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Sample records for swamp sparrow subspecies

  1. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow subspecies at breeding sites.

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    Virginia L Winder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1, and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84 ± 0.37 to 1.65 ± 1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (P<0.01. Breast feather mercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98 ± 0.69 to 2.71 ± 2.93 ppm. Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96 ± 1.84 ppm fw was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25 ± 2.24-6.77 ± 3.51 ppm; P ≤ 0.03. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure.

  2. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow Subspecies at Breeding Sites

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    Winder, Virginia L.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni) use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1), and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84±0.37 to 1.65±1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (Pmercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98±0.69 to 2.71±2.93 ppm). Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96±1.84 ppm fw) was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25±2.24–6.77±3.51 ppm; P≤0.03). Conclusions/Significance Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure. PMID:22384194

  3. Natural epigenetic variation within and among six subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus.

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    Riyahi, Sepand; Vilatersana, Roser; Schrey, Aaron W; Ghorbani Node, Hassan; Aliabadian, Mansour; Senar, Juan Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Epigenetic modifications can respond rapidly to environmental changes and can shape phenotypic variation in accordance with environmental stimuli. One of the most studied epigenetic marks is DNA methylation. In the present study, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to investigate the natural variation in DNA methylation within and among subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus We focused on five subspecies from the Middle East because they show great variation in many ecological traits and because this region is the probable origin for the house sparrow's commensal relationship with humans. We analysed house sparrows from Spain as an outgroup. The level of variation in DNA methylation was similar among the five house sparrow subspecies from the Middle East despite high phenotypic and environmental variation, but the non-commensal subspecies was differentiated from the other four (commensal) Middle Eastern subspecies. Further, the European subspecies was differentiated from all other subspecies in DNA methylation. Our results indicate that variation in DNA methylation does not strictly follow subspecies designations. We detected a correlation between methylation level and some morphological traits, such as standardized bill length, and we suggest that part of the high morphological variation in the native populations of the house sparrow is influenced by differentially methylated regions in specific loci throughout the genome. We also detected 10 differentially methylated loci among subspecies and three loci that differentiated between commensal or non-commensal status. Therefore, the MSAP technique detected larger scale differences among the European and non-commensal subspecies, but did not detect finer scale differences among the other Middle Eastern subspecies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Life history attributes of Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) and comparisons with other North American subspecies

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    Ruth, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus—commonly referred to as the Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow—occurs in the desert and plains grasslands of southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Although a subspecies of conservation concern, this is the first intensive study of its life history and breeding ecology, providing baseline data and facilitating comparisons with other North American Grasshopper Sparrow subspecies. Specifically, I found A. s. ammolegus males generally weighed less than other subspecies (16.0 ± 0.8 g) but with intermediate exposed culmen length (11.6 ± 0.5 mm) and wing chord length similar to the other two migratory subspecies (62.7 ± 1.5 mm). Territory size for A. s. ammolegus was 0.72 ± 0.37 ha, with some variation between sites and among years, possibly indicating variation in habitat quality across spatial and temporal scales. The return rate for A. s. ammolegus males was 39.2%. Nest initiation for A. s. ammolegus was early to mid-July after the monsoons had begun. Domed nests were constructed on the ground, primarily under native bunch grasses, and frequently with a tunnel extending beyond the nest rim, with nest openings oriented north. Clutch size was 3.97 ± 0.68, with no evidence of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) nest parasitism. Extreme climate factors in the arid Southwest may have affected the life history and morphology of A. s. ammolegus as compared to other subspecies, influencing body size and mass, culmen length, breeding phenology, and nest orientation. Other geographic variation occurred in return rates, clutch size, and nest parasitism rates. The baseline data for A. s. ammolegus obtained in this study will inform future taxonomic and ecological studies as well as conservation planning. Comparisons of A. s. ammolegus morphometrics with those of other subspecies will assist field biologists in distinguishing among subspecies where they overlap, especially on wintering grounds.

  5. sparrow-weavers, PJocepasser mahali

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-01-27

    Jan 27, 1987 ... Sparrow-weavers often perched in a tree near fellow group members. .... (1981) showed that Zambian sparrow-weavers avoid tall, densely-matted ... of 3 in intermediate habitat in New Mexico (Stacey. 1979). Population ...

  6. House Sparrows Do Not Constitute a Significant Salmonella Typhimurium Reservoir across Urban Gradients in Flanders, Belgium.

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    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Lens, Luc; Haesendonck, Roel; Teyssier, Aimeric; Hudin, Noraine Salleh; Strubbe, Diederik; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades major declines in urban house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have been observed in north-western European cities, whereas suburban and rural house sparrow populations have remained relatively stable or are recovering from previous declines. Differential exposure to avian pathogens known to cause epidemics in house sparrows may in part explain this spatial pattern of declines. Here we investigate the potential effect of urbanization on the development of a bacterial pathogen reservoir in free-ranging house sparrows. This was achieved by comparing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium in 364 apparently healthy house sparrows captured in urban, suburban and rural regions across Flanders, Belgium between September 2013 and March 2014. In addition 12 dead birds, received from bird rescue centers, were necropsied. The apparent absence of Salmonella Typhimurium in fecal samples of healthy birds, and the identification of only one house sparrow seropositive for Salmonella spp., suggests that during the winter of 2013-2014 these birds did not represent any considerable Salmonella Typhimurium reservoir in Belgium and thus may be considered naïve hosts, susceptible to clinical infection. This susceptibility is demonstrated by the isolation of two different Salmonella Typhimurium strains from two of the deceased house sparrows: one DT99, typically associated with disease in pigeons, and one DT195, previously associated with a passerine decline. The apparent absence (prevalence: house sparrows and the association of infection with clinical disease suggests that the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on house sparrows is largely driven by the risk of exogenous exposure to pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium strains. However, no inference could be made on a causal relationship between Salmonella infection and the observed house sparrow population declines.

  7. Magruder Park Swamp

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    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  8. Status assessment and conservation plan for the Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)

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    Ruth, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    The Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) breeds in grassland habitats throughout much of the U.S., southern and southeastern Canada, and northern Mexico. Additional subspecies are resident in Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. It winters primarily in the coastal states of the southeastern U.S., southern portions of the southwestern states, and in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The species prefers relatively open grassland with intermediate grass height and density and patchy bare ground; because it is widely distributed across different grassland types in North America, it selects different vegetation structure and species composition depending on what is available. In the winter, they use a broader range of grassland habitats including open grasslands, as well as weedy fields and grasslands with woody vegetation. Analyses show significant range-wide population declines from the late 1960s through the present, primarily caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. Grasshopper Sparrow is still a relatively common and broadly distributed species, but because of significant population declines and stakeholder concerns, the species is considered of conservation concern nationally and at the state level for numerous states. Many factors, often related to different grassland management practices (e.g., grazing, burning, mowing, management of shrub encroachment, etc.) throughout the species’ range, have impacts on Grasshopper Sparrow distribution, abundance, and reproduction and may represent limiting factors or threats given steep declines in this species’ population. Because of the concerns for this species, Grasshopper Sparrow has been identified as a focal species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and this Status Assessment and Conservation Plan for Grasshopper Sparrow has been developed. Through literature searches and input from stakeholders across its range, this plan presents information about

  9. Effects of winter marsh burning on abundance and nesting activity of Louisiana seaside sparrows in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain

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    Gabrey, S.W.; Afton, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    Louisiana Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus maritimus fisheri) breed and winter exclusively in brackish and saline marshes along the northern Gulf of Mexico. Many Gulf Coast marshes, particularly in the Chenier Plain of southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas, are burned intentionally in fall or winter as part of waterfowl management programs. Fire reportedly has negatively affected two Seaside Sparrow subspecies (A. m. nigrescens and A. m. mirabilis) in Florida, but there is no published information regarding effects of fire on A. m. fisheri. We compared abundance of territorial male Louisiana Seaside Sparrows, number of nesting activity indicators, and vegetation structure in paired burned and unburned plots in Chenier Plain marshes in southwestern Louisiana during the 1996 breeding season (April-July) before experimental winter burns (January 1997) and again during two breeding seasons post-burn (1997-1998). We found that abundance of male sparrows decreased in burned plots during the first breeding season post-burn, but was higher than that of unburned plots during the second breeding season post-burn. Indicators of nesting activity showed a similar but non-significant pattern in response to burning. Sparrow abundance and nesting activity seemingly are linked to dead vegetation cover, which was lower in burned plots during the first breeding season post-burn, but did not differ from that in unburned plots during the second breeding season post-burn. We recommend that marsh management plans in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain integrate waterfowl and Seaside Sparrow management by maintaining a mosaic of burned and unburned marshes and allowing vegetation to recover for at least two growing seasons before reburning a marsh.

  10. Shedding subspecies: The influence of genetics on reptile subspecies taxonomy.

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    Torstrom, Shannon M; Pangle, Kevin L; Swanson, Bradley J

    2014-07-01

    The subspecies concept influences multiple aspects of biology and management. The 'molecular revolution' altered traditional methods (morphological traits) of subspecies classification by applying genetic analyses resulting in alternative or contradictory classifications. We evaluated recent reptile literature for bias in the recommendations regarding subspecies status when genetic data were included. Reviewing characteristics of the study, genetic variables, genetic distance values and noting the species concepts, we found that subspecies were more likely elevated to species when using genetic analysis. However, there was no predictive relationship between variables used and taxonomic recommendation. There was a significant difference between the median genetic distance values when researchers elevated or collapsed a subspecies. Our review found nine different concepts of species used when recommending taxonomic change, and studies incorporating multiple species concepts were more likely to recommend a taxonomic change. Since using genetic techniques significantly alter reptile taxonomy there is a need to establish a standard method to determine the species-subspecies boundary in order to effectively use the subspecies classification for research and conservation purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiological responses to food deprivation in the house sparrow, a species not adapted to prolonged fasting.

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    Khalilieh, Anton; McCue, Marshall D; Pinshow, Berry

    2012-09-01

    Many wild birds fast during reproduction, molting, migration, or because of limited food availability. Species that are adapted to fasting sequentially oxidize endogenous fuels in three discrete phases. We hypothesized that species not adapted to long fasts have truncated, but otherwise similar, phases of fasting, sequential changes in fuel oxidization, and similar changes in blood metabolites to fasting-adapted species. We tested salient predictions in house sparrows (Passer domesticus biblicus), a subspecies that is unable to tolerate more than ~32 h of fasting. Our main hypothesis was that fasting sparrows sequentially oxidize substrates in the order carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. We dosed 24 house sparrows with [(13)C]glucose, palmitic acid, or glycine and measured (13)CO(2) in their breath while they fasted for 24 h. To ascertain whether blood metabolite levels reflect fasting-induced changes in metabolic fuels, we also measured glucose, triacylglycerides, and β-hydroxybutyrate in the birds' blood. The results of both breath (13)CO(2) and plasma metabolite analyses did not support our hypothesis; i.e., that sparrows have the same metabolic responses characteristic of fasting-adapted species, but on a shorter time scale. Contrary to our main prediction, we found that recently assimilated (13)C-tracers were oxidized continuously in different patterns with no definite peaks corresponding to the three phases of fasting and also that changes in plasma metabolite levels accurately tracked the changes found by breath analysis. Notably, the rate of recently assimilated [(13)C]glycine oxidization was significantly higher (P fast for longer than 32 h is likely related to their inability to accrue large lipid stores, separately oxidize different fuels, and/or spare protein during fasting.

  12. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V

    2016-01-01

    . In male house sparrows, ornamental traits involved in male quality signalling are important for female selection. These traits are governed by endocrinological systems, and POPs may therefore interfere with male quality signalling. The aim of the present study was to use the house sparrow as a mid......At high trophic levels, environmental contaminants have been found to affect endocrinological processes. Less attention has been paid to species at lower trophic levels. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be a useful model for investigating effects of POPs in mid-range trophic level species......-range trophic level model species to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrinology and male quality signalling. We analysed the levels of selected PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs and investigated the possible effects of these contaminants on circulating levels of steroid hormones (4 progestagens, 4...

  13. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

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    Tiago Marafiga Degrandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the "river buffaloes" with 2n = 50 and the "swamp buffaloes", 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24 in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23. The F1 crossbreed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies.

  14. Peat swamp forest of Thailand

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    Niyomdham, C.; Urapeepatanapong, C.; Pitayakajornwute, P. [Pikoolthong Royal Development Study Center, Bangkok (Thailand). Royal Forest Department

    1996-12-31

    Peat swamp forest in Thailand occurs extensively along coastal flatlands in the central and southern parts of the country and some small patches of topogenous peatland are present locally on several mountain tops of the northern region. Many have been deteriorated by recent extensive development programs. However, one large area, about 347.04 km{sup 2}, of ombrogenous peatland is still left intact in the Pru Toh Dang area where conservation activities are being strictly enforced under one of the Royal Initiative Projects. Pru Toh Dang peat consists of 5 metres of fibrous organic soil overlying pyritic marine clay. Despite an inhospitable, submerged and unstable forest floor, the floristic composition of the peat swamp forest is extremely complicated, consisting of 124 families and 470 species of which 109 families and 437 species of flowering plants, and 15 families and 33 species of ferns recorded between 1983-1989 by a team from the Forest Herbarium of the Royal Forest Department of Thailand. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  15. Adaptation to ephemeral habitat may overcome natural barriers and severe habitat fragmentation in a fire-dependent species, the Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerame, Blain; Cox, James A; Brumfield, Robb T; Tucker, James W; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2014-01-01

    Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis) is a fire-dependent species that has undergone range-wide population declines in recent decades. We examined genetic diversity in Bachman's Sparrows to determine whether natural barriers have led to distinct population units and to assess the effect of anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation. Genetic diversity was examined across the geographic range by genotyping 226 individuals at 18 microsatellite loci and sequencing 48 individuals at mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Multiple analyses consistently demonstrated little genetic structure and high levels of genetic variation, suggesting that populations are panmictic. Based on these genetic data, separate management units/subspecies designations or translocations to promote gene flow among fragmented populations do not appear to be necessary. Panmixia in Bachman's Sparrow may be a consequence of an historical range expansion and retraction. Alternatively, high vagility in Bachman's Sparrow may be an adaptation to the ephemeral, fire-mediated habitat that this species prefers. In recent times, high vagility also appears to have offset inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity in highly fragmented habitat.

  16. Kennedy Space Center: Swamp Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Robert

    2013-01-01

    When I began my internship with the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations laboratory (GMRO), also known as Swamp Works, I was given the unique opportunity to shadow many teams working on various projects, and decide what projects I wanted to take part in. Before I go into details of my experiences at Swamp Works, I would like to take a moment to explain what I discovered Swamp Works to be. Swamp Works is a family of hardworking, dedicated, and driven people from various backgrounds and skill sets. These people all work to advance technologies and make science fiction science fact through means of rapid prototyping. They support and encourage failure as an option when learning new things, as long as lesson learned from said failure. In fact, their motto states "Fail, Fast, Forward." What this means is, not if but when one fails he or she must do so quickly and spring forward from the failure so that his or her progress is not delayed. With this acceptance, it provided me the confidence to dive into a multitude of projects working in various fields and with a wide range of skill sets. The first project I joined was Badger. My motivation for taking on this project was the opportunity I would have to obtain valuable experience working with 3D modeling and 3D printing technologies. Badger was a digging apparatus to be used in a highly dusty environment in a material known as Regolith. Regolith is a scientific term for the dirt or top soil found on planetary bodies. Regolith contains a large quantity of sediments less than lOppm and as a result poses a challenge of keeping it out of any cracks and crevices. Furthermore, regolith can create high levels of electrostatic energy, which can prove damaging to sensitive electrical hardware. With these characteristics in mind, I decided to take on the task of designing and manufacturing a dust proof cover for the sensitive electrical hardware. When I began this project, I did not have the slightest idea as to how to use 3D

  17. 78 FR 8588 - Rg Steel Sparrows Point LLC, Formerly Known as Severstal Sparrows Point LLC, a Subsidiary of RG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Consulting, Crown Security, Eastern Automation, EDS(HP), Teksystems, URS Corporation, and B More Industrial... from B More Industrial Services LLC were employed on-site at the Sparrows Point, Maryland location of RG Steel Sparrows Point LLC. The Department has determined that these workers from B More Industrial...

  18. The case of the Disappearing House Sparrow (Passer domesticus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Dandapat

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The fluffy brown sparrows are 15cm in length and distributed all over India up to 4000m in the Himalayas. The disappearance of sparrows has been widely reported in India. The sparrow population in Andhra Pradesh alone had dropped by 80 per cent, and in other states like Kerala, Gujarat and Rajasthan, it had dipped by 20 per cent, while the decline in coastal areas was as sharp as 70 to 80 per cent. But reliable information on sparrow populations is not available. No one is actually counting and keeping a record of the sparrows. The spread of diseases due to decline in sparrow population is an alarming danger. Introduction of unleaded petrol, use of chemically treated seeds, flow of electromagnetic waves from cellphone towers, reducing areas of free growing weeds or reducing numbers of badly maintained buildings, competition for food by other species etc. are possible reasons for this disappearance. The BirdLife International, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB, a UK-based organisation and the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS have taken plan for the protection of sparrow population. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 97-100

  19. Corticosterone regulation in house sparrows invading Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn B; Kilvitis, Holly J; Thiam, Massamba; Ardia, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    What traits help organisms expand their ranges? Several behavioral and life history traits have been identified, but physiological and especially endocrinological factors have been minimally considered. Here, we asked whether steroid hormonal responses to stressors might be important. Previously, we found that corticosterone (CORT) responses to a standard restraint stressor were stronger at a range edge than at the core of the recent house sparrow (Passer domesticus) invasion of Kenya. In related work in the same system, we found that various behaviors (exploratory activity, responses to novelty, etc.) that are affected by CORT in other systems varied among sparrow populations in a manner that would suggest that CORT regulation directly influenced colonization success; birds at the range edge were less averse to novelty and more exploratory than birds from the core. Here, we asked whether the pattern in CORT regulation we observed in Kenya was also detectable in the more recent (∼1970) and independent invasion of Senegal. We found, as in Kenya, that Senegalese range-edge birds mounted stronger CORT responses to restraint than core birds. We also found lower baseline CORT in range-edge than core Senegalese birds, but little evidence for effects of individual sex, body mass or body size on CORT. Follow-up work will be necessary to resolve whether CORT regulation in Senegal (and Kenya) actively facilitated colonization success, but our work implicates glucocorticoids as a mediator of range expansion success, making stress responses potentially useful biomarkers of invasion risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution, habitat and behavior of grasshopper sparrows, Ammodramus savannarum(Passeriformes: Emberizidae in northeastern Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Arguedas-Negrini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available During March and April of 1996, I made field observations of the sedentary subspecies of grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum cracens, in 600 points of the pine savannas of northeastern Nicaragua. Isolated individuals were found in the humid depressions, but breeding populations were located exclusively in areas that had suffered a recent fire. Territorial behavior varied in intensity apparently as a function of territory size: the most aggressive males were those trying to defend smaller territories in populations close to Miskito villages, where most of the fires occur. In contrast to what is happening in other parts of Central America, the Nicaraguan grasshopper sparrow may be indirectly protected from extinction by the Miskito’s traditional fire practices.En marzo y abril de 1996, llevé a cabo observaciones del semillero colicorto (Ammodramus savannarum cracens en las sabanas de pino del noreste de Nicaragua. Encontré individuos aislados en las depresiones más húmedas, pero las poblaciones en estado reproductivo ocupaban solamente áreas que hubieran sido quemadas recientemente. El comportamiento territorial de las aves parecía estar relacionado al tamaño del territorio: las aves más agresivas defendían territorios relativamente pequeños, cercanos a los poblados miskitos, que es adonde los fuegos se producen con mayor frequencia. Fue notable la ausencia de posibles depredadores en las áreas más abiertas de la savanna. Contrario a lo que sucede en otras partes de Centroamérica, la persistencia de esta ave en las savannas de pino de Nicaragua podría estar asegurada por las tradiciones miskitas en el uso del fuego.

  1. Reflecting on the Relationship Between Human Beings and Sparrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Trehan Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Birdman of India, Salim Moizuddin Abdul Ali, was one of the first Indians to conduct a systematic and patterned survey of birds in India. W.S. Millard, the Secretary of the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS had introduced Salim Ali to the beautiful world of the birds. Millard had identified an unusually coloured sparrow that was actually shot by a young Salim Ali with his air gun. This was a yellow-throated sparrow. Following this, Millard showed Salim Ali the Society’s collection of stuffed birds, and this became the beginning of a marvelous journey of exploring the bird kingdom and establishing great landmarks by Salim Ali. The sparrow had transformed Salim Ali’s world. Undoubtedly, his autobiography was later titled ‘The Fall of a Sparrow’. Salim Ali has very carefully noted in his autobiography as to how this yellow-throated sparrow became the turning point in his life that led him into the fascinating world of ornithology. This research contribution is not about the birdman but the bird, which is rapidly vanishing from our vicinity. The reasons for the decline of the sparrow are varied but the fact of the matter is that the natural world around us is rapidly receding. And the decline of the sparrow is an alarm, a warning against the degrading ecosystems, and an alarm against blind-folded urbanisation which is leading to human-induced disasters.

  2. House sparrows benefit from the conservation of white storks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosicki, Jakub Z.; Sparks, Tim H.; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2007-05-01

    As with many farmland bird species, the house sparrow Passer domesticus is declining in Europe, mainly due to intensification of agriculture reducing nest sites and food supplies. During 2002-2005, we studied the population size and nest site characteristics of house sparrows breeding within white stork Ciconia ciconia nests in a large area of agricultural landscape within western Poland. To explain sparrow density within stork nests, we examined characteristics of white stork nests (position, age, productivity) and the farm type around the nest. House sparrow density was greatest in the longest established (and hence larger) white stork nests located on traditionally managed farms. Two recent changes appear to have adverse effects on house sparrows. The first is the intensification of farming and the second is active management of white stork nests on electric poles to reduce nest size and thus avoid both disruption to the electrical supply and electrocution of white storks. Because the white stork has such a high profile in Poland, there are numerous schemes to conserve and enhance this species. In conclusion, we clearly show that protecting one species can have valuable, although unplanned, benefits to another species of conservation interest, the house sparrow.

  3. Studies on mangrove swamps of Goa 1. Heterotrophic bacterial flora from mangrove swamps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P; Mathani, S; Mavinkurve, S

    Heterotrophic bacterial flora from the mangrove swamps of Goa consisted of physiologically active organisms exhibiting cellulolytic, pectinolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and H2S forming activities, throughout the year. Coryneform and Bacillus were...

  4. 78 FR 40511 - RG Steel Sparrows Point LLC, Formerly Known as Severstal Sparrows Point LLC, a Subsidiary of RG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Leased Workers From Echelon Service Company, Sun Associated Industries, Inc., MPI Consultants Llc... Services LLC, Recycling & Treatment Technologies of Baltimore, Llc, and Lafarge North America, Sparrows... leased workers from Echelon Service Company, Sun Associated Industries, Inc., MPI Consultants LLC...

  5. 78 FR 19530 - RG Steel Sparrows Point LLC, Formerly Known as Severstal Sparrows Point LLC, a Subsidiary of RG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Leased Workers From Echelon Service Company, Sun Associated Industries, Inc., MPI Consultants LLC... Services LLC, and Recycling & Treatment Technologies of Baltimore, LLC Sparrows Point, Maryland; Amended... Service Company, Sun Associated Industries, Inc., MPI Consultants LLC, Alliance Engineering, Inc...

  6. Factors associated with arrival densities of grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and baird's sparrow (A. bairdii) in the upper great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlering, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Faaborg, John

    2009-01-01

    Although critical to habitat and population management, the proximate cues that birds use to establish territories are largely unknown. Understanding these cues is important for birds, such as many grassland birds, that exhibit high annual variability in population density and make new habitat-selection decisions annually. Identifying the actual cues used is difficult in the field, but the factors associated with the arrival densities of birds can help uncover variables that are involved in or correlated with cues used for selection. During the summers of 2002–2004, we investigated how weather and local vegetation factors were related to arrival densities of Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and Baird's Sparrows (A. bairdii) at three locations across North Dakota and Saskatchewan. Spring densities of Grasshopper Sparrows were positively correlated with concurrent May precipitation, whereas densities of Baird's Sparrows were negatively correlated with the previous winter's snowfall. We used a model-selection approach to evaluate the vegetation characteristics associated with arrival densities of birds. Grasshopper Sparrow densities showed a strong negative relationship to woody cover, and Baird's Sparrow densities showed a negative relationship to vegetation height and vegetation density near the ground. Our results provide a first detailed look at habitat and weather associations immediately after arrival in spring and an important first step in uncovering factors that may be involved in habitat selection in two grassland species.

  7. Integral handling of the swamps for indigenous communities - Caribbean of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paez, Heliodoro; Ulloa Delgado Giovanni, Andres; Tavera Escobar, Hector Arsenio

    2004-06-01

    The book includes topics like the ecosystems of swamps, zonification for its handling, growth of species of swamps, restoration and vegetation, integral plan of handling of swamps and its fauna among other topics

  8. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Swamps, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_swamp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) swamps data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  9. The impact of subspecialization on postgraduate medical education in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Brian D

    2005-11-01

    Medical subspecialization is a response to rapidly expanding technology and knowledge. Although beneficial to patient care, it poses a challenge to the current infrastructure of resident education. This article analyzes the advent of subspecialization, the current template of postgraduate neurosurgical education, the impact of subspecialization on postgraduate neurosurgical education, and, finally, suggests strategies to optimize professional education in the face of an increasingly subspecialized field.

  10. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economics of swamp rice production among peasant farmers in the Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State for 2001 cropping year. A total of 50 swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from 5 villages using multistage sampling technique. The data collected, with the aid of ...

  11. Economic analysis of swamp rice production in Ebonyi Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the determinants and profitability of the output of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi southern Agricultural zone of Ebonyi State. Primary data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaires. A total of eighty (80) swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from the different blocks ...

  12. Analysis of Technical Efficiency among Swamp Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the Technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 159 swamp rice farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the stochastic frontier production function. The results showed ...

  13. The House Sparrows Passer domesticus and Tree Sparrows Passer montanus: fine-scale distribution, population densities, and habitat selection in a Central European city

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Riegert, J.; Grill, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-232 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : House Sparrow * Tree Sparrow * urban environment * city green * built-up area * habitat selection * nest-site selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2015

  14. The scientific value and potential of New Zealand swamp kauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Boswijk, Gretel; Hogg, Alan; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Christian S. M.; Fowler, Anthony M.; Ogden, John; Woolley, John-Mark

    2018-03-01

    New Zealand swamp kauri (Agathis australis) are relic trees that have been buried and preserved in anoxic bog environments of northern New Zealand for centuries through to hundreds of millennia. Kauri are massive in proportion to other native New Zealand trees and they can attain ages greater than 1000 years. The export market for swamp (subfossil) kauri has recently been driven by demand for a high-value workable timber, but there are concerns about the sustainability of the remaining resource, a situation exacerbated in recent years by the rapid extraction of wood. Economic exploitation of swamp kauri presents several unique opportunities for Quaternary science, however the scientific value of this wood is not well understood by the wider research community and public. Here, we summarise the history of scientific research on swamp kauri, and explore the considerable potential of this unique resource. Swamp kauri tree-ring chronologies are temporally unique, and secondary analyses (such as radiocarbon and isotopic analyses) have value for improving our understanding of Earth's recent geologic history and pre-instrumental climate history. Swamp kauri deposits that span the last interglacial-glacial cycle show potential to yield "ultra-long" multi-millennia tree-ring chronologies, and composite records spanning large parts of MIS3 (and most of the Holocene) may be possible. High-precision radiocarbon dating of swamp kauri chronologies can improve the resolution of the global radiocarbon calibration curve, while testing age modelling and chronologic alignment of other independent long-term high-resolution proxy records. Swamp kauri also has the potential to facilitate absolute dating and verification of cosmogenic events found in long Northern Hemisphere tree-ring chronologies. Future efforts to conserve these identified values requires scientists to work closely with swamp kauri industry operators, resource consent authorities, and export regulators to mitigate

  15. Assessing the role of conspecific attraction in habitat restoration for Henslow's sparrows in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Otis, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of conspecific individuals may provide important cues about habitat quality for territorial songbirds. We tested the ability of a conspecific song playback system to attract Henslow’s sparrows to previously unoccupied restored habitat. We successfully attracted Heslow’s sparrows to 3 of 7 treatment plots using conspecific song playbacks and we found no Henslow’s sparrows in control plots. The addition of social cues using playback systems in restored grassland habitats may aid conservation efforts of Henslow’s sparrows to available habitat.

  16. The fungal flora of the mangrove swamps of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahtani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Mangrove swamps of Goa (India) showed the presence of fungi belonging to 14 different genera, predominant ones being Monilia, Mucor, Syncephalastrum, Aspergillus and Trichothecium. Most of the isolates were found to be physiologically active...

  17. Section 3. The SPARROW Surface Water-Quality Model: Theory, Application and User Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, G.E.; Hoos, A.B.; Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) is a watershed modeling technique for relating water-quality measurements made at a network of monitoring stations to attributes of the watersheds containing the stations. The core of the model consists of a nonlinear regression equation describing the non-conservative transport of contaminants from point and diffuse sources on land to rivers and through the stream and river network. The model predicts contaminant flux, concentration, and yield in streams and has been used to evaluate alternative hypotheses about the important contaminant sources and watershed properties that control transport over large spatial scales. This report provides documentation for the SPARROW modeling technique and computer software to guide users in constructing and applying basic SPARROW models. The documentation gives details of the SPARROW software, including the input data and installation requirements, and guidance in the specification, calibration, and application of basic SPARROW models, as well as descriptions of the model output and its interpretation. The documentation is intended for both researchers and water-resource managers with interest in using the results of existing models and developing and applying new SPARROW models. The documentation of the model is presented in two parts. Part 1 provides a theoretical and practical introduction to SPARROW modeling techniques, which includes a discussion of the objectives, conceptual attributes, and model infrastructure of SPARROW. Part 1 also includes background on the commonly used model specifications and the methods for estimating and evaluating parameters, evaluating model fit, and generating water-quality predictions and measures of uncertainty. Part 2 provides a user's guide to SPARROW, which includes a discussion of the software architecture and details of the model input requirements and output files, graphs, and maps. The text documentation and computer

  18. Regeneration potential of Taxodium distichum swamps and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Seed bank densities respond to factors across local to landscape scales, and therefore, knowledge of these responses may be necessary in forecasting the effects of climate change on the regeneration of species. This study relates the seed bank densities of species of Taxodium distichum swamps to local water regime and regional climate factors at five latitudes across the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley from southern Illinois to Louisiana. In an outdoor nursery setting, the seed banks of twenty-five swamps were exposed to non-flooded (freely drained) or flooded treatments, and the number and species of seeds germinating were recorded from each swamp during one growing season. Based on ANOVA analysis, the majority of dominant species had a higher rate of germination in non-flooded versus flooded treatments. Similarly, an NMS comparison, which considered the local water regime and regional climate of the swamps, found that the species of seeds germinating, almost completely shifted under non-flooded versus flooded treatments. For example, in wetter northern swamps, seeds of Taxodium distichum germinated in non-flooded conditions, but did not germinate from the same seed banks in flooded conditions. In wetter southern swamps, seeds of Eleocharis cellulosa germinated in flooded conditions, but did not germinate in non-flooded conditions. The strong relationship of seed germination and density relationships with local water regime and regional climate variables suggests that the forecasting of climate change effects on swamps and other wetlands needs to consider a variety of interrelated variables to make adequate projections of the regeneration responses of species to climate change. Because regeneration is an important aspect of species maintenance and restoration, climate drying could influence the species distribution of these swamps in the future. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible

  20. Male rock sparrows differentially allocate nest defence but not food provisioning to offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Carmagnani, Cristina; Griggio, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    for a number of species, while male differential allocation based on female secondary sexual traits has received less attention. Yet females of many species, among birds in particular, are ornamented. We performed a test of male differential allocation based on a female ornament in the rock sparrow (Petronia...... allocation and are in agreement with previous tests of male differential allocation in rock sparrows....

  1. A new subspecies of Typhlosaurus lineatus Boulenger 1887 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-10-01

    Oct 1, 1986 ... totale ventrale skubteliings. Geografiese afsondering is oak duidelik. Introduction. The genus TyphlosauTlls Wiegmann. 1834 has recently been revised by Broadley (1968). He lists 12 species and subspecies including three subspecies of Tlinealus. One of these, T. I. subtaenialus Broadley. differs from the.

  2. Postpartum anoestrus in the suckled swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jainudeen, M.R.; Sharifuddin, W.; Yap, K.C.; Bakar Dahari, A.

    1984-01-01

    Postpartum anoestrus is a serious cause of infertility in the swamp buffalo. Our studies have revealed that it is due to a failure in the resumption of ovarian cyclicity. Parity was inversely related to the calving interval being longer in primiparous than multiparous suckled buffaloes. This effect may be partly due to the higher nutrient demands for growth as well as for lactation in the primiparous animal. The effects of suckling on ovarian and pituitary function of postpartum buffaloes were investigated with the aid of radioimmunoassays for progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as rectal palpation and laparoscopic inspection of the ovaries. The incidence of postpartum anoestrus was higher in suckled than non-suckled buffaloes. Weaning buffalo calves at 30 d postpartum resulted in the resumption of normal ovarian cycles within 60 d postpartum. LH release in response to a single injection of a synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) indicated that pituitary responsiveness to GnRH was restored by Day 30 postpartum in suckled buffaloes whereas anoestrous buffaloes were able to release levels of LH comparable to that of the preovulatory surge. A progesterone-releasing intra-vaginal device (PRID) induced an anovulatory oestrus in the anoestrous suckled buffalo which was partially overcome by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administered at the induced oestrus. However, a 72 h separation of the calf from its dam combined with PRID was the most effective substitute to weaning in initiating ovarian cycles in the suckled buffalo. Our data suggest that suckling inhibits ovarian function not by an effect on the pituitary gland but rather on GnRH release by the hypothalamus. (author)

  3. Benefits of Riverine Water Discharge into the Lorian Swamp, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipporah Musyimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. This paper reviews information on water use in the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment, Kenya, to evaluate the effects of upstream abstraction on the Lorian Swamp, a wetland used by pastoralists downstream. We first assess the abstractions and demands for water upstream and the river water supplies at the upper and the lower end of the Lorian Swamp. Further analysis of 12 years of monthly SPOT-VEGETATION satellite imagery reveals higher NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index values in the swamp than nearby rainfed areas, with the difference in NDVI between the two positively related to river water discharged into the swamp. The paper next reviews the benefits derived from water entering the swamp and the vulnerability to abstractions for three categories of water: (i the surface water used for drinking and sanitation; (ii the surface water that supports forage production; and (iii the water that recharges the Merti Aquifer. Our results suggest that benefits from surface water for domestic use and forage production are vulnerable to abstractions upstream whereas the benefits from the aquifer, with significant fossil water, are likely to be affected in the long run, but not the short term.

  4. To flock or fight: neurochemical signatures of divergent life histories in sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, James L; Wilson, Leah C; Schrock, Sara E

    2012-06-26

    Many bird species exhibit dramatic seasonal switches between territoriality and flocking, but whereas neuroendocrine mechanisms of territorial aggression have been extensively studied, those of seasonal flocking are unknown. We collected brains in spring and winter from male field sparrows (Spizella pusilla), which seasonally flock, and male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), which are territorial year-round in much of their range. Spring collections were preceded by field-based assessments of aggression. Tissue series were immunofluorescently multilabeled for vasotocin, mesotocin (MT), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, tyrosine hydroxylase, and aromatase, and labeling densities were measured in many socially relevant brain areas. Extensive seasonal differences are shared by both species. Many measures correlate significantly with both individual and species differences in aggression, likely reflecting evolved mechanisms that differentiate the less aggressive field sparrow from the more aggressive song sparrow. Winter-specific species differences include a substantial increase of MT and CRH immunoreactivity in the dorsal lateral septum (LS) and medial amygdala of field sparrows but not song sparrows. These species differences likely relate to flocking rather than the suppression of winter aggression in field sparrows, because similar winter differences were found for two other emberizids that are not territorial in winter--dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), which seasonally flock, and eastern towhees (Pipilo erythropthalmus), which do not flock. MT signaling in the dorsal LS is also associated with year-round species differences in grouping in estrildid finches, suggesting that common mechanisms are targeted during the evolution of different life histories.

  5. Song variation and environmental auditory masking in the grasshopper sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Bernard; Dooling, Robert J.; Gill, Douglas E.

    2004-05-01

    Some grassland bird species, in particular grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), sing songs with especially high mean frequencies (7.0-8.0 kHz). Acoustic interference is one potential explanation for the evolution of high frequency vocalizations, particularly in open habitats. We tested predictions from a model of effective auditory communication distances to understand the potential effects of vocal production and environmental auditory masking on vocal behavior and territoriality. Variation in the spectral structure of songs and the size and shape of territories was measured for grasshopper sparrows in typical grassland habitats. Median territory areas were 1629 m2 at a site in the center of the species range in Nebraska, and 1466 m2 at our study site in Maryland, with average territory diameters measuring 20.2 m. Species densities and sound pressure levels also were determined for stridulating insects and other noise sources in the habitat. Based on current models of effective communication distances, known noise levels, and information on hearing abilities, our results suggest that auditory sensitivity and environmental noise could be factors influencing the mean frequency and spatial dynamics of territorial behavior in grassland birds. [Work supported by NIH and the CRFRC.

  6. The original descriptions of reptiles and their subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetz, Peter; Stylianou, Alexandrea

    2018-01-24

    By August 2017 an estimated 13,047 species and subspecies of extant reptiles have been described by a total of 6,454 papers and books which are listed in a supplementary file. For 1,052 species a total of 2,452 subspecies (excluding nominate subspecies) had been described by 2017, down from 1,295 species and 4,411 subspecies in 2009, due to the elevation of many subspecies to species. Here we summarize the history of these taxon description beginning with Linnaeus in 1758. While it took 80 years to reach the first 1,000 species in 1838, new species and subspecies descriptions since then have been added at a roughly constant rate of 1000 new taxa every 12-17 years. The only exception were the decades during World Wars I and II and the beginning of this millennium when the rate of descriptions increased to now about 7 years for the last 1,000 taxa. The top 101 most productive herpetologists (in terms of "taxon output") have described more than 8,000 species and subspecies, amounting to over 60% of all currently valid taxa. More than 90% of all species were described in either English (68.2%), German (12.7%) or French (9.3%).

  7. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus): Effects of POPs and male quality signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V; Jensen, Henrik; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Polder, Anuschka; Rønning, Bernt; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-03-15

    At high trophic levels, environmental contaminants have been found to affect endocrinological processes. Less attention has been paid to species at lower trophic levels. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be a useful model for investigating effects of POPs in mid-range trophic level species. In male house sparrows, ornamental traits involved in male quality signalling are important for female selection. These traits are governed by endocrinological systems, and POPs may therefore interfere with male quality signalling. The aim of the present study was to use the house sparrow as a mid-range trophic level model species to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrinology and male quality signalling. We analysed the levels of selected PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs and investigated the possible effects of these contaminants on circulating levels of steroid hormones (4 progestagens, 4 androgens and 3 estrogens) in male and female adult house sparrows from a population on the island Leka, Norway. Plasma samples were analysed for steroid hormones by GC-MS and liver samples were analysed for environmental contaminants by GC-ECD and GC-MS. In males, we also quantified ornament traits. It was hypothesised that POPs may have endocrine disrupting effects on the local house sparrow population and can thus interfere with the steroid hormone homeostasis. Among female house sparrows, bivariate correlations revealed negative relationships between POPs and estrogens. Among male sparrows, positive relationships between dihydrotestosterone levels and PCBs were observed. In males, positive relationships were also found between steroids and beak length, and between steroids and ornamental traits such as total badge size. This was confirmed by a significant OPLS model between beak length and steroids. Although sparrows are in the mid-range trophic levels, the present study indicates that POPs may affect steroid homeostasis in house sparrows, in particular for females. For

  8. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon L. Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the

  9. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joon L.; Ng, Kee P.; Ong, Chia S.; Ngeow, Yun F.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii) are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site) identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a) recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b) recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c) the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the diversification

  10. Swamp Buffalo in South Kalimantan : Problem, Disease and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have been carried out to evaluate and investigate the important diseases of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus carabanensis in Kalimantan . More attention has been focused on the case of acute infectious diseases and sudden death in the buffaloes . Fasciolosis black disease, acute enteritis, especially fatal enterotoxaemia haemorrhagic septicaemia . and trypanosomiasis (Surra, are some of the important diseases found in these animals . Black disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium novyi occurs in the presence of the organism in the liver and the degree of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation . In regions where black disease is enzootic, Cl. novvi can be isolated from livers of normal healthy animals . In Hulu Sungai Utara district, South Kalimantan, the prevalence of fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica in swamp buffalo was 77% in 1991 . A gross sudden change in diet due to seasonal changes could induce rumen and intestinal stasis, which provide a favourable environment for the rapid proliferation of commensal toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine . Subsequent absorption of the toxin produced through the gut wall and its generalized dissemination culminated in a fatal enterotoxaemia . Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS is an acute, fatal disease affecting swamp buffalo, and caused by Pasteurella multocida B : 2 . The swamp buffalo is particularly susceptible for HS, and the reported greatest losses of swamp buffalo in Kalimantan due to HS is recorded in 1980s. The clinical signs of Surra in swamp buffalo were also found in certain areas in Danau Panggang area . Hulu Sungai Utara district . Vaccination is the accepted method for controlling Black disease, enterotoxaemia and HS. Multi component vaccine, alum adjuvant containing at least 5 types of clostridial toxoids and P. multocida B2 bacterin have been used and provide good protection to the animals . Control and treatment of liver fluke infestation

  11. Palynology, sedimentology and environmental significance of Holocene swamps at northern Kaitoke, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analyses of two cores from coastal freshwater swamps at northern Kaitoke (Kaitoke Swamp and Police Station Swamp), Great Barrier Island, show that c. 7300 calibrated yr BP Kaitoke Swamp was an estuary with tidal flats. Avicennia, now absent from the swamp area, was present in the estuary. By c. 4500 yr BP fresh water conditions had developed at the Kaitoke Swamp site as marine influences decreased. Around the same time, fresh water swamp conditions commenced at the Police Station Swamp site on the surface of a low lying area of a Late Pleistocene dune. A sandy layer at Kaitoke may represent rapid infilling followed by a dry soil surface until c. 1000 yr BP. Conifer-hardwood forest on the hills surrounding the sites c. 7300-c. 1800 yr BP was dominated by Dacrydium and Metrosideros. During this period, environmental conditions were relatively stable, with little change in forest composition. Between 1800 yr and 800 yr BP Kaitoke Swamp was reflooded, and the Police Station Swamp extended as a shallow lake over the nearby dune flat. These new shallow swamps were invaded by swamp forest (mainly Dacrycaprus with some Laurelia). The presence of charcoal and Pteridium spores above the Kaharoa Tephra suggests that major Polynesian deforestation at northern Kaitoke began c. 600 calibrated yr BP. (author). 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Characteristics of mangrove swamps managed for mosquito control in eastern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Devlin, D.; Proffitt, E.; McKee, K.; Cretini, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulations of the vegetation and hydrology of wetlands for mosquito control are common worldwide, but these modifications may affect vital ecosystem processes. To control mosquitoes in mangrove swamps in eastern Florida, managers have used rotational impoundment management (RIM) as an alternative to the worldwide practice of mosquito ditching. Levees surround RIM swamps, and water is pumped into the impoundment during the summer, a season when natural swamps have low water levels. In the New World, these mosquito-managed swamps resemble the mixed basin type of mangrove swamp (based on PCA analysis). An assessment was made of RIM, natural (control), and breached-RIM (restored) swamps in eastern Florida to compare their structural complexities, soil development, and resistance to invasion. Regarding structural complexity, dominant species composition differed between these swamps; the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle occurred at a higher relative density in RIM and breached-RIM swamps, and the black mangrove Avicennia germinans had a higher relative density in natural swamps. Tree density and canopy cover were higher and tree height lower in RIM swamps than in natural and breached-RIM swamps. Soil organic matter in RIM swamps was twice that in natural or breached-RIM swamps. RIM swamps had a lower resistance to invasion by the Brazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthifolius, which is likely attributable to the lower porewater salinity in RIM swamps. These characteristics may reflect differences in important ecosystem processes (primary production, trophic structure, nutrient cycling, decomposition). Comparative assessments of managed wetlands are vital for land managers, so that they can make informed decisions compatible with conservation objectives. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  13. Production Efficiency of Swamp Rice Production in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares profit maximization, output optimization and resource use efficiency in ... of two varieties of swamp rice by farmers in Cross River State of Nigeria. ... The result of the finding also shows that small-scale farmers were more ...

  14. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  15. Sequence Stratigraphic Appraisal: Coastal Swamp Depobelt In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mid-Lower Miocene Agbada sedimentary intercalations of “AB” Field in the coastal swamp depobelt, Western Niger-Delta, were evaluated to determine their sequence stratigraphic character. The analysis was based on a combination of data sets including logs of six wells to describe lithic variations of the Agbada Formation ...

  16. Biology and control of swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewick, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model predicting swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd.) emergence was developed. The model states that 0.1% of the cranberry seedlings will emerge after 150 to 170 GDD have accumulated after the winter ice has melted on the cranberry beds, using 0 C as the low temperature threshold. Experiments in cranberry showed that pronamide [3,5-dichloro-(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide] was effective in controlling swamp dodder when applied preemergence. Rates below 2.4 kg ai/ha appeared to be safe for cranberry plants and fruit. Experiments with 14 C glyphosate showed that the herbicide moved out of carrot leaves to the physiological sinks in the plant. In carrots parasitized by swamp dodder the dodder acted as one of the strongest sinks for photosynthates from the host. In cranberry glyphosate moved out of the leaves, but most remained in the stem to which the treated leaves were attached. The only physiological sinks that accumulated significant amounts of label were the stem apices. The concentration of the herbicide in this sink decreased with time. Swamp dodder stems were able to absorb glyphosate directly from solution

  17. SURVEY OF ECONOMIC TREES IN FRESH WATER SWAMP OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... availability because it determines the number of surviving individuals. This is true for all species of .... 2010). CRUTECH, Calabar forest is a pseudo forest having characteristics of rain and swamp forests. ... as reflected in the random and contiguous distribution. (clumped or aggregated population) of the ...

  18. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  19. Swamp tours in Louisiana post Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn J. Schaffer; Craig A. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in southern Louisiana during August and September 2005. Prior to these storms, swamp tours were a growing sector of nature-based tourism that entertained visitors while teaching about local flora, fauna, and culture. This study determined post-hurricane operating status of tours, damage sustained, and repairs made. Differences...

  20. Coatal salt marshes and mangrove swamps in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Lun; Chen, Ji-Yu

    1995-12-01

    Based on plant specimen data, sediment samples, photos, and sketches from 45 coastal crosssections, and materials from two recent countrywide comprehensive investigations on Chinese coasts and islands, this paper deals with China’s vegetative tidal-flats: salt marshes and mangrove swamps. There are now 141700 acres of salt marshes and 51000 acres of mangrove swamps which together cover about 30% of the mud-coast area of the country and distribute between 18°N (Southern Hainan Island) and 41 °N (Liaodong Bay). Over the past 45 years, about 1750000 acres of salt marshes and 49400 acres of mangrove swamps have been reclaimed. The 2.0×109 tons of fine sediments input by rivers into the Chinese seas form extensive tidal flats, the soil basis of coastal helophytes. Different climates result in the diversity of vegetation. The 3˜8 m tidal range favors intertidal zone development. Of over 20 plant species in the salt marshes, native Suaeda salsa, Phragmites australis, Aeluropus littoralis, Zoysia maerostachys, Imperata cylindrica and introduced Spartina anglica are the most extensive in distribution. Of the 41 mangrove swamps species, Kandelia candel, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Excoecaria agallocha and Avicennia marina are much wider in latitudinal distribution than the others. Developing stages of marshes originally relevant to the evolution of tidal flats are given out. The roles of pioneer plants in decreasing flood water energy and increasing accretion rate in the Changjiang River delta are discussed.

  1. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia...... nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males...... success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own...

  2. Multilocus sequence typing reveals a novel subspeciation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Kana; Watanabe, Koichi

    2011-03-01

    Currently, the species Lactobacillus delbrueckii is divided into four subspecies, L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii subsp. indicus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. These classifications were based mainly on phenotypic identification methods and few studies have used genotypic identification methods. As a result, these subspecies have not yet been reliably delineated. In this study, the four subspecies of L. delbrueckii were discriminated by phenotype and by genotypic identification [amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)] methods. The MLST method developed here was based on the analysis of seven housekeeping genes (fusA, gyrB, hsp60, ileS, pyrG, recA and recG). The MLST method had good discriminatory ability: the 41 strains of L. delbrueckii examined were divided into 34 sequence types, with 29 sequence types represented by only a single strain. The sequence types were divided into eight groups. These groups could be discriminated as representing different subspecies. The results of the AFLP and MLST analyses were consistent. The type strain of L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, YIT 0080(T), was clearly discriminated from the other strains currently classified as members of this subspecies, which were located close to strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. The MLST scheme developed in this study should be a useful tool for the identification of strains of L. delbrueckii to the subspecies level.

  3. Avian metapneumovirus subtype B experimental infection and tissue distribution in chickens, sparrows, and pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, S; Shamoun, M

    2012-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respiratory virus that infects a range of avian hosts, including chickens and turkeys. Migratory and local wild birds are implicated in aMPV spread among farms, countries, and seasonal outbreaks of the disease. A subtype B aMPV isolate from commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease was experimentally inoculated oculonasally into 7-week old chickens, young pigeons, and sparrows. Chickens showed minimal tracheal rales, whereas pigeons and sparrows were asymptomatic. Shedding of aMPV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on homogenates from nasal turbinates. At 5 days postinfection, 5 of 5 chickens, 2 of 5 pigeons, and 1 of 5 sparrows were positive; at 10 or 15 days, none were positive. At 2 and 5 days, aMPV antigens were localized at the ciliated boarder of respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity and trachea of chickens, as well as to the conjunctival epithelium. Pigeons had detectable viral antigens in only the trachea at 2 and 5 days; sparrow tissues did not show any positive staining. At the end of the experiment, at 21 days postinfection, 14 of 15 inoculated chickens seroconverted against aMPV, but none of the inoculated pigeons or sparrows did. The authors believe that pigeons and sparrows have the ability to transmit the virus between chicken farms, although they do not consider pigeons and sparrows as natural hosts for aMPV, given that they failed to seroconvert. In conclusion, pigeons and sparrows are partially susceptible to aMPV infection, probably acting more as mechanical vectors because infection is only temporary and short-lived.

  4. Mass-dependent predation risk as a mechanism for house sparrow declines?

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Ross; Barnett, Phil; Clark, Jacquie; Cresswell, Will

    2005-01-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) numbers have declined rapidly in both rural and urban habitats across Western Europe over the last 30 years, leading to their inclusion on the UK conservation red list. The decline in farmland has been linked to a reduction in winter survival caused by reduced food supply. This reduction in food supply is associated with agricultural intensification that has led to the loss of seed-rich winter stubble and access to spilt grain. However, urban house sparrows h...

  5. Spectrophotometry of Artemisia tridentata to quantitatively determine subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bryce; Boyd, Alicia; Tobiasson, Tanner; Germino, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Ecological restoration is predicated on our abilities to discern plant taxa. Taxonomic identification is a first step in ensuring that plants are appropriately adapted to the site. An example of the need to identify taxonomic differences comes from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). This species is composed of three predominant subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches, but overlap and hybridization are common in ecotones. Restoration of A. tridentata largely occurs using wildland collected seed, but there is uncertainty in the identification of subspecies or mix of subspecies from seed collections. Laboratory techniques that can determine subspecies composition would be desirable to ensure that subspecies match the restoration site environment. In this study, we use spectrophotometry to quantify chemical differences in the water-soluble compound, coumarin. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of A. tridentata subsp. vaseyana showed distinct differences among A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. No UV absorbance differences were detected between A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. Analyses of samples from > 600 plants growing in two common gardens showed that UV absorbance was unaffected by environment. Moreover, plant tissues (leaves and seed chaff) explained only a small amount of the variance. UV fluorescence of water-eluted plant tissue has been used for many years to indicate A.t. vaseyana; however, interpretation has been subjective. Use of spectrophotometry to acquire UV absorbance provides empirical results that can be used in seed testing laboratories using the seed chaff present with the seed to certify A. tridentata subspecies composition. On the basis of our methods, UV absorbance values 3.1 would indicate either A.t. tridentata or wyomingensis. UV absorbance values between 2.7 and 3.1 would indicate a mixture of A.t. vaseyana and the other two subspecies.

  6. Using Cape Sable seaside sparrow distribution data for water management decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, James M.; Romañach, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis; hereafter sparrow) is endemic to south Florida and a key indicator species of marl prairie, the most diverse freshwater community in the Florida Everglades. Marl prairie habitat is shaped by intermediate levels of disturbances such as flooding, drying, and fire, which maintain periphyton production (Gaiser et al. 2011), vegetation composition (Sah et al. 2011), and habitat structure for wildlife (Lockwood et al. 2003). Historically, patches of marl prairie shifted in response to changing climatic conditions,; however, habitat loss and hydrologic alteration have restricted the sparrow’s range and increased their sensitivity to changing hydropatterns. As a result, sparrow numbers have declined as much as 60% range-wide since 1992 (Curnutt et al. 1998, Nott et al. 1998). Currently, the sparrow is restricted to the freshwater prairies of the Everglades National Park (ENP) and Big Cypress Preserve (Lockwood et al. 1997). Because this non-migratory bird is restricted in its range it was among the first species to be listed as endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service on March 11, 1967 (Pimm et al. 2000). Now protected by the Endangered Species Act of 1973, the sparrow is listed as an endangered species, and the marl prairies that it resides in are listed as critical habitat. Since its designation as an endangered species, federal agencies have a statutory obligation to not jeopardize the survival of the species or modify its critical habitat. However, there are still uncertainties in how to increase suitable habitat within and surrounding the six existing sparrow subpopulations (Fig. 1) which are vulnerable to environmental stochasticity because of their small population size and restricted range. Since Because maintenance and creation of suitable habitat is seen as the most important pathway to the persistence of sparrow subpopulations (Sustainable Ecosystems Institute 2007), emphasis should be on

  7. Utilization of Swamp Forages from South Kalimantan on Local Goat Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rostini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Forages in swamp area consist of grass and legumes that have good productivity and nutrient quality. This research was aimed to evaluate the potency of swamp forage on digestibility and performance of goats. There were 24 local male goats aged 10-12 months with initial body weight of 13.10±1.55 kg, allocated into 6 treatments. Those were control (R0: 60% grass and 40% legumes; (R1: 60% swamp forages and 40% concentrate; (R2: 100% swamp forages; (R3: 100% swamp forage hay; (R4: 100% swamp forage silage; (R5: 100% haylage swamp forages. Results showed that silage treatment significantly increased (P<0.05 consumption and digestibility. Swamp forages could be utilized well by preservation (silage, hay, and haylage. Ensilage of swamp forages increased protein content from 13.72% to 14.02%, protein intake (74.62 g/d, dry matter intake (532.11 g/d, nitrogen free extract intake (257.39 g/d, with total body weight gain (3.5 kg in eight weeks and average daily gain (62.60 g/d. It is concluded that ensilage of swamp forages (R4 is very potential to be utilized as forage source for ruminants such as goats.

  8. Effects of urbanization on host-pathogen interactions, using Yersinia in house sparrows as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Diederik; Teyssier, Aimeric; Salleh Hudin, Noraine; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Haesendonck, Roel; Delmée, Michel; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Lens, Luc; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization strongly affects biodiversity, altering natural communities and often leading to a reduced species richness. Yet, despite its increasingly recognized importance, how urbanization impacts on the health of individual animals, wildlife populations and on disease ecology remains poorly understood. To test whether, and how, urbanization-driven ecosystem alterations influence pathogen dynamics and avian health, we use house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Yersinia spp. (pathogenic for passerines) as a case study. Sparrows are granivorous urban exploiters, whose western European populations have declined over the past decades, especially in highly urbanized areas. We sampled 329 house sparrows originating from 36 populations along an urbanization gradient across Flanders (Belgium), and used isolation combined with ‘matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry’ (MALDI-TOF MS) and PCR methods for detecting the presence of different Yersinia species. Yersinia spp. were recovered from 57.43% of the sampled house sparrows, of which 4.06%, 53.30% and 69.54% were identified as Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica and other Yersinia species, respectively. Presence of Yersinia was related to the degree of urbanization, average daily temperatures and the community of granivorous birds present at sparrow capture locations. Body condition of suburban house sparrows was found to be higher compared to urban and rural house sparrows, but no relationships between sparrows’ body condition and presence of Yersinia spp. were found. We conclude that two determinants of pathogen infection dynamics, body condition and pathogen occurrence, vary along an urbanization gradient, potentially mediating the impact of urbanization on avian health. PMID:29281672

  9. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  10. Weathering of a petroleum spill in a tropical mangrove swamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, S.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I. [Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In August 1987, an indeterminate amount of petroleum condensate was released from a buried pipe leading to contamination of a tropical mangrove swamp surrounding a tidal creek in North Western Australia. Since no bioremediation was attempted at this site, we have monitored the natural weathering of the condensate by detailed analysis of the petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from sediment samples collected on 11 occasions over a 3 year period.

  11. Evidence for mito-nuclear and sex-linked reproductive barriers between the hybrid Italian sparrow and its parent species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra N Trier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P. domesticus and Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis. Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. After filtering for coverage, genotyping success (>97% and multiple SNPs per gene, we retained 86 species-informative, genic, nuclear and mitochondrial SNP markers from 84 genes for analysis of 612 male individuals. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers. We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function ("mother's curse" at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome

  12. Response of tropical peat swamp forest tree species seedlings to macro nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wira Yuwati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Efforts of restoration of degraded tropical peat swamp forest were facing constraints due to the low available nutrient level of peat. The transplanted peat swamp forest species seedlings experienced low survival rate and poor growth performance. This study aimed to demonstrate the response of ten tropical peat swamp forest species seedlings whether climax and pioneer species to macro-nutrients addition in the nursery. The growth performance of climax and pioneer tropical peat swamp species seedlings was recorded following addition of macro nutrients of Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus(P, Potassium(K and Dolomitic limestone (CaMg. The result showed that Alstonia spatulata and Parartocarpus venenosus showed positive growth response following macro nutrients addition. This study concluded that tropical peat swamp pioneer species has lower necessity for macro-nutrients addition than tropical peat swamp climax species.

  13. Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism of the Black-throated Sparrow in central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.J.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    From 1994-1996 we investigated effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism on Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata) nesting success in the Verde Valley of central Arizona. Of 56 Black-throated Sparrow nests, 52% were parasitized. Black-throated Sparrows appear to respond to natural parasitism by accepting the cowbird egg, deserting the nest, or burying the cowbird egg. Removal and damage of host eggs by female cowbirds effectively reduced clutch size from an average of 3.4 to 1.9 eggs. Because of this reduced clutch size, Black-throated Sparrow reproductive success was significantly lower in parasitized nests (0.2 young fledged/ nest) as compared to nonparasitized nests (1.6 young fledged/nest). When comparing cowbird parasitism between two habitat types, we found significantly higher parasitism frequencies in crucifixion-thorn (Canotia holacantha) versus creosote-bush (Larrea divaricata) habitat. We argue that this difference in parasitism is due to the greater number of tall perches (e.g., shrubs >4 m) available in crucifixion-thorn habitat, providing vantage points for female cowbirds to better find Black-throated Sparrow nests.

  14. Developmental adjustments of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings to diet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Paweł; Kohl, Kevin; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2009-05-01

    House sparrow nestlings are fed primarily on insects during the first 3 days of their life, and seeds become gradually more important afterwards. We tested whether developmental changes in size and functional capacity of the digestive tract in young house sparrows are genetically hard-wired and independent of diet, or can be modified by food type. Under laboratory conditions, we hand-fed young house sparrows with either a starch-free insect-like diet, based mainly on protein and fat, or a starch-containing diet with a mix of substrates similar to that offered to older nestlings in natural nests when they are gradually weaned from an insect to a seed diet. Patterns of overall development in body size and thermoregulatory ability, and in alimentary organ size increase, were relatively similar in house sparrow nestlings developing on both diets. However, total intestinal maltase activity, important in carbohydrate breakdown, was at least twice as high in house sparrow nestlings fed the starch-containing diet (PFuture studies must test whether the diet-dependent increase in maltase activity during development is irreversible or reversible, reflecting, respectively, a developmental plasticity or a phenotypic flexibility.

  15. Henslow's sparrow winter-survival estimates and response to prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, B.S.; Krementz, D.G.; Woodrey, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Wintering Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) populations rely on lands managed with prescribed burning, but the effects of various burn regimes on their overwinter survival are unknown. We studied wintering Henslow's sparrows in coastal pine savannas at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Mississippi, USA, during January and February 2001 and 2002. We used the known-fate modeling procedure in program MARK to evaluate the effects of burn age (1 or 2 growing seasons elapsed), burn season (growing, dormant), and calendar year on the survival rates of 83 radiomarked Henslow's sparrows. We found strong evidence that Henslow's sparrow survival rates differed by burn age (with higher survival in recently burned sites) and by year (with lower survival rates in 2001 likely because of drought conditions). We found some evidence that survival rates also differed by bum season (with higher survival in growing-season sites), although the effects of burn season were only apparent in recently burned sites. Avian predation was the suspected major cause of mortality (causing 6 of 14 deaths) with 1 confirmed loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) depredation. Our results indicated that recently burned savannas provide high-quality wintering habitats and suggested that managers can improve conditions for wintering Henslow's sparrows by burning a large percentage of savannas each year.

  16. Use of UV absorption for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spomer, G.G.; Henderson, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Use of UV absorption spectra for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. was investigated by analyzing the relative optical densities of alcohol extracts from herbarium and fresh plant material at 240 nm, 250 nm, and 265 nm. In all but 1 comparison, mean relative optical densities were significantly different (p=0.95) between subspecies, but intraplant and intrasubspecies variation and overlap was found to be too large to permit use of UV absorbance alone for identifying individual specimens. These results held whether dry or fresh leaves were extracted, or whether methanol or ethanol was used as the extracting solvent. (author)

  17. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data ...

  18. Biophysics environmental conditions of swamp buffalo Bubalus bubalis Pampangan in district Rambutan South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Windusari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis is a germ plasm specific of Pampangan and endemic in South Sumatera with low productivity and limited distribution. The aims of this study was to obtain information regarding biophysical conditions in the central areas of swamp buffalo in South Sumatera. The method used is purposive sampling method. Data collected in the form of quantitative and qualitative. Primary data were obtained through direct observation, interviews breeders selected as respondents while secondary data obtained from various related. The data obtained are presented descriptively and data tabulation. Productivity of swamp buffalo Pampangan can be increased by managing and maintaining habitat conditions although traditional maintenance. The results of observations of the biophysical condition of swamp buffalo (B. bubalis Pampangan showed that habitat of swamp buffalo Pampangan consists of dominated by lowland swamp area is overgrown with shrubs and grass. The conclution of the research are productivity and population of swamp buffalo (B. bubalis pampangan as specific plasma nutfah of South Sumatra can be improved by studying the characteristics and preferred habitat of the buffalo, although developed in a traditional farms but is good enough and so need to be developed, grass is most preferred by swamp buffalo Pampangan derived from ‘Kumpai’ grass group, and ‘Kasur’grass and ‘Kumpai’ grass is the dominant grass type found in habitat swamp buffalo Pampangan.

  19. Male Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia) Nest Defence Correlates with Female Ornament Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d-old nest......We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d...... defence factor was significantly related only to female breast patch size. We argue that male rock sparrows apparently make parental investment decisions according to their mate's quality, and examine possible alternative hypotheses....

  20. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Ri; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2013-02-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in South Korea. The Korean greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis, is distributed only in Jeju Island. The complete mitochondrial genome of the island subspecies was determined and revealed 99.7% similarity to the mainland subspecies Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai. If d-loop region is excluded, similarity of the two genomes was 99.9%.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of a Chinese rufous horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu

    2016-09-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen.

  2. Characterization of mercury and its risk in Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L Winder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni, A. caudacutus, and A. maritimus, respectively depend on marsh and wetland habitats--ecosystems in which mercury (Hg bioavailability is notoriously high. The purpose of the present study was to address the potential impact of Hg on these species using first primary and breast feathers as non-destructive biomonitoring tools. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feathers were sampled from wintering sparrows in North Carolina salt marshes (2006-2010. Feather Hg data were used in three risk analysis components (1 Threshold Component--examined feather Hg with regard to published negative effects thresholds; (2 Hg Dynamics Component--examined Hg in sparrows captured multiple times; and (3 Capture Frequency and Survival Component--tested for links between Hg and return frequency and survival. Threshold Component analyses indicated that Hg concentrations in 42-77% of sampled individuals (breast feather n = 879; first primary feather n = 663 were within the range associated with decreased reproduction in other avian species. Hg Dynamics Component analyses demonstrated that Hg increased between first and second captures for Nelson's (n = 9 and Seaside Sparrows (n = 23. Capture Frequency and Survival Component analyses detected a negative relationship between Hg and capture frequency in Nelson's Sparrows (n = 315. However, MARK models detected no effect of Hg on apparent survival in any species. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates that current Hg exposure places a considerable proportion of each population at risk. In particular, 52% of all sampled Saltmarsh Sparrows exhibited first primary feather Hg concentrations exceeding those associated with a >60% reduction in reproductive success in other species. This study reports evidence for net annual bioaccumulation, indicating an increased risk in older individuals. These data can be used to inform future population

  3. Characterization of mercury and its risk in Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Virginia L

    2012-01-01

    Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni, A. caudacutus, and A. maritimus, respectively) depend on marsh and wetland habitats--ecosystems in which mercury (Hg) bioavailability is notoriously high. The purpose of the present study was to address the potential impact of Hg on these species using first primary and breast feathers as non-destructive biomonitoring tools. Feathers were sampled from wintering sparrows in North Carolina salt marshes (2006-2010). Feather Hg data were used in three risk analysis components (1) Threshold Component--examined feather Hg with regard to published negative effects thresholds; (2) Hg Dynamics Component--examined Hg in sparrows captured multiple times; and (3) Capture Frequency and Survival Component--tested for links between Hg and return frequency and survival. Threshold Component analyses indicated that Hg concentrations in 42-77% of sampled individuals (breast feather n = 879; first primary feather n = 663) were within the range associated with decreased reproduction in other avian species. Hg Dynamics Component analyses demonstrated that Hg increased between first and second captures for Nelson's (n = 9) and Seaside Sparrows (n = 23). Capture Frequency and Survival Component analyses detected a negative relationship between Hg and capture frequency in Nelson's Sparrows (n = 315). However, MARK models detected no effect of Hg on apparent survival in any species. This study indicates that current Hg exposure places a considerable proportion of each population at risk. In particular, 52% of all sampled Saltmarsh Sparrows exhibited first primary feather Hg concentrations exceeding those associated with a >60% reduction in reproductive success in other species. This study reports evidence for net annual bioaccumulation, indicating an increased risk in older individuals. These data can be used to inform future population assessments and management for these species.

  4. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  5. Palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum Bertol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linum mucronatum is a heterostylous species from sect. Syllinum with four subspecies in Iran. The present study examines palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum, pollen characters of brevistylous individuals (pins as well as longistylous individuals (thrums of these plants by scanning electron microscope and light microscope using the prolonged acetolysis procedure. Sixteen qualitative and quantitative characters were investigated. Pollen equatorial shapes varied between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies with the exception of L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. Pollen sculptures varied between pin and thrum samples of each subspecies and were seen in the gemmate, clavate and baculate shapes. In addition, quantitative palynological characters differed between plants and ANOVA test showed significant variations for traits such as equatorial length, colpi width and apocolpium diameter. Hetrostylous individuals of each subspecies were separated from others in the UPGMA tree and also in the PCO and PCA plots. This study confirmed variations in pollen features between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies.Linum mucronatum es una especie con heterostilia, que pertenece a la sección Syllinum del género Linum, y tiene cuatro subespecies en Irán. En el presente estudio se examinan las características palinológicas de las subespecies heterostilas de Linum mucronatum Bertol., así como los caracteres polínicos de individuos de los morfos brevistilo (pin y longistilo (thrum de estas plantas, mediante microscopía electrónica de scanning y microscopía óptica usando el método de acetolisis prolongada. Se estudiaron un total de 16 caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos. La forma ecuatorial del polen varía entre los morfos pin y thrum en todas las subspecies, excepto en L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. La ornamentación también varía entre las muestras de morfos pin y thrum de cada subespecie

  6. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to

  7. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  8. 137Cs Transfer Factor from Latosol Soil to Swamp Gabbages (Ipomea Reptans Poir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli-Nirwani; Yurfida; Buchori

    2001-01-01

    A study of 137 Cs transfer factor from Latosol soil to swamp cabbages plant has been conducted using pot treatment system with complete random design. The aim of the research is to determine transfer factor of 137 Cs from latosol soil to swamp cabbages plant. Cs-137 concentration administered was 7.5287 kBq/pot. The number of swamp cabbages planted in 137 Cs treated soil and in cannot soil respectively was 12 pots filled with 1 kg soil/pot. After harvest, the weight of dried plant was measured. Transfer factor was determined according to the accumulation of 137 Cs concentration in swamp cabbages and soil and counted using Spectrometer Gamma. It was found that is a significant difference between 137 Cs concentration in swamp cabbages planted inthe treated soil and that of control soil. Transfer factor ranges between 0.02 and 0.13 with the averageof 0.08. (author)

  9. Recycling of phenolic compounds in Borneo's tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Catherine M; Lim, Yau Yan; Lim, Tse Yuen

    2018-02-07

    Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSF) are globally significant carbon stores, sequestering carbon mainly as phenolic polymers and phenolic compounds (particularly as lignin and its derivatives) in peat layers, in plants, and in the acidic blackwaters. Previous studies show that TPSF plants have particularly high levels of phenolic compounds which inhibit the decomposition of organic matter and thus promote peat accumulation. The studies of phenolic compounds are thus crucial to further understand how TPSF function with respect to carbon sequestration. Here we present a study of cycling of phenolic compounds in five forests in Borneo differing in flooding and acidity, leaching of phenolic compounds from senescent Macaranga pruinosa leaves, and absorption of phenolics by M. pruinosa seedlings. The results of the study show that total phenolic content (TPC) in soil and leaves of three species of Macaranga were highest in TPSF followed by freshwater swamp forest and flooded limestone forest, then dry land sites. Highest TPC values were associated with acidity (in TPSF) and waterlogging (in flooded forests). Moreover, phenolic compounds are rapidly leached from fallen senescent leaves, and could be reabsorbed by tree roots and converted into more complex phenolics within the leaves. Extreme conditions-waterlogging and acidity-may facilitate uptake and synthesis of protective phenolic compounds which are essential for impeded decomposition of organic matter in TPSF. Conversely, the ongoing drainage and degradation of TPSF, particularly for conversion to oil palm plantations, reverses the conditions necessary for peat accretion and carbon sequestration.

  10. Female rock sparrows (Petronia petronia), not males, respond differently to simulations of different courtship interaction outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2007-01-01

    individuals of both sexes have access to a range of mating strategies. We tested whether rock sparrows (Petronia petronia) behave differently after hearing playbacks of vocal interactions simulating a successful courtship as opposed to playback of an unsuccessful courtship. We found no support for our...

  11. Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental or mating investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilastro, Andrea; Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relations between female quality and ornamentation and between male breeding investment and female ornamentation in the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, a passerine in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch. Breast patch size in females was positively correlated with body...

  12. Reading, Laterality, and the Brain: Early Contributions on Reading Disabilities by Sara S. Sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Morris, Robin D.

    2014-01-01

    Although best known for work with children and adults with intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders, training in speech pathology and a doctorate in clinical psychology and neuropsychology was the foundation for Sara Sparrow's long-term interest in reading disabilities. Her first papers were on dyslexia and laterality, and the…

  13. 76 FR 65118 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... regulation. The Baltimore County Revenue Authority (Dundalk Avenue) highway toll drawbridge across Bear Creek... applicable or necessary. Basis and Purpose The drawbridge across Bear Creek, mile 1.5 was removed and...

  14. Characterization of the nest site preferences of Saltmarsh and Nelson's Sparrows, and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh Sparrows (hereafter SALS) are named on the National Audubon Society’s current WatchList as a species of global conservation concern (National Audubon Society 2007). Anthropogenic climate change is perhaps the largest threat to SALS populations because sea level ri...

  15. Prevalence of filarioid nematodes and trypanosomes in American robins and house sparrows, Chicago USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Gabriel L; Anderson, Tavis K; Berry, Garrett E; Makohon-Moore, Alvin P; Crafton, Jeffrey C; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Dolinski, Amanda C; Krebs, Bethany L; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Muzzall, Patrick M; Goldberg, Tony L; Walker, Edward D

    2013-12-01

    Hosts are commonly infected with a suite of parasites, and interactions among these parasites can affect the size, structure, and behavior of host-parasite communities. As an important step to understanding the significance of co-circulating parasites, we describe prevalence of co-circulating hemoparasites in two important avian amplification hosts for West Nile virus (WNV), the American robin (Turdus migratorius) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus), during the 2010-2011 in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Rates of nematode microfilariemia were 1.5% of the robins (n = 70) and 4.2% of the house sparrows (n = 72) collected during the day and 11.1% of the roosting robins (n = 63) and 0% of the house sparrows (n = 11) collected at night. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes from these parasites resolved two clades of filarioid nematodes. Microscopy revealed that 18.0% of American robins (n = 133) and 16.9% of house sparrows (n = 83) hosted trypanosomes in the blood. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from the 18s rRNA gene revealed that the trypanosomes fall within previously described avian trypanosome clades. These results document hemoparasites in the blood of WNV hosts in a center of endemic WNV transmission, suggesting a potential for direct or indirect interactions with the virus.

  16. Prevalence of filarioid nematodes and trypanosomes in American robins and house sparrows, Chicago USA☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Gabriel L.; Anderson, Tavis K.; Berry, Garrett E.; Makohon-Moore, Alvin P.; Crafton, Jeffrey C.; Brawn, Jeffrey D.; Dolinski, Amanda C.; Krebs, Bethany L.; Ruiz, Marilyn O.; Muzzall, Patrick M.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Walker, Edward D.

    2012-01-01

    Hosts are commonly infected with a suite of parasites, and interactions among these parasites can affect the size, structure, and behavior of host–parasite communities. As an important step to understanding the significance of co-circulating parasites, we describe prevalence of co-circulating hemoparasites in two important avian amplification hosts for West Nile virus (WNV), the American robin (Turdus migratorius) and house sparrow (Passer domesticus), during the 2010–2011 in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Rates of nematode microfilariemia were 1.5% of the robins (n = 70) and 4.2% of the house sparrows (n = 72) collected during the day and 11.1% of the roosting robins (n = 63) and 0% of the house sparrows (n = 11) collected at night. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes from these parasites resolved two clades of filarioid nematodes. Microscopy revealed that 18.0% of American robins (n = 133) and 16.9% of house sparrows (n = 83) hosted trypanosomes in the blood. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences from the 18s rRNA gene revealed that the trypanosomes fall within previously described avian trypanosome clades. These results document hemoparasites in the blood of WNV hosts in a center of endemic WNV transmission, suggesting a potential for direct or indirect interactions with the virus. PMID:24533314

  17. Equipment for neutron measurements at VR-1 Sparrow training reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolros, Antonin; Huml, Ondrej; Kos, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The VR-1 Sparrow training reactor is the experimental nuclear facility especially employed for education and teaching of students from different technical universities in the Czech Republic and other countries. Since 2005 the uniform all-purpose devices EMK310 have been used for measurement at reactor laboratory with different type of gas filled neutron detectors. The neutron detection system are employed for reactivity measurement, control rod calibration, critical experiment, study of delayed neutrons, study of nuclear reactor dynamics and study of detection systems dead time. The small dimension isotropic detectors are especially used for measurement of thermal neutron flux distribution inside the reactor core. The EMK-310 is a high performance, portable, three-channel fast amplitude analyzer designed for counting applications. It was developed for nuclear applications and made in close co-operation with firm TEMA Ltd. The precise rack eliminates electromagnetic disturbance and contains the control unit and four modules. The modules of high voltage supply and amplifier for gas filled detectors or scintillation probes are used in basic configuration. Software is tailored specifically to the reactor measurement and allows full online control. For applications involving the study of signals that may vary with the time, example study of delayed neutrons or nuclear reactor dynamics, the EMK-310 provides a Multichannel Scaling (MCS) acquisition mode. MCS dwell time can be set from 2 ms. Now, the new generation of digital multichannel analyzers DA310 is introduced. They have similarly attributes as EMK310 but the output information of unipolar signals from detector is more complete. The pipeline A/D converter with field programmable gate array (FPGA) is the hearth of the DA310 device. The resolution is 12 bits (4096 channels); the sample frequency is 80 MHz. The application for the neutron noise analysis is supposed. The correction method for non linearity

  18. Ubiquity of Polynucleobacter necessarius subspecies asymbioticus results from ecological diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Brandt, Ulrike; Hahn, Martin W

    2011-01-01

    The subspecies Polynucleobacter necessarius asymbioticus (> 99% 16S rRNA similarity) has a cosmopolitan distribution and a ubiquitous occurrence in lentic freshwater habitats. We tested if the observed ubiquity of these free-living planktonic freshwater bacteria results from a euryoecious (generalist) adaptation of P. n. asymbioticus strains, or from ecological diversification within the subspecies. We developed a reverse line blot hybridization assay enabling the cultivation-independent detection of 13 groups within the subspecies in environmental samples. A set of 121 lentic freshwater habitats, spanning a broad variety of habitat types (e.g. pH levels ranging from 3.8 to 8.5) was investigated for the presence of these 13 P. n. asymbioticus groups. Statistical analyses of the reverse line blot hybridization detections revealed pronounced differences in habitat preferences of several of the groups. Their preferences differed regarding pH, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon and oxygen concentration of habitats. For some groups, differences in environmental preferences resulted even in complete niche separation between them. The revealed differences in habitat preferences suggest that the previously reported ubiquity of P. n. asymbioticus results from ecological diversification within the taxon and not from generalist adaptation of strains. PMID:21208356

  19. Holocene mangrove swamps of West Africa sedimentology and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius, C.; Lucas, J.

    The mangrove swamps of West African Coast belong to the Atlantic type which is characterized by a small number of species. They colonize tidal environments which are dissected by numerous meandering tidal channels and are presently subject to a low rate of sediment accumulation. The mangrove vegetation exhibits a characteristic zonation pattern that basically reflects the adaptation of the various species to saline conditions. The typical zonation sequence is: Rhizophora racemosa (or Rh. mangle), Rh. mangle + Avicennia africana, Avicennia, flooded tanne, barren tanne, herbaceous tanne. The tannes are generated by aridic climatic conditions, heavy soil and water salt content, and are, in a way a peculiar feature of mangrove swamps in West Africa. The sediment colonized by the mangroves is relatively homogenous. Mineralogically, they are dominated by quartz and clay to which are associated halite, pyrite and jarosite. The clay suite is mainly composed of smectite and kaolinite. Smectite is predominant in the inlet areas and is replaced inland by kaolinite. Chemically, the sediments contain very low amounts of Ca, bases and trace elements. The mangrove swamp floodwaters have a chemical composition similar to that of seawater. It is dominated by sodium and chloride. Morphologically, the ripening of the soils appears with a chestnut mash colour horizon and buttery consistency in relation with the decomposition of fibrous roots of Rhizophora and also with pale yellow jarosite mottles in the top horizons of the tanne profiles due to the oxidation of pyrine. The two main properties of the mangrove soils of West Africa are acidity and salinity; the first is related to the high content of sulphur and the second to the sea influence. The acidity has to be connected mainly to the Rhizophora vegetation whose the root system is a real trap for catching the pyrites resulting from the reduction of the sulphates of sea water by the sulphate reducing bacteria, in a reduced

  20. Isolation of peat swamp forest foliar endophyte fungi as biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinah Surya Hakim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peatland restoration activity is facing many obstacles, particularly in planting techniques and poor nutrient in peat soil. Naturally, endophytic fungi are abundant and have great potential as biofertilizer. This research investigates the potential endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of peat swamp tree species for biofertilizer. Research activities include: exploration, in vitro test to examine the phosphate solubilization and identification. Result showed that there were 360 leave segments collected from 4 sampling locations. The colonization percentage of 222 isolates ranged from 52.17% - 60.17%. Fifty seven morphospecies were selected from 222 isolates. Twelve isolates demonstrated ability to produce clear zones and ten isolates were selected for identification. It is concluded that twelve isolated demonstrated potential ability to produce clear zone and Penicillum citrinum isolate P3.10 was identified as an isolate that show the highest potential ability as a biofertilizer

  1. SWAMP+: multiple subsequence alignment using associative massive parallelism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfadt, Shannon Irene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Johnnie W [KENT STATE UNIV.

    2010-10-18

    A new parallel algorithm SWAMP+ incorporates the Smith-Waterman sequence alignment on an associative parallel model known as ASC. It is a highly sensitive parallel approach that expands traditional pairwise sequence alignment. This is the first parallel algorithm to provide multiple non-overlapping, non-intersecting subsequence alignments with the accuracy of Smith-Waterman. The efficient algorithm provides multiple alignments similar to BLAST while creating a better workflow for the end users. The parallel portions of the code run in O(m+n) time using m processors. When m = n, the algorithmic analysis becomes O(n) with a coefficient of two, yielding a linear speedup. Implementation of the algorithm on the SIMD ClearSpeed CSX620 confirms this theoretical linear speedup with real timings.

  2. Weeds optimally grow in peat swamp after burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Susanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After clearing land by burning the peat, then the weeds and undergrowth will flourish. Even sometimes, the weeds are eventually burned again. Weed is known as a destroyer plant that has to be controlled. Through proper treatment, the existing weeds in peatlands can be potentiallly exploited. The purpose of this study was to determine the calorific value of briquettes as one of peatland weeds utilization. The results showed that the calorific value ranged from 2,492 cal/g to 5,230 cal/g. The lowest calorific value was on ‘teki kecil’ grass (Scirpus grossus Lf, while the highest calorific value was observed for ‘bantalaki grass’ (Hymenachne amplexicaulis Nees. The high calorific value of the peat weeds are potential for biomass briquettes raw materials. The utilization and use of peat weed briquettes as a raw materials expected can reduce land degradation due to peat swamp burning

  3. Ornithological aspects on the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GACHE Carmen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This ornithological notice present information on the avifauna recorded in the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia beginning with the 1998’s summer. We identified 132 species of birds. The reedbeds cover about 35% of the swamp’s surface, offering good conditions for the breeding season (Ixobrychus minutus, Botaurus stellaris, Cygnus olor, Himantopus himantopus, Recurvirostra avosetta and Sterna hirundo but also for migration period. The breeding population is low due the high level of the human pressure. Due the presence of sulphurous sources and peat bed, the water is not freezing during the winter, transforming this territory in an important wintering site in the southeastern Dobroudja. Interesting is also the presence in this area during the winter of some summer visitors’ species for Romania like: Phalacrocorax pygmeus, Botaurus stellaris and Rallus aquaticus.

  4. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Cooksey-Stowers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision. Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16. Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05 and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01. Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  5. Geomorphic controls on fluvial carbon exports and emissions from upland swamps in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten; Looman, Arun; Maher, Damien T; Fryirs, Kirstie

    2018-03-15

    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are upland wetlands, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage. To assess the effect of channelisation on carbon budgets in these ecosystems it is essential to identify and quantify differences in carbon export, emissions and stocks of carbon of intact swamps and those that have become channelised. We undertook seasonal sampling of the perched swamp aquifers and surface waters of two intact swamps and two channelised fills in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, to investigate differences in carbon exports and emissions between the two swamp types. We found that channelised fills' mean CO 2 emissions were almost four times higher than intact swamps with mean CH 4 emissions up to five times higher. Annual fluvial carbon exports for channelised fills were up to 18 times that of intact swamps. Channelised fill exports and emissions can represent up to 2% of the total swamp carbon stocks per annum which is 40 times higher than the intact swamps. This work clearly demonstrates that changes in geomorphic structure brought about by incision and channelisation results in profound changes to the carbon storage function of THPSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-11-14

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity ( p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality ( p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  7. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05) and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01). Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity. PMID:29135909

  8. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  9. Developing a Dynamic SPARROW Water Quality Decision Support System Using NASA Remotely-Sensed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Smith, R. A.; Hoos, A.; Schwarz, G. E.; Alexander, R. B.; Crosson, W. L.; Srikishen, J.; Estes, M., Jr.; Cruise, J.; Al-Hamdan, A.; Ellenburg, W. L., II; Flores, A.; Sanford, W. E.; Zell, W.; Reitz, M.; Miller, M. P.; Journey, C. A.; Befus, K. M.; Swann, R.; Herder, T.; Sherwood, E.; Leverone, J.; Shelton, M.; Smith, E. T.; Anastasiou, C. J.; Seachrist, J.; Hughes, A.; Graves, D.

    2017-12-01

    The USGS Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) surface water quality modeling system has been widely used for long term, steady state water quality analysis. However, users have increasingly requested a dynamic version of SPARROW that can provide seasonal estimates of nutrients and suspended sediment to receiving waters. The goal of this NASA-funded project is to develop a dynamic decision support system to enhance the southeast SPARROW water quality model and finer-scale dynamic models for selected coastal watersheds through the use of remotely-sensed data and other NASA Land Information System (LIS) products. The spatial and temporal scale of satellite remote sensing products and LIS modeling data make these sources ideal for the purposes of development and operation of the dynamic SPARROW model. Remote sensing products including MODIS vegetation indices, SMAP surface soil moisture, and OMI atmospheric chemistry along with LIS-derived evapotranspiration (ET) and soil temperature and moisture products will be included in model development and operation. MODIS data will also be used to map annual land cover/land use in the study areas and in conjunction with Landsat and Sentinel to identify disturbed areas that might be sources of sediment and increased phosphorus loading through exposure of the bare soil. These data and others constitute the independent variables in a regression analysis whose dependent variables are the water quality constituents total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment. Remotely-sensed variables such as vegetation indices and ET can be proxies for nutrient uptake by vegetation; MODIS Leaf Area Index can indicate sources of phosphorus from vegetation; soil moisture and temperature are known to control rates of denitrification; and bare soil areas serve as sources of enhanced nutrient and sediment production. The enhanced SPARROW dynamic models will provide improved tools for end users to manage water

  10. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  11. Genetic subspecies diversity of the chimpanzee CD4 virus-receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Siegismund, Hans R

    2008-01-01

    six among the subspecies of chimpanzees. We found the CD4 receptor to be conserved in individuals belonging to the P. t. verus subspecies and divergent from the other three subspecies, which harbored highly variable CD4 receptors. The CD4 receptor of chimpanzees differed from that of humans. We...... question whether the observed diversity can explain the species-specific differences in susceptibility to and pathogenicity of SIV/HIV....

  12. Taxonomic considerations in listing subspecies under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M; Beever, Erik A; Chambers, Steven M; Draheim, Hope M; Dugger, Bruce D; Dunham, Susie; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Fontaine, Joseph B; Kesler, Dylan C; Knaus, Brian J; Lopes, Iara F; Loschl, Pete; Mullins, Thomas D; Sheffield, Lisa M

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) allows listing of subspecies and other groupings below the rank of species. This provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service with a means to target the most critical unit in need of conservation. Although roughly one-quarter of listed taxa are subspecies, these management agencies are hindered by uncertainties about taxonomic standards during listing or delisting activities. In a review of taxonomic publications and societies, we found few subspecies lists and none that stated standardized criteria for determining subspecific taxa. Lack of criteria is attributed to a centuries-old debate over species and subspecies concepts. Nevertheless, the critical need to resolve this debate for ESA listings led us to propose that minimal biological criteria to define disjunct subspecies (legally or taxonomically) should include the discreteness and significance criteria of distinct population segments (as defined under the ESA). Our subspecies criteria are in stark contrast to that proposed by supporters of the phylogenetic species concept and provide a clear distinction between species and subspecies. Efforts to eliminate or reduce ambiguity associated with subspecies-level classifications will assist with ESA listing decisions. Thus, we urge professional taxonomic societies to publish and periodically update peer-reviewed species and subspecies lists. This effort must be paralleled throughout the world for efficient taxonomic conservation to take place.

  13. Differentiation of Melipona quadrifasciata L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini subspecies using cytochrome b PCR-RFLP patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério O. Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and M. quadrifasciata anthidioides are subspecies of M. quadrifasciata, a stingless bee species common in coastal Brazil. These subspecies are discriminated by the yellow stripe pattern of the abdominal tergites. We found Vsp I restriction patterns in the cytochrome b region closely associated to each subspecies in 155 M. quadrifasciata colonies of different geographical origin. This mitochondrial DNA molecular marker facilitates diagnosis of M. quadrifasciata subspecies matrilines and can be used to establish their natural distribution and identify hybrid colonies.

  14. Report of mortmorilloniticas clay in the Medina swamp (Cerro Largo district)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.; Heinzen, W.; Theune, C.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the prospect ion work for the montmorillonitics clay in the region of Medina swamp in Cerro Largo district. The existence of new deposits was detected by cartography and geological study.

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure in contemporary house sparrow populations along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangestel, C; Mergeay, J; Dawson, D A; Callens, T; Vandomme, V; Lens, L

    2012-09-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have suffered major declines in urban as well as rural areas, while remaining relatively stable in suburban ones. Yet, to date no exhaustive attempt has been made to examine how, and to what extent, spatial variation in population demography is reflected in genetic population structuring along contemporary urbanization gradients. Here we use putatively neutral microsatellite loci to study if and how genetic variation can be partitioned in a hierarchical way among different urbanization classes. Principal coordinate analyses did not support the hypothesis that urban/suburban and rural populations comprise two distinct genetic clusters. Comparison of FST values at different hierarchical scales revealed drift as an important force of population differentiation. Redundancy analyses revealed that genetic structure was strongly affected by both spatial variation and level of urbanization. The results shown here can be used as baseline information for future genetic monitoring programmes and provide additional insights into contemporary house sparrow dynamics along urbanization gradients.

  16. Parasite prevalence in Worthen’s Sparrow (Spizella wortheni: Mexican endemic and endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Canales-del-Castillo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Worthen’s sparrow is an endemic bird of the Mexican Plateau that due to its limited distribution and population size is considered to be endangered, both nationally and globally. In general, species at risk have been, at least historically, under population size and genetic diversity reductions, which are factors that can act together to increase infections risk and susceptibility. Therefore, with the purpose to determine such propensity in this species, we analyzed the intestinal parasitic infection through fecal samples from 11 individuals, and hemoparasites, hematocrit and differential leukocyte quantification from one sample. Results indicated that 91% of the samples had one parasite taxon, with genus Cryptosporidium showing the highest prevalence (64%, followed by Eimeria (55%, and Ascaridia (9%. However, mean values of oocysts/eggs per gram indicated a low parasitic infection. We found no blood parasites, and the white blood cell counts were among reference values for other sparrow species.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure in contemporary house sparrow populations along an urbanization gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Vangestel, C; Mergeay, Joachim; Dawson, D. A; Callens, T; Vandomme, V; Lens, L

    2012-01-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have suffered major declines in urban as well as rural areas, while remaining relatively stable in suburban ones. Yet, to date no exhaustive attempt has been made to examine how, and to what extent, spatial variation in population demography is reflected in genetic population structuring along contemporary urbanization gradients. Here we use putatively neutral microsatellite loci to study if and how genetic variation can be partitioned in a hierar...

  18. Nest predation, clutch size, and physiological costs of egg production in the song sparrow (Melospiza melodia)

    OpenAIRE

    Travers, Marc Simon

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of nest predation on both clutch size and the physiological cost of egg production using a clutch removal experiment in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), inducing “high nest predation” (HNP) females to produce many replacement clutches compared to “low nest predation” (LNP) females. In a preliminary analysis we investigated the utility of multiple measures to assess “physiological condition”, including inter-correlations between physiological traits, sex d...

  19. Distribution of 14C- labelled methyl parathion in the house sparrow, Passer domesticus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, P.; Garg, A.K.; Kochhar, V.

    1994-01-01

    The activity of an insecticide when evaluated on dynamic basis is largely explained by differences in the rate of penetration, distribution and excretion. These mechanisms determine the fate of insecticides in the living system. The distribution of an organophosphorus insecticide i.e. 14 C-methyl parathion, based studies conducted on various aspects of it in relation to house sparrow, is presented. 9 refs., 1 fig

  20. Assessing habitat quality of farm-dwelling house sparrows in different agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Post, Maria; Borgström, Pernilla; Smith, Henrik G; Olsson, Ola

    2012-04-01

    Having historically been abundant throughout Europe, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) has in recent decades suffered severe population declines in many urban and rural areas. The decline in rural environments is believed to be caused by agricultural intensification, which has resulted in landscape simplification. We used giving-up densities (GUDs) of house sparrows feeding in artificial food patches placed in farmlands of southern Sweden to determine habitat quality during the breeding season at two different spatial scales: the landscape and the patch scale. At the landscape scale, GUDs were lower on farms in homogeneous landscapes dominated by crop production compared to more heterogeneous landscapes with mixed farming or animal husbandry. At the patch level, feeding patches with a higher predation risk (caused by fitting a wall to the patch to obstruct vigilance) had higher GUDs. In addition, GUDs were positively related to population size, which strongly implies that GUDs reflect habitat quality. However, the increase followed different patterns in homogeneous and heterogeneous landscapes, indicating differing population limiting mechanisms in these two environments. We found no effect of the interaction between patch type and landscape type, suggesting that predation risk was similar in both landscape types. Thus, our study suggests that simplified landscapes constitute a poorer feeding environment for house sparrows during breeding, that the population-regulating mechanisms in the landscapes differ, but that predation risk is the same across the landscape types.

  1. Conservation Controversy: Sparrow, Marshall, and the Mi’kmaq of Esgenoôpetitj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. King

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the interplay between the Sparrow and Marshall decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada, and the sovereigntist and traditionalist convictions of the Mi’kmaq of the Esgenoôpetitj/BurntChurch First Nation, as expressed in the conservationist language of the Draft for the Esgenoopotitj First Nations (EFN Fishery Act (Fisheries Policy. With the Supreme Court of Canada’s decision in Sparrow, conservation became an important justification available to the Canadian government to support its regulatory infringement on aboriginal and treaty rights. Ten years later, in Marshall, the Court recognized the treaty rights of the Mi’kmaq to a limited commercial fishery. The EFN Fishery Act, written to govern thecontroversial post-Marshall fishery in Esgenoôpetitj (also known as the Burnt Church First Nation demonstrates that for the Mi’kmaq, scientific management, traditional knowledge, sovereignty and spirituality are understood in a holistic philosophy. The focus placed on conservation by the courts, and the managementfocusedapproach taken by the government at Esgenoôpetitj have led to government policy which treats conservation simply as a resource access and management problem. Conservation, which the Court deems“uncontroversial” in Sparrow, is a politically loaded ideal in post-Marshall Burnt Church.

  2. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  3. SPARROW models used to understand nutrient sources in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) has been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. To describe where and from what sources those loads originate, SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were constructed for the MARB using geospatial datasets for 2002, including inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and calibration sites throughout the MARB. Previous studies found that highest N and P yields were from the north-central part of the MARB (Corn Belt). Based on the MARB SPARROW models, highest N yields were still from the Corn Belt but centered over Iowa and Indiana, and highest P yields were widely distributed throughout the center of the MARB. Similar to that found in other studies, agricultural inputs were found to be the largest N and P sources throughout most of the MARB: farm fertilizers were the largest N source, whereas farm fertilizers, manure, and urban inputs were dominant P sources. The MARB models enable individual N and P sources to be defined at scales ranging from SPARROW catchments (∼50 km2) to the entire area of the MARB. Inputs of P from WWTPs and urban areas were more important than found in most other studies. Information from this study will help to reduce nutrient loading from the MARB by providing managers with a description of where each of the sources of N and P are most important, thus providing a basis for prioritizing management actions and ultimately reducing the extent of Gulf hypoxia.

  4. A longitudinal genetic survey identifies temporal shifts in the population structure of Dutch house sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousseau, L; Husemann, M; Foppen, R; Vangestel, C; Lens, L

    2016-01-01

    Dutch house sparrow (Passer domesticus) densities dropped by nearly 50% since the early 1980s, and similar collapses in population sizes have been reported across Europe. Whether, and to what extent, such relatively recent demographic changes are accompanied by concomitant shifts in the genetic population structure of this species needs further investigation. Therefore, we here explore temporal shifts in genetic diversity, genetic structure and effective sizes of seven Dutch house sparrow populations. To allow the most powerful statistical inference, historical populations were resampled at identical locations and each individual bird was genotyped using nine polymorphic microsatellites. Although the demographic history was not reflected by a reduction in genetic diversity, levels of genetic differentiation increased over time, and the original, panmictic population (inferred from the museum samples) diverged into two distinct genetic clusters. Reductions in census size were supported by a substantial reduction in effective population size, although to a smaller extent. As most studies of contemporary house sparrow populations have been unable to identify genetic signatures of recent population declines, results of this study underpin the importance of longitudinal genetic surveys to unravel cryptic genetic patterns. PMID:27273323

  5. White-throated sparrows alter songs differentially in response to chorusing anurans and other background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenske, Ariel K; La, Van T

    2014-06-01

    Animals can use acoustic signals to attract mates and defend territories. As a consequence, background noise that interferes with signal transmission has the potential to reduce fitness, especially in birds that rely on song. While much research on bird song has investigated vocal flexibility in response to urban noise, weather and other birds, the possibility of inter-class acoustic competition from anurans has not been previously studied. Using sound recordings from central Ontario wetlands, we tested if white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicolis) make short-term changes to their singing behaviour in response to chorusing spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), as well as to car noise, wind and other bird vocalizations. White-throated sparrow songs that were sung during the spring peeper chorus were shorter with higher minimum frequencies and narrower bandwidths resulting in reduced frequency overlap. Additionally, sparrows were less likely to sing when car noise and the vocalizations of other birds were present. These patterns suggest that birds use multiple adjustment strategies. This is the first report to demonstrate that birds may alter their songs differentially in response to different sources of noise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Swamp land optimization in supporting food security and enhancing farmers welfare in South Sumatra Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwenita; Hutapea, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Swamp land in Indonesia spread in Sumatra, Kalimantan and West Papua. In Sumatra the largest swamp land area is located in South Sumatera Province. Unfortunately only few of the areas have been utilized due to its fragility, in which farmers could only cultivate rice on it once a year. The purpose of this paper is to develop a feasible farming pattern in swamp land to help farmers and practitioners in optimizing it by managing its water level. Shallow and mid swamp land can be cultivated using rotation model of crops (rice, corn, cassava), horticulture (cucumber, long beans, watermelon etc), fish farming (catfish, snake head fish, tilapia), and duck farming, whereas submergence tolerant rice varieties can be cultivated alternating with fish farming in deep swamp land. This study shows that such swamp land management is financially feasible showing by its positive NPV value, BCR value is above 1.00, and IRR value is greater than the interest rate. Therefore, implementation of this farming pattern is expected to increase farmers’ income and household food supply as well as village food supply.

  7. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  8. Fish measurement using Android smart phone: the example of swamp eel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baisong; Fu, Zhuo; Ouyang, Haiying; Sun, Yingze; Ge, Changshui; Hu, Jing

    The body length and weight are critical physiological parameters for fishes, especially eel-like fishes like swamp eel(Monopterusalbus).Fast and accurate measuring of body length is significant for swamp eel culturing as well as its resource investigation and protection. This paper presents an Android smart phone-based photogrammetry technology for measuring and estimating the length and weight of swamp eel. This method utilizes the feature that the ratio of lengths of two objects within an image is equal to that of in reality to measure the length of swamp eels. And then, it estimates the weight via a pre-built length-weight regression model. Analysis and experimental results have indicated that this method is a fast and accurate method for length and weight measurements of swamp eel. The cross-validation results shows that the RMSE (root-mean-square error) of total length measurement of swamp eel is0.4 cm, and the RMSE of weight estimation is 11 grams.

  9. Spinal subspecialization in post-graduate neurosurgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Brian D

    2004-05-01

    The growing science and technology of various neurosurgical areas fosters subspecialization. The transmission of this expanding knowledge base to the neurosurgical resident becomes an increasing challenge. A survey of neurosurgical residency program directors was undertaken to evaluate their response to the budding subspecialization of spine surgery within general neurosurgery. A survey requesting background data, educational infrastructure and prevailing opinion was distributed to all 13 neurosurgical program directors in Canada. The responses were tabulated and results recorded. It is upon these results that conclusions and proposed directions are based. The current practice of the overwhelming majority of Canadian academic neurosurgical centers is to have neurosurgical spinal subspecialists working under the umbrella of the general neurosurgical division. A large percentage of neurosurgical program directors in Canada believe that the management of spinal disease, including both intradural procedures and instrumentation, is and should remain an integral part of general neurosurgical training. A consensus statement regarding the requirements of neurosurgical training in spinal disorders is the expressed desire of almost all program directors. A proposed direction and resolution is discussed.

  10. Sunken wood habitat for thiotrophic symbiosis in mangrove swamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Mélina C Z; Gros, Olivier; Brulport, Jean-Pierre; Gaill, Françoise; Bris, Nadine Le

    2009-03-01

    Large organic falls to the benthic environment, such as dead wood or whale bones, harbour organisms relying on sulfide-oxidizing symbionts. Nothing is known however, concerning sulfide enrichment at the wood surface and its relation to wood colonization by sulfide-oxidizing symbiotic organisms. In this study we combined in situ hydrogen sulfide and pH measurements on sunken wood, with associated fauna microscopy analyses in a tropical mangrove swamp. This shallow environment is known to harbour thiotrophic symbioses and is also abundantly supplied with sunken wood. A significant sulfide enrichment at the wood surface was revealed. A 72h sequence of measurements emphasized the wide fluctuation of sulfide levels (0.1->100muM) over time with both a tidal influence and rapid fluctuations. Protozoans observed on the wood surface were similar to Zoothamnium niveum and to vorticellids. Our SEM observations revealed their association with ectosymbiotic bacteria, which are likely to be sulfide-oxidizers. These results support the idea that sunken wood surfaces constitute an environment suitable for sulfide-oxidizing symbioses.

  11. A comprehensive review of non-enterica subspecies of Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Alexandre; Miranda, José Manuel; Regal, Patricia; Vázquez, Beatriz; Franco, Carlos Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen with a complex nomenclature. This genus is composed of two species, S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is divided into six subspecies. S. enterica subspecies enterica is composed of more than 1500 serotypes with some of great importance, such as S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. S. enterica subsp. enterica is responsible of more than 99% of human salmonellosis and therefore it is widely studied. However, the non-enterica subspecies of S. enterica have been little studied. These subspecies are considered to be related to cold-blooded animals and their pathogenicity is very limited. Phenotype and genotype information generated from different studies of non-enterica subspecies reveal poor ability to invade host cells and the absence or modification of important virulence factors. Also, the great majority of human infections due to non-enterica subspecies are related to a previous depressed immune system. Therefore, we propose to treat these subspecies only as opportunistic pathogens. For establish this premise, the present review evaluated, among other things, the genomic characteristics, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and reported human cases of the non-enterica subspecies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 73769 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Four Subspecies of Mazama Pocket Gopher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... genetic data and morphological features. The candidate status for the nine Washington subspecies of Mazama... time) genetic data and morphological features and based on the presumption that this subspecies was a... natural or manmade factors, including low genetic diversity, small or isolated populations, low...

  13. Developmental plasticity of cutaneous water loss and lipid composition in stratum corneum of desert and mesic nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-10-07

    Intercellular lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, form a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. Previously, we measured cutaneous water loss (CWL) and lipid composition of the SC of adult house sparrows from two populations, one living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia and another living in mesic Ohio. Adult desert house sparrows had a lower CWL, a lower proportion of free fatty acids, and a higher proportion of ceramides and cerebrosides in the SC compared with mesic sparrows. In this study, we investigated developmental plasticity of CWL and lipid composition of the SC in desert and mesic nestling house sparrows reared in low and high humidity and compared our results with previous work on adults. We measured CWL of nestlings and analyzed the lipid composition of the SC using thin-layer chromatography. We showed that nestling house sparrows from both localities had higher CWL than adults in their natural environment, a result of major modifications of the lipid composition of the SC. The expression of plasticity in CWL seems to be a response to opposed selection pressures, thermoregulation and water conservation, at different life stages, on which regulation of CWL plays a crucial role. Desert nestlings showed a greater degree of plasticity in CWL and lipid composition of the SC than did mesic nestlings, a finding consistent with the idea that organisms exposed to more environmental stress ought to be more plastic than individuals living in more benign environments.

  14. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Joris; Bauwens, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi(2)-tests and AIC-criteria, Pnegative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.

  15. Mineral uptake by taro (colocasla esculenta) in swamp agroecosystem following gramoxone paraquat herbicide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Mazleha Maskin; Abdul Khalik Wood

    2006-01-01

    Mineral elemental uptake by Colocasia esculenta growing in swamp agroecosystem was studied following 14, 18 or 28 months of field spraying (MAT, months after treatment) with herbicide Gramoxone paraquat. In overall, Al (68226.67 ± 24066.56 μ/g dw) was the major element in riverine alluvial swamp soil, followed by micronutrient Fe (22280.00 ± 6328.87 μ/g dw). Concentration of macronutrient K (20733.33 ± 7371.82, μ/g dw) was the highest in swamp taro leaf followed by macronutrient Ca (7050.00 ± 3767.26 μ/g dw). In overall, the order of importance of the average mineral concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Na > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. However at 14 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Al > Na > Mn > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. At 18 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Fe > Na > Zn > Br > Co. At 28 AMT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Fe > Al > Zn > Na > Br > Co. In overall, the average order of importance of mineral elemental uptake or the soil plant transfer coefficient was Mn > K > Na > Zn > Co > Fe > Al; similar with the order at 28 MAT However, at 14 MAT the order of importance of the soil plant transfer coefficient was different at Mn > K > Na > Co > Zn > Al > Fe. (Author)

  16. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.

    2017-06-09

    The use of freshwater diversions (river reintroductions) from the Mississippi River as a restoration tool to rehabilitate Louisiana coastal wetlands has been promoted widely since the first such diversion at Caernarvon became operational in the early 1990s. To date, aside from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (which is designed and operated for flood control), there are only four operational Mississippi River freshwater diversions (two gated structures and two siphons) in coastal Louisiana, and they all target salinity intrusion, shellfish management, and (or) the enhancement of the integrity of marsh habitat. River reintroductions carry small sediment loads for various design reasons, but they can be effective in delivering fresh­water to combat saltwater intrusion and increase the delivery of nutrients and suspended fine-grained sediments to receiving wetlands. River reintroductions may be an ideal restoration tool for targeting coastal swamp forest habitat; much of the area of swamp forest habitat in coastal Louisiana is undergo­ing saltwater intrusion, high rates of submergence, and lack of riverine flow leading to reduced concentrations of important nutrients and suspended sediments, which sustain growth and regeneration, help to aerate swamp soils, and remove toxic compounds from the rhizosphere.The State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restora­tion Authority (CPRA) has made it a priority to establish a small freshwater river diversion into a coastal swamp forest located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, to reintroduce Mississippi River water to Maurepas Swamp. While a full understanding of how a coastal swamp forest will respond to new freshwater loading through a Mississippi River reintroduction is unknown, this report provides guidance based on the available literature for establishing performance measures that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

  17. Zoneamento ambiental em Pantanais (Banhados Environmental zoning in swamp regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. Kurtz

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O zoneamento ambiental em pantanais (Banhados permitiu avaliar a deterioração ambiental dos ecossistemas existentes na Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC/TAIM municípios de Rio Grande, RS, e Santa Vitória do Palmar, RS. Considerou-se dois tipos distintos de ecossistemas: o do Banhado (ECO1 = Ecossistema Límnico e o da Planície Marítima (ECO2 = Ecossistema Planície Marítima. A ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 apresentou 64% da classe APP (Área de Preservação Permanente, 27,6% de ACP (Área de Conservação Permanente, e 5,6% de AUO (Área de Uso e Ocupação, enquanto em menor porcentagem se encontra a classe AR (Área de Restauração com 2,8%. A deterioração ambiental da ESEC/TAIM (ECO TOTAL ficou em 13,65%. Com relação à análise fatorial, conclui-se que esta técnica permitiu conhecer a estrutura dos dados, mostrando as correlações entre cada variável (classes de exuberância e seu respectivo fator; entretanto, não foi possível separar grupos ou quantificar a influência de uma ou mais variáveis sobre outra de interesse (variável resposta. Recomenda-se que o zoneamento ambiental seja elaborado pelos órgãos públicos ambientais, nas demais estações ecológicas e nas unidades de conservação.The environmental zoning in swamp regions allowed the evaluation of the environmental deterioration of the ecosystems in the Ecological Station of Taim (ESEC/TAIM, in Rio Grande and Santa Vitória of Palmar (in the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil. Two different types of ecosystems were considered: swamp regions (ECO1 = Límnico Ecosystem and the Marine Plain (ECO2 = Ecosystem Marine Plain. The ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 presented 64% of the class APP (Permanent Preservation Area, 27.6% of ACP (Permanent Conservation Area, 5.6% of AUO (Occupation and Use Area, and in a smaller percentage the class AR (Restoration Area with 2.8%. The environmental deterioration of ESEC/TAIM (ECO TOTAL was 13.65%. The factorial analysis technique permitted

  18. Genome-wide sequence variations among Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi eHsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap, the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD, infects many farmed ruminants, wildlife animals and humans. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of these infections, we analyzed the whole genome sequences of several M. ap and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium strains isolated from various hosts and environments. Using Next-generation sequencing technology, all 6 M. ap isolates showed a high percentage of homology (98% to the reference genome sequence of M. ap K-10 isolated from cattle. However, 2 M. avium isolates (DT 78 and Env 77 showed significant sequence diversity from the reference strain M. avium 104. The genomes of M. avium isolates DT 78 and Env 77 exhibited only 87% and 40% homology, respectively, to the M. avium 104 reference genome. Within the M. ap isolates, genomic rearrangements (insertions/deletions, Indels were not detected, and only unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were observed among the 6 M. ap strains. While most of the SNPs (~100 in M. ap genomes were non-synonymous, a total of ~ 6000 SNPs were detected among M. avium genomes, most of them were synonymous suggesting a differential selective pressure between M. ap and M. avium isolates. In addition, SNPs-based phylo-genomic analysis showed that isolates from goat and Oryx are closely related to the cattle (K-10 strain while the human isolate (M. ap 4B is closely related to the environmental strains, indicating environmental source to human infections. Overall, SNPs were the most common variations among M. ap isolates while SNPs in addition to Indels were prevalent among M. avium isolates. Genomic variations will be useful in designing host-specific markers for the analysis of mycobacterial evolution and for developing novel diagnostics directed against Johne’s disease in animals.

  19. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS AND GRAIN YIELD OF RICE FOR TIDAL SWAMP AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Hairmansis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of rice varieties for tidal swamp areas is emphasized on the improvement of rice yield potential in specific environment. However, grain yield is a complex trait and highly dependent on the other agronomic characters; while information related to the relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield in the breeding program particularly for tidal swamp areas is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield of rice as a basis for selection of high yielding rice varieties for tidal swamp areas. Agronomic characters and grain yield of nine advanced rice breeding lines and two rice varieties were evaluated in a series of experiments in tidal swamp areas, Karang Agung Ulu Village, Banyuasin, South Sumatra, for four cropping seasons in dry season (DS 2005, wet season (WS 2005/2006, DS 2006, and DS 2007. Result from path analysis revealed that the following characters had positive direct effect on grain yield, i.e. number of productive tillers per hill (p = 0.356, number of filled grains per panicle (p = 0.544, and spikelet fertility (p = 0.215. Plant height had negative direct effect (p = -0.332 on grain yield, while maturity, number of spikelets per panicle, and 1000-grain weight showed negligible effect on rice grain yield. Present study suggests that indirect selection of high yielding tidal swamp rice can be done by selecting breeding lines which have many product tive tillers, dense filled grains, and high spikelet fertility.

  20. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  1. Floristic and phytosociological analysis of palm swamps in the central part of the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Lucia de Morais Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the floristics and phytosociology of three palm swamps in the municipality of Bela Vista de Goiás, located in the state of Goiás, Brazil, in the central part of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. The floristic surveys were conducted monthly from May 2008 to April 2009, and 310 species were recorded (seven bryophytes, 15 ferns and 288 angiosperms. Bryophytes belonged to five genera and five families; ferns belonged to nine genera and nine families; and angiosperms belonged to 134 genera and 45 families. The angiosperm families with the highest species richness were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae and Fabaceae. The palm swamps were divided into three zones of increasing humidity: edge, middle and core. The number of species was higher in the middle than at the edge and the core. The families with the highest cover values were Cyperaceae, Melastomataceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae. Although the palm swamps had been disturbed to varying degrees, those disturbances did not affect the flora in the middle or the core. Floristic similarity was high between these two zones within a given palm swamp and low between the edges of different palm swamps.

  2. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Avipoxvirus in House Sparrows in Spain.

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    Jorge Ruiz-Martínez

    Full Text Available Avipoxvirus (APV is a fairly common virus affecting birds that causes morbidity and mortality in wild and captive birds. We studied the prevalence of pox-like lesions and genetic diversity of APV in house sparrows (Passer domesticus in natural, agricultural and urban areas in southern Spain in 2013 and 2014 and in central Spain for 8 months (2012-2013. Overall, 3.2% of 2,341 house sparrows visually examined in southern Spain had cutaneous lesions consistent with avian pox. A similar prevalence (3% was found in 338 birds from central Spain. Prevalence was higher in hatch-year birds than in adults. We did not detect any clear spatial or temporal patterns of APV distribution. Molecular analyses of poxvirus-like lesions revealed that 63% of the samples were positive. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 29 DNA sequences from the fpv167 gene, detected two strains belonging to the canarypox clade (subclades B1 and B2 previously found in Spain. One of them appears predominant in Iberia and North Africa and shares 70% similarity to fowlpox and canarypox virus. This APV strain has been identified in a limited number of species in the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco and Hungary. The second one has a global distribution and has been found in numerous wild bird species around the world. To our knowledge, this represents the largest study of avian poxvirus disease in the broadly distributed house sparrow and strongly supports the findings that Avipox prevalence in this species in South and central Spain is moderate and the genetic diversity low.

  3. Evaluation of a reproductive index to estimate grasshopper sparrow and eastern meadowlark reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Donald P.; Gipson, P.S.; Pontius, J.S.; Japuntich, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    We compared an index of reproductive success based on breeding behavior to actual nest fates of grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) on 12 plots (4-ha). Concordance of results between the two methods was 58% for grasshopper sparrows and 42% for eastern meadowlarks on a plot-by-plot basis. The indirect method yielded higher estimates of reproductive activity than nest monitoring for the balance of the plots,. There was little evidence that brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism influenced the estimates of reproductive success using the indirect method. We concluded that nests and about-to-fledge nestlings were missed during searches on some plots. It may be appropriate to use an indirect method to more efficiently survey territories and/or plots for species with hard-to-find nests or when monitoring large areas. Use of a reproductive index may be appropriate and more time-efficient than nest searching and monitoring for comparing management effects such as burning, grazing, haying, military training, and other localized disturbances that are likely to affect reproductive success of grasshopper sparrows and eastern meadowlarks. However, nest monitoring may be necessary for more precise estimates of productivity necessary for long-term monitoring. Nest monitoring results are also likely to allow for direct comparisons to results from other studies because the index method requires intimate knowledge of the species being evaluated - a factor that could lead to reduced precision because the experience level of technicians relying only on behavioral cues from study-to-study is likely to vary considerably.

  4. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Avipoxvirus in House Sparrows in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Martínez, Jorge; Ferraguti, Martina; Figuerola, Jordi; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Williams, Richard Alexander John; Herrera-Dueñas, Amparo; Aguirre, José Ignacio; Soriguer, Ramón; Escudero, Clara; Moens, Michaël André Jean; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Benítez, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Avipoxvirus (APV) is a fairly common virus affecting birds that causes morbidity and mortality in wild and captive birds. We studied the prevalence of pox-like lesions and genetic diversity of APV in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in natural, agricultural and urban areas in southern Spain in 2013 and 2014 and in central Spain for 8 months (2012-2013). Overall, 3.2% of 2,341 house sparrows visually examined in southern Spain had cutaneous lesions consistent with avian pox. A similar prevalence (3%) was found in 338 birds from central Spain. Prevalence was higher in hatch-year birds than in adults. We did not detect any clear spatial or temporal patterns of APV distribution. Molecular analyses of poxvirus-like lesions revealed that 63% of the samples were positive. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 29 DNA sequences from the fpv167 gene, detected two strains belonging to the canarypox clade (subclades B1 and B2) previously found in Spain. One of them appears predominant in Iberia and North Africa and shares 70% similarity to fowlpox and canarypox virus. This APV strain has been identified in a limited number of species in the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco and Hungary. The second one has a global distribution and has been found in numerous wild bird species around the world. To our knowledge, this represents the largest study of avian poxvirus disease in the broadly distributed house sparrow and strongly supports the findings that Avipox prevalence in this species in South and central Spain is moderate and the genetic diversity low.

  5. Experimental studies of adaptation in Clarkia xantiana. III. Phenotypic selection across a subspecies border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Eckhart, Vincent M; Geber, Monica A

    2015-09-01

    Sister taxa with distinct phenotypes often occupy contrasting environments in parapatric ranges, yet we generally do not know whether trait divergence reflects spatially varying selection. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment to test whether selection favors "native phenotypes" in two subspecies of Clarkia xantiana (Onagraceae), an annual plant in California. For four quantitative traits that differ between subspecies, we estimated phenotypic selection in subspecies' exclusive ranges and their contact zone in two consecutive years. We predicted that in the arid, pollinator-scarce eastern region, selection favors phenotypes of the native subspecies parviflora: small leaves, slow leaf growth, early flowering, and diminutive flowers. In the wetter, pollinator-rich, western range of subspecies xantiana, we expected selection for opposite phenotypes. We investigated pollinator contributions to selection by comparing naturally pollinated and pollen-supplemented individuals. For reproductive traits and for subspecies xantiana, selection generally matched expectations. The contact zone sometimes showed distinctive selection, and in ssp. parviflora selection sometimes favored nonnative phenotypes. Pollinators influenced selection on flowering time but not on flower size. Little temporal variation in selection occurred, possibly because of plastic trait responses across years. Though there were exceptions and some causes of selection remain obscure, phenotypic differentiation between subspecies appears to reflect spatially variable selection. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. A Molecular Method for the Identification of Honey Bee Subspecies Used by Beekeepers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikov, Mikhail Y.; Borodachev, Anatoly V.; Kokina, Anastasia V.; Popov, Vasily N.

    2018-01-01

    Apis mellifera L. includes several recognized subspecies that differ in their biological properties and agricultural characteristics. Distinguishing between honey bee subspecies is complicated. We analyzed the Folmer region of the COX1 gene in honey bee subspecies cultivated at bee farms in Russia and identified subspecies-specific SNPs. DNA analysis revealed two clearly distinct haplogroups in A. mellifera mellifera. The first one was characterized by multiple cytosine-thymine (thymine–cytosine) transitions, one adenine-guanine substitution, and one thymine–adenine substitution. The nucleotide sequence of the second haplogroup coincided with sequences from other subspecies, except the unique C/A SNP at position 421 of the 658-bp Folmer region. A. mellifera carnica and A. mellifera carpatica could be distinguished from A. mellifera mellifera and A. mellifera caucasica by the presence of the A/G SNP at position 99 of the 658-bp Folmer region. The G/A SNP at position 448 was typical for A. mellifera carnica. A. mellifera caucasica COX1 sequence lacked all the above-mentioned sites. We developed a procedure for rapid identification of honey bee subspecies by PCR with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using mutagenic primers. The developed molecular method for honey bee subspecies identification is fast and inexpensive. PMID:29382048

  7. Project conservation and handling for the multiple uses and the development of the swamps of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paez, Heliodoro

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia the swamps are distributed in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts; they are located in areas with conditions of pluvial precipitation that varies from annual 200 mm in the Guajira department; nine species of mangroves have registered for Colombia, which are related following a zonation starting from the tide line, still when this pattern not always stays and it depends on the influence of diverse factors and local conditions. The project conservation and handling for the multiple use and the development of the swamps of Colombia, had as objectives; to watch and to control the parameters of salinity, level of water and flow to laminate and of strengthening the generation of alternative productive social and environmentally appropriate for the sustainable use, guaranteeing their conservation and preservation of the swamps. The project was developed in two phases, one of diagnostic and planning and the other of dynamics of growth, phenology and natural regeneration

  8. Influences of deforestation on radiation and heat balances in tropical peat swamp forest in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Ishida, T.; Nagano, T.; Matsukawa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The difference of radiation and heat balances between a natural peat swamp forest and a deforested secondary forest has been investigated in Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Micrometeorological measurements were conducted continuously on observation towers 38 m and 4 m in heights in the primary forest and the secondary forest respectively. Results show that the deforestation of peat swamp forest leads to an increase in the sensible heat flux in the secondary forest. The yearly average ratio of the sensible heat flux to the net radiation was 20.9% in the peat swamp forest, and 33.2% in the secondary forest from Aug. 1995 to Jul. 1996. A ratio more than 40% was observed only in the dry season in the secondary forest. The change in sensible heat flux seemed to be influenced by the change in ground water levels. (author)

  9. The Effects of Corrosive Chemicals on Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement Bars: II. Swamp Sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henki Ashadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A polluted environment will influence the building age. The objective of this research was to find out the influence of corrosive chemicals within the sludge swamp area with the corrosion rate of steel concrete. Corrosion in steel concrete usually occur in acid area which contain of SO42-, Cl- and NO3-. The research treatment used by emerging ST 37 andST 60 within 60 days in 'polluted' sludge swamp area. Three variation of 'polluted' swamp sludge were made by increasing the concentration a corrosive unsure up to 1X, 5X and 10X. The corrosion rate measured by using an Immersion Method. The result of Immersion test showed that sulphate had a greatest influence to corrosion rate of ST 37 and ST 60 and followed by chloride and nitrate. Corrosion rate value for ST 37 was 17.58 mpy and for ST 60 was 12.47 mpy.

  10. Morphometric and molecular differentiation between quetzal subspecies of Pharomachrus mocinno (Trogoniformes: Trogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Sofía; Oyama, Ken

    2010-03-01

    The resplendent Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno) is an endemic Mesoamerican bird species of conservation concern. Within this species, the subspecies P. m. costaricensis and P. m. mocinno, have been recognized by apparent morphometric differences; however, presently there is no sufficient data for confirmation. We analyzed eight morphometric attributes of the body from 41 quetzals: body length, tarsus and cord wing, as well as the length, wide and depth of the bill, body weight; and in the case of the males, the length of the long upper-tail cover feathers. We used multivariate analyses to discriminate morphometric differences between subspecies and contrasted each morphometric attribute between and within subspecies with paired non-parametric Wilcoxon test. In order to review the intraspecific taxonomic status of this bird, we added phylogenetic analysis, and genetic divergence and differentiation based on nucleotide variations in four sequences of mtDNA. The nucleotide variation was estimated in control region, subunit NDH6, and tRNAGlu and tRNAPhe in 26 quetzals from eight localities distributed in five countries. We estimated the genetic divergence and differentiation between subspecies according to a mutation-drift equilibrium model. We obtained the best mutation nucleotide model following the procedure implemented in model test program. We constructed the phylogenetic relationships between subspecies by maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood using PAUP, as well as with Bayesian statistics. The multivariate analyses showed two different morphometric groups, and individuals clustered according to the subspecies that they belong. The paired comparisons between subspecies showed strong differences in most of the attributes analyzed. Along the four mtDNA sequences, we identified 32 nucleotide positions that have a particular nucleotide according to the quetzals subspecies. The genetic divergence and the differentiation was strong and markedly showed two groups

  11. The impact of the Suwannee River Sill on the surface hydrology of Okefenokee Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhi-Yong; Brook, George A.

    1992-08-01

    Okefenokee Swamp, located in southeastern Georgia and northeastern Florida, is one of the largest freshwater wetland complexes and a National Wildlife Refuge in the United States. A low earthen dam, the Suwannee River Sill, was built on the largest outlet stream of Okefenokee Swamp in the early 1960s. The purpose was to raise the water level and thus reduce fire frequency in this National Wildlife Refuge. In this study, hydrologic conditions in the swamp prior to (1937-1962) and after (1963-1986) sill construction were compared by statistical procedures. An average 9 cm increase in swamp water level at the Suwannee Canal Recreation Area was attributed to the sill. Increased precipitation and decreased evapotranspiration during the study period caused another 5 cm increase in water levels. Seasonal changes in climatic factors were also responsible for seasonal changes in water levels and streamflow in the pre- and post-sill periods. Although the effect of the sill on water level was more significant during dry periods, it is doubtful that the Suwannee River Sill actually prevented occurrence of severe fibres in the post-sill period, which was wetter than the period before sill construction. The sill diverted 2.6% of swamp outflow from the Suwannee River to the St. Mary's River. Diversion of flow was more marked during low flow periods. Therefore, the discharge of the St. Mary's River in the post-sill increased more than the discharge of the Suwannee River and its variability became lower that of the Suwannee River. The relationships between swamp water level, streamflow and precipitation were also changed due to construction of the sill.

  12. The Effects of Corrosive Chemicals on Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement Bars: I. Swamp Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyoweni Widanarko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of infrastructures using steel concrete to reinforce the strength of concrete. Steel concrete is so vulnerable to chemical compounds that can cause corrosion. It can happen due to the presence of chemical compounds in acid environment in low pH level. These chemical compounds are SO42-, Cl-, NO3-. There are many swamp area in Indonesia. The acid contents and the concentration of ion sulphate, chlorides, and nitrate are higher in the swamp water than in the ground water .The objective of this research was to find out the influence of corrosive chemicals in the swamp water to the steel concrete corrosion rate. There were two treatment used: (1 emerging ST 37 and ST 60 within 60 days in the 'polluted' swamp water, (2 moving the ST 37 up and down periodically in the ' polluted' swamp water. Three variation of 'polluted' swamp water were made by increasing the concentration of corrosive chemical up to 1X, 5X and 10X respectively. The corrosion rate was measured by using an Immersion Method. The result of Immersion test showed that chloride had the greatest influence to corrosion rate of ST 37 and ST 60 and followed by sulphate and Nitrate. Corrosion rate value for ST 37 is 24.29 mpy and for ST 60 is 22.76 mpy. By moving the sample up and down, the corrosion rate of ST 37 increase up to 37.59 mpy, and chloride still having the greatest influence, followed by sulphate and nitrate.

  13. Radionuclides distribution in artificial reservoir V-17 (old swamp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenkova, N. [Vernadsky Institute of geochemistry and analytical chemistry RAS (Russian Federation); Vlasova, I.; Sapozhnikov, Y.; Kalmykov, S. [Lomonosov MSU, Chemistry Dep. (Russian Federation); Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research center for radiation medicine (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. [FSUE Mayak PA (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Reservoir V-17 (Old Swamp) was formed as a result of the construction of dams in 1952 and 1954 (MAYAK Production Association),located in a natural depression relief. Intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes (ILLW) have been discharged to this reservoir since 1949. The water surface area of the lake is 0.13 km{sup 2} with the volume of 0.36 Mm{sup 3}. The maximum depth is 6.5 m with the average value of 2.8 m. Among 74 PBq deposited to the reservoir, the major portion is concentrated in the bottom sediments (as determined in 2007). The aim of this study is to determine radionuclide distribution among abiotic and biotic aquatic components, that includes study of various radionuclides distribution between water and bottom sediments, their speciation and evaluation of condition of zooplankton community. As a result of field research at the reservoir, 4 sampling locations were chosen from which bottom sediments, water samples and some hydrobionts were collected. Pore waters were separated from the wet sediments by high-speed centrifugation. All samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector Canberra GR 3818.The radioactivity of tritium in the pore and lake waters was determined by liquid-scintillation spectrometry. The strontium-90 was detected by Cherenkov counting of the daughter {sup 90}Y. The preliminary data show for sediments samples: for {sup 137}Cs amount varies from 75,5 KBq/g to 232 KBq/g, {sup 154}Eu - from 460 to 990 Bq/g, {sup 241}Am - from 1 to 4 KBq/g, {sup 134}Cs - from 50 to 220 Bq/g; for water samples: large contribution from strontium-90 and tritium (varies from 2 to 25 Bq/g). Pore water contains medium amount of radionuclides between sediments and water samples. For {sup 137}Cs varies between 160 to 1100 Bq/g, {sup 154}Eu - from 0,1 to 0,3 Bq/g, {sup 241}Am - from 0,3 to 11 Bq/g, {sup 134}Cs - from 0,1 to 1,7 Bq/g. Variation depends on the sampling place. Activity distribution among hydrobionts was studied by digital Radiography

  14. Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lydia E S; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c . 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance. Evidence for episodes of climatic variability, predominantly linked to ENSO events, and wildfires is present throughout. However, in the last c . 500 years, burning and indicators of human disturbance have elevated beyond past levels at these sites, concurrent with a reduction in peat swamp forest pollen. 4. Two key insights have been gained through this palaeoecological analysis: (i) peat swamp forest vegetation has demonstrated resilience to disturbance caused by burning and climatic variability in Sarawak in the late Holocene, however (ii) coincident with increased fire combined with human impact c . 500 years ago, these communities started to decline. 5. Synthesis . Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggest that recent, anthropogenic disturbances are of a greater magnitude

  15. Biocontrol for Rhizoctonia Stem Rot Disease by Using Combination of Specific Endophyte in Paddy Tidal Swamp

    OpenAIRE

    Budi, Ismed Setya; Mariana, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The use of combination of specific endophytic in tidal swamps to control stem root disease as biological control agents has not been done. It is expected that this combination is able to continuously protect plants from pathogen interference. The research was carried out in type C tidal swamp in Banjar regency of South Kalimantan, from March to November 2011, temperature 29-32oC, and pH 4.0-5.5. The method used was Split Plot design. Biocontrol preparation for both types of endophytic was ap...

  16. Application of SPARROW modeling to understanding contaminant fate and transport from uplands to streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott; Garcia, Ana Maria.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spatial variability in contaminant fate and transport is critical to efficient regional water-quality restoration. An approach to capitalize on previously calibrated spatially referenced regression (SPARROW) models to improve the understanding of contaminant fate and transport was developed and applied to the case of nitrogen in the 166,000 km2 Chesapeake Bay watershed. A continuous function of four hydrogeologic, soil, and other landscape properties significant (α = 0.10) to nitrogen transport from uplands to streams was evaluated and compared among each of the more than 80,000 individual catchments (mean area, 2.1 km2) in the watershed. Budgets (including inputs, losses or net change in storage in uplands and stream corridors, and delivery to tidal waters) were also estimated for nitrogen applied to these catchments from selected upland sources. Most (81%) of such inputs are removed, retained, or otherwise processed in uplands rather than transported to surface waters. Combining SPARROW results with previous budget estimates suggests 55% of this processing is attributable to denitrification, 23% to crop or timber harvest, and 6% to volatilization. Remaining upland inputs represent a net annual increase in landscape storage in soils or biomass exceeding 10 kg per hectare in some areas. Such insights are important for planning watershed restoration and for improving future watershed models.

  17. Development of skin structure and cutaneous water loss in nestling desert house sparrows from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Brandon; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Yamaguchi, Mamoru; Williams, Joseph B

    2007-06-01

    The outer layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), contains lipids and corneocytes, which together form layers that limit cutaneous water loss (CWL). We examined the development of structure of the SC and CWL in nestling House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) from Saudi Arabia. We measured CWL of nestlings, and characterized development of their epidermis using electron microscopy. We tested two antagonistic hypotheses, that CWL decreases as nestlings age, a response to increased thickness of SC, and an opposite idea that CWL increases as nestlings age even though the number of layers of the SC remains constant. CWL of nestling House Sparrows varied with developmental stages, in a non-linear fashion, but not significantly so. CWL of nestlings averaged 7.31+/-1.5 g H(2)O/(m(2) h), whereas for adults it was 4.95 g/(m(2) h); adult CWL was 67.7% that of nestlings. We found that morphology of the SC did not change linearly with age, but seemed to vary with developmental stage. CWL decreased as the SC thickness increased and as the total thickness of the corneocytes increased. Further, we found that CWL decreased as the thickness of the extracellular space increased, number of corneocytes increased, and proportion of the SC that is extracellular space increased.

  18. Postfledging survival of Grasshopper Sparrows in grasslands managed with fire and grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Torre J.; Miller, James R.; Koford, Rolf R.; Engle, David M.; Debinski, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate estimates of survival after nestlings fledge are needed for population models to be parameterized and population dynamics to be understood during this vulnerable life stage. The period after fledging is the time when chicks learn to fly, forage, and hide from predators. We monitored postfledging survival, causespecific mortality, and movements of Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) in grassland managed with fire and grazing. In 2009, we attached radio transmitters to 50 nestlings from 50 different broods and modeled their survival in response to climatic, biological, and ecological variables. There was no effect of treatment on survival. The factor most influencing postfledging survival was age; no other variable was significant. The majority of chicks (74%) died within 3 days of radio-transmitter attachment. We attributed most mortality to mesopredators (48%) and exposure (28%). Fledglings' movements increased rapidly for the first 4 days after they left the nest and were relatively stable for the remaining 10 days we tracked them. On average, fledglings took flight for the first time 4 days after fledging and flew ≥10 m 9 days after fledging. Our data show that the Grasshopper Sparrow's survival rates may be less than most models relying on nest-success estimates predict, and we emphasize the importance of incorporating estimates of survival during the postfledging period in demographic models.

  19. Song sparrows Melospiza melodia have a home-field advantage in defending against sympatric malarial parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina

    2016-01-01

    Hosts and parasites interact on both evolutionary and ecological timescales. The outcome of these interactions, specifically whether hosts are more resistant to their local parasites (sympatric) than to parasites from another location (allopatric), is likely to affect the spread of infectious disease and the fitness consequences of host dispersal. We conducted a cross-infection experiment to determine whether song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) have an advantage in dealing with sympatric parasites. We captured birds from two breeding sites 437 km apart, and inoculated them with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) cultured either from their capture site or from the other site. Infection risk was lower for birds exposed to sympatric than to allopatric Plasmodium lineages, suggesting that song sparrows may have a home-field advantage in defending against local parasite strains. This pattern was more pronounced at one capture site than at the other, consistent with mosaic models of host–parasite interactions. Home-field advantage may arise from evolutionary processes, whereby host populations become adapted to their local parasites, and/or from ecological interactions, whereby host individuals develop resistance to the local parasites through previous immune exposure. Our findings suggest that greater susceptibility to novel parasites may represent a fitness consequence of natal dispersal. PMID:27853596

  20. Surface ultrastructural (SEM) characteristics of oropharyngeal cavity of house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumandour, Mohamed M A

    2018-06-01

    The focus of the present study is to provide a full morphological description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the house sparrow. The head of six birds was prepared for gross examination and by stereo and electron microscopy. The bifid lingual apex has multiple long, rostrally directed needle-like processes. The lateral border of the apex carries rostromedially directed needle-like processes. The dorsal lingual surface of the apex and body carries numerous caudomedially directed filiform papillae and many orifices of lingual salivary glands. The lingual body is divided into two parts: rostral and caudal. The caudal part is divided into two laterally elevated regions by a median groove, while the rostral part is bounded laterally by a rostrodorsally directed papillary row, which on SEM is formed from two rows. On SEM, the lingual root has many orifices of posterior salivary glands. The pharyngeal papillary row is located at the caudal border of the laryngeal mound, but this single papillary row is formed from two rows at SEM magnification. The laryngeal cleft continues caudally as a laryngeal fissure bounded by two longitudinal rows of caudally directed papillae; at high SEM magnification, this fissure is divided into two halves by a median ridge which carries caudally directed papillae on its posterior part. The choanal cleft proceeds rostrally by the median tubercle. There are a small number of orifices of palatine salivary glands. The morphological characters of the oropharyngeal cavity of the sparrow confirm its adaptation to surrounding environmental conditions and available food particles.

  1. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to teicoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species and their subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to teicoplanin by disk diffusion (30-micrograms disk) and agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Moderately susceptible and resistant clinical strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and vancomycin. Teicoplanin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the various Staphylococcus species isolated from healthy volunteers or animals. However, the novobiocin-resistant species Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, Staphylococcus kloosii, and Staphylococcus gallinarum were less susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 2 to 8 micrograms/ml) than most of the novobiocin-susceptible species were (MIC, 0.5 to 4 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to teicoplanin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were moderately susceptible (MIC, 16 micrograms/ml) to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 70% were oxacillin resistant. For Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, 11% were resistant (MIC, greater than 16 micrograms/ml) and 21% were moderately susceptible to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 95% were oxacillin resistant, No strains of S. epidermidis or S. haemolyticus were intermediate or resistant to vancomycin. Teicoplanin appears to be less active in vitro against oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus. However, teicoplanin is an effective antimicrobial agent against many Staphylococcus species. PMID:1835340

  2. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to fleroxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species or subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolone fleroxacin (Ro 23-6240) by disk diffusion (5-micrograms disk) and by agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Resistant strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. Reference strains of the novobiocin-resistant species (Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, and Staphylococcus gallinarum) had an intrinsic intermediate susceptibility (MIC, 4 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Fleroxacin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the novobiocin-susceptible species (MIC, 0.5 to 2.0 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to fleroxacin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were resistant (MIC, greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Of these strains, 77% were resistant to oxacillin and 50% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Thirty-four percent of the Staphylococcus haemolyticus clinical strains were resistant to fleroxacin, and 9% had intermediate susceptibility. Of the resistant strains, 95% were resistant to oxacillin and 77% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 23% had intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Fleroxacin is an effective antimicrobial agent against most staphylococci. PMID:1759838

  3. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  4. SALMONELLA ENTERICA SUBSPECIES ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS – ACTUALITIES AND IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis has been recently recognized as a prevalent cause of alimentary toxi-infection worldwide. Its widespread presence could be explained by intensification and globalization of traffic, global trade, and the rest of socioeconomic processes. However, no matter to global spreading of S. Enteritidis, there is unequal distribution of certain phage types (PT where PT 4 and 8 are predominant. Salmonella is considered as a cause of various diseases from acute enterocolitis to typhoid fever. All bacteria from this species have numerous virulence factors such as: adhesins, toxins, virulence plasmids, and cell wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Similar to other salmonella serotypes, S. Enteritidis has a virulence plasmid. It allows a bacterium to persist inside the reticuloendothelial cells, while strains without it are eliminated quickly. In the last few years several virulent S. Enteritidis strains of PT 4 were described and considered to be of the same origin. The domination of PT 4 is probably subjected to the resistance of certain strains to nitrofurantoin which is used in poultry rising. The increased significance of S. Enteritidis refers not only to its association with pandemic problems but to frequent reports about extraintestinal infectious processes caused by this bacterium. Taking into consideration that eggs are very important source of infection besides poultry meat, the advised efficient preventive measures, among others, should be some changes in poultry meat preparation, investigation of outbreak-related flocks and devastation of infected ones, as well as egg pasteurization.

  5. A molecular marker distinguishes the subspecies Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M. Waldschmidt; Everaldo G. de Barros; Lucio A.O. Campos

    2000-01-01

    The stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata includes two subspecies, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioids and Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The morphological difference between the two subspecies is the presence of three to five continuous yellow stripes on the terga on the 3rd to 6th segments in workers and males of M. q. quadrifasciata, and two to five interrupted bands in M. q. anthidioides. We identified a DNA marker which is present in M. q. quadrifasciata and absent in M....

  6. A novel multi-antigen virally vectored vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Tim J; Gilbert, Sarah C; Sridhar, Saranya; Linedale, Richard; Dierkes, Nicola; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Hermon-Taylor, John

    2007-11-28

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes systemic infection and chronic intestinal inflammation in many species including primates. Humans are exposed through milk and from sources of environmental contamination. Hitherto, the only vaccines available against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis have been limited to veterinary use and comprised attenuated or killed organisms. We developed a vaccine comprising a fusion construct designated HAV, containing components of two secreted and two cell surface Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins. HAV was transformed into DNA, human Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) delivery vectors. Full length expression of the predicted 95 kDa fusion protein was confirmed. Vaccination of naïve and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected C57BL/6 mice using DNA-prime/MVA-boost or Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocols was highly immunogenic resulting in significant IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses by splenocytes against recombinant vaccine antigens and a range of HAV specific peptides. This included strong recognition of a T-cell epitope GFAEINPIA located near the C-terminus of the fusion protein. Antibody responses to recombinant vaccine antigens and HAV specific peptides but not GFAEINPIA, also occurred. No immune recognition of vaccine antigens occurred in any sham vaccinated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected mice. Vaccination using either protocol significantly attenuated pre-existing Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection measured by qPCR in spleen and liver and the Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocol also conferred some protection against subsequent challenge. No adverse effects of vaccination occurred in any of the mice. A range of modern veterinary and clinical vaccines for the treatment and prevention of disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis are needed. The present vaccine proved to be highly

  7. 78 FR 17996 - MCM Rail Services LLC-Petition for Retroactive Exemption-In Sparrows Point, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35707] MCM Rail Services... regarding a petition for an operation exemption submitted by MCM Rail Services LLC (MCM) regarding 12 miles of rail line in Sparrows Point, Md. (the Line). DATES: MCM's supplemental information is due by April...

  8. Analysing population numbers of the house sparrow in the Netherlands with a matrix model and suggestions for conservation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Holtkamp, R.; Apeldoorn, van R.C.; Visser, M.E.; Hemerik, L.

    2006-01-01

    The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), formerly a common bird species, has shown a rapid decline in Western Europe over recent decades. In The Netherlands, its decline is apparent from 1990 onwards. Many causes for this decline have been suggested that all decrease the vital rates, i.e. survival and

  9. 75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...] AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity... revised draft Final General Conformity Determination (GCD) for Pennsylvania to assess the potential air... the above-referenced dockets. In accordance with the General Conformity Regulations under the Code of...

  10. Molecular heterogeneity in major urinary proteins of Mus musculus subspecies: potential candidates involved in speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Jane L.; Beynon, Robert J.; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Davidson, Amanda J.; Roberts, Sarah A.; Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Smadja, Carole M.; Ganem, Guila

    2017-01-01

    When hybridisation carries a cost, natural selection is predicted to favour evolution of traits that allow assortative mating (reinforcement). Incipient speciation between the two European house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m.musculus, sharing a hybrid zone, provides an opportunity to understand evolution of assortative mating at a molecular level. Mouse urine odours allow subspecific mate discrimination, with assortative preferences evident in the hybrid zone but not in allopatry. Here we assess the potential of MUPs (major urinary proteins) as candidates for signal divergence by comparing MUP expression in urine samples from the Danish hybrid zone border (contact) and from allopatric populations. Mass spectrometric characterisation identified novel MUPs in both subspecies involving mostly new combinations of amino acid changes previously observed in M.m.domesticus. The subspecies expressed distinct MUP signatures, with most MUPs expressed by only one subspecies. Expression of at least eight MUPs showed significant subspecies divergence both in allopatry and contact zone. Another seven MUPs showed divergence in expression between the subspecies only in the contact zone, consistent with divergence by reinforcement. These proteins are candidates for the semiochemical barrier to hybridisation, providing an opportunity to characterise the nature and evolution of a putative species recognition signal. PMID:28337988

  11. Phylogenetic and Diversity Analysis of Dactylis glomerata Subspecies Using SSR and IT-ISJ Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Defei; Zhao, Xinxin; Cheng, Yajuan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan

    2016-10-31

    The genus Dactylis , an important forage crop, has a wide geographical distribution in temperate regions. While this genus is thought to include a single species, Dactylis glomerata , this species encompasses many subspecies whose relationships have not been fully characterized. In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of nine representative Dactylis subspecies were examined using SSR and IT-ISJ markers. In total, 21 pairs of SSR primers and 15 pairs of IT-ISJ primers were used to amplify 295 polymorphic bands with polymorphic rates of 100%. The average polymorphic information contents (PICs) of SSR and IT-ISJ markers were 0.909 and 0.780, respectively. The combined data of the two markers indicated a high level of genetic diversity among the nine D. glomerata subspecies, with a Nei's gene diversity index value of 0.283 and Shannon's diversity of 0.448. Preliminarily phylogenetic analysis results revealed that the 20 accessions could be divided into three groups (A, B, C). Furthermore, they could be divided into five clusters, which is similar to the structure analysis with K = 5. Phylogenetic placement in these three groups may be related to the distribution ranges and the climate types of the subspecies in each group. Group A contained eight accessions of four subspecies, originating from the west Mediterranean, while Group B contained seven accessions of three subspecies, originating from the east Mediterranean.

  12. Differential recovery of a deepwater swamp forest across a gradient of disturbance intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Rebecca R. Sharitz

    1997-01-01

    On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, large areas of floodplain swamp forest of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) were destroyed by the cumulative impacts of cooling-water discharges over a 35-year period of nuclear reactor operations. In one floodplain area, four years after thermal...

  13. Potential roles of fish, birds, and water in swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata) seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan B. Adams; Paul B. Hamel; Kristina Connor; Bryce Burke; Emile S. Gardiner; David Wise

    2007-01-01

    Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet) is a common wetland shrub/small tree native to the southeastern United States. We examined several possible dispersal avenues for the plant. We tested germination of seeds exposed to various treatments, including passage through Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh) guts, and conducted other...

  14. Composition and species diversity of pine-wiregrass savannas of the Green Swamp, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan Walker; Robert K. Peet

    1983-01-01

    Fire-maintained, species-rich pines wiregrass savannas in the Green Swamp, North Carolina were sampled over their natural range of environmental conditions and fire frequencies. Species composition, species richness, diversity (Exp H', I/ C), and aboveground production were documented and fertilization experiments conducted to assess possible mechanisms for the...

  15. Decline of the Maurepas Swamp, Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, and Approaches to Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P. Shaffer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maurepas swamp is the second largest contiguous coastal forest in Louisiana but it is highly degraded due to subsidence, near permanent flooding, nutrient starvation, nutria herbivory, and saltwater intrusion. Observed tree mortality rates at study sites in the Maurepas swamp are very high (up to 100% tree mortality in 11 years and basal area decreased with average salinities of <1 ppt. Habitat classification, vegetation productivity and mortality, and surface elevation changes show a clear trajectory from stagnant, nearly permanently flooded forests with broken canopy to degraded forests with sparse baldcypress and dominated by herbaceous species and open water to open water habitat for most of the Maurepas swamp without introduction of fresh water to combat saltwater intrusion and stimulate productivity and accretion. Healthy forests in the Maurepas are receiving fresh water containing nutrients and sediments from urban areas, high quality river water, or secondarily treated municipal effluent. Currently, two proposed diversions into the swamp are via Hope Canal (57 m3·s−1 and Blind River (142 m3·s−1. These diversions would greatly benefit their immediate area but they are too small to influence the entire Maurepas sub-basin, especially in terms of accretion. A large diversion (>1422 m3·s−1 is needed to deliver the adequate sediments to achieve high accretion rates and stimulate organic soil formation.

  16. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a primary tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang Che Ing, A.; Stoy, P. C.; Melling, L.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests are widely recognized as one of the world's most efficient ecosystems for the sequestration and storage of carbon through both their aboveground biomass and underlying thick deposits of peat. As the peat characteristics exhibit high spatial and temporal variability as well as the structural and functional complexity of forests, tropical peat ecosystems can act naturally as both carbon sinks and sources over their life cycles. Nonetheless, few reports of studies on the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange of tropical peat swamp forests are available to-date and their present roles in the global carbon cycle remain uncertain. To quantify CO2 exchange and unravel the prevailing factors and potential underlying mechanism regulating net CO2 fluxes, an eddy covariance tower was erected in a tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. We observed that the diurnal and seasonal patterns of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE)) varied between seasons and years. Rates of NEE declined in the wet season relative to the dry season. Conversely, both the gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were found to be higher during the wet season than the dry season, in which GPP was strongly negatively correlated with NEE. The average annual NEE was 385 ± 74 g C m-2 yr-1, indicating the primary peat swamp forest functioned as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere over the observation period.

  17. 75 FR 8107 - Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Bibb and Twiggs Counties, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... impact. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of our final comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental..., including upland mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland hardwood, and tupelo gum swamp forests. Creeks, beaver...

  18. Diversity and Antagonistic Activity of Actinomycete Strains From Myristica Swamp Soils Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Rlnoy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the present investigation Actinomycetes were isolated from the soils of Myristica swamps of southern Western Ghats and the antagonistic activity against different human bacterial pathogens was evaluated. Results of the present study revealed that Actinomycetes population in the soils of Myristica swamp was spatially and seasonally varied. Actinomycetes load was varied from 24×104 to 71×103, from 129×103 to 40×103 and from 31×104 to 84×103 in post monsoon, monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. A total of 23 Actinomycetes strains belonging to six genera were isolated from swamp soils. Identification of the isolates showed that most of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces (11, followed by Nocardia (6, Micromonospora (3, Pseudonocardia (1, Streptosporangium (1, and Nocardiopsis (1. Antagonistic studies revealed that 91.3% of Actinomycete isolates were active against one or more tested pathogens, of that 56.52% exhibited activity against Gram negative and 86.95% showed activity against Gram positive bacteria. 39.13% isolates were active against all the bacterial pathogens selected and its inhibition zone diameter was also high. 69.5% of Actinomycetes were exhibited antibacterial activity against Listeria followed by Bacillus cereus (65.21%, Staphylococcus (60.86%, Vibrio cholera (52.17%, Salmonella (52.17% and E. coli (39.13%. The results indicate that the Myristica swamp soils of Southern Western Ghats might be a remarkable reserve of Actinomycetes with potential antagonistic activity.

  19. Utilization of Organic Fertilizer on Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt Crop at Shallow Swamp Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midranisiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow lowland swamp area has significant potential for cultivation of sweet corn crop. This lowland swamp has rich natural resources such as organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC that are not maximally utilized yet by farmers. These organic fertilizers can be utilized to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop. The research objective was to determine organic fertilizer types that capable to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop at shallow lowland swamp area. This research had been conducted from January to April 2015 in Pulau Semambu Village, North Indralaya Subdistrict, Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra Province. The design used in this research was non-factorial Randomized Block Design (RBD with four treatments of organic fertilizer types with six replications for each treatment. The treatments were consisted of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC. The results showed that treatment of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk could increase the growth and production of sweet corn at shallow lowland swamp area with yield level of 4.37 kg.plot −1.

  20. The Productivity and Natural Increase of Swamp Buffalo in District Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, A.; Ciptadi, G.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect the basic information needed to develop a sustainable breeding program, which includes the potential for production and reproduction of buffaloes. This research was conducted on swamp buffalo in Malang Regency East Java. The research method used was survey method. Primary data was obtained from direct observation on 323 tails owned by 98 breeders. Variables observed were population growth and reproductive performance. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the initial population study of swamp Buffaloes in Malang as many as 1155 with male and female ratio 1: 2. The ratios of male and female swamp Buffalo 20 percent male and 80 percent female. Overall, the buffalo reproduction performance was still low. Service per conception 2.06 ± 0.88; Anestrus Postpartum 7.46 ± 3.83 months; calving interval distance 17.82 ± 4.86 months; 20.43 % birth rate and 4.33% mortality rate of Natural Increase (NI) population was about 16,1%. In conclusion, the value of NI of swamp Buffalo in Malang Regency is still low. To increase buffalo productivity, buffalo breeding program is continuously based on reproduction control.

  1. Skin disease affecting the conservation of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, J M; Kuchling, G; Burford, D; Boardman, W; Raidal, S R

    1998-11-01

    To review the present position of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) as an endangered species and significant health issues affecting efforts to save it from extinction. A retrospective analysis of the husbandry, hospital and pathology records of the western swamp tortoise captive breeding program at Perth Zoo. In 1987 a captive breeding project was developed to prevent the extinction of the western swamp tortoise but an outbreak of a necrotising dermatitis in 1989 threatened the survival of the captive bred hatchlings. Less severe outbreaks occurred in 1990 and 1993, with isolated cases in between. Of 283 tortoises that were born in captivity or came into captivity from the wild, 37 (13.1%) were affected, comprising 37% of all males, 26% of all females and 13% of animals of unknown gender. Of the affected animals, 70% were less than 2 years of age and 29% were older. Males were 1.6 times more likely to be infected than females but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.27). Culture of the lesions consistently yielded unidentified Pseudomonas sp. Improved husbandry, such as strict maintenance of water quality and temperature conditions similar to that of the animal's natural habitat, and monitoring the health of individual tortoises have successfully controlled skin disease in the captive breeding of the western swamp tortoise.

  2. Improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Kaiso” and “Supa” are the main local swamp-rice (Oryza Sativa) varieties currently grown in Uganda mainly by smallholder farmers on small gardens (0.5 – 2ha). Due to lack of mechanized drying equipment and owing to the low volumes of their harvests, these farmers use open-sun drying methods, where the paddy is ...

  3. Sparrow nest survival in relation to prescribed fire and woody plant invasion in a northern mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert K.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.; Derrig, James L.; Rubin, Cory S.; Kerns, Courtney K.

    2017-01-01

    Prescribed fire is used to reverse invasion by woody vegetation on grasslands, but managers often are uncertain whether influences of shrub and tree reduction outweigh potential effects of fire on nest survival of grassland birds. During the 2001–2003 breeding seasons, we examined relationships of prescribed fire and woody vegetation to nest survival of clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida) and Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) in mixed-grass prairie at Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern North Dakota, USA. We assessed relationships of nest survival to 1) recent fire history, in terms of number of breeding seasons (2, 3, or 4–5) since the last prescribed fire, and 2) prevalence of trees and tall (>1.5 m) shrubs in the landscape and of low (≤1.5 m) shrubs within 5 m of nests. Nest survival of both species exhibited distinct patterns related to age of the nest and day of year, but bore no relationship to fire history. Survival of clay-colored sparrow nests declined as the amount of trees and tall shrubs within 100 m increased, but we found no relationship to suggest nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) as an underlying mechanism. We found little evidence linking nest survival of Savannah sparrow to woody vegetation. Our results suggest that fire can be used to restore northern mixed-grass prairies without adversely affecting nest survival of ≥2 widespread passerine species. Survival of nests of clay-colored sparrow may increase when tall woody cover is reduced by fire. Our data lend support to the use of fire for reducing scattered patches of tall woody cover to enhance survival of nests of ≥1 grassland bird species in northern mixed-grass prairies, but further study is needed that incorporates experimental approaches and assessments of shorter term effects of fire on survival of nests of grassland passerines.

  4. Comparison of intraosseous pentobarbital administration and thoracic compression for euthanasia of anesthetized sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Engilis, Andrew; Pascoe, Peter J; Williams, D Colette; Gustavsen, Kate A; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Keel, M Kevin; Polley, Tamsen M; Engilis, Irene E

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare intraosseous pentobarbital treatment (IPT) and thoracic compression (TC) on time to circulatory arrest and an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) in anesthetized passerine birds. ANIMALS 30 wild-caught adult birds (17 house sparrows [Passer domesticus] and 13 European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris]). PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive IPT or TC (n = 6/species/group). Birds were anesthetized, and carotid arterial pulses were monitored by Doppler methodology. Five subdermal braided-wire electrodes were used for EEG. Anesthetic depth was adjusted until a continuous EEG pattern was maintained, then euthanasia was performed. Times from initiation of euthanasia to cessation of carotid pulse and irreversible isoelectric EEG (indicators of death) were measured. Data (medians and first to third quartiles) were summarized and compared between groups within species. Necropsies were performed for all birds included in experiments and for another 6 birds euthanized under anesthesia by TC (4 sparrows and 1 starling) or IPT (1 sparrow). RESULTS Median time to isoelectric EEG did not differ significantly between treatment groups for sparrows (19.0 and 6.0 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively) or starlings (88.5 and 77.5 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively). Median times to cessation of pulse were significantly shorter for TC than for IPT in sparrows (0.0 vs 18.5 seconds) and starlings (9.5 vs 151.0 seconds). On necropsy, most (14/17) birds that underwent TC had grossly visible coelomic, pericardial, or perihepatic hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that TC might be an efficient euthanasia method for small birds. Digital pressure directly over the heart during TC obstructed venous return, causing rapid circulatory arrest, with rupture of the atria or vena cava in several birds. The authors propose that cardiac compression is a more accurate description than TC for this procedure.

  5. Throughfall and stemflow dynamics in a riparian cedar swamp: possible ecohydrological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    Partitioning of rainfall through forest canopies as throughfall and stemflow have deservedly been the subject of much research in the past; however, very little is known about the fluxes of water and solutes through forested wetland communities. Temperate swamps are characterized by intermittent canopy coverage, with areas that are denser than upland forests of similar species, but also contain canopy gaps of meadow and marsh communities,. Understanding the role of vegetation on the distribution of precipitation in these ecosystems is necessary to effectively constrain water balance estimates and predict possible community responses to shifting climate regimes. This study examines throughfall, stemflow, and interception dynamics in a riparian cedar swamp in Alliston, Ontario, Canada over the 2012 growing season. Throughfall averaged 76 % of above-canopy rainfall; however, there were spatial-magnitude interaction variations within the swamp. For events less than 20 mm, between 17 and 75 % of the measured swamp floor received greater depth of rain than above the canopy, whereas for events greater than 20 mm only between 2 and 23 % of the sampled swamp floor received more water than the actual event. The observed spatial variability in throughfall was not related to leaf area index, suggesting remote sensing modelling efforts may not be an accurate method for quantification of wetland precipitation dynamics. Stemflow along the predominantly cedar trees averaged 5 %; therefore, net precipitation on a seasonal basis in this cedar swamp was 81 % of above canopy rainfall. Throughfall DOC and total nitrogen concentrations averaged 31 and 2.2 mg/L, respectively, with stemflow DOC and TN concentrations averaging 109 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. These values are much higher than reported for upland forest species. In general, throughfall magnitudes increased and solute concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the existing forest boles. The delivery of high

  6. Logged peat swamp forest supports greater macrofungal biodiversity than large-scale oil palm plantations and smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-09-01

    Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.

  7. Changes in Species Composition in Alder Swamp Forest Following Forest Dieback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Pielech

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally hypothesized that forest dieback is a characteristic of alder swamp forests (alder carrs, Alnion glutinosae alliance. Different internal and external factors may trigger this process, including human disturbance, changes in river discharge, unusually severe and prolonged flooding, terminal age of an even-aged alder forest (ca. 100–150 years and others. Although forest dieback in this type of forest may cause major changes in environmental conditions, the influence of this change on the floristic composition has not been well recognized. The study aimed to detect any possible changes in floristic variation in alder swamp forest following forest dieback. Vegetation plots in alder swamp forests affected by forest dieback were resurveyed 20 years after a previous study. PERMANOVA was used to test the significance of the compositional change and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS with passively fitted means of the Ellenberg’s Indicator Values were used to interpret its ecological meaning. In addition, different structural and diversity indices were compared, including species richness, percentage cover of vegetation layers, Shannon and Simpson diversity and evenness. Finally, we analyzed changes in the frequency of vascular plant species using Chi square tests. We recorded clear and significant compositional changes following alder swamp forest dieback. This change was most related to the gradient of moisture, followed by the gradients of light and temperature. The analysis of the individual species showed that the species of hummocks declined, while the species of hollows increased. Moreover, the current communities are dominated by some hydrophytes that were not recorded 20 years ago. Forest dieback resulted in profound changes in the hydrological regime. The observed changes are consistent with a model of cyclic succession as proposed for alder swamps. In addition, we conclude that the natural forest dynamics have to be

  8. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  9. Organic Turkey Flocks: A Reservoir of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schulz

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus can colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and is known to cause similar infections in both humans and animals. Data about the spread or prevalence in farm animals are missing. In this study, Trypton Soya Agar was modified to a selective medium enabling the isolation and quantification of S. gallolyticus from faecal samples. The bacterium was observed in 82 out of 91 faecal samples obtained from 18 different organic turkey flocks. The prevalence of shedding birds was estimated by the number of positive fresh droppings and reached up to 100% on most farms. Furthermore, for the first time S. gallolyticus was quantified in faeces from poultry flocks. The median of colony forming units (CFU per gramme faeces was 3.6 x 10(5 CFU/g. Typing of one isolate from each positive faecal sample by multilocus sequence typing delivered 24 sequence types (STs. Most of the isolates belonged to the clonal complex CC58. The same STs of this complex were detected in up to six different flocks. Partly, these flocks were located in various regions and stocked with varying breeding lines. Regarding the biochemical profiles of the same STs from different farms, the results did not contradict a spread of specific STs in the organic turkey production. Moreover, checking the pubMLST database revealed that STs found in this study were also found in other animal species and in humans. The high detection rate and the number of S. gallolyticus in turkey faeces indicate that this bacterium probably belongs to the common microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys from organic flocks. Furthermore, the findings of this study support the suggestion of a possible interspecies transmission.

  10. Expression and phylogenetic analyses reveal paralogous lineages of putatively classical and non-classical MHC-I genes in three sparrow species (Passer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Anna; Strandh, Maria; Råberg, Lars; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-06-26

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a central role in immunity and has been given considerable attention by evolutionary ecologists due to its associations with fitness-related traits. Songbirds have unusually high numbers of MHC class I (MHC-I) genes, but it is not known whether all are expressed and equally important for immune function. Classical MHC-I genes are highly expressed, polymorphic and present peptides to T-cells whereas non-classical MHC-I genes have lower expression, are more monomorphic and do not present peptides to T-cells. To get a better understanding of the highly duplicated MHC genes in songbirds, we studied gene expression in a phylogenetic framework in three species of sparrows (house sparrow, tree sparrow and Spanish sparrow), using high-throughput sequencing. We hypothesize that sparrows could have classical and non-classical genes, as previously indicated though never tested using gene expression. The phylogenetic analyses reveal two distinct types of MHC-I alleles among the three sparrow species, one with high and one with low level of polymorphism, thus resembling classical and non-classical genes, respectively. All individuals had both types of alleles, but there was copy number variation both within and among the sparrow species. However, the number of highly polymorphic alleles that were expressed did not vary between species, suggesting that the structural genomic variation is counterbalanced by conserved gene expression. Overall, 50% of the MHC-I alleles were expressed in sparrows. Expression of the highly polymorphic alleles was very variable, whereas the alleles with low polymorphism had uniformly low expression. Interestingly, within an individual only one or two alleles from the polymorphic genes were highly expressed, indicating that only a single copy of these is highly expressed. Taken together, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the analyses of expression suggest that sparrows have both classical and non

  11. Gender identification of Grasshopper Sparrows comparing behavioral, morphological, and molecular techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, F.K.; Wood, P.B.; McPherson, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct gender identification in monomorphic species is often difficult especially if males and females do not display obvious behavioral and breeding differences. We compared gender specific morphology and behavior with recently developed DNA techniques for gender identification in the monomorphic Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Gender was ascertained with DNA in 213 individuals using the 2550F/2718R primer set and 3% agarose gel electrophoresis. Field observations using behavior and breeding characteristics to identify gender matched DNA analyses with 100% accuracy for adult males and females. Gender was identified with DNA for all captured juveniles that did not display gender specific traits or behaviors in the field. The molecular techniques used offered a high level of accuracy and may be useful in studies of dispersal mechanisms and winter assemblage composition in monomorphic species.

  12. Cultural variation in savannah sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis, songs: an analysis using the meme concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell

    1998-10-01

    I used the meme concept to investigate patterns of cultural variation among the songs of eight, geographically distinct populations of savannah sparrows. Memes composed of only one syllable were geographically widespread and randomly distributed among populations, but memes of two-, three- and four-syllables became progressively more restricted in their geographical distribution. Thus, the populations were memetically more similar with respect to one-syllable memes and more divergent with respect to larger memes. These results suggest that differences in memetic mutation rates and susceptibility to loss by memetic drift could be sufficient to create the observed pattern of greater divergence among populations for large memes. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  13. Personality Traits and Behavioral Syndromes in Differently Urbanized Populations of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókony, Veronika; Kulcsár, Anna; Tóth, Zoltán; Liker, András

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization creates novel environments for wild animals where selection pressures may differ drastically from those in natural habitats. Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes. Despite their adaptive significance and potential to act as constraints, little is known about the role of animal personality and behavioral syndromes in animals' adaptation to urban habitats. In this study we tested whether differently urbanized habitats select for different personalities and behavioral syndromes by altering the population mean, inter-individual variability, and correlations of personality traits. We captured house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from four different populations along the gradient of urbanization and assessed their behavior in standardized test situations. We found individual consistency in neophobia, risk taking, and activity, constituting three personality axes. On the one hand, urbanization did not consistently affect the mean and variance of these traits, although there were significant differences between some of the populations in food neophobia and risk taking (both in means and variances). On the other hand, both urban and rural birds exhibited a behavioral syndrome including object neophobia, risk taking and activity, whereas food neophobia was part of the syndrome only in rural birds. These results indicate that there are population differences in certain aspects of personality in house sparrows, some of which may be related to habitat urbanization. Our findings suggest that urbanization and/or other population-level habitat differences may not only influence the expression of personality traits but also alter their inter-individual variability and the relationships among them, changing the structure of behavioral syndromes. PMID:22574204

  14. Genes located in a chromosomal inversion are correlated with territorial song in white-throated sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow-Kramer, W M; Horton, B M; McKee, C D; Michaud, J M; Tharp, G K; Thomas, J W; Tuttle, E M; Yi, S; Maney, D L

    2015-11-01

    The genome of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) contains an inversion polymorphism on chromosome 2 that is linked to predictable variation in a suite of phenotypic traits including plumage color, aggression and parental behavior. Differences in gene expression between the two color morphs, which represent the two common inversion genotypes (ZAL2/ZAL2 and ZAL2/ZAL2(m) ), may therefore advance our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of these phenotypes. To identify genes that are differentially expressed between the two morphs and correlated with behavior, we quantified gene expression and terrirorial aggression, including song, in a population of free-living white-throated sparrows. We analyzed gene expression in two brain regions, the medial amygdala (MeA) and hypothalamus. Both regions are part of a 'social behavior network', which is rich in steroid hormone receptors and previously linked with territorial behavior. Using weighted gene co-expression network analyses, we identified modules of genes that were correlated with both morph and singing behavior. The majority of these genes were located within the inversion, showing the profound effect of the inversion on the expression of genes captured by the rearrangement. These modules were enriched with genes related to retinoic acid signaling and basic cellular functioning. In the MeA, the most prominent pathways were those related to steroid hormone receptor activity. Within these pathways, the only gene encoding such a receptor was ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1), a gene previously shown to predict song rate in this species. The set of candidate genes we identified may mediate the effects of a chromosomal inversion on territorial behavior. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Territory and nest site selection patterns by Grasshopper Sparrows in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are showing some of the greatest rates of decline of any North American birds, prompting measures to protect and improve important habitat. We assessed how vegetation structure and composition, habitat features often targeted for management, affected territory and nest site selection by Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) in southeastern Arizona. To identify features important to males establishing territories, we compared vegetation characteristics of known territories and random samples on 2 sites over 5 years. We examined habitat selection patterns of females by comparing characteristics of nest sites with territories over 3 years. Males selected territories in areas of sparser vegetation structure and more tall shrubs (>2 m) than random plots on the site with low shrub densities. Males did not select territories based on the proportion of exotic grasses. Females generally located nest sites in areas with lower small shrub (1–2 m tall) densities than territories overall when possible and preferentially selected native grasses for nest construction. Whether habitat selection was apparent depended upon the range of vegetation structure that was available. We identified an upper threshold above which grass structure seemed to be too high and dense for Grasshopper Sparrows. Our results suggest that some management that reduces vegetative structure may benefit this species in desert grasslands at the nest and territory scale. However, we did not assess initial male habitat selection at a broader landscape scale where their selection patterns may be different and could be influenced by vegetation density and structure outside the range of values sampled in this study.

  16. Responses to playback of different subspecies songs in the Reed Bunting (Emberiza s. schoeniclus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pilastro, A.

    2000-01-01

    Populations of Reed Buntings Emberiza schoeniclus in the western Palearctic are classified in two major subspecies groups according to morphology: northern migratory schoeniclus and Mediterranean resident intermedia. Songs of the two groups differ mainly in complexity and syllable structure......, with intermedia songs being more complex. We explored the possibilities of song as a subspecies isolating mechanism by testing if male schoeniclus Reed Buntings reacted differently to field playbacks of songs from their own subspecies group, from the foreign subspecies group and from a control species...

  17. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study. PMID:24574850

  18. Subspecies distribution and macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance genetics of Mycobacterium abscessus in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Sung, H; Park, J-S; Choi, S-H; Shim, T-S; Kim, M-N

    2016-01-01

    Treating Mycobacterium abscessus infections with antimicrobials remains difficult, possibly due to drug resistance. To investigate the subspecies distribution of M. abscessus and its correlation with antibiotic susceptibility and the genetics of antibiotic resistance, focusing on macrolides and fluoroquinolones, in the Republic of Korea. A total of 53 M. abscessus isolates were identified to the subspecies level by sequencing of hsp65 and erm(41). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clarithromycin (CLM) and ciprofloxacin (CFX) were determined using Sensititre™ RAPMYCO plates. The rrl, gyrA and gyrB genes were sequenced to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance. Isolates included 22 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 31 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. erm(41) sequences showing subspecies-specific deletions and sequence variations in the 28th nucleotide were concordant with inducible CLM resistance; however, mutations in rrl were not detected. Low- and high-level CFX resistance was observed in respectively 19 (35.8%) and 10 (18.9%) of the 53 clinical isolates, regardless of subspecies. However, no non-synonymous mutations were detected in gyrA or gyrB. Sequencing of the erm gene and subspeciation of M. abscessus may be used to predict inducible macrolide susceptibility. Further studies of the relationship between specific mutations in gyrA or gyrB to MIC change are required.

  19. Isolation of vibrio spp. In oysters (crassostrea rhizophorea) caught in the ‘de la virgen’ swamp

    OpenAIRE

    López Gutiérrez, Lercy; Autor; Manjarrez Pava, Ganiveth; Autor; Herrera Rodríguez, Lilibeth; Autor; Montes Payares, Ana Elena; Autor; Olascuaga Ruíz, Yuranis Paola; Autor; Ortega Quiroz, Rolando José; Autor

    2015-01-01

    Objective:  To establish contamination by Vibrio in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) caught in De La Virgen Swamp, in order to alert entities in charge or protecting consumer health in Cartagena city. Methods: Between February and April 2006, 67 oysters from 5 strategic sites along De La Virgen Swamp, were analyzed. Insulation and identification of Vibrio was performed through a culture and biochemical tests.Results.  Predominant species were V. alginolyticus (23%),V fluvialis  (20%),V. para...

  20. [Amphibians and reptiles in the swamps dominated by the palm Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Beneyto, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    The herpetofauna that inhabits Caribbean Costa Rica has received considerable attention in the last two decades. This assemblage includes a total of 141 species of reptiles and 95 amphibians mostly distributed in tropical wet and moist lowland forests. While most information available came from primary and secondary forest sites, little is known about the amphibians and reptiles that inhabit more open habitats, such as wetlands and swamps. For instances, swaps dominated by the yolillo palm Raphia taedigera extend through much of the northeastern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and eastern Nicaragua, but information about the herpetological community that uses such environments remains practically unknown. This situation reflects the little research conducted in such inhospitable environments. Here, we report the results of an intensive survey conducted to assess the herpetological community that inhabit R. taedigera palm-swamps. A total of 14 species of amphibians and 17 of reptiles have been recorded from these swamps. Amphibians and reptiles that inhabit yolillo swamps have wide distributions along much of Middle America and are considered common species throughout their range. In general, yolillo swamps are poor environments for herpetofauna: richness of reptiles and amphibians is almost two times higher in the adjacent forest than in the palm dominated swamps. Furthermore, most species observed in this swamps can be considered habitat generalists that are well adapted to the extreme conditions imposed by the changes in hydroperiods, reduce understory cover, low tree diversity and simple forest architecture of these environments. Despite similarities in the herpetofauna, it is clear that not all forest species use yolillo habitat, a characteristic that is discussed in terms of physical stress driven by the prolonged hydroperiod and reduced leaflitter in the ground, as these features drive habitat structure and herpetofaunal complexity. Our list of species using

  1. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  2. The hydrological function of upland swamps in eastern Australia: The role of geomorphic condition in regulating water storage and discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten L.; Fryirs, Kirstie A.; Hose, Grant C.

    2018-06-01

    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are a type of wetland found in low-order streams on the plateaus of eastern Australia. They are sediment and organic matter accumulation zones, which combined with a climate of high rainfall and low evaporation function as water storage systems. Changes to the geomorphic structure of these systems via incision and channelisation can have profound impacts on their hydrological function. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of how changes to the geomorphic structure of these systems alter their hydrological function, measured as changes and variability in swamp water table levels and discharge. We monitored the water table levels and discharges of three intact and three channelised THPSS in the Blue Mountains between March 2015 and June 2016. We found that water levels in intact swamps were largely stable over the monitoring period. Water levels rose only in high rainfall events, returned quickly to antecedent levels after rain, and drawdown during dry periods was not significant. In contrast, the water table levels in channelised THPSS were highly variable. Water levels rose quickly after almost all rainfall events and declined significantly during dry periods. Discharge also showed marked differences with the channelised THPSS discharging 13 times more water than intact swamps, even during dry periods. Channelised THPSS also had flashier storm hydrographs than intact swamps. These results have profound implications for the capacity of these swamps to act as water storage reservoirs in the headwaters of catchments and for their ability to maintain base flow to downstream catchments during dry times. Changes to geomorphic structure and hydrological function also have important implications for a range of other swamp functions such as carbon storage, emission and exports, contaminant sorption, downstream water quality and biodiversity, as well as the overall fate of these swamps under a changing

  3. Behavioural and hormonal aspects of the oestrous cycle in swamp buffaloes reared under temperate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Shimizu, H.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out using a small herd of swamp buffaloes raised in Japan under temperate conditions at 36 deg. N latitude, with a view to determining whether they exhibit peculiar characteristics in their oestrous cycles. The studies on the oestrous behaviour revealed that under adequate feeding and management conditions, buffaloes regularly display oestrous throughout the year, with the cycle length, duration of oestrous and time of ovulation all falling within ranges similar to those reported in cattle. External signs of oestrus were generally less evident, as previously reported. Hormonal analysis showed that there were no remarkable differences between swamp buffaloes and cattle in terms of the secretory patterns of pituitary gonadotrophins and ovarian steroids during the oestrous cycle. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs

  4. Association of staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection with recurrence of renal staghorn stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 years, recurrence staghorn stone in her left kidney was diagnosed and patient underwent another surgery. The patient had several attacks of cystitis during these 7 years. The results of stone and urine cultures revealed staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum. This case report emphasizes a possible association between staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection and recurrence renal staghhorn stone.

  5. Rapid and accurate identification of Streptococcus equi subspecies by MALDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Welker, Martin; Knudsen, Nanna Reumert

    2015-01-01

    phenotypic and sequence similarity between three subspecies their discrimination remains difficult. In this study, we aimed to design and validate a novel, Superspectra based, MALDI-TOF MS approach for reliable, rapid and cost-effective identification of SEE and SEZ, the most frequent S. equi subspecies.......3±7.5%). This result may be attributed to the highly clonal population structure of SEE, as opposed to the diversity of SEZ seen in horses. Importantly strains with atypical colony appearance both within SEE and SEZ did not affect correct identification of the strains by MALDI-TOF MS. Atypical colony variants...... are often associated with a higher persistence or virulence of S. equi, thus their correct identification using the current method strengthens its potential use in routine clinical diagnostics. In conclusion, reliable identification of S. equi subspecies was achieved by combining a MALDI-TOF MS method...

  6. How will climate change affect the potential distribution of Eurasian Tree Sparrows Passer montanus in North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jim; Jarnevich, Catherine; Young, Nick; Newman, Greg; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Habitat suitability models have been used to predict the present and future potential distribution of a variety of species. Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus, native to Eurasia, have established populations in other parts of the world. In North America, their current distribution is limited to a relatively small region around its original introduction to St. Louis, Missouri. We combined data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility with current and future climate data to create habitat suitability models using Maxent for this species. Under projected climate change scenarios, our models show that the distribution and range of the Eurasian tree sparrow could increase as far as the Pacific Northwest and Newfoundland. This is potentially important information for prioritizing the management and control of this non-native species.

  7. Polyancora globosa gen. sp. nov., an aeroaquatic fungus from Malaysian peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Yule, Catherine M

    2006-10-01

    During an investigation of submerged leaves and twigs sampled from tropical peat swamp forests located in Peninsular Malaysia, an anamorphic fungus not attributable to a described genus was detected and isolated in pure culture. Conidial ontogeny was thoroughly studied and illustrated using both light and SEM, which revealed a unique conidial morphology. Analysis of partial nuLSU rDNA and ITS data revealed a phylogenetic position within the Xylariales (Ascomycota), but family affiliation remained unclear.

  8. Mapping Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems in the Peruvian Amazon: a Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schroeder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmerman, R.; Horna, V.

    2012-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems are prevalent in the Amazon basin, especially in northern Peru. Of specific interest are palm swamp wetlands because they are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. This combination of constantly saturated soils and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, it is critical to develop methods to quantify their spatial extent and inundation state in order to assess their carbon dynamics. Spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We developed a remote sensing methodology using multi-sensor remote sensing data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM, and Landsat to derive maps at 100 meter resolution of palm swamp extent and inundation based on ground data collections; and combined active and passive microwave data from AMSR-E and QuikSCAT to derive inundation extent at 25 kilometer resolution on a weekly basis. We then compared information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products relative to the high-resolution datasets. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets allowed for characterization of palm swamps and assessment of their flooding status. This work has been undertaken partly within the framework of the JAXA ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data have been provided by JAXA. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  9. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transf...

  10. Studies on algea of Da′erbin lake and its surrounding swamps in daxing anling mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiaofei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports 234 taxa of algae (excluding diatomas and desmids in Da′erbin Lake and its surrounding swamps in the Great Xing′an Mountains.They were identified belong to 6 phylums 79 generas 197 species 31 varieties and 6 forms.Among them Characium ornithocephalum var.pringsheimii (A.Br. Kom.,Characium pluricoccum Kor.,Quadrigula korsikovii Kom.,Crucigeniella rectangularis (Ng. Kom.are newly reported in China.

  11. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Alexander N.; Albert, Stephanie L.; Chan-Golston, Alec M.; Langellier, Brent A.; Glik, Deborah C.; Belin, Thomas R.; Garcia, Rosa Elena; Brookmeyer, Ron; Sharif, Mienah Z.; Prelip, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data ...

  12. Nariva Swamp Ramsar Site, Trinidad and Tobago (West Indies) Wetland Habitat Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat Carbonell; Nadra Nathai-Gyan

    2005-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago, a twin island nation, is the most southerly of the Caribbean islands and lies just 11 km off the coast of Venezuela, near the Orinoco delta. Trinidad, the larger of the two islands, is approximately 5,000 km² and the Nariva Swamp is located on its eastern coast (fig. 1). In 1993, this site was designated as a wetland of international...

  13. Subspecies composition and founder contribution of the captive U.S. chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John J; Dye, Brent; Frels, William I; Fritz, Jo; Gagneux, Pascal; Khun, Henry H; Switzer, William M; Lee, D Rick

    2005-10-01

    Chimpanzees are presently classified into three subspecies: Pan troglodytes verus from west Africa, P.t. troglodytes from central Africa, and P.t. schweinfurthii from east Africa. A fourth subspecies (P.t. vellerosus), from Cameroon and northern Nigeria, has been proposed. These taxonomic designations are based on geographical origins and are reflected in sequence variation in the first hypervariable region (HVR-I) of the mtDNA D-loop. Although advances have been made in our understanding of chimpanzee phylogenetics, little has been known regarding the subspecies composition of captive chimpanzees. We sequenced part of the mtDNA HVR-I region in 218 African-born population founders and performed a phylogenetic analysis with previously characterized African sequences of known provenance to infer subspecies affiliations. Most founders were P.t. verus (95.0%), distantly followed by the troglodytes schweinfurthii clade (4.6%), and a single P.t. vellerosus (0.4%). Pedigree-based estimates of genomic representation in the descendant population revealed that troglodytes schweinfurthii founder representation was reduced in captivity, vellerosus representation increased due to prolific breeding by a single male, and reproductive variance resulted in uneven representation among male P.t.verus founders. No increase in mortality was evident from between-subspecies interbreeding, indicating a lack of outbreeding depression. Knowledge of subspecies and their genomic representation can form the basis for phylogenetically informed genetic management of extant chimpanzees to preserve rare genetic variation for research, conservation, or possible future breeding. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The Influence of Urban Environments on Oxidative Stress Balance: A Case Study on the House Sparrow in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Herrera-Dueñas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The House Sparrow is a globally distributed species and is closely associated with anthropised environments. They are well-adapted to urban life; therefore the decline of their populations in Europe represents an unexpected event that demands an investigation into its causes. Causes that have promoted this decline are not well-known, but one of the highlighted hypotheses is an increase of oxidative stress linked to the toxicity of pollution in urban areas. From an ecophysiological perspective, oxidative damage, antioxidant defense, and oxidative balance are considered reliable indicators of environmental stressors such as pollutants. To carry out this study, blood samples were collected from House Sparrows in three different habitats that varied in terms of urbanization degree: urban, suburban, and rural; during the winter and breeding season. According to our results, urban sparrows showed higher levels of oxidative damage and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, but lower antioxidant capacity in comparison with the rural birds; and these differences especially increase during the breeding season. The maintenance of oxidative balance increases in an urban environment in comparison to a rural one; we suggest that the high level of pollution and the poor quality diet linked to urban environments. The breeding season is expected to be particularly challenging for the oxidative balance of urban birds, when the reallocation of resources between self-maintenance and reproduction may be critical due to the scarcity of antioxidants found in urban areas. This study may contribute to determining the causes of the population decrease of House Sparrows in cities.

  15. Comparative BAC-based mapping in the white-throated sparrow, a novel behavioral genomics model, using interspecies overgo hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonser Rusty A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomics era has produced an arsenal of resources from sequenced organisms allowing researchers to target species that do not have comparable mapping and sequence information. These new "non-model" organisms offer unique opportunities to examine environmental effects on genomic patterns and processes. Here we use comparative mapping as a first step in characterizing the genome organization of a novel animal model, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis, which occurs as white or tan morphs that exhibit alternative behaviors and physiology. Morph is determined by the presence or absence of a complex chromosomal rearrangement. This species is an ideal model for behavioral genomics because the association between genotype and phenotype is absolute, making it possible to identify the genomic bases of phenotypic variation. Findings We initiated a genomic study in this species by characterizing the white-throated sparrow BAC library via filter hybridization with overgo probes designed for the chicken, turkey, and zebra finch. Cross-species hybridization resulted in 640 positive sparrow BACs assigned to 77 chicken loci across almost all macro-and microchromosomes, with a focus on the chromosomes associated with morph. Out of 216 overgos, 36% of the probes hybridized successfully, with an average number of 3.0 positive sparrow BACs per overgo. Conclusions These data will be utilized for determining chromosomal architecture and for fine-scale mapping of candidate genes associated with phenotypic differences. Our research confirms the utility of interspecies hybridization for developing comparative maps in other non-model organisms.

  16. Nutrient delivery to Lake Winnipeg from the Red-Assiniboine River Basin – A binational application of the SPARROW model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoy, Glenn A; Jenkinson, R. Wayne; Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive phosphorus (TP) and nitrogen (TN) inputs from the Red–Assiniboine River Basin (RARB) have been linked to eutrophication of Lake Winnipeg; therefore, it is important for the management of water resources to understand where and from what sources these nutrients originate. The RARB straddles the Canada–United States border and includes portions of two provinces and three states. This study represents the first binationally focused application of SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to estimate loads and sources of TP and TN by jurisdiction and basin at multiple spatial scales. Major hurdles overcome to develop these models included: (1) harmonization of geospatial data sets, particularly construction of a contiguous stream network; and (2) use of novel calibration steps to accommodate limitations in spatial variability across the model extent and in the number of calibration sites. Using nutrient inputs for a 2002 base year, a RARB TP SPARROW model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, forests and wetlands, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and stream channels, and a TN model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, WWTPs and atmospheric deposition. At the RARB outlet, downstream from Winnipeg, Manitoba, the majority of the delivered TP and TN came from the Red River Basin (90%), followed by the Upper Assiniboine River and Souris River basins. Agriculture was the single most important TP and TN source for each major basin, province and state. In general, stream channels (historically deposited nutrients and from bank erosion) were the second most important source of TP. Performance metrics for the RARB SPARROW model are similarly robust compared to other, larger US SPARROW models making it a potentially useful tool to address questions of where nutrients originate and their relative contributions to loads delivered to Lake Winnipeg.

  17. Producer farmer’s sovereignty in dry land and swamps areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaeti, RN; Wahyuni, S.

    2018-01-01

    Farmers could perform their farming if they have sovereignty on their farming production inputs and marketing. Suboptimal land, such as dry land and swamps areas have good prospect if applying appropriate technologies. A research in 2015, on status of farmers’ sovereignty, had been conducted in Piani and North Candi Laras Subdistricts, Tapin District, South Borneo Province, representing swamp land and dry land respectively. Data and information were obtained through interviewing related agencies at provincial and district levels and 30 units of farmer’s households. The primary and secondary data were analyzed descriptively. The research results showed that farmers in swamps and dry land were categorized as large farmers and had sovereignty over the land and production. Water shortage and excessive in both land types could be overcome by giving access on appropriate technology such as programs making farmers improve their farming techniques and providing levees. In addition, land certification program, farming expansion and constructing new irrigated lowland were also some efforts to improve farmers’ sovereignty. It was crucial to identify and improve farmer’s sovereignty indicators through research in larger sites and samples.

  18. Reproductive responses to climatic heat induced by management systems in swamp buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollah, M.A.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Nordin, Y.; Abdullah Sani, R.

    1990-01-01

    Climatic heat is one of the factors influencing the reproductive performance of swamp buffaloes. Any management system that imposes high climatic heat stress tends to reduce reproductive performance. Buffaloes grazing in an open hilly ranch system reached puberty later (at an age of 33 months) and at heavier body weight (365 kg) than animals raised in confinement (26 months and 289 kg). Physiological data (water metabolism and thyroid activity) indicated that grazing animals had to tolerate a higher heat load. High climatic temperatures were found to depress ovarian activity, especially during the dry season. The effect was observed only in cycling buffaloes denied wallow. Buffaloes having access to wallows were able to maintain their heat balance under various levels of heat load by adjusting their water requirements, mobilizing their body water and adjusting their metabolic rate (thyroid activity). It is concluded that stressful climatic temperatures can depress the reproductive performance of young heifers and adult swamp buffaloes, and that climatic heat stress directly depresses ovarian activity in swamp buffaloes. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. Repeated drought alters resistance of seed bank regeneration in baldcypress swamps of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Middleton, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Recurring drying and wetting events are likely to increase in frequency and intensity in predicted future droughts in the central USA and alter the regeneration potential of species. We explored the resistance of seed banks to successive droughts in 53 sites across the nine locations in baldcypress swamps in the southeastern USA. Along the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley and northern Gulf of Mexico, we investigated the capacity of seed banks to retain viable seeds after successive periods of drying and wetting in a greenhouse study. Mean differences in species richness and seed density were compared to examine the interactions of successive droughts, geographical location and water regime. The results showed that both species richness and total density of germinating seedlings decreased over repeated drought trials. These responses were more pronounced in geographical areas with higher annual mean temperature. In seed banks across the southeastern swamp region, most species were exhausted after Trial 2 or 3, except for semiaquatic species in Illinois and Tennessee, and aquatic species in Texas. Distinct geographical trends in seed bank resistance to drought demonstrate that climate-induced drying of baldcypress swamps could influence the regeneration of species differently across their ranges. Despite the health of adult individuals, lack of regeneration may push ecosystems into a relict status. Seed bank depletion by germination without replenishment may be a major conservation threat in a future with recurring droughts far less severe than megadrought. Nevertheless, the protection of moist refugia might aid conservation.

  20. BIOCONTROL FOR RHIZOCTONIA STEM ROT DISEASE BY USING COMBINATION OF SPECIFIC ENDOPHYTE IN PADDY TIDAL SWAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismed Setya Budi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of combination of specific endophytic in tidal swamps to control stem root disease as biological control agents has not been done. It is expected that this combination is able to continuously protect plants from pathogen interference. The research was carried out in type C tidal swamp in Banjar regency of South Kalimantan, from March to November 2011, temperature 29-32oC, and pH 4.0-5.5. The method used was Split Plot design. Biocontrol preparation for both types of endophytic was applied in seeds in 7 days after planting (DAP. Observation on high intensity and plant diseases of planting stage on tidal swamps (taradak, ampak and lacak was conducted. The results showed that there was a reduction of disease ranging from 58.70 to 87.29%. The application of combination of two biocontrol agents (T. viride PS-2.1 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8, (Fusarium non-pathogenic PS-1.5 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8 and (T. viride PS-2.1+ FNP PS-1.5 isolate gave the best inhibition result, reduced disease intensity, and increased plant height. The result of soil analysis before and after application of endophytic showed that there was an increase in soil fertility with the element addition of N, P, K and pH.

  1. Approaches for the environmental evaluation of two swamp complexes of the Momposina depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, Humberto; Durango, Consuelo

    1998-01-01

    The swamp complexes of the Momposina depression in the lower Magdalena River have been submitted to irrational exploitation, transformation and contamination mainly since the beginning of the century, process that has be en getting worse in the last decade. The most evident manifestation of the environmental deterioration is expressed by the drastic reduction of fishing, with important socio-economic effects to the population that lives from this source. The most notorious causes of the actual state of the ecosystem were detected, and some preliminary considerations for its management are presented. However, due to the modifications that the complexes have suffered (closure of the natural sewer, construction of jarillones, modifications of the internal water flows and sediments, over exploitation, of fish and herpetofauna), the deterioration of the limnologic conditions is moderated, which allows to begin recuperation plans. The major impacts were observed in the fauna of birds and reptiles associated to the swamps; the decrease of the ictics populations seems to be related to the strong impact generated by the fishing action used and the interruption of the natural cycles of fish. The possibility of rebuilding the communication swamp-river should be studied with care because it seems the system has arrived to new conditions. The re-opening of the sewers could mean a new unbalanced condition represented mainly by the contamination coming from the Magdalena River

  2. Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Yeeli; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Thornton, Rachel L J; Pollack Porter, Keshia; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-11-21

    Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents' health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA) from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models. Over the study period, the average food swamp index increased from 93.5 to 95.3 percentage points across all neighborhoods. Among non-African American neighborhoods, increases in the vacancy rate were associated with statistically significant decreases in the food swamp index (b = -0.38; 90% CI, -0.64 to -0.12; p -value: 0.015), after accounting for changes in neighborhood SES, racial diversity, and population size. A positive association was found among low-SES neighborhoods (b = 0.15; 90% CI, 0.037 to 0.27; p -value: 0.031). Vacant homes may influence the composition of food outlets in urban neighborhoods. Future research should further elucidate the mechanisms by which more distal, contextual factors, such as boarded-up vacant homes, may affect food choices and diet-related health outcomes.

  3. A novel multi-antigen virally vectored vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Bull

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes systemic infection and chronic intestinal inflammation in many species including primates. Humans are exposed through milk and from sources of environmental contamination. Hitherto, the only vaccines available against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis have been limited to veterinary use and comprised attenuated or killed organisms. METHODS: We developed a vaccine comprising a fusion construct designated HAV, containing components of two secreted and two cell surface Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins. HAV was transformed into DNA, human Adenovirus 5 (Ad5 and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA delivery vectors. Full length expression of the predicted 95 kDa fusion protein was confirmed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Vaccination of naïve and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected C57BL/6 mice using DNA-prime/MVA-boost or Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocols was highly immunogenic resulting in significant IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses by splenocytes against recombinant vaccine antigens and a range of HAV specific peptides. This included strong recognition of a T-cell epitope GFAEINPIA located near the C-terminus of the fusion protein. Antibody responses to recombinant vaccine antigens and HAV specific peptides but not GFAEINPIA, also occurred. No immune recognition of vaccine antigens occurred in any sham vaccinated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected mice. Vaccination using either protocol significantly attenuated pre-existing Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection measured by qPCR in spleen and liver and the Ad5-prime/MVA-boost protocol also conferred some protection against subsequent challenge. No adverse effects of vaccination occurred in any of the mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A range of modern veterinary and clinical vaccines for the treatment and prevention of disease caused by Mycobacterium avium

  4. Spatial variability in nutrient transport by HUC8, state, and subbasin based on Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin SPARROW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) has been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. With geospatial datasets for 2002, including inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and monitored loads throughout the MARB, SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) watershed models were constructed specifically for the MARB, which reduced simulation errors from previous models. Based on these models, N loads/yields were highest from the central part (centered over Iowa and Indiana) of the MARB (Corn Belt), and the highest P yields were scattered throughout the MARB. Spatial differences in yields from previous studies resulted from different descriptions of the dominant sources (N yields are highest with crop-oriented agriculture and P yields are highest with crop and animal agriculture and major WWTPs) and different descriptions of downstream transport. Delivered loads/yields from the MARB SPARROW models are used to rank subbasins, states, and eight-digit Hydrologic Unit Code basins (HUC8s) by N and P contributions and then rankings are compared with those from other studies. Changes in delivered yields result in an average absolute change of 1.3 (N) and 1.9 (P) places in state ranking and 41 (N) and 69 (P) places in HUC8 ranking from those made with previous national-scale SPARROW models. This information may help managers decide where efforts could have the largest effects (highest ranked areas) and thus reduce hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks Show a Mixed Response to Cattle Grazing in the Intermountain Region of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Harrison

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing in the shortgrass steppe of the Intermountain region of British Columbia is predicted to have significant effects on grassland habitats and their associated ground-nesting bird communities. We tested whether grazed and ungrazed sites could be discriminated on the basis of their vegetation communities, whether the abundance of two ground-nesting bird species, Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus and Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta, differed between grazed and ungrazed sites, and whether vegetation variables found to differ between grazed and ungrazed plots could be used to predict the abundance of the two bird species at a fine scale. Grazed sites were easily distinguishable from a site that had been ungrazed for >30 years based on the structure and composition of their vegetation communities. However, more detailed grazing categories could not be distinguished on the basis of vegetation characteristics. Despite the existence of grazing effects on vegetation structure and composition, we found no consistent differences in abundance of Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks between the grazed and ungrazed sites. However, there was weak evidence that the abundance of both species was higher at fine-scale plots (100 m radius point count station with less bare ground and taller vegetation. Bare ground cover was lower on grazed plots, but vegetation was taller on ungrazed plots. Combined, our results suggest that low intensity grazing leads to grassland habitat change with both negative and positive effects on Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks, resulting in no net change in their broad-scale abundance.

  6. Throwing the baby out with the bathwater: a critique of Sparrow's inclusive definition of the term 'in vitro eugenics'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Misao; Yashiro, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Mika

    2014-11-01

    Sparrow highlights three potential applications of in vitro eugenics, that is, (a) research into the heredity of genetic disorders, (b) production of cell lines with specific genotypes, and (c) breeding better babies, and points to the need for researchers to discuss in advance the potential ethical problems that may emerge if the realization of this technology occurs in the near future. In this commentary, we pose a question for the sake of discussion. Is it, in fact, appropriate to label all three applications raised by Sparrow as eugenics? By doing so, an unnecessary level of concern might be borne among the public, and as a result, the sound development of this specialized technology would be affected. If the label of eugenics is to be applied to all three of these applications, then Sparrow must justify how he perceives (a) and (b) as not inherently different from (c). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two subspecies (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus) of the greater horseshoe bat (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanhong; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in China. In this study, their mitochondrial genomes were completely sequenced and annotated. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that R. f. nippon has a close relationship with two subspecies of R. ferrumequinum from Korea with 0.1% divergence, which indicated they are synonyms.

  8. Mitochondrial genome diversity and population structure of two western honey bee subspecies in the Republic of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimanifar, Amin; Kimball, Rebecca T; Braun, Edward L; Ellis, James D

    2018-01-22

    Apis mellifera capensis Eschscholtz and A.m. scutellata Lepeletier are subspecies of western honey bees that are indigenous to the Republic of South Africa (RSA). Both subspecies have invasive potential and are organisms of concern for areas outside their native range, though they are important bees to beekeepers, agriculture, and the environment where they are native. The aim of the present study was to examine genetic differentiation among these subspecies and estimate their phylogenetic relationships using complete mitochondrial genomes sequences. We used 25 individuals that were either assigned to one of the subspecies or designated hybrids using morphometric analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenome sequences by maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference identified a monophyletic RSA clade, subdivided into two clades. A haplotype network was consistent with the phylogenetic trees. However, members of both subspecies occurred in both clades, indicating that A.m. capensis and A.m. scutellata are neither reciprocally monophyletic nor do they exhibit paraphyly with one subspecies nested within the other subspecies. Furthermore, no mitogenomic features were diagnostic to either subspecies. All bees analyzed from the RSA expressed a substantial level of haplotype diversity (most samples had unique haplotypes) but limited nucleotide diversity. The number of variable codons across protein-coding genes (PCGs) differed among loci, with CO3 exhibiting the most variation and ATP6 the least.

  9. Descriptions of a new species and subspecies of Halysidota Hübner, [1819] from Mexico (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Benoît Vincent; Michel Laguerre

    2017-01-01

    A new species and subspecies of the genus Halysidota are described from Mexico and Guadeloupe respectively: Halysidota witti sp. nov. and Halysidota leda guadulpensis ssp. nov. Details of the new species and subspecies descriptions are based upon morphological and molecular characters as well as distributional data.

  10. Structure and amount of genetic variation at minisatellite loci within the subspecies complex of Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; Bijlsma, R.; Osterhaus, ADME; van Delden, W.; van de Zande, L.

    The structure and amount of genetic variation within and between three subspecies of the harbour seal Phoca vitulina was assessed by multilocus DNA fingerprinting. Bandsharing similarity indicates that the subspecies Phoca vitulina richarhsi (Alaska, East Pacific) is clearly separated from the other

  11. A new subspecies of Phascolion Theel, 1875 (Sipuncula: Golfingiidae) from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saiz, J.I.; Bustamante, M.; Tajadura, J.; Vijapure, T.; Sukumaran, S.

    , vol.3931(3); 2015; 433-437 A new subspecies of Phascolion Théel, 1875 (Sipuncula: Golfingiidae) from Indian waters JOSÉ I. SAIZ1, MARIA BUSTAMANTE1, JAVIER TAJADURA1, TEJAL VIJAPURE2 & SONIYA SUKUMARAN2 1 Universidad del País Vasco / EHU, 48080...

  12. Genetic and environmental effects on seed weight in subspecies of big sagebrush: Applications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Hector G. Ortiz; Stephanie L. Carlson; Deidre M. Jaeger; Nancy L. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    The sagebrush steppe is a patchwork of species and subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches across the intermountain regions of western North America. These ecosystems face degradation from disturbances and exotic weeds. Using sagebrush seed that is matched to its appropriate niche is a critical component to successful restoration, improving habitat for the...

  13. Subspecies identification of captive Orang Utan in Melaka based on D-loop mitochondria DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaluddin, Siti Norsyuhada; Yaakop, Salmah; Idris, Wan Mohd Razi; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2018-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA of Bornean Orang Utan populations suggests that there are three different subspecies (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus; Sarawak & Northwest Kalimantan, P. p. wurmbii; Southern West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, P. p. morio; East Kalimantan and Sabah). The subspecies of Orang Utans in captivity are difficult to determine through morphological observation. Thus, misidentification by ranger or zoo staffs leads to unwanted consequences especially towards conservation efforts of Orang Utan. The main objective of this study was to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of 10 Orang Utans in Zoo Melaka and A' Famosa by using partial mitochondrial D-loop gene sequences. DNA of all individuals was extracted from FTA Card. Data analyses were performed using Maximum Parsimony, MP and Neighbor Joining, NJ. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that all the samples likely belong to one species of Sumatran Orang Utan (P. abelii) and three different subspecies of Bornean Orang Utans (P. p. pygmaeus, P. p. morio, and P. p. wurmbii). The results obtained in this study indirectly help the management of zoos in term of conservation and visitor's education.

  14. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis recombinant proteins modulate antimycobacterial functions of bovine macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been shown that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) activates the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) p38 pathway, yet it is unclear which components of M. paratuberculosis are involved in the process. Therefore, a set of 42 M. paratuberculosis recombinan...

  15. Mitogenomic phylogenetics of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.) : Genetic evidence for revision of subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Frederick I.; Morin, Phillip A.; Hancock-Hanser, Brittany L.; Robertson, Kelly M.; Leslie, Matthew S.; Bérubé, Martine; Panigada, Simone; Taylor, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus): B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North

  16. Molecular variation of Trypanosoma brucei subspecies as revealed by AFLP fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbo, E.E.C.; Majiwa, P.A.O.; Claassen, H.J.H.M.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2002-01-01

    Genetic analysis of Trypanosoma spp. depends on the detection of variation between strains. We have used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique to develop a convenient and reliable method for genetic characterization of Trypanosome (sub)species. AFLP accesses multiple

  17. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. This bacterium is a slow growing, gram-positive, acid-fast organism which can be difficult to culture from the environment. For ...

  18. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus Infections in Humans by Zoonotic Transmission from Horses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-12

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ article, Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus Infections in Humans by Zoonotic Transmission from Horses.  Created: 6/12/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/3/2013.

  19. Interest in Providing Multiple Sclerosis Care and Subspecializing in Multiple Sclerosis Among Neurology Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie; Kane, Heather L.; Frost, A. Corey; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although detailed knowledge regarding treatment options for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is largely limited to neurologists, shortages in the neurologist workforce, including MS subspecialists, are predicted. Thus, MS patients may have difficulties in gaining access to appropriate care. No systematic evaluation has yet been performed of the number of neurology residents planning to pursue MS subspecialization. This study identifies factors affecting interest in providing MS patient care or MS subspecialization among current neurology residents. Methods: We randomly selected half of all Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education–certified neurology residency programs in the continental United States to receive the neurology resident survey. Completed surveys were received from 218 residents. Results: Residents were significantly more likely to have increased interest in MS care when they participated in MS research, were interested in teaching, and indicated that the “ability to improve patient outcomes and quality of life” was a positive factor influencing their desire to provide MS patient care. Residents who were interested in providing MS care, interested in teaching, and indicated that “research opportunities” was a positive factor for providing MS patient care were significantly more likely to express interest in MS subspecialization. Conclusions: Increasing opportunities to interact with MS patients, learn about MS care, and participate in MS research may increase interest in MS care and subspecialization among neurology residents. Opportunities to educate residents regarding MS patient care may affect residents’ attitudes. PMID:24688352

  20. A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia (Aves: Accipitridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) is described from Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands). In addition some notes are given on the distribution of A. virgatus in south-eastern Burma and adjacent parts of Thailand, supplementary to an earlier paper (Mees, 1981).

  1. Cutaneous water loss and covalently bound lipids of the stratum corneum in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.) from desert and mesic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Michelle E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-04-01

    Lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis of birds and mammals, provide a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The SC of birds consists of flat dead cells, called corneocytes, and two lipid compartments: an intercellular matrix and a monolayer of covalently bound lipids (CBLs) attached to the outer surface of the corneocytes. We previously found two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides, covalently bound to corneocytes in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.); these lipids were associated with cutaneous water loss (CWL). In this study, we collected adult and nestling house sparrows from Ohio and nestlings from Saudi Arabia, acclimated them to either high or low humidity, and measured their rates of CWL. We also measured CWL for natural populations of nestlings from Ohio and Saudi Arabia, beginning when chicks were 2 days old until they fledged. We then evaluated the composition of the CBLs of the SC of sparrows using thin layer chromatography. We found that adult house sparrows had a greater diversity of CBLs in their SC than previously described. During ontogeny, nestling sparrows increased the amount of CBLs and developed their CBLs differently, depending on their habitat. Acclimating nestlings to different humidity regimes did not alter the ontogeny of the CBLs, suggesting that these lipids represent a fundamental component of SC organization that does not respond to short-term environmental change.

  2. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Erica F; Verpeut, Jessica; Horvat-Gordon, Maria; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Bartell, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  3. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F Stuber

    Full Text Available White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  4. Variation in MHC genotypes in two populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) with different population histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Asa Alexandra; Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Jensen, Henrik; Westerdahl, Helena

    2011-10-01

    Small populations are likely to have a low genetic ability for disease resistance due to loss of genetic variation through inbreeding and genetic drift. In vertebrates, the highest genetic diversity of the immune system is located at genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Interestingly, parasite-mediated selection is thought to potentially maintain variation at MHC loci even in populations that are monomorphic at other loci. Therefore, general loss of genetic variation in the genome may not necessarily be associated with low variation at MHC loci. We evaluated inter- and intrapopulation variation in MHC genotypes between an inbred (Aldra) and a relatively outbred population (Hestmannøy) of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a metapopulation at Helgeland, Norway. Genomic (gDNA) and transcribed (cDNA) alleles of functional MHC class I and IIB loci, along with neutral noncoding microsatellite markers, were analyzed to obtain relevant estimates of genetic variation. We found lower allelic richness in microsatellites in the inbred population, but high genetic variation in MHC class I and IIB loci in both populations. This suggests that also the inbred population could be under balancing selection to maintain genetic variation for pathogen resistance.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of effective population size to demographic parameters in house sparrow populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Marlene Waege; Myhre, Ane Marlene; Holand, Håkon; Kvalnes, Thomas; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Jensen, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The ratio between the effective and the census population size, Ne/N, is an important measure of the long-term viability and sustainability of a population. Understanding which demographic processes that affect Ne/N most will improve our understanding of how genetic drift and the probability of fixation of alleles is affected by demography. This knowledge may also be of vital importance in management of endangered populations and species. Here, we use data from 13 natural populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Norway to calculate the demographic parameters that determine Ne/N. Using the global variance-based Sobol' method for the sensitivity analyses, we found that Ne/N was most sensitive to demographic variance, especially among older individuals. Furthermore, the individual reproductive values (that determine the demographic variance) were most sensitive to variation in fecundity. Our results draw attention to the applicability of sensitivity analyses in population management and conservation. For population management aiming to reduce the loss of genetic variation, a sensitivity analysis may indicate the demographic parameters towards which resources should be focused. The result of such an analysis may depend on the life history and mating system of the population or species under consideration, because the vital rates and sex-age classes that Ne/N is most sensitive to may change accordingly. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. External and gastrointestinal parasites of the rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes, Emberizidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Llanos-Soto

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 277 rufous-collared sparrows, Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae, were examined for external parasites. The birds were captured using mist nets in seven locations in northern and central Chile. Additionally, seven carcasses from central Chile (the Biobío region were necropsied to evaluate the presence of endoparasite infection. Ectoparasites were found on 35.8% (99/277 of the examined birds and they were represented by the following arthropods: feather mites Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, and Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae; a louse Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera; and ticks Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae and Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae. Two of the seven necropsied carcasses were infected with the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae. To our knowledge, this study reports P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum, and M. papillosus for the first time for Z. capensis and expands the distributional range for T. capensis to Chile.

  7. Regulation of vernal migration in Gambel's white-crowned sparrows: Role of thyroxine and triiodothyronine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Jonathan H; Furlow, J David; Wingfield, John C; Ramenofsky, Marilyn

    2016-08-01

    Appropriate timing of migratory behavior is critical for migrant species. For many temperate zone birds in the spring, lengthening photoperiod is the initial cue leading to morphological, physiological and behavior changes that are necessary for vernal migration and breeding. Strong evidence has emerged in recent years linking thyroid hormone signaling to the photoinduction of breeding in birds while more limited information suggest a potential role in the regulation of vernal migration in photoperiodic songbirds. Here we investigate the development and expression of the vernal migratory life history stage in captive Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) in a hypothyroidic state, induced by chemical inhibition of thyroid hormone production. To explore possible variations in the effects of the two thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine, we subsequently performed a thyroid inhibition coupled with replacement therapy. We found that chemical inhibition of thyroid hormones resulted in complete abolishment of mass gain, fattening, and muscle hypertrophy associated with migratory preparation as well as resulting in failure to display nocturnal restlessness behavior. Replacement of thyroxine rescued all of these elements to near control levels while triiodothyronine replacement displayed partial or delayed rescue. Our findings support thyroid hormones as being necessary for the expression of changes in morphology and physiology associated with migration as well as migratory behavior itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Within-species digestive tract flexibility in rufous-collared sparrows and the climatic variability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Karin; Bozinovic, Francisco; Rojas, José M; Sabat, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The climatic variability hypothesis (CVH) states that species are geographically more widespread at higher latitudes because individuals have a broader range of physiological tolerance or phenotypic flexibility as latitude and climatic variability increase. However, it remains unclear to what extent climatic variability or latitude, acting on the phenotype, account for any observed geographical gradient in mean range size. In this study, we analyzed the physiological flexibility within the CVH framework by using an intraspecific population experimental approach. We tested for a positive relationship between digestive-tract flexibility (i.e., morphology and enzyme activities) and latitude and climatic and natural diet variability in populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) captured in desert (27°S), Mediterranean (33°S), and cold-temperate (41°S) sites in Chile. In accordance with the CVH, we observed a positive relationship between the magnitude of digestive-tract flexibility and environmental variability but not latitude. The greatest digestive flexibility was observed in birds at middle latitudes, which experience the most environmental variability (a Mediterranean climate), whereas individuals from the most stable climates (desert and cold-temperate) exhibited little or no digestive-tract flexibility in response to experimental diets. Our findings support the idea that latitudinal gradients in geographical ranges may be strongly affected by the action of regional features, which makes it difficult to find general patterns in the distribution of species.

  9. Dynamics of West Nile virus persistence in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Wheeler

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is now endemic throughout North America, with annual recurrence dependent upon successful overwintering when cold temperatures drive mosquito vectors into inactivity and halt transmission. To investigate whether avian hosts may serve as an overwintering mechanism, groups of eight to ten House Sparrows were experimentally infected with a WN02 genotype of WNV and then held until necropsy at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, or 18 weeks post-infection (pi when they were assessed for the presence of persistent infection. Blood was collected from all remaining birds every two weeks pi, and sera tested for WNV RNA and WNV neutralizing antibodies. West Nile virus RNA was present in the sera of some birds up to 7 weeks pi and all birds retained neutralizing antibodies throughout the experiment. The detection of persistently infected birds decreased with time, from 100% (n = 13 positive at 3 weeks post-infection (pi to 12.5% (n = 8 at 18 weeks pi. Infectious virus was isolated from the spleens of birds necropsied at 3, 5, 7 and 12 weeks pi. The current study confirmed previous reports of infectious WNV persistence in avian hosts, and further characterized the temporal nature of these infections. Although these persistent infections supported the hypothesis that infected birds may serve as an overwintering mechanism, mosquito-infectious recrudescent viremias have yet to be demonstrated thereby providing proof of principle.

  10. The determination of neutron energy spectrum in reactor core C1 of reactor VR-1 Sparrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vins, M. [Department of Nuclear Reactors, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: vinsmiro@seznam.cz

    2008-07-15

    This contribution overviews neutron spectrum measurement, which was done on training reactor VR-1 Sparrow with a new nuclear fuel. Former nuclear fuel IRT-3M was changed for current nuclear fuel IRT-4M with lower enrichment of 235U (enrichment was reduced from former 36% to 20%) in terms of Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program. Neutron spectrum measurement was obtained by irradiation of activation foils at the end of pipe of rabit system and consecutive deconvolution of obtained saturated activities. Deconvolution was performed by computer iterative code SAND-II with 620 groups' structure. All gamma measurements were performed on Canberra HPGe. Activation foils were chosen according physical and nuclear parameters from the set of certificated foils. The Resulting differential flux at the end of pipe of rabit system agreed well with typical spectrum of light water reactor. Measurement of neutron spectrum has brought better knowledge about new reactor core C1 and improved methodology of activation measurement. (author)

  11. Spatial genetic structure across a hybrid zone between European rabbit subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula is the only region in the world where the two existing subspecies of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus naturally occur and hybridize. In this study we explore the relative roles of historical and contemporary processes in shaping the spatial genetic structure of the rabbit across its native distribution range, and how they differently affect each subspecies and the hybrid zone. For that purpose we obtained multilocus genotypes and mitochondrial DNA data from 771 rabbits across most of the distribution range of the European rabbit in Spain. Based on the nuclear markers we observed a hierarchical genetic structure firstly comprised by two genetic groups, largely congruent with the mitochondrial lineages and subspecies distributions (O. c. algirus and O. c. cuniculus, which were subsequently subdivided into seven genetic groups. Geographic distance alone emerged as an important factor explaining genetic differentiation across the whole range, without the need to invoke for the effect for geographical barriers. Additionally, the significantly positive spatial correlation up to a distance of only 100 km supported the idea that differentiation at a local level is of greater importance when considering the species overall genetic structure. When looking at the subspecies, northern populations of O. c. cuniculus showed more spatial genetic structure and differentiation than O. c. algirus. This could be due to local geographic barriers, limited resources, soil type and/or social behavior limiting dispersal. The hybrid zone showed similar genetic structure to the southern populations but a larger introgression from the northern lineage genome. These differences have been attributed to selection against the hybrids rather than to behavioral differences between subspecies. Ultimately, the genetic structure of the rabbit in its native distribution range is the result of an ensemble of factors, from geographical and ecological

  12. Investigating concordance among genetic data, subspecies circumscriptions and hostplant use in the nymphalid butterfly Polygonia faunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullasa Kodandaramaiah

    Full Text Available Subspecies are commonly used taxonomic units to formally describe intraspecific geographic variation in morphological traits. However, the concept of subspecies is not clearly defined, and there is little agreement about what they represent in terms of evolutionary units, and whether they can be used as reliably useful units in conservation, evolutionary theory and taxonomy. We here investigate whether the morphologically well-characterized subspecies in the North American butterfly Polygonia faunus are supported by genetic data from mitochondrial sequences and eight microsatellite loci. We also investigate the phylogeographic structure of P. faunus and test whether similarities in host-plant use among populations are related to genetic similarity. Neither the nuclear nor the mitochondrial data corroborated subspecies groupings. We found three well defined genetic clusters corresponding to California, Arizona and (New Mexico+Colorado. There was little structuring among the remaining populations, probably due to gene flow across populations. We found no support for the hypothesis that similarities in host use are related to genetic proximity. The results indicate that the species underwent a recent rapid expansion, probably from two glacial refugia in western North America. The mitochondrial haplotype network indicates at least two independent expansion phases into eastern North America. Our results clearly demonstrate that subspecies in P. faunus do not conform to the structuring of genetic variation. More studies on insects and other invertebrates are needed to better understand the scope of this phenomenon. The results of this study will be crucial in designing further experiments to understand the evolution of hostplant utilization in this species.

  13. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  14. Using survival analysis of artificial and Real Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri) nests to model site level and nest site factors associated with nest success in the South Okanagan region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pam Krannitz Kym Welstead

    2005-01-01

    Predation is the predominant cause of nest failure for the Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri), a provincially red-listed shrub-steppe species that has experienced significant declines throughout most of its range. We monitored Brewer’s Sparrow nests and conducted an artificial nest experiment, in the South Okanagan Valley,...

  15. Rich soil carbon and nitrogen but low atmospheric greenhouse gas fluxes from North Sulawesi mangrove swamps in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang C; Ulumuddin, Yaya I; Pramudji, Sastro; Chen, Shun Y; Chen, Bin; Ye, Yong; Ou, Dan Y; Ma, Zhi Y; Huang, Hao; Wang, Jing K

    2014-07-15

    The soil to atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 and their relationships with soil characteristics were investigated in three tropical oceanic mangrove swamps (Teremaal, Likupang and Kema) in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Mangrove soils in North Sulawesi were rich in organic carbon and nitrogen, but the greenhouse gas fluxes were low in these mangroves. The fluxes ranged -6.05-13.14 μmol m(-2)h(-1), -0.35-0.61 μmol m(-2)h(-1) and -1.34-3.88 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N2O, CH4 and CO2, respectively. The differences in both N2O and CH4 fluxes among different mangrove swamps and among tidal positions in each mangrove swamp were insignificant. CO2 flux was influenced only by mangrove swamps and the value was higher in Kema mangrove. None of the measured soil parameters could explain the variation of CH4 fluxes among the sampling plots. N2O flux was negatively related to porewater salinity, while CO2 flux was negatively correlated with water content and organic carbon. This study suggested that the low gas emissions due to slow metabolisms would lead to the accumulations of organic matters in North Sulawesi mangrove swamps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  17. Bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus is associated with digestive tract malignancies and resistance to macrolides and clindamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-08-01

    This study was intended to delineate the association between digestive tract malignancies and bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus. We reviewed the medical records and microbiological results of patients with bacteraemia due to Streptococcus bovis during the period 2000-2012. Species and subspecies identification of isolates originally classified as S. bovis was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents were determined by the broth microdilution method. Of the 172 S. bovis complex isolates obtained from 172 patients (age range, Streptococcus infantarius. The majority (n = 104, 60%) of patients were male and had underlying malignancies (n = 87, 51%). Bacteraemia due to S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus was significantly associated with endocarditis while S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus was more likely to be associated with malignancies of the digestive tract, including gastric, pancreatic, hepatobiliary and colorectal cancers. Septic shock at presentation was the only factor associated with mortality among patients with bacteraemia due to either subspecies of S. bovis. Isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus had higher rates of resistance to macrolides and clindamycin than isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus. Extensive diagnostic work-up for digestive tract malignancies and trans-esophageal echocardiogram should be investigated in patients with bacteraemia caused by S. gallolyticus. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilization of agro-industrial by-products by swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelan, Z.A.; Jalaludin, S.; Vijchulata, P.

    1987-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the factors affecting the utilization of palm press fibre (PPF) by swamp buffaloes. The nutritive values, fermentation and rumen kinetics, intake and growth responses to a PPF based diet with or without protein and energy supplementation were studied. Palm press fibre was considered a poor quality feed as it is low in crude protein (about 6%) and high in lignin content (about 21%). Dry matter (DM) disappearance from nylon bags at 48 h was low (about 40%) as compared with grass (47%), oaten hay (49%) and lucerne (64%). Sodium hydroxide (8% solution) was most effective as a treating agent as the DM disappearance of PPF from the nylon bags at 48 h was increased by 14%. Dry matter loss from the bags was greater in swamp buffaloes than in cattle. Rumen fluid volume and flow rate were not significantly (P>0.05) increased with fish meal supplementation, but the total dry matter intake (DMI) increased significantly (P<0.05) when 360 g DM/d fish meal was supplemented. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were low in unsupplemented animals and the molar proportions of the VFAs were typical of those seen in the rumen fluid of ruminants fed a fibre based diet. Rumen ammonia-nitrogen was high (40-70 mg/L) in fish meal supplemented animals. When urea treated PPF was supplemented with fish meal and cassava, the animals showed significant increases (P<0.05) in average daily gain and in both total DMI and in the DMI of a basal diet. The study concludes that supplementation with rumen undegradable protein and an energy source are essential to a PPF based diet and that untreated PPF is not a suitable basal diet for swamp buffaloes. (author)

  19. Landscape-scale changes in forest canopy structure across a partially logged tropical peat swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedeux, B. M. M.; Coomes, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Forest canopy structure is strongly influenced by environmental factors and disturbance, and in turn influences key ecosystem processes including productivity, evapotranspiration and habitat availability. In tropical forests increasingly modified by human activities, the interplay between environmental factors and disturbance legacies on forest canopy structure across landscapes is practically unexplored. We used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to measure the canopy of old-growth and selectively logged peat swamp forest across a peat dome in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, and quantified how canopy structure metrics varied with peat depth and under logging. Several million canopy gaps in different height cross-sections of the canopy were measured in 100 plots of 1 km2 spanning the peat dome, allowing us to describe canopy structure with seven metrics. Old-growth forest became shorter and had simpler vertical canopy profiles on deeper peat, consistent with previous work linking deep peat to stunted tree growth. Gap size frequency distributions (GSFDs) indicated fewer and smaller canopy gaps on the deeper peat (i.e. the scaling exponent of Pareto functions increased from 1.76 to 3.76 with peat depth). Areas subjected to concessionary logging until 2000, and illegal logging since then, had the same canopy top height as old-growth forest, indicating the persistence of some large trees, but mean canopy height was significantly reduced. With logging, the total area of canopy gaps increased and the GSFD scaling exponent was reduced. Logging effects were most evident on the deepest peat, where nutrient depletion and waterlogged conditions restrain tree growth and recovery. A tight relationship exists between canopy structure and peat depth gradient within the old-growth tropical peat swamp forest. This relationship breaks down after selective logging, with canopy structural recovery, as observed by ALS, modulated by environmental conditions. These findings improve our

  20. Galling arthropod diversity in adjacent swamp forests and restinga vegetation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Milton De S; Piccardi, Hosana M F; Jahnke, Simone M; Dalbem, Ricardo V

    2010-01-01

    Galling arthropods create plant structures inside which they find shelter. Factors acting on galler diversity are still being discussed, with this fauna considered more diverse in xeric than mesic environments (higrothermic stress hypothesis, HSH), and also in more plant diverse sites. Here we compare galler abundance (N), equitability (E), species richness (S) and composition between adjacent restinga (xeric) and swamp forests (mesic) in Parque Estadual de Itapeva (29°21' S, 49°45' W), Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Five trails, two in swamp forest and three in restingas, were sampled four times each (January/December 2005). After an effort of 60h/person, 621 galled plant individuals belonging to 104 gall morphotypes were recorded. This suggests a high galler diversity for the Park, comparable to the richest places known. No differences were found for N, E or S between restingas and swamp forests. However, faunal composition differs significantly between the vegetation types. The dominant (most abundant) species are different in either vegetation type, and are rare or absent on the other vegetation type. Such species composition analysis is still largely ignored for gallers, and stresses the fact that the HSH cannot explain this pattern, since the latter is based on preferences by the ovipositing galler for xeric sites instead of mesic ones. The two habitats differ in microclimate, but species richness, as would be predicted by the HSH, does not differ. This small scale pattern can perhaps be attributed to biogeographic processes on larger scales, as suggested by the resource synchronisation hypothesis.

  1. Mapping Upper Amazon Palm Swamps with Spaceborne L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, N.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Schroeder, R.; Zimmermann, R.; Horna, V.

    2010-12-01

    Palm swamp ecosystems are widespread in the Amazon basin, forming where seasonal flooding is moderate and surface inundation persists. Recent studies suggest that palm swamps have a disproportional role on tropical biogeochemistry: the combination of persistently saturated soils, warm temperatures, and low oxygen soils can support significant land-atmosphere methane flux. Potential impacts of climate change on these ecosystems include changes in temperature and precipitation regimes that influence primary productivity and flood extent significantly, potentially reversing net land-atmosphere carbon exchanges regionally. Data acquired from Earth-orbiting satellites provides the opportunity to characterize vegetation structure and monitor surface inundation independently of cloud cover. Building on efforts under our NASA MEaSUREs project for assembly of a global-scale Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of inundated wetlands, we develop and evaluate a systematic approach to map the distribution and composition of palm swamps in the upper Amazon using data sets from JAXA’s Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band SAR (PALSAR). Our input dataset consists of HH backscatter images acquired in 2007 and 2009. Ground measurements for training were obtained from a study site near Loreto, Peru (4.43S 75.34W) containing the palm species Mauritia flexuosa. The ALOS PALSAR images are first averaged temporally and spatially. We then develop ancillary data layers of flood extent, distance from open water, and SAR image texture. The PALSAR data and derived ancillary layers are combined with MODIS Vegetation Indices and SRTM elevation and input in a classification framework. Since palm swamps are found in persistently flooded areas, we evaluate the potential of identifying and mapping these ecosystems using multi-temporal SAR-based flood extent maps. We conclude by comparing the performance between a decision-tree supervised vs. unsupervised approach and by

  2. Greenhouse gas efflux from an impacted Malaysian tropical peat swamp (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, S.; Vihermaa, L. E.; Evers, S.; Garnett, M.; Newton, J.; Padfield, R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~11% of global peatland area and ~12% of the global peat C pool. Malaysia alone contains 10% of tropical peats. Due to rising global demands for food and biofuels, SE-Asia peat swamp forest ecosystems are threatened by increasing amounts of drainage, fire and conversion to plantation. These processes can change the GHG emissions and thus net ecosystem C balance. However, in comparison to temperate and boreal peatlands, there is a lack of data on terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric carbon transfer from tropical peatlands, both those that are little disturbed and those facing anthropogenic pressures. Lateral transport of soil-respired carbon, and fluvial respiration or UV-oxidation of terrestrial DOC primes atmospheric carbon dioxide efflux. We now know that DOC lost from disturbed tropical peat swamp forests can be centuries to millennia old and originates deep within the peat column - this carbon may fuel efflux of old carbon dioxide and so anthropogenic land-use change renders the older, slower carbon cycles shorter and faster. Currently we have no knowledge of how significant ';older-slower' terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric cycles are in disturbed tropical peatlands. Further, in some areas for commercial reasons, or by conservation bodies trying to minimise peat habitat loss, logged peats have been left to regenerate. Consequently, unpicking the legacy of multiple land uses on magnitude, age and source of GHG emissions is challenging but required to support land management decisions and projections of response to a changing climate. Here, we present the results of our first field campaign in July 2013 to the Raja Musa and Sungai Karang Peat Swamp Forest Reserves in North Selangor, Malaysia. This is one of Malaysia's largest oceanic peat swamps, and has been selectively logged and drained for 80 years, but is now subject to a 30 year logging ban to aid forest regeneration and build up wood stocks. From sites subject to different land use

  3. Spatial analysis of Carbon-14 dynamics in a wetland ecosystem (Duke Swamp, Chalk River Laboratories, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; King-Sharp, K.J.; Carr, J.; Robertson, E.; Killey, R.W.D.; Beresford, N.A.; Wood, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed survey was conducted to quantify the spatial distribution of 14 C in Sphagnum moss and underlying soil collected in Duke Swamp. This wetland environment receives 14 C via groundwater pathways from a historic radioactive Waste Management Area (WMA) on Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. Trends in 14 C specific activities were evaluated with distance from the sampling location with the maximum 14 C specific activity (DSS-35), which was situated adjacent to the WMA and close to an area of groundwater discharge. Based on a spatial evaluation of the data, an east-to-west 14 C gradient was found, due to the influence of the WMA on 14 C specific activities in the swamp. In addition, it was possible to identify two groups of sites, each showing significant exponential declines with distance from the groundwater source area. One of the groups showed relatively more elevated 14 C specific activities at a given distance from source, likely due to their proximity to the WMA, the location of the sub-surface plume originating from the WMA, the presence of marsh and swamp habitat types, which facilitated 14 C transport to the atmosphere, and possibly, 14 C air dispersion patterns along the eastern edge of the swamp. The other group, which had lower 14 C specific activities at a given distance from the groundwater source area, included locations that were more distant from the WMA and the sub-surface plume, and contained fen habitat, which is known to act as barrier to groundwater flow. The findings suggest that proximity to source, groundwater flow patterns and habitat physical characteristics can play an important role in the dynamics of 14 C being carried by discharging groundwater into terrestrial and wetland environments. - Highlights: • Groundwater represents an important source of volatile radionuclides to wetlands. • Habitat type influenced 14 C transport from sub-surface to surface environments. • C-14 specific

  4. Novel molecular markers differentiate Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout and steelhead) and the O. clarki (cutthroat trout) subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of 26 PCR-based markers was developed that differentiates rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki). The markers also differentiated rainbow from other cutthroat trout subspecies (O. clarki), and several of the markers differentiated between cutthroat trout subspecies. This system has numerous positive attributes, including: nonlethal sampling, high species-specificity and products that are easily identified and scored using agarose gel electrophoresis. The methodology described for developing the markers can be applied to virtually any system in which numerous markers are desired for identifying or differentiating species or subspecies.

  5. Study, using stable isotopes, of flow distribution, surface-groundwater relations and evapotranspiration in the Okavango Swamp, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, T.; Hutton, L.G.; Kupee, B.B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Stable isotope data collected in the Okavango Delta have confirmed that the central distributary system is more active at present than the peripheral systems. The data also show that there is no groundwater outflow at the western and southern margins of the delta. A salinity-isotope model of the deltaic swamp has been developed to study the relation between the salinity and isotopic composition of the swamp waters. An attempt has been made to separate the atmospheric losses from the swamp into its evapotranspiration components. The results indicate that in winter, when high water levels prevail, these losses are almost entirely due to evaporation whilst in summer, when the water levels are low, evaporation and transpiration contribute almost equally to the total atmospheric losses. (author)

  6. Comparative genomic characterization of Francisella tularensis strains belonging to low and high virulence subspecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia D Champion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a geographically widespread, severely debilitating, and occasionally lethal disease in humans. It is caused by infection by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. In order to better understand its potency as an etiological agent as well as its potential as a biological weapon, we have completed draft assemblies and report the first complete genomic characterization of five strains belonging to the following different Francisella subspecies (subsp.: the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis FSC033, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica FSC257 and FSC022, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida GA99-3548 and GA99-3549 strains. Here, we report the sequencing of these strains and comparative genomic analysis with recently available public Francisella sequences, including the rare F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain isolate from the Central Asian Region. We report evidence for the occurrence of large-scale rearrangement events in strains of the holarctica subspecies, supporting previous proposals that further phylogenetic subdivisions of the Type B clade are likely. We also find a significant enrichment of disrupted or absent ORFs proximal to predicted breakpoints in the FSC022 strain, including a genetic component of the Type I restriction-modification defense system. Many of the pseudogenes identified are also disrupted in the closely related rarely human pathogenic F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain, including modulator of drug activity B (mdaB (FTT0961, which encodes a known NADPH quinone reductase involved in oxidative stress resistance. We have also identified genes exhibiting sequence similarity to effectors of the Type III (T3SS and components of the Type IV secretion systems (T4SS. One of the genes, msrA2 (FTT1797c, is disrupted in F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica and has recently been shown to mediate bacterial pathogen survival in host organisms. Our findings suggest that in addition to the duplication of

  7. Niche tracking and rapid establishment of distributional equilibrium in the house sparrow show potential responsiveness of species to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Monahan

    Full Text Available The ability of species to respond to novel future climates is determined in part by their physiological capacity to tolerate climate change and the degree to which they have reached and continue to maintain distributional equilibrium with the environment. While broad-scale correlative climatic measurements of a species' niche are often described as estimating the fundamental niche, it is unclear how well these occupied portions actually approximate the fundamental niche per se, versus the fundamental niche that exists in environmental space, and what fitness values bounding the niche are necessary to maintain distributional equilibrium. Here, we investigate these questions by comparing physiological and correlative estimates of the thermal niche in the introduced North American house sparrow (Passer domesticus. Our results indicate that occupied portions of the fundamental niche derived from temperature correlations closely approximate the centroid of the existing fundamental niche calculated on a fitness threshold of 50% population mortality. Using these niche measures, a 75-year time series analysis (1930-2004 further shows that: (i existing fundamental and occupied niche centroids did not undergo directional change, (ii interannual changes in the two niche centroids were correlated, (iii temperatures in North America moved through niche space in a net centripetal fashion, and consequently, (iv most areas throughout the range of the house sparrow tracked the existing fundamental niche centroid with respect to at least one temperature gradient. Following introduction to a new continent, the house sparrow rapidly tracked its thermal niche and established continent-wide distributional equilibrium with respect to major temperature gradients. These dynamics were mediated in large part by the species' broad thermal physiological tolerances, high dispersal potential, competitive advantage in human-dominated landscapes, and climatically induced

  8. Residu Gula Glikokonjugat pada Lambung Depan Kerbau Rawa (Bubalus bubalis Kalimantan Selatan (SUGAR RESIDU OF GLYCOCONJUGATES IN FORESTOMACH OF SOUTH KALIMANTAN SWAMP BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Nurliani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of swamp buffaloes to adapt with swamp environment was suggested to be supported bytheir digestive system efficiency. The research was done to obtain scientific explanation about digestiveefficiency of swamp buffalo by identification on kinds and distribution of glycoconjugates in swamp buffaloforestomach. Six male swamp buffaloes aged more than 2.5 year old and had body weight between 300-400kg were used in this study. Samples were obtained from Regency of Banjar slaughter house, SouthKalimantan. Every parts of the forestomach included rumen, reticulum, and omasum was taken andprocessed for microscopic observation with hematoxyline eosin (HE and alcian blue-periodic acid schiff(AB-PAS stainings. Sugar residues of glycoconjugates were localized with lectin histochemistry wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA, ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA, ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, concanavalinagglutinin (Con A, and soybean agglutinin (SBA. Every part of swamp buffalo forestomach had kinds ofspecific glycoconjugates with special distribution pattern which were different with other ruminant, andwere suitable for their functions in that part. The existence of D mannose/D glucose glycoconjugates thatwas dominant in forestomach estimated that had important role in supporting fermentative digestionfunction in swamp buffalo, through its function as receptor bacteria attachment. This is suggested as aspecial characteristic in digestive system of swamp buffalo which causes high digestive efficiency inswamp buffalo.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Reassortant Avian Influenza H1N2 Virus Isolated from a Domestic Sparrow in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhixun; Guo, Jie; Xie, Liji; Liu, Jiabo; Pang, Yaoshan; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Fan, Qing; Luo, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a novel H1N2 avian influenza virus strain, A/Sparrow /Guangxi/GXs-1/2012 (H1N2), isolated from a sparrow in the Guangxi Province of southern China in 2012. All of the 8 gene segments (hemagglutinin [HA], nucleoprotein [NP], matrix [M], polymerase basic 2 [PB2], neuraminidase [NA], polymerase acidic [PA], polymerase basic 1 [PB1], and nonstructural [NS] genes) of this natural recombinant virus are attributed to the Eurasian lineage, and phylogenet...

  10. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-01-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb),...

  11. Urbanization, Trace Metal Pollution, and Malaria Prevalence in the House Sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Coraline; Scheifler, Renaud; Cœurdassier, Michaël; Julliard, Romain; Sorci, Gabriele; Loiseau, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic pollution poses a threat for the environment and wildlife. Trace metals (TMs) are known to have negative effects on haematological status, oxidative balance, and reproductive success in birds. These pollutants particularly increase in concentration in industrialized, urbanized and intensive agricultural areas. Pollutants can also interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and, as such, alter the dynamics of host-parasite interactions. Nevertheless, the impact of pollution on infectious diseases has been largely neglected in natural populations of vertebrates. Here, we used a large spatial scale monitoring of 16 house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations to identify environmental variables likely to explain variation in TMs (lead, cadmium, zinc) concentrations in the feathers. In five of these populations, we also studied the potential link between TMs, prevalence of infection with one species of avian malaria, Plasmodium relictum, and body condition. Our results show that lead concentration is associated with heavily urbanized habitats and that areas with large woodland coverage have higher cadmium and zinc feather concentrations. Our results suggest that lead concentration in the feathers positively correlates with P. relictum prevalence, and that a complex relationship links TM concentrations, infection status, and body condition. This is one of the first studies showing that environmental pollutants are associated with prevalence of an infectious disease in wildlife. The mechanisms underlying this effect are still unknown even though it is tempting to suggest that lead could interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system, as shown in other species. We suggest that more effort should be devoted to elucidate the link between pollution and the dynamics of infectious diseases. PMID:23342022

  12. Comparisons of patch-use models for wintering American tree sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tome, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Optimal foraging theory has stimulated numerous theoretical and empirical studies of foraging behavior for >20 years. These models provide a valuable tool for studying the foraging behavior of an organism. As with any other tool, the models are most effective when properly used. For example, to obtain a robust test of a foraging model, Stephens and Krebs (1986) recommend experimental designs in which four questions are answered in the affirmative. First, do the foragers play the same "game" as the model? Sec- ond, are the assumptions of the model met? Third, does the test rule out alternative possibilities? Finally, are the appropriate variables measured? Negative an- swers to any of these questions could invalidate the model and lead to confusion over the usefulness of foraging theory in conducting ecological studies. Gaines (1989) attempted to determine whether American Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea) foraged by a time (Krebs 1973) or number expectation rule (Gibb 1962), or in a manner consistent with the predictions of Charnov's (1976) marginal value theorem (MVT). Gaines (1989: 118) noted appropriately that field tests of foraging models frequently involve uncontrollable circumstances; thus, it is often difficult to meet the assumptions of the models. Gaines also states (1989: 118) that "violations of the assumptions are also in- formative but do not constitute robust tests of predicted hypotheses," and that "the problem can be avoided by experimental analyses which concurrently test mutually exclusive hypotheses so that alter- native predictions will be eliminated if falsified." There is a problem with this approach because, when major assumptions of models are not satisfied, it is not justifiable to compare a predator's foraging behavior with the model's predictions. I submit that failing to follow the advice offered by Stephens and Krebs (1986) can invalidate tests of foraging models.

  13. Genetic population structure in an equatorial sparrow: roles for culture and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, J E; Fleischer, R C; Danner, R M; Moore, I T

    2017-06-01

    Female preference for local cultural traits has been proposed as a barrier to breeding among animal populations. As such, several studies have found correlations between male bird song dialects and population genetics over relatively large distances. To investigate whether female choice for local dialects could act as a barrier to breeding between nearby and contiguous populations, we tested whether variation in male song dialects explains genetic structure among eight populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Ecuador. Our study sites lay along a transect, and adjacent study sites were separated by approximately 25 km, an order of magnitude less than previously examined for this and most other species. This transect crossed an Andean ridge and through the Quijos River Valley, both of which may be barriers to gene flow. Using a variance partitioning approach, we show that song dialect is important in explaining population genetics, independent of the geographic variables: distance, the river valley and the Andean Ridge. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that song acts as a barrier to breeding among populations in close proximity. In addition, songs of contiguous populations differed by the same degree or more than between two populations previously shown to exhibit female preference for local dialect, suggesting that birds from these populations would also breed preferentially with locals. As expected, all geographic variables (distance, the river valley and the Andean Ridge) also predicted population genetic structure. Our results have important implications for the understanding whether, and at what spatial scale, culture can affect population divergence. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Immunological responses of pregnant swamp and murrah buffalo cows and calves to Toxocara (Neoascaris) vitulorum infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerasinghe, P.; Masoodi, M.A.; Samarasinghe, B.; Sivanathan, S.; Gunawardana, V.K.; Fernando, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    Swamp buffalo cows from an area where T. vitulorum infection was heavy were examined for serum antibodies. Serum from all cows showed strongly positive precipitin reactions from the 4th to 6th months of pregnancy and after parturition using homologous larval, adult worm and adult excretory and secretory antigens; these precipitins were still being detected in the sera 4-6 months after calving. The sera of calves born to these cows were negative for T. vitulorum precipitins before feeding with colostrum but a precipitin reaction was evident from 24 hours of birth. Nevertheless, patent infections developed from 19-21 days after birth and one calf died with severe diarrhoea; the remainder revealed heavy faecal Toxocara egg counts. In six calves the infection was spontaneously eliminated between 40 and 60 days after birth suggesting a 'self-cure' reaction. In a similar study involving 30 Murrah cows sera precipitins were not observed during the first 4-6 months of pregnancy. In 14 calves born to these animals serum precipitins were never observed, but the animals had T. vitulorum egg counts comparable with those in swamp buffalo calves. After an initial natural infection a strong resistance to reinfection was acquired by most calves of both breeds in that larvae did not generally develop beyond the second stage. (author)

  15. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Fattened at Different Feeding Intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, C; Panprasert, P; Holtz, W; Moors, E; Jaturasitha, S; Wicke, M; Gauly, M

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-four male 1-year old swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to 4 groups. One group grazed on guinea grass (GG) and another on guinea grass and the legume Stylosanthes guianensis (GL). The other two groups were kept in pens and fed freshly cut guinea grass and concentrate at an amount of 1.5% (GC1.5) and 2.0% (GC2.0) of body weight, respectively. The effect of the different feeding intensities on carcass characteristics and meat quality were assessed. The mean body weight at slaughter was 398 (±16) kg. Average daily gain was higher in concentrate-supplemented groups (570 and 540 g/d in GC1.5 and GC2.0, respectively) when compared to GG (316 g/d) and GL (354 g/d) (pbuffaloes. Results of the present study showed that the supplementation of pasture with concentrate enhances the growth and carcass characteristics of swamp buffaloes expressed in superior dressing percentage, better muscling, and redder meat with a higher content of protein and fat, whereas animals grazing only on pasture had a more favorable fatty acid profile and water holding capacity. In conclusion, the supplementation of concentrate at a rate of about 1.5% of body weight is recommended to improve the performance and carcass quality of buffaloes.

  16. AGRICULTURE PHENOMENA AND PERSPECTIVES OF LEBAK SWAMP IN JAKABARING SOUTH SUMATRA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Wildayana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to analyze agriculture phenomena and perspectives of lebak swamp in Jakabaring South Sumatra Indonesia. The research used mix methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches. The description of the research area was assisted with interpretation of Landsat images in 1987 and 2015. The research resulted that farmer’s groups living in Jakabaring are divided into four group, namely indigenous people (people of Ogan, Komering, Musi, Enim, and Palembang, new comers (Javanese, spontaneous migration (Buginese, Banjarnese, Bataknese and outside spontaneous migration (Chinese, Arabic. The total area of Jakabaring is approximately 5,525 ha, around 2,700 ha (48.87 % was already landfilled by the Government in 1990, while the remaining 2,825 ha (51.13 % is still not reclaimed. The landfill materials were directly sucked from mud, sand, silt and stones of the Musi River. Each lebak swamp typology shows specific soil characters, but after landfills all soils became homogenous because of uniform materials of landfills. Patterns of land degradation after landfills are classified into three groups, namely making layers of water impermeability, changing vegetation types of land cover, and decreasing type and density of vegetation.

  17. STRUCTURE OF NATURAL REGENERATION IN RELATION TO SOIL PROPERTIES AND DISTURBANCE IN TWO SWAMP FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Antonielle Ávila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Veredas (palm swamps is a type of vegetation associated with watercourses, characterized by the presence of Mauritia flexuosa palm trees. These systems are not well understood and suffer from high anthropogenic pressure. The aims of this study were to describe the natural regeneration of two swamp forests in vereda systems with different anthropogenic impacts and investigate if the variation in these plant communities are associated to edaphic conditions. The study was performed in preserved and impacted sites located in the Environmental Protection Area of the Pandeiros River in northern Minas Gerais. At each site, one hundred 25 m2 plots were established for surveying regenerating shrubs and trees (≥1 cm diameter at the base of the stem and < 3 cm diameter at breast height. Vegetation structure was evaluated by phytosociological parameters, similarity index, and size distribution of individuals. Regenerating strata was correlated with chemical and physical soil analyses. The vegetation at the preserved site was characterized by a higher number of individuals and a lower diversity but contained species that were typical of flooded areas. The results also showed differences in soil nutrient availability between sites that influenced the distribution of species at the two study sites.

  18. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies: Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii subsp. nov. and Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, W E; Wolfshohl, J F

    1991-04-01

    Two major subspecies of Staphylococcus cohnii, namely S. cohnii subsp. cohnii, from humans, and S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum, from humans and other primates, are described on the basis of a study of 14 to 25 strains and 18 to 33 strains, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in our laboratory in 1983 (W. E. Kloos and J. F. Wolfshohl, Curr. Microbiol. 8:115-121, 1983) demonstrated that strains representing the different subspecies were significantly divergent. S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum can be distinguished from S. cohnii subsp. cohnii on the basis of its greater colony size; pigmentation; positive urease, beta-glucuronidase, and beta-galactosidase activities; delayed alkaline phosphatase activity; ability to produce acid aerobically from alpha-lactose; and fatty acid profile. The type strain of S. cohnii subsp. cohnii is ATCC 29974, the designated type strain of S. cohnii Schleifer and Kloos 1975b, 55. The type strain of S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum is ATCC 49330.

  19. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi

    We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on Löwen......We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....

  20. Inference of purifying and positive selection in three subspecies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Duan, Jinjie; Hvilsom, Christina

    2015-01-01

    of recent gene flow from Western into Eastern chimpanzees. The striking contrast in X-linked vs. autosomal polymorphism and divergence previously reported in Central chimpanzees is also found in Eastern and Western chimpanzees. We show that the direction of selection (DoS) statistic exhibits a strong non......-monotonic relationship with the strength of purifying selection S, making it inappropriate for estimating S. We instead use counts in synonymous vs. non-synonymous frequency classes to infer the distribution of S coefficients acting on non-synonymous mutations in each subspecies. The strength of purifying selection we...... infer is congruent with the differences in effective sizes of each subspecies: Central chimpanzees are undergoing the strongest purifying selection followed by Eastern and Western chimpanzees. Coding indels show stronger selection against indels changing the reading frame than observed in human...

  1. Evaluation of a PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hum, S.; Quinn, K.; Brunner, J.

    1997-01-01

    methods were attributed to methodological differences used in various laboratories. Conclusion Our results indicate that misidentification of C fetus in routine diagnostic laboratories may be relatively common. The PCR assay evaluated gave rapid and reproducible results and is thus a valuable adjunctive......Objective To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of Campylobacter fetus and differentiation of the defined subspecies. Design Characterisation of bacterial strains by traditional phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction, a probabilistic identification scheme...... by traditional phenotypic methods and the PCR assay was found to be 80.8%. The polymerase chain reaction proved to be a reliable technique for the species and subspecies identification of C fetus; equivocal results were obtained in only two instances. Initial misidentifications by conventional phenotyping...

  2. 77 FR 56858 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Recovery Plan for Four Subspecies of Island Fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... particular species. Species' History We listed four of the six subspecies of island fox endemic to the... consistent with long-term viability; and 2. Land managers are able to respond in a timely fashion to...

  3. Activation of persistent Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in mares with subclinical endometritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rønn; Skive, Bolette; Christoffersen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Endometritis in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) may be underdiagnosed due to traditional diagnostic methods lacking sensitivity and specificity. We serendipitously identified a bacterial growth medium (bActivate) that appeared capable of inducing...

  4. Association of staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection with recurrence of renal staghorn stone

    OpenAIRE

    Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. Case Presentation: A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 y...

  5. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  6. Evidence for Bergmann's Rule and Not Allopatric Subspeciation in the Threatened Kaka (Nestor meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussex, Nic; Sainsbury, James; Moorhouse, Ron; Jamieson, Ian G; Robertson, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    Species of conservation concern characterized by small and declining populations greatly benefit from proactive management approaches such as population translocations. Because they often show intra-specific genetic and phenotypic variation, which can result from drift or differential selective pressures between habitats, understanding the distribution of such variation and its underlying processes is a prerequisite to develop effective management guidelines. Indeed, translocations among genetically differentiated populations potentially locally adapted are discouraged in order to avoid outbreeding depression, while translocations among populations characterized by high gene flow with no evidence for local adaptation are encouraged. Here, we first test whether 2 recognized subspecies, the North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) and South Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis meridionalis) of New Zealand fit a scenario of allopatric subspeciation following the separation of the North and South Islands at the end of the Pleistocene using 1 mtDNA (n = 96) and 9 microsatellite markers (n = 126). We then test whether morphological differences among the 2 subspecies support a pattern of local adaptation, comparing phenotypic divergence (P ST) and the level of divergence by drift alone (F ST) among populations. We find little population structure between islands, ruling out allopatric subspeciation in kaka. Further, P ST exceeds F ST, supporting an adaptive latitudinal size cline consistent with Bergmann's rule. These results therefore suggest that using neutral genetic diversity alone can be misleading when identifying management units and that the nature of phenotypic variation should be considered in translocations efforts. We finally discuss North and South Island management units but suggest that cross-island translocation be allowed. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  8. A new subspecies of Celastrus (Celastraceae from the Palni hills of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. John Britto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Celastrus paniculatus Willd. ssp. angladeanus S.J. Britto, B. Mani and S. Thomas new subspecies from the Palni hills, Western Ghats of Tamilnadu, South India is described and illustrated. The new ssp. is similar to Celastrus paniculatus ssp. aggregatus but differs in flame-coloured branchlets, terminal, erect and stiff panicles exceeding leaves, prominent gibbous and oblique capsules, flowers polygamous but predominantly pistillate and 3-seeded capsules.

  9. Swamp Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The fields of anthropology, evironmental science, and "planetary health" are all speaking about the need to properly assess the relationships between human health and anthropogenic environmental influences. Using ethnographic data gathered from an NSF-funded research project in the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina after Hurricane Matthew, I will present the importance of specific, culturally-centered, historically contextualized studies of the environment as we are increasingly placed in highly important (but too general) global environmental discussions. I will focus on the importance of the Lumbee Tribe (one of the largest Native American communities in the U.S.) as a key research site to help us understand how to engage in global environmental debates. I will illustrate how we must take account particular communities as they fade into and out of one another in the past and present. As such, I will argue that "planetary health" and other environemental health discourses must be accountable through interdisciplinary/interprofessional/interclass relationships that place the power of academic work in the environment safely in the hands of the most vulnerable populations.

  10. Ecotype evolution in Glossina palpalis subspecies, major vectors of sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry De Meeûs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors in driving adaptive trajectories of living organisms is still being debated. This is even more important to understand when dealing with important neglected diseases and their vectors.In this paper, we analysed genetic divergence, computed from seven microsatellite loci, of 614 tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina palpalis palpalis, major vectors of animal and human trypanosomes from 28 sites of West and Central Africa. We found that the two subspecies are so divergent that they deserve the species status. Controlling for geographic and time distances that separate these samples, which have a significant effect, we found that G. p. gambiensis from different landscapes (Niayes of Senegal, savannah and coastal environments were significantly genetically different and thus represent different ecotypes or subspecies. We also confirm that G. p. palpalis from Ivory Coast, Cameroon and DRC are strongly divergent.These results provide an opportunity to examine whether new tsetse fly ecotypes might display different behaviour, dispersal patterns, host preferences and vectorial capacities. This work also urges a revision of taxonomic status of Glossina palpalis subspecies and highlights again how fast ecological divergence can be, especially in host-parasite-vector systems.

  11. Chimpanzee subspecies and ‘robust’ australopithecine holotypes, in the context of comments by Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of comparative anatomy (including chimpanzees, gorillas and other primates, Darwin1 suggested that Africa was the continent from which ‘progenitors’ of humankind evolved. Hominin fossils from this continent proved him correct. We present the results of morphometric analyses based on cranial data obtained from chimpanzee taxa currently recognised as distinct subspecies, namely Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, as well as Pan paniscus (bonobo. Our objective was to use a morphometric technique2 to quantify the degree of similarity between pairs of specimens, in the context of a statistical (probabilistic definition of a species.3–5 Results obtained from great apes, including two subspecies of chimpanzee, were assessed in relation to same-scale comparisons between the holotypes of ‘robust’ australopithecine (Plio-Pleistocene hominin taxa which have traditionally been distinguished at a species level, notably Paranthropus robustus from South Africa, and Paranthropus (Australopithecus/ Zinjanthropus boisei from East Africa. The question arises as to whether the holotypes of these two taxa, TM 1517 from Kromdraai6 and OH 5 from Olduvai,7 respectively, are different at the subspecies rather than at the species level.

  12. Mitogenomic phylogenetics of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.: genetic evidence for revision of subspecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick I Archer

    Full Text Available There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus: B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North Pacific and North Atlantic raises the question of whether a single Northern Hemisphere subspecies is valid. We assess phylogenetic patterns using ~16 K base pairs of the complete mitogenome for 154 fin whales from the North Pacific, North Atlantic--including the Mediterranean Sea--and Southern Hemisphere. A Bayesian tree of the resulting 136 haplotypes revealed several well-supported clades representing each ocean basin, with no haplotypes shared among ocean basins. The North Atlantic haplotypes (n = 12 form a sister clade to those from the Southern Hemisphere (n = 42. The estimated time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA for this Atlantic/Southern Hemisphere clade and 81 of the 97 samples from the North Pacific was approximately 2 Ma. 14 of the remaining North Pacific samples formed a well-supported clade within the Southern Hemisphere. The TMRCA for this node suggests that at least one female from the Southern Hemisphere immigrated to the North Pacific approximately 0.37 Ma. These results provide strong evidence that North Pacific and North Atlantic fin whales should not be considered the same subspecies, and suggest the need for revision of the global taxonomy of the species.

  13. Infection with Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae and Vibrio harveyi in snapper, Pagrus auratus with bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, F J; Raidal, S R; Buller, N; Jones, B

    2006-05-01

    To diagnose the cause of chronic, low mortality associated with bloat in tanks of snapper at an aquaculture facility. A clinical, pathological and microbiological investigation into the cause of a low number of ongoing mortalities associated with bloat in snapper at an aquaculture facility is outlined. Necropsy, histology, microbiology and a comparison of haematology and water analysis from affected and unaffected fish and holding tanks, respectively were conducted. Affected moribund fish were found in lateral or dorsal recumbency floating on the water surface within 24 hours of death. Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae was isolated from intestinal contents and Vibrio harveyi from the blood of affected fish and both were isolated from culture water. Both V harveyi and P damselae subspecies damselae isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and sulphamethoxazole plus trimethoprim. Environmental parameters such as pH and dissolved oxygen were similar in tanks of affected and unaffected fish. Affected fish had gas distended swimbladders, anaemia, and the intestines were diffusely distended with a clear, pale yellowish fluid. Livers were mottled tan and green in a zonal pattern. Histologically the intestines of fish from tanks suffering mortality had a moderate granulocytic enteritis with oedema and infiltrations with eosinophilic granule cells that were also present as an infiltrate in the gills. There were elevated numbers of melanomacrophage centres and haemosiderin deposits in the spleen, kidney and liver of affected fish. Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae subspecies damselae infection should be recognised as potential pathogens of snapper held in water of less than optimal quality.

  14. Spatiotemporal variation in the reproductive ecology of two parapatric subspecies of Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Villagra, Cristian A; Raguso, Robert A

    2010-09-01

    • Flowering plants that rely on pollinators for most of their reproduction may experience unpredictable and inconsistent availability of effective pollinators throughout their reproductive lifetime. We investigated the reproductive ecology of two subspecies of the tufted evening primrose, Oenothera cespitosa, which occupy geographically and edaphically distinct habitats in western North America: O. cespitosa subsp. navajoensis inhabits sandstone soils on open sites or rocky slopes in the Colorado Plateau and O. cespitosa subsp. cespitosa grows in clay soils on talus slopes and exposed rocky ridges in the western Great Plains and northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. • Pollen augmentation and selfing experiments, floral visitor observations, and single-visit effectiveness experiments were conducted over 4 years to examine the breeding system and spatiotemporal variation in pollinator behavior, assemblage, and abundance at different populations for each subspecies. • Both subspecies of O. cespitosa were self-incompatible and pollen-limited, suggesting that the relative abundance, effectiveness, and movement patterns of different insects as pollinators influenced the quality and quantity of seed production in these plants. Medium-sized vespertine hawkmoths (Hyles lineata, Sphinx vashti) were effective pollinators when present, as were large matinal bees (Anthophora affabilis, A. dammersi, Xylocopa tabaniformis androleuca), whereas small oligolectic Lasioglossum bees primarily functioned as pollen thieves in the evening and morning. • These findings highlight the importance of variability of pollinator composition and abundance in the evolution of plant breeding systems and reproductive success at varying spatial and temporal scales.

  15. A morphological review of subspecies of the Asian box turtle, Cuora amboinensis (Testudines, Geomydidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carl H.; Laemmerzahl, Arndt F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The turtle Cuora amboinensis has an extensive distribution covering most of southern mainland Asia, Indonesia, and extending to the Philippine Islands. Unlike many species, C. amboinensis occurs on both sides of Wallace's Line separating Asian and Australian flora and fauna. Four subspecies are currently recognized; Cuora a. kamaroma (southern continental Asia, Java and the northern Philippines [introduced]), C. a. lineata (Kachin Province, Myanmar [Burma] and adjacent Yunnan Province, China), C. a. couro (Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa, and adjacent smaller Indonesian islands); and C. a. amboinensis (Moluccas, Sulawesi, Philippines). Five pattern and 33 morphological characters were examined for variation in 691 individuals from throughout the species' range. Our analyses suggest that only two presently recognized subspecies are valid: amboinensis andkamaroma. Neither couro nor lineata are supported by our analysis. We recommend that C. a. couroshould be synonymized with the species C. amboinensis and C. a. lineata with the subspecies C. a. kamaroma.

  16. Building a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Peninsula Malaysia: what about the subspecies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John-James; Sing, Kong-Wah; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92%) and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%). In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity.

  17. Building a DNA Barcode Reference Library for the True Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Peninsula Malaysia: What about the Subspecies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John-James; Sing, Kong-Wah; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92%) and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%). In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity. PMID:24282514

  18. Building a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies (Lepidoptera of Peninsula Malaysia: what about the subspecies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-James Wilson

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92% and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%. In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity.

  19. Effects of experimentally elevated traffic noise on nestling white-crowned sparrow stress physiology, immune function and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Ondi L; Johnson, Erin E; Blickley, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Breuner, Creagh W

    2013-06-01

    Roads have been associated with behavioral and physiological changes in wildlife. In birds, roads decrease reproductive success and biodiversity and increase physiological stress. Although the consequences of roads on individuals and communities have been well described, the mechanisms through which roads affect birds remain largely unexplored. Here, we examine one mechanism through which roads could affect birds: traffic noise. We exposed nestling mountain white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha) to experimentally elevated traffic noise for 5 days during the nestling period. Following exposure to traffic noise we measured nestling stress physiology, immune function, body size, condition and survival. Based on prior studies, we expected the traffic noise treatment to result in elevated stress hormones (glucocorticoids), and declines in immune function, body size, condition and survival. Surprisingly, nestlings exposed to traffic noise had lower glucocorticoid levels and improved condition relative to control nests. These results indicate that traffic noise does affect physiology and development in white-crowned sparrows, but not at all as predicted. Therefore, when evaluating the mechanisms through which roads affect avian populations, other factors (e.g. edge effects, pollution and mechanical vibration) may be more important than traffic noise in explaining elevated nestling stress responses in this species.

  20. High costs of infection: Alphavirus infection reduces digestive function and bone and feather growth in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder-Orth, Carol A.; Killpack, Tess L.; Goto, Dylan S.; Rainwater, Ellecia L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2018-01-01

    Increasingly, ecoimmunology studies aim to use relevant pathogen exposure to examine the impacts of infection on physiological processes in wild animals. Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses (“arboviruses”) responsible for millions of cases of human illnesses each year. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is a unique alphavirus that is transmitted by a cimicid insect, the swallow bug, and is amplified in two avian species: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). BCRV, like many alphaviruses, exhibits age-dependent susceptibility where the young are most susceptible to developing disease and exhibit a high mortality rate. However, alphavirus disease etiology in nestling birds is unknown. In this study, we infected nestling house sparrows with Buggy Creek virus and measured virological, pathological, growth, and digestive parameters following infection. Buggy Creek virus caused severe encephalitis in all infected nestlings, and the peak viral concentration in brain tissue was over 34 times greater than any other tissue. Growth, tissue development, and digestive function were all significantly impaired during BCRV infection. However, based on histopathological analysis performed, this impairment does not appear to be the result of direct tissue damage by the virus, but likely caused by encephalitis and neuronal invasion and impairment of the central nervous system. This is the first study to examine the course of alphavirus diseases in nestling birds and these results will improve our understanding of age-dependent infections of alphaviruses in vertebrate hosts.

  1. Factors affecting stream nutrient loads: A synthesis of regional SPARROW model results for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Haste makes waste: accelerated molt adversely affects the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage ornaments in house sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated.We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar.These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt.

  3. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  4. Sustainable management of peat swamp forest of Sarawak with special reference to ramin (Gonystylus bancanus); development of a monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meer, van der P.J.; Chai, F.Y.C.; Tan, S.; Mohizah, M.; Liam, D.

    2004-01-01

    Peat swamp forests in Sarawak are valuable in terms of timber and biodiversity, but heavily degraded. In order to assess the current status, potential developments and possible management interventions, an adequate monitoring system is necessary. In this study a new monitoring system is proposed,

  5. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  6. Variation in flood tolerance of container-grown seedlings of swamp white oak, bur oak, and white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall

    2008-01-01

    How much variation in flood tolerance exists among seedlings within oak species, given the flood frequency of sites from which acorns are collected, has been largely unexplored. Our studies examined initial growth and flood tolerance for seedlings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa L.), and white...

  7. Growth Response and Tolerance to Heavy Metals of two Swamp Species inoculated with a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Labra-Cardon, D.; Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the sensitivity and the sequestration ability of the microbial communities to heavy metals, microbes have been used for bioremediation. Recently the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the bioremediation of this kind of contaminants has been done. This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to heavy metals of two swamp species. (Author)

  8. Distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), upper Santa Cruz River watershed, southern Arizona, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems in arid environments provide critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds, yet are often at risk of contamination by heavy metals. Birds and other animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (3) assess sparrow condition among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure. We examined six study sites that reflected different potential sources of contamination. Hematocrit values, body mass residuals, and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium exceeded background concentrations at some sites, but generally were lower than or similar to concentrations found in earlier studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade. Concentrations were higher in recaptured birds in 2012 than in 2011 for 7 metals in feathers and 14 metals in blood, suggesting possible bioaccumulation. We found no cascading effects as a result of heavy metal exposure, but did find that heavy metal concentrations were reduced following the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade.

  9. Susceptibility and antibody response of Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus) to West Nile virus: A potential amplification host in sagebrush-grassland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Fassbinder-Orth, Carol; Owen, Benjamin; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) spread to the US western plains states in 2003, when a significant mortality event attributed to WNV occurred in Greater Sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ). The role of avian species inhabiting sagebrush in the amplification of WNV in arid and semiarid regions of the North America is unknown. We conducted an experimental WNV challenge study in Vesper Sparrows ( Pooecetes gramineus ), a species common to sagebrush and grassland habitats found throughout much of North America. We found Vesper Sparrows to be moderately susceptible to WNV, developing viremia considered sufficient to transmit WNV to feeding mosquitoes, but the majority of birds were capable of surviving infection and developing a humoral immune response to the WNV nonstructural 1 and envelope proteins. Despite clearance of viremia, after 6 mo, WNV was detected molecularly in three birds and cultured from one bird. Surviving Vesper Sparrows were resistant to reinfection 6 mo after the initial challenge. Vesper sparrows could play a role in the amplification of WNV in sagebrush habitat and other areas of their range, but rapid clearance of WNV may limit their importance as competent amplification hosts of WNV.

  10. Newcastle disease virus infection in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linneaus, 1758 captured in poultry farms of the agreste region of the State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JSA Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir competence for the Newcastle Disease virus (NDV was evaluated in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linnaeus 1758 captured on a commercial poultry farm and a chicken hatchery in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A total number of 103 birds collected from a poultry farm (24/103 and a chicken hatchery (79/103 were examined. Hemagglutination inhibition tests, isolation, and viral characterization were performed in all samples collected from each bird. Titers ranging from 1:2 to 1:64 were detectable in 10.68% of sparrows, but positive serology and viral isolation were obtained only from sparrows captured at the hatchery. Hemagglutination activity was inhibited by anti-avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1 serum, and this sample showed an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICOI of 0.21, which is similar to the B1 stock vaccine (0.20 used for vaccination in those farms. Therefore, it was concluded that the sparrows were infected by stock vaccine virus, and that these birds could be a reservoir for NDV. However, additional studies involving sequencing of the virus genome of stock vaccine must be carried out.

  11. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  12. Spatial differences in hydrologic characteristics and water chemistry of a temperate coastal plain peatland: The Great Dismal Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, Gary K.; Wurster, Frederick C.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial differences in hydrologic processes and geochemistry across forested peatlands control the response of the wetland-community species and resiliency to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Knowing these controls is essential to effectively managing peatlands as resilient wetland habitats. The Great Dismal Swamp is a 45,325 hectare peatland in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia and North Carolina, USA, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The existing forest-species distribution is a product of timber harvesting, hydrologic alteration by canal and road construction, and wildfires. Since 2009, studies of hydrologic and geochemical controls have expanded knowledge of groundwater flow paths, water chemistry, response to precipitation events, and characteristics of the peat. Dominant hydrologic and geochemical controls include (1) the gradual slope in land surface, (2) vertical differences in the hydraulic characteristics of the peat, (3) the proximity of lateral groundwater and small stream inflows from uplands, (4) the presence of an extensive canal and road network, and (5) small, adjustable-height dams on the canals. Although upland sources provide some surface water and lateral groundwater inflow to western parts of the swamp, direct groundwater recharge by precipitation is the major source of water throughout the swamp and the only source in many areas. Additionally, the proximity and type of upland water sources affect water levels and nutrient concentrations in canal water and groundwater. Where streams are a dominant upland source, variations in groundwater levels and nutrient concentrations are greater than where recharge by precipitation is the primary water source. Where upland groundwater is a dominant source, water levels are more stable. Because the species distribution of forest communities in the Swamp is strongly influenced by these controls, swamp managers are beginning to incorporate this knowledge into forest, water, and fire

  13. Swamp plots for dynamic aperture studies of PEP-II lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.T.; Irwin, J.; Cai, Y.; Chen, T.; Ritson, D.

    1995-01-01

    With a newly developed algorithm using resonance basis Lie generators and their evaluation with action-angle Poisson bracket maps (nPB tracking) the authors have been able to perform fast tracking for dynamic aperture studies of PEP-II lattices as well as incorporate lattice nonlinearities in beam-beam studies. They have been able to better understand the relationship between dynamic apertures and the tune shift and resonance coefficients in the generators of the one-turn maps. To obtain swamp plots (dynamic aperture vs. working point) of the PEP-II lattices, they first compute a one-turn resonance basis map for a nominal working point and then perform nPB tracking by switching the working point while holding fixed all other terms in the map. Results have been spot-checked by comparing with element-by-element tracking

  14. Three approaches to the classification of inland wetlands. [Dismal Swamp, Tennessee, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, P. T.; Malone, D.; Brooks, P. D.; Carter, V.

    1977-01-01

    In the Dismal Swamp project, seasonal, color-infrared aerial photographs and LANDSAT digital data were interpreted for a detailed analysis of the vegetative communities in a large, highly altered wetland. In Western Tennessee, seasonal high altitude color-infrared aerial photographs provided the hydrologic and vegetative information needed to map inland wetlands, using a classification system developed for the Tennessee Valley Region. In Florida, color-infrared aerial photographs were analyzed to produce wetland maps using three existing classification systems to evaluate the information content and mappability of each system. The methods used in each of the three projects can be extended or modified for use in the mapping of inland wetlands in other parts of the United States.

  15. Modeling Flood Plain Hydrology and Forest Productivity of Congaree Swamp, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    An ecological field and modeling study was conducted to examine the flood relations of backswamp forests and park trails of the flood plain portion of Congaree National Park, S.C. Continuous water level gages were distributed across the length and width of the flood plain portion - referred to as 'Congaree Swamp' - to facilitate understanding of the lag and peak flood coupling with stage of the Congaree River. A severe and prolonged drought at study start in 2001 extended into late 2002 before backswamp zones circulated floodwaters. Water levels were monitored at 10 gaging stations over a 4-year period from 2002 to 2006. Historical water level stage and discharge data from the Congaree River were digitized from published sources and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) archives to obtain long-term daily averages for an upstream gage at Columbia, S.C., dating back to 1892. Elevation of ground surface was surveyed for all park trails, water level gages, and additional circuits of roads and boundaries. Rectified elevation data were interpolated into a digital elevation model of the park trail system. Regression models were applied to establish time lags and stage relations between gages at Columbia, S.C., and gages in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the river and backswamp within the park. Flood relations among backswamp gages exhibited different retention and recession behavior between flood plain reaches with greater hydroperiod in the lower reach than those in the upper and middle reaches of the Congaree Swamp. A flood plain inundation model was developed from gage relations to predict critical river stages and potential inundation of hiking trails on a real-time basis and to forecast the 24-hour flood In addition, tree-ring analysis was used to evaluate the effects of flood events and flooding history on forest resources at Congaree National Park. Tree cores were collected from populations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), water

  16. Primary production in a shallow water lake with special reference to a reed swamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, F.Oe.

    1976-01-01

    Phytoplankton gross primary production ( 14 C method) in the shallow, eutrophic Danish Lake Arresoe in 1973 was 980 g C m -2 . Calculated net primary production was near zero. Macrophyte net primary production was measured by harvesting the maximum biomass, and above ground values were between 420 and 1325 g ash free dry wt m -2 , while below ground values were between 2480 and 8570 g ash free dry wt m -2 . The reed swamps were mapped on aerial photographs, and the composition of the macrophyte vegetation was determined. A comparison of macrophyte vegetation in 1944 and 1972 showed a reduction in species diversity, especially of submerged species. The seasonal variations in physical and chemical data indicated strong eutrophication in Arresoe. (author)

  17. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-18

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.

  18. Autonomic control of the heart in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Nina Kerting; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is an air-breathing teleost with very reduced gills that uses the buccal cavity for air-breathing. Here we characterise the cardiovascular changes associated with the intermittent breathing pattern in M. albus and we study the autonomic control of the heart.......3 cm H2O). The autonomic control of the heart during water- and air-breathing was revealed by infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and muscarinic antagonist atropine (3 mg kg− 1) in eels instrumented with an arterial catheter. Inhibition of the sympathetic and parasympathetic...... innervations of the heart revealed a strong vagal tone on the heart of water-breathing eels and that the tachycardia during air-breathing is primarily mediated by withdrawal of cholinergic tone....

  19. Reproductive biology of the swamp racer Mastigodryas bifossatus (Serpentes: Colubridae in subtropical Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro T. Leite

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The swamp racer Mastigodryas bifossatus (Raddi, 1820 is a large snake of Colubrinae. It is widely distributed in open areas throughout South America. Dissection of 224 specimens of this species housed in herpetological collections of the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná provided information on its sexual dimorphism, reproductive cycle and fecundity in subtropical Brazil. Adult specimens of M. bifossatus average approximately 1190 mm in snout-vent length and females are larger than males. The reproductive cycle of females is seasonal, with secondary vitellogenesis occurring from July to December. However, examination of male gonads did not reveal signs of reproductive seasonality in this sex. Egg laying was recorded from November to January. The estimated recruitment period extends from February to April. The mean number of individuals per clutch is 15, and there is a positive correlation between female length and clutch size.

  20. New England SPARROW Water-Quality Modeling to Assist with the Development of Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Connecticut River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. B.; Robinson, K. W.; Simcox, A. C.; Johnston, C. M.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEWIPCC), is currently preparing a water-quality model, called SPARROW, to assist in the regional total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies in New England. A model is required to provide estimates of nutrient loads and confidence intervals at unmonitored stream reaches. SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) is a spatially detailed, statistical model that uses regression equations to relate total phosphorus and nitrogen (nutrient) stream loads to pollution sources and watershed characteristics. These statistical relations are then used to predict nutrient loads in unmonitored streams. The New England SPARROW model is based on a hydrologic network of 42,000 stream reaches and associated watersheds. Point source data are derived from USEPA's Permit Compliance System (PCS). Information about nonpoint sources is derived from data such as fertilizer use, livestock wastes, and atmospheric deposition. Watershed characteristics include land use, streamflow, time-of-travel, stream density, percent wetlands, slope of the land surface, and soil permeability. Preliminary SPARROW results are expected in Spring 2002. The New England SPARROW model is proposed for use in the TMDL determination for nutrients in the Connecticut River Basin, upstream of Connecticut. The model will be used to estimate nitrogen loads from each of the upstream states to Long Island Sound. It will provide estimates and confidence intervals of phosphorus and nitrogen loads, area-weighted yields of nutrients by watershed, sources of nutrients, and the downstream movement of nutrients. This information will be used to (1) understand ranges in nutrient levels in surface waters, (2) identify the environmental factors that affect nutrient levels in streams, (3) evaluate monitoring efforts for better determination of

  1. Ground survey of red lechwe in the Linyanti swamps and Chobe floodplains, northern Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phemelo Gadimang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A ground survey of red lechwe was carried out in the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains of northern Botswana in the dry and wet seasons of 2012 and 2013, respectively. We documented numbers, sex ratio and age structure of red lechwe within the linear strips of 25 km × 300 m along the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains. Results indicated a significant difference in the numbers of red lechwe between sites and seasons. About 66 and 755 red lechwe were estimated for Chobe in the dry and wet season, respectively, with 343 and 261 of them estimated for Linyanti in the dry and wet season, respectively. In Chobe, the red lechwe densities varied widely between seasons (9 red lechwe/km2 – 101 red lechwe/km2 compared with Linyanti, where the densities did not vary much between seasons (35 red lechwe/km2 – 46 red lechwe/km2 . The lower densities of red lechwe in Chobe in the dry season when compared with the wet season suggest a possible seasonal shift in the distribution of red lechwe to the nearby Zambezi floodplains in Namibia. Conservation implications: The higher number of red lechwe in the Chobe floodplains in the wet season indicates the potential of the floodplains as a habitat for this species in that season. The dry season shift in the distribution of red lechwe in Chobe presents an opportunity for local communities in Namibia to engage in tourism, whereas the return of the red lechwe to the floodplains in the wet season ensures protection of the animals as well as boosts the tourism potential of the Chobe National Park.

  2. Effect of day or night grazing on behaviour of swamp buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somparn, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of day or night grazing on behaviour by swamp buffaloes. A grazing trial was conducted over 42 days in the late rainy season, during September to November2005 at Surin Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Surin province. The experimental period was divided into two 21-day periods. Twelve 2-year-old swamp buffalo heifers were allocated to four groups, eachcontaining three heifers, with the mean group weights being as similar as possible. Each group was allowed to graze either from 06:20 to 18:00 h (daytime treatment or from 18:20 to 06:00 h (nighttime treatment infour separate paddocks, each of 5 rai, using a cross-over design. When not at pasture the animals in each group were kept in the common corral with free access to fresh drinking water and mineral blocks. Individualanimal activity was recorded by visual observation at 1-min intervals during the period at pasture. Individual groups within each period were treated as replicates. Differences between group means weretested using MIXED procedure of SAS.The buffaloes on daytime treatment spent longer (P<0.05 grazing than those on nighttime treatment (423 vs 332 min. The number of meals differed (P<0.05 between treatments, but overall mean meal durationswere similar (73 min. Buffaloes allowed to graze during daylight had a tendency (P<0.10 toward a higher bite and step rates than those grazing during the night. With the reduction in grazing activity duringthe night on nighttime treatment, the animals ruminated for longer during the period at pasture (327 and 191 min, P<0.001. Live-weight change over periods of 20 days did not differ significantly. The difference intemporal behaviour patterns between treatments indicated that animals have to adapt foraging strategies appropriate for different situations in order to maintain feed intake and subsequently production.

  3. Improvement of the productivity of the swamp buffalo of S.E. Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.E.; Vercoe, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The needs of an expanding human population necessitate an increase in numbers and efficiency of output if the swamp buffalo is to remain as a significant component of S.E. Asian agriculture. Biological constraints to an increase in numbers are associated mainly with high calf mortality and low reproductive rate. A combination of vaccination and deworming markedly increases calf survival and provides the simplest means for increasing buffalo numbers. However, methods for improvement of the low inherent fertility of buffaloes remain to be devised. A first step towards a genetic solution is to obtain accurate comparative data for reproductive rates of different buffalo breeds and measures of the magnitude of heterosis for reproductive rate. However, facilities to do this in the near future do not exist. Milk yield or draft power could be most rapidly increased by crossing to river breeds with the optimum proportion of river breed in the cross determined by that level of milk yield and size commensurate with the locally available feed. This is the only method currently available that allows genetic improvement to initially equal or exceed the rate of human population growth. The lack of both large, well-documented herds and efficient AI schemes at present rules against within-breed selection as a method of improvement for any productive trait. It is unrealistic to expect large amounts of high-quality feeds to ever become available for rearing swamp buffaloes and there is a need to develop the facilities and expertise to allow comparative evaluation of buffalo breeds, the exploitation of heterosis in crosses and ultimately, within-breed selection for higher productivity, on straw-based diets. (author)

  4. Clonal growth strategy, diversity and structure: A spatiotemporal response to sedimentation in tropical Cyperus papyrus swamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Addisie; Stiers, Iris; Sierens, Tim; Kefalew, Alemayehu; Triest, Ludwig

    2018-01-01

    Land degradation and soil erosion in the upper catchments of tropical lakes fringed by papyrus vegetation can result in a sediment load gradient from land to lakeward. Understanding the dynamics of clonal modules (ramets and genets) and growth strategies of plants on such a gradient in both space and time is critical for exploring a species adaptation and processes regulating population structure and differentiation. We assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics in clonal growth, diversity, and structure of an emergent macrophyte, Cyperus papyrus (papyrus), in response to two contrasting sedimentation regimes by combining morphological traits and genotype data using 20 microsatellite markers. A total of 636 ramets from six permanent plots (18 x 30 m) in three Ethiopian papyrus swamps, each with discrete sedimentation regimes (high vs. low) were sampled for two years. We found that ramets under the high sedimentation regime (HSR) were significantly clumped and denser than the sparse and spreading ramets under the low sedimentation regime (LSR). The HSR resulted in significantly different ramets with short culm height and girth diameter as compared to the LSR. These results indicated that C. papyrus ameliorates the effect of sedimentation by shifting clonal growth strategy from guerrilla (in LSR) to phalanx (in HSR). Clonal richness, size, dominance, and clonal subrange differed significantly between sediment regimes and studied time periods. Each swamp under HSR revealed a significantly high clonal richness (R = 0.80) as compared to the LSR (R = 0.48). Such discrepancy in clonal richness reflected the occurrence of initial and repeated seedling recruitment strategies as a response to different sedimentation regimes. Overall, our spatial and short-term temporal observations highlighted that HSR enhances clonal richness and decreases clonal subrange owing to repeated seedling recruitment and genets turnover.

  5. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  6. Threatened and endangered subspecies with vulnerable ecological traits also have high susceptibility to sea level rise and habitat fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Benscoter

    Full Text Available The presence of multiple interacting threats to biodiversity and the increasing rate of species extinction make it critical to prioritize management efforts on species and communities that maximize conservation success. We implemented a multi-step approach that coupled vulnerability assessments evaluating threats to Florida taxa such as climate change, sea-level rise, and habitat fragmentation with in-depth literature surveys of taxon-specific ecological traits. The vulnerability, adaptive capacity, and ecological traits of 12 threatened and endangered subspecies were compared to non-listed subspecies of the same parent species. Overall, the threatened and endangered subspecies showed high vulnerability and low adaptive capacity, in particular to sea level rise and habitat fragmentation. They also exhibited larger home ranges and greater dispersal limitation compared to non-endangered subspecies, which may inhibit their ability to track changing climate in fragmented landscapes. There was evidence for lower reproductive capacity in some of the threatened or endangered taxa, but not for most. Taxa located in the Florida Keys or in other low coastal areas were most vulnerable to sea level rise, and also showed low levels of adaptive capacity, indicating they may have a lower probability of conservation success. Our analysis of at-risk subspecies and closely related non-endangered subspecies demonstrates that ecological traits help to explain observed differences in vulnerability and adaptive capacity. This study points to the importance of assessing the relative contributions of multiple threats and evaluating conservation value at the species (or subspecies level when resources are limited and several factors affect conservation success.

  7. Morphometric and molecular differentiation between quetzal subspecies of Pharomachrus mocinno (Trogoniformes: Trogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Solórzano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The resplendent Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno is an endemic Mesoamerican bird species of conservation concern. Within this species, the subspecies P. m. costaricensis and P. m. mocinno, have been recognized by apparent morphometric differences; however, presently there is no sufficient data for confirmation. We analyzed eight morphometric attributes of the body from 41 quetzals: body length, tarsus and cord wing, as well as the length, wide and depth of the bill, body weight; and in the case of the males, the length of the long upper-tail cover feathers. We used multivariate analyses to discriminate morphometric differences between subspecies and contrasted each morphometric attribute between and within subspecies with paired non-parametric Wilcoxon test. In order to review the intraspecific taxonomic status of this bird, we added phylogenetic analysis, and genetic divergence and differentiation based on nucleotide variations in four sequences of mtDNA. The nucleotide variation was estimated in control region, subunit NDH6, and tRNA Glu and tRNA Phe in 26 quetzals from eight localities distributed in five countries. We estimated the genetic divergence and differentiation between subspecies according to a mutation-drift equilibrium model. We obtained the best mutation nucleotide model following the procedure implemented in model test program. We constructed the phylogenetic relationships between subspecies by maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood using PAUP, as well as with Bayesian statistics. The multivariate analyses showed two different morphometric groups, and individuals clustered according to the subspecies that they belong. The paired comparisons between subspecies showed strong differences in most of the attributes analyzed. Along the four mtDNA sequences, we identified 32 nucleotide positions that have a particular nucleotide according to the quetzals subspecies. The genetic divergence and the differentiation was strong and markedly

  8. A molecular marker distinguishes the subspecies Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Waldschmidt

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata includes two subspecies, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioids and Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The morphological difference between the two subspecies is the presence of three to five continuous yellow stripes on the terga on the 3rd to 6th segments in workers and males of M. q. quadrifasciata, and two to five interrupted bands in M. q. anthidioides. We identified a DNA marker which is present in M. q. quadrifasciata and absent in M. q. anthidioides. Only one among the M. q. quadrifasciata colonies did not present the marker. It was also absent in bees collected in northern Minas Gerais State (Brazil, despite their morphological resemblance to M. q. quadrifasciata. The marker can be used for studying the genetic structure of the hybridization zone formed by the intercrossing of the two subspecies.A espécie de abelha sem ferrão Melipona quadrifasciata apresenta duas subespécies, Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lep. e Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lep. A diferença morfológica entre as duas subespécies é a presença de três a cinco bandas tergais amarelas do 3º ao 6º segmentos em operárias e machos de M. q. quadrifasciata e duas a cinco bandas interrompidas em M. q. anthidioides. Nós identificamos um marcador de DNA que está presente em M. q. quadrifasciata e ausente em M. q. anthidioides. Este marcador está ausente em abelhas coletadas no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil, embora esses indivíduos apresentem morfologia similar à de M. q. quadrifasciata. Este marcador poderá ser utilizado em estudos da zona de hibridação entre as subespécies.

  9. Morpho- biochemical evaluation of Brassica rapa sub-species for salt tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sohail Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the key abiotic stresses that affect both the qualitative and quantitative characters of many Brassica rapa sub-species by disturbing its normal morphobiochemical processes. Therefore, the present research work was designed to study the effect of different NaCl events (0, 50,100 and 150 mmol on morphological and biochemical characters and to screen salt tolerant genotypes among brown, yellow and toria types of B. rapa sub-species. The plants were grown in test tubes with addition of four level of NaCl (0, 50,100 and 150 mmol. The effect of salinity on shoot and root length, shoot/ root fresh and dry weight, relative water content (RWC, proline and chlorophyll a, b, a+b contents was recorded after 4 weeks of sowing. The genotype 22861 (brown type showed excellent morphological and biochemical performance at all stress levels followed by Toria-Sathi and Toria-A respectively as compared to Check variety TS-1. The genotype 26158 (yellow type gave very poor performance and retard growth. The %RWC values and chlorophyll a, b and a+b contents were decreased several folds with the increase of salt concentration. While, the proline contents was increased with raising of salt stress. The brown and toria types showed maximum tolerance to salt stress at early germination stages as compare to yellows one. The present study will serve as model to develop quick salt tolerant genotypes among different plant sub-species against salt stress.

  10. Mercury on national wildlife refuges as a threat to long-term viability of saltmarsh and Nelson’s sparrows in the face of climate induced sea level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Nelson’s and saltmarsh sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni and A. caudacutus) have recently been recognized as separate species, and because of their limited distributions...

  11. Sub-specialization in plastic surgery in Sub-saharan Africa: capacities, gaps and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrasheed

    2014-01-01

    The skill set of a plastic surgeon, which addresses a broad range of soft tissue conditions that are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, remains relevant in the unmet need for surgical care. Recently, there has being a major paradigm shift from discipline-based to disease-based care, resulting in an emerging component of patient-centered care; adequate access to subspecialty care in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Given the need for an evolution in sub-specialization, this article focuses on the benefits and future role of differentiation of plastic surgeons into sub-specialty training pathways in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25584125

  12. In vitro susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida strains isolated from swine to 42 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Martin, C B; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1993-08-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 42 antimicrobial agents were determined against 59 strains of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida, all isolated from swine lungs with lesions indicative of pneumonia. Penicillins (except cloxacillin), aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, erythromycin, josamycin, thiamphenicol, colistin, rifampin and mupirocin showed good activities, with ranging resistance between 0 and 6.8%. Higher resistance was observed for spiramycin and fosfomycin. Tylosin, vancomycin, metronidazole, dapsone and tiamulin, to which strains showed high rates of resistance, were ineffective. Cephalosporins (especially the third-generation cephalosporins) and quinolones (especially the fluorinated quinolones) were the most effective antimicrobial agents against P. multocida subsp. multocida strains and they might be of value for in vivo use.

  13. Campylobacter fetus subspecies: Comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Soares, Siomar C.; Santos, Anderson R.

    2012-01-01

    . The potential candidate factors identified for attenuation and/or subunit vaccine development against C. fetus subspecies contain: nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), type IV secretion systems (T4SS), outer membrane proteins (OMP), substrate binding proteins CjaA and CjaC, surface array proteins, sap gene......, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Significantly, many of those genes were found in genomic regions with signals of horizontal gene transfer and, therefore, predicted as putative pathogenicity islands. We found CRISPR loci and dam genes in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus, and T4SS and sap genes...

  14. Systemic infection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis and fungus in a pet dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Chul; Kim, JaeMyung; Kang, WoonKi; Jang, Yunho; Kim, Yongbaek

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old neutered female poodle with a long history of dermatophytic skin disease was presented with lethargy, anorexia and progressive weight loss. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed markedly enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes and multiple hypoechoic foci in the spleen. Cytology of the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen showed granulomatous inflammation with fungal organisms and negatively stained intracytoplasmic bacterial rods consistent with Mycobacteria spp. Based on culture, multiplex polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis, the bacterium was identified as Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis. Despite treatment with antibiotics, the dog's condition deteriorated, and it died approximately 3 weeks after first presentation.

  15. Facts, myths and hypotheses on the zoonotic nature of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Raja; Bülte, Michael; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W; Köhler, Heike; Meens, Jochen; Möbius, Petra; Roeb, Elke; Weiss, Siegfried

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease [JD]), a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. JD is one of the most widespread bacterial diseases of domestic animals with significant economic impact. The histopathological picture of JD resembles that of Crohn's disease (CD), a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease of still unresolved aetiology. An aetiological relevance of MAP for CD has been proposed. This and the ambiguity of other published epidemiological findings raise the question whether MAP represents a zoonotic agent. In this review, we will discuss evidence that MAP has zoonotic capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic relationships among some subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus L.), inferred from mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clayton M.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, George K.; Anderson, Clifford; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully colonize and persist in diverse environments likely requires broad morphological and behavioral plasticity and adaptability, and this may partly explain why the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) exhibits a large range of morphological characteristics across their global distribution. Regional and local differences within Peregrine Falcons were sufficiently variable that ∼75 subspecies have been described; many were subsumed, and currently 19 are generally recognized. We used sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial genome to test for concordance between genetic structure and representatives of 12 current subspecies and from two areas where subspecies distributions overlap. Haplotypes were broadly shared among subspecies, and all geographic locales shared a widely distributed common haplotype (FalconCR2). Haplotypes were distributed in a star-like phylogeny, consistent with rapid expansion of a recently derived species, with observed genetic patterns congruent with incomplete lineage sorting and/or differential rates of evolution on morphology and neutral genetic characters. Hierarchical analyses of molecular variance did not uncover genetic partitioning at the continental level, despite strong population-level structure (FST = 0.228). Similar analyses found weak partitioning, albeit significant, among subspecies (FCT = 0.138). All reconstructions placed the hierofalcons' (Gyrfalcon [F. rusticolus] and Saker Falcon [F. cherrug]) haplotypes in a well-supported clade either basal or unresolved with respect to the Peregrine Falcon. In addition, haplotypes representing Taita Falcon (F. fasciinucha) were placed within the Peregrine Falcon clade.

  17. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) exhibits the most northerly nonbreeding distribution of any shorebird in the North Pacific, being common during winter in cold, dark locations as far north as upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N). By contrast, the tschuktschorum subspecies migrates to sites ranging from about 59°N to more benign locations as far south as ~37°N. These distributional extremes exert contrasting energetic demands, and we measured common metabolic parameters in the two subspecies held under identical laboratory conditions to determine whether differences in these parameters are reflected by their nonbreeding life histories. Basal metabolic rate and thermal conductance did not differ between subspecies, and the subspecies had a similar metabolic response to temperatures below their thermoneutral zone. Relatively low thermal conductance values may, however, reflect intrinsic metabolic adaptations to northerly latitudes. In the absence of differences in basic metabolic parameters, the two subspecies’ nonbreeding distributions will likely be more strongly influenced by adaptations to regional variation in ecological factors such as prey density, prey quality, and foraging habitat.

  18. Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in breast cancer-related lymphedema: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumazaki, Makoto; Saito, Fumi; Ogata, Hideaki; Yoshida, Miho; Kubota, Yorichika; Magoshi, Syunsuke; Kaneko, Hironori

    2017-07-14

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema often causes cellulitis and is one of the most common complications after breast cancer surgery. Streptococci are the major pathogens underlying such cellulitis. Among the streptococci, the importance of the Lancefield groups C and G is underappreciated; most cases involve Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Despite having a relatively weak toxicity compared with group A streptococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is associated with a mortality rate that is as high as that of group A streptococci in cases of invasive infection because Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis mainly affects elderly individuals who already have various comorbidities. An 83-year-old Japanese woman with breast cancer-related lymphedema in her left upper limb was referred to our hospital with high fever and acute pain with erythema in her left arm. She showed septic shock with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Blood culture showed positive results for Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis, confirming a diagnosis of streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome. She survived after successful intensive care. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis-induced streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome in a patient with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a common problem, and we must pay attention to invasive streptococcal soft tissue infections, particularly in elderly patients with chronic disease.

  19. The songbird as a percussionist: syntactic rules for non-vocal sound and song production in Java sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Soma

    Full Text Available Music and dance are two remarkable human characteristics that are closely related. Communication through integrated vocal and motional signals is also common in the courtship displays of birds. The contribution of songbird studies to our understanding of vocal learning has already shed some light on the cognitive underpinnings of musical ability. Moreover, recent pioneering research has begun to show how animals can synchronize their behaviors with external stimuli, like metronome beats. However, few studies have applied such perspectives to unraveling how animals can integrate multimodal communicative signals that have natural functions. Additionally, studies have rarely asked how well these behaviors are learned. With this in mind, here we cast a spotlight on an unusual animal behavior: non-vocal sound production associated with singing in the Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora, a songbird. We show that male Java sparrows coordinate their bill-click sounds with the syntax of their song-note sequences, similar to percussionists. Analysis showed that they produced clicks frequently toward the beginning of songs and before/after specific song notes. We also show that bill-clicking patterns are similar between social fathers and their sons, suggesting that these behaviors might be learned from models or linked to learning-based vocalizations. Individuals untutored by conspecifics also exhibited stereotypical bill-clicking patterns in relation to song-note sequence, indicating that while the production of bill clicking itself is intrinsic, its syncopation appears to develop with songs. This paints an intriguing picture in which non-vocal sounds are integrated with vocal courtship signals in a songbird, a model that we expect will contribute to the further understanding of multimodal communication.

  20. Life-history dependent relationships between body condition and immunity, between immunity indices in male Eurasian tree sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Mo; Sun, Yanfeng; Wu, Wei; Kou, Guanqun; Guo, Lingling; Xing, Danning; Wu, Yuefeng; Li, Dongming; Zhao, Baohua

    2017-08-01

    In free-living animals, recent evidence indicates that innate, and acquired, immunity varies with annual variation in the demand for, and availability of, food resources. However, little is known about how animals adjust the relationships between immunity and body condition, and between innate and acquired immunity to optimize survival over winter and reproductive success during the breeding stage. Here, we measured indices of body condition (size-corrected mass [SCM], and hematocrit [Hct]), constitutive innate immunity (plasma total complement hemolysis activity [CH 50 ]) and acquired immunity (plasma immunoglobulin A [IgA]), plus heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratios, in male Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) during the wintering and the breeding stages. We found that birds during the wintering stage had higher IgA levels than those from the breeding stage. Two indices of body condition were both negatively correlated with plasma CH 50 activities, and positively with IgA levels in wintering birds, but this was not the case in the breeding birds. However, there was no correlation between CH 50 activities and IgA levels in both stages. These results suggest that the relationships between body condition and immunity can vary across life-history stage, and there are no correlations between innate and acquired immunity independent of life-history stage, in male Eurasian tree sparrows. Therefore, body condition indices predict immunological state, especially during the non-breeding stage, which can be useful indicators of individual immunocompetences for understanding the variations in innate and acquired immunity in free-living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Song competition affects monoamine levels in sensory and motor forebrain regions of male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra B Sewall

    Full Text Available Male animals often change their behavior in response to the level of competition for mates. Male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii modulate their competitive singing over the period of a week as a function of the level of challenge associated with competitors' songs. Differences in song challenge and associated shifts in competitive state should be accompanied by neural changes, potentially in regions that regulate perception and song production. The monoamines mediate neural plasticity in response to environmental cues to achieve shifts in behavioral state. Therefore, using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we compared levels of monoamines and their metabolites from male Lincoln's sparrows exposed to songs categorized as more or less challenging. We compared levels of norepinephrine and its principal metabolite in two perceptual regions of the auditory telencephalon, the caudomedial nidopallium and the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM, because this chemical is implicated in modulating auditory sensitivity to song. We also measured the levels of dopamine and its principal metabolite in two song control nuclei, area X and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA, because dopamine is implicated in regulating song output. We measured the levels of serotonin and its principal metabolite in all four brain regions because this monoamine is implicated in perception and behavioral output and is found throughout the avian forebrain. After controlling for recent singing, we found that males exposed to more challenging song had higher levels of norepinephrine metabolite in the CMM and lower levels of serotonin in the RA. Collectively, these findings are consistent with norepinephrine in perceptual brain regions and serotonin in song control regions contributing to neuroplasticity that underlies socially-induced changes in behavioral state.

  2. Proximity to a high traffic road: glucocorticoid and life history consequences for nestling white-crowned sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, O L; Van Oorschot, B Klaassen; Johnson, E E; Malisch, J L; Breuner, C W

    2011-09-01

    Roads have been associated with decreased reproductive success and biodiversity in avian communities and increased physiological stress in adult birds. Alternatively, roads may also increase food availability and reduce predator pressure. Previous studies have focused on adult birds, but nestlings may also be susceptible to the detrimental impacts of roads. We examined the effects of proximity to a road on nestling glucocorticoid activity and growth in the mountain white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha). Additionally, we examined several possible indirect factors that may influence nestling corticosterone (CORT) activity secretion in relation to roads. These indirect effects include parental CORT activity, nest-site characteristics, and parental provisioning. And finally, we assessed possible fitness consequences of roads through measures of fledging success. Nestlings near roads had increased CORT activity, elevated at both baseline and stress-induced levels. Surprisingly, these nestlings were also bigger. Generally, greater corticosterone activity is associated with reduced growth. However, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis matures through the nestling period (as nestlings get larger, HPA-activation is greater). Although much of the variance in CORT responses was explained by body size, nestling CORT responses were higher close to roads after controlling for developmental differences. Indirect effects of roads may be mediated through paternal care. Nestling CORT responses were correlated with paternal CORT responses and paternal provisioning increased near roads. Hence, nestlings near roads may be larger due to increased paternal attentiveness. And finally, nest predation was higher for nests close to the road. Roads have apparent costs for white-crowned sparrow nestlings--increased predation, and apparent benefits--increased size. The elevation in CORT activity seems to reflect both increased size (benefit) and elevation due to road

  3. Chronic stress alters concentrations of corticosterone receptors in a tissue-specific manner in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael

    2014-07-15

    The physiological stress response results in release of glucocorticoid hormones such as corticosterone (CORT). Whereas short-term activation of this response helps animals cope with environmental stressors, chronic activation can result in negative effects including metabolic dysregulation and reproductive failure. However, there is no consensus hormonal profile of a chronically stressed animal, suggesting that researchers may need to look beyond hormone titers to interpret the impacts of chronic stress. In this study, we brought wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) into captivity. We then compared glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor concentrations in sparrows exposed either to a standardized chronic stress protocol (n=26) or to standard husbandry conditions (controls; n=20). We used radioligand binding assays to quantify receptors in whole brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, gonads, gastrocnemius and pectoralis muscle, omental and subcutaneous fat, and bib and back skin. In most tissues, CORT receptors did not differ between controls and stressed animals, although we found marginal increases in receptor density in kidney and testes in stressed birds at some time points. Only in pectoralis muscle was there a robust effect of chronic stress, with both receptor types higher in stressed animals. Increased pectoralis sensitivity to CORT with chronic stress may be part of the underlying mechanism for muscle wasting in animals administered exogenous CORT. Furthermore, the change in pectoralis was not paralleled by gastrocnemius receptors. This difference may help explain previous reports of a greater effect of CORT on pectoralis than on other muscle types, and indicate that birds use this muscle as a protein reserve. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Identifying the best season for mapping evergreen swamp and mangrove species using leaf-level spectra in an estuarine system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Heidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available would provide the best discrimination of six evergreen tree species, associated with swamp (Ficus Trichopoda), mangrove (Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Hibiscus tiliaceus), wetlands in adjacent woodlands (Syzygium cordatum) and coastal...

  5. Hydrography - HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS: Lakes, Ponds, Reservoirs, Swamps, and Marshes in Watersheds of Indiana (U. S. Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains features of lakes, ponds, reservoirs, swamps and marshes in watersheds in and...

  6. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  7. Immunoreactivity of protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) in sera from sheep infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; Bach, Horacio; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-07-15

    Evasion of host defense mechanisms and survival inside infected host macrophages are features of pathogenic mycobacteria including Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) has been identified as a secreted protein critical for survival of mycobacteria within infected macrophages. The host may mount an immune response to such secreted proteins. In this study, the humoral immune response to purified recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA was investigated using sera from a cohort of sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and compared with uninfected healthy controls. A significantly higher level of reactivity to PtpA was observed in sera collected from M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected sheep when compared to those from uninfected healthy controls. PtpA could be a potential candidate antigen for detection of humoral immune responses in sheep infected with M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Morphological differentiations of the gills of two Gymnocypris przewa-lskii subspecies in different habitats and their functional adaptations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren-Yi; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhang, Cun-Fang; Tang, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Kai

    2013-08-01

    Gill morphologies of two subspecies of Gymnocypris przewalskii (Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii and Gymnocypris przewalskii ganzihonensis) in different habitats were analyzed under scanning electron microscope. Results indicated that G. p. przewalskii had numerous long and dense-lined gill rakers while G. p. ganzihonensis had few short and scatter-lined gill rakers. There were no significant differences in distance between gill filaments (DBF) and distance gill lamella (DBL) between the two subspecies, but gill filaments of G. p. przewalskii were longer than in G. p. ganzihonensis. The electron microscopic study indicated that the pavement epithelium cells of G. p. przewalskii were well defined as irregular ovals, but were hexagonal in G. p. ganzihonensis. Moreover, G. p. przewalskii had more chloride cells than G. p. ganzihonensis, and mucous cells were only found on the surface of gill filaments of G. p. przewalskii. The morphological differences between the two subspecies of G. przewalskii are adaptations to their corresponding diets and habitats.

  9. Differentiation of Cannabis subspecies by THCA synthase gene analysis using RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirovic, Natasa; Kecmanovic, Miljana; Keckarevic, Dusan; Keckarevic Markovic, Milica

    2017-10-01

    Cannabis sativa subspecies, known as industrial hemp (C. sativa sativa) and marijuana (C. sativa indica) show no evident morphological distinctions, but they contain different levels of psychoactive Δ-9-tetrahidrocanabinol (THC), with considerably higher concentration in marijuana than in hemp. C. sativa subspecies differ in sequence of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, responsible for THC production, and only one active copy of the gene, distinctive for marijuana, is capable of producing THC in concentration more then 0,3% in dried plants, usually punishable by the law. Twenty different samples of marijuana that contain THC in concentration more then 0,3% and three varieties of industrial hemp were analyzed for presence of an active copy of THCA synthase gene using in-house developed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method All twenty samples of marijuana were positive for the active copy of THCA synthase gene, 16 of them heterozygous. All three varieties of industrial hemp were homozygous for inactive copy. An algorithm for the fast and accurate forensic analysis of samples suspected to be marijuana was constructed, answering the question if an analyzed sample is capable of producing THC in concentrations higher than 0.3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies in the gut associated lymphoid tissue of slaughtered rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, Rakel; Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia

    2015-06-11

    Rabbits are susceptible to infection by different species of the genus Mycobacterium. Particularly, development of specific lesions and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, both subspecies of the M. avium complex, has been reported in wildlife conditions. Although, rabbit meat production worldwide is 200 million tons per year, microbiological data on this source of meat is lacking and more specifically reports of mycobacterial presence in industrially reared rabbit for human consumption have not been published. To this end, we sought mycobacteria by microbiological and histopathological methods paying special attention to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits from commercial rabbitries from the North East of Spain. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was not detected either by culture or PCR. However, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was detected in 15.15% (10/66) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 1.51% (1/66) of gut associated lymphoid tissue of sampled animals by PCR, whereas caecal contents were negative. 9% (6/66) of the animals presented gross lesions suggestive of lymphoid activation, 6% (4/66) presented granulomatous lesions and 3% (2/66) contained acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterial isolation from samples was not achieved, although colonies of Thermoactinomycetes sp. were identified by 16s rRNA sequencing in 6% (4/66) of sampled animals. Apparently healthy farmed rabbits that go to slaughter may carry M. avium subspecies in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

  11. Chemical Diversity in Volatiles of Helichrysum plicatum DC. Subspecies in Turkey

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    Bintuğ Öztürk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work three subspecies of Helichrysum plicatum DC. (Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. plicatum, Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. polyphillum (Ledeb P.H.Davis & Kupicha and Helichrysum plicatum DC. subsp. isauricum Parolly were investigated for the essential oil chemical compositions. The volatiles were obtained by conventional hydrodistillation of aerial parts and microdistillation of inflorescences. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS revealed chemical diversity in compositions of the volatiles analyzed. A total of 199 compounds were identified representing 73.9-98.3% of the volatiles compositions. High abundance of fatty acids and their esters (24.9-70.8% was detected in the herb volatiles of H. plicatum subsp. polyphyllum and H. plicatum subsp. isauricum. The inflorescences of Helichrysum subspecies were found to be rich in monoterpenes (15.0-93.1%, fatty acids (0.1-36.3% and sesquiterpenes (1.1-25.5%. The inflorescence volatiles of H. plicatum subsp. isauricum were distinguished by predomination of monoterpene hydrocarbons (93.1% with fenchene (88.3% as the major constituent

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ANTHROPIC IMPACT IN THE AREA OF THE ORNITHOLOGIC RESERVATION “THE SWAMPS FROM SATCHINEZ” (TIMIŞ COUNTY

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    Rodica Török-Oance

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of the anthropic impact within the Ornithologic Reservation Swamps from Satchinez is based on the field notes in the period 2003-2005, the air photos taken in 2004 and the reconstitution of past situations (1963-1973 using the photoplans from that period. Within the reservation and the buffer area a series of anthropic activities are taking place, allowed or not, which have a negative impact on the protected area: agricultural works (including agro-chemical treatments, grazing, mowing, hydrotechnical arrangements, illegal tree felling, cutting and burning the reed, poaching, hunting and fishing, collecting biological material, transport, tourism and petrol exploitation. All these lead to the deterioration of the habitat, affect the life of the birds, the water, the clogging of the swamp and cause the disappearance of the clean water spots thus endangering the reservation itself.

  13. Seed germination studies on Gymnacranthera canarica (King Warb. - a Vulnerable tree species of a highly threatened Myristica swamp ecosystem

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    K. Keshavachandra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gymnacranthera canarica (King Warb. is an exclusive Myristica swamp species endemic to the Western Ghats.  The Myristica swamp is a Critically Endangered ecosystem.  Studies were carried out to assess the viability, germination and storage behaviour of Gymnacranthera canarica seeds.  In the present study, it was observed that seeds have shown an initiation of germination after two weeks.  A maximum of 90% germination was recorded when the initial moisture content was 38.04 ± 1.75 %.  A decreased percentage (3% was observed when the moisture content reached 14.26 ± 2.3 after 70 days of storage.  Seeds failed to germinate beyond this moisture level.  A desiccation study showed recalcitrant behaviour and seeds can be stored in lab conditions for up to two and half months.

  14. Stable carbon isotope composition of organic material and carbonate in sediment of a swamp and lakes in Honshu island, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Toshio

    1978-01-01

    Recent sediments from a swamp and lakes in Honshu were analyzed for organic carbon and carbonate contents, and stable isotope ratios of carbon in the organic materials and carbonate. delta C 13 values of the carbonate tend to be distinctly larger than those of organic carbon in reducing condition as natural gas field, whereas in oxidizing SO 4 -reducing conditions, they are slightly larger than those of organic carbon within the limited range of a few per mil. Carbon isotopic compositions of organic carbon in sediment of the swamp, Obuchi-numa, were analyzed and compared with habitat analysis of associated fossil diatoms. deltaC 13 values of organic carbon in the sediment vary in correlation with the species abundance in habitat of the associated fossil diatoms, ranging from fresh-water (-0.0282) to coastal marine (-0.0236) via brackish. (auth.)

  15. Spatial Variation and Survival of Salmonella enterica Subspecies in a Population of Australian Sleepy Lizards (Tiliqua rugosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sandra K; Bull, C Michael; Gordon, David M

    2015-09-01

    The life cycles of many enteric bacterial species require a transition between two very distinct environments. Their primary habitat is the gastrointestinal tract of the host, while their secondary habitat, during transmission from one host to another, consists of environments external to the host, such as soil, water, and sediments. Consequently, both host and environmental factors shape the genetic structure of enteric bacterial populations. This study examined the distribution of four Salmonella enterica subspecies in a population of sleepy lizards, Tiliqua rugosa, in a semiarid region of South Australia. The lizards living within the 1,920-m by 720-m study site were radio tracked, and their enteric bacteria were sampled at regular intervals throughout their active seasons in the years 2001, 2002, and 2006. Four of the six subspecies of S. enterica were present in this population and were nonrandomly distributed among the lizards. In particular, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae was restricted to lizards living in the most shaded parts of the study site with an overstorey of Casuarina trees. Experiments undertaken to investigate the survival of S. enterica cells under seminatural conditions revealed that cell survival decreased with increased exposure to elevated temperatures and UV light. Among the three S. enterica subspecies tested, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae consistently had an average expected life span that was shorter than that observed for the other two subspecies. There was no indication in the data that there was any competitive dominance hierarchy among the S. enterica subspecies within individual hosts. Thus, the nonrandom distribution of S. enterica subspecies in this population of lizards appears to be driven by their different survival characteristics in the external environment. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of plant species in the peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya, Sebangau, Central Kalimantan

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    Suciatmih Suciatmih

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM status of plants growing on peat soil, a study was carried out inthe peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan. Out of 146 plant root samples belonging to 48 plantspecies from 25 families examined, all plants colonized by VAM fungi namely 14 (29.2% high level, 32 (66.7% medium level, and 2(4.1% low level respectively.

  17. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of plant species in the peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya, Sebangau, Central Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Suciatmih Suciatmih

    2003-01-01

    In order to describe the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) status of plants growing on peat soil, a study was carried out inthe peat swamp forest of Setia Alam Jaya in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan. Out of 146 plant root samples belonging to 48 plantspecies from 25 families examined, all plants colonized by VAM fungi namely 14 (29.2%) high level, 32 (66.7%) medium level, and 2(4.1%) low level respectively.

  18. The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation

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    Jeannette Nijkamp

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation Since the 1980s, many initiatives have attempted to tackle the deprivation currently experienced in South Rotterdam. Efforts have been made to attract creative workers and, in a counter-reaction, other initiatives have aimed to encourage the creative talents of poorer residents to strengthen their economic position. One example of this is Freehouse, which has established projects in the Afrikaanderwijk, including a neighbourhood cooperative. Our article addresses two questions: 1 What are the effects of the Freehouse projects on the economic position of residents of the Afrikaanderwijk? and 2 Which insights do our results provide into the possible effects of local government policies that rely on citizens playing an active role? Although the economic effects of the projects were limited, our study reveals that citizens’ initiatives, such as the Afrikaander Cooperative, can help residents gain employment. In order to succeed, these initiatives should not be hindered by obstructive regulations, and they should include input from the residents who function as staff. However, in deprived neighbourhoods, many residents require support to be able to contribute to citizens’ initiatives, and cannot be expected to act like Baron Münchausen and pull themselves out of the swamp of deprivation by their own hair. Het Münchausen paradigma voor achterstandswijken: jezelf uit het moeras van achterstand trekken Sinds de jaren 80 hebben veel initiatieven geprobeerd het achterstandsniveau in Rotterdam Zuid te verminderen. Verschillende initiatieven waren gericht op het aantrekken van creatieve professionals. Als tegenreactie stimuleerden andere initiatieven de creatieve talenten van arme wijkbewoners teneinde hun economische positie te versterken. Een voorbeeld hiervan is Freehouse, dat projecten in de Afrikaanderwijk startte, waaronder de oprichting van

  19. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  20. Structure of the tree stratum of three swamp forest communities in southern Brazil under different soil conditions

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    Luciana Carla Mancino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga forests are commonly known to be plant communities rather poor in tree species. This study aimed to describe and explain the association between the floristic-structural similarities and the environmental conditions in three Swamp Restinga Forest communities in southern Brazil. In 13 plots of 100 m2 each, we sampled all individual trees (circumference at breast height >12 cm and height ≥3 m. We collected soil samples in each plot for chemical and textural analyses. Phytosociological parameters were calculated and different structural variables were compared between areas. The density of individuals did not differ between areas; however, the maximum height and abundance of species differed between the site with Histosols and the other two sites with Gleysols. Further, a canonical correspondence analysis based on a matrix of vegetation and that of environmental characteristics explained 31.5% of the total variation. The high floristic and environmental heterogeneity indicate that swamp-forests can shelter many species with low frequency. Most species were generalists that were not exclusive to this type of forest. Overall, our study showed that swamp-forests within the same region can show considerable differences in composition and structure and can include species-rich communities, mostly due to the presence of species with a broader distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest domain on sites with less stressful environmental conditions and without waterlogged conditions.

  1. Prevalence and intensity of third stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae in swamp eels sold in three large markets in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Nuchprayoon, Surang; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2002-01-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is a common human tissue parasite in Thailand. The swamp eel is the major intermediate or paratenic host for this parasite. The high prevalence of the infective third stage larvae (L3) of this parasite in the rainy season has been noted in previous studies. During June 1999 (rainy season), we performed a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence and the intensity of G. spinigerum L3s in the livers of swamp eels that were obtained from three large Bangkok markets (Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej). Of a total of 785 livers, G. spinigerum L3s were found in 97: an infection rate of 12%. The prevalence rates in Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej markets were 13%, 10% and 14% respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of infected eels between the markets (p > 0.05). The intensity of L3 burden in the livers ranged from 1-17 larvae, with an average of 2.60 +/- 0.24 larvae (mean +/- SE). In this study a high prevalence of G. spinigerum L3s was found; there was no significant difference in the intensity of larvae in swamp eels between markets. These findings emphasize the importance of public health education: people need to be aware of the dangers of consuming raw or undercooked food.

  2. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W.; Borgo, Gina M.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  3. Pacific and Atlantic Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1838) are allopatric subspecies: Lepeophtheirus salmonis salmonis and L. salmonis oncorhynchi subspecies novo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Torrissen, Ole; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2014-03-14

    The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a parasitic copepod that infects salmonids in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Although considered as a single species, morphological and biological differences have been reported between lice from the two oceans. Likewise, studies based on nucleotide sequencing have demonstrated that sequence differences between Atlantic and Pacific L. salmonis are highly significant, albeit smaller than the divergence observed between congeneric copepod species. We demonstrated reproductive compatibility between L. salmonis from the two oceans and successfully established F2 hybrid strains using separate maternal lines from both the Pacific and Atlantic. The infection success for the F2 hybrid strains were similar to results typically observed for non hybrid lice strains in the rearing facility used. Lepeophtheirus salmonis COI and 16S sequences divergence between individuals from the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans was high compared to what may be expected within a copepod species and phylogenetic analysis showed that they consistently formed monophyletic clades representing their origin from the Pacific or Atlantic oceans. Lepeophtheirus salmonis from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans are reproductively compatible at least until adults at the F2 hybrid stage, and should not be regarded as separate species based on reproductive segregation or sequence divergence levels. Reported biological and genetic differences in L. salmonis seen in conjunction with the reported genetic diversity commonly observed between and within species demonstrate that Atlantic and Pacific L. salmonis should be regarded as two subspecies: Lepeophtheirus salmonis salmonis and L. salmonis oncorhynchi subsp. nov.

  4. House sparrows' (Passer domesticus) behaviour in a novel environment is modulated by social context and familiarity in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuliozi, Beniamino; Fracasso, Gerardo; Hoi, Herbert; Griggio, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    Exploratory behaviour is one of the best-investigated behavioural traits. However, little is known about how differences in familiarity, i.e. in the knowledge and previous experience with a companion can influence the exploration of a novel environment. However, to our knowledge, such a critical feature of the social environment has never been the target of a study relating it to exploratory behaviour in birds. Here we examined if familiarity with a conspecific could affect behavioural responses of individuals confronted with a novel environment. We recorded the latency to land on the ground, latency to feed, time spent feeding and number of sectors visited of 48 female and 48 male house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) in an indoor aviary in three contexts: alone (individual context), with an unfamiliar and with a familiar same-sex companion. House sparrows landed sooner on the ground when in the familiar context than when in the individual context. Birds in unfamiliar pairs followed each other less than familiar birds, but this difference diminished with time spent exploring. Moreover, males and females differed in their behavioural responses in the unfamiliar context. Females with a familiar companion landed sooner than when they were paired with an unfamiliar conspecific, whereas only the presence of a companion but not familiarity reduced males latency to land on the ground. Finally, when considering the unfamiliar context males had shorter latencies to forage and thus spent more time eating than females. The presence or absence of a companion and its familiarity with the focal individual influenced differently the behavioural responses of male and female house sparrows in a novel environment. As house sparrows are strongly sociable, the influence of the social environment is likely to be of paramount importance to understand the selective pressures acting on them, particularly in recently colonized areas with ephemeral food sources. Our results shed light on

  5. Assessment of semen quality in Swamp Buffalo AI Bulls in Thailand

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    S. Koonjaenak

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Thai swamp buffalo bulls semen used for artificial insemination (AI in Thailand, aspects relevance in freezing and thawing of semen are review. Semen and sperm characteristics were evaluated included sperm count, motility (assessed subjectively and by CASA, morphology (using phase-contrast light microscopy and SEM, plasma membrane integrity (PMI (using a hypo-osmotic swelling test [HOST] and SYBR- 14/propidium iodide [PI], plasma membrane stability (PMS (using Annexin-V/PI and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity (using SCSA and flow cytometry [FCM]. The average ejaculate volume was about 3.0–4.0 mL, with good viability (PMI measured by the HOST and motility (>65% and >70%, respectively. Sperm concentration ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 billion/mL, being also affected by bull age. Whereas semen quality (including sperm output, pH and initial sperm motility did not differ between the seasons. Few spermatozoa (<15%/ ejaculate had abnormal morphology with abnormalities resembling those in other bovidae. In FT semen, PMI (using SYBR-14/PI and PMS were highest in winter. Across seasons, ~50% of post-thaw spermatozoa depicted linear motility, a proportion that decreased to ~35% during incubation (38oC for 60 minutes, without marking any seasonal difference. The sperm DNA was hardly damaged (with <3% fragmentation, expressed as DNA fragmentation index [DFI], among seasons.

  6. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  7. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data (n = 1686 were collected at baseline and 12- to 24-months post-intervention among residents surrounding eight stores, three of which implemented a multi-faceted intervention and five of which were comparisons. Bivariate analyses and logistic and linear regressions were employed to assess differences in time, treatment, and the interaction between time and treatment to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. Results Improvements were found in perceived healthy food accessibility and perceptions of corner stores. No changes were found, however, in store patronage, purchasing, or consumption of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Results suggest limited effectiveness of food retail interventions on improving health behaviors. Future research should focus on other strategies to reduce community-level obesity.

  8. Characterization of Population Genetic Structure of red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shaokui; Li, Yanhe; Shi, Linlin; Zhang, Long; Li, Qingbin; Chen, Jing

    2018-04-03

    The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) is one of the most economically important farmed aquatic species in China. However, it is also a famous invasive species in the world. This invasive species was dispersed most via human activities including intentional or unintentional carry in China. Thus, P. clarkii naturally distributed in China provides us a desirable mode to investigate the genetic structure of an invasive species dispersed mainly by human-mediated factors. To reveal the impact of human-mediated dispersal on genetic structure of P. clarkii in China, a total of 22,043 genome-wide SNPs were obtained from approximately 7.4 billion raw reads using 2b-RAD technique in this study. An evident pattern of population genetic structure and the asymmetrical migrational rates between different regions were observed with 22 populations based on these SNPs. This study provide a better understanding of the population genetic structure and demographic history of P. clarkii populations in China, inferring that anthropogenic factors (aquaculture or by accident) and ecological factors (e.g., complicated topography and climatic environment), as well as its special biological traits could account for the current population structure pattern and dispersal history of P. clarkii.

  9. Determination of endocrine patterns and their applications in the swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamonpatana, M.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of AI in swamp buffalo breeding has made hormonal measurement and treatment an important area of research. Hormonal regulation of buffalo reproduction is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring genetic progress and productivity. The development of immunoassay techniques for measuring progesterone was quickly identified as a suitable tool for monitoring the reproductive status of the water buffalo. Progesterone profiles during the oestrous cycle, pregnancy, parturition and post partum have been established. A knowledge of progesterone levels has helped to improve clinical skills in determining reproductive status. Attempts have been made to understand the role of gonadotrophins during these reproductive stages, to advance the onset of postpartum cyclicity, and to characterize the weak signs of oestrus. Peripartal changes of oestrone and prostaglandin have been monitored. Endocrinological methods for oestrus synchronization have been developed and applied and oestrone sulphate and progesterone have been used to assess pregnancy status and a rapid pregnancy test has been utilized to maximize reproductive efficiency in ranch-type breeding herds. In the male attempts have been made to clarify the testicular testosterone secretory capacity and the possible relationships between testosterone secretion, libido, semen characteristics and the influence of season. Within the context of long-term improvement, these studies should help to decrease calving intervals, improve heat and non-pregnancy detection, and allow for subfertility discrimination and sire selection with consequent increases in milk and meat production and draught power. (author)

  10. Firing Room Remote Application Software Development & Swamp Works Laboratory Robot Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Janette

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is creating a way to send humans beyond low Earth orbit, and later to Mars. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is working to make this possible by developing a Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) which will allow the launch of Space Launch System (SLS). This paper's focus is on the work performed by the author in her first and second part of the internship as a remote application software developer. During the first part of her internship, the author worked on the SCCS's software application layer by assisting multiple ground subsystems teams including Launch Accessories (LACC) and Environmental Control System (ECS) on the design, development, integration, and testing of remote control software applications. Then, on the second part of the internship, the author worked on the development of robot software at the Swamp Works Laboratory which is a research and technology development group which focuses on inventing new technology to help future In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) missions.

  11. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  12. Is the herb-shrub composition of veredas (Brazilian palm swamps distinguishable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Pereira da Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vereda (Brazilian palm swamp is a poorly known savannic phytophysiognomy that occurs on moist soils with high herb-shrub floristic richness. This study aimed to document the herb-shrub species of veredas of the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins - EESGTO, and compare this flora with other veredas in Brazil. Furthermore, we assessed the similarity of the herb-shrub flora of the studied veredas with that of inventories of other savannas and grasslands in order to evaluate whether veredas possess an exclusive flora. Ordination analysis was performed to understand the floristic relationship among these areas. We recorded 213 species, 105 genera and 49 families at EESGTO, including five new floral records for the Cerrado and 78 for the state of Tocantins. The floristic similarity among veredas at EESGTO and the other sites was low. For all sites, a total of 1,324 species were recorded, of which 342 were unique to veredas and 187 unique to moist grasslands (campos limpos úmidos. After reviewing databases, 14.3 % of these species remained exclusive to veredas and moist grasslands. The ordination analysis indicated a gradient in floristic composition from wet to dry phytophysiognomies. In conclusion, we recognize a flora that distinguishes veredas from other Cerrado phytophysiognomies.

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature and Immature Oocytes of the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Proteins from 500 immature oocytes and 500 in vitro matured oocytes were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and more than 400 spots were detected. Image analysis indicated that 17 proteins were differentially expressed between the two groups. Eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In mature oocytes, three proteins were down-regulated: major vault protein (MVP, N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (GCNT-2, and gem-associated protein (GEMIN8, whereas five other proteins, heat shock protein (HSP60, Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71, hemoglobin subunit α (HBA, and BMP-2-inducible protein kinase (BMP-2K, were up-regulated. The expression profiles of HSP60 and GEMIN8 were further verified by Western blotting. The changes in HSP60 protein expression demonstrate the increasing need for mitochondrial protein importation to facilitate macromolecular assembly during oocyte maturation. The down-regulation of GEMIN8 production implies that RNA splicing is impaired in mature oocytes.

  14. A pilot village study to improve Philippine swamp buffalo production using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejandrino, A.L.; Alcantara, J.; Eduardo, S.

    1990-01-01

    An integrated Philippine village study on carabao (swamp buffalo) production was conducted in a pilot village. The quasi-experimental design was adopted in two areas designated 'with project' (W/P) and 'without project' (W/OP). The farmers' demographic and socio-economic characteristics, livestock management practices and carabao production were monitored during the baseline phase (18 months) and the intervention phase (24 months). The progesterone levels in milk and serum were measured by radioimmunoassay to assess the reproductive status of the carabaos. The improved management scheme for the intervention period consisted of urea + molasses in drinking water, a routine health programme of deworming and vaccination, and breeding by artificial insemination or natural mating. The level of parasitism was low and was mainly caused by infection with Fasciola sp. and amphistomes. Intermediate snail hosts infected with these parasites were found in the study area. Coccidial oocysts and eggs of Mecistocirrus digitatus were occasionally present in the faecal samples. Reproductive traits were improved in both areas during the intervention phase, with the animals in the W/OP area showing a higher increase in pregnancy rate (57.6%) than those in the W/P area (53.7%); however, the increase in the calving rate and calf survival were greater in the W/P area (45.5% and 100%, respectively) than those in the W/OP area (37% and 94.1%, respectively). (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  15. Nitrogen fate in a subtropical mangrove swamp: Potential association with seawater-groundwater exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai; Wu, Jiapeng; Li, Hailong; Hong, Yiguo; Wilson, Alicia M; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Shananan, Meghan

    2018-04-18

    Coastal mangrove swamps play an important role in nutrient cycling at the land-ocean boundary. However, little is known about the role of periodic seawater-groundwater exchange in the nitrogen cycling processes. Seawater-groundwater exchange rates and inorganic nitrogen concentrations were investigated along a shore-perpendicular intertidal transect in Daya Bay, China. The intertidal transect comprises three hydrologic subzones (tidal creek, mangrove and bare mudflat zones), each with different physicochemical characteristics. Salinity and hydraulic head measurements taken along the transect were used to estimate the exchange rates between seawater and groundwater over a spring-neap tidal cycle. Results showed that the maximum seawater-groundwater exchange occurred within the tidal creek zone, which facilitated high-oxygen seawater infiltration and subsequent nitrification. In contrast, the lowest exchange rate found in the mangrove zone caused over-loading of organic matter and longer groundwater residence times. This created an anoxic environment conducive to nitrogen loss through the anammox and denitrification processes. Potential oxidation rates of ammonia and nitrite were measured by the rapid and high-throughput method and rates of denitrification and anammox were measured by the modified membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) with isotope pairing, respectively. In the whole transect, denitrification accounted for 90% of the total nitrogen loss, and anammox accounted for the remaining 10%. The average nitrogen removal rate was about 2.07g per day per cubic meter of mangrove sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A. [Benin Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology

    1995-12-31

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  17. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR HOMING IN THE RED SWAMP CRAYFISH, PROCAMBARUS CLARKII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBARESI S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, is an efficient burrower, but its burrow fidelity has been recently questioned. In this study, we aimed at investigating whether individuals of this species are capable to learn the position of a goal (a wet burrow hidden to their sight in experimental tanks and to make more efficient with time their oriented movement towards it. We also analyzed crayfish behavior after having closed one of the two accesses to the goal. Indeed, in successive trials we recorded the crayfish tendency to reduce the distance covered to reach the goal and the time taken, except when they were already familiar to the experimental setting. Memory of the spatial configuration lasted for 16 hours at least and crayfish learned and maintained individual trajectories. The interruption of their usual path always caused a drastic increase of distance and time that however decreased in the successive trials. This study provided also some information of the sensory channels used by P. clarkii to orient. This crayfish, which can be active also during daytime, seemed to adopt a combination of tactile and visual information, together with the possible use of cues (i.e. humidity cues emitted by the goal. Future studies should clarify the paradox of a crayfish species whose individuals, although being physiologically capable to home, seem not to return to the previously occupied burrows at the end of their foraging excursions, notwithstanding the time and energy expended to excavate them.

  18. Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in South Mexico: cost / benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tovilla Hernández

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day. A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2 555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD. Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented. After logging, temperatures increased 13 °C in the soil and 11°C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3 000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246: 1. There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years.

  19. Draining the swamp while making America great: senior dissonance in the age of Trump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Robert B

    2018-04-13

    In his surprise election as President, Donald Trump enjoyed disproportionate electoral support from older voters, many of whom saw in Trump a person who would work to reverse demographic, economic, and cultural forces that had transformed American life as they had long seen it. Yet, Trump's campaign and incumbency has also been very much about gutting the Washington policy establishment of officials, bureaucrats, and lobbyists (aka, the Swamp) which, for over half a century, has been instrumental in enacting and expanding legislation that has benefitted older Americans, far more than any other social policy constituency in the country. This article contrasts the value-oriented electoral support Trump enjoyed from older Americans with their interest concerns centered on policies such as the Affordable Care Act, Medicaid, and a host of smaller grant-in-aid programs. It then reviews the strong institutional base seniors and their advocates have in Washington, posing whether interest-oriented concerns may outweigh ideological ones as policy options emerge from a Republican-controlled government prior to the 2018 elections.

  20. Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. (Cestoda: Monticelliidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Synbranchiformes) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; de Chambrier, A; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2001-12-01

    Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. is described from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen and Greenwood (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae) from Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is placed into Monticellia because of the cortical position of the testes, ovary, and uterus. It differs from other Monticellia species (with the exception of Monticellia magna (Rego, Santos and Silva, 1974)) in the position of longitudinal musculature that crosses the vitelline follicles, making them paramuscular. The new species can be distinguished from M. magna--which possesses a similar number of testes (107-139), paramuscular vitelline follicles, and numerous gland cells distributed between the apex of the scolex and suckers--in the position of the genital pore (8-21% vs. 19-27%), in the presence of a weak internal longitudinal musculature, in the arrangement of the testes in the median field, and in the absence of a vaginal sphincter. This is the first proteocephalidean tapeworm reported from a synbranchid fish and the first species of Monticellia found in North America.

  1. Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems of the Upper Amazon: Characterizing their Distribution and Inundation State Using Multiple Resolution Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schröder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmermann, R.; Horna, V.

    2011-12-01

    Palm swamp wetlands are prevalent in the Amazon basin, including extensive regions in northern Peru. These ecosystems are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. The combination of constantly saturated soils, giving rise to low oxygen conditions, and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, knowledge of their spatial extent and inundation state is crucial for assessing the associated land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Precise spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are developing a remote sensing methodology using multiple resolution microwave remote sensing data to determine palm swamp distribution and inundation state over focus regions in the Amazon basin in northern Peru. For this purpose, two types of multi-temporal microwave data are used: 1) high-resolution (100 m) data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to derive maps of palm swamp extent and inundation from dual-polarization fine-beam and multi-temporal HH-polarized ScanSAR, and 2) coarse resolution (25 km) combined active and passive microwave data from QuikSCAT and AMSR-E to derive inundated area fraction on a weekly basis. We compare information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products to the PALSAR-based datasets to ensure information harmonization. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets will allow for characterization of palm swamps and

  2. Experimental studies of adaptation in Clarkia xantiana. II. Fitness variation across a subspecies border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Monica A; Eckhart, Vincent M

    2005-03-01

    Because the range boundary is the locale beyond which a taxon fails to persist, it provides a unique opportunity for studying the limits on adaptive evolution. Adaptive constraints on range expansion are perplexing in view of widespread ecotypic differentiation by habitat and region within a species' range (regional adaptation) and rapid evolutionary response to novel environments. In this study of two parapatric subspecies, Clarkia xantiana ssp. xantiana and C. x. ssp. parviflora, we compared the fitness of population transplants within their native region, in a non-native region within the native range, and in the non-native range to assess whether range expansion might be limited by a greater intensity of selection on colonists of a new range versus a new region within the range. The combined range of the two subspecies spans a west-to-east gradient of declining precipitation in the Sierra Nevada of California, with ssp. xantiana in the west being replaced by ssp. parviflora in the east. Both subspecies had significantly higher fitness in the native range (range adaptation), whereas regional adaptation was weak and was found only in the predominantly outcrossing ssp. xantiana but was absent in the inbreeding ssp. parvifilora. Because selection intensity on transplants was much stronger in the non-native range relative to non-native regions, there is a larger adaptive barrier to range versus regional expansion. Three of five sequential fitness components accounted for regional and range adaptation, but only one of them, survivorship from germination to flowering, contributed to both. Flower number contributed to regional adaptation in ssp. xantiana and fruit set (number of fruits per flower) to range adaptation. Differential survivorship of the two taxa or regional populations of ssp. xantiana in non-native environments was attributable, in part, to biotic interactions, including competition, herbivory, and pollination. For example, low fruit set in ssp. xantiana

  3. Science & education: Genetic analysis of winter social structure and social traits in a migratory sparrow & teaching argumentation in STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Nina N.

    Stable social organization in a wide variety of organisms has been linked to kinship, which can minimize conflict due to the indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with relatives. In birds, kin selection has been mostly studied in the context of reproduction or in species that are social year round. Many birds however are migratory and the role of kinship in the winter societies of these species is virtually unexplored. A previous study detected striking social complexity and stability in wintering populations of migratory golden-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla)---individuals repeatedly form close associations with the same social partners, including across multiple winters. In chapter one I test the possibility that kinship might be involved in these close and stable social affiliations. I examine the relationship between kinship and social structure for two of the consecutive wintering seasons from the previous study. I found no evidence that social structure was influenced by kinship---relatedness between most pairs of individuals was at most that of first cousins (and mostly far lower) and Mantel tests revealed no relationship between kinship and pairwise interaction frequency. Kinship also failed to predict social structure in more fine-grained analyses, including analyses of each sex separately (in the event that sex-biased migration might limit kin selection to one sex) and separate analyses for each social community. The complex winter societies of golden-crowned sparrows appear to be based on cooperative benefits unrelated to kin selection. Although the complex social structure detected in wintering golden-crowned sparrows is not predicted by kinship, genetic variation may play a role in variation of winter social traits. In chapter two, I investigate the genetic causes of variation in fitness-related traits in a winter population of golden-crowned sparrows. Individuals show great variation in morphological and behavioral traits that may play

  4. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Reactive T-cells from Intestinal Biopsies of Crohn's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the intestine. The etiology is still unknown. One hypothesis is that CD is caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in genetically predisposed individuals. MAP causes a similar disease in ruminants,...

  5. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruthrauff, Dan; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper

  6. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomics responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, A. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Sardans, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Hódar, J. A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada Spain; Garcia-Porta, J. [Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Spain; Guenther, A. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine CA USA; Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Oravec, M. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Urban, O. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Peñuelas, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Leiss, K.

    2016-05-16

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at elemental and molecular levels have focused on nutrients or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defensive metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and to avoid those with higher levels of phenolics and terpenes. Unfortunately, the defensive role of phenolics in conifers is still unclear. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under the herbivorous attack by the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Herbivorous attack was not associated with any of the elements analyzed. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing the concentrations of various terpenes and phenolics. Systemic responses differed between subspecies and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Contrary as usually thought, foliar nutrient concentrations did not show to be a main factor of an alleged plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition. Local increases in phenolics were more associated with antioxidant function for protection against oxidative damage produced by folivory. On the other hand, terpenes were directly related to defense against herbivores. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, including both primary and secondary metabolisms, that was, however, less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Subspecies responded similarly locally but differently to folivory at systemic level.

  7. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Bernardo A.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Winnie Hallwachs;  J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed. PMID:23730178

  8. Use of intron-exonic marker in assessment of genetic diversity of two subspecies of Thymus daenensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ismaili

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study of genetic diversity in medicinal plant is very important for improvement and evolutionary variations. In this study, assessment of genetic diversity in two subspecies of Thymus daenensis was evaluated, using intron-exonic markers. Thirty primers produced 633 polymorphic bands (98% polymorphism. The highest polymorphic information content (PIC included ISJ5 and ISJ9 primers and the lowest PIC also included IT15-32 primer. The highest marker index (MI produced by IT10-6 primer. Results of Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA showed that intra-sub specific variation was more than inter-sub specific variation. Dendrogram obtained from Cluster analysis, using NTSYS-pc software and UPGMA method based on Dice's similarity matrix, divided accessions into 4 groups. The maximum range of genetic similarity was observed between two accessions of sub-species daenensis. Two accessions of Fars and Semnan formed a separate group. Results showed that clustering based on molecular data and principal coordinate analysis had a medium alignment. Grouping based on cluster analysis also could separate two subspecies of Thymus daenensis. Results obtained from this study showed that intron-exonic markers had an effective potential in assessment of genetic relationships between the two sub-species of daenensis.

  9. CD4 T Cells From Intestinal Biopsies of Crohn's Disease Patients React to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in Crohn’s disease (CD) remains controversial. One issue that has been raised is the lack of data showing a cellular immune response to MAP. Earlier studies have mostly focused on responses in peripheral blood which have several limit...

  10. DNA barcoding of gypsy moths from China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) reveals new haplotypes and divergence patterns within gypsy moth subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Youqing Luo; Melody A. Keena; Ying Wu; Peng Wu; Juan Shi

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome...

  11. Characterization of the inflammatory phenotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis using a novel cell culture passage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses to Johne’s disease, a chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is complicated by the multifaceted disease progression, late-onset host reaction, and the lack of ex vivo infection models ...

  12. Two new species and one new subspecies of the South American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.

    1971-01-01

    This paper contains descriptions and figures of two new species of Corydoras Lacépède, 1803, C. weitzmani from Peru, and C. blochi from Guyana, Brazil, and Venezuela. The latter species is represented by two subspecies, C. blochi blochi from the Amazonas, Branco, Orinoco, and Essequibo drainages,

  13. Flight activity and responses to climatic conditions of two subspecies of Melipona marginata Lepeletier (Apidae, Meliponinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert-Giovannini, A; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    1986-01-01

    The flight activity of two colonies of M. m. marginata and six colonies of M. m. obscurior was studied in Sao Paulo, Brazil during three periods in 1981-1983. All colonies were hived except for one colony of M. m. obscurior which nested in a hollow tree. The two subspecies showed the same responses to the climatic factors analyzed. Flight activity was correlated positively with temperature and negatively with RH. In favorable conditions foraging took place throughout the day but both species were most active between 11 and 13 h. In the last observation period (October 1982-January 1983), when only two obscurior colonies were studied, flight activity was not correlated to RH, occurring even when RH was unfavorably high. This was a very rainy season, and it is suggested that the behavior of the bees indicates a flexible response to prevailing weather conditions.

  14. [Histo-anatomical researches of two subspecies of Lavandula angustifolia Mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Silvia; Galeş, Ramona; Toma, C; Stănescu, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the inflorescences of two subspecies of Lavandula angustifolia sL. angustifolia ssp. angustifolia and. L. angustifolia ssp. pyrenaica (D.C.) Guineaţ was studied to determine the range of variation in certain histo-anatomical characters. The flower and leaf structure has been analysed on cross and superficial section using the usual techniques and methods applied in plant histo-anatomical research. In cross-section, inflorescence axis has a squared-shape contour, with four proeminent ribs. On the epiderme of inflorescence axis there are present stomata, trichoms and secretory hairs. The trichoms are pluricelullar and T-branched. The secretory hairs have a short pedicel and a uni-or bicellular head. The study revealed that there are only quantitative differences, referring to the degree of sclerification and lignification of mechanical elements and the size of the vascular bundles.

  15. The correct name for a subspecies of Oenothera fruticosa L. (Onagraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1978 when Straley adopted the name Oenothera fruticosa L. subsp. glauca (Michx. Straley for one of the two recognized subspecies of O. fruticosa it was the correct name for this taxon; however, since that time the botanical code has changed so that now an autonym is treated aspriority over the name or names of the same date and rank that established it. This change means that since 1981 O. fruticosa subsp. glauca was no longer the correct name. The appropriate combination for it is made here as O. fruticosa L. subsp. tetragona (Roth W.L. Wagner. Original material for the basionym, O. tetragona, is no longer extant so a neotype is designated.

  16. The correct name for a subspecies of Oenothera fruticosa L. (Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Warren L

    2014-01-01

    In 1978 when Straley adopted the name Oenothera fruticosa L. subsp. glauca (Michx.) Straley for one of the two recognized subspecies of O. fruticosa it was the correct name for this taxon; however, since that time the botanical code has changed so that now an autonym is treated as having priority over the name or names of the same date and rank that established it. This change means that since 1981 O. fruticosa subsp. glauca was no longer the correct name. The appropriate combination for it is made here as O. fruticosa L. subsp. tetragona (Roth) W.L. Wagner. Original material for the basionym, O. tetragona, is no longer extant so a neotype is designated.

  17. TEMPORAL VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN PEAT SWAMP AREA USING MODIS TIME-SERIES IMAGERY: A MONITORING APPROACH OF HIGH-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEM IN REGIONAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Setiawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp area is an essential ecosystem due to high vulnerability of functions and services. As the change of forest cover in peat swamp area has increased considerably, many studies on peat swamp have focused on forest conversion or forest degradation. Meanwhile, in the context of changes in the forestlands are the sum of several processes such as deforestation, reforestation/afforestation, regeneration of previously deforested areas, and the changing spatial location of the forest boundary. Remote sensing technology seems to be a powerful tool to provide information required following that concerns. A comparison imagery taken at the different dates over the same locations for assessing those changes tends to be limited by the vegetation phenology and land-management practices. Consequently, the simultaneous analysis seems to be a way to deal with the issues above, as a means for better understanding of the dynamics changes in peat swamp area. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using MODIS images during the last 14 years for detecting and monitoring the changes in peat swamp area. We identified several significant patterns that have been assigned as the specific peat swamp ecosystem. The results indicate that a different type of ecosystem and its response to the environmental changes can be portrayed well by the significant patterns. In understanding the complex situations of each pattern, several vegetation dynamics patterns were characterized by physical land characteristics, such as peat depth, land use, concessions and others. Characterizing the pathways of dynamics change in peat swamp area will allow further identification for the range of proximate and underlying factors of the forest cover change that can help to develop useful policy interventions in peatland management.

  18. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  19. Seasonal and geographic variation of southern blue whale subspecies in the Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Samaran

    Full Text Available Understanding the seasonal movements and distribution patterns of migratory species over ocean basin scales is vital for appropriate conservation and management measures. However, assessing populations over remote regions is challenging, particularly if they are rare. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus spp are an endangered species found in the Southern and Indian Oceans. Here two recognized subspecies of blue whales and, based on passive acoustic monitoring, four "acoustic populations" occur. Three of these are pygmy blue whale (B.m. brevicauda populations while the fourth is the Antarctic blue whale (B.m. intermedia. Past whaling catches have dramatically reduced their numbers but recent acoustic recordings show that these oceans are still important habitat for blue whales. Presently little is known about the seasonal movements and degree of overlap of these four populations, particularly in the central Indian Ocean. We examined the geographic and seasonal occurrence of different blue whale acoustic populations using one year of passive acoustic recording from three sites located at different latitudes in the Indian Ocean. The vocalizations of the different blue whale subspecies and acoustic populations were recorded seasonally in different regions. For some call types and locations, there was spatial and temporal overlap, particularly between Antarctic and different pygmy blue whale acoustic populations. Except on the southernmost hydrophone, all three pygmy blue whale acoustic populations were found at different sites or during different seasons, which further suggests that these populations are generally geographically distinct. This unusual blue whale diversity in sub-Antarctic and sub-tropical waters indicates the importance of the area for blue whales in these former whaling grounds.

  20. [A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.

  1. Subspecies of Hypolepis rugosula (Dennstaedtiaceae; Pteridophyta around the world: morphological and biogeographic perspectives

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    Pedro Bond Schwartsburd

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The "Hypolepis rugosula complex" has been the subject of great debate among pteridologists: some have considered H. rugosula a single subcosmopolitan (or circum-Antarctic species, whereas others have considered it a species-complex, encompassing several species. In the 1920s and 1930s, four geographically distinct varietiesof H. rugosula were recognized. In this work, we present a new taxonomy (with new combinations and statuses, as well as typification and full synonymy, together with complete distribution data for the species, with an infraspecific classification based on morphological and biogeographic perspectives. Hypolepis rugosula occurs in southern temperate regions and high-elevation tropical regions of the Americas, Africa (including Madagascar, Oceania and the Philippines, as well as in some isolated oceanic volcanic islands (e.g., Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha. Here, 15 geographically distinct subspecies are recognized. All subspecies are geographically segregated from each other, except in New Zealand, where two occur sympatrically-possibly due to two different arrival and colonization times. Four patterns of "indument" (referring to catenate and glandular hairs collectively are distinguished. Different lineages are successful in their respective habitats; we observed two lineages with different ploidy levels (tetraploid and octoploid. Although long-distance dispersal is the best explanation for the extant distribution of H. rugosula;we do not exclude vicariance as a possible explanation for their occurrence on the land masses that were once united as Gondwana. Therefore, we are assuming that a fern species could remain unchanged for more than 70 Myr, and we are adopting the refugia theory, albeit with a different focus.

  2. The effect of surgical subspecialization on outcomes in peptic ulcer disease complicated by perforation and bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Andrew J; Richards, Jennifer M J; Ohly, Nicholas; Nixon, Stephen J; Paterson-Brown, Simon

    2008-07-01

    Emergency surgical services in Edinburgh were restructured in July 2002 to deliver subspecialist management of colorectal and upper-gastrointestinal emergencies on separate sites. The effect of emergency subspecialization on outcome from perforated and bleeding peptic ulceration was assessed. All patients admitted with complicated peptic ulceration (January 2000-February 2005) were identified from a prospectively compiled database. Perforation: 148 patients were admitted with perforation before the service reorganization (period A - 31 months) of whom 126 (85.1%) underwent surgery; 135 patients were admitted in period B (31 months) of whom 114 (84.4%) were managed operatively. The in-hospital mortality was lower in period B (14/135, 10.4%) than period A (30/148, 20.3%; P = 0.023; relative risk (RR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.28-0.91). There was a significantly higher rate of gastric resection in the second half of the study (period A 1/126 vs. period B 8/114; P = 0.015; RR, 8.84; 95% CI, 1.48-54.34). Length of hospital stay was similar for both groups. Bleeding: 51 patients underwent operative management of bleeding peptic ulceration in period A and 51 in period B. There were no differences in length of stay or mortality between these two groups. Restructuring of surgical services with emergency subspecialization was associated with lower mortality for perforated peptic ulceration. Subspecialist experience, intraoperative decision-making, and improved postoperative care have all contributed to this improvement.

  3. Foodborne outbreak of Salmonella subspecies IV infections associated with contamination from bearded dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, S A; Medus, C; Scheftel, J; Leano, F; Jawahir, S; Smith, K

    2011-12-01

    Approximately 1.4 million Salmonella infections and 400 deaths occur annually in the United States. Approximately 6% of human Salmonella cases are thought to be associated with reptiles; Salmonella enterica subspecies IV is primarily reptile-associated. During 1-4 December, 2009, three isolates of Salmonella IV 6,7:z4,z24:- with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were identified through Minnesota Department of Health laboratory-based surveillance. None of the three patients associated with the isolates reported reptile contact; however, all had attended the same potluck dinner. Dinner attendees were asked questions regarding illness history, foods they prepared for and consumed at the event, and pet ownership. Cases were defined as illness in a person who had eaten potluck food and subsequently experienced fever and diarrhoea (three or more loose stools in 24 h) or laboratory-confirmed infection with Salmonella IV matching the outbreak PFGE subtype. Nineteen days after the event, environmental samples were collected from a food preparer's house where two pet bearded dragons were kept. Sixty-six of 73 potluck food consumers were interviewed; 19 cases were identified; 18 persons reported illness but did not meet the case definition. Median incubation period was 19 h (range: 3-26 h). Median duration of illness was 5 days (range: 1-11 days). Consumption of gravy, prepared by the bearded dragons' asymptomatic owner, was associated with illness (16/32 exposed versus 1/12 unexposed; risk ratio: 6.0; exact P = 0.02). Salmonella Labadi was recovered from 10 samples, including from one bearded dragon, the bathroom door knob and sink drain, and the kitchen sink drain. The outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella subspecies IV was isolated from vacuum-cleaner bag contents. This foodborne outbreak probably resulted from environmental contamination from bearded dragons. Reptiles pose a community threat when food for public consumption is prepared in

  4. Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence.

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    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2. The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92% and 1607 (86% of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops.

  5. Pallid bands in feathers and associated stable isotope signatures reveal effects of severe weather stressors on fledgling sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeremy D; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Bridge, Eli S; Engel, Michael H; Reinking, Dan L; Boyle, W Alice

    2015-01-01

    In August 2013, we observed a high incidence (44%) of synchronous bands of reduced melanin (a type of fault bar we have termed "pallid bands") across the rectrices of juvenile Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodrammus savannarum) captured near El Reno, Oklahoma. Earlier that year, on May 31, the site was struck by a severe storm which rained hailstones exceeding 5.5 cm diameter and spawned an historic 4.2 km-wide tornado stressor had induced the pallid bands. An assessment of Grasshopper Sparrow nesting phenology indicated that a large number of nestlings were likely growing tail feathers when the storm hit. The pallid bands were restricted to the distal half of feathers and their widths significantly increased as a function of distance from the tip (i.e., age at formation). We predicted that if stress had caused these pallid bands, then a spike in circulating δ (15)N originating from tissue catabolism during the stress response would have been incorporated into the developing feather. From 18 juveniles captured at the site in August we measured δ (15)N and δ (13)C stable isotope ratios within four to five 0.25-0.40 mg feather sections taken from the distal end of a tail feather; the pallid band, if present, was contained within only one section. After accounting for individual and across-section variation, we found support for our prediction that feather sections containing or located immediately proximal to pallid bands (i.e., the pallid band region) would show significantly higher δ (15)N than sections outside this region. In contrast, the feathers of juveniles with pallid bands compared to normal appearing juveniles showed significantly lower δ (15)N. A likely explanation is that the latter individuals hatched after the May 31 storm and had consumed a trophically-shifted diet relative to juveniles with pallid bands. Considering this, the juveniles of normal appearance were significantly less abundant within our sample relative to expectations from past cohorts (z

  6. Pallid bands in feathers and associated stable isotope signatures reveal effects of severe weather stressors on fledgling sparrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Ross

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In August 2013, we observed a high incidence (44% of synchronous bands of reduced melanin (a type of fault bar we have termed “pallid bands” across the rectrices of juvenile Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodrammus savannarum captured near El Reno, Oklahoma. Earlier that year, on May 31, the site was struck by a severe storm which rained hailstones exceeding 5.5 cm diameter and spawned an historic 4.2 km-wide tornado <8 km to the south of the site. We hypothesized that this stressor had induced the pallid bands. An assessment of Grasshopper Sparrow nesting phenology indicated that a large number of nestlings were likely growing tail feathers when the storm hit. The pallid bands were restricted to the distal half of feathers and their widths significantly increased as a function of distance from the tip (i.e., age at formation. We predicted that if stress had caused these pallid bands, then a spike in circulating δ15N originating from tissue catabolism during the stress response would have been incorporated into the developing feather. From 18 juveniles captured at the site in August we measured δ15N and δ13C stable isotope ratios within four to five 0.25–0.40 mg feather sections taken from the distal end of a tail feather; the pallid band, if present, was contained within only one section. After accounting for individual and across-section variation, we found support for our prediction that feather sections containing or located immediately proximal to pallid bands (i.e., the pallid band region would show significantly higher δ15N than sections outside this region. In contrast, the feathers of juveniles with pallid bands compared to normal appearing juveniles showed significantly lower δ15N. A likely explanation is that the latter individuals hatched after the May 31 storm and had consumed a trophically-shifted diet relative to juveniles with pallid bands. Considering this, the juveniles of normal appearance were significantly less abundant

  7. Rapid differentiation of Francisella species and subspecies by fluorescent in situ hybridization targeting the 23S rRNA

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    Trebesius Karlheinz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Francisella (F. tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. Due to its low infectious dose, ease of dissemination and high case fatality rate, F. tularensis was the subject in diverse biological weapons programs and is among the top six agents with high potential if misused in bioterrorism. Microbiological diagnosis is cumbersome and time-consuming. Methods for the direct detection of the pathogen (immunofluorescence, PCR have been developed but are restricted to reference laboratories. Results The complete 23S rRNA genes of representative strains of F. philomiragia and all subspecies of F. tularensis were sequenced. Single nucleotide polymorphisms on species and subspecies level were confirmed by partial amplification and sequencing of 24 additional strains. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH assays were established using species- and subspecies-specific probes. Different FISH protocols allowed the positive identification of all 4 F. philomiragia strains, and more than 40 F. tularensis strains tested. By combination of different probes, it was possible to differentiate the F. tularensis subspecies holarctica, tularensis, mediasiatica and novicida. No cross reactivity with strains of 71 clinically relevant bacterial species was observed. FISH was also successfully applied to detect different F. tularensis strains in infected cells or tissue samples. In blood culture systems spiked with F. tularensis, bacterial cells of different subspecies could be separated within single samples. Conclusion We could show that FISH targeting the 23S rRNA gene is a rapid and versatile method for the identification and differentiation of F. tularensis isolates from both laboratory cultures and clinical samples.

  8. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Dispositions of enrofloxacin and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin in Thai swamp buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUENNARONG, Nitwarat; WONGPANIT, Kannika; SAKULTHAEW, Chainarong; GIORGI, Mario; KUMAGAI, Susumu; POAPOLATHEP, Amnart; POAPOLATHEP, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    Given the limited information available in this species, the aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of enrofloxacin (ER) and its major metabolite ciprofloxacin (CP) in buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis. ER was administered intravenously (i.v.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) to buffaloes at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, and plasma, urine and fecal samples were collected until 48 hr post-administration. The concentrations of ER and CP in the plasma, urine and feces were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. The plasma concentrations of ER and CP could be determined up to 24 hr and 32 hr after i.v. and s.c. administrations at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. CP concentrations were always lower than those of parental drug. The s.c. bioavailability of ER was 52.36 ± 4.24% and 72.12 ± 5.39% at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. Both ER and CP were detectable in urine and feces up to 24 hr. ER and CP were mainly excreted via the urine. Based on the pharmacokinetic data and PK-PD indices, s.c. administration of ER at doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg BW might be appropriate for the treatment of susceptible bacterial diseases in Thai swamp buffaloes. PMID:26596287

  10. A case study on fuel oil contamination in a mangrove swamp in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, N.F.Y.; Wong, T.W.Y.; Wong, Y.S. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Department of Biology

    2005-07-01

    Mangroves commonly found along tropical and subtropical coastlines are susceptible to oil pollution. In December 2000, around 500 1 m tall Kandelia candel saplings at the age of 3-5 years old located at the foreshore region of Sheung Pak Nai swamp, Hong Kong SAR, were found to be damaged by oil pollution. More than 80% of the saplings were either dead or washed away and leaving less than 5% healthy saplings with dense green leaves. Elevated concentrations of light n-alkanes (ranging from n-C{sub 14} to n-C{sub 20}), pristane and phytane were recorded in surface sediments collected in December 2000. The ratio between light and total n-alkanes was 0.4. The total petroleum hydrocarbons (60-80 {mu}g g{sup -1} TPH) and unresolved complex mixtures (60-70 {mu}g g{sup -1} UCM) were higher than the background values of other mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, which were 40 and 20 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. In certain root zone sediments, TPH concentrations were above 1000 {mu}g g{sup -1}. These results suggest that surface sediments in Sheung Pak Nai were contaminated by petroleum oil, most likely by illegal discharge of fuel oil which occurred between 1998 and 2002. One year later, in December 2001, unhealthy saplings had recovered and re-grown. The concentrations of TPH and UCM in sediments declined to around 40 {mu}g g{sup -1}, pristane and phytane dropped by 80%, and the ratio of light to total n-alkanes was 0.15, suggesting that residual oil in sediments was weathered leading to a remarkable recovery of the unhealthy saplings. (author)

  11. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y. [City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2002-07-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. High blood oxygen affinity in the air-breathing swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Findorf, Inge; Helbo, Signe; Kocagoz, Yigit; Buchanan, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew 1793) is a facultative air-breathing fish with reduced gills. Previous studies have shown that gas exchange seems to occur across the epithelium of the buccopharyngeal cavity, the esophagus and the integument, resulting in substantial diffusion limitations that must be compensated by adaptations in others steps of the O₂ transport system to secure adequate O₂ delivery to the respiring tissues. We therefore investigated O₂ binding properties of whole blood, stripped hemoglobin (Hb), two major isoHb components and the myoglobin (Mb) from M. albus. Whole blood was sampled using indwelling catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of O₂ equilibrium curves. Hb was purified to assess the effects of endogenous allosteric effectors, and Mb was isolated from heart and skeletal muscle to determine its O₂ binding properties. The blood of M. albus has a high O₂ carrying capacity [hematocrit (Hct) of 42.4±4.5%] and binds O₂ with an unusually high affinity (P₅₀=2.8±0.4mmHg at 27°C and pH7.7), correlating with insensitivity of the Hb to the anionic allosteric effectors that normally decrease Hb-O₂ affinity. In addition, Mb is present at high concentrations in both heart and muscle (5.16±0.99 and 1.08±0.19mg ∙ g wet tissue⁻¹, respectively). We suggest that the high Hct and high blood O₂ affinity serve to overcome the low diffusion capacity in the relatively inefficient respiratory surfaces, while high Hct and Mb concentration aid in increasing the O₂ flux from the blood to the muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sedimentology and ichnology of Neogene Coastal Swamp deposits in the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

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    Ezeh Sunny C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Often analyses of depositional environments from sparse data result in poor interpretation, especially in multipartite depositional settings such as the Niger Delta. For instance, differentiating channel sandstones, heteroliths and mudstones within proximal environments from those of distal facies is difficult if interpretations rely solely on well log signatures. Therefore, in order to achieve an effective and efficient interpretation of the depositional conditions of a given unit, integrated tools must be applied such as matching core descriptions with wireline log signature. In the present paper cores of three wells from the Coastal Swamp depositional belt of the Niger Delta are examined in order to achieve full understanding of the depositional environments. The well sections comprise cross-bedded sandstones, heteroliths (coastal and lower shoreface and mudstones that were laid down in wave, river and tidal processes. Interpretations were made from each data set comprising gamma ray logs, described sedimentological cores showing sedimentary features and ichnological characteristics; these were integrated to define the depositional settings. Some portions from one of the well sections reveal a blocky gamma ray well log signature instead of a coarsening-upward trend that characterises a shoreface setting while in other wells the signatures for heteroliths at some sections are bell blocky in shaped rather than serrated. Besides, heteroliths and mudstones within the proximal facies and those of distal facies were difficult to distinguish solely on well log signatures. However, interpretation based on sedimentology and ichnology of cores from these facies was used to correct these inconsistencies. It follows that depositional environment interpretation (especially in multifarious depositional environments such as the Niger Delta should ideally be made together with other raw data for accuracy and those based solely on well log signatures should

  14. How could a freshwater swamp produce a chemical signature characteristic of a saltmarsh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Terrence; Smith, Christopher G.; Liu, Kam-biu; Marot, Marci E.; Haller, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Reduction–oxidation (redox) reaction conditions, which are of great importance for the soil chemistry of coastal marshes, can be temporally dynamic. We present a transect of cores from northwest Florida wherein radical postdepositional changes in the redox regime has created atypical geochemical profiles at the bottom of the sedimentary column. The stratigraphy is consistent along the transect, consisting of, from the bottom upward, carbonate bedrock, a gray clay, an organic mud section, a dense clay layer, and an upper organic mud unit representing the current saltwater marsh. However, the geochemical signature of the lower organic mud unit suggests pervasive redox reactions, although the interval has been identified as representing a freshwater marsh, an unlikely environment for such conditions. Analyses indicate that this discrepancy results from postdepositional diagenesis driven by millennial-scale environmental parameters. Rising sea level that led to the deposition of the capping clay layer, created anaerobic conditions in the freshwater swamp interval, and isolated it hydrologically from the rest of the sediment column. The subsequent infiltration of marine water into this organic material led to sulfate reduction, the buildup of H2S and FeS, and anoxic conditions. Continued sulfidation eventually resulted in euxinic conditions, as evidenced by elevated levels of Fe, S, and especially Mo, the diagnostic marker of euxinia. Because this chemical transformation occurred long after the original deposition the geochemical signature does not reflect soil chemistry at the time of deposition and cannot be used to infer syn-depositional environmental conditions, emphasizing the importance of recognizing diagenetic processes in paleoenvironmental studies.

  15. Deforestation projections for carbon-rich peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Douglas O; Hardiono, Martin; Meijaard, Erik

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated three spatially explicit land use and cover change (LUCC) models to project deforestation from 2005-2020 in the carbon-rich peat swamp forests (PSF) of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Such models are increasingly used to evaluate the impact of deforestation on carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. We considered both business-as-usual (BAU) and a forest protection scenario to evaluate each model's accuracy, sensitivity, and total projected deforestation and landscape-level fragmentation patterns. The three models, Dinamica EGO (DE), GEOMOD and the Land Change Modeler (LCM), projected similar total deforestation amounts by 2020 with a mean of 1.01 million ha (Mha) and standard deviation of 0.17 Mha. The inclusion of a 0.54 Mha strict protected area in the LCM simulations reduced projected loss to 0.77 Mha over 15 years. Calibrated parameterizations of the models using nearly identical input drivers produced very different landscape properties, as measured by the number of forest patches, mean patch area, contagion, and Euclidean nearest neighbor determined using Fragstats software. The average BAU outputs of the models suggests that Central Kalimantan may lose slightly less than half (45.1%) of its 2005 PSF by 2020 if measures are not taken to reduce deforestation there. The relatively small reduction of 0.24 Mha in deforestation found in the 0.54 Mha protection scenario suggests that these models can identify potential leakage effects in which deforestation is forced to occur elsewhere in response to a policy intervention.

  16. Subspecies identification of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (Primates: Hominidae from the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago, Chile, using mitochondrial DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Vega

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural populations of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes are declining because of hunting and illegal live animal trafficking. Four subspecies of Chimpanzee have been reported: Pan troglodytes troglodytes, P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. ellioti, which have remained geographically separated by natural barriers such as the rivers Niger, Sanaga and Ubangi in central Africa. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been used for the determination of these subspecies, which indirectly can also suggest their geographic origin. It was decided to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of three captive chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile, by analyzing their mitochondrial DNA. DNA was extracted from the saliva of three adult chimpanzees (two males and one female. After the analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial hypervariable region (HVI, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using mitochondrial sequences of known Pan troglodytes subspecies. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are likely to belong to three different subspecies: P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. troglodytes. Identification of subspecies of the three chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile was possible due to mtDNA analysis. Future identification of chimpanzees will allow the development of a studbook for the chimpanzee subspecies in other Latin American zoos.

  17. Comparing Avocado, Swamp Bay, and Camphortree as Hosts of Raffaelea lauricola Using a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Labeled Strain of the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A S; Ploetz, R C; Rollins, J A

    2017-01-01

    Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, causes laurel wilt in members of the Lauraceae plant family. North American species in the family, such as avocado (Persea americana) and swamp bay (P. palustris), are particularly susceptible to laurel wilt, whereas the Asian camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora) is relatively tolerant. To determine whether susceptibility is related to pathogen colonization, a green fluorescent protein-labeled strain of R. lauricola was generated and used to inoculate avocado, swamp bay, and camphortree. Trees were harvested 3, 10, and 30 days after inoculation (DAI), and disease severity was rated on a 1-to-10 scale. By 30 DAI, avocado and swamp bay developed significantly more severe disease than camphortree (mean severities of 6.8 and 5.5 versus 1.6, P < 0.003). The extent of xylem colonization was recorded as the percentage of lumena that were colonized by the pathogen. More xylem was colonized in avocado than camphortree (0.9% versus 0.1%, P < 0.03) but colonization in swamp bay (0.4%) did not differ significantly from either host. Although there were significant correlations between xylem colonization and laurel wilt severity in avocado (r = 0.74), swamp bay (r = 0.82), and camphortree (r = 0.87), even severely affected trees of all species were scarcely colonized by the pathogen.

  18. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids in the stratum corneum of house sparrows, Passer domesticus L., from desert and mesic environments as determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Ro, Jennifer; Brown, Johnie C; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-02-01

    Because cutaneous water loss (CWL) represents half of total water loss in birds, selection to reduce CWL may be strong in desert birds. We previously found that CWL of house sparrows from a desert population was about 25% lower than that of individuals from a mesic environment. The stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, serves as the primary barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The avian SC is formed by layers of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix consisting of cholesterol, free fatty acids and two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides. The SC of birds also serves a thermoregulatory function; high rates of CWL keep body temperatures under lethal limits in episodes of heat stress. In this study, we used high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APPI-MS) to identify and quantify over 200 sphingolipids in the SC of house sparrows from desert and mesic populations. Principal components analysis (PCA) led to the hypotheses that sphingolipids in the SC of desert sparrows have longer carbon chains in the fatty acid moiety and are more polar than those found in mesic sparrows. We also tested the association between principal components and CWL in both populations. Our study suggested that a reduction in CWL found in desert sparrows was, in part, the result of modifications in chain length and polarity of the sphingolipids, changes that apparently determine the interactions of the lipid molecules within the SC.

  19. Regional cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrow brain is differentially affected by acephate (Orthene®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Romo, G.A.; Komaragiri, M.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), were determined on cholinesterase activity in three regions (basal ganglia, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, brain. All three regions experienced depressed cholinesterase activity between 0.5–2 ppm acephate. The regions exhibited cholinesterase recovery at 2–16 ppm acephate; however, cholinesterase activity dropped and showed no recovery at higher dietary levels (>16 ppm acephate). Evidence indicates that the recovery is initiated by the magnitude of depression, not the duration. In general, as acephate concentration increased, differences in ChE activity among brain regions decreased. Three terms are introduced to describe ChE response to acephate exposure: 1) ChE resistance threshold, 2) ChE compensation threshold, and 3) ChE depression threshold. It is hypothesized that adverse effects to birds in the field may occur at pesticide exposure levels customarily considered negligible.

  20. White-throated Sparrow Response to Forest Harvesting in North-Central Alberta: Results Not So Clear-Cut?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Hannah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of density to measure a species' responses to habitat change remains prevalent despite warnings that relying on such parameters can be misleading. We evaluated whether density was a useful surrogate of habitat quality for the White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis, an apparent habitat generalist, in a recently logged landscape near Calling Lake, Alberta, Canada. We detected significant differences in the territory density of birds among three distinct habitat types: interior forest, forest edges, and recent (4- to 6-yr-old clear-cuts. However, the observed patterns in territory density were not consistent with several indices of habitat quality. We found a consistent and marked gradient for indices such as nesting success (based on a reproductive index, pairing success, and the proportion of territories that successfully fledged young between interior forest sites and clear-cuts. Edge habitats, in which high relative density offset lower reproductive success, represented moderate-quality habitat for this species. Our results suggest that the continued use of density alone, without some measure of habitat quality, is insufficient if not misleading when evaluating response to habitat change. Our results have important implications for understanding the population dynamics of this species, which is often overlooked in population-level studies yet continues to experience long-term population declines over large portions of its breeding range.

  1. Sources and transport of phosphorus to rivers in California and adjacent states, U.S., as determined by SPARROW modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Saleh, Dina

    2015-01-01

    The SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes) model was used to simulate annual phosphorus loads and concentrations in unmonitored stream reaches in California, U.S., and portions of Nevada and Oregon. The model was calibrated using de-trended streamflow and phosphorus concentration data at 80 locations. The model explained 91% of the variability in loads and 51% of the variability in yields for a base year of 2002. Point sources, geological background, and cultivated land were significant sources. Variables used to explain delivery of phosphorus from land to water were precipitation and soil clay content. Aquatic loss of phosphorus was significant in streams of all sizes, with the greatest decay predicted in small- and intermediate-sized streams. Geological sources, including volcanic rocks and shales, were the principal control on concentrations and loads in many regions. Some localized formations such as the Monterey shale of southern California are important sources of phosphorus and may contribute to elevated stream concentrations. Many of the larger point source facilities were located in downstream areas, near the ocean, and do not affect inland streams except for a few locations. Large areas of cultivated land result in phosphorus load increases, but do not necessarily increase the loads above those of geological background in some cases because of local hydrology, which limits the potential of phosphorus transport from land to streams.

  2. Sex-specific differential survival of extra-pair and within-pair offspring in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardell, Rebecca J; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Reid, Jane M

    2011-11-07

    It is widely hypothesized that the evolution of female extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous species reflects indirect genetic benefits to females. However, a critical prediction of this hypothesis, that extra-pair young (EPY) are fitter than within-pair young (WPY), has rarely been rigorously tested. We used 18 years of data from free-living song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, to test whether survival through major life-history stages differed between EPY and WPY maternal half-siblings. On average, survival of hatched chicks to independence from parental care and recruitment, and their total lifespan, did not differ significantly between EPY and WPY. However, EPY consistently tended to be less likely to survive, and recruited EPY survived for significantly fewer years than recruited WPY. Furthermore, the survival difference between EPY and WPY was sex-specific; female EPY were less likely to survive to independence and recruitment and lived fewer years than female WPY, whereas male EPY were similarly or slightly more likely to survive and to live more years than male WPY. These data indicate that extra-pair paternity may impose an indirect cost on females via their female offspring and that sex-specific genetic, environmental or maternal effects may shape extra-pair reproduction.

  3. Identifying food deserts and swamps based on relative healthy food access: a spatio-temporal Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hui; Law, Jane; Quick, Matthew

    2015-12-30

    Obesity and other adverse health outcomes are influenced by individual- and neighbourhood-scale risk factors, including the food environment. At the small-area scale, past research has analysed spatial patterns of food environments for one time period, overlooking how food environments change over time. Further, past research has infrequently analysed relative healthy food access (RHFA), a measure that is more representative of food purchasing and consumption behaviours than absolute outlet density. This research applies a Bayesian hierarchical model to analyse the spatio-temporal patterns of RHFA in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, from 2011 to 2014 at the small-area level. RHFA is calculated as the proportion of healthy food outlets (healthy outlets/healthy + unhealthy outlets) within 4-km from each small-area. This model measures spatial autocorrelation of RHFA, temporal trend of RHFA for the study region, and spatio-temporal trends of RHFA for small-areas. For the study region, a significant decreasing trend in RHFA is observed (-0.024), suggesting that food swamps have become more prevalent during the study period. For small-areas, significant decreasing temporal trends in RHFA were observed for all small-areas. Specific small-areas located in south Waterloo, north Kitchener, and southeast Cambridge exhibited the steepest decreasing spatio-temporal trends and are classified as spatio-temporal food swamps. This research demonstrates a Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach to analyse RHFA at the small-area scale. Results suggest that food swamps are more prevalent than food deserts in the Region of Waterloo. Analysing spatio-temporal trends of RHFA improves understanding of local food environment, highlighting specific small-areas where policies should be targeted to increase RHFA and reduce risk factors of adverse health outcomes such as obesity.

  4. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  5. A new Neotibicen cicada subspecies (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from the southeastern USA forms hybrid zones with a widespread relative despite a divergent male calling song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R

    2017-05-31

    A morphologically cryptic subspecies of Neotibicen similaris (Smith and Grossbeck) is described from forests of the Apalachicola region of the southeastern United States. Although the new form exhibits a highly distinctive male calling song, it hybridizes extensively where it meets populations of the nominate subspecies in parapatry, by which it is nearly surrounded. This is the first reported example of hybridization between North American nonperiodical cicadas. Acoustic and morphological characters are added to the original description of the nominate subspecies, and illustrations of complex hybrid song phenotypes are presented. The biogeography of N. similaris is discussed in light of historical changes in forest composition on the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  6. Nitrogen Dynamics Along a Headwater Stream Draining a Fen, Swamp, and Marsh in a Fractured Dolomite Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.; Waddington, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Stream-wetland interaction has been shown to have a significant effect on nutrient cycling and downstream water quality. Additionally, connection to regional groundwater systems can dilute or enrich stream water with a number of dissolved constituents. This study demonstrates the resultant downstream change in dissolved nitrogen species as a hardwater stream emerges from a calcareous aquifer and traverses a calcareous fen, a cedar swamp, and a cattail marsh over two growing seasons, a very dry 2006 and a very wet 2007. Upon emergence at a number of groundwater seeps, the water contained appreciable nitrate levels averaging 2.72±0.42 mg NO3-N L-1, minimal organic nitrogen, and ammonium below detectable levels. Through the gently sloping calcareous fen, with a stream residence time of ~ 5 hours, NO3-N concentration decreases of 0.35 mg L-1 were observed. Concomitantly, stream recharge into the dolomite bedrock depressed stream discharge values significantly, further removing nitrate from the stream system. This resulted in the fen-bedrock system acting as an estimated net sink of 432 kg of NO3-N in the early summer of 2007, for example. In contrast, the hydrological-biogeochemical systems became decoupled through the swamp during the same period, where concentrations increased from 2.58±0.34 mg L-1 entering the swamp to 2.65±0.58 mg L-1 exiting, but streamflow decreased in general by 5 L s- 1. This resulted in the swamp, with its large depression storage, acting as a small net sink of nitrate (75 kg through the early summer), which would not be detected simply from concentration changes. The concentration-discharge relation realigned through the marsh, where significant groundwater entered the wetland, increasing both concentration and discharge, yielding a small export of 93 kg over the same time period. A series of tracer injections in each wetland type will be presented to compare the streamflow- concentration patterns with the measured nutrient spiralling

  7. Food habitats of the Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Coswine Swamps (French Guiana, South America)

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegelberger, Thomas; Ganslosser, Udo

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyse the habitat of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758) in the Coswine Swamps of northwest French Guiana, South America. Water parameters were similar to those described in other studies: water depth varied from 2.5 m to more than 20 m; water temperature was between 24.5 °C and 30.3 °C and pH varied between 5.5 and 6.9. Salinity was low (0.0‰ to 1.3‰) with 86.9% of all samples taken in fresh water. No submerged aquatic vegetation was found in...

  8. Productivity of Indonesian swamp buffaloes in relation to nutrition, reproduction and draught use in the wet tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamualim, A.; Liem, C.; Ffoulkes, D.

    1990-01-01

    Buffaloes in Indonesian villages fulfil a valuable function in providing the major source of draught power for cultivation. However, in wet irrigated areas, the continuous work of buffaloes and the low to medium quality of the available feed result in low growth rates and low reproductive performance. Results from buffalo feeding trials using similar feeds to those given in the villages indicated that high usage for draught would ultimately reduce body weight gains and might reduce the ovarian activity of buffalo cows. Use of supplements is recommended to improve the growth rates and fertility of swamp buffalo cows subjected to high work loads. (author). 14 refs, 7 tabs

  9. Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyocapillaria) ophisterni sp. n. (Nematoda : Capillariidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Pisces) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G; Jiménez-García, I

    2000-04-01

    A new nematode species, Pseudocapillaria ophisterni sp. n., is described from the intestine and rarely from the stomach of the swamp-eel, Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen et Greenwood, from Catemaco Lake, Veracruz, Mexico. In having both caudal lobes in the male interconnected by a distinct dorsal membrane, it belongs to the subgenus Ichthyocapillaria. It differs from the three species in this subgenus mainly in possessing either a distinctly longer spicule or a smaller length of oesophagus relative to body length. It also differs in host type and geographical distribution. P. ophisterni is the first capillariid species reported from synbranchiform fishes.

  10. A conjugative 38 kB plasmid is present in multiple subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Elizabeth E; Stenger, Drake C

    2012-01-01

    A ≈ 38kB plasmid (pXF-RIV5) was present in the Riv5 strain of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolated from ornamental plum in southern California. The complete nucleotide sequence of pXF-RIV5 is almost identical to that of pXFAS01 from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain M23; the two plasmids vary at only 6 nucleotide positions. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analyses indicate pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 share some similarity to chromosomal and plasmid (pXF51) sequences of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c and more distant similarity to plasmids from a wide variety of bacteria. Both pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 encode homologues of a complete Type IV secretion system involved in conjugation and DNA transfer among bacteria. Mating pair formation proteins (Trb) from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP31758 are the mostly closely related non-X. fastidiosa proteins to most of the Trb proteins encoded by pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01. Unlike many bacterial conjugative plasmids, pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 do not carry homologues of known accessory modules that confer selective advantage on host bacteria. However, both plasmids encode seven hypothetical proteins of unknown function and possess a small transposon-associated region encoding a putative transposase and associated factor. Vegetative replication of pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 appears to be under control of RepA protein and both plasmids have an origin of DNA replication (oriV) similar to that of pRP4 and pR751 from Escherichia coli. In contrast, conjugative plasmids commonly encode TrfA and have an oriV similar to those found in IncP-1 incompatibility group plasmids. The presence of nearly identical plasmids in single strains from two distinct subspecies of X. fastidiosa is indicative of recent horizontal transfer, probably subsequent to the introduction of subspecies fastidiosa to the United States in the late 19(th) century.

  11. A conjugative 38 kB plasmid is present in multiple subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E Rogers

    Full Text Available A ≈ 38kB plasmid (pXF-RIV5 was present in the Riv5 strain of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolated from ornamental plum in southern California. The complete nucleotide sequence of pXF-RIV5 is almost identical to that of pXFAS01 from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain M23; the two plasmids vary at only 6 nucleotide positions. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analyses indicate pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 share some similarity to chromosomal and plasmid (pXF51 sequences of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c and more distant similarity to plasmids from a wide variety of bacteria. Both pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 encode homologues of a complete Type IV secretion system involved in conjugation and DNA transfer among bacteria. Mating pair formation proteins (Trb from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP31758 are the mostly closely related non-X. fastidiosa proteins to most of the Trb proteins encoded by pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01. Unlike many bacterial conjugative plasmids, pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 do not carry homologues of known accessory modules that confer selective advantage on host bacteria. However, both plasmids encode seven hypothetical proteins of unknown function and possess a small transposon-associated region encoding a putative transposase and associated factor. Vegetative replication of pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 appears to be under control of RepA protein and both plasmids have an origin of DNA replication (oriV similar to that of pRP4 and pR751 from Escherichia coli. In contrast, conjugative plasmids commonly encode TrfA and have an oriV similar to those found in IncP-1 incompatibility group plasmids. The presence of nearly identical plasmids in single strains from two distinct subspecies of X. fastidiosa is indicative of recent horizontal transfer, probably subsequent to the introduction of subspecies fastidiosa to the United States in the late 19(th century.

  12. The palynology and sedimentology of a coastal swamp at Awana, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, from c. 7000 yr B.P. to present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analysis of two Holocene cores from Awana, Great Barrier Island, shows that at 7000 calibrated yr B.P. the local swamp was an estuarine salt marsh dominated by Restionaceae. By c. 6000 yr B.P. the water table was lower, and a fresh water swamp (Gleichenia-Leptospermum) had replaced the salt marsh. Regional conifer-hardwood forest c. 7000 yr B.P. was initially co-dominated by Libocedrus and Dacrydium cupressinum. Libocedrus declined from c. 6000 yr B.P. During the period c. 6000-c. 2500 yr B.P., relatively stable environmental conditions ensued with little change in local or regional vegetation. Around 2500 yr B.P., the swamp surface became drier and was invaded by Dacrycarpus and Laurelia swamp forest. This forest was subsequently repeatedly disturbed (not by fire), indicating climatic change to drier and windier conditions. Ascarina lucida was periodically a major component of swamp forest. Disturbance is also recorded in the clastic (mineral) sediments, where beds of sand within finer-grained sediment and peat are interpreted as wind blown material derived from partly devegetated dunes to seaward. The presence of the Kaharoa Tephra allows the timing of major Polynesian deforestation at Awana to be reliably dated to c. 600 calibrated yr B.P. In contrast, we see no evidence in the clastic sediment record of disturbance at Awana since Kaharoa time. We attribute this to the maintenance of stable dunes by a herb/scrub cover despite nearby fires, or to the presence of scrub or forest buffering the swamp from ablating dunes. (author). 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Estimates of long-term mean-annual nutrient loads considered for use in SPARROW models of the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States, 2002 base year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, David A.; Benoy, Glenn A.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2018-05-11

    Streamflow and nutrient concentration data needed to compute nitrogen and phosphorus loads were compiled from Federal, State, Provincial, and local agency databases and also from selected university databases. The nitrogen and phosphorus loads are necessary inputs to Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) models. SPARROW models are a way to estimate the distribution, sources, and transport of nutrients in streams throughout the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States. After screening the data, approximately 1,500 sites sampled by 34 agencies were identified as having suitable data for calculating the long-term mean-annual nutrient loads required for SPARROW model calibration. These final sites represent a wide range in watershed sizes, types of nutrient sources, and land-use and watershed characteristics in the Midcontinental region of Canada and the United States.

  14. Recent benthic foraminifera assemblages from mangrove swamp and channels of Abu Dhabi (UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Paul, Andreas; Song, Jianfeng; Freeman, Mark; Michel, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations from mangrove swamps and channels located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels). A 100 m transect across a natural channel in a mangal on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island was sampled in detail for sedimentological and foraminiferal analysis. Forty-seven samples were collected at 2 meter intervals along the transect in a number of different sedimentary facies including; fine sediment in areas exposed during low tide and close to mangrove trees (Avicennia marina), fine sediment rich in leaf material, coarse sediment in channels, and coarse sediments with a shell lag. At each sampling location environmental parameters were recorded, including water depth, salinity, temperature and pH. Samples collected for foraminiferal analysis were stained in rose Bengal in order to identify living specimens. Samples collected on the mud flat at the margin of the channel show a living foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Cribroelphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Sigmoilinita, Spiroloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicennia marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising small-sized opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Cribroelphidium along with rare Triloculina and

  15. Estimating Divergence Time and Ancestral Effective Population Size of Bornean and Sumatran Orangutan Subspecies Using a Coalescent Hidden Markov Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien; Hobolth, Asger

    2011-01-01

    event has occurred to split them apart. The size of these segments of constant divergence depends on the recombination rate, but also on the speciation time, the effective population size of the ancestral population, as well as demographic effects and selection. Thus, inference of these parameters may......, and the ancestral effective population size. The model is efficient enough to allow inference on whole-genome data sets. We first investigate the power and consistency of the model with coalescent simulations and then apply it to the whole-genome sequences of the two orangutan sub-species, Bornean (P. p. pygmaeus......) and Sumatran (P. p. abelii) orangutans from the Orangutan Genome Project. We estimate the speciation time between the two sub-species to be thousand years ago and the effective population size of the ancestral orangutan species to be , consistent with recent results based on smaller data sets. We also report...

  16. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANIF KHADEMI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Khademi H, Mehregan I, Assadi M, Nejadsatari T, Zarre S. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Biodiversitas 17: 16-23. This study was carried out on the Acer monspessulanum complex growing wild in Iran. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences for 75 samples representing five different subspecies of Acer monspessulanum were analyzed. Beside this, 86 previously published ITS sequences from GenBank were used to test the monophyly of the complex worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony. The results indicate that most samples of A. monspessulanum species from Iran were part of a monophyletic clade with 8 samples of A. ibericum from Georgia, A. hyrcanum from Iran and one of A. sempervirens from Greece (PP= 1; BS= 79%. Our results indicate that use of morphological characteristics coupled with molecular data will be most effective.

  17. Four new species and one new subspecies of Asteroidea (Echinodermata) collected by the “Siboga” Expedition in the Indo-Malayan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Aznam; Jangoux, Michel

    1985-01-01

    Four new species and one new subspecies of asteroids collected by the “Siboga” Expedition in the Indo-Malayan region are described. They are deep-water species belonging to the families Goniasteridae, Solasteridae, Ganeriidae, Asteriidae and Brisingidae.

  18. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  19. Epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain of southern Brazil: latitudinal effects on the plant community

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    Letícia S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fifty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into five ecological zones (strata, where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in floristic composition between ecological zones with richness differing significantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. These climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. The importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.

  20. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-12-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution.

  1. Chronological Reorganization of Microtubules, Actin Microfilaments, and Chromatin during the First Cell Cycle in Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Embryos

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    Vibuntita Chankitisakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the dynamics of early embryonic development, in terms of redistribution of cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin microfilaments and chromatin configurations during the first cell cycle in swamp buffalo embryos. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro, and they were fixed at various time points after IVF. At 6 h after IVF, 44.4% matured oocytes were penetrated by spermatozoa. Partial ZP digestion, however, did not improve fertilization rate compared to control (P>.05. At 12 h after IVF, the fertilized oocytes progressed to the second meiotic division and formed the female pronucleus simultaneously with the paternal chromatin continued to decondense. A sperm aster was observed radiating from the base of the decondensing sperm head. At 18 h after IVF, most presumptive zygotes had reached the pronuclear stage. The sperm aster was concurrently enlarged to assist the migration and apposition of pronuclei. Cell cleavage was facilitated by microfilaments and firstly observed by 30 h after IVF. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton actively involves with the process of fertilization and cleavage in swamp buffalo oocytes. The centrosomal material is paternally inherited. Fertilization failure is predominantly caused by poor sperm penetration. However, partial digestion of ZP did not improve fertilization rate.

  2. Recent evolutionary radiation and host plant specialization in the Xylella fastidiosa subspecies native to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard; Vickerman, Danel B; Bromley, Robin E; Russell, Stephanie A; Hartman, John R; Morano, Lisa D; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, infects many plant species in the Americas, making it a good model for investigating the genetics of host adaptation. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify isolates of the native U.S. subsp. multiplex that were largely unaffected by intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) and to investigate how their evolutionary history influences plant host specialization. We identified 110 "non-IHR" isolates, 2 minimally recombinant "intermediate" ones (including the subspecific type), and 31 with extensive IHR. The non-IHR and intermediate isolates defined 23 sequence types (STs) which we used to identify 22 plant hosts (73% trees) characteristic of the subspecies. Except for almond, subsp. multiplex showed no host overlap with the introduced subspecies (subspecies fastidiosa and sandyi). MLST sequences revealed that subsp. multiplex underwent recent radiation (<25% of subspecies age) which included only limited intrasubspecific recombination (ρ/θ = 0.02); only one isolated lineage (ST50 from ash) was older. A total of 20 of the STs grouped into three loose phylogenetic clusters distinguished by nonoverlapping hosts (excepting purple leaf plum): "almond," "peach," and "oak" types. These host differences were not geographical, since all three types also occurred in California. ST designation was a good indicator of host specialization. ST09, widespread in the southeastern United States, only infected oak species, and all peach isolates were ST10 (from California, Florida, and Georgia). Only ST23 had a broad host range. Hosts of related genotypes were sometimes related, but often host groupings crossed plant family or even order, suggesting that phylogenetically plastic features of hosts affect bacterial pathogenicity.

  3. Wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies of Sandhill Crane: Correlations between body size, site fidelity, and movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gary L.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Herziger, Caroline P.; Casazza, Michael L.; Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Body size is known to correlate with many aspects of life history in birds, and this knowledge can be used to manage and conserve bird species. However, few studies have compared the wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies that vary significantly in body size. We used radiotelemetry to examine the relationship between body size and site fidelity, movements, and home range in 2 subspecies of Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) wintering in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California, USA. Both subspecies showed high interannual return rates to the Delta study area, but Greater Sandhill Cranes (G. c. tabida) showed stronger within-winter fidelity to landscapes in our study region and to roost complexes within landscapes than did Lesser Sandhill Cranes (G. c. canadensis). Foraging flights from roost sites were shorter for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.01 km vs. 4.5 ± 0.01 km, respectively) and, consequently, the mean size of 95% fixed-kernel winter home ranges was an order of magnitude smaller for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.4 km2 vs. 21.9 ± 1.9 km2, respectively). Strong site fidelity indicates that conservation planning to manage for adequate food resources around traditional roost sites can be effective for meeting the habitat needs of these cranes, but the scale of conservation efforts should differ by subspecies. Analysis of movement patterns suggests that conservation planners and managers should consider all habitats within 5 km of a known G. c. tabida roost and within 10 km of a G. c. canadensis roost when planning for habitat management, mitigation, acquisition, and easements.

  4. Shedding and serologic responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Thomas, Nicholas O; Orahood, Darcy S; Anderson, Theodore D; Oesterle, Paul T

    2010-10-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are well-recognized natural reservoirs of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV); however, little is known about the role of passerines in avian influenza virus ecology. Passerines are abundant, widespread, and commonly come into contact with free-ranging birds as well as captive game birds and poultry. We inoculated and subsequently challenged house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with wild-bird origin LPAIV H3N8 to evaluate their potential role in transmission. Oropharyngeal shedding was short lived, and was detected in more starlings (97.2%) than sparrows (47.2%; n=36 of each). Cloacal shedding was rare in both species (8.3%; n=36 of each) and no cage-mate transmission occurred. Infectious LPAIV was cultured from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and gastrointestinal and respiratory tissues from both species. Seroconversion was detected as early as 3 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) (16.7% of sparrows and 0% of starlings; n=6 each); 50% of these individuals seroconverted by 5 d.p.i., and nearly all birds (97%; n=35) seroconverted by 28 d.p.i. In general, pre-existing homologous immunity led to reduced shedding and increased antibody levels within 7 days of challenge. Limited shedding and lack of cage-mate transmission suggest that passerines are not significant reservoirs of LPAIV, although species differences apparently exist. Passerines readily and consistently seroconverted to LPAIV, and therefore inclusion of passerines in epidemiological studies of influenza outbreaks in wildlife and domestic animals may provide further insight into the potential involvement of passerines in avian influenza virus transmission ecology.

  5. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Lattin

    Full Text Available Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT. Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group. We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9 or control diets (n = 8, we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  6. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Christine R; Ngai, Heather M; Romero, L Michael

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT). Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group). We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9) or control diets (n = 8), we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  7. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus infantarius subspecies coli Isolated from Sea Otters with Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina L; Gill, Verena A; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; LeFebvre, Rance B; Byrne, Barbara A

    2015-06-01

    The Gram positive bacterial coccus Streptococcus infantarius subspecies coli is increasingly linked with development of fatal vegetative infective endocarditis and septicemia in humans, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and other animals. However, the pathogenesis of these infections is poorly understood. Using S. infantarius subsp. coli strains isolated from sea otters with infective endocarditis, this study evaluated adherence and invasion of epithelial and endothelial cells, adherence to extracellular matrix components, and macrophage survival. Significant adherence to endothelial-derived cells was observed for 62% of isolates, 24% adhered to epithelial cell lines, and 95% invaded one or both cell types in vitro. The importance of the hyaluronic acid capsule in host cell adherence and invasion was also evaluated. Capsule removal significantly reduced epithelial adherence and invasion for most S. infantarius subsp. coli isolates, suggesting that the capsule facilitates attachment to and invasion of epithelium. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing revealed that all isolates adhered significantly to the extracellular matrix components collagen IV, fibronectin, laminin and hyaluronic acid. Finally, significant bacterial survival following phagocytosis by macrophages was apparent for 81% of isolates at one or more time points. Taken collectively these findings indicate that S. infantarius subsp. coli has multiple pathogenic properties that may be important to host colonization, invasion and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection and Characterization of Viral Species/Subspecies Using Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glais, Laurent; Jacquot, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Numerous molecular-based detection protocols include an amplification step of the targeted nucleic acids. This step is important to reach the expected sensitive detection of pathogens in diagnostic procedures. Amplifications of nucleic acid sequences are generally performed, in the presence of appropriate primers, using thermocyclers. However, the time requested to amplify molecular targets and the cost of the thermocycler machines could impair the use of these methods in routine diagnostics. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technique allows rapid (short-term incubation of sample and primers in an enzymatic mixture) and simple (isothermal) amplification of molecular targets. RPA protocol requires only basic molecular steps such as extraction procedures and agarose gel electrophoresis. Thus, RPA can be considered as an interesting alternative to standard molecular-based diagnostic tools. In this paper, the complete procedures to set up an RPA assay, applied to detection of RNA (Potato virus Y, Potyvirus) and DNA (Wheat dwarf virus, Mastrevirus) viruses, are described. The proposed procedure allows developing species- or subspecies-specific detection assay.

  9. Thermodependence of growth and enzymatic activities implicated in pathogenicity of two Erwinia carotovora subspecies (Pectobacterium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja, Bruno; Latour, Xavier; Trigui, Sameh; Burini, Jean François; Chevalier, Sylvie; Orange, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora can cause substantial damage to economically important plant crops and stored products. The occurrence of the disease and the scale of the damage are temperature dependent. Disease development consists first of active multiplication of the bacteria in the infection area and then production of numerous extracellular enzymes. We investigated the effects of various temperatures on these two steps. We assayed the specific growth rate and the pectate lyase and protease activities for eight strains belonging to E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in vitro. The temperature effect on growth rate and on pectate lyase activity is different for the two subspecies, but protease activity appears to be similarly thermoregulated. Our results are in agreement with ecological data implicating E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica in disease when the temperature is below 20 degrees C. The optimal temperature for pathogenicity appears to be different from the optimal growth temperature but seems to be a compromise between this temperature and temperatures at which lytic activities are maximal.

  10. Genetic analysis of a novel Xylella fastidiosa subspecies found in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Jennifer J; Goldberg, Natalie P; Kemp, John D; Radionenko, Maxim; French, Jason M; Olsen, Mary W; Hanson, Stephen F

    2009-09-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of several scorch diseases, is associated with leaf scorch symptoms in Chitalpa tashkentensis, a common ornamental landscape plant used throughout the southwestern United States. For a number of years, many chitalpa trees in southern New Mexico and Arizona exhibited leaf scorch symptoms, and the results from a regional survey show that chitalpa trees from New Mexico, Arizona, and California are frequently infected with X. fastidiosa. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple loci was used to compare the X. fastidiosa infecting chitalpa strains from New Mexico, Arizona, and trees imported into New Mexico nurseries with previously reported X. fastidiosa strains. Loci analyzed included the 16S ribosome, 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacer region, gyrase-B, simple sequence repeat sequences, X. fastidiosa-specific sequences, and the virulence-associated protein (VapD). This analysis indicates that the X. fastidiosa isolates associated with infected chitalpa trees in the Southwest are a highly related group that is distinct from the four previously defined taxons X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (piercei), X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, and X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. Therefore, the classification proposed for this new subspecies is X. fastidiosa subsp. tashke.

  11. Performance of two honey bee subspecies during harsh weather and Acacia gerrardii nectar-rich flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed Awad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Both climatic factors and bee forage characteristics affect the population size and productivity of honey bee colonies. To our knowledge, no scientific investigation has as yet considered the potential effect of nectar-rich bee forage exposed to drastic subtropical weather conditions on the performance of honey bee colonies. This study investigated the performance of the honey bee subspecies Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (Yemeni and Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann (Carniolan in weather that was hot and dry and in an environment of nectar-rich flora. The brood production, food storage, bee population and honey yield of Yemeni (native and Carniolan (imported colonies on Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth., a nectar-rich, subtropical, and summer bee forage source in Central Arabia were evaluated. Owing to their structural and behavioral adaptations, the Yemeni bees constructed stronger (high population size colonies than the Carniolan bees. Although both groups yielded similar amounts of Talh honey, the Yemeni bees consumed their stored honey rapidly if not timely harvested. A. m. jemenitica has a higher performance than A. m. carnica during extremely hot-dry conditions and A. gerrardii nectar-rich flow.

  12. Distinct subspecies or phenotypic plasticity? Genetic and morphological differentiation of mountain honey bees in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Karl; Schöning, Caspar; Otte, Marianne; Kinuthia, Wanja; Hasselmann, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the forces shaping intraspecific phenotypic and genotypic divergence are of key importance in evolutionary biology. Phenotypic divergence may result from local adaptation or, especially in species with strong gene flow, from pronounced phenotypic plasticity. Here, we examine morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the western honey bee Apis mellifera in the topographically heterogeneous East African region. The currently accepted "mountain refugia hypothesis" states that populations living in disjunct montane forests belong to a different lineage than those in savanna habitats surrounding these forests. We obtained microsatellite data, mitochondrial sequences, and morphometric data from worker honey bees collected from feral colonies in three montane forests and corresponding neighboring savanna regions in Kenya. Honey bee colonies from montane forests showed distinct worker morphology compared with colonies in savanna areas. Mitochondrial sequence data did not support the existence of the two currently accepted subspecies. Furthermore, analyses of the microsatellite data with a Bayesian clustering method did not support the existence of two source populations as it would be expected under the mountain refugia scenario. Our findings suggest that phenotypic plasticity rather than distinct ancestry is the leading cause behind the phenotypic divergence observed between montane forest and savanna honey bees. Our study thus corroborates the idea that high gene flow may select for increased plasticity.

  13. Typing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates from Newfoundland using fragment analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka P Podder

    Full Text Available Short Sequence Repeat (SSR typing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map isolates is one of the most commonly used method for genotyping this pathogen. Currently used techniques have challenges in analyzing mononucleotide repeats >15 bp, which include some of the Map SSRs. Fragment analysis is a relatively simple technique, which can accurately measure the size of DNA fragments and can be used to calculate the repeat length of the target SSR loci. In the present study, fragment analysis was used to analyze 4 Map SSR loci known to provide sufficient discriminatory power to determine the relationship between Map isolates. Eighty-five Map isolates from 18 animals from the island of Newfoundland were successfully genotyped using fragment analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on Map SSR diversity from Newfoundland dairy farms. Previously unreported Map SSR-types or combinations were also identified during the course of the described work. In addition, multiple Map SSR-types were isolated from a single animal in many cases, which is not a common finding.

  14. Decreased serum protein associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis shedding in German Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, K; Erhardt, G; Soschinka, A; Brandt, H R

    2014-04-19

    Using well established metabolic parameters, this study aimed to substantiate differences in protein and energy metabolism between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) positive and negative dairy cows tested by faecal culture. A total of 227 MAP-positive and 239 MAP-negative German Holstein cows kept in 13 MAP-positive dairy herds were selected for metabolic testing. The serum concentrations of total protein (TP), bilirubin, cholesterol and betahydroxybutyrate were measured as well as the activities of Glutamate-Dehydrogenase (GLDH) and Aspartate-Aminotransferase. MAP-positive cows were characterised by a decreased mean TP (66.5 g/l) compared to the MAP-negative controls (73.2 g/l). Mean log10 GLDH activities tended to be higher in MAP-positive than MAP-negative cows. Concerning TP, there was a significant interaction between MAP status and farm. Within four farms, the difference between MAP-positive and MAP-negative animals differed significantly, while in the other farms this difference was not significant. It is concluded that a decreased TP and an increased GLDH indicate alterations in protein metabolism. These findings suggest an enhanced liver cell turnover in MAP-positive cows. The results contribute to an understanding of the metabolic alterations in MAP-positive dairy cows.

  15. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in formula milk from Bogor using PCR IS 900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widagdo S. Nugroho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease (CD that becomes a public health concern in developed countries shows similarities in clinical signs and pathological features with Johne’s disease (JD in ruminants infected by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP. Few researches conducted in Europe, the USA, and Australia showed relationships between MAP, CD, JD and dairy products. Indonesians consume milk and diary products from domestic and imported source. Adji in 2004 found some domestic dairy cows that were seropositive for MAP, and this could be a serious problem in dairy farm animals and human health in the future. The aim of this study was to detect MAP in the growing up formula milk. Fifty samples from five established factories were taken from supermarkets in Bogor. Polymerase chain reaction method (PCR with insertion sequence (IS 900 as primer and culture in Herrold’s egg yolk media with mycobactin J (HEYM J as a gold standard were used in this study. Neither MAP grew up in HEYM J medium after 20 weeks of culture period nor positive samples by PCR IS 900 were found. Although there were no positive samples found in this study, further extensive and comprehensive studies on MAP should be done with more and varied samples, as well as in human to provide data on MAP in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 183-7Keywords: Crohn’s disease, dairy cow, growing up formula milk

  16. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Jayasinghe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis. However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest. Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  17. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and hepatitis E in New World camelids in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitznig, A; Khol, J L; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Wittek, T; Kralik, P; Slana, I; Vasickova, P

    2017-07-07

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants and New World Camelids (NWC). Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health concern worldwide. The virus has been identified in several species, some of them serving as a reservoir for zoonotic HEV strains. Husbandry and breeding of llamas and alpacas have increased in Austria in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MAP and HEV in NWC in Austria. Altogether 445 animals, originating from 78 farms were enrolled in the study. Of the animals sampled, 184 (41.35%) were llamas and 261 (58.65%) were alpacas. 443 blood samples for MAP-ELISA and 399 faecal samples for quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture for MAP as well as for HEV detection by RT-qPCR have been collected. All of the 399 animals tested for shedding of MAP were negative by faecal solid culture. Using qPCR, 15 (3.8%) of the animals were MAP positive and 384 (96.2%) negative. Out of the 443 serum samples examined for specific antibodies against MAP by ELISA, 6 (1.4%) were positive, 1 (0.2%) was questionable and 436 (98.4%) samples were negative. All faecal samples were tested negative for HEV.

  18. Evaluation of Veterinary-Specific Interpretive Criteria for Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus equi Subspecies with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim-Sulfadiazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadaka, Carmen; Kanellos, Theo; Guardabassi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxaz......Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim...

  19. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induce Subspecies-Specific Patterns of Glucosinolate Accumulation and Gene Expression in Brassica oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Hwang, Byung Ho; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-10-24

    Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea . Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B. oleracea subspecies, namely cabbage, broccoli and kale, and catalogued associations between gene expression and increased contents of individual glucosinolates under methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatments. Glucosinolate accumulation and gene expression in response to phytohormone elicitation was subspecies specific. For instance, cabbage leaves showed enhanced accumulation of the aliphatic glucoiberin, progoitrin, sinigrin and indolic neoglucobrassicin under both MeJA and SA treatment. MeJA treatment induced strikingly higher accumulation of glucobrassicin (GBS) in cabbage and kale and of neoglucobrassicin (NGBS) in broccoli compared to controls. Notably higher expression of ST5a (Bol026200), CYP81F1 (Bol028913, Bol028914) and CYP81F4 genes was associated with significantly higher GBS accumulation under MeJA treatment compared to controls in all three subspecies. CYP81F4 genes, trans-activated by MYB34 genes, were expressed at remarkably high levels in all three subspecies under MeJA treatment, which also induced in higher indolic NGBS accumulation in all three subspecies. Remarkably higher expression of MYB28 (Bol036286), ST5b , ST5c , AOP2 , FMOGS-OX5 (Bol031350) and GSL-OH (Bol033373) was associated with much higher contents of aliphatic glucosinolates in kale leaves compared to the other two subspecies. The genes expressed highly could be utilized in strategies to selectively increase glucosinolate compounds in B. oleracea

  20. Three new species and one new subspecies of Deserticossus Yakovlev, 2006 (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, with world catalogue of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Roman V; Witt, Thomas J

    2017-05-23

    Three new species and one new subspecies of the genus Deserticossus Yakovlev, 2006 are described: Deserticossus doroshkini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from eastern Kazakhstan (Tarbagatai Mts.), D. selevini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from southeastern Kazakhstan (Malye Boguty Mts.), D. kamelini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from Kyrgyzstan (Fergana Valley), and D. tsingtauana didenkoi Yakovlev & Witt subsp. nov. from Russia (Southern Siberia, Buryatia Republic). The described species and subspecies of Deserticossus are listed, with notes on the type material, synonymies, and distribution for each taxon.

  1. Leukotriene signaling in the extinct human subspecies Homo denisovan and Homo neanderthalensis. Structural and functional comparison with Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Susan; Kakularam, Kumar Reddy; Horn, Thomas; Reddanna, Pallu; Kuhn, Hartmut; Heydeck, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lipoxygenases (LOXs) have been implicated in cell differentiation and in the biosynthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. The initial draft sequence of the Homo neanderthalensis genome (coverage of 1.3-fold) suggested defective leukotriene signaling in this archaic human subspecies since expression of essential proteins appeared to be corrupted. Meanwhile high quality genomic sequence data became available for two extinct human subspecies (H. neanderthalensis, Homo denisovan) and completion of the human 1000 genome project provided a comprehensive database characterizing the genetic variability of the human genome. For this study we extracted the nucleotide sequences of selected eicosanoid relevant genes (ALOX5, ALOX15, ALOX12, ALOX15B, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, COX1, COX2, LTA4H, LTC4S, ALOX5AP, CYSLTR1, CYSLTR2, BLTR1, BLTR2) from the corresponding databases. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences in connection with site-directed mutagenesis studies and structural modeling suggested that the major enzymes and receptors of leukotriene signaling as well as the two cyclooxygenase isoforms were fully functional in these two extinct human subspecies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predominance of clarithromycin-susceptible Mycobacterium massiliense subspecies: Characterization of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex at a tertiary acute care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Ka Lip; Cheng, Janet W S; Hudaa Osman, Nurul; Lin, Raymond T P; Teo, Jeanette W P

    2017-10-01

    To characterize members of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, with an emphasis on the correlation between species identification and clarithromycin associated genetic polymorphisms that contribute to inducible and constitutive macrolide resistance. PCR and sequencing analysis was used to elucidate the subspecies, erm(41) genotypes and the presence of rrl mutations. M. abscessus subsp. massiliense was the dominant subspecies (70.2 %), followed by M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (23.8 %) and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii (5.9 %). The majority of M. abscessus and M. bolletii isolates possessed T28 erm(41) sequevar and were inducibly resistant to clarithromycin. All M. massiliense carried the truncated erm(41) and were largely clarithromycin-susceptible (98.3 %). Constitutive resistance involving rrl mutations was rare and seen in only 2 isolates (2.2 %). Subspecies identification was insufficient to predict clarithromycin susceptibility and required the genetic resistance to be determined via sequencing. In our context, rrl mutations were uncommon and may not be an essential test.

  3. [Mechanisms of subspecies differentiation in a filial generation of rice indica-japonica hybridization under different ecological conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-Tong; Jin, Feng; Jiang, Yi-Jun; Lin, Qing-Shan; Xu, Hai; Chen, Wen-Fu; Xu, Zheng-Jin

    2013-11-01

    Indica-japonica hybridization is one of the most important breeding methods in China, whereas identifying subspecies differentiation mechanisms is the key in indica-japonica hybridization breeding. By using InDels (Insert/Deletion) and ILPs (Intron Length Polymorphism), an analysis was made on the F6 populations derived from the hybridization of indica-japonica (Qishanzhan/Akihikari) planted in Liaoning and Guangdong provinces and generated by bulk harvesting (BM), single-seed descent methods (SSD), and pedigree method (PM). No segregation distortion was observed for the BM and SSD populations. The frequency distribution of japonica kinship percentage (Dj) was concentrated in 40%-60%. The PM populations in the two provinces presented indica-deviated distribution (30%-55%), with significant difference between Guangdong (38%) and Liaoning (42%). In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the Dj and the kinship of functional gene regions in the BM and SSD populations. However, part of the positive correlation was broken in the PM populations that showed a regular distribution in the genotype patterns of indica and japonica loci. The above results demonstrated that artificial selection could be the main factor affecting the population differentiation in indica-japonica hybridization, and, with the synergistic effect of natural selection, induced the phenomenon of segregation distortion. There existed a close relationship between the differentiation of subspecies and the important agronomic traits, which could be the main reason why indica-japonica hybridiation breeding could not achieve the expected effect of combining the two subspecies advantages.

  4. A case of leucism in House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in an island of São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Leucism in birds is a genetic disorder characterized by the total absence of melanin in some or all feathers, but unlike albinism, the other body parts, such as eyes, beak, and tarsi remain with the typical color of the species. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus is a bird native from Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has been introduced in North America, South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Currently, it is the bird species with the largest geographical range. Here, we report the record of a leucistic specimen of Passer domesticus from Rodeadouro island, São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil.

  5. Production, Characterization and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing IgY Epitopes Shared by Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant, Peafowl and Sparrow

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    Ajda Biček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken antibodies are not only a part of immune defense but are more and more popular commercial products in form of chicken polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies. We produced and characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that recognize epitopes located on heavy or light chain of chicken immunoglobulin Y (chIgY shared also by some other Phasianidae birds. The use of mAbs 1F5 and 2F10 that recognize heavy chain on chIgY common epitopes was demonstrated on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and peafowl. Chicken IgY light chain specific mAb 3E10 revealed the presence of common epitopes on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and sparrow. Monoclonal antibody clone 1F5/3G2 was used to prepare horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugate and immunoadsorbent column. Conjugated mAbs were demonstrated to be excellent secondary antibodies for diagnostics of certain infections in different avian species. Since they do not react with mammalian immunoglobulins using our mAbs as secondary antibodies in human serodiagnostics would minimize background staining that appears when using mouse detection system. In dot immunobinding assay (DIBA and immunoblot assay they recognized specific IgY antibodies against Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Newcastle disease virus in sera of infected or vaccinated birds. Immunoadsorption as a method for removal of IgY from samples in which Mycoplasma synoviae specific IgY was predominant immunoglobulin class enabled more exact demonstration of specific IgA and IgM antibodies. Herein we are presenting effective mAbs useful in diagnostics of avian and mammalian infections as well as in final steps of detection and purification of chicken antibodies and their subunits produced in vivo or in vitro as polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies.

  6. A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gregory E.; Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.; Gray, John R.

    2001-01-01

    little direct evidence is available concerning the fate of sediment. The common practice of quantifying sediment fate with a sediment delivery ratio, estimated from a simple empirical relation with upstream basin area, does not articulate the relative importance of individual storage sites within a basin (Wolman, 1977). Rates of sediment deposition in reservoirs and flood plains can be determined from empirical measurements, but only a limited number of sites have been monitored, and net rates of deposition or loss from other potential sinks and sources is largely unknown (Stallard, 1998). In particular, little is known about how much sediment loss from fields ultimately makes its way to stream channels, and how much sediment is subsequently stored in or lost from the streambed (Meade and Parker, 1985, Trimble and Crosson, 2000).This paper reports on recent progress made to address empirically the question of sediment fate and transport on a national scale. The model presented here is based on the SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) methodology, first used to estimate the distribution of nutrients in streams and rivers of the United States, and subsequently shown to describe land and stream processes affecting the delivery of nutrients (Smith and others, 1997, Alexander and others, 2000, Preston and Brakebill, 1999). The model makes use of numerous spatial datasets, available at the national level, to explain long-term sediment water-quality conditions in major streams and rivers throughout the United States. Sediment sources are identified using sediment erosion rates from the National Resources Inventory (NRI) (Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2000) and apportioned over the landscape according to 30- meter resolution land-use information from the National Land Cover Data set (NLCD) (U.S. Geological Survey, 2000a). More than 76,000 reservoirs from the National Inventory of Dams (NID) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1996) are

  7. Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yongfang; Yindee, Marnoch; Li, Kuan-Yi; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yu-Ten; Ye, Shaohui; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yachun; Cuong, Vu Chi; Pham, Lan Doan; Bouahom, Bounthong; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Cai, Zhihua; Vankan, Dianne; Manatchaiworakul, Wallaya; Kowlim, Nonglid; Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Colenbrander, Ben; Zhang, Yuan; Beerli, Peter; Lenstra, Johannes A; Barker, J Stuart F

    The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal

  8. Testate amoebae analysis in the peat deposits of the swamp Dolgon’koye in the south of Western Siberia and peatland paleohydrology for last 3100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurina, Irina V.; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.

    2018-03-01

    Our research is devoted to paleohydrological reconstruction in the swamp located in the river valley on the piedmont of the Altai Mountains in the south of Western Siberia. The reconstruction was carried out based on rhizopod analysis for the last 3100 cal yr. A large amount of different testate amoebae was found in the peat. Total 64 testate amoebae taxa were recorded in the peat core with the most abundant being: Trinema lineare, Centropyxis aculeata, C. aerophila, Euglypha rotunda, Cryptodifflugia sp. Decrease of surface wetness in the swamp are observed 2280, 2140, 1900–600 cal yr BP and increase – in 2700, 2500–1900, 230–215 cal yr BP. The results of our reconstruction of the swamp paleohydrology agrees well with the paleoclimatic data obtained earlier for the central area of the south of Western Siberia Plain. It indicates a high sensitivity of the swamp to climatic changes in the Holocene. The rhizopod analysis proved to be very effective when used for paleohydrology reconstruction in minerotrophic peat.

  9. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  10. Yellow perch larval survival in the Zekiah Swamp watershed (Wicomico River, Maryland) relative to the potential effects of a coal ash storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.H.; Pinkney, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    A coordinated program of in situ and laboratory bioassays supported by water quality analyses was used to evaluate the potential effect of a coal ash storage facility on a yellow perch (Perca flavescens) spawning area. The facility is located in the Zekiah Swamp watershed, a tributary of the Wicomico River, MD. In situ bioassays were conducted in Zekiah Swamp Run and reference locations in 1989 and 1990. Larval mortality was high in non-tidal areas of Zekiah Swamp Run, both at a site upstream and beyond the influence of the facility, and at a site downstream of the facility. Mortality was significantly less at a nearby reference stream and at a station in the tidal area of Zekiah Swamp Run. Analysis of water samples for metals (including inorganic monomeric aluminum), organic contaminants, and pH, as well as measurements of stream flow, did not identify a specific cause for the mortality. The field and laboratory bioassays showed that, although leachate from the ash facility contributed to local contamination of ground water, the facility does not appear to be responsible for the poor survival of larval yellow perch. 16 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  11. The Analysis of Management and Timber Trade System of Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi From Peat Swamp Forest in South Kalimantan

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    Yudi Firmanul Ariffin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Until now the raw material of wood especially Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi available for supporting the construction of housing and other infrastructures is increasingly large in Indonesia. On the Island of Borneo that partly consists of swamps needs Gelam very large and continuous, particularly for residential development. However, areas of peat swamp forest habitat of this plant from year to year are degradation and shrinkage. This situation is a very big influence on the population of Gelam, while the management and timber trade systems are not well regulated. This study aims to analyze the management and timber trade systems of Gelam particularly in South Kalimantan to provide input to the policy holder in the preservation of Gelam. The method was used a field survey and interviews with traders and policy holders related regulations. The results showed in South Kalimantan the potency of Gelam is only 2,9-7,1 m3/ha and decreasing yearly. Normally Gelam with a diameter <4 cm have been cut down, as well as > 30 cm. These dimensions should not be cut because of <4 cm too young and > 30 cm can be used as seed sources. Gelam derived from peat swamp forest, which mostly comes from the Batola District and some came from Kapuas District of Central Kalimantan. Distributions of Gelam were starting gatherers logging in the forest then sold to small gatherers, next to the large gatherers and distributed to all districts/cities in South Kalimantan, wood processing industries, and some of them were sent to Java. The silviculture system of Gelam was using selective cutting. Classification of wood sizes traded by the diameter divided into 3-4cm, 5-6cm, 7-8cm, 9-10cm, 11-12cm, 13-14cm, 15-19cm and > 20cm to 4m long. Its use consists of a small diameter (3-10cm for foundry building and firewood, while the large diameter (10-20cm for the construction of houses in swampy areas, and waste as well as the stems are bent and deformed used for firewood. Until now Gelam

  12. Genome sequencing of ovine isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis offers insights into host association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannantine John P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is remarkably homogeneous among the genomes of bovine, human and wildlife isolates. However, previous work in our laboratories with the bovine K-10 strain has revealed substantial differences compared to sheep isolates. To systematically characterize all genomic differences that may be associated with the specific hosts, we sequenced the genomes of three U.S. sheep isolates and also obtained an optical map. Results Our analysis of one of the isolates, MAP S397, revealed a genome 4.8 Mb in size with 4,700 open reading frames (ORFs. Comparative analysis of the MAP S397 isolate showed it acquired approximately 10 large sequence regions that are shared with the human M. avium subsp. hominissuis strain 104 and lost 2 large regions that are present in the bovine strain. In addition, optical mapping defined the presence of 7 large inversions between the bovine and ovine genomes (~ 2.36 Mb. Whole-genome sequencing of 2 additional sheep strains of MAP (JTC1074 and JTC7565 further confirmed genomic homogeneity of the sheep isolates despite the presence of polymorphisms on the nucleotide level. Conclusions Comparative sequence analysis employed here provided a better understanding of the host association, evolution of members of the M. avium complex and could help in deciphering the phenotypic differences observed among sheep and cattle strains of MAP. A similar approach based on whole-genome sequencing combined with optical mapping could be employed to examine closely related pathogens. We propose an evolutionary scenario for M. avium complex strains based on these genome sequences.

  13. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes Crohn's disease in some inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Saleh A; Sagramsingh, Sudesh R; Naser, Abed S; Thanigachalam, Saisathya

    2014-06-21

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition that plagues millions all over the world. This debilitating bowel disease can start in early childhood and continue into late adulthood. Signs and symptoms are usually many and multiple tests are often required for the diagnosis and confirmation of this disease. However, little is still understood about the cause(s) of CD. As a result, several theories have been proposed over the years. One theory in particular is that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is intimately linked to the etiology of CD. This fastidious bacterium also known to cause Johne's disease in cattle has infected the intestines of animals for years. It is believed that due to the thick, waxy cell wall of MAP it is able to survive the process of pasteurization as well as chemical processes seen in irrigation purification systems. Subsequently meat, dairy products and water serve as key vehicles in the transmission of MAP infection to humans (from farm to fork) who have a genetic predisposition, thus leading to the development of CD. The challenges faced in culturing this bacterium from CD are many. Examples include its extreme slow growth, lack of cell wall, low abundance, and its mycobactin dependency. In this review article, data from 60 studies showing the detection and isolation of MAP by PCR and culture techniques have been reviewed. Although this review may not be 100% comprehensive of all studies, clearly the majority of the studies overwhelmingly and definitively support the role of MAP in at least 30%-50% of CD patients. It is very possible that lack of detection of MAP from some CD patients may be due to the absence of MAP role in these patients. The latter statement is conditional on utilization of methodology appropriate for detection of human MAP strains. Ultimately, stratification of CD and inflammatory bowel disease patients for the presence or absence of MAP is necessary for appropriate and effective

  14. Causation of Crohn’s Disease by Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hermon-Taylor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is a member of the M avium complex (MAC. It differs genetically from other MAC in having 14 to 18 copies of IS900 and a single cassette of DNA involved in the biosynthesis of surface carbohydrate. Unlike other MAC, MAP is a specific cause of chronic inflammation of the intestine in many animal species, including primates. The disease ranges from pluribacillary to paucimicrobial, with chronic granulomatous inflammation like leprosy in humans. MAP infection can persist for years without causing clinical disease. The herd prevalence of MAP infection in Western Europe and North America is reported in the range 21% to 54%. These subclinically infected animals shed MAP in their milk and onto pastures. MAP is more robust than tuberculosis, and the risk that is conveyed to human populations in retail milk and in domestic water supplies is high. MAP is harboured in the ileocolonic mucosa of a proportion of normal people and can be detected in a high proportion of full thickness samples of inflamed Crohn’s disease gut by improved culture systems and IS900 polymerase chain reaction if the correct methods are used. MAP in Crohn’s disease is present in a protease-resistant nonbacillary form, can evade immune recognition and probably causes an immune dysregulation. As with other MAC, MAP is resistant to most standard antituberculous drugs. Treatment of Crohn’s disease with combinations of drugs more active against MAC such as rifabutin and clarithromycin can bring about a profound improvement and, in a few cases, apparent disease eradication. New drugs as well as effective MAP vaccines for animals and humans are needed. The problems caused by MAP constitute a public health issue of tragic proportions for which a range of remedial measures are urgently needed.

  15. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii subspecies-level dysbiosis in the human gut microbiome underlying atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Yoo, Young; Hwang, Junghyun; Na, Yun-Cheol; Kim, Heenam Stanley

    2016-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a serious global epidemic associated with a modern lifestyle. Although aberrant interactions between gut microbes and the intestinal immune system have been implicated in this skin disease, the nature of the microbiome dysfunction underlying the disease remains unclear. The gut microbiome from 132 subjects, including 90 patients with AD, was analyzed by using 16S rRNA gene and metagenome sequence analyses. Reference genomes from the Human Microbiome Project and the KEGG Orthology database were used for metagenome analyses. Short-chain fatty acids in fecal samples were compared by using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We show that enrichment of a subspecies of the major gut species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is strongly associated with AD. In addition, the AD microbiome was enriched in genes encoding the use of various nutrients that could be released from damaged gut epithelium, reflecting a bloom of auxotrophic bacteria. Fecal samples from patients with AD showed decreased levels of butyrate and propionate, which have anti-inflammatory effects. This is likely a consequence of an intraspecies compositional change in F prausnitzii that reduces the number of high butyrate and propionate producers, including those related to the strain A2-165, a lack of which has been implicated in patients with Crohn disease. The data suggest that feedback interactions between dysbiosis in F prausnitzii and dysregulation of gut epithelial inflammation might underlie the chronic progression of AD by resulting in impairment of the gut epithelial barrier, which ultimately leads to aberrant TH2-type immune responses to allergens in the skin. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis of dairy cows in Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widagdo Sri Nugroho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Johne’s disease (JD or partuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants caused by infection of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis subspecies (MAP. The disease has been detected serologically in Indonesia. It’s potential to spread to other herds and could create great economic losses. The objectives of current study were to detect MAP in milk and faeces of dairy cows as well as to evaluate the association between farm management factors and presence of the bacteria in dairy cows in Bogor. The sample size was calculated using the formula to detect disease with the prevalence assumed to be 5% using 95% significant level. Milk and faeces samples were taken from 62 dairy cows which were suspected as suffering from MAP infection. Detection of MAP was done by isolation in Herrold’ egg yolk medium with mycobactin J (HEYMj, acid-fast bacilli Ziehl-Neelsen staining, PCR IS900 and F57. Biochemical test to confirm M. tuberculosis presence was also conducted. Fifteen isolates of Mycobacterium sp. were found from the faeces samples but not from the corresponding milk samples. However, conventional PCR conducted on the isolate as well as the milk samples, gave negative results. Biochemical test proved that all Mycobacterium sp. isolates were not M. tuberculosis. This study indicated the prevalence of MAP in Bogor was less than 5%. These findings should be continued by observational study to achieve the comprehensive information at the cattle and herd level. Bovine Tuberculosis monitoring should be done also to protect dairy herd and food safety for the community.

  17. Low genetic diversity of bovine Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates detected by MIRU-VNTR genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruijf, Marcel; Lesniak, Olga N; Yearsley, Dermot; Ramovic, Elvira; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim

    2017-05-01

    Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit and variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) has been developed as a simple, rapid and cost efficient molecular typing method to differentiate Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the genomic diversity of MAP across the Republic of Ireland by utilising the MIRU-VNTR typing method on a large collection of MAP isolates. A total of 114 MAP isolates originated from 53 herds across 19 counties in the Republic of Ireland were genotyped based on eight established MIRU-VNTR loci. Four INMV groups were observed during this study. INMV 1 was found in 67 MAP isolates (58.8%) and INMV 2 was observed in 45 isolates (39.4%). INMV 3 and INMV 116 recorded only one isolate each (0.9%). The unique INMV 116 group has never been reported among herds thus far and the molecular pattern of the MAP isolate classified in INMV 116 showed a difference at the MIRU-VNTR X3 locus compared to the other three INMV groups observed. INMV 1, INMV 2 and INMV 3 are observed frequently in Europe and comprised 99.1% of the total MAP isolates characterised in this study, indicating that MAP exhibited low level of genetic diversity across the Republic of Ireland using the MIRU-VNTR method. By the implementation of SNP analysis or MLSSR as an additional typing method, MAP genetic diversity would increase. INMV 3 is unique to Ireland and whereas INMV 116 has never been previously reported among herds by MIRU-VNTR typing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytoplasmic male sterility contributes to hybrid incompatibility between subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Esa A; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

    2013-10-03

    In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility-lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species.

  19. Relatively high prevalence of pox-like lesions in Henslow's sparrow (Ammodrammus henslowii) among nine species of migratory grassland passerines in Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Kevin S; Hofmeister, Erik K; Ribic, Christine A; Sample, David W

    2014-10-01

    Globally, Avipoxvirus species affect over 230 species of wild birds and can significantly impair survival. During banding of nine grassland songbird species (n=346 individuals) in southwestern Wisconsin, USA, we noted species with a 2-6% prevalence of pox-like lesions (possible evidence of current infection) and 4-10% missing digits (potential evidence of past infection). These prevalences approach those recorded among island endemic birds (4-9% and 9-20% for the Galapagos and Hawaii, respectively) for which Avipoxvirus species have been implicated as contributing to dramatic population declines. Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii (n=165 individuals) had the highest prevalence of lesions (6.1%) and missing digits (9.7%). Among a subset of 26 Henslow's Sparrows from which blood samples were obtained, none had detectable antibody reactive to fowlpox virus antigen. However, four samples (18%) had antibody to canarypox virus antigen with test sample and negative control ratios (P/N values) ranging from 2.4 to 6.5 (median 4.3). Of four antibody-positive birds, two had lesions recorded (one was also missing a digit), one had digits missing, and one had no signs. Additionally, the birds with lesions or missing digits had higher P/N values than did the antibody-positive bird without missing digits or recorded lesions. This study represents an impetus for considering the impacts and dynamics of disease caused by Avipoxvirus among North American grassland bird species.

  20. Relatively high prevalence of pox-like lesions in Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) among nine species of migratory grassland passerines in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Kevin S.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Ribic, Christine A.; Sample, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, Avipoxvirus species affect over 230 species of wild birds and can significantly impair survival. During banding of nine grassland songbird species (n = 346 individuals) in southwestern Wisconsin, USA, we noted species with a 2–6% prevalence of pox-like lesions (possible evidence of current infection) and 4–10% missing digits (potential evidence of past infection). These prevalences approach those recorded among island endemic birds (4–9% and 9–20% for the Galapagos and Hawaii, respectively) for which Avipoxvirus species have been implicated as contributing to dramatic population declines. Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii (n = 165 individuals) had the highest prevalence of lesions (6.1%) and missing digits (9.7%). Among a subset of 26 Henslow's Sparrows from which blood samples were obtained, none had detectable antibody reactive to fowlpox virus antigen. However, four samples (18%) had antibody to canarypox virus antigen with test sample and negative control ratios (P/N values) ranging from 2.4 to 6.5 (median 4.3). Of four antibody-positive birds, two had lesions recorded (one was also missing a digit), one had digits missing, and one had no signs. Additionally, the birds with lesions or missing digits had higher P/N values than did the antibody-positive bird without missing digits or recorded lesions. This study represents an impetus for considering the impacts and dynamics of disease caused by Avipoxvirus among North American grassland bird species.

  1. Epigenetic Variation May Compensate for Decreased Genetic Variation with Introductions: A Case Study Using House Sparrows (Passer domesticus on Two Continents

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    Aaron W. Schrey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms impact several phenotypic traits and may be important for ecology and evolution. The introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus exhibits extensive phenotypic variation among and within populations. We screened methylation in populations from Kenya and Florida to determine if methylation varied among populations, varied with introduction history (Kenyan invasion <50 years old, Florida invasion ~150 years old, and could potentially compensate for decrease genetic variation with introductions. While recent literature has speculated on the importance of epigenetic effects for biological invasions, this is the first such study among wild vertebrates. Methylation was more frequent in Nairobi, and outlier loci suggest that populations may be differentiated. Methylation diversity was similar between populations, in spite of known lower genetic diversity in Nairobi, which suggests that epigenetic variation may compensate for decreased genetic diversity as a source of phenotypic variation during introduction. Our results suggest that methylation differences may be common among house sparrows, but research is needed to discern whether methylation impacts phenotypic variation.

  2. Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yongfang; Yindee, Marnoch; Li, Kuan-Yi; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yu-Ten; Ye, Shaohui; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yachun; Cuong, Vu Chi; Pham, Lan Doan; Bouahom, Bounthong; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Cai, Zhihua; Vankan, Dianne; Manatchaiworakul, Wallaya; Kowlim, Nonglid; Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Colenbrander, Ben; Zhang, Yuan; Beerli, Peter; Lenstra, Johannes A; Barker, J Stuart F

    2016-04-01

    The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal lineage. We carried out a comprehensive sampling of China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Nepal and Bangladesh and sequenced the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene and control region and the Y-chromosomal ZFY, SRY and DBY sequences. Swamp buffalo has a higher diversity of both maternal and paternal lineages than river buffalo, with also a remarkable contrast between a weak phylogeographic structure of river buffalo and a strong geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo. The highest diversity of the swamp buffalo maternal lineages was found in south China and north Indochina on both banks of the Mekong River, while the highest diversity in paternal lineages was in the China/Indochina border region. We propose that domestication in this region was later followed by introgressive capture of wild cows west of the Mekong. Migration to the north followed the Yangtze valley as well as a more eastern route, but also involved translocations of both cows and bulls over large distances with a minor influence of river buffaloes in recent decades. Bayesian analyses of various migration models also supported domestication in the China/Indochina border region. Coalescence analysis yielded consistent estimates for the expansion of the major swamp buffalo haplogroups with a credibility interval of 900 to 3900 years BP. The spatial differentiation of mtDNA and Y-chromosomal haplotype distributions indicates a lack of gene flow between established populations that is unprecedented in livestock. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Water-use dynamics of a peat swamp forest and a dune forest in Maputaland, South Africa

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    A. D. Clulow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp forests are the second rarest forest type found in South Africa while dune forests have been under severe threat through mining and agriculture. Both forest types exist in the conservation area, and World Heritage site, known as the iSimangaliso Wetland Park on the East coast of South Africa. The area is prone to severe droughts (Taylor et al., 2006 and recent attempts to understand the local water balance revealed that there was insufficient information on the water use of the indigenous forests of the area. The peat swamp forest and dune forest sites studied in this research were located within close proximity to each other, yet, are characterised by different landscape positions in terms of water availability. The coastal dune forest soil profile was generally dry and sandy and the tree roots did not have access to the water table. In contrast the peat swamp forest is located in an interdunal wetland where the trees have permanent access to water. The climate at both sites is subtropical with a mean annual precipitation of 1200 mm yr−1. However, over 20 months of measurement, the first summer (October 2009 to March 2010 was drier (424 versus 735 mm than the second summer (October 2010 to March 2011 emphasising the variability of the rainfall in the area and providing a wide range of conditions measured. The sap flow of an evergreen, overstory Syzygium cordatum and a semi-deciduous, understory Shirakiopsis elliptica were measured in the peat swamp forest using the heat ratio method. The Syzygium cordatum water use was not highly seasonal and the daily maximum water use ranged from approximately 30 L d−1 in winter to 45 L d−1 in summer whereas the extit{Shirakiopsis elliptica} water use was more seasonal at 2 L d−1 in winter and 12 L d−1 in summer. The water use of the Syzygium cordatum was not influenced by seasonal rainfall variations and was actually higher in the drier summer (October 2009 to March 2010. Three trees of

  4. Effects of fires on the chemical and petrographic composition of peat in the Snuggedy Swamp, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollins, M S; Cohen, A D; Durig, J R [South Carolina University, Columbia, SC (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-04-01

    Charcoal-rich zones in a peat core from the Snuggedy Swamp in South Carolina were investigated to determine the chemical and physical changes associated with fires. Petrographic analyses of microtome thin sections revealed that three charcoal zones were present in the core and that the fires causing such zones were severe enough to penetrate into the subsurface and burn some of the peat. Despite these severe fires, only minor changes in the botanical composition occurred throughout the history of the study site, suggesting that these fires were not extensive enough to retard recolonization of the site from nearby unburned areas. Pyrolysis gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared/flame ionization detection and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry studies reveal distinct organic chemical changes in the peat that can be related to the fires. Decreases in aliphatic and cellulose compounds mirrored increases in charcoal abundance; while aromatic, lignin-related compounds increased as charcoal increased. 44 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Late-Holocene Environmental Reconstruction and Depositional History from a Taxodium Swamp near Lake Pontchartrain in Southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J.; Bianchette, T. A.; Liu, K. B.; Yao, Q.; Maiti, K.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrological and environmental history of estuarine wetlands in Louisiana is not well-documented. To better understand the depositional processes in coastal wetlands, this study aims to reconstruct the environmental changes and document the occurrence of event deposits found in a bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) swamp approximately 800 m west of Lake Pontchartrain, a site susceptible to wind-generated storm surges as well as inundation from other fluvial and lacustrine processes. 210Pb analysis of a 59 cm sediment core (WMA-1) suggests that it has a sedimentation rate of 0.39 cm/year, consistent with the detection of a 137Cs peak at 17 cm from the core top. Results of sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological analyses reveal that the core contains two distinct sediment facies: an organic-rich dark brown peat unit from 0 to 29 cm containing low concentrations of terrestrial elements (e.g., Ti, Fe, and K), and a clay unit from 30 to 59 cm with elevated concentrations of most elements. Two thin clay layers, at 3-5 cm and 14-19 cm, embedded in the upper peat section are probably attributed to two recent storm events, Hurricane Isaac (2012) and Hurricane Gustav (2008), because both hurricanes caused heavy rain and significant storm-surge flooding at the study site. The pollen assemblage in the clay section is dominated by TCT (mainly Taxodium), but it is replaced by Salix and wetland herbaceous taxa in the overlying peat section. The multi-proxy data suggest that a cypress swamp has been present at the site for at least several hundred years but Taxodium was being replaced by willow (Salix) and other bottomland hardwood trees and wetland herbs as the water level dropped. Human activities may have been an important factor causing the hydrological and ecological changes at the site during the past century.

  6. Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes

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    M. Wanapat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC replacement for cassava chip (CC in concentrate at 0% (T1; GCC replacement at 33% (T2; GCC replacement at 67% (T3; and GCC replacement at 100% (T4, respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS. Purine derivatives (PD concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination.

  7. Insect emergence in relation to floods in wet meadows and swamps in the River Dalälven floodplain.

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    Vinnersten, T Z Persson; Östman, Ö; Schäfer, M L; Lundström, J O

    2014-08-01

    Annual variation in flood frequency and hydroperiod during the vegetation season has ecological impacts on the floodplain biota. Although many insect groups may have a lower emergence during a flood event, it is poorly known how annual emergence of insects in temporary wetlands is related to the variation in hydrology. Between May and September, we studied the weekly emergence of 18 insect taxa over six consecutive years, 2002-2007, in six temporary flooded wetlands (four wet meadows and two forest swamps) in the River Dalälven floodplains, Central Sweden. We used emergence traps to collect emerging insects from terrestrial and aquatic parts of wet meadows and swamp forests. In all wetlands, the insect fauna was numerically dominated by the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Homoptera. On a weekly basis, 9 out of the 18 insect taxa had lower emergence in weeks with flood than in weeks with no flood, whereas no taxon had a higher emergence in weeks with flood. Over the seasons, we related insect emergence to seasonal flood frequency and length of hydroperiod. The emergence of most studied taxa decreased with increasing hydroperiod, which suggests that emergence after floods do not compensate for the reduced emergence during floods. Only Culicidae and the aquatic Chironomidae sub-families Tanypodinae and Chironominae showed an increase in emergence with increasing hydroperiod, whereas Staphylinidae peaked at intermediate hydroperiod. We conclude that a hydroperiod covering up to 40% of the vegetation season has a significant negative effect on the emergence of most taxa and that only a few taxa occurring in the temporary wetlands are actually favoured by a flood regime with recurrent and unpredictable floods.

  8. Laboratory Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon – Polluted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta Using Cow Dung

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    Dike, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to carry-out laboratory–scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove swamps using cow dung as source of limiting of nutrients.Methodology and Results: In a 70 days study, the cow dung treated polluted soil had its total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacterial/fungi, heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts increased progressively from the 28th day to the 70th day. The control set- up showed very slight increment in its microbial growth. Alkaline pH was observed in all the treatments and control during the study period. The conductivity values of cow dung decreased progressively. In the cow dung treatment option, the nitrate concentration decreased from 35.44 mg/kg to 14.28 mg/kg. Phosphate concentration of cow dung option decreased from 25.41 mg/kg to 9.31mg/kg. The control had the nitrate decreased from 8.42 mg/kg to 6.98 mg/kg. Percentage total organic carbon (% TOC in the cow dung option decreased from 4.06% to 0.96%. Control experiment had the % TOC decreased from 3.32% to 2.99%. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that 0%, 49.88%, and 69.85% of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively in the cow dung option. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0%, 7.14% and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of organic nutrient sources such as cow dung has shown good promises in bioremediation of crude oil impacted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta. The next line of action is to transfer the technology to pilot scale study.

  9. On the relative roles of hydrology, salinity, temperature, and root productivity in controlling soil respiration from coastal swamps (freshwater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Whitbeck, Julie L.; Howard, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Soil CO2 emissions can dominate gaseous carbon losses from forested wetlands (swamps), especially those positioned in coastal environments. Understanding the varied roles of hydroperiod, salinity, temperature, and root productivity on soil respiration is important in discerning how carbon balances may shift as freshwater swamps retreat inland with sea-level rise and salinity incursion, and convert to mixed communities with marsh plants. Methods We exposed soil mesocosms to combinations of permanent flooding, tide, and salinity, and tracked soil respiration over 2 1/2 growing seasons. We also related these measurements to rates from field sites along the lower Savannah River, Georgia, USA. Soil temperature and root productivity were assessed simultaneously for both experiments. Results Soil respiration from mesocosms (22.7-1678.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) differed significantly among treatments during four of the seven sampling intervals, where permanently flooded treatments contributed to low rates of soil respiration and tidally flooded treatments sometimes contributed to higher rates. Permanent flooding reduced the overall capacity for soil respiration as soils warmed. Salinity did reduce soil respiration at times in tidal treatments, indicating that salinity may affect the amount of CO2 respired with tide more strongly than under permanent flooding. However, soil respiration related greatest to root biomass (mesocosm) and standing root length (field); any stress reducing root productivity (incl. salinity and permanent flooding) therefore reduces soil respiration. Conclusions Overall, we hypothesized a stronger, direct role for salinity on soil respiration, and found that salinity effects were being masked by varied capacities for increases in respiration with soil warming as dictated by hydrology, and the indirect influence that salinity can have on plant productivity.

  10. Calculation method for determination of carbon in the peatand moss litter of forest swamps by ash content of plant substrates

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    T. T. Efremova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in the lowmountain part of the Kuznetsk Alatau. The spruce stands were studied in the peaty valley of river Tunguzhul and swamp near Agaskyr Lake (valley of river Pechische, basin of river Black Iyus. The objects belong to the group of high ash content flood plain peat lands of cryogenicseries. We have done the evaluation of organic carbon response to physical-chemical properties – decomposition degree, ash content, and bulk density, connected together (r – 0.5–0.7, that in contrast to carbon, is easy determined analytically. Received results according to stepwise regression analysis characterize the strong conditionality predictors of carbon: multiple determination index R2 – 0.86. The highest partial correlation coefficient with the response belongs to the ash content in range (5–68 %. Partial correlation coefficient values of bulk density and decomposition degree is not significant. The determination index (R2 – 0.93, constant and negative coefficient of pair regression analysis are highly significant and evidence of the strong bond of carbon and organic substrate ash content. The relative error of approximation is in the range of 2–8 % and characterizes the high accuracy of prognosis. Including only one indicator (ash content in the calculation formula makes it convenient and simple in practical application for the carbon content prediction on the forest litter, modern peat soils, buried peat and peat-mineral formations with ash content of 5–68 %. We are the first to present the geochemical characteristics of fore