archana; Wung, Jen-Tien; Berdon, Walter E.

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) can be seen as a complication of chronic ventilation in extremely low-birth-weight babies. Many can be managed by conventional pulmonary care which includes positioning, suctioning, chest physiotherapy, gentle conventional ventilation and high-frequency ventilation. Some may need invasive procedures such as lung puncture, pleurotomies and excisional surgery. This is the group in which single-lung ventilation may be beneficial and circumvent the need for an invasive procedure. We describe the technique of single-lung ventilation using a Swan-Ganz catheter to block the main stem bronchus on the diseased side in air-leak syndromes. A retrospective chart review was done on 17 newborns undergoing single-lung ventilation using this technique at the Children's Hospital of New York, Columbia University, from 1986 to 2000. The technique was successful in the management of severe, neonatal unilateral lung disease not responsive to conventional modes of therapy in all but two neonates as seen by a significant improvement in pH and a decrease in PaCO 2 levels. In one neonate malpositioning of the Swan-Ganz catheter balloon could have contributed to the development of pneumothorax. The described technique of single-lung ventilation provides a safe, minimally invasive and economically feasible method of management of unilateral giant PIE in newborns not responsive to conventional modes of therapy with minimal complications. (orig.)

  6. IMPROVED LINE DATA FOR THE SWAN SYSTEM 12C13C ISOTOPOLOGUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Ram S.; Brooke, James S. A.; Bernath, Peter F.; Sneden, Christopher; Lucatello, Sara

    2014-01-01

    We present new, accurate predictions for rotational line positions, excitation energies, and transition probabilities of the 12 C 13 C isotopologue Swan d 3 Π-a 3 Π system 0-0, 0–1, 0–2, 1–0, 1–1, 1–2, 2–0, 2–1, and 2–2 vibrational bands. The line positions and energy levels were predicted through new analyses of published laboratory data for the 12 C 13 C lines. Transition probabilities were derived from recent computations of transition dipole moments and related quantities. The 12 C 13 C line data were combined with similar data for 12 C 2, reported in a companion paper, and applied to produce synthetic spectra of carbon-rich metal-poor stars that have strong C 2 Swan bands. The matches between synthesized and observed spectra were used to estimate band head positions for a few of the 12 C 13 C vibrational bands and to verify that the new computed line data match observed spectra. The much weaker C 2 lines of the bright red giant Arcturus were also synthesized in the band head regions

  7. A STRUGGLE FOR LOVE OF BELLA SWAN REFLECTED IN NEW MOON MOVIE: AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Riska Lestari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper described the struggle for love of Bella Swan reflected in New Moon movie by using Alfred Adler’s individual psychology and analyzed the plot of the movie. It used qualitative research method and the object of this study was a major character named Bella Swan. Primary data sources were the New Moon movie directed by Christopher Weitz and the script of the movie, while secondary data sources were collected from many sources such as dictionary, articles from internet, and books related to this study. Methods of data collecting were observation and library research. The method of data analysis was descriptive analysis. Based on the analysis, It reflected the condition of a person who had a goal and struggle to get it. It concluded that Bella had high struggles to reach her goals. The plot of New Moon movie is complicated and stimulating, therefore it made the story was not flat and boring. By analyzing the plot, the viewers could easily understand the story and the message of the movie and catch up the moral lesson of it.

  8. [Growth adaptability of Zostera marina at different habitats of the Swan Lake in Rongcheng, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mei Yu; Li, Wen Tao; Yang, Xiao Long; Zhang, Xiu Mei; Liu, Jian Ying; Li, Chang Jun

    2017-05-18

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina), a seagrass species widely distributed in the coastal regions of northern hemisphere, has suffered with a great decline due to a variety of anthropogenic and environmental stresses. In order to examine the adaptability of eelgrass to different environmental stresses, studies on the morphology and reproductive capacity of eelgrass had been carried out monthly from November 2014 to October 2015 at four different habitats of the Swan Lake, including patch area inintertidal area and subtidal area, eelgrass meadow edge, and eelgrass meadow area. The results showed significant spatio-temporal variations in the morphological parameters and branch frequency of eelgrass shoots at different habitats of the Swan Lake. The highest values of leaf length, leaf width, aboveground/belowground biomass, and internode length/diameter were observed in the meadow area, i.e., 78.54 cm, 7.93 mm, 7.03 and 3.88, respectively, while the highest branch frequency was observed in the meadow edge (88.4%). The plasticity index for aboveground/belowground biomass was higher (ranging from 0.77 to 0.92) at the four habitats, but those for the leaf width was slightly lower (ranging from 0.41 to 0.64). The number of spathes in each shoot showed no significant difference at different habitats, whereas the number of spathes per unit area was significantly different. Clonal reproduction was more dominant in meadow area than in the patch area where human disturbance was high.

  9. Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock, poultry and humans: a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmberg, Johan; Berg, Charlotte; Lerner, Henrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Hessel, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans. Research thus far suggests that these birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus, Salmonella, Campylobacter , and antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, at present there is no evidence that geese and swans play a role in transmission of Newcastle disease, duck plague, West Nile virus, Vibrio, Yersinia, Clostridium, Chlamydophila , and Borrelia . Finally, based on present knowledge it is not possible to say if geese and swans play a role in transmission of Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Helicobacter, Brachyspira, Cryptosporidium, Giardia , and Microsporidia. This is largely due to changes in classification and taxonomy, rapid development of identification methods and lack of knowledge about host specificity. Previous research tends to overrate the role of geese and swans as disease vectors; we do not find any evidence that they are significant transmitters to humans or livestock of any of the pathogens considered in this review. Nevertheless, it is wise to keep poultry and livestock separated from small volume waters used by many wild waterfowl, but there is no need to discourage livestock grazing in nature reserves or pastures where geese and swans are present. Under some circumstances it is warranted to discourage swans and geese from using wastewater ponds, drinking water reservoirs, and public beaches. Intensified screening of swans and geese for AIV, West Nile virus and anatid herpesvirus is warranted.

  10. The hypersoft state of Cygnus X-3. A key to jet quenching in X-ray binaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, K. I. I.; Maccarone, T.; McCollough, M. L.; Gurwell, M.; Trushkin, S. A.; Pooley, G. G.; Piano, G.; Tavani, M.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Cygnus X-3 is a unique microquasar in the Galaxy hosting a Wolf-Rayet companion orbiting a compact object that most likely is a low-mass black hole. The unique source properties are likely due to the interaction of the compact object with the heavy stellar wind of the companion. Aim. In this paper, we concentrate on a very specific period of time prior to the massive outbursts observed from the source. During this period, Cygnus X-3 is in a so-called hypersoft state, in which the radio and hard X-ray fluxes are found to be at their lowest values (or non-detected), the soft X-ray flux is at its highest values, and sporadic γ-ray emission is observed. We use multiwavelength observations to study the nature of the hypersoft state. Methods: We observed Cygnus X-3 during the hypersoft state with Swift and NuSTAR in X-rays and SMA, AMI-LA, and RATAN-600 in the radio. We also considered X-ray monitoring data from MAXI and γ-ray monitoring data from AGILE and Fermi. Results: We found that the spectra and timing properties of the multiwavelength observations can be explained by a scenario in which the jet production is turned off or highly diminished in the hypersoft state and the missing jet pressure allows the wind to refill the region close to the black hole. The results provide proof of actual jet quenching in soft states of X-ray binaries.

  11. DYNAMICS INSIDE THE RADIO AND X-RAY CLUSTER CAVITIES OF CYGNUS A AND SIMILAR FRII SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, William G.; Guo Fulai

    2012-01-01

    We describe approximate axisymmetric computations of the dynamical evolution of material inside radio lobes and X-ray cluster gas cavities in Fanaroff-Riley II (FRII) sources such as Cygnus A. All energy is delivered by a jet to the lobe/cavity via a moving hotspot where jet energy dissipates in a reverse shock. Our calculations describe the evolution of hot plasma, cosmic rays (CRs), and toroidal magnetic fields flowing from the hotspot into the cavity. Many important observational features are explained. Gas, CRs, and field flow back along the cavity surface in a 'boundary backflow' consistent with detailed FRII observations. Computed ages of backflowing CRs are consistent with observed radio-synchrotron age variations only if shear instabilities in the boundary backflow are damped and we assume this is done with viscosity of unknown origin. We compute a faint thermal jet along the symmetry axis and suggest that it is responsible for redirecting the Cygnus A nonthermal jet. Magnetic fields estimated from synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) X-radiation observed near the hotspot evolve into radio lobe fields. Computed profiles of radio-synchrotron lobe emission perpendicular to the jet reveal dramatically limb-brightened emission in excellent agreement with FRII observation, although computed lobe fields exceed those observed. Strong winds flowing from hotspots naturally create kiloparsec-sized spatial offsets between hotspot nonthermal X-ray inverse Compton (IC-CMB) emission and radio-synchrotron emission that peaks 1-2 kpc ahead where the field increases due to wind compression. In our computed version of Cygnus A, nonthermal X-ray emission increases from the hotspot (some IC-CMB, mostly SSC) toward the offset radio-synchrotron peak (mostly SSC).

  12. G141.2+5.0, A NEW PULSAR WIND NEBULA DISCOVERED IN THE CYGNUS ARM OF THE MILKY WAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothes, R.; Foster, T. J. [National Research Council Herzberg, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, British Columbia, V2A 6J9 (Canada); Sun, X. H. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Reich, W., E-mail: roland.kothes@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    We report the discovery of the new pulsar wind nebula (PWN) G141.2+5.0 in data observed with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory's Synthesis Telescope at 1420 MHz. The new PWN has a diameter of about 3.'5, which translates to a spatial extent of about 4 pc at a distance of 4.0 kpc. It displays a radio spectral index of α ≈ –0.7, similar to the PWN G76.9+1.1. G141.2+5.0 is highly polarized up to 40% with an average of 15% in the 1420 MHz data. It is located in the center of a small spherical H I bubble, which is expanding at a velocity of 6 km s{sup –1} at a systemic velocity of v {sub LSR} = –53 km s{sup –1}. The bubble could be the result of the progenitor star's mass loss or the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) created by the same supernova explosion in a highly advanced stage. The systemic LSR velocity of the bubble shares the velocity of H I associated with the Cygnus spiral arm, which is seen across the second and third quadrants and an active star-forming arm immediately beyond the Perseus arm. A kinematical distance of 4 ± 0.5 kpc is found for G141.2+5.0, similar to the optical distance of the Cygnus arm (3.8 ± 1.1 kpc). G141.2+5.0 represents the first radio PWN discovered in 17 years and the first SNR discovered in the Cygnus spiral arm, which is in stark contrast with the Perseus arm's overwhelming population of shell-type remnants.

  13. Swan: A tool for porting CUDA programs to OpenCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M. J.; De Fabritiis, G.

    2011-04-01

    The use of modern, high-performance graphical processing units (GPUs) for acceleration of scientific computation has been widely reported. The majority of this work has used the CUDA programming model supported exclusively by GPUs manufactured by NVIDIA. An industry standardisation effort has recently produced the OpenCL specification for GPU programming. This offers the benefits of hardware-independence and reduced dependence on proprietary tool-chains. Here we describe a source-to-source translation tool, "Swan" for facilitating the conversion of an existing CUDA code to use the OpenCL model, as a means to aid programmers experienced with CUDA in evaluating OpenCL and alternative hardware. While the performance of equivalent OpenCL and CUDA code on fixed hardware should be comparable, we find that a real-world CUDA application ported to OpenCL exhibits an overall 50% increase in runtime, a reduction in performance attributable to the immaturity of contemporary compilers. The ported application is shown to have platform independence, running on both NVIDIA and AMD GPUs without modification. We conclude that OpenCL is a viable platform for developing portable GPU applications but that the more mature CUDA tools continue to provide best performance. Program summaryProgram title: Swan Catalogue identifier: AEIH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU Public License version 2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17 736 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 131 177 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 256 Mbytes Classification: 6.5 External routines: NVIDIA CUDA, OpenCL Nature of problem: Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) from NVIDIA are preferentially programed with the proprietary CUDA programming toolkit. An

  14. Wave hindcast studies using SWAN nested in WAVEWATCH III - comparison with measured nearshore buoy data off Karwar, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amrutha, M.M.; SanilKumar, V.; Sandhya, K.G.; Nair, T.M.B; Rathod, J.L.

    Waves in the nearshore waters (~15 m water-depth) of eastern Arabian Sea were simulated using SWAN nested in WAVEWATCH III (WW3) for the year 2014. The sensitivity of the numerical wave model WW3 towards different source term (ST) packages...

  15. Bagging grey swans : A supply network approach to identifying and managing low-probability high-impact supply chain events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossetti, Christian; Akkermans, Henk; Bhakoo, Vikram; Carnovale, Steven

    Over the past decade practitioners and researchers have become increasingly focused on managing risks in extended supply chains. Whether these risks involve supply disruptions, financial liabilities for a supplier’s actions, or large market shifts; Grey Swan events, defined as unforeseen

  16. The ecology and age structure of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus outbreak in wild mute swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pybus, O G; Perrins, C M; Choudhury, B; Manvell, R J; Nunez, A; Schulenburg, B; Sheldon, B C; Brown, I H

    2012-12-01

    The first UK epizootic of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 influenza in wild birds occurred in 2008, in a population of mute swans that had been the subject of ornithological study for decades. Here we use an innovative combination of ornithological, phylogenetic and immunological approaches to investigate the ecology and age structure of HP H5N1 in nature. We screened samples from swans and waterbirds using PCR and sequenced HP H5N1-positive samples. The outbreak's origin was investigated by linking bird count data with a molecular clock analysis of sampled virus sequences. We used ringing records to reconstruct the age-structure of outbreak mortality, and we estimated the age distribution of prior exposure to avian influenza. Outbreak mortality was low and all HP H5N1-positive mute swans in the affected population were <3 years old. Only the youngest age classes contained an appreciable number of individuals with no detectable antibody responses to viral nucleoprotein. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the outbreak strain circulated locally for ~1 month before detection and arrived when the immigration rate of migrant waterbirds was highest. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that HP H5N1 epizootics in wild swans exhibit limited mortality due to immune protection arising from previous exposure. Our study population may represent a valuable resource for investigating the natural ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza.

  17. Statistical Tests Black swans or dragon-kings? A simple test for deviations from the power law★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczura, J.; Weron, R.

    2012-05-01

    We develop a simple test for deviations from power law tails. Actually, from the tails of any distribution. We use this test - which is based on the asymptotic properties of the empirical distribution function - to answer the question whether great natural disasters, financial crashes or electricity price spikes should be classified as dragon-kings or `only' as black swans.

  18. Gulf of Mexico hurricane wave simulations using SWAN : Bulk formula-based drag coefficient sensitivity for Hurricane Ike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Weisberg, R.H.; Zheng, L.; Zijlema, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of wind input parameterizations on wave estimations under hurricane conditions are examined using the unstructured grid, third-generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Experiments using Hurricane Ike wind forcing, which impacted the Gulf of Mexico in 2008, illustrate

  19. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  20. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  1. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  2. Toward Complete Statistics of Massive Binary Stars: Penultimate Results from the Cygnus OB2 Radial Velocity Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kiminki, Daniel C.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Burke, Jamison; Chapman, James; Keller, Erica; Lester, Kathryn; Rolen, Emily K.; Topel, Eric; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Smullen, Rachel A.; Alvarez, Carlos A. Vargas; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Brotherton, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze orbital solutions for 48 massive multiple-star systems in the Cygnus OB2 Association, 23 of which are newly presented here, to find that the observed distribution of orbital periods is approximately uniform in log P for P 45 d, even after correction for completeness, indicating either a lower binary fraction or a shift toward low-mass companions. A high degree of similarity (91% likelihood) between the Cyg OB2 period distribution and that of other surveys suggests that the binary p...

  3. CO outflows from high-mass Class 0 protostars in Cygnus-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Cabral, A.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Hennemann, M.; Schneider, N.; André, Ph.

    2013-10-01

    Context. The earliest phases of the formation of high-mass stars are not well known. It is unclear whether high-mass cores in monolithic collapse exist or not, and what the accretion process and origin of the material feeding the precursors of high-mass stars are. As outflows are natural consequences of the accretion process, they represent one of the few (indirect) tracers of accretion. Aims: We aim to search for individual outflows from high-mass cores in Cygnus X and to study the characteristics of the detected ejections. We compare these to what has been found for the low-mass protostars, to understand how ejection and accretion change and behave with final stellar mass. Methods: We used CO (2-1) PdBI observations towards six massive dense clumps, containing a total of 9 high-mass cores. We estimated the bolometric luminosities and masses of the 9 high-mass cores and measured the energetics of outflows. We compared our sample to low-mass objects studied in the literature and developed simple evolutionary models to reproduce the observables. Results: We find that 8 out of 9 high-mass cores are driving clear individual outflows. They are therefore true equivalents of Class 0 protostars in the high-mass regime. The remaining core, CygX-N53 MM2, has only a tentative outflow detection. It could be one of the first examples of a true individual high-mass prestellar core. We also find that the momentum flux of high-mass objects has a linear relation to the reservoir of mass in the envelope, as a scale up of the relations previously found for low-mass protostars. This suggests a fundamental proportionality between accretion rates and envelope masses. The linear dependency implies that the timescale for accretion is similar for high- and low-mass stars. Conclusions: The existence of strong outflows driven by high-mass cores in Cygnus X clearly indicates that high-mass Class 0 protostars exist. The collapsing envelopes of these Class 0 objects have similar sizes and a

  4. NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS TOWARD THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamano, Satoshi; Kondo, Sohei; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kawakita, Hideyo [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy, Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Naoto [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Ikeda, Yuji [Photocoding, 460-102 Iwakura-Nakamachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-0025 (Japan); Yasui, Chikako; Mizumoto, Misaki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Fukue, Kei; Yamamoto, Ryo; Izumi, Natsuko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mito, Hiroyuki [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 10762-30 Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, Nagano, 397-0101 (Japan); Nakaoka, Tetsuya; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Kitano, Ayaka; Otsubo, Shogo [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Kinoshita, Masaomi, E-mail: hamano@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-04-10

    We obtained the near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution (R ≡ λ/Δλ ∼ 20,000) spectra of the seven brightest early-type stars in the Cygnus OB2 association for investigating the environmental dependence of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The WINERED spectrograph mounted on the Araki 1.3 m telescope in Japan was used to collect data. All 20 of the known DIBs within the wavelength coverage of WINERED (0.91 < λ < 1.36 μm) were clearly detected along all lines of sight because of their high flux density in the NIR wavelength range and the large extinction. The equivalent widths (EWs) of DIBs were not correlated with the column densities of C{sub 2} molecules, which trace the patchy dense component, suggesting that the NIR DIB carriers are distributed mainly in the diffuse component. On the basis of the correlations among the NIR DIBs both for stars in Cyg OB2 and stars observed previously, λλ10780, 10792, 11797, 12623, and 13175 are found to constitute a “family,” in which the DIBs are correlated well over the wide EW range. In contrast, the EW of λ10504 is found to remain almost constant over the stars in Cyg OB2. The extinction estimated from the average EW of λ10504 (A{sub V} ∼ 3.6 mag) roughly corresponds to the lower limit of the extinction distribution of OB stars in Cyg OB2. This suggests that λ10504 is absorbed only by the foreground clouds, implying that the carrier of λ10504 is completely destroyed in Cyg OB2, probably by the strong UV radiation field. The different behaviors of the DIBs may be caused by different properties of the DIB carriers.

  5. A giant radio flare from Cygnus X-3 with associated γ-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, S.; Dubus, G.; Tomsick, J. A.; Szostek, A.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Richards, J. L.; Pooley, G.; Trushkin, S.; Dubois, R.; Hill, A. B.; Kerr, M.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Bodaghee, A.; Tudose, V.; Parent, D.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.

    2012-04-01

    With frequent flaring activity of its relativistic jets, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is one of the most active microquasars and is the only Galactic black hole candidate with confirmed high-energy γ-ray emission, thanks to detections by Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT) and AGILE. In 2011, Cyg X-3 was observed to transit to a soft X-ray state, which is known to be associated with high-energy γ-ray emission. We present the results of a multiwavelength campaign covering a quenched state, when radio emission from Cyg X-3 is at its weakest and the X-ray spectrum is very soft. A giant (˜20 Jy) optically thin radio flare marks the end of the quenched state, accompanied by rising non-thermal hard X-rays. Fermi/LAT observations (E≥ 100 MeV) reveal renewed γ-ray activity associated with this giant radio flare, suggesting a common origin for all non-thermal components. In addition, current observations unambiguously show that the γ-ray emission is not exclusively related to the rare giant radio flares. A three-week period of γ-ray emission is also detected when Cyg X-3 was weakly flaring in radio, right before transition to the radio quenched state. No γ-rays are observed during the ˜1-month long quenched state, when the radio flux is weakest. Our results suggest transitions into and out of the ultrasoft X-ray (radio-quenched) state trigger γ-ray emission, implying a connection to the accretion process, and also that the γ-ray activity is related to the level of radio flux (and possibly shock formation), strengthening the connection to the relativistic jets.

  6. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION CYGNUS OB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present an analysis of near-infrared time-series photometry in J, H, and K bands for about 100 epochs of a 1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region of the Lynds 1003/1004 dark cloud in the Cygnus OB7 region. Augmented by data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we identify 96 candidate disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Of these, 30 are clearly Class I or earlier. Using the Wide-Field Imaging Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, we were able to obtain photometry over three observing seasons, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.05 mag down to J Almost-Equal-To 17. We study detailed light curves and color trajectories of {approx}50 of the YSOs in the monitored field. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find the data are consistent with all YSOs being variable in these wavelengths on timescales of a few years. We divide the variability into four observational classes: (1) stars with periodic variability stable over long timescales, (2) variables which exhibit short-lived cyclic behavior, (3) long-duration variables, and (4) stochastic variables. Some YSO variability defies simple classification. We can explain much of the observed variability as being due to dynamic and rotational changes in the disk, including an asymmetric or changing blocking fraction, changes to the inner disk hole size, as well as changes to the accretion rate. Overall, we find that the Class I:Class II ratio of the cluster is consistent with an age of <1 Myr, with at least one individual, wildly varying source {approx}100, 000 yr old. We have also discovered a Class II eclipsing binary system with a period of 17.87 days.

  7. Single-dish and VLBI observations of Cygnus X-3 during the 2016 giant flare episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Giroletti, M.; Righini, S.; Stagni, M.; Orlati, A.; Migoni, C.; Melis, A.; Concu, R.; Barbas, L.; Buttaccio, S.; Cassaro, P.; De Vicente, P.; Gawroński, M. P.; Lindqvist, M.; Maccaferri, G.; Stanghellini, C.; Wolak, P.; Yang, J.; Navarrini, A.; Loru, S.; Pilia, M.; Bachetti, M.; Iacolina, M. N.; Buttu, M.; Corbel, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Markoff, S.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Kalemci, E.; Belloni, T.; Grinberg, V.; Marongiu, M.; Vargiu, G. P.; Trois, A.

    2017-11-01

    In 2016 September, the microquasar Cygnus X-3 underwent a giant radio flare, which was monitored for 6 d with the Medicina Radio Astronomical Station and the Sardinia Radio Telescope. Long observations were performed in order to follow the evolution of the flare on an hourly scale, covering six frequency ranges from 1.5 to 25.6 GHz. The radio emission reached a maximum of 13.2 ± 0.7 Jy at 7.2 GHz and 10 ± 1 Jy at 18.6 GHz. Rapid flux variations were observed at high radio frequencies at the peak of the flare, together with rapid evolution of the spectral index: α steepened from 0.3 to 0.6 (with Sν ∝ ν-α) within 5 h. This is the first time that such fast variations are observed, giving support to the evolution from optically thick to optically thin plasmons in expansion moving outward from the core. Based on the Italian network (Noto, Medicina and SRT) and extended to the European antennas (Torun, Yebes, Onsala), very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations were triggered at 22 GHz on five different occasions, four times prior to the giant flare, and once during its decay phase. Flux variations of 2 h duration were recorded during the first session. They correspond to a mini-flare that occurred close to the core 10 d before the onset of the giant flare. From the latest VLBI observation we infer that 4 d after the flare peak the jet emission was extended over 30 mas.

  8. AstroSat /LAXPC Observation of Cygnus X-1 in the Hard State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Ranjeev; Pahari, Mayukh [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India); Yadav, J S; Chauhan, Jai Verdhan; Antia, H M; Chitnis, V R; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Katoch, Tilak; Madhwani, P.; Shah, Parag [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai (India); Agrawal, P C [UM-DAE Center of Excellence for Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai-400098 (India); Manchanda, R K [University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai-400098 (India); Paul, B, E-mail: rmisra@iucaa.in [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Raman Research Institute, Bengaluru-560080 (India)

    2017-02-01

    We report the first analysis of data from AstroSat /LAXPC observations of Cygnus X-1 in 2016 January. LAXPC spectra reveals that the source was in the canonical hard state, represented by a prominent thermal Comptonization component having a photon index of ∼1.8 and high temperature of kT{sub e} > 60 keV along with weak reflection and possible disk emission. The power spectrum can be characterized by two broad lorentzian functions centered at ∼0.4 and ∼3 Hz. The rms of the low-frequency component decreases from ∼15% at around 4 keV to ∼10% at around 50 keV, while that of the high-frequency one varies less rapidly from ∼13.5% to ∼11.5% in the same energy range. The time lag between the hard (20–40 keV) and soft (5–10 keV) bands varies in a step-like manner being nearly constant at ∼50 milliseconds from 0.3 to 0.9 Hz, decreasing to ∼8 milliseconds from 2 to 5 Hz and finally dropping to ∼2 milliseconds for higher frequencies. The time lags increase with energy for both the low and high-frequency components. The event mode LAXPC data allows for flux resolved spectral analysis on a timescale of 1 s, which clearly shows that the photon index increased from ∼1.72 to ∼1.80 as the flux increased by nearly a factor of two. We discuss the results in the framework of the fluctuation propagation model.

  9. Hampered performance of migratory swans: intra- and inter-seasonal effects of avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Bethany J; Munster, Vincent J; Huig, Naomi; de Vries, Peter; Oosterbeek, Kees; Tijsen, Wim; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M; van Gils, Jan A

    2016-08-01

    The extent to which animal migrations shape parasite transmission networks is critically dependent on a migrant's ability to tolerate infection and migrate successfully. Yet, sub-lethal effects of parasites can be intensified through periods of increased physiological stress. Long-distance migrants may, therefore, be especially susceptible to negative effects of parasitic infection. Although a handful of studies have investigated the short-term, transmission-relevant behaviors of wild birds infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV), the ecological consequences of LPAIV for the hosts themselves remain largely unknown. Here, we assessed the potential effects of naturally-acquired LPAIV infections in Bewick's swans, a long-distance migratory species that experiences relatively low incidence of LPAIV infection during early winter. We monitored both foraging and movement behavior in the winter of infection, as well as subsequent breeding behavior and inter-annual resighting probability over 3 years. Incorporating data on infection history we hypothesized that any effects would be most apparent in naïve individuals experiencing their first LPAIV infection. Indeed, significant effects of infection were only seen in birds that were infected but lacked antibodies indicative of prior infection. Swans that were infected but had survived a previous infection were indistinguishable from uninfected birds in each of the ecological performance metrics. Despite showing reduced foraging rates, individuals in the naïve-infected category had similar accumulated body stores to re-infected and uninfected individuals prior to departure on spring migration, possibly as a result of having higher scaled mass at the time of infection. And yet individuals in the naïve-infected category were unlikely to be resighted 1 year after infection, with 6 out of 7 individuals that never resighted again compared to 20 out of 63 uninfected individuals and 5 out of 12 individuals in

  10. SOHO/SWAN OBSERVATIONS OF SHORT-PERIOD SPACECRAFT TARGET COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Lee, Y.; Patel, T. S.; Maekinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.

    2011-01-01

    SWAN, the Solar Wind ANisotropies all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft that makes all-sky images of interplanetary neutral hydrogen, has an ongoing campaign to make special observations of comets, both short- and long-period ones, in addition to the serendipitous observations of comets as part of the all-sky monitoring program. We report here on a study of several short-period comets that were detected by SWAN: 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (1998 and 2005 apparitions), 19P/Borrelly (2001 apparition), 81P/Wild 2 (1997 apparition), and 103P/Hartley 2 (1997 apparition). SWAN observes comets over long continuous stretches of their visible apparitions and therefore provides excellent temporal coverage of the water production. For some of the observations we are also able to analyze an entire sequence of images over many days to several weeks/months using our time-resolved model and extract daily average water production rates over continuous periods of several days to months. The short-term (outburst) and long-term behavior can be correlated with other observations. The overall long-term variation is examined in light of seasonal effects seen in the pre- to post-perihelion differences. For 21P/Giacobini-Zinner and 81P/Wild 2 the activity variations over each apparition were more continuously monitored but nonetheless consistent with previous observations. For 19P/Borrelly we found a very steep variation of water production rates, again consistent with some previous observations, and a variation over six months around perihelion that was reasonably consistent with the spin-axis model of Schleicher et al. and the illumination of the main active areas. During the 1997-1998 apparition of 103P/Hartley 2, the target comet of the EPOXI mission (the Deep Impact extended mission), we found a variation with heliocentric distance (∼r -3.6 ) that was almost as steep as 19P/Borrelly and, given the small measured radius near aphelion, this places

  11. Observations of the polarized emission of Taurus A, Cas A and Cygnus A at 9-mm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flett, A.M.; Henderson, C.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the total intensity and degree of linear polarization of the supernova remnants Taurus A and Cas A and of the radiogalaxy Cygnus A have been made at lambda 9 mm using the 25-m radiotelescope at Chilbolton. A new experimental technique involving Faraday rotation of the incoming polarized radiation was employed. Taurus A shows the expected strong and uniform polarization over the central area investigated, and Cas A the ring-like distribution observed at other wavelengths. The beamwidth of 1.5 arcmin resolves the two major components of Cygnus A and it is found that the polarization in the E component has a position angle of 53 +- 3 0 and P = 7.5 +- 1.2 per cent, and the W component a position angle of 133 +- 3 0 and P = 9.6 +-1.1 per cent. When these results are combined with earlier data at longer wavelengths, the large rotation measure of the E component and the fall of the degree of polarization of the W component at short wavelength are further established. (author)

  12. Temperature data from buoy casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from the COLUMBUS and HMAS SWAN from 01 August 1928 to 04 September 1932 (NODC Accession 0000242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using buoy casts from the COLUMBUS and HMAS SWAN from August 1, 1928 to September 4, 1932 in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were...

  13. Advancing gender equality through the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science: an exploratory study of women?s and men?s perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Ovseiko, Pavel V.; Chapple, Alison; Edmunds, Laurel D.; Ziebland, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Background While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensiv...

  14. Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-behaviors questionnaire (SWAN when compared with DISC-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan GFC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grace Fong-Chun Chan,1 Kelly Yee-Ching Lai,2 Ernest Siu-Luen Luk,3 Se-Fong Hung,2 Patrick Wing-Leung Leung4 1Department of Psychiatry, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Private practice, 4Clinical and Health Psychology Centre, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. Objective: In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined.Method: A total of 290 children aged 6–12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN.Results: Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder.Conclusion: SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample. Keywords: ADHD, SWAN, DISC-IV, validity

  15. Ballet in the Dark: A Critical Review of Black Swan by Darren Aronofsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Angela Corpus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Choreographing the life of a ballerina in an ominous psychological thriller is a highly gendered project that takes us to well-established suspects in the patriarchal schema of the ballet world. Black Swan’s filmmakers created a narrative out of a performance of the classic ballet Swan Lake, making it a mimicry of the life of the tragic heroine Nina Sayers (Natalie Portman. The symptomatic pathology of perfectionism haunts the lead character, revealing her manifest hubris while unmasking the systemic social conditioning of women in the ballet system. These women are driven to become tenacious competitors, pleasant and willing objects of a gaze and patronage that are traditionally male-defined and controlled.

  16. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  17. Joseph Swan (1791-1874): pioneer of research on peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, N J; Smith, B D

    2008-06-01

    Joseph Swan was born in 1791 and appointed surgeon to Lincoln County Hospital in 1814. In addition to his clinical work, he carried out what were probably the first animal experiments on nerve injuries. These were mostly on rabbits, in which the sciatic nerves were partly or wholly divided, had a section excised, or were ligated. He found that regeneration could occur, even after neurectomy. He reported these results, together with his experience in human patients and the effects of neurectomy in a horse, in an essay of 1819, which won the Jacksonian Prize of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and is still preserved there. In 1827 he moved to London, where he devoted himself mainly to dissections of the nervous system and was active in the College. He retired to Filey in Yorkshire, where he died in 1874.

  18. Acute Traumatic Swan Neck Deformity: A Case Report of the Oblique Retinacular Ligament Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checcucci, Giuseppe; Biondi, Marco; Faccio, Marina; Zampetti, Piergiuseppe; Galeano, Mariarosaria; Ceruso, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Swan neck deformity (SND) can be the manifestation of an acute trauma. We present a case report of a young basketball player with an acute traumatic SND determined by the single ulnar oblique retinacular ligament rupture. The patient caught a ball directly upon the tip of his right's hand middle finger into extension. He immediately presented a SND with impossibility to actively flex the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ), while preserving active flexion and extension of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ). Hyperextension of PIPJ was reducible with passive mobilization, thus allowing full passive range of motion. The SND was seen to be caused by the lesion of the ulnar oblique retinacular ligament (ORL) on its distal insertion, with consequent dorsomedial migration of the ulnar lateral band. The early surgical distal reinsertion of the ORL allowed the restoration of the original kinematics of the finger flexion-extension.

  19. The influence of collisional transfer effects on measured C2 Swan band transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erman, P.

    1980-01-01

    Lifetime and relative intensities of the C 2 (d - a) Swan bands have been remeasured using the High Frequency Deflection technique, yielding tau(d, γ = 0-6) = 120 +- 4ns. With increasing pressure of the C 2 H 2 target gas strong second lifetime components occur revealing collisional transfers from other C 2 levles with rate coefficients around 6 X 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 mol -1 . These transfers are also observed with a number of other catalyser gases such as He, Ne, Ar, N 2 , and CO 2 . The transfer processes explain the considerably longer lifetimes reported in several earlier lifetime investigations and could be a clue to the formation mechanism of the carbon high pressure bands. (Auth.)

  20. Black swans or creeping normalcy? – An attempt to a holistic crisis analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivér KOVÁCS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we address the daunting challenge of current economic recovery by contributing to the better understanding of its secular feature. In so doing we devote special attention to the secular decline in innovativeness by raising three interlinked and interrelated explanatory phenomena: (i lowering productivity in the new techno-economic paradigm; (ii the effect of the different degree of employment protection; and (iii the issue of pent up disruptive innovations. We argue that these phenomena are not black swans; however, they have been developing in commonly unnoticed increments by manifesting the so-called ‘creeping normalcy’ and being endogenous to the market system. The paper draws lessons to be learned for the Central and Eastern European Member States as well.

  1. Testing The ‘Black Swan Effect’ on Croatian Stock Market Between 2000 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Radman Peša

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We tested the economic activity and stock exchange of Croatia as a new country of EU in order to investigate the ‘Black Swan effect’ from 2000 to 2013. The empirical findings obtained in application of OLS methodology and Chow breaking point test provide evidence and show that resignation of the Croatian ex Prime Minister lead country successfully to EU, but were also ‘The Black Swan’ event, being unpredictable and having huge impact on political and economic environment in Croatia obtained through CROBEX, Croatian stock exchange indices. Authors conclude that the resignation was connected to one of the first significant cases of corruption in Croatia which has got the negative impact on the economic development of the country in general, dealing at the same time with global recession.

  2. Advancing gender equality through the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science: an exploratory study of women's and men's perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Chapple, Alison; Edmunds, Laurel D; Ziebland, Sue

    2017-02-21

    While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensive university in Oxford, United Kingdom. The study is based on the secondary analysis of data from two projects: 59 respondents to an anonymous online survey (42 women, 17 men) provided relevant free-text comments and, separately, 37 women participated in face-to-face narrative interviews. Free-text survey comments and narrative interviews were analysed thematically using constant comparison. Both women and men said that participation in Athena SWAN had brought about important structural and cultural changes, including increased support for women's careers, greater appreciation of caring responsibilities, and efforts to challenge discrimination and bias. Many said that these positive changes would not have happened without linkage of Athena SWAN to government research funding, while others thought there were unintended consequences. Concerns about the programme design and implementation included a perception that Athena SWAN has limited ability to address longstanding and entrenched power and pay imbalances, persisting lack of work-life balance in academic medicine, questions about the sustainability of positive changes, belief that achieving the award could become an end in itself, resentment about perceived positive discrimination, and perceptions that further structural and cultural changes were needed in the university and wider society. The findings from this study suggest that Athena SWAN has a positive impact in advancing gender equality, but there may be limits to how much it can

  3. Understanding the Long-Term Spectral Variability of Cygnus X-1 from BATSE and ASM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Poutanen, Juri; Paciesas, William S.; Wen, Linqing; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of observations of Cygnus X-1 by the RXTE/ASM (1.5-12 keV) and CGRO/BATSE (20-300 keV), including about 1200 days of simultaneous data. We find a number of correlations between intensities and hardnesses in different energy bands from 1.5 keV to 300 keV. In the hard (low) spectral state, there is a negative correlation between the ASM 1.5-12 keV flux and the hardness at any energy. In the soft (high) spectral state, the ASM flux is positively correlated with the ASM hardness (as previously reported) but uncorrelated with the BATSE hardness. In both spectral states, the BATSE hardness correlates with the flux above 100 keV, while it shows no correlation with the flux in the 20-100 keV range. At the same time, there is clear correlation between the BATSE fluxes below and above 100 keV. In the hard state, most of the variability can be explained by softening the overall spectrum with a pivot at approximately 50 keV. The observations show that there has to be another, independent variability pattern of lower amplitude where the spectral shape does not change when the luminosity changes. In the soft state, the variability is mostly caused by a variable hard (Comptonized) spectral component of a constant shape superimposed on a constant soft blackbody component. These variability patterns are in agreement with the dependence of the rms variability on the photon energy in the two states. We interpret the observed correlations in terms of theoretical Comptonization models. In the hard state, the variability appears to be driven mostly by changing flux in seed photons Comptonized in a hot thermal plasma cloud with an approximately constant power supply. In the soft state, the variability is consistent with flares of hybrid, thermal/nonthermal, plasma with variable power above a stable cold disk. Also, based on broadband pointed observations simultaneous with those of the ASM and BATSE, we find the intrinsic bolometric luminosity increases by a

  4. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY IN YOUNG STARS IN CYGNUS OB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Thomas S. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 N Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We present the first results from a 124 night J, H, K near-infrared monitoring campaign of the dark cloud L 1003 in Cygnus OB7, an active star-forming region. Using three seasons of UKIRT observations spanning 1.5 years, we obtained high-quality photometry on 9200 stars down to J = 17 mag, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.04 mag. On the basis of near-infrared excesses from disks, we identify 30 pre-main-sequence stars, including 24 which are newly discovered. We analyze those stars and find that the NIR excesses are significantly variable. All 9200 stars were monitored for photometric variability; among the field star population, {approx}160 exhibited near-infrared variability (1.7% of the sample). Of the 30 young stellar objects (YSOs), 28 of them (93%) are variable at a significant level. Of the 30 YSOs, twenty-five have near-infrared excess consistent with simple disk-plus-star classical T Tauri models. Nine of these (36%) drift in color space over the course of these observations and/or since Two Micron All Sky Survey observations such that they cross the boundary defining the NIR excess criteria; effectively, they have a transient near-infrared excess. Thus, time-series JHK observations can be used to obtain a more complete sample of disk-bearing stars than single-epoch JHK observations. About half of the YSOs have color-space variations parallel to either the classical T Tauri star locus or a hybrid track which includes the dust reddening trajectory. This indicates that the NIR variability in YSOs that possess accretion disks arises from a combination of variable extinction and changes in the inner accretion disk: either in accretion rate, central hole size, and/or the inclination of the inner disk. While some variability may be due to stellar rotation, the level of variability on the individual stars can exceed a magnitude. This is a strong empirical suggestion that protoplanetary disks are quite dynamic and exhibit more complex activity on short

  5. WATER PRODUCTION BY COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2 OBSERVED WITH THE SWAN INSTRUMENT ON THE SOHO SPACECRAFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.; Ferron, S.; Maekinen, J. T. T.

    2011-01-01

    Global water production rates were determined from the Lyα emission of hydrogen around comet 103P/Hartley 2, observed with the SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies) all-sky camera on the SOHO spacecraft from 2010 September 14 through December 12. This time period included the November 4 flyby by the EPOXI spacecraft. Water production was three times lower than during the 1997 apparition also measured by SWAN. In 2010, it increased by a factor of ∼2.5 within one day on September 30 with a similar corresponding drop between November 24 and 30. The total surface area of sublimating water within ±20 days of perihelion was ∼0.5 km 2 , about half of the mean cross section of the nucleus. Outside this period it was ∼0.2 km 2 . The peak value was 90%, implying a significant water production by released nucleus icy fragments.

  6. Time delay of the PeV gamma ray burst after the October 1985 radio flare of Cygnus X-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezinsky, V S

    1988-08-11

    Cygnus X-3 remains a puzzling and controversial source of ultra-high-energy radiation, E greater than or equal to 0.1 PeV. In existing data, TeV and sometimes PeV radiation has been seen episodically; such an episode is connected with the radio flare of Cyg X-3 in October 1985, when PeV radiation with no phase structure was seen. The PeV pulse was detected 3-5 days after the radio flare. The author proposes a natural explanation for the delay, in which gamma-photons of PeV energy are absorbed by radio radiation inside the source. After a delay, the gamma radiation emerges as the radio flux diminishes and absorption decreases.

  7. SELF-CONSISTENT EVOLUTION OF GAS AND COSMIC RAYS IN CYGNUS A AND SIMILAR FR II CLASSICAL DOUBLE RADIO SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, William G.; Guo Fulai

    2010-01-01

    In Cygnus A and other classical FR II double radio sources, powerful opposing jets from the cores of halo-centered galaxies drive out into the surrounding cluster gas, forming hotspots of shocked and compressed cluster gas at the jet extremities. The moving hotspots are sandwiched between two shocks. An inner-facing shock receives momentum and cosmic rays from the jet and creates additional cosmic rays that form a radio lobe elongated along the jet axis. An outer-facing bow shock moves directly into the undisturbed group or cluster gas, creating a cocoon of shocked gas enclosing the radio lobe. We describe computations that follow the self-consistent dynamical evolution of the shocked cluster gas and the relativistic synchrotron-emitting gas inside the lobes. Relativistic and non-relativistic components exchange momentum by interacting with small magnetic fields having dynamically negligible energy densities. The evolution of Cygnus A is governed almost entirely by cosmic ray energy flowing from the hotspots. Mass flowing into hotspots from the jets is assumed to be small, greatly reducing the mass of gas flowing back along the jet, common in previous calculations, that would disrupt the spatial segregation of synchrotron-loss ages observed inside FR II radio lobes. We compute the evolution of the cocoon when the velocity and cosmic ray luminosity of the hotspots are constant and when they vary with time. If cosmic rays mix with cluster gas in hotspots before flowing into the radio lobe, the thermal gas is heated to mildly relativistic temperatures, producing an unobserved pressure inside the lobe.

  8. Absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at seven wavelengths in the 1.8-4.2 cm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, L.V.; Snegireva, V.V.; Turchin, V.I.; Tsejtlin, N.M.; Voronkov, L.A.; Dmitrenko, D.A.; Kuznetsova, N.A.; Kholodilov, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    Results of absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at 1.8-4.17 cm wavelengths are presented. Spectra are built in the wave range of 1.8-100 cm with the use of results obtained earlier. Variability has been detected in radiation of Taurus A as well as ''steps'' in the spectrum of Taurus A with the spectral index α=0 in the region of 2 cm and 3-4 cm [ru

  9. Variable elasticity of substituition in a discrete time Solow–Swan growth model with differential saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brianzoni, Serena; Mammana, Cristiana; Michetti, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► One dimensional piecewise smooth map: border collision bifurcations. ► Numerical simulations: complex dynamics. ► Ves production function in the solow–swan growth model and comparison with the ces production function. - Abstract: We study the dynamics shown by the discrete time neoclassical one-sector growth model with differential savings as in Bohm and Kaas while assuming VES production function in the form given by Revankar . It is shown that the model can exhibit unbounded endogenous growth despite the absence of exogenous technical change and the presence of non-reproducible factors if the elasticity of substitution is greater than one. We then consider parameters range related to non-trivial dynamics (i.e. the elasticity of substitution in less than one and shareholders save more than workers) and we focus on local and global bifurcations causing the transition to more and more complex asymptotic dynamics. In particular, as our map is non-differentiable in a subset of the states space, we show that border collision bifurcations occur. Several numerical simulations support the analysis.

  10. The Interstellar H Flow: Updated Analysis of SOHO/SWAN Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallement, Rosine; Quemerais, Eric; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Ferron, Stephane; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Schmidt, Walter; Lamy, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We update two kinds of results obtained with the SWAN instrument on board SOHO. First, we use H cell data recorded in 2001 and derive the H flow direction in the same way the study was done at solar minimum. We again compare with the Helium flow direction and doing so correct for the coordinate system change between the Ulysses and SOHO missions. The deflection plane we obtain is compatible with our previous result within error bars, confirming the potential predominant role of the interstellar magnetic field. In a second part, we extend the computation of the interstellar H ionization as a function of heliographic latitude and time, a quantity which reflects closely the SW flux latitudinal structure. The pattern for the present solar minimum is strikingly different from the previous minimum, with a much wider slow solar wind equatorial belt which persists until at least 2008. Comparing with synoptic LASCO/C2 electron densities we infer from a preliminary study that the acceleration of the high speed solar wind occurs at a higher altitude during this minimum compared to the previous one, a difference expansion models must be able to reproduce.

  11. The Six Swans and the Girl Some considerations about the salvation in Simone Weil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Lucchetti Bingemer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show the connection that Simone Weil´s thought has always had with the literature, specially with the fables and tales. Fables and tales have true insights of the Truth coming from the depths of humanity unconscious and after that become true believed and appropriate by the cultures and civilizations. Among these fables and tales, there is one that has fascinated since childhood Simone: The six swans by Grimm.  In it,Simone, an agnostic and still knowing nothing of Christianity,describes the role of the girl who has saved his brothers from a spell. This tale, certainly has prepared the meeting of Simone with Christianity, as well as reading she did the Christian narrative of salvation wich she has lived herself.Keywords: Simone Weil; Grimm Tales; Theology and Literature.

  12. On "black swans" and "perfect storms": risk analysis and management when statistics are not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paté-Cornell, Elisabeth

    2012-11-01

    Two images, "black swans" and "perfect storms," have struck the public's imagination and are used--at times indiscriminately--to describe the unthinkable or the extremely unlikely. These metaphors have been used as excuses to wait for an accident to happen before taking risk management measures, both in industry and government. These two images represent two distinct types of uncertainties (epistemic and aleatory). Existing statistics are often insufficient to support risk management because the sample may be too small and the system may have changed. Rationality as defined by the von Neumann axioms leads to a combination of both types of uncertainties into a single probability measure--Bayesian probability--and accounts only for risk aversion. Yet, the decisionmaker may also want to be ambiguity averse. This article presents an engineering risk analysis perspective on the problem, using all available information in support of proactive risk management decisions and considering both types of uncertainty. These measures involve monitoring of signals, precursors, and near-misses, as well as reinforcement of the system and a thoughtful response strategy. It also involves careful examination of organizational factors such as the incentive system, which shape human performance and affect the risk of errors. In all cases, including rare events, risk quantification does not allow "prediction" of accidents and catastrophes. Instead, it is meant to support effective risk management rather than simply reacting to the latest events and headlines. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Expression of TGF-β in Fractures Fixed by Nitinol Swan-like Memory Compressive Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Zhang, C. C.; Xu, S. G.; Fu, Q. G.

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the effect of internal fixation of a Nitinol swan-like memory compressive connector (SMC) on the temporal expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) at fracture sites is evaluated. Specimens were collected from 35 New Zealand rabbits modeled for bilateral humeral fracture fixed with either SMC or stainless dynamic compression plate (DCP). Five rabbits each were killed at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56. The local positive staining potency, positive area ratio, and positive index of TGF-β were measured using an immunohistochemistry approach (EnVision) in combination with a computerized image analysis system. TGF-β staining was seen in mesenchymal cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and in the extracellular matrix of fractures fixed in both the SMC and the DCP samples without a significant difference in staining at both the early stages (days 1 and 3) and day 56. A higher TGF-β content was observed in the fractures fixed with SMC when compared to that of DCP from day 7 to 28. As a conclusion, TGF-β is highly expressed in fractures fixed with SMC during chondrogenesis stage and entochondrostosis stage. Finally, the mechanism of how SMC promoting synthesis and secretion of TGF-β in the process of fracture healing has been discussed.

  14. Komatiites and nickel sulfide ores of the Black Swan area, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. 4. Platinum group element distribution in the ores, and genetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Stephen J.

    2004-11-01

    The Black Swan komatiite sequence, in the Eastern Goldfields province of the Archaean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia, is a body of dominantly olivine-rich cumulates with lesser volumes of spinifex textured rocks, interpreted as a section through an extensive komatiite lava flow field. The sequence hosts a number of nickel sulfide orebodies, including the Silver Swan massive shoot and the Cygnet and Black Swan disseminated orebodies. The massive sulfide orebodies of the Black Swan Succession are pervasively depleted in all platinum group elements (PGEs), particularly Pt and Pd, despite very high Ni contents. This depletion cannot be explained by R-factor variations, which would also require relatively low Ni tenors. The PGE depletion could be explained in part if the ores are enriched in a monosulfide solid solution (MSS) cumulate component, but requires some additional fractional segregation of sulfide melt upstream from the site of deposition. The Silver Swan orebody shows a remarkably consistent vertical zonation in PGE contents, particularly in Ir, Ru, Rh, Os, which increase systematically from very low levels at the stratigraphic base of the sulfide body to maxima corresponding roughly with the top of a lower layer of the orebody rich in silicate inclusions. Platinum shows the opposite trend, but is somewhat modified by remobilisation during talc carbonate alteration. A similar pattern is also observed in the adjacent White Swan orebody. This zonation is interpreted and modelled as the result of fractional crystallisation of MSS from the molten sulfide pool. The strong IPGE depletion towards the base of the orebody may be a consequence of sulfide liquid crystallisation in an inverted thermal gradient, between a thin rapidly cooling upper rind of komatiite lava and a hot substrate.

  15. Detailed review and analysis of complex radiotherapy clinical trial planning data: Evaluation and initial experience with the SWAN software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Martin A.; Haworth, Annette; Kearvell, Rachel; Hooton, Ben; Coleman, Rhonda; Spry, Nigel; Bydder, Sean; Joseph, David

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Contemporary radiotherapy clinical trials typically require complex three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning. This produces large amounts of data relating technique and dose delivery for correlation with patient outcomes. Assessment of the quality of this information is required to ensure protocol compliance, to quantify the variation in treatments given to patients and to enhance the power of studies to determine correlates of patient outcomes. Materials and methods: A software system ('SWAN') was developed to facilitate the objective analysis, quality-assurance and review of digital treatment planning data from multi-centre radiotherapy trials. The utility of this system was assessed on the basis of its functionality and our experience of its use in the context of multi-centre clinical trials and trials-support activities. Results: The SWAN system has been shown to have the functionality required for use in several multi-centre trials, including automated review and archive processes. Approximately 800 treatment plans from over 30 participating institutions have so far been assessed with the system for several treatment planning scenarios. To illustrate this we include a description of the use of the system for a large-recruitment prostate radiotherapy trial being undertaken in Australasia, including examples of how the review process has changed clinical practice. Conclusion: The successful implementation of SWAN has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. The software provides an opportunity for comprehensive review of treatment parameters that could impact on clinical outcomes and trial results. Such quality-assurance (QA) has previously been difficult or impossible to achieve, particularly for a clinical trial involving large numbers of patients. Such reviews have highlighted inconsistencies in clinical practice that have since been addressed through feedback from the review process. The process of data collection and review should be

  16. Monitoring the numbers and productivity of Tundra Swans in relation to potential natural gas development in the Mackenzie River Delta, western Canadian Arctic, 2001-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swystun, H.A. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada); Hines, J.E. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Dawson, R.D. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    A study was conducted in which tundra swans were used as an indicator species to monitor the environmental change and effects of oil and gas development in the Mackenzie Delta. The objectives were to monitor consistent study plots for tundra swans at development and non development sites and to document nesting success and brood survival. Environmental protection and maintenance of harvestable populations of wildlife are part of land claim agreement for two Aboriginal groups with settled land claims in the Mackenzie Delta. This study also evaluated the possible factors such as habitat and climate, which limit the reproductive success of tundra swans. Their nesting biology was examined along with how they use their habitat. Researchers established 48 plots near exploratory well sites, existing camps, sites of recent seismic exploration and gas fields of known importance. Air surveillance was used to count and observe the swans on a yearly basis, along with their nests and offspring. Plots were located both where development is proposed and where development is not likely to occur. The important spring staging, summer moulting and fall staging areas were identified along with spring migration patterns, behaviour and feeding areas. The 3 proposed drilling sites include Niglingtak (Kendall Island Bird Sanctuary), Taglu, and Parsons Lake. The concerns regarding future development in tundra swan habitat include: (1) areas where drilling and pipeline structures are built may prompt swans to move away from their traditional nesting and feeding areas, (2) human activity will increase due to gas drilling and pipeline construction, which may reduce nesting success, (3) wastes associated with construction sites may attract predators and increase predation on nesting birds, (4) increased air traffic would disturb geese and swan hunting areas, and (5) waterfowl habitat could be lost if spring staging, summer moulting and fall staging areas are not considered when planning

  17. Diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette Oil Reservoir (Givetian-Frasnian), deep basin of west-central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.P.; Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The geology and diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette oil field of west-central Alberta basin was described. Present-day burial depth is 3900 m; formation temperature is 93 degrees C. Highest porosites (20 per cent) occur in dolostones of the lagoon, ref, and fore-reef depositional environments but limestones still retain porosities up to five per cent. Hydrocarbons are present in saddle dolomite fluid inclusions. Oxygen isotopes for replacement dolomites and late calcite suggest that the carbonate-precipitating fluids were derived from the Precambrian basement or Paleozoic clastics sourced from the basement. Faults may have acted as vertical conduits for fluid migration.

  18. An investigation into the Swan Island Honduras collecting event of Tiaporus fuliginosus Cope (Reptilia: Teiidae) and its systematic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCranie, James R.; Gotte, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Confusion exists in the literature concerning the collecting event of the teiid lizard Tiaporus fuliginosus. We investigated the literature and documents stored at the Smithsonian Institution Archives involving the collector of those specimens in an effort to resolve that confusion. We conclude that the type series was collected on the Swan Islands of Honduras by Charles H. Townsend during 1887. We also provide a redescription of that nominal form and show that it is a valid species that should be called Ameiva fuliginosa. We also examined the type series of A. panchlora from Old Providence, Colombia and confirm that its 1950 placement as a junior synonym of A. fuliginosa is correct.

  19. El supuesto de normalidad estacionaria y los Black Swans en finanzas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ramírez Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El supuesto de normalidad estacionaria es esencial para diversas áreas del análisis financiero. Desde el cálculo del valor en riesgo de una posición hasta la simulación estocástica del precio de un activo financiero, la inclusión del supuesto es recurrente y definitiva. Su enorme influencia en las técnicas tradicionales del Valor en Riesgo (VaR o de la proyección del precio de un subyacente, lo han convertido en una piedra angular de las finanzas modernas. Los efectos de la crisis hipotecaria de los eeuu en 2007 y 2008 han cambiado; sin embargo, no pocos claman su eliminación de las técnicas de medición de riesgo o de fijación de precios. En particular se insiste en que cualquier intento de predicción de los precios es estéril si se sigue confiando en las técnicas basadas en la distribución normal. El objetivo de este documento es analizar esas críticas y establecer en qué medida la existencia de los Black Swans destruye las bases normales de la práctica financiera. Las conclusiones del documento señalan que las evidentes fallas predictivas del supuesto en situaciones de crisis no son, sin embargo, un mero asunto estadístico sino, también, son explicadas por la propia dinámica de los mercados y de la liberalidad como se conducen los distintos agentes (especuladores, empresas calificadoras y reguladores responsables de la fijación de los precios de los activos.

  20. A Multi-Wavelength Study of Parent Volatile Abundances in Comet C/2006 M4 (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSanti, Michael A.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Zack, Lindsay N.; Bonev, Boncho P.; Mumma, Michael; Ziurys, Lucy M.; Anderson, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Volatile organic emissions were detected post-perihelion in the long period comet C/2006 M4 (SWAN) in October and November 2006. Our study combines target-of-opportunity, observations using the infrared Cryogenic Echelle Spectrometer (CSHELL) at the NASA-IRTF 3-m telescope, and millimeter wavelength observations using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 12-m telescope. Five parent volatiles were measured with CSHELL (H2O, CO, CH3OH, CH4, and C2H6), and two additional species (HCN and CS) were measured with the ARID 12-m. These revealed highly depleted CO and somewhat enriched CH3OH compared with abundances observed in the dominant group of long-period (Oort cloud) comets in our sample and similar to those observed recently in Comet 8P/Tuttle. This may indicate highly efficient H-atom addition to CO at very low temperature (approx.10-20 K) on the surfaces of interstellar (pre-cometary) grains. Comet C12006 M4 had nearly "normal" C2H6, and CH4, suggesting a processing history similar to that experienced by the dominant group. When compared with estimated water production at the time of the millimeter observations, HCN was slightly depleted compared with the normal abundance in comets based on 1R observations but was consistent with the majority of values from the millimeter. The ratio CS/HCN in C/2006 M4 was within the range measured in ten comets at millimeter wavelengths. The higher apparent H-atom conversion efficiency compared with most comets may indicate that the icy grains incorporated into C/2006 M4 were exposed to higher H-atom densities, or alternatively to similar densities but for a longer period of time.

  1. Implementation of viscoelastic mud-induced energy attenuation in the third-generation wave model, SWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyramzade, Mostafa; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of waves with fluid mud can dissipate the wave energy significantly over few wavelengths. In this study, the third-generation wave model, SWAN, was advanced to include attenuation of wave energy due to interaction with a viscoelastic fluid mud layer. The performances of implemented viscoelastic models were verified against an analytical solution and viscous formulations for simple one-dimensional propagation cases. Stationary and non-stationary test cases in the Surinam coast and the Atchafalaya Shelf showed that the inclusion of the mud-wave interaction term in the third-generation wave model enhances the model performance in real applications. A high value of mud viscosity (of the order of 0.1 m2/s) was required in both field cases to remedy model overestimation at high frequency ranges of the wave spectrum. The use of frequency-dependent mud viscosity value improved the performance of model, especially in the frequency range of 0.2-0.35 Hz in the wave spectrum. In addition, the mud-wave interaction might affect the high frequency part of the spectrum, and this part of the wave spectrum is also affected by energy transfer from wind to waves, even for the fetch lengths of the order of 10 km. It is shown that exclusion of the wind input term in such cases might result in different values for parameters of mud layer when inverse modeling procedure was employed. Unlike viscous models for wave-mud interaction, the inverse modeling results to a set of mud parameters with the same performance when the viscoelastic model is used. It provides an opportunity to select realistic mud parameters which are in more agreement with in situ measurements.

  2. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H; Casement, Melynda D; Troxel, Wendy M; Matthews, Karen A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Kravitz, Howard M; Krafty, Robert T; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Prospective cohort study. Four sites across the United States. 330 women (46-57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. N/A. Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. CSO BOLOCAM 1.1 mm CONTINUUM MAPPING OF THE BRAID NEBULA STAR FORMATION REGION IN CYGNUS OB7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspin, Colin; Beck, Tracy L.; Davis, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 1.1 mm map of the Braid Nebula star formation region in Cygnus OB7 taken using Bolocam on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Within the 1 deg 2 covered by the map, we have detected 55 cold dust clumps all of which are new detections. A number of these clumps are coincident with IRAS point sources although the majority are not. Some of the previously studied optical/near-IR sources are detected at 1.1 mm. We estimate total dust/gas masses for the 55 clumps together with peak visual extinctions. We conclude that over the whole region, approximately 20% of the clumps are associated with IRAS sources suggesting that these are protostellar objects. The remaining 80% are classed as starless clumps. In addition, both FU Orionis (FUor) like objects in the field, the Braid Star and HH 381 IRS, are associated with strong millimeter emission. This implies that FUor eruptions can occur at very early stages of pre-main-sequence life. Finally, we determine that the cumulative clump mass function for the region is very similar to that found in both the Perseus and ρ Ophiuchus star-forming regions.

  4. A WIDE-FIELD NARROWBAND OPTICAL SURVEY OF THE BRAID NEBULA STAR FORMATION REGION IN CYGNUS OB7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magakian, Tigran Yu.; Nikogossian, Elena H.; Movsessian, Tigran; Aspin, Colin; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Khanzadyan, Tigran; Smith, Michael D.; Mitchison, Sharon; Davis, Chris J.; Beck, Tracy L.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.

    2010-01-01

    We study the population of Herbig-Haro (HH) flows and jets in an area of Cygnus OB7 designated the Braid Nebula star formation region. This complex forms part of the L 1003 dark cloud, and hosts two FU Orionis (FUor)-like objects as well as several other active young stars. To trace outflow activity and to relate both known and newly discovered flows to young star hosts we intercompare new, deep, narrowband Hα and [S II] optical images taken on the Subaru 8 m Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Our images show that there is considerable outflow and jet activity in this region suggesting the presence of an extensive young star population. We confirm that both of the FUor-like objects drive extensive HH flows and document further members of the flows in both objects. The L 1003 star formation complex is a highly kinematically active region with young stars in several different stages of evolution. We trace collimated outflows from numerous young stars although the origin of some HH objects remains elusive.

  5. The reflection component from Cygnus X-1 in the soft state measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Nowak, Michael A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Parker, Michael; Fabian, Andy C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Miller, Jon M.; King, Ashley L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A.; Forster, Karl; Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, INAF-IAPS, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ross, Randy R., E-mail: jtomsick@ssl.berkeley.edu [Physics Department, College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA 01610 (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late 2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ∼1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power law, and reflection components along with absorption from highly ionized material in the system. The high throughput of NuSTAR allows for a very high quality measurement of the complex iron line region as well as the rest of the reflection component. The iron line is clearly broadened and is well described by a relativistic blurring model, providing an opportunity to constrain the black hole spin. Although the spin constraint depends somewhat on which continuum model is used, we obtain a {sub *} > 0.83 for all models that provide a good description of the spectrum. However, none of our spectral fits give a disk inclination that is consistent with the most recently reported binary values for Cyg X-1. This may indicate that there is a >13° misalignment between the orbital plane and the inner accretion disk (i.e., a warped accretion disk) or that there is missing physics in the spectral models.

  6. Very Large Array H I Zeeman Observations of the Cygnus X Region: DR 22 and ON 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, E. A.; Troland, T. H.

    2012-02-01

    We have used the Very Large Array to study the Zeeman effect in 21 cm H I absorption lines from two star-forming regions in the Cygnus X complex, DR 22 and ON 2. We measure the line-of-sight magnetic field toward these regions, finding B los = -84 ± 11 μG toward the DR 22 H II region and B los < 50 μG toward each of the two H II regions in ON 2. We interpret these results in terms of two different models. In one model, we assume that the H I Zeeman effect is a measure of magnetic fields in the associated molecular clouds. If so, then the DR 22 molecular cloud is magnetically subcritical, that is, magnetically dominated. The ON 2 molecular clouds are magnetically supercritical. In a second model, we assume that the H I Zeeman effect is a measure of magnetic fields in photon-dominated regions where the gas has been compressed (and the field amplified) by absorption of stellar radiation. We find that this second model, where the measured field strength has been affected by star formation, accounts well for the DR 22 H I Zeeman effect. This same model, however, overpredicts the magnetic field in ON 2. ON 2 may be a region where the magnetic field is energetically insignificant or where the field happens to lie nearly in the plane of the sky.

  7. OBSERVATION OF TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM THE CYGNUS REGION WITH THE ARGO-YBJ EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A. K. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cattaneo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Chen, T. L. [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Road, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); D' Ali Staiti, G., E-mail: chensz@ihep.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-02-15

    We report the observation of TeV {gamma}-rays from the Cygnus region using the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2011 August. Several TeV sources are located in this region including the two bright extended MGRO J2019+37 and MGRO J2031+41. According to the Milagro data set, at 20 TeV MGRO J2019+37 is the most significant source apart from the Crab Nebula. No signal from MGRO J2019+37 is detected by the ARGO-YBJ experiment, and the derived flux upper limits at the 90% confidence level for all the events above 600 GeV with medium energy of 3 TeV are lower than the Milagro flux, implying that the source might be variable and hard to be identified as a pulsar wind nebula. The only statistically significant (6.4 standard deviations) {gamma}-ray signal is found from MGRO J2031+41, with a flux consistent with the measurement by Milagro.

  8. The reflection component from Cygnus X-1 in the soft state measured by NuSTAR and Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Nowak, Michael A.; Parker, Michael; Fabian, Andy C.; Miller, Jon M.; King, Ashley L.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Forster, Karl; Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ross, Randy R.

    2014-01-01

    The black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was observed in late 2012 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku, providing spectral coverage over the ∼1-300 keV range. The source was in the soft state with a multi-temperature blackbody, power law, and reflection components along with absorption from highly ionized material in the system. The high throughput of NuSTAR allows for a very high quality measurement of the complex iron line region as well as the rest of the reflection component. The iron line is clearly broadened and is well described by a relativistic blurring model, providing an opportunity to constrain the black hole spin. Although the spin constraint depends somewhat on which continuum model is used, we obtain a * > 0.83 for all models that provide a good description of the spectrum. However, none of our spectral fits give a disk inclination that is consistent with the most recently reported binary values for Cyg X-1. This may indicate that there is a >13° misalignment between the orbital plane and the inner accretion disk (i.e., a warped accretion disk) or that there is missing physics in the spectral models.

  9. NuSTAR AND SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE HARD STATE IN CYGNUS X-1: LOCATING THE INNER ACCRETION DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M. L.; Lohfink, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Alston, W. N.; Kara, E.; Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Miller, J. M.; Yamaoka, K.; Nowak, M.; Grinberg, V.; Christensen, F. E.; Fürst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; King, A. L.; Stern, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present simultaneous Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR ) and Suzaku observations of the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 in the hard state. This is the first time this state has been observed in Cyg X-1 with NuSTAR, which enables us to study the reflection and broadband spectra in unprecedented detail. We confirm that the iron line cannot be fit with a combination of narrow lines and absorption features, instead requiring a relativistically blurred profile in combination with a narrow line and absorption from the companion wind. We use the reflection models of García et al. to simultaneously measure the black hole spin, disk inner radius, and coronal height in a self-consistent manner. Detailed fits to the iron line profile indicate a high level of relativistic blurring, indicative of reflection from the inner accretion disk. We find a high spin, a small inner disk radius, and a low source height and rule out truncation to greater than three gravitational radii at the 3σ confidence level. In addition, we find that the line profile has not changed greatly in the switch from soft to hard states, and that the differences are consistent with changes in the underlying reflection spectrum rather than the relativistic blurring. We find that the blurring parameters are consistent when fitting either just the iron line or the entire broadband spectrum, which is well modeled with a Comptonized continuum plus reflection model

  10. Image of the Black Hole, Cygnus X-1, Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    This image of the suspected Black Hole, Cygnus X-1, was the first object seen by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory. According to the theories to date, one concept of a black hole is a star, perhaps 10 times more massive than the Sun, that has entered the last stages of stelar evolution. There is an explosion triggered by nuclear reactions after which the star's outer shell of lighter elements and gases is blown away into space and the heavier elements in the stellar core begin to collapse upon themselves. Once this collapse begins, the inexorable force of gravity continues to compact the material until it becomes so dense it is squeezed into a mere point and nothing can escape from its extreme gravitational field, not even light. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy.

  11. Allometry as evidence of sexual selection in monochromatic birds: the case of the Coscoroba Swan (Anseriformes: Anatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia P. Calabuig

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Coscoroba Swan, Coscoroba coscoroba (Molina, 1782, is a poorly known aberrant Anserine endemic to South America. We captured adult birds (189 male, 157 female from the largest population in Brazil at the Taim Ecological Reserve, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Different patterns between sexes can reflect differences in selection, and positive allometry may indicate that a character is sexually selected. We used body weight and 10 morphological measurements to examine allometric differences between males and females of C. coscoroba. Males were consistently larger than females. Analysis of scaling relationships against body mass showed that nostril, tail, wing and bill height were positively allometric (i.e., heavier birds had relatively larger character lengths, but there were no sexual differences in allometric slopes. However, for a given mass, mature females had longer tails, longer wings (up to metacarpophalangeal articulation and shorter heads than males. In the light of current debate in the literature, we discuss whether such positively allometric traits and sexual differences in scaling may be indicative of sexual selection. Although Coscoroba Swan is a monogamous species, increasing the size of some attributes may confer some advantage for mate selection or male-male competition and, contrary to other studies, we suggest that positively allometric slopes alone should not be considered as evidence for sexual selection of the considered traits.

  12. Development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for an aging oil field : Devon Canada Swan Hills Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, M.; North, C.; Leighton-Boyce, G. [WorleyParsons Komex, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, D. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for the aging Devon Canada Swan Hills oil field was examined along with the key components of the closure strategy. These included source removal to the extent practical, long term monitoring, and achievable risk-based remedial objectives that were appropriate to the remote boreal forest setting of the Swan Hills field. A two stage approach was presented. The first stage involved a field wide background framework which included defining areas of common physical and ecological setting and developing appropriate exposure scenarios. The second stage involved site-specific risk assessments which included adjusting for site-specific conditions and an early demonstration project to prove the concept. A GIS approach was used to identify areas of common physical and ecological setting including: physiography; surface water; land use; vegetation ecozones; surficial and bedrock geology; and water well use. Species lists were compiled for vegetation, terrestrial wildlife (mammals, birds, amphibians), and aquatic species (fish and invertebrates). Major contaminant sources, problem formulation, vegetation bioassays, invertebrate bioassays, black spruce emergence, and guideline development were other topics covered during the presentation. Last, a summary of progress was presented. A field-wide review and development of risk zones and site-specific risk assessment has been completed. A regulatory review is underway. tabs., figs.

  13. High seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza viruses among wild waterfowl in Alaska: implications for surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.

  14. Characterisation of a highly pathogenic H5N1 clade 2.3.2 influenza virus isolated from swans in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo; Zhong, Lei; Lu, Xinlun; Hu, Jiao; Gu, Xiaobing; Kai, Yan; Song, Qingqing; Sun, Qing; Liu, Jinbao; Peng, Daxin; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Xiufan

    2012-02-01

    In spring 2009, one strain of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 virus was isolated from wild swans in Shanghai, indicating the importance of the wild swan in the ecology of this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in Eastern China. Pathogenicity experiments conducted in this study indicated that the virus was highly pathogenic for chickens but lowly pathogenic for mammalian hosts, as evidenced by reduced infection of mice. The analysis of complete genome sequences and genetic evolution showed that A/Swan/Shanghai/10/09 (SW/SH/09) may be derived from the strain A/silky chicken/Shantou/475/2004 (CK/ST/04), which is homologous to the influenza viruses isolated from chicken, duck, pika, little egret, swan, mandarin duck and bar-headed goose in China Hunan, China Qinghai, Mongolia, Russia, Japan, Korea, Laos and Hong Kong during 2007-2011, indicating that the virus has retro-infected diverse wild birds from chicken, and significant spread of the virus is still ongoing through overlapping migratory flyways. On the basis of the molecular analysis, we also found that there was a deletion of the glycosylation site (NSS) in amino acid 156 of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein when compared with that of the other Clade 2.3.2 viruses isolated between 2007 and 2011. More importantly, the sequence analysis of SW/SH/09 virus displayed the drug-resistant mutations on the matrix protein (M2) and neuraminidase (NA) genes.

  15. Changing distribution and abundance of Swan Goose Anser cygnoides in the Yangtze River floodplain: the likely loss of a very important wintering site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Cao, L.; Barter, M.; Fox, A.D.; Zhao, M.; Meng, F.; Shi, H.; Jiang, Y.; Zhu, W.

    2011-01-01

    Virtually the entire population of the globally ‘Vulnerable’ Swan Goose Anser cygnoides winters in the Yangtze floodplain. Historically, the species was widely distributed throughout the floodplain but now approximately 95% of the population is confined to three closely-situated wetlands in Anhui

  16. The Black Swans of Agricultural Education: A Glimpse into the Lived Experiences That Shape Urban Agricultural Educators' Meaning in Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richie; Ramsey, Jon W.

    2017-01-01

    Urban agricultural educators face a number of unique challenges in performing their job duties. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand the essence of urban agricultural educators' meaning in their work by exploring their lived experiences. In this study, the essence emerged in the form of a metaphor: A Black Swan. The black swan…

  17. Evaluating the suitability of the SWAN/COSMO-2 model system to simulate short-crested surface waves for a narrow lake with complex bathymetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Graf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spectral wave model SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore was applied to Lake Zurich, a narrow pre-Alpine lake in Switzerland. The aim of the study is to investigate whether the model system consisting of SWAN and the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-2 is a suitable tool for wave forecasts for the pre-Alpine Lake Zurich. SWAN is able to simulate short-crested wind-generated surface waves. The model was forced with a time varying wind field taken from COSMO-2 with hourly outputs. Model simulations were compared with measured wave data at one near-shore site during a frontal passage associated with strong on-shore winds. The overall course of the measured wave height is well captured in the SWAN simulation: the wave amplitude significantly increases during the frontal passage followed by a transient drop in amplitude. The wave pattern on Lake Zurich is quite complex. It strongly depends on the inherent variability of the wind field and on the external forcing due to the surrounding complex topography. The influence of the temporal wind resolution is further studied with two sensitivity experiments. The first one considers a low-pass filtered wind field, based on a 2-h running mean of COSMO-2 output, and the second experiment uses simple synthetic gusts, which are implemented into the SWAN model and take into account short-term fluctuations of wind speed at 1-sec resolution. The wave field significantly differs for the 1-h and 2-h simulations, but is only negligibly affected by the gusts.

  18. TOWARD COMPLETE STATISTICS OF MASSIVE BINARY STARS: PENULTIMATE RESULTS FROM THE CYGNUS OB2 RADIAL VELOCITY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Lundquist, Michael J.; Burke, Jamison; Chapman, James; Keller, Erica; Lester, Kathryn; Rolen, Emily K.; Topel, Eric; Bhattacharjee, Anirban; Smullen, Rachel A.; Álvarez, Carlos A. Vargas; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Dale, Daniel A.; Brotherton, Michael M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070 (United States); Kiminki, Daniel C., E-mail: chipk@uwyo.edu, E-mail: jburke2@swarthmore.edu, E-mail: jc6380@mcla.edu, E-mail: kelle22e@mtholyoke.edu, E-mail: kvl214@lehigh.edu, E-mail: emily.k.rolen@vanderbilt.edu, E-mail: topel@stolaf.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We analyze orbital solutions for 48 massive multiple-star systems in the Cygnus OB2 association, 23 of which are newly presented here, to find that the observed distribution of orbital periods is approximately uniform in log P for P < 45 days, but it is not scale-free. Inflections in the cumulative distribution near 6 days, 14 days, and 45 days suggest key physical scales of ≅0.2, ≅0.4, and ≅1 A.U. where yet-to-be-identified phenomena create distinct features. No single power law provides a statistically compelling prescription, but if features are ignored, a power law with exponent β ≅ –0.22 provides a crude approximation over P = 1.4-2000 days, as does a piece-wise linear function with a break near 45 days. The cumulative period distribution flattens at P > 45 days, even after correction for completeness, indicating either a lower binary fraction or a shift toward low-mass companions. A high degree of similarity (91% likelihood) between the Cyg OB2 period distribution and that of other surveys suggests that the binary properties at P ≲ 25 days are determined by local physics of disk/clump fragmentation and are relatively insensitive to environmental and evolutionary factors. Fully 30% of the unbiased parent sample is a binary with period P < 45 days. Completeness corrections imply a binary fraction near 55% for P < 5000 days. The observed distribution of mass ratios 0.2 < q < 1 is consistent with uniform, while the observed distribution of eccentricities 0.1 < e < 0.6 is consistent with uniform plus an excess of e ≅ 0 systems. We identify six stars, all supergiants, that exhibit aperiodic velocity variations of ∼30 km s{sup –1} attributed to atmospheric fluctuations.

  19. Detection of non-thermal X-ray emission in the lobes and jets of Cygnus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M. N.; Wise, M. W.; Huppenkothen, D.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Snios, B.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Duffy, R. T.; McNamara, B. R.

    2018-06-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the lobes and X-ray jets of Cygnus A, using more than 2 Ms of Chandra observations. The X-ray jets are misaligned with the radio jets and significantly wider. We detect non-thermal emission components in both lobes and jets. For the eastern lobe and jet, we find 1 keV flux densities of 71_{-10}^{+10} nJy and 24_{-4}^{+4} nJy, and photon indices of 1.72_{-0.03}^{+0.03} and 1.64_{-0.04}^{+0.04} respectively. For the western lobe and jet, we find flux densities of 50_{-13}^{+12} nJy and 13_{-5}^{+5} nJy, and photon indices of 1.97_{-0.10}^{+0.23} and 1.86_{-0.12}^{+0.18} respectively. Using these results, we modeled the electron energy distributions of the lobes as broken power laws with age breaks. We find that a significant population of non-radiating particles is required to account for the total pressure of the eastern lobe. In the western lobe, no such population is required and the low energy cutoff to the electron distribution there needs to be raised to obtain pressures consistent with observations. This discrepancy is a consequence of the differing X-ray photon indices, which may indicate that the turnover in the inverse-Compton spectrum of the western lobe is at lower energies than in the eastern lobe. We modeled the emission from both jets as inverse-Compton emission. There is a narrow region of parameter space for which the X-ray jet can be a relic of an earlier active phase, although lack of knowledge about the jet's electron distribution and particle content makes the modelling uncertain.

  20. Black swans, power laws, and dragon-kings: Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, wildfires, floods, and SOC models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, M. K.; Yoder, M. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.; Malamud, B. D.

    2012-05-01

    Extreme events that change global society have been characterized as black swans. The frequency-size distributions of many natural phenomena are often well approximated by power-law (fractal) distributions. An important question is whether the probability of extreme events can be estimated by extrapolating the power-law distributions. Events that exceed these extrapolations have been characterized as dragon-kings. In this paper we consider extreme events for earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, wildfires, landslides and floods. We also consider the extreme event behavior of three models that exhibit self-organized criticality (SOC): the slider-block, forest-fire, and sand-pile models. Since extrapolations using power-laws are widely used in probabilistic hazard assessment, the occurrence of dragon-king events have important practical implications.

  1. Fourier spectroscopy of the 12C2, 13C2, and 12C13C (0-0) swan bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiot, C.

    1983-01-01

    The (0-0) band of the C 2 Swan electronic system d 3 Pi/sub g/→a 3 Pi/sub u/ has been recorded by Fourier spectroscopy. The three isotopes species 12 C 2 , 13 C 2 , and 12 C 13 C were investigated. The observed wavenumbers were reduced to molecular parameters using a nonlinear least-square fitting procedure. Well-known perturbations at N' = 47 and N' = 51 again observed in the e 12 C 2 d 3 Pi/sub g/ (v = 0) level. Perturbations of the same kind are present in the 13 C 2 spectrum at N' = 34 and N' = 44,48,52. The 12 C 13 C spectrum exhibits in the observed spectral range a unique perturbation for N' = 41

  2. Confinement effect of laser ablation plume in liquids probed by self-absorption of C2 Swan band emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Tetsuo; Saito, Kotaro; Ogata, Yukio H.

    2005-01-01

    The (0,0) Swan band of the C 2 molecules in a laser ablation plume produced on the surface of graphite target submerged in water was used as a probe to estimate the density of C 2 molecules in the plume. Observed emission spectra were reproduced excellently by introducing a self-absorption parameter to the theoretical spectral profile expected by a rotational population distribution at a certain temperature. The optical density of the ablation plume as a function of time was determined as a best-fit parameter by the quantitative fitting of the whole spectral profile. The results show high optical densities for the laser ablation plume in water compared with that in air. It is related to the plume confinement or the expansion, which are the important phenomena influencing the characteristics of laser ablation plumes in liquids

  3. Sexual functioning and practices in a multi-ethnic study of midlife women: baseline results from SWAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Virginia S; Johannes, Catherine B; Avis, Nancy E; Mohr, Beth; Schocken, Miriam; Skurnick, Joan; Ory, Marcia

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the sexual practices and function of midlife women by ethnicity (African American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, Japanese) and menopausal status. Sexual behavior was compared in 3,262 women in the baseline cohort of SWAN. Participants were 42 to 52 years old, premenopausal or early perimenopausal, and not hysterectomized or using hormones. Analysis used multivariate proportional odds regression. In our sample, 79% had engaged in sex with a partner in the last 6 months, and a third considered sex to be very important. Common reasons for no sex (n = 676) were lack of partner (67%), lack of interest (33%), and fatigue (16%). Compared with Caucasians, Japanese and Chinese women were less likely, and African Americans more likely, to report sex as very important (p practices. Perimenopause status was associated only with higher frequencies of masturbation and pain during intercourse.

  4. Are predictions of cancer response to targeted drugs, based on effects in unrelated tissues, the 'Black Swan' events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Beatrica; Golem, Ante Zvonimir; Kurbel, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Adverse effects of targeted drugs on normal tissues can predict the cancer response. Rash correlates with efficacy of erlotinib, cetuximab and gefitinib and onset of arterial hypertension with response to bevacizumab, sunitinib, axitinib and sorafenib, possible examples of 'Black Swan' events, unexpected scientific observations, as described by Karl Popper in 1935. The proposition is that our patients have individual intrinsic variants of cell growth control, important for tumor response and adverse effects on tumor-unrelated tissue. This means that the lack of predictive side effects in healthy tissue is linked with poor results of tumor therapy when tumor resistance is caused by mechanisms that protect all cells of that patient from the targeted drug effects.

  5. A Black Swan and Sub-continental Scale Dynamics in Humid, Late-Holocene Broadleaf Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, N.; Dyer, J.; McEwan, R.; Hessl, A. E.; Mock, C. J.; Orwig, D.; Rieder, H. E.; Cook, B. I.

    2012-12-01

    poorly described by a Gaussian distribution that it can be considered 'heavy tailed'. Preliminary results show that disturbance events that affect >3-5% of the trees in our dataset occur approximately every 200 years. The most extreme rates (>5%) occur approximately every 500-1000 years. These statistics indicate that the 1775-1779 heavy-tail event can also be considered a 'Black Swan', the rare event that has the potential to alter a system's trajectory further than common events. Our results challenge traditional views regarding characteristic disturbance regime in humid temperate forests, and speak to the importance of punctuated climatic events in shaping forest structure for centuries. Such an understanding is critical given the potential of more frequent extreme climatic events in the future.

  6. THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION CYGNUS OB2. II. INTEGRATED STELLAR PROPERTIES AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Drew, J. E.; Vink, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Cygnus OB2 is the nearest example of a massive star-forming region (SFR), containing over 50 O-type stars and hundreds of B-type stars. We have analyzed the properties of young stars in two fields in Cyg OB2 using the recently published deep catalog of Chandra X-ray point sources with complementary optical and near-IR photometry. Our sample is complete to ∼1 M sun (excluding A- and B-type stars that do not emit X-rays), making this the deepest study of the stellar properties and star formation history in Cyg OB2 to date. From Siess et al. isochrone fits to the near-IR color-magnitude diagram, we derive ages of 3.5 +0.75 -1.0 and 5.25 +1.5 -1.0 Myr for sources in the two fields, both with considerable spreads around the pre-main-sequence isochrones. The presence of a stellar population somewhat older than the present-day O-type stars, also fits in with the low fraction of sources with inner circumstellar disks (as traced by the K-band excess) that we find to be very low, but appropriate for a population of age ∼5 Myr. We also find that the region lacks a population of highly embedded sources that is often observed in young SFRs, suggesting star formation in the vicinity has declined. We measure the stellar mass functions (MFs) in this limit and find a power-law slope of Γ = -1.09 ± 0.13, in good agreement with the global mean value estimated by Kroupa. A steepening of the slope at higher masses is observed and suggested as due to the presence of the previous generation of stars that have lost their most massive members. Finally, combining our MF and an estimate of the radial density profile of the association suggests a total mass of Cyg OB2 of ∼3 x 10 4 M sun , similar to that of many of our Galaxy's most massive SFRs.

  7. No evidence of transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza to humans after unprotected contact with infected wild swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallensten, A; Salter, M; Bennett, S; Brown, I; Hoschler, K; Oliver, I

    2010-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 remains a public health threat as long as it circulates in wild and domestic birds. Information on the transmissibility of H5N1 HPAI from wild birds is needed for evidence-based public health advice. We investigated if transmission of H5N1 HPAI had taken place in people that had unprotected contact with infected wild mute swans during an incident at the Abbotsbury Swannery in Dorset, England. Thirteen people who had been exposed to infected swans were contacted and actively followed up for symptoms. Serology was taken after 30 days. We did not find evidence of transmission of H5N1 HPAI to humans during the incident. The incident provided a rare opportunity to study the transmissibility of the virus from wild birds to humans.

  8. Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, First Annual Progress Report (Covering Field Season July-November 1982).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leathe, Stephen A.; Graham, Patrick J.

    1984-03-01

    This fisheries study is to determine the potential cumulative biological and economic effects of 20 small or micro-hydro-electric facilities (less than 5 megawatts) proposed to be constructed on tributaries to the Swan River, a 1738 square kilometer (671 square mile) drainage located in northwestern Montana. The study addresses portions of measure 1204 (b) (2) of the Norwthwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Aerial pre-surveys conducted during 1982 identified 102 stream reaches that may support fish populations in the Swan drainage between Swan and Lindbergh lakes. These reaches were located in 49 tributary streams and constituted 416 kilometers (258 miles) of potential fish habitat. Construction of all proposed small hydro projects would divert water from 54 kilometers (34 miles) or about 13 percent of the tributary system. Only two of the 20 proposed hydro sites did not support trout populations and most were populated by migratory bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Potential cumulative habitat losses that could result from dewatering of all proposed project areas were predicted using a stream reach classification scheme involving stream gradient, drainage ara, and fish population data. Preliminary results of this worst case analysis indicate that 23, 19 and 6 percent of the high quality rearing habitat for cutthroat, bull, and brook trout respectively would be lost.

  9. Implications for stress changes along the Motagua fault and other nearby faults using GPS and seismic constraints on the M=7.3 2009 Swan Islands earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, S. E.; Rodriguez, M.; Rogers, R. D.; Strauch, W.; Hernandez, D.; Demets, C.

    2010-12-01

    The May 28, 2009 M=7.3 Swan Islands earthquake off the north coast of Honduras caused significant damage in the northern part of the country, including seven deaths. This event, the largest in the region for several decades, ruptured the offshore continuation of the Motagua-Polochic fault system, whose 1976 earthquake (located several hundred kilometers to the southwest of the 2009 epicenter) caused more than 23,000 deaths in Central America and left homeless 20% of Guatemala’s population. We use elastic half-space modeling of coseismic offsets measured at 39 GPS stations in Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala to better understand the slip source of the recent Swan Islands earthquake. Measured offsets range from .32 meters at a campaign site near the Motagua fault in northern Honduras to 4 millimeters at five continuous sites in El Salvador. Coulomb stress calculations based on the estimated distribution of coseismic slip will be presented and compared to earthquake focal mechanisms and aftershock locations determined from a portable seismic network that was installed in northern Honduras after the main shock. Implications of the Swan Islands rupture for the seismically hazardous Motagua-Polochic fault system will be described.

  10. Komatiites and nickel sulfide ores of the Black Swan area, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. 3: Komatiite geochemistry, and implications for ore forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Stephen J.; Hill, Robin E. T.; Evans, Noreen J.

    2004-11-01

    The Black Swan komatiite sequence is a package of dominantly olivine-rich cumulates with lesser volumes of spinifex textured rocks, interpreted as a section through an extensive komatiite lava flow field. The sequence hosts a number of nickel sulfide orebodies, including the Silver Swan massive shoot and the Cygnet and Black Swan disseminated orebodies. A large body of whole rock analyses on komatiitic rocks from the Black Swan area has been filtered for metasomatic effects. With the exception of mobile elements such as Ca and alkalis, most samples retain residual igneous geochemistry, and can be modelled predominantly by fractionation and accumulation of olivine. Whole rock MgO FeO relationships imply a relatively restricted range of olivine compositions, more primitive than the olivine which would have been in equilibrium with the transporting komatiite lavas, and together with textural data indicate that much of the cumulus olivine in the sequence was transported. Flow top compositions show evidence for chromite saturation, but the cumulates are deficient in accumulated chromite. Chromite compositions are typical of those found in compound flow-facies komatiites, and are distinct from those in komatiitic dunite bodies. Incompatible trace element abundances show three superimposed influences: control by the relative proportion of olivine to liquid; a signature of crustal contamination and an overprint of metasomatic introduction of LREE, Zr and Th. This overprint is most evident in cumulates, and relatively insignificant in the spinifex rocks. Platinum and palladium behaved as incompatible elements and are negatively correlated with MgO. They show no evidence for wholesale depletion due to sulfide extraction, which was evidently restricted to specific lava tubes or pathways. The lack of correspondence between PGE depletion and contamination by siliceous material implies that contamination alone is insufficient to generate S-saturation and ore formation in the

  11. A 13,500 Year Record of Holocene Climate, Fire and Vegetation from Swan Lake, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, D.; Anderson, L.; Miller, D. M.; Rosario, J. J.; Starratt, S.; McGeehin, J. P.; Bright, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Modern climate dynamics in the western US are largely determined by a combination of two factors: 1) the strength and position of midlatitude pressure systems, which, in turn, are responsible for the generation and trajectory of winter storms, and 2) the strength of the North America Monsoon (NAM) which brings summer precipitation northward in response to northern hemisphere warming. Paleoclimate records from the Great Basin of the western US suggest some coherence in the timing of major climatic shifts during the Holocene. However, knowledge of the timing and magnitude of these changes at local scales, which can help explain the relative contribution of midlatitude winter storms vs. NAM, is lacking in many places. Here we present new data that constrain the timing and magnitude of late glacial and Holocene climate variability in the northeastern Great Basin, provide insight into past spatial variability of precipitation patterns in the western US, and improve our understanding of regional scale influences on Great Basin climate. In 2011, a 7.65 m sediment core was raised from Swan Lake, a small wetland located in southeastern Idaho that was formed in the spillway channel created by the catastrophic flooding of Lake Bonneville ~18 ka BP. Pollen, charcoal, clumped isotope, diatom, ostracod, and sedimentological data are used to reconstruct vegetation, fire history, and lake level/groundwater flux over the last 13,500 years. Age control is provided by 19 AMS radiocarbon determinations, which are reported as thousands of calibrated years before present (ka BP). This effort builds on earlier work by Bright (1966) who reported on pollen, macrofossils, and sediment type from Swan Lake. Our data suggest cool and wet conditions prevailed until around 12.3 ka BP, after which a drying trend begins. The early Holocene was marked by a warmer, drier climate, which persisted until around 6.2 ka BP. Moister conditions after 6.2 ka BP likely resulted from a combination of enhanced

  12. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  13. Presence of serum antibodies to influenza A subtypes H5 and N1 in swans and ibises in French wetlands, irrespective of highly pathogenic H5N1 natural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niqueux, Eric; Guionie, Olivier; Schmitz, Audrey; Hars, Jean; Jestin, Véronique

    2010-03-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) subtype H5N1 (subclade 2.2) were detected in wild birds during outbreaks in France during winter 2006 and summer 2007 in la Dombes wetlands (eastern France) and in Moselle wetlands (northeastern France), respectively. Blood samples from apparently healthy wild birds were collected in 2006 and 2007 from the end of the outbreak to several weeks after the influenza A outbreak inside and outside the contaminated areas, and in 2008 outside the contaminated areas. The samples were tested for the presence and/or quantitation of serum antibodies to influenza A subtypes H5 and N1 using hemagglutination inhibition tests (HITs), a commercial N1-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and virus neutralization assay. In the HIT, low pathogenicity (LP) and HP H5 AIVs (belonging to H5N1, H5N2, and H5N3 subtypes) were used as antigens. One hundred mute swans were bled in the la Dombes outbreak area in 2006. During 2007, 46 mallards, 69 common pochards, and 59 mute swans were sampled in the Moselle outbreak area. For comparison, blood samples were also collected in 2007 from 60 mute swans from the Marne department where no HP H5N1 influenza A cases have been reported, and in 2008 from 111 sacred ibises in western France where no HP H5N1 influenza A infections in wild birds have been reported either. Mute swans (irrespective of their origin and time of sampling) and sacred ibises (from an area with no known outbreaks) had the highest prevalence of positive sera in the H5 HIT (49-69% and 64%, respectively). The prevalence of anti-H5 antibodies in mallards and common pochards was lower (28% and 27%, respectively). Positive H5- and N1-antibody responses were also significantly associated in swans (irrespective of their origin and time of sampling) and in sacred ibises. However, in swans from the area without outbreaks, the HIT titer against an H5N1 LPAIV was significantly higher than against an H5N1 2.2.1 HPAIV, whereas no

  14. Swan-neck versus straight peritoneal dialysis catheter: Long-term effect on patient and method survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiopoulos, V; Biblaki, D; Takouli, L; Dounavis, A; Hadjiyannakos, D; Vlassopoulos, D

    2016-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is limited mainly by a higher technique failure rate as compared to hemodialysis (HD), catheter malfunction being an important reason. Intra- and extra-peritoneal catheter configuration may be associated with mechanical and infectious complications affecting method survival. We report our experience with two extra-peritoneal catheter configurations: the straight and the swan-neck (SN) catheters. A total of 85 consecutive patients, 58 males and 27 females were included in the study. Among them, 26 were diabetics; 52 were treated with automated PD (APD) and 33 with continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD). Straight catheters were used in 38 patients (straight group) and SN catheters in 47 patients (SN group). Straight catheters were mostly used in the first 6-year period while SN catheters in the last 6-year period. The baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. A significantly higher frequency of APD use was observed in SN group. Technique survival was better with SN versus straight (log-rank test, P = 0.01) while patient and catheter survival were similar. A better technique survival is noted in our group of patients with SN catheters. An additional factor could be the significantly higher frequency of APD use in this group. Changes in PD solutions' composition could also contribute to improvement in technique survival. The outcome for patients and catheter types used was similar.

  15. Influence of Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1 Virus Infection on Migrating Whooper Swans Fecal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial evidence suggests that altered gut microbial community is implicated in the infection of respiratory influenza virus. However, the influence of H5N1 infection in gut microbiota of migratory birds remains unknown. In January 2015, a novel recombinant H5N1 virus emerged and killed about 100 migratory birds, mainly including whooper swans in Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China. Here, we describe the first fecal microbiome diversity study of H5N1-infected migratory birds. By investigating the influence of H5N1 infection on fecal bacterial communities in infected and uninfected individuals, we found that H5N1 infection shaped the gut microbiota composition by a difference in the dominance of some genera, such as Aeromonas and Lactobacillus. We also found a decreased α diversity and increased β diversity in infectious individuals. Our results highlight that increases in changes in pathogen-containing gut communities occur when individuals become infected with H5N1. Our study may provide the first evidence that there are statistical association among H5N1 presence and fecal microbiota compositional shifts, and properties of the fecal microbiota may serve as the risk of gut-linked disease in migrates with H5N1 and further aggravate the disease transmission.

  16. Influence of Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Infection on Migrating Whooper Swans Fecal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Supen; Li, Hongyi; Liu, Shelan; Li, Meng; Luo, Jing; Su, Wen; He, Hongxuan

    2018-01-01

    The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial evidence suggests that altered gut microbial community is implicated in the infection of respiratory influenza virus. However, the influence of H5N1 infection in gut microbiota of migratory birds remains unknown. In January 2015, a novel recombinant H5N1 virus emerged and killed about 100 migratory birds, mainly including whooper swans in Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China. Here, we describe the first fecal microbiome diversity study of H5N1-infected migratory birds. By investigating the influence of H5N1 infection on fecal bacterial communities in infected and uninfected individuals, we found that H5N1 infection shaped the gut microbiota composition by a difference in the dominance of some genera, such as Aeromonas and Lactobacillus . We also found a decreased α diversity and increased β diversity in infectious individuals. Our results highlight that increases in changes in pathogen-containing gut communities occur when individuals become infected with H5N1. Our study may provide the first evidence that there are statistical association among H5N1 presence and fecal microbiota compositional shifts, and properties of the fecal microbiota may serve as the risk of gut-linked disease in migrates with H5N1 and further aggravate the disease transmission.

  17. A Risk Management Framework to Characterize Black Swan Risks: A Case Study of Lightning Effects on Insensitive High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gary A.

    Effective and efficient risk management processes include the use of high fidelity modeling and simulation during the concept exploration phase as part of the technology and risk assessment activities, with testing and evaluation tasks occurring in later design development phases. However, some safety requirements and design architectures may be dominated by the low probability/high consequence "Black Swan" vulnerabilities that require very early testing to characterize and efficiently mitigate. Failure to address these unique risks has led to catastrophic systems failures including the space shuttle Challenger, Deepwater Horizon, Fukushima nuclear reactor, and Katrina dike failures. Discovering and addressing these risks later in the design and development process can be very costly or even lead to project cancellation. This paper examines the need for risk management process adoption of early hazard phenomenology testing to inform the technical risk assessment, requirements definition and conceptual design. A case study of the lightning design vulnerability of the insensitive high explosives being used in construction, mining, demolition, and defense industries will be presented to examine the impact of this vulnerability testing during the concept exploration phase of the design effort. While these insensitive high explosives are far less sensitive to accidental initiation by fire, impact, friction or even electrical stimuli, their full range of sensitivities have not been characterized and ensuring safe engineering design and operations during events such as lightning storms requires vulnerability testing during the risk assessment phase.

  18. Komatiites and nickel sulfide ores of the Black Swan area, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. 2: Geology and genesis of the orebodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, S. E.; Barnes, S. J.; Hill, R. E. T.; Hicks, J. D.

    2004-11-01

    The Black Swan Ultramafic Succession hosts a number of magmatic Fe Ni Cu PGE sulfide ore shoots, ranging from high grade massive ore to low grade disseminated sulfides. Of these, the most economically significant is the Silver Swan massive sulfide orebody, associated with the basal contact of the succession. The deposit varies in thickness between 5 and 20 m, reaches a N S strike length of 75 m, extends for at least 1.2 km of vertical plunge and is open at depth. Overlying matrix (net-textured) ore is rare. Inclusions of dacite are abundant within the lower 5 m of the massive sulfide. They range from angular fragments through smooth sinuous and plumose morphologies to fine lace-like intergrowths with the sulfide matrix, and comprise variable proportions of cores of porphyritic dacite and carapaces with skeletal plagioclase phenocrysts. Dynamic crystallisation and kinetic melting textures in the carapaces indicate that the inclusions have been heated to various temperatures, some well above their liquidus temperature. The composition of the inclusions ranges from a perfect match with the immediate footwall dacites to mixtures of dacite with up to 30% komatiite. The consistent thickness of the inclusion-bearing basal layer within the massive sulphide is interpreted as the extent of 3-D physical connectivity between the inclusions and a partially molten underlying hybrid layer. Primary contacts between the Silver Swan massive sulfide orebody and overlying ultramafic rocks are marked by thin rinds containing coarse-grained chevron-textured chromites with skeletal textures. Compositions of these chromites match those from Kambalda, Perseverance and other localities, and are inconsistent with a metamorphic origin. They are interpreted as markers of primary magmatic contacts. The combination of this feature with the general paucity of matrix ore implies that the massive ore accumulated and solidified before the accumulation of the overlying thick sequence of olivine

  19. THE GALACTIC R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS: THE C2 SWAN BANDS, THE CARBON PROBLEM, AND THE 12C/13C RATIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hema, B. P.; Pandey, Gajendra; Lambert, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Observed spectra of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) and hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars are analyzed by synthesizing the C 2 Swan bands (1, 0), (0, 0), and (0, 1) using our detailed line list and the Uppsala model atmospheres. The (0, 1) and (0, 0) C 2 bands are used to derive the 12 C abundance, and the (1, 0) 12 C 13 C band to determine the 12 C/ 13 C ratios. The carbon abundance derived from the C 2 Swan bands is about the same for the adopted models constructed with different carbon abundances over the range 8.5 (C/He = 0.1%) to 10.5 (C/He = 10%). Carbon abundances derived from C I lines are about a factor of four lower than the carbon abundance of the adopted model atmosphere over the same C/He interval, as reported by Asplund et al., who dubbed the mismatch between adopted and derived C abundance as the 'carbon problem'. In principle, the carbon abundances obtained from C 2 Swan bands and that assumed for the model atmosphere can be equated for a particular choice of C/He that varies from star to star. Then, the carbon problem for C 2 bands is eliminated. However, such C/He ratios are in general less than those of the extreme helium stars, the seemingly natural relatives to the RCB and HdC stars. A more likely solution to the C 2 carbon problem may lie in a modification of the model atmosphere's temperature structure. The derived carbon abundances and the 12 C/ 13 C ratios are discussed in light of the double degenerate and the final flash scenarios.

  20. "Bunched Black Swans" in Complex Geosystems: Cross-Disciplinary Approaches to the Additive and Multiplicative Modelling of Correlated Extreme Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, N. W.; Rypdal, M.; Lovsletten, O.

    2012-12-01

    For all natural hazards, the question of when the next "extreme event" (c.f. Taleb's "black swans") is expected is of obvious importance. In the environmental sciences users often frame such questions in terms of average "return periods", e.g. "is an X meter rise in the Thames water level a 1-in-Y year event ?". Frequently, however, we also care about the emergence of correlation, and whether the probability of several big events occurring in close succession is truly independent, i.e. are the black swans "bunched". A "big event", or a "burst", defined by its integrated signal above a threshold, might be a single, very large, event, or, instead, could in fact be a correlated series of "smaller" (i.e. less wildly fluctuating) events. Several available stochastic approaches provide quantitative information about such bursts, including Extreme Value Theory (EVT); the theory of records; level sets; sojourn times; and models of space-time "avalanches" of activity in non-equilibrium systems. Some focus more on the probability of single large events. Others are more concerned with extended dwell times above a given spatiotemporal threshold: However, the state of the art is not yet fully integrated, and the above-mentioned approaches differ in fundamental aspects. EVT is perhaps the best known in the geosciences. It is concerned with the distribution obeyed by the extremes of datasets, e.g. the 100 values obtained by considering the largest daily temperature recorded in each of the years of a century. However, the pioneering work from the 1920s on which EVT originally built was based on independent identically distributed samples, and took no account of memory and correlation that characterise many natural hazard time series. Ignoring this would fundamentally limit our ability to forecast; so much subsequent activity has been devoted to extending EVT to encompass dependence. A second group of approaches, by contrast, has notions of time and thus possible non

  1. Application of SWAN+ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation in Gulf of Maine during Patriot's Day storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern coast of the Gulf of Maine in the United States is prone to flooding caused by nor'easters. A state-of-the-art fully-coupled model, the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN model with unstructured grids and the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC model, was used to study the hydrodynamic response in the Gulf of Maine during the Patriot's Day storm of 2007, a notable example of nor'easters in this area. The model predictions agree well with the observed tide-surges and waves during this storm event. Waves and circulation in the Gulf of Maine were analyzed. The Georges Bank plays an important role in dissipating wave energy through the bottom friction when waves propagate over the bank from offshore to the inner gulf due to its shallow bathymetry. Wave energy dissipation results in decreasing significant wave height (SWH in the cross-bank direction and wave radiation stress gradient, which in turn induces changes in currents. While the tidal currents are dominant over the Georges Bank and in the Bay of Fundy, the residual currents generated by the meteorological forcing and waves are significant over the Georges Bank and in the coastal area and can reach 0.3 m/s and 0.2 m/s, respectively. In the vicinity of the coast, the longshore current generated by the surface wind stress and wave radiation stress acting parallel to the coastline is inversely proportional to the water depth and will eventually be limited by the bottom friction. The storm surge level reaches 0.8 m along the western periphery of the Gulf of Maine while the wave set-up due to radiation stress variation reaches 0.2 m. Therefore, it is significant to coastal flooding.

  2. Sleep Hygiene Behaviors Among Midlife Women with Insomnia or Sleep-Disordered Breathing: The SWAN Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E.; Irish, Leah A.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Okun, Michele L.; Owens, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are the most common sleep disorders among midlife women. Although promoting sleep hygiene behaviors may be a useful behavioral approach for the management of insomnia or SDB, the frequency with which women engage in these behaviors is unclear. Methods: Participants were from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study (N=321; age range=48–58 years). Out of the full sample, 10.3% (n=33) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition diagnostic criteria for insomnia, 15.3% (n=49) had clinically significant SDB (apnea–hypopnea index ≥15), and 4.7% (n=15) met criteria for both insomnia and SDB, resulting in an overall prevalence of 15.0% (n=48) for insomnia and 19.9% (n=64) for SDB. Participants provided diary-based assessments of sleep hygiene behaviors for 14–35 days. Two positive behaviors (sufficient exercise, regular morning out-of-bed time) and four negative behaviors (taking long daytime naps, caffeine consumption near bedtime, alcohol consumption near bedtime, smoking) were examined. These behaviors were compared between women with and without insomnia or SDB following adjustment for sociodemographic factors and mental and physical health indices. Results: Women with insomnia engaged in significantly fewer negative sleep hygiene behaviors than women without insomnia (1.61±0.15 vs. 2.09±0.09 behaviors; phygiene behaviors were observed. Conclusions: These data suggest that insomnia in midlife women is not associated with poor sleep hygiene. Increasing physical activity may be a valuable recommendation for midlife women with SDB. PMID:25353709

  3. WATER PRODUCTION IN COMETS 2001 Q4 (NEAT) AND 2002 T7 (LINEAR) DETERMINED FROM SOHO/SWAN OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Lee, Y.; Maekinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.

    2009-01-01

    The SWAN all-sky camera on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft detected the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (Lyα) comae of comets 2001 Q4 NEAT and 2002 T7 LINEAR for large portions of their perihelion apparitions in 2003 and 2004. C/2001 Q4 NEAT was observed from 2003 September 14 through 2004 November 2, covering heliocentric distances from 3.23 AU before perihelion to 2.75 AU after, and C/2002 T7 LINEAR was observed from 2003 December 4 through 2004 August 6, covering heliocentric distances from 2.52 AU before perihelion to 2.09 AU after. We combined the full set of comet specific and full-sky observations and used our time-resolved model (TRM), which enables us to extract continuous values of the daily-average value of the water production rate throughout most of this entire period. The average power-law fit to the production rate variation of C/2001 Q4 NEAT with heliocentric distance, r, gives 3.5 x 10 29 r -1.7 and that for C/2002 T7 LINEAR gives 4.6 x 10 29 r -2.0 . Both comets show roughly a factor of 2 asymmetry in activity about perihelion, being more active before perihelion. C/2001 Q4 NEAT showed a production rate outburst about 30 days before perihelion (2004 April 15) and then a large extended increase above the nominal trend from 50 to 70 days after perihelion (2004 July 5-July 25).

  4. Extra-articular subcutaneous "inverted king post-truss" ligament reconstruction for severe swan neck deformity (snapping finger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soras, X; de Mourgues, P; Pradel, P; Urien, J-P; Beaudoin, E

    2017-02-01

    A swan neck deformity (SND) can be well tolerated for a long time, until the appearance of a disabling "snapping finger". In its most advanced condition, the other hand is needed to initiate finger flexion. We propose a technique of extra-articular, subcutaneous ligament reconstruction with an "inverted king post-truss" configuration use in roofs and to reinforce railway bridges. An artificial ligament (MaxBraid™ polyethylene surgical suture, 5 metric, Biomet) makes a figure of eight between transosseous tunnels in the proximal and middle phalanges, crossing over top of the A3 pulley. We limited our series to severe SND cases with "snapping finger". We excluded isolated SNDs without functional disability. Eleven patients were followed for 3.4 years on average. The cause was an acute injury 8 times (7 balloon accidents), rheumatoid arthritis 2 times and overuse once (saxophone). Only one case was a poor outcome of mallet finger. The 11 patients were reassessed by a telephone survey. Two patients underwent reoperation: one for a ligament rupture, the other one for a knot that became untied. One patient had a suspected late rupture but without recurrence of the disabling snapping finger. The 11 patients considered themselves improved by the intervention. Nine patients did not notice any difference between their operated finger and the contralateral side. Return to manual activity was possible once the skin had healed. The technique is simpler than the spiral oblique retinacular ligament (SORL) reconstruction technique described by Thomson-Littler and also less demanding because it does not involve the distal interphalangeal joint. It requires only a short incision in the volar crease of the proximal interphalangeal joint. No tendon or ligament is sacrificed. Neither postoperative immobilization nor lengthy physical therapy is needed. Complications can be avoided by selecting the appropriate artificial ligament material and careful knot tying. Copyright © 2016 SFCM

  5. Water production in comets C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS) and C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) from observations with Soho/Swan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Aptekar, G.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.; Ferron, S.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.

    2014-01-01

    Comets C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS) and C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) were observed throughout their 2012-2013 apparitions with the Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on board the Solar and Heliosphere Observatory (SOHO) satellite. SOHO has been in a halo orbit around the L1 Earth-Sun Lagrange point since early 1996 and has been observing the interplanetary medium and comets beginning with C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). The global water production from these comets was determined from an analysis of the SWAN Lyα camera observations. Comet C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS), which reached its perihelion distance of 0.302 AU on 2013 March 10.17, was observed on 50 days between 2013 January 29 and April 30. Comet C/2012 F6 (Lemmon), which reached its perihelion distance of 0.731 AU on 2013 March 24.51, was observed on 109 days between 2012 November 29 and 2013 June 31. The maximum water production rates were ∼1 × 10 30 molecules s –1 for both comets. The activities of both comets were asymmetric about perihelion. C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS) was more active before perihelion than after, but C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) was more active after perihelion than before.

  6. Mass production of 'Swan's Golden', Cupressus sempervirens by tissue culture and its radiation breeding. 2. Study on growth regulating substance to stimulate the elongation of shoot apex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Hirokatsu

    1997-01-01

    Some species of 'Swan's Golden' have been propagated by means of grafting because propagation by cutting is difficult. However, not a few species of the plant are easily lodged, resulting that spreading of 'Swan's Golden' is difficult. Here, an investigation was made on growth regulating substances added into the basal medium in respects of their kinds and concentrations and also the kind of medium for successive culture. As the basal medium, SH medium supplemented with 4 g/l of gel-light and 3 g/l of carbon-powder was used. The optimum medium for the initiation of culture was the basal medium added with zeatin (Ze) and gibberellin (GA) and it was also suitable for successive culture after the 14 day. The medium added with Ze and benzyladenine (BA) or Ze alone was found to be most suitable for the culture after the 28 day. The concentration was optimum at 1 - 2.5 mg/l for either of these growth regulating substances. (M.N.)

  7. Development of an updated phytoestrogen database for use with the SWAN food frequency questionnaire: intakes and food sources in a community-based, multiethnic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Hua; Norris, Jean; Han, Weijuan; Block, Torin; Gold, Ellen; Crawford, Sybil; Greendale, Gail A

    2012-01-01

    Phytoestrogens, heterocyclic phenols found in plants, may benefit several health outcomes. However, epidemiologic studies of the health effects of dietary phytoestrogens have yielded mixed results, in part due to challenges inherent in estimating dietary intakes. The goal of this study was to improve the estimates of dietary phytoestrogen consumption using a modified Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), a 137-item FFQ created for the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) in 1994. To expand the database of sources from which phytonutrient intakes were computed, we conducted a comprehensive PubMed/Medline search covering January 1994 through September 2008. The expanded database included 4 isoflavones, coumestrol, and 4 lignans. The new database estimated isoflavone content of 105 food items (76.6%) vs. 14 (10.2%) in the 1994 version and computed coumestrol content of 52 food items (38.0%), compared to 1 (0.7%) in the original version. Newly added were lignans; values for 104 FFQ food items (75.9%) were calculated. In addition, we report here the phytonutrient intakes for each racial and language group in the SWAN sample and present major food sources from which the phytonutrients came. This enhanced ascertainment of phytoestrogens will permit improved studies of their health effects.

  8. Natural radionuclides tracing in marine surface waters along the northern coast of Oman Sea by combining the radioactivity analysis, oceanic currents and the SWAN model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Tari, Marziyeh; Mosayebi, Sanaz; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study estimates radioactive pollution diffusion in coastline of the Oman Sea. • 36 high volume surface water samples were analyzed using a portable HPGe detector. • Oceanic currents in the northern coast of Oman Sea were investigated. • The spectral wave model SWAN was used for wave parameters simulation. • Currents and preferable wave directions were coupled with higher radioactivity. - Abstract: This study aims to establish a managed sampling plan for rapid estimate of natural radio-nuclides diffusion in the northern coast of the Oman Sea. First, the natural radioactivity analysis in 36 high volume surface water samples was carried out using a portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Second, the oceanic currents in the northern coast were investigated. Then, the third generation spectral SWAN model was utilized to simulate wave parameters. Direction of natural radioactivity propagation was coupled with the preferable wave vectors and oceanic currents direction that face to any marine pollution, these last two factors will contribute to increase or decrease of pollution in each grid. The results were indicated that the natural radioactivity concentration between the grids 8600 and 8604 is gathered in the grid 8600 and between the grids 8605 and 8608 is propagated toward middle part of Oman Sea

  9. Divine Love: The Reception of Leda and the Swan Myth in Works by Jewish and Arab Israeli Artists - Contexts and Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Sevilla Sadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The motif of the abduction of a woman is one of the most frequent in Ancient Greek and Roman art. Abductions in mythology are generally portrayed as carried out by a god disguised as a human or an animal, such as Zeus who, in the form of a bull, golden rain or a swan, seduces a beautiful young maiden. These myths have been interpreted from different viewpoints, such as gender, social, political and philosophical. One of the most frequent myths of abduction is that of Leda and the Swan, which appears in both Greek and Roman painting and sculpture. This theme has found many echoes in contemporary Israeli art, and constitutes the case study for this discussion, which belongs to the field of Classical Reception studies. The interpretations of this myth are diverse, ranging from a socio-gender context, to post-colonialism and its relevance to the local situation; to subversives, concerning tradition versus contemporary culture; to emotionality and romantic suffering; and to love as phantasmagoria. These varied interpretations will be examined in the following analysis in light of both ancient concepts and contemporary outlooks, based on literary and philosophical sources.

  10. NEAR-INFRARED PERIODIC AND OTHER VARIABLE FIELD STARS IN THE FIELD OF THE CYGNUS OB7 STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We present a subset of the results of a three-season, 124 night, near-infrared monitoring campaign of the dark clouds Lynds 1003 and Lynds 1004 in the Cygnus OB7 star-forming region. In this paper, we focus on the field star population. Using three seasons of UKIRT J, H, and K-band observations spanning 1.5 years, we obtained high-quality photometry on 9200 stars down to J = 17 mag, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.04 mag. After excluding known disk-bearing stars we identify 149 variables-1.6% of the sample. Of these, about 60 are strictly periodic, with periods predominantly <2 days. We conclude this group is dominated by eclipsing binaries. A few stars have long period signals of between 20 and 60 days. About 25 stars have weak modulated signals, but it was not clear if these were periodic. Some of the stars in this group may be diskless young stellar objects with relatively large variability due to cool starspots. The remaining {approx}60 stars showed variations which appear to be purely stochastic.

  11. Acculturation and sleep among a multiethnic sample of women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Lauren; Troxel, Wendy M; Kravitz, Howard M; Hall, Martica H; Matthews, Karen A

    2014-02-01

    Mexican immigrants to the United States report longer sleep duration and fewer sleep complaints than their US-born counterparts. To investigate whether this effect extends to other immigrant groups, we examined whether the prevalence of self-reported sleep complaints is higher among US-born Hispanic/Latina, Chinese, and Japanese immigrant women compared to their first-generation immigrant ethnic counterparts as well as to US-born whites. We examined whether these associations persisted after adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics and whether acculturation mediated the effects. Cross-sectional observational study. Multisite study in Oakland, CA; Los Angeles, CA; and Newark, NJ. Hispanic/Latina (n = 196), Chinese (n = 228), Japanese (n = 271) and non-Hispanic white (n = 485) women (mean age = 46 y, range 42-52 y) participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN); 410 or 59.0% of the nonwhites were first-generation immigrants. None. Questionnaires were used to assess sleep complaints, race/ethnicity, immigrant status, language acculturation (use of English language), and sociodemographic and health variables. Approximately 25% of first-generation immigrant women reported sleep complaints compared to 37% of those who were US-born nonwhites and 42% of US-born whites. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that US-born nonwhites had higher odds of reporting any sleep complaints (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.0), compared to first-generation immigrants. Women with higher levels of language acculturation had greater odds of reporting any sleep complaint compared to those with less language acculturation. Adjustment for language acculturation mediated 40.4% (95% CI 28.5-69.8) of the association between immigrant status and any sleep complaint. When results were stratified by race/ethnicity, significant mediation effects of acculturation were only found for Hispanic/Latina and Japanese women

  12. Perceived discrimination is associated with reduced breast and cervical cancer screening: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Rathouz, Paul J; Karavolos, Kelly; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Janssen, Imke; Kravitz, Howard M; Lewis, Tené T; Powell, Lynda H

    2014-02-01

    Racial disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening have been documented in African American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. Perceived discrimination may contribute to this disparity. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between perceived everyday racial/ethnic and other discrimination and receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in a multiethnic population of women. We analyzed data from 3,258 women participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multiethnic/racial, longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of the menopausal transition conducted at seven U.S. sites. Participants completed a validated measure of perceived discrimination and reasons for believing that they were treated differently, along with Pap smears, clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammography at each follow-up period. We used multiple logistic regression for the binary outcomes of having a Pap smear, CBE, or mammogram in each of the two follow-up years, using self-reported "race discrimination" and "other discrimination" at baseline as the main predictors. African American women reported the highest percentage of racial discrimination (35%), followed by Chinese (20%), Hispanic (12%), Japanese (11%), and non-Hispanic white women (3%). Non-Hispanic white women reported the highest percentage of "other" discrimination (40%), followed by Chinese (33%), African American (24%), Japanese (23%), and Hispanic women (16%). Perceived racial discrimination was not associated with reduced receipt of preventive screening, except in one fully adjusted model. Reported discrimination owing to "other" reasons, such as age or gender, was associated with reduced receipt of Pap smear (odds ratio [OR] 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.99), CBE (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.91), and mammography (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.92) regardless of patient race. Perceived discrimination is an important issue across racial/ethnic groups and is negatively

  13. New and noteworthy waterfowl records at artificial wetlands from Baja California Sur, Mexico Registros nuevos y sobresalientes de anátidos en humedales artificiales de Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carmona

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present 9 recent records of rare waterfowls in Baja California Sur, all of them in artificial wetlands: 3 freshwater sites and 1 concentration area for a saltworks. We present the first records of the Ross's Goose in the state. The remaining 8 species are: Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (breeding, Fulvous Whistling-Duck, Greater White-fronted Goose, Snow Goose, Cackling Goose, Tundra Swan, Mallard and Hooded Merganser. To this list we added an historical compilation of the records of these species in artificial sites of the state. The artificial wetlands are no replacement for their natural counterparts, they are nevertheless an important part of the region's landscape mosaic. As the records of the present work exemplify, this man-made habitat increases the regional species richness, and should be considered as important areas that need to be protected.Presentamos registros recientes de 9 especies de anátidos raros en Baja California Sur, todos ellos realizados en humedales creados por el hombre: 3 sitios dulceacuícolas y 1 área de concentración para la producción de sal. Se incluyen los primeros registros del ganso de Ross (Chen rossii para el estado. Las 8 especies restantes son: Dendrocygna autumnalis (anidación, D. bicolor, Anser albifrons, Chen caerulesens, Branta hutchinsii, Cygnus columbianus, Anas platyrhynchos y Lophodytes cucullatus. A la lista, agregamos una recopilación histórica de los registros de estas especies en humedales artificiales del estado. Aunque estos sitios no deben sustituir a sus contrapartes naturales, actualmente forman parte del mosaico paisajístico que ofrece la región; adicionalmente, incrementan la riqueza de especies de la región, por lo que es necesario brindarles protección.

  14. Modelling Deep Water Habitats to Develop a Spatially Explicit, Fine Scale Understanding of the Distribution of the Western Rock Lobster, Panulirus cygnus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Renae K.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Pember, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    Background The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is endemic to Western Australia and supports substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Due to and its wide distribution and the commercial and recreational importance of the species a key component of managing western rock lobster is understanding the ecological processes and interactions that may influence lobster abundance and distribution. Using terrain analyses and distribution models of substrate and benthic biota, we assess the physical drivers that influence the distribution of lobsters at a key fishery site. Methods and Findings Using data collected from hydroacoustic and towed video surveys, 20 variables (including geophysical, substrate and biota variables) were developed to predict the distributions of substrate type (three classes of reef, rhodoliths and sand) and dominant biota (kelp, sessile invertebrates and macroalgae) within a 40 km2 area about 30 km off the west Australian coast. Lobster presence/absence data were collected within this area using georeferenced pots. These datasets were used to develop a classification tree model for predicting the distribution of the western rock lobster. Interestingly, kelp and reef were not selected as predictors. Instead, the model selected geophysical and geomorphic scalar variables, which emphasise a mix of terrain within limited distances. The model of lobster presence had an adjusted D2 of 64 and an 80% correct classification. Conclusions Species distribution models indicate that juxtaposition in fine scale terrain is most important to the western rock lobster. While key features like kelp and reef may be important to lobster distribution at a broad scale, it is the fine scale features in terrain that are likely to define its ecological niche. Determining the most appropriate landscape configuration and scale will be essential to refining niche habitats and will aid in selecting appropriate sites for protecting critical lobster habitats. PMID

  15. A giant radio flare from Cygnus X-3 with associated γ-ray emission: The 2011 radio and γ-ray flare of Cyg X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbel, S.; Dubus, G.; Tomsick, J. A.; Szostek, A.

    2012-01-01

    With frequent flaring activity of its relativistic jets, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is one of the most active microquasars and is the only Galactic black hole candidate with confirmed high-energy γ-ray emission, thanks to detections by Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT) and AGILE. In 2011, we observed Cyg X-3 in order to transit to a soft X-ray state, which is known to be associated with high-energy γ-ray emission. We present the results of a multiwavelength campaign covering a quenched state, when radio emission from Cyg X-3 is at its weakest and the X-ray spectrum is very soft. A giant (~20 Jy) optically thin radio flare marks the end of the quenched state, accompanied by rising non-thermal hard X-rays. Fermi/LAT observations (E≥ 100 MeV) reveal renewed γ-ray activity associated with this giant radio flare, suggesting a common origin for all non-thermal components. In addition, current observations unambiguously show that the γ-ray emission is not exclusively related to the rare giant radio flares. A three-week period of γ-ray emission is also detected when Cyg X-3 was weakly flaring in radio, right before transition to the radio quenched state. There were no γ-rays observed during the ~1-month long quenched state, when the radio flux is weakest. These results suggest transitions into and out of the ultrasoft X-ray (radio-quenched) state trigger γ-ray emission, implying a connection to the accretion process, and also that the γ-ray activity is related to the level of radio flux (and possibly shock formation), strengthening the connection to the relativistic jets.

  16. Modelling deep water habitats to develop a spatially explicit, fine scale understanding of the distribution of the western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renae K Hovey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is endemic to Western Australia and supports substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Due to and its wide distribution and the commercial and recreational importance of the species a key component of managing western rock lobster is understanding the ecological processes and interactions that may influence lobster abundance and distribution. Using terrain analyses and distribution models of substrate and benthic biota, we assess the physical drivers that influence the distribution of lobsters at a key fishery site. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data collected from hydroacoustic and towed video surveys, 20 variables (including geophysical, substrate and biota variables were developed to predict the distributions of substrate type (three classes of reef, rhodoliths and sand and dominant biota (kelp, sessile invertebrates and macroalgae within a 40 km(2 area about 30 km off the west Australian coast. Lobster presence/absence data were collected within this area using georeferenced pots. These datasets were used to develop a classification tree model for predicting the distribution of the western rock lobster. Interestingly, kelp and reef were not selected as predictors. Instead, the model selected geophysical and geomorphic scalar variables, which emphasise a mix of terrain within limited distances. The model of lobster presence had an adjusted D(2 of 64 and an 80% correct classification. CONCLUSIONS: Species distribution models indicate that juxtaposition in fine scale terrain is most important to the western rock lobster. While key features like kelp and reef may be important to lobster distribution at a broad scale, it is the fine scale features in terrain that are likely to define its ecological niche. Determining the most appropriate landscape configuration and scale will be essential to refining niche habitats and will aid in selecting appropriate sites for protecting critical

  17. New results from Ooty EAS array for cosmic sources at PeV energies: Cygnus X-3, Crab pulsar and Sco X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonwar, S.C.; Gupta, S.K.; Gopalakrishnan, N.V.; Rajeev, M.R.; Srivatsan, R.; Sreekantan, B.V.

    1990-01-01

    Ooty group has reported detection of a steady signal from Cyg X-3 based on observations made during 1984-86 through detection of a directional excess. Further analysis of data has revealed a significant flux enhancement during April 1986, confirming observations reported by the CYGNUS group at Los Alamos and the Baksan group. These results show conclusively that the flux from Cyg X-3 is variable over a time scale of few weeks. We also report here the details of an unusual burst from Cyg X-3, consisting of 5 showers in 13 minutes, on June 19, 1985, which shows the variability of the flux from Cyg X-3 on a much shorter time scale of few minutes. Our analysis of showers arriving from the direction of the Crab pulsar has shown only a small time-averaged excess. But these data, when folded with the Crab pulsar period, show a very significant excess at the expected phase of the optical interpulse. This is the first detection of 33 ms pulsation in the PeV energy flux from the Crab pulsar. The exact alignment of the phase of emission over nearly 20 decades of energy, from meter wavelengths to PeV, makes the Crab pulsar a really unique source to study and understand details of mechanisms for emission and acceleration of particles in compact sources. We also present here a discussion of our observations on another X-ray binary, Sco X-1. Ooty data show a very significant excess in the number of showers from the direction of Sco X-1 during a two month period in 1986, in agreement with observations reported by the Mt. Chacaltaya group. These observations establish this X-ray binary as another important source of PeV energy radiation. (orig.)

  18. Modelling deep water habitats to develop a spatially explicit, fine scale understanding of the distribution of the western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Renae K; Van Niel, Kimberly P; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Pember, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is endemic to Western Australia and supports substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Due to and its wide distribution and the commercial and recreational importance of the species a key component of managing western rock lobster is understanding the ecological processes and interactions that may influence lobster abundance and distribution. Using terrain analyses and distribution models of substrate and benthic biota, we assess the physical drivers that influence the distribution of lobsters at a key fishery site. Using data collected from hydroacoustic and towed video surveys, 20 variables (including geophysical, substrate and biota variables) were developed to predict the distributions of substrate type (three classes of reef, rhodoliths and sand) and dominant biota (kelp, sessile invertebrates and macroalgae) within a 40 km(2) area about 30 km off the west Australian coast. Lobster presence/absence data were collected within this area using georeferenced pots. These datasets were used to develop a classification tree model for predicting the distribution of the western rock lobster. Interestingly, kelp and reef were not selected as predictors. Instead, the model selected geophysical and geomorphic scalar variables, which emphasise a mix of terrain within limited distances. The model of lobster presence had an adjusted D(2) of 64 and an 80% correct classification. Species distribution models indicate that juxtaposition in fine scale terrain is most important to the western rock lobster. While key features like kelp and reef may be important to lobster distribution at a broad scale, it is the fine scale features in terrain that are likely to define its ecological niche. Determining the most appropriate landscape configuration and scale will be essential to refining niche habitats and will aid in selecting appropriate sites for protecting critical lobster habitats.

  19. C2 Swan spectrum used as a molecular pyrometer in transferred arc and the influence noise to signal ratio on the temperature values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, H

    2014-01-01

    The C 2 Swan system molecular emission spectrum is frequently observed in arc plasmas containing hydrocarbons. The spectra emitted from 5 kw in the transferred arc reactor at atmospheric pressure by CH 4 /CO 2 /Ar mixture are recorded with the help of an optical system consisting of a linear CCD array coupled with 2m spectrometer. The rotational temperature of 4300±300 K is found from the experimental Abel inverted spectra in the arc center after a point-to-point comparison of the spectrum with a computer simulated one. The influence of the noise to signal ratio has been studied, if the noise to signal ratio is about 10% we found an error of 7% at temperature 3000 K and 10% at 6000 K.

  20. Macrodinâmicas de crescimento em uma economia Solow-Swan com migração: uma abordagem de jogos evolucionários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylson Jair da Silveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduz-se no modelo Solow-Swan a migração como uma dinâmica satisficing. A conclusão geral está de acordo com a abordagem tradicional: as características da economia doméstica no estado estacionário dependem do saldo migratório líquido. Entretanto, novos resultados são obtidos. Em primeiro lugar, a economia doméstica não pode trilhar sua trajetória de crescimento equilibrado como uma perpétua receptora/fornecedora líquida de mão-de-obra. Em segundo lugar, caso ela apresente em seu estado estacionário um saldo migratório líquido nulo, o tamanho de sua população depende das condições iniciais (path dependence. Finalmente, demonstra-se que a introdução de um "efeito congestionamento" da imigração líquida abre a possibilidade de existência simultânea da economia doméstica e do resto do mundo.Migration as a satisficing dynamics is introduced into the Solow-Swan model. The general conclusion is in agreement with that of the traditional approach: the steady-state features of domestic economy depends on the net migration rate. However, there are new outcomes. The domestic economy cannot be a perpetual host/supplier of migrants in its balanced growth path. If the domestic economy shows a zero-net migration rate in the steady state, then the population level will depend on the initial conditions (path dependence. A "congestion effect" resulting from net migration opens the possibility of simultaneous existence of the domestic economy and the rest of the world.

  1. Temporal pattern in the bloom-forming macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa in seagrass beds, Swan Lake lagoon, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wang, Feng; Liu, Bingjian; Liu, Xujia; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We conducted an annual survey of bloom-forming macroalgae in a lagoon. • C. linum biomass reached 1712 ± 780 g DW m −2 at the northern part of the lagoon. • Macroalgae δ 15 N values indicated a land-based source of N enrichment to the blooms. • High nutrient concentrations near the river mouth supported the blooms. • C. linum blooms induced the loss of seagrasses and benthic filter feeders. - Abstract: Seagrasses that are distributed over a large area of the Swan Lake, Weihai, China, support a productive ecosystem. In recent years, however, frequent macroalgal blooms have changed the ecosystem structure and threatened the seagrasses. To understand the bloom-forming macroalgae we conducted a yearly field survey of Swan Lake. Results indicated that the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa both exhibited a much higher productivity and attained a greater maximum biomass (of 1712 ± 780 g DW m −2 and 1511 ± 555 g DW m −2 , respectively) than was the case for the seagrasses. The mean annual atomic ratios of C/N, C/P and N/P in C. linum were 14.31 ± 4.45, 402.82 ± 130.25, and 28.12 ± 2.08, respectively. The δ 15 N values (11.09 ± 0.91‰ for C. linum; 9.27 ± 2.83‰ for U. pertusa) indicated a land-based source of N enrichment to the macroalgal blooms. High concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lagoon, particularly near the river mouth, supported the blooms

  2. Distribution of the FMR1 gene in females by race/ethnicity: women with diminished ovarian reserve versus women with normal fertility (SWAN study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Lisa M; Young, Steven L; Manichaikul, Ani; Baker, Valerie L; Wang, Xin Q; Finkelstein, Joel S

    2017-01-01

    To study whether reported, but inconsistent, associations between the FMR1 CGG repeat lengths in the intermediate, high normal, or low normal range differentiate women diagnosed with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) from population controls and whether associations vary by race/ethnic group. Case-control study. Academic and private fertility clinics. DOR cases (n = 129; 95 Whites, 22 Asian, 12 other) from five U.S. fertility clinics were clinically diagnosed, with regular menses and no fragile X syndrome family history. Normal fertility controls (n = 803; 386 Whites, 219 African-Americans, 102 Japanese, 96 Chinese) from the United States-based SWAN Study had one or more menstrual period in the 3 months pre-enrollment, one or more pregnancy, no history of infertility or hormone therapy, and menopause ≥46 years. Previously, the SWAN Chinese and Japanese groups had similar FMR1 CGG repeat lengths, thus they were combined. None. FMR1 CGG repeat lengths. Median CGG repeats were nearly identical by case/control group. DOR cases had fewer CGG repeats in the shorter FMR1 allele than controls among Whites, but this was not significant among Asians. White cases had fewer CGG repeats in the shorter allele than Asian cases. No significant differences were found in the high normal/intermediate range between cases and controls or by race/ethnic group within cases in the longer allele. This study refutes prior reports of an association between DOR and high normal/intermediate repeats and confirms an association between DOR and low normal repeats in Whites. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Raising a beautiful swan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Malene; Martinsen, Bente; Birkelund, Regner

    2017-01-01

    The British concept named Protected Mealtimes is known for stopping all non-acute activities and giving health professionals an opportunity to focus on providing patients their meals without being interrupted or disturbed. PM involves a cultural and behavioural change in the clinical setting, sin...

  4. Henrietta Swan Leavitt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of affairs in astronomical research in the beginning of the last century. Many new ... about a decade ago, was to detect Cepheid variable stars from galaxies in the Virgo cluster of galaxies (the nearest galaxy ... (From the paper Discovery of.

  5. A 12-bit spectroscopy analog-to-digital converter type SAA (Successive Approximation type with channel width Averaging) intended for multichannel pulse height analyzer SWAN-1 based on IBM PC/XT/AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsuk, S.; Kulka, Z.

    1989-12-01

    A 12-bit spectroscopy analog-to-digital converter (ADC) type SAA (Successive Approximation type with channel width Averaging) intended for multichannel pulse height analyzer SWAN-1 based on IBM PC/XT/AT has been described. Design principles, specifications and measurements of a fundamental SAA-2 converter version are reported. Finally, two next versions of the converter with introduced modifications are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs. (author)

  6. Water production rates of recent comets (2016-2017) by SOHO/SWAN: 2P/Encke, 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak, 45P/ Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova, and C/2015 ER61 (PanSTARRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Michael R.; Mäkinen, Terhi; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Quémerais, Eric; Ferron, Stephane

    2017-10-01

    The all-sky hydrogen Lyman-alpha camera, SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies), on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite makes observations of the hydrogen coma of comets. Most water molecules produced by comets are ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge atomic hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily full-sky SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates are calculated using our time-resolved model (Mäkinen & Combi, 2005, Icarus 177, 217), typically yielding about 1 observation every 2 days on the average for each comet over the brightest part of its apparition. Here we describe the progress in analysis of observations of comets observed in 2016 and 2017. These include comets 2P/Encke, 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Sresak, 45P/ Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova, and C/2015 ER61 (PanSTARRS). A status update on the entire SOHO/SWAN archive of water production rates in comets will also be given.SOHO is an international cooperative mission between ESA and NASA. Support from grants NNX15AJ81G from the NASA Solar System Observations Planetary Astronomy Program and a previous grant NNX13AQ66G from the NASA Planetary Mission Data Analysis Program are gratefully acknowledged, as is support from CNRS, CNES, and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI).

  7. Komatiites and nickel sulphide orebodies of the Black Swan area, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. 1. Petrology and volcanology of host rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. E. T.; Barnes, S. J.; Dowling, S. E.; Thordarson, T.

    2004-11-01

    The Black Swan Succession is a bimodal association of dacitic and komatiitic volcanic rocks located about 50 km NNE of Kalgoorlie, within the 2.7-Ga Eastern Goldfields greenstone province of the Yilgarn Craton. The komatiite stratigraphy comprises a steep dipping, east facing package about 700 m in maximum thickness and about 2.5 km in strike length (Fig. 1), which hosts a number of economically exploitable Ni sulphide orebodies including the Silver Swan massive ore shoot (approximately half a million tonnes at about 10.5% Ni). The sequence can be subdivided into a Lower Felsic Unit, comprising coherent and autobrecciated facies of multiple dacite lava flows; an upper Eastern and lower Western Ultramafic Unit, each showing marked lateral facies variation, and an Upper Felsic Unit coeval with the Eastern Ultramafic Unit. The komatiite sequence has been metamorphosed at sub-greenschist facies in the presence of high proportions of CO2-rich fluid, giving rise to pervasive talc carbonate and talc carbonate quartz assemblages, with extensive preservation of pseudomorphed igneous textures. Cores of lizardite serpentinite are present in the thickest parts of the ultramafic succession. The degree of penetrative deformation is generally very low, and original stratigraphic relationships are largely intact in much of the sequence. The Eastern Ultramafic Unit and Western Ultramafic Unit are interpreted as components of a single large komatiite flow field, representing overlapping stages in the emplacement of a series of distributory lava pathways and flanking sheet flows. The Western Ultramafic Unit which hosts the bulk of the high-grade massive and disseminated ores is a sequence dominated by coarse-grained olivine cumulates, 2 km wide and up to 500 m thick, with major magma pathways represented by thick, homogenous olivine mesocumulate piles at its northern and southern ends: respectively 400 and 200 m thick. The sequence between the two major pathways consists of olivine

  8. Experimental study of a closed-chest pulmonary embolism-reperfusion injury canine model by means of Swan-Ganz catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Na; Zhai Renyou Jiang Tao; Wang Yajie; Zheng Juan; Wang Chen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To establish a closed-chest pulmonary embolism-reperfusion animal model by Swan-Ganz catheter and to explore the mechanisms of pulmonary embolism (PE)-reperfusion injury (RI). Methods: Experiments were made on 14 mongrel dogs, ranging in weight from 15 to 18 kg, anesthetized with 3% pentobarbital sodium. The dogs were intubated with I. D. 7 endotracheal tubes. Under sterile conditions, a 7 F Swan-Ganz catheter via the external jugular vein was positioned in the unilateral pulmonary diaphragmatic lobe (DL) artery. Occlusion/reperfusion of the DL artery was controlled with 1.2 ml diluted contrast agent filled into/drawn from the balloon. After the 24 h PE, the balloon was deflated to result in 4 h reperfusion of the DL. Measurements of blood gases and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)were made at normal condition, at 24 h PE and at 4 h reperfusion. Thin-section CT scans were performed at normal condition, 24 h PE, 30 rain, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h reperfusion, respectively. At the end of each experiment, tissue specimens of bilateral diaphragmatic lobes were obtained for both wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio and for pathological study. Results: Reperfusion pulmonary edema (RPE) was an acute, mixed, noncardiogenic edema that was observed in all 14 dogs who had been successfully established as PE/RI animal models. RPE demonstrated heterogeneous ground-glass opacifications that predominated in the areas distal to the recanalized vessels. It manifested pathologically as an edematous lung infihrated by inflammatory cells. The mean of PaO 2 and TNF-α of 4 h reperfusion was (81 ± 4) mm Hg( 1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa) and (16.0 ± 2.5)pg/ml, which were significantly different (P<0.05) from normal value [(96 ± 6)mm Hg and (13.9 ± 2.0) pg/ml]. The W/D of the injured lung (6.3 ± 1.2) was significantly greater (P<0.01) than that of the contralateral lung (4.5 ± 1.2), suggesting that the increase in the lung water was due to reperfusion injury. Conclusion: The closed-chest canine model

  9. Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby Galaxies (SWAN): Resolved Ammonia Thermometry and Water and Methanol Masers in IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Mark; Ott, Jürgen; Rand, Richard; Meier, David S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Schinnerer, Eva

    2018-04-01

    The Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies (SWAN) studies atomic and molecular species across the nuclei of four star-forming galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146. As part of this survey, we present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array molecular line observations of three galaxies: IC 342, NGC 6946, and NGC 2146. NGC 253 is covered in a previous paper. These galaxies were chosen to span an order of magnitude in star formation rates and to select a variety of galaxy types. We target the metastable transitions of ammonia NH3(1, 1) to (5, 5), the 22 GHz water (H2O) (616–523) transition, and the 36.1 GHz methanol (CH3OH) (4‑1–30) transition. We use the NH3 metastable lines to perform thermometry of the dense molecular gas. We show evidence for uniform heating across the central kiloparsec of IC 342 with two temperature components for the molecular gas, similar to NGC 253, of 27 and 308 K, and that the dense molecular gas in NGC 2146 has a temperature 36 GHz CH3OH masers in IC 342 and NGC 6946. For the four external galaxies the total CH3OH luminosity in each galaxy suggests a correlation with galactic star formation rate, whereas the morphology of the emission is similar to that of HNCO, a weak shock tracer.

  10. Comparison of conventional straight and swan-neck straight catheters inserted by percutaneous method for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shivendra; Prakash, Jai; Singh, R G; Dole, P K; Pant, Pragya

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the incidence of mechanical and infectious complications of conventional straight catheter (SC) versus swan-neck straight catheter (SNSC) implanted by percutaneous method. We retrospectively analyzed 45 catheter insertions being done by percutaneous method from January 1, 2011, to May 31, 2014. SC was inserted in 24 patients, and SNSC was inserted in 21 patients. Baseline characteristics for the two groups were similar with respect to age, sex and diabetic nephropathy as the cause for end-stage renal disease. Incidence of mechanical and infectious complications in SNSC group was found to be low as compared to the SC group and was statistically significant (1 in 11.6 patient months vs. 1 in 14.4 patient months, p = 0.02). Catheter migration was found to be the most common mechanical complication (20 %), and peritonitis was found to be the most common infectious complication in conventional SC group (27 episodes in 420 patient months vs. 11 episodes in 333 patient months, p = 0.03). The incidence of exit site and tunnel infection rates revealed no difference between the groups. SNSC insertion by percutaneous method is associated with low mechanical and infectious complications.

  11. Radio-iodine in thyroid glands of swans, farm animals and humans, also in algae and river water from the Thames Valley, England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, J.R.; Lloyd, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    A highly sensitive counting system has been used to measure radio-iodine in environmental samples from the Thames Valley. Iodine-125 and occasionally iodine-131 have been found in the thyroid glands of most of the swans that have died on the River Thames, the River Wey and the Grand Union Canal, and in algae and water samples from the Thames and many of its tributaries. The presence of this activity is ascribed to the waste discarded into the drainage system by hospitals and research laboratories, reaching the rivers via the effluent from sewage treatment works. The Thames is used as a source of drinking water, particularly in London and its western approaches. Weed and water samples collected from river water abstraction points, reservoirs, tap water supplies, and animal water troughs fed from this supply all contained low levels of iodine-125. The drinking water route can account for the iodine-125 found in the thyroids of farm animals from west Surrey and in a few people living in London. The amounts found constitute a trivial radiation dose to man and animals as they are far below the acceptable limit of exposure for man.

  12. Evolutionary genetics of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated from whooper swans in northern Japan in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Tatsufumi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Murase, Toshiyuki; Ito, Toshihiro

    2009-12-01

    In April and May 2008, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses subtype H5N1 were isolated from dead or moribund whooper swans in Aomori, Akita and Hokkaido prefectures in northern Japan. To trace the genetic lineage of the isolates, the nucleotide sequences of all eight genes were determined and phylogenetically analyzed. The Japanese strains were nearly identical to chicken viruses isolated in Russia in April 2008 and closely related to viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Hong Kong in 2007-2008. Their HA genes clustered in clade 2.3.2. On the other hand, NA and the other internal genes were closely related to those of clade 2.3.4 viruses (genotype V) whose NP genes originated from an HA clade 2.3.2 virus. In conclusion, the H5N1 viruses isolated in Japan, Russia and Hong Kong were derived from a common ancestor virus belonging to genotype V that was generated from genetic reassortment events between viruses of HA clades 2.3.2 and 2.3.4.

  13. The Relationship of Violence and Traumatic Stress to Changes in Weight and Waist Circumference: Longitudinal Analyses from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne; Gold, Ellen B; Clark, Cari; Bromberger, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of violence and traumatic stress with changes in weight and waist circumference, hypothesizing that violence in midlife would be associated with increases or decreases in weight and waist circumference. Methods The longitudinal cohort of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) comprised the study sample, which included an ethnically/racially and socially diverse group of 2870 women between the ages of 42 and 52 years at baseline. Women were followed annually for 10 years and assessments included weight and waist circumference measures and data on violence, health outcomes and confounders. Results At baseline, 8.6% Caucasian, 10.8% African American, 9.2% Chinese and 5.0% Japanese women reported violence and traumatic stress. Reporting violence and traumatic stress during follow-up was significantly associated with weight gain (OR=2.39, 95% CI= 1.28, 4.47), weight loss (OR=3.54, 95% CI=1.73, 7.22), and gain (OR=2.44, 95% CI =1.37, 4.37) or loss (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.23, 5.77) in waist circumference, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Conclusion Violence and traumatic stress against midlife women was associated with gains or losses in weight and waist circumference. PMID:24212978

  14. El doble y el espejo en Cisne negro (Darren Aronofsky, 2010. The double and the mirror in Black Swan (Darren Aronofsky, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana España

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Con su último largometraje, Cisne negro (2010, Darren Aronofsky propone una nueva visión de su cine de la obsesión, a través del proceso de autodestrucción de una bailarina, sumergida en su afán por encarnar el papel principal en una obra de ballet.El presente artículo trata de abordar el tratamiento que el director realiza del fenómeno del doble, como vehículo sobre el que se sustenta la crisis obsesiva de la protagonista, atendiendo a sus diversas representaciones y objetivos en la configuración final del texto. With his latest film, Black Swan (2010, Darren Aronofsky offers a new vision of his obsession cinema, through the process of self-destruction of a dancer, immersed in her effort to embody the lead role in a ballet performance. This current article aim to attend the director treatment of the double phenomenon as a vehicle on which rests the obsessive crisis of the protagonist, according to their several representations and objectives in the final configuration of the text.

  15. GPS and seismic constraints on the M = 7.3 2009 Swan Islands earthquake: implications for stress changes along the Motagua fault and other nearby faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Shannon E.; DeMets, Charles; DeShon, Heather R.; Rogers, Robert; Maradiaga, Manuel Rodriguez; Strauch, Wilfried; Wiese, Klaus; Hernandez, Douglas

    2012-09-01

    We use measurements at 35 GPS stations in northern Central America and 25 seismometers at teleseismic distances to estimate the distribution of slip, source time function and Coulomb stress changes of the Mw = 7.3 2009 May 28, Swan Islands fault earthquake. This event, the largest in the region for several decades, ruptured the offshore continuation of the seismically hazardous Motagua fault of Guatemala, the site of the destructive Ms = 7.5 earthquake in 1976. Measured GPS offsets range from 308 millimetres at a campaign site in northern Honduras to 6 millimetres at five continuous sites in El Salvador. Separate inversions of geodetic and seismic data both indicate that up to ˜1 m of coseismic slip occurred along a ˜250-km-long rupture zone between the island of Roatan and the eastern limit of the 1976 M = 7.5 Motagua fault earthquake in Guatemala. Evidence for slip ˜250 km west of the epicentre is corroborated independently by aftershocks recorded by a local seismic network and by the high concentration of damage to structures in areas of northern Honduras adjacent to the western limit of the rupture zone. Coulomb stresses determined from the coseismic slip distribution resolve a maximum of 1 bar of stress transferred to the seismically hazardous Motagua fault and further indicate unclamping of normal faults along the northern shore of Honduras, where two M > 5 normal-faulting earthquakes and numerous small earthquakes were triggered by the main shock.

  16. Von Krahli Teatri „Luikede järv“ kui mälumasin: esteetiline absoluut ja sotsiaalne kontekst / Von Krahl Theatre’s “Swan Lake” as a Memory Machine: Aesthetic Absolute and Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riina Oruaas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the interrelation between video projections and stage action and the meanings created via these relations in Von Krahl Theatre’s production of „Swan Lake“ (2003, directors Peeter Jalakas and Alexander Pepelyayev. „Swan Lake“ at Von Krahl Theatre was a post-modern interpretation of Tchaikovsky’s ballet that deconstructed myths of Soviet society. In the conceptual introduction to the performance, the directors dedicated the production to the theme of absolute beauty and aesthetic ideal, and claimed the synthesis of aesthetic and social contexts to be of utmost importance. The performance analysis in this article reveals the ambivalence of the aesthetic absolute and position of the ballet „Swan Lake“ as an icon. The context of this production was layered through the social and political, as well as artistic processes that influenced the reception of the performance. The social and aesthetic context is analysed based on Mieke Bal’s concept of framing, which is more dynamic and open than understanding context as something fixed. The analysis of screens and the stage action is based on the theoretical models of intermediality in performing arts.  The central section of this paper is focused on analysing the stage action and the relationship between the stage action and video projections as techniques of dissonance. This work by Jalakas and Pepelyaev was a multimedia dance performance where video clips of the ballets „Swan Lake“ and „The Dying Swan“ alternated with footages of Soviet heavy industry, war apparatus, athletes, etc. The various oppositions and parallels between the stage action and screen footage made the political meaning of the performance visible. The paper also analyses the narrative structure, the cast of characters and scenography. There was a certain hierarchy in the cast (actors versus dancers and character structure (politicians, Black and White Swan, and the corps de ballet which was

  17. What We Have Learned and What We Have Missed in Tuberculosis Pathophysiology for a New Vaccine Design: Searching for the "Pink Swan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2017-01-01

    This is a call to encourage the search for a new vaccine to stop the progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis (TB) disease. TB is a highly discreet and stigmatized disease, with a massive impact on human health. It has killed 1.2 billion people in the last 200 years and still kills 1.5 million people per year. Over the last 20 years, the TB vaccine field has experienced spectacular developments, and we have learned about (1) the importance of the Th1 response in controlling infection, mainly against RD1 and Ag85 antigens; (2) the stability of the antigenic repertoire; (3) the dynamics of M. tuberculosis granulomas; or (4) the link between typical and atypical pulmonary TB and the immune status of the host. However, we still do not (1) know how to avoid M. tuberculosis infection and reinfection; (2) understand the major role of the increase in lesion size in progression from infection to disease; (3) the role of interlobular septa in encapsulating pulmonary lesions; or (4) the role of neutrophilic infiltration and an exaggerated inflammatory response in the development of TB disease. These are strong reasons to pursue new, imaginative proposals involving both the antibody response and a balanced, tolerant immune response that averts progression toward TB. So far, the scientific mindset has been quite monolithic and has mainly focused on the stimulation of conventional T cells. But this approach has failed. For that reason, we are seeking unconventional perspectives to find a "pink swan," a more efficacious and safer vaccine candidate.

  18. Application of SWAN+ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation in Gulf of Maine during Patriot’s Day storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern coast of the Gulf of Maine in the United States is prone to flooding caused by nor’easters. A state-of-the-art fully-coupled model, the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN model with unstructured grids and the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC model, was used to study the hydrodynamic response in the Gulf of Maine during the Patriot’s Day storm of 2007, a notable example of nor’easters in this area. The model predictions agree well with the observed tide-surges and waves during this storm event. Waves and circulation in the Gulf of Maine were analyzed. The Georges Bank plays an important role in dissipating wave energy through the bottom friction when waves propagate over the bank from offshore to the inner gulf due to its shallow bathymetry. Wave energy dissipation results in decreasing significant wave height (SWH in the cross-bank direction and wave radiation stress gradient, which in turn induces changes in currents. While the tidal currents are dominant over the Georges Bank and in the Bay of Fundy, the residual currents generated by the meteorological forcing and waves are significant over the Georges Bank and in the coastal area and can reach 0.3 m/s and 0.2 m/s, respectively. In the vicinity of the coast, the longshore current generated by the surface wind stress and wave radiation stress acting parallel to the coastline is inversely proportional to the water depth and will eventually be limited by the bottom friction. The storm surge level reaches 0.8 m along the western periphery of the Gulf of Maine while the wave set-up due to radiation stress variation reaches 0.2 m. Therefore, it is significant to coastal flooding.

  19. Longitudinal Changes in Sexual Functioning as Women Transition Through Menopause: Results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E.; Brockwell, Sarah; Randolph, John F.; Shen, Shunhua; Cain, Virginia S.; Ory, Marcia; Greendale, Gail A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Sexual functioning is an important component of women’s lives. The extent to which the menopause transition is associated with decreased sexual functioning remains inconclusive. This study seeks to determine if advancing through the menopause transition is associated with changes in sexual functioning. Design A prospective, longitudinal cohort study of women aged 42–52 at baseline recruited at 7 US sites (N=3302) in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort eligible women had an intact uterus, at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either pre- or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study’s designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. Outcomes are self-reported ratings of importance of sex; frequency of sexual desire, arousal, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and pain during intercourse; degree of emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure. Results Adjusting for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant social, health, and psychological parameters, the odds of reporting vaginal or pelvic pain increased and desire decreased by late perimenopause. Masturbation increased at early perimenopause, but declined during postmenopause. Menopausal transition was unrelated to other outcomes. Health, psychological functioning, and importance of sex were related to all sexual function outcomes. Age, race/ethnicity, marital status, change in relationship, and vaginal dryness were also associated with sexual functioning. Conclusions Pain during sexual intercourse increases and sexual desire decreases over the menopausal transition. Masturbation increases during the early transition, but then declines in postmenopause. Adjusting for other factors, the menopausal transition was not independently associated with reports of the importance of sex, sexual arousal, frequency of sexual intercourse, emotional satisfaction with

  20. The relationship between psychosocial status, acculturation and country of origin in mid-life Hispanic women: data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Santoro, N F; McGinn, A P; Wildman, R P; Derby, C A; Polotsky, A J; Weiss, G

    2010-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that psychosocial symptomatology differs by country of origin and acculturation among Hispanic women, we examined 419 women, aged 42-52 years at baseline, enrolled in the New Jersey site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Women were categorized into six groups: Central (CA, n = 29) or South American (SA, n = 106), Puerto Rican (PR, n = 56), Dominican (D, n = 42), Cuban (Cu, n = 44) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (NHC, n = 142). Acculturation, depressive symptoms, hostility/cynicism, mistreatment/discrimination, sleep quality, social support, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline. Physical functioning, trait anxiety and anger were assessed at the fourth annual follow-up. Comparisons between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasians used χ², t test or non-parametric alternatives; ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis testing examined differences among the five Hispanic sub-groups. Multivariable regression models used PR women as the reference group. Hispanic women were overall less educated, less acculturated (p stress, and less mistreatment/discrimination than NHCs. Along with D women, PR women reported worse sleep than Cu women (p acculturated (21.4% highly acculturated vs. CA (0.0%), D (4.8%), SA (4.8%) and Cu (2.3%) women; p acculturation was associated with more favorable psychosocial status, but PR ethnicity was negatively related to psychosocial status. Psychosocial symptomatology among Hispanic women differs by country of origin and the relatively adverse profile of Puerto Rican women is not explained by acculturation.

  1. Role stress, role reward, and mental health in a multiethnic sample of midlife women: results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza di Scalea, Teresa; Matthews, Karen A; Avis, Nancy E; Thurston, Rebecca C; Brown, Charlotte; Harlow, Sioban; Bromberger, Joyce T

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the independent associations of reward and stress within specific roles with multiple measures of mental health in an ethnically diverse community sample of midlife women. The objective of this study is to examine if (1) role reward (within each role and across roles) contributes directly to mental health and buffers the negative impact of role stress and (2) associations among role occupancy, role stress, and role reward and mental health vary by race/ethnicity. With separate logistic regression analysis, we investigated cross-sectional relationships between role stress and role reward with presence/absence of high depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D≥16]), anxiety symptoms (feeling tense or nervous, irritable or grouchy, fearful for no reason, and heart pounding or racing total score≥4), or low social functioning (bottom 25th percentile of the Short-Form-36 [SF-36] social functioning subscale) in 2549 women participating in the third visit of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a longitudinal population-based study of menopause. High reward across roles attenuated the negative impact of role stress on social functioning but not on anxiety or depression. High reward marriage buffered the impact of marital stress on depression, and high reward mothering buffered the effect of maternal stress on depression and social functioning. Compared to Caucasians, Hispanics and Chinese with high stress across roles had better social functioning, and African American mothers had lower odds of high depressive symptoms. Role reward buffers the negative impact of stress on social functioning and depression, but not on anxiety. Minorities may respond to role stress by seeking social support.

  2. Synthetic Swan band profile of (1,0) of 12C12C and (0,0) of 12C12C and 12C13C in comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, K.S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The statistical equilibrium calculations of the 12 C 13 C molecule based on the resonance fluorescence process give similar results to those of the normal molecule. Therefore the assumption that the observed intensities of bands of the normal and the isotopic molecule differ only by their abundance ratio is reasonable. The synthetic profile of the (1,0) Swan band of 12 C 13 C (0,0) band of 12 C 12 C and 12 C 13 C have been calculated. The relative merits of using the rotational structure of the (1,0) or (0,0) band for the determination of the isotopic ratio 12 C/ 13 C is discussed briefly. (author)

  3. The PB2, PA, HA, NP, and NS genes of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005 (H5N1 are responsible for pathogenicity in ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajihara Masahiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild ducks are the natural hosts of influenza A viruses. Duck influenza, therefore, has been believed inapparent infection with influenza A viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs in chickens. In fact, ducks experimentally infected with an HPAIV strain, A/Hong Kong/483/1997 (H5N1 (HK483, did not show any clinical signs. Another HPAIV strain, A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005 (H5N1 (MON3 isolated from a dead swan, however, caused neurological dysfunction and death in ducks. Method To understand the mechanism whereby MON3 shows high pathogenicity in ducks, HK483, MON3, and twenty-four reassortants generated between these two H5N1 viruses were compared for their pathogenicity in domestic ducks. Results None of the ducks infected with MON3-based single-gene reassortants bearing the PB2, NP, or NS gene segment of HK483 died, and HK483-based single-gene reassortants bearing PB2, NP, or NS genes of MON3 were not pathogenic in ducks, suggesting that multiple gene segments contribute to the pathogenicity of MON3 in ducks. All the ducks infected with the reassortant bearing PB2, PA, HA, NP, and NS gene segments of MON3 died within five days post-inoculation, as did those infected with MON3. Each of the viruses was assessed for replication in ducks three days post-inoculation. MON3 and multi-gene reassortants pathogenic in ducks were recovered from all of the tissues examined and replicated with high titers in the brains and lungs. Conclusion The present results indicate that multigenic factors are responsible for efficient replication of MON3 in ducks. In particular, virus growth in the brain might correlate with neurological dysfunction and the disease severity.

  4. Religiosity and faith in relation to time to metabolic syndrome for Hispanic women in a multiethnic cohort of women-Findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allshouse, Amanda A; Santoro, Nanette; Green, Robin; Wong, Jason Y Y; Upchurch, Dawn M; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Thurston, Rebecca C; Derby, Carol A

    2018-06-01

    We investigated whether faith was associated with a difference in time to incident metabolic syndrome (MetS) among midlife Hispanic women vs women of other ethnicities. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a community-based, longitudinal study of a cohort of midlife women. Social, demographic, psychosocial, anthropometric, medical, and physiological measures, and incident MetS were assessed in near-annual intervals using questionnaires and assays. Each participant answered key questions related to religion and meaning in her life. Differences in time to MetS were modeled by Hispanic ethnicity (vs. otherwise) among women reporting low and high levels of faith. Incident MetS in the 7 years after the SWAN baseline assessment. Among 2371 women, average baseline age 46, Hispanic women (n = 168) were more likely to have higher perceived stress and financial strain than non-Hispanic women (n = 2203). Nevertheless, Hispanic women were far more likely than non-Hispanic women to report that faith brought them strength and comfort in times of adversity, that they prayed often, and that their faith was sustaining for them. Hispanic women had the highest incidence rate of MetS of any racial/ethnic group. However, among women with high levels of faith, the incidence rate of MetS was similar in the Hispanic and non-Hispanic groups. Conversely, among women with low levels of faith, Hispanic women had a faster progression to MetS than did non-Hispanic women. Faith might be associated with a different risk of MetS among women of Hispanic vs other ethnicities. Among women who are not part of a faith community, Hispanic ethnicity might be a risk factor for MetS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mineralisation of low concentrations of organic compounds and microbial biomass in surface and vadose zone soils from the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzmann, P. D.; Zappia, L. R.; Patterson, B. M.; Rayner, J.L.; Davis, G. B.

    1998-01-01

    Mineralisation rates for ring-labelled 14 C-atrazine, benzene, and toluene were determined for a number of Swan Coastal Plain soils which had not been previously in contact with these contaminants. Microbial biomass was estimated by phospholipid techniques in soil samples from the same sites. Mineralisation rates for the volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in the thin (up to 30 cm) surface soils (23.4-42.6 μmol/kg . day when fitted to zeroth-order rate kinetics) were appreciably faster than the mineralisation rates measured in soils collected from a depth of 1 m (0.11-3.0 μmol/kg per day). The pesticide atrazine was degraded slowly, with degradation rates in surface soils ranging from 1.22x10 -3 to 2.78x10 -4 μmol/kg . day, and those in soils at 1 m ranging from 5. 13x10 -4 to 3.1610 -4 μmol/kg per day. When mineralisation data were fitted to first-order kinetics then half-lives for atrazine mineralisation ranged from about 1 year in surface soils to 3.1-5.1 years in soils at 1 m. These rates were comparable to atrazine mineralisation rates measured in soils that had not been previously in contact with atrazine, as reported by others. The extent of mineralisation of the organic compounds v. time generally fitted better to zeroth-order kinetics than to first-order kinetics. Confidence in the determination of the mineralisation rate at slow rates of mineralisation was low (r 2 as low as 0.2 in plots of the extent of mineralisation v. time in zeroth-order and first-order plots for samples that showed slow mineralisation). Biomass, expressed as stationary phase Escherichia coli equivalents (SPEE), ranged from 1.4 x10 7 to 1x2x10 8 SPEE/g dry weight for surface soils, and from 8.6x10 5 to 7.3x10 6 SPEE/g dry weight for soils at 1 m. The phospholipids extracted from surface soils tended to contain higher proportions of unsaturated and hydroxy fatty acids than soils at 1 m, which contained higher relative concentrations of branched fatty acids, which is consistent with the

  6. Shield cost minimization using SWAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, E.F.; Annese, C.E.; Greenspan, E.

    1993-01-01

    The common approach to the search for minimum cost shield designs is open-quotes trial-and-errorclose quotes; it proceeds as follows: 1. Based on prior experience and intuition, divide the shield into zones and assume their composition. 2. Solve the transport equation and calculate the relevant performance characteristics. 3. Change the composition or the geometry of one or a few of the zones and repeat step 2. 4. Repeat step 3 many times until the shield design appears to be optimal. 5. Select a different set of constituents and repeat steps 2,3, and 4. 6. Repeate step 5 a few or many times until the designer can point to the most cost-effective design

  7. Effects of multiple disturbances in seagrass meadows : shading decreases resilience to grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eklof, Johan S.; McMahon, Kathryn; Lavery, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem shifts are often associated with multiple disturbances, but limited knowledge on the mechanisms involved hampers management. This study investigated how short-term shading affected the resilience of the seagrass Halophila ovalis to grazing by black swans (Cygnus atratus) - a historically

  8. INTEGRAÇÃO DE MODELAGEM NUMÉRICA (SWAN E DADOS DE CAMPO NA DETERMINAÇÃO DO CLIMA DE ONDAS NO LITORAL SETENTRIONAL DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Alves de Matos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados da aplicação do modelo numérico Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN com análises comparativas das medidas obtidas a partir dos resultados de modelagem e de medições durante as campanhas de campo em 2010 e 2012 no Litoral Setentrional do Rio Grande do Norte (NE do Brasil. O objetivo principal do presente estudo foi aplicar e validar o modelo numérico SWAN na determinação do clima de ondas, avaliar seus pontos fortes e limitações para a região de interesse. Os dados de campo realizados em dois pontos próximo da costa em profundidades de 3 m (PT_1 e 6 m (PT_2 por meio do uso de dois adcp: AWAC e AQUADOPP. Os dados adquiridos com estes equipamentos foram processados e permitiram a realização de análises espectrais de altura significativa, HS (m, período médio, Tmed (s, e direção média, DIR (º. Para a implementação do modelo SWAN foram empregados para as condições de contorno os dados de agitação a partir do modelo de 3ª geração de escala oceânica Wavewatch III. Para o refinamento e aplicabilidade do modelo, foram introduzidos dados de ventos e maré locais, corrigidos com base no Manual de Engenharia Costeira (CEM, permitindo assim, melhor ajuste dos resultados da modelagem. O domínio de cálculo foi referenciado para as dimensões da carta náutica 720, com três malhas regulares de diferentes dimensões e resolução: externa, intermediária e interna, sendo esta última, utilizada para fornecer os parâmetros de propagação da onda ao longo da costa. As configurações usadas para o SWAN foram as padrões em modo estacionário, com as formulações KOMEN, a dissipação devido à rebentação induzida pelo fundo com atrito de fundo usando a formulação JONSWAP com coeficiente de atrito С = 0.015m2s-3 em condições wind sea, e a formulação whitecapping ou excesso de declividade, as interações entre tríades de ondas e interações onda-onda quádrupla. As estat

  9. Reparação de múltiplas fístulas broncopleurais periféricas por oclusão brônquica selectiva com catéter de Swan-Ganz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Glória

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: As fístulas broncopleurais (FBP constituem um problema clínico frequente mas de resolução complicada, sobretudo em doentes sob ventilação mecânica. O manejo destas situações envolve um controlo adequado.dos sistemas de drenagem torácica e do suporte ventilatório. A terapêutica cirúrgica é habitualmente reservada para as situações em que as medidas médicas falham, mas muitos doentes internados em UCI são péssimos candidatos a uma cirurgia torácica major. Nos últimos anos têm sido descritas várias técnicas para reparação endobrônquica de FBP envolvendo o uso de materiais selantes, tais como derivados do cianoacrilato ou fibrina. Descrevemos uma nova técnica de reparação de FBPs por oclusão brônquica selectiva com catéter de Swan-Ganz. Esta técnica foi aplicada com sucesso num doente ventilado, com internamento prolongado em UCI (mais de 3 meses por múltiplas fistulas distais de alto débito que condicionavam insuficiência respiratória grave e impossibilidade de desmame do ventilador. SUMMARY: The medical therapy of bronchopleural fistulas (BPF in the mechanically ventilated patient continue to present a formidable challenge. Management includes adequate control of chest tubes, drainage systems and ventilator support. Most patients in ICU are poor surgical candidates so nonoperative therapy was develloped.in last years. These modalities include endobronchial occlusion with cyanoacrylatebased agents and fibrin agents. We present a new technique by selective bronchial occlusion with a Swan-Ganz catheter. This technique was successfully applied in a ventilated patient with long-standing permanence in ICU by multiple peripheral high-flow BPF and serious respiratory failure with ventilator dependence. Palavras-chave: Broncofibroscopia, fistula broncopleural, oclusão brônquica, Key-Words: fiberoptic bronchoscopy, bronchopleural fistula, bronchial occlusion

  10. Avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl: prevalence of antibodies and cloacal shedding of viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Nagy, Éva; Ojkic, Davor; Leishman, David; Crawshaw, Graham; Elias, Kyle; Smith, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    We surveyed free-ranging Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to avian bornavirus (ABV) and of cloacal shedding of ABV RNA in southern Ontario, Canada. Blood samples and cloacal swabs were collected from 206 free-ranging Canada Geese, 135 Trumpeter Swans, 75 Mute Swans, and 208 Mallards at 10 main capture sites between October 2010 and May 2012. Sera were assessed for antibodies against ABV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and swabs were evaluated for ABV RNA using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Serum antibodies were detected in birds from all four species and at each sampling site. Thirteen percent of the geese caught on the Toronto Zoo site shed ABV RNA in feces compared with 0% in geese sampled at three other locations. The proportions of shedders among Mute Swans, Trumpeter Swans, and Mallards were 9%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Birds that were shedding viral RNA were more likely to have antibodies against ABV and to have higher antibody levels than those that were not, although many birds with antibodies were not shedding. We confirmed that exposure to, or infection with, ABV is widespread in asymptomatic free-ranging waterfowl in Canada; however, the correlation between cloacal shedding, presence of antibodies, and presence of disease is not fully understood.

  11. Lady Mary Sidney Herbert a Lady Mary Wroth: labutí píseň a imaginativní svět jako součást rodinného odkazu (Lady Mary Sidney Herbert and Lady Mary Wroth: a Swan song and Fictional World as a part of Sidneyan legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kastnerová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study intends to clarify the process of forming of Sidneyan literary cult as a part of (Sidneyʼs family legacy based on the the literary activities of Sidneyʼs sister Lady Mary Sidney Herbert, countess of Pembroke, and his niece Lady Mary Wroth, daughter of his younger brother Robert. Mary Sidney Herbert throughout her literary career sings a swan song of her brother, Mary Wroth creates an imaginative world of free love choice and happy endings and her literary career is based on the well-established cult of Sidneyʼs name.

  12. UHE point source survey at Cygnus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Yodh, G.B.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Berley, D.; Biller, S.D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Gilra, M.K.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kwok, P.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Stark, M.J.; Talaga, R.L.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Zhang, W.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of searching for UHE point source has been developed. With a data sample of 150 million events, we have surveyed the sky for point sources over 3314 locations (1.4 degree <δ<70.4 degree). It was found that their distribution is consistent with a random fluctuation. In addition, fifty two known potential sources, including pulsars and binary x-ray sources, were studied. The source with the largest positive excess is the Crab Nebula. An excess of 2.5 sigma above the background is observed in a bin of 2.3 degree by 2.5 degree in declination and right ascension respectively

  13. Percutaneous retrieval of centrally embolized fragments of central venous access devices or knotted Swan-Ganz catheters. Clinical report of 14 retrievals with detailed angiographic analysis and review of procedural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Kalińczuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Totally implantable venous access systems (TIVAS, Swan-Ganz (SG and central venous catheters (CVC allow easy and repetitive entry to the central cardiovascular system. Fragments of them may be released inadvertently into the cardiovascular system during their insertion or as a result of mechanical complications encountered during long-term utilization. Aim : To present results of percutaneous retrieval of embolized fragments of central venous devices or knotted SG and review the procedural aspects with a series of detailed angiographies. Material and methods : Between January 2003 and December 2012 there were 14 (~0.025% successful retrievals in 13 patients (44 ±16 years, 15% females of embolized fragments of TIVAS (n = 10 or CVC (n = 1 or of dislodged guide-wires (n = 2 or knotted SG (n = 1. Results : Foreign bodies with the forward end located in the right ventricle (RV, as well as those found in the pulmonary artery (PA, often required repositioning with a pigtail catheter as compared to those catheter fragments which were located in the right atrium (RA and/or great vein and possessed an accessible free end allowing their direct ensnarement with the loop snare (57.0% (4/7 vs. 66.7% (2/3 vs. 0.0% (0/3; p = 0.074 respectively. Procedure duration was 2–3 times longer among catheters retrieved from the PA than among those with the forward edge located in the RV or RA (30 (18–68 vs. 13.5 (11–37 vs. 8 min (8–13; p = 0.054 respectively. The SG catheter knotted in the vena cava superior (VCS was encircled with the loop snare introduced transfemorally, subsequently cut at its skin entrance and then pulled down inside the 14 Fr vascular sheath. Conclusions : By using the pigtail catheter and the loop snare, it is feasible to retrieve centrally embolized fragments or knotted central venous access devices.

  14. Lead poisoning in a Mississippi sandhill crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hereford, Scott G.

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is well documented in waterfowl (Sanderson and Bellrose 1986) and has been reported in other wetland (Locke et al. 1991, Windingstad et al. 1984) and upland (Hunter and Rosen 1965, Locke and Bagley 1967) avian species. Ingested fishing weights have been implicated in lead poisoning of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) (Blus et al. 1989), Common Loons (Gavia immer) (Locke et al. 1982, Franson and Cliplef 1992, Pokras and Chafe1 1992), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) (Birkhead 1982), and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) (Windingstad et al. 1984). The significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in avian species other than waterfowl is probably underestimated (Locke and Friend 1992), and any cause of mortality becomes particularly important in species with small population sizes. We report here the first known case of lead poisoning in a Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla), a critically endangered subspecies.

  15. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  16. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  17. Comprehensive Achievements: All Our Geese Are Swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imison, Tamsyn, Ed.; Heilbronn, Ruth, Ed.; Williams, Liz, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schools in England are radically changing their organization and governance, casting aside the founding principle of the 1944 Education Act that education is a public service and abandoning the ideal of education as nurturing a sense of community. This book presents a portrait of a successful comprehensive school, between the years 1980 and 2000.…

  18. Black swans in the brazilian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Jacob Lovisolo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes extreme values in the daily returns of 45 Brazilian stocks between 2 January 1995 and 18 March 2009. The incidence of observations outside the range of three standard deviationsfrom the mean is at least five times greater than under the normal distribution. The occurrence of extreme values in the upper tail is 1.13 times higher than in the lower. The average of the extreme positive returns is higher than that of extreme negative returns. Half percent of the days determined the outcome of the investment. Extreme values are at least ± 7%. Investors should assess whether they will keep their holdings when returns of such magnitude occur. The characteristics of empirical distributions of stock returns favor the passive investor and the use of weight constraints in portfolio allocation models.

  19. Black swans in the brazilian stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Lovisolo,Hugo Jacob; Leal,Ricardo Pereira Câmara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes extreme values in the daily returns of 45 Brazilian stocks between 2 January 1995 and 18 March 2009. The incidence of observations outside the range of three standard deviationsfrom the mean is at least five times greater than under the normal distribution. The occurrence of extreme values in the upper tail is 1.13 times higher than in the lower. The average of the extreme positive returns is higher than that of extreme negative returns. Half percent of the days determined...

  20. In search of the black swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Mark

    2009-04-01

    In 1890 an electricity company enticed the German physicist Max Planck to help it in its efforts to make more efficient light bulbs. Planck, as a theorist, naturally started with the fundamentals and soon became enmeshed in the thorny problem of explaining the spectrum of black-body radiation, which he eventually did by introducing the idea - a "purely formal" assumption, as he then considered it - that electromagnetic energy can only be emitted or absorbed in discrete quanta. The rest is history. Electric light bulbs and mathematical necessity led Planck to discover quantum theory and to kick start the most significant scientific revolution of the 20th century.

  1. Swan Song for the Burger Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Robert L., Jr.; Ramarui, Cornelis O.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews a collection of decisions rendered by the Burger Court during its waning months. The decisions involve (1) criminal procedures, (2) racial bias in jury selection, (3) search and seizure, and (4) the exclusion of jurors who have reservations about the death penalty. (JDH)

  2. THE BLACK SWAN OF THE ROMANIAN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana CIOBAN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The imposing and magnificent natural Romanian sight forces me to ask myself the question: "What is the problem of Romanian tourism?", question which has as support the contribution of tourism services to GDP, the share of people employed in tourism, the number of enterprises/businesses in tourism, mobile/property capital owned by the tourist sector, etc. The analysis of these indicators highlight the contribution of tourism services in Romania's economic and social growth. The two obvious aspects of tourism have a strong impact on people, communities and the environment. Impact on a region can be social, political, economic and cultural. The social impact of tourism refers to the direct effects on tourists and people/communities in destination areas, and the impact on the level of education, culture and civilization, on the use of leisure time, the links between communities/nations, and cultural heritage in tourist areas. Effects identified may impact both positively and negatively in the regions analyzed. The positive social impact in the communities relate to the creation of jobs (the new employment opportunities and professionalization of local labor, especially for disadvantaged groups, such as youth or women, infrastructure development, increasing local budget revenue, diversification of forms of crafts and facilitating social integration through intercultural exchanges between tourists and the host population. Regarding the negative social impact, this refers to the gradual destruction of traditional livelihoods, disrupting the local structures of power and the adoption of harmful behaviors (especially among children and young people. It results that tourism development leads to improved quality of life when there are taken into account the specific conditions and it is carried out in a sustainable manner.

  3. Focus on Balance, Not Black Swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rodnie; Peterson, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The speed and access of information today has increased the scrutiny level facing risk managers in higher education. It is true that a more complex, more connected world has created new risks and new issues for university leadership. However, a lot of the same issues have remained constant for campuses: (1) emergency management; (2) campus safety;…

  4. Black swan protection: an experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Morone, Andrea; Ozdemir, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigates insurance decisions in low-probability, high-loss risk situations. Results indicate that subjects consider the probability of loss (loss size) when they make buying decisions (paying decisions). Most individuals are risk averse with no specific threshold probability.

  5. The orbital inclination of Cygnus XR-1 measured polarimetrically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.F.; Tapia, S.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray binary Cyg XR-1/HDE 226868 was observed polarimetrically over one orbit at three different optical wavelengths. The standard theory of Brown, et al. (1978) is used to derive an orbital inclination i = 62 deg (+5 deg, -37 deg), where the error is the 90-percent-confidence interval derived by the method of Simmons, et al. (1980). The value of the orbital inclination is significantly lower than values based on polarimetric observations. The difference is a result of the observational protocols used. A bias toward larger values of the inclination caused by the tidal distortion of the primary is still found in the present result. The inclination derived corresponds to a mass of the compact component of 6.3 solar masses, above the maximum mass of any degenerate configuration consistent with general relativity except a black hole. 37 refs

  6. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cygnus X-3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The background noise was removed from the source PHA file during the fit, and the background PHA ... the best fit parameters within the acceptable limit. ... their respective states are: 1) exposure time, 2) quality of data, i.e., better background.

  7. Giant Radio Flare of Cygnus X-3 in September 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkin, S. A.; Nizhelskij, N. A.; Tsybulev, P. G.; Zhekanis, G. V.

    2017-06-01

    In the long-term multi-frequency monitoring program of the microquasars with RATAN-600 we discovered the giant flare from X-ray binary Cyg X-3 on 13 September 2016. It happened after 2000 days of the 'quiescent state' of the source passed after the former giant flare (˜18 Jy) in March 2011. We have found that during this quiet period the hard X-ray flux (Swift/BAT, 15-50 keV) and radio flux (RATAN-600, 11 GHz) have been strongly anti-correlated. Both radio flares occurred after transitions of the microquasar to a 'hypersoft' X-ray state that occurred in February 2011 and in the end of August 2016. The giant flare was predicted by us in the first ATel (Trushkin et al. (2016)). Indeed after dramatic decrease of the hard X-ray Swift 15-50 keV flux and RATAN 4- 11 GHz fluxes (a 'quenched state') a small flare (0.7 Jy at 4-11 GHz) developed on MJD 57632 and then on MJD 57644.5 almost simultaneously with X-rays radio flux rose from 0.01 to 15 Jy at 4.6 GHz during few days. The rise of the flaring flux is well fitted by a exponential law that could be a initial phase of the relativistic electrons generation by internal shock waves in the jets. Initially spectra were optically thick at frequencies lower 2 GHz and optically thin at frequencies higher 8 GHz with typical spectral index about -0.5. After maximum of the flare radio fluxes at all frequencies faded out with exponential law.

  8. Low-energy gamma rays from Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, J.P.; Mandrou, P.; Lebrun, F.; Paul, J.

    1985-08-01

    Cyg X-1 was observed by the CESR balloon borne telescope OPALE, in June 1976. The high-energy spectrum of the source, which was in its ''superlow state'', was seen to extend well beyond 1 MeV. In this paper, the observed low-energy γ-ray component of Cyg X-1 is compared with the predictions of recent models involving accretion onto a stellar black hole, and including a possible contribution from the pair-annihilation 511 keV γ-ray line

  9. Cygnus X-1: Discovery of variable circular polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalsky, J.J.; Swedlund, J.B.; Stokes, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    HDE 226868, the optical counterpart of Cyg X-1, has been observed for circular polarization during 1974. Observations in five colors suggest that circular polarization results from an interstellar effect. Measurements of the blue polarization reveal circular polarization variations synchronous with the 5)./sub /6 orbital period. The circular polarization variation appears to be similar to the blue intensity variation

  10. Invasive herbivory: resident Canada geese and the decline of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    While concern grows over the increasing numbers of exotic mute swans (Cygnus olor) on the Chesapeake Bay, less attention seems to be given to the highly familiar and native Canada goose (Branta canadensis) which has over time developed unprecedented nonmigratory, or resident, populations. Although nuisance flocks of Canada geese have been well advertised at city parks, athletic fields, and golf courses over the past three decades, recent expansion of populations to an estimated one million birds in the Atlantic Flyway, and to over 100,000 in Maryland, carries a threat of broader ecological consequences.

  11. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in Wrinkled Hornbill and other birds in the Kuala Lumpur National Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohela, M; Lim, Y A L; Jamaiah, I; Khadijah, P Y Y; Laang, S T; Nazri, M H Mohd; Nurulhuda, Z

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of a coccidian parasite, Cryptosporidium, among birds in the Kuala Lumpur National Zoo was investigated in this study. A hundred bird fecal samples were taken from various locations of the zoo. Fecal smears prepared using direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique were stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Samples positive for Cryptosporidium with Ziehl-Neelsen stain were later confirmed using the immunofluorescence technique and viewed under the epifluorescence microscope. Six species of bird feces were confirmed positive with Cryptosporidium oocysts. They included Wrinkled Hornbill (Aceros corrugatus), Great Argus Pheasant (Argusianus argus), Black Swan (Cygnus atratus), Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides), Marabou Stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus), and Moluccan Cockatoo (Cacatua moluccencis). These birds were located in the aviary and lake, with the Moluccan Cockatoo routinely used as a show bird. Results obtained in this study indicated that animal sanctuaries like zoos and bird parks are important sources of Cryptosporidium infection to humans, especially children and other animals.

  12. Symbols of the Soviet empire : dying swan / Maria Goltsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goltsmann, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Vene balletist, selle kuulsusest ja sobivusest ka nõukogude süsteemi - nii sõjaväe paraadid kui ka balletietendused olid nagu Nõukogude Liidu fassaad, nõudes erakordset distsipliini, mis oli oluline nii monarhiale kui ka kommunistlikule diktaatuurile, seda hinnati kõrgelt, kuid alati ei järgitud. Ka "Luikede järvest" ja selle etendamisest

  13. Heat pumps in Denmark - From ugly duckling to white swan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the smart grid and heat pumps have increasingly gained attention in Denmark as an integral part of the low carbon transition of the energy system. The main reason being that the smart grid enables the integration of large amounts of intermittent wind energy...... into the electricity system via, among other things, intelligent interoperation with domestic heat pumps, which consume the 'green' electricity. Unfortunately, recent years' sales of heat pumps have been disappointing. Several studies have investigated the 'dissemination potential' of heat pumps in Denmark, primarily...... through conventional market research approaches. However, there is clearly a lack of studies that take a more socio-technical approach to understanding how technologies such as the heat pump develop and how they come to have a place in society as a result of contingent, emergent and complex historical...

  14. Carrying capacity of a heterogeneous lake for migrating swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyimesi, A.

    2010-01-01

    One way to express the value of a natural habitat is its capacity to harbour a particular target species. In the case of migratory birds, the cumulative number of birds that can be accommodated at a site for a given period of time (‘bird-days’) became an accepted currency for this carrying capacity.

  15. Intrapulmonary haematoma induced by Swan-Ganz-catherisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supra, D.; Jend, H.H.; Oesterreich, F.U.

    1989-01-01

    A case of circumscribed intrapulmonary haematoma induced by a balloon-tipped catheter is presented in a 56 year old patient with coronary heart disease. The bleeding site appeared as a pulmonary circular focus or coin-shaped lesion on the chest radiograph. The authors discuss possible causes and risk factors of intrapulmonary haematomas and differential diagnosis of pulmonary coin-shaped lesions. (orig.) [de

  16. Of conflicts, conspiracies, red herrings, and black swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wactawski-Wende, J; Anderson, G L

    2015-06-01

    The impact of the findings from the Women's Health Initiative trial of estrogen plus progestin cannot be attributed to any real or imagined conflicts of interest between government, researchers, and journals. Rather, the findings overturned decades of dogma in part promoted by the pharmaceutical industry, and the reaction to these unexpected findings was in direct proportion to their importance in reversing a misguided practice of prescribing the drug for chronic disease prevention. The findings have been widely accepted, as shown by the sustained subsequent reduction in prescriptions. However, conflicts of interest may influence a minority unwilling to accept the findings. The decrease in the use of a drug with an adverse risk profile for prevention of chronic disease is a public good.

  17. Black Swan Event Assessment for Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    6.5%, due to shift from natural gas to electricity, assuming no cogeneration • Overall, energy COST increases 2.3% and 6.2% Table 8. Estimated...measures ......................................................................................... 34 ERDC/CERL SR-16-1 iv 9 Emerging Impacts of...FEMA standards category and using ASCE 7-05. (Source: FEMA.) ................ 16 Figure 9. Estimated trajectory and impact area of the Joplin tornado in

  18. 78 FR 3026 - Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... ensure effective conservation. SHC entails strategic biological planning and conservation design... planning process for the easement program. At the beginning of the planning process, the Service initiated....gov/mountain-prairie/planning/ . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Toni Griffin, Planning Team Leader...

  19. Black swans, cognition, and the power of learning from failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Allison S; Redford, Kent; Margoluis, Richard; Knight, Andrew T

    2018-06-01

    Failure carries undeniable stigma and is difficult to confront for individuals, teams, and organizations. Disciplines such as commercial and military aviation, medicine, and business have long histories of grappling with it, beginning with the recognition that failure is inevitable in every human endeavor. Although conservation may arguably be more complex, conservation professionals can draw on the research and experience of these other disciplines to institutionalize activities and attitudes that foster learning from failure, whether they are minor setbacks or major disasters. Understanding the role of individual cognitive biases, team psychological safety, and organizational willingness to support critical self-examination all contribute to creating a cultural shift in conservation to one that is open to the learning opportunity that failure provides. This new approach to managing failure is a necessary next step in the evolution of conservation effectiveness. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. From a Beautiful Swan to an Ugly Duckling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer ændringer i dansk aktiveringspolitik siden 2003, hvor typer af institutionelle forandringer relateres til omlægninger på proces- og indholdssiden. Konklusionen er, at der har været tale om en systemtransformation af aktiveringspolitikken i Danmark. Udgivelsesdato: 2010/2009...