WorldWideScience

Sample records for swamp sparrow subspecies

  1. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow Subspecies at Breeding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Virginia L.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni) use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1), and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84±0.37 to 1.65±1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (Pmercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98±0.69 to 2.71±2.93 ppm). Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96±1.84 ppm fw) was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25±2.24–6.77±3.51 ppm; P≤0.03). Conclusions/Significance Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure. PMID:22384194

  2. Natural epigenetic variation within and among six subspecies of the house sparrow,Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyahi, Sepand; Vilatersana, Roser; Schrey, Aaron W; Ghorbani Node, Hassan; Aliabadian, Mansour; Senar, Juan Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Epigenetic modifications can respond rapidly to environmental changes and can shape phenotypic variation in accordance with environmental stimuli. One of the most studied epigenetic marks is DNA methylation. In the present study, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to investigate the natural variation in DNA methylation within and among subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus We focused on five subspecies from the Middle East because they show great variation in many ecological traits and because this region is the probable origin for the house sparrow's commensal relationship with humans. We analysed house sparrows from Spain as an outgroup. The level of variation in DNA methylation was similar among the five house sparrow subspecies from the Middle East despite high phenotypic and environmental variation, but the non-commensal subspecies was differentiated from the other four (commensal) Middle Eastern subspecies. Further, the European subspecies was differentiated from all other subspecies in DNA methylation. Our results indicate that variation in DNA methylation does not strictly follow subspecies designations. We detected a correlation between methylation level and some morphological traits, such as standardized bill length, and we suggest that part of the high morphological variation in the native populations of the house sparrow is influenced by differentially methylated regions in specific loci throughout the genome. We also detected 10 differentially methylated loci among subspecies and three loci that differentiated between commensal or non-commensal status. Therefore, the MSAP technique detected larger scale differences among the European and non-commensal subspecies, but did not detect finer scale differences among the other Middle Eastern subspecies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Annual Hematocrit Profiles in Two Subspecies of White-Crowned Sparrow: A Migrant and a Resident Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jesse S; Németh, Zoltán; Pérez, Jonathan H; Chmura, Helen E; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Wingfield, John C

    2016-01-01

    Hematocrit is an easily measured parameter that can be used to assess changes in oxygen carrying capacity necessitated by fluctuations in metabolic demands. Most hematocrit studies draw conclusions from changes in hematocrit that occur over a small sampling interval without an understanding of the variation that exists across the annual cycle. White-crowned sparrows provide an excellent model system due to the existence of a resident subspecies (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli) that serves as a natural control for a migrant subspecies (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Comparing these two subspecies allows for the investigation of adaptive physiological changes at each life-history stage (i.e., migration, breeding, molt, etc.) in response to changing metabolic demands. Of particular interest, this subspecies comparison, by both calendar month and life-history stage, allows for the separation of adaptive increases in hematocrit due to migration from the natural seasonal variation in hematocrit. Hematocrit levels for males and females ranged throughout the year between 42%-47% and 40%-47% in the resident and between 45%-58% and 45%-56% in the migrant. In both subspecies, hematocrit levels were elevated during the breeding season compared to the nonbreeding season, and levels were reduced in females during egg laying. When grouped by life-history stage, hematocrit levels were always higher in the migrant compared to the resident. During the months in which migration occurred, hematocrit levels were 10%-12% higher in the migrant compared to the resident subspecies. These data suggest differential regulation of hematocrit between the two subspecies that may be attributed to phenotypic plasticity or genetic differences.

  4. Life history attributes of Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) and comparisons with other North American subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus—commonly referred to as the Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow—occurs in the desert and plains grasslands of southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Although a subspecies of conservation concern, this is the first intensive study of its life history and breeding ecology, providing baseline data and facilitating comparisons with other North American Grasshopper Sparrow subspecies. Specifically, I found A. s. ammolegus males generally weighed less than other subspecies (16.0 ± 0.8 g) but with intermediate exposed culmen length (11.6 ± 0.5 mm) and wing chord length similar to the other two migratory subspecies (62.7 ± 1.5 mm). Territory size for A. s. ammolegus was 0.72 ± 0.37 ha, with some variation between sites and among years, possibly indicating variation in habitat quality across spatial and temporal scales. The return rate for A. s. ammolegus males was 39.2%. Nest initiation for A. s. ammolegus was early to mid-July after the monsoons had begun. Domed nests were constructed on the ground, primarily under native bunch grasses, and frequently with a tunnel extending beyond the nest rim, with nest openings oriented north. Clutch size was 3.97 ± 0.68, with no evidence of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) nest parasitism. Extreme climate factors in the arid Southwest may have affected the life history and morphology of A. s. ammolegus as compared to other subspecies, influencing body size and mass, culmen length, breeding phenology, and nest orientation. Other geographic variation occurred in return rates, clutch size, and nest parasitism rates. The baseline data for A. s. ammolegus obtained in this study will inform future taxonomic and ecological studies as well as conservation planning. Comparisons of A. s. ammolegus morphometrics with those of other subspecies will assist field biologists in distinguishing among subspecies where they overlap, especially on wintering grounds.

  5. Mangrove Swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrove swamps are coastal wetlands found in tropical and subtropical regions. They are characterized by halophytic (salt loving) trees, shrubs and other plants growing in brackish to saline tidal waters.

  6. Beak and skull shapes of human commensal and non-commensal house sparrows Passer domesticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The granivorous house sparrow Passer domesticus is thought to have developed its commensal relationship with humans with the rise of agriculture in the Middle East some 10,000 years ago, and to have expanded with the spread of agriculture in Eurasia during the last few thousand years. One subspecies, P. d. bactrianus, residing in Central Asia, has apparently maintained the ancestral ecology, however. This subspecies is not associated with human settlements; it is migratory and lives in natural grass- and wetland habitats feeding on wild grass seeds. It is well documented that the agricultural revolution was associated with an increase in grain size and changes in seed structure in cultivated cereals, the preferred food source of commensal house sparrow. Accordingly, we hypothesize that correlated changes may have occurred in beak and skull morphology as adaptive responses to the change in diet. Here, we test this hypothesis by comparing the skull shapes of 101 house sparrows from Iran, belonging to five different subspecies, including the non-commensal P. d. bactrianus, using geometric morphometrics. Results The various commensal house sparrow subspecies share subtle but consistent skeletal features that differ significantly from those of the non-commensal P. d. bactrianus. Although there is a marked overall size allometry in the data set, the shape difference between the ecologically differentiated sparrows cannot be explained by differences in size alone. Relative to the size allometry commensal house sparrows exhibit a skull shape consistent with accelerated development (heterochrony), resulting in a more robust facial cranium and a larger, more pointed beak. Conclusion The difference in skull shape and robustness of the beak between commensal and non-commensal house sparrows is consistent with adaptations to process the larger and rachis encapsulated seeds of domesticated cereals among human associated populations. PMID:24044497

  7. sparrow-weavers, PJocepasser mahali

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-01-27

    Jan 27, 1987 ... White-browed sparrow-weavers are social birds occurring in the semi-arid parts of Africa. .... individuals that fledged during the study period was ... adult (mated) birds. Results. Group composition, sex ratio and territory size. Sparrow-weavers occurred in groups ranging in size from two to nine birds (Figure ...

  8. The Fall of a Sparrow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 1. The Fall of a Sparrow The Life of Sálim Ali. Kartik Shanker. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 1 January 1997 pp 74-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/01/0074-0076 ...

  9. Language discrimination by Java sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Erico; Uozumi, Midori

    2006-07-01

    Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora) were trained to discriminate English from Chinese spoken by a bilingual speaker. They could learn discrimination and showed generalization to new sentences spoken by the same speaker and those spoken by a new speaker. Thus, the birds distinguished between English and Chinese. Although auditory cues for the discrimination were not specified, this is the first evidence that non-mammalian species can discriminate human languages.

  10. Magruder Park Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  11. Status assessment and conservation plan for the Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    The Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) breeds in grassland habitats throughout much of the U.S., southern and southeastern Canada, and northern Mexico. Additional subspecies are resident in Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. It winters primarily in the coastal states of the southeastern U.S., southern portions of the southwestern states, and in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The species prefers relatively open grassland with intermediate grass height and density and patchy bare ground; because it is widely distributed across different grassland types in North America, it selects different vegetation structure and species composition depending on what is available. In the winter, they use a broader range of grassland habitats including open grasslands, as well as weedy fields and grasslands with woody vegetation. Analyses show significant range-wide population declines from the late 1960s through the present, primarily caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. Grasshopper Sparrow is still a relatively common and broadly distributed species, but because of significant population declines and stakeholder concerns, the species is considered of conservation concern nationally and at the state level for numerous states. Many factors, often related to different grassland management practices (e.g., grazing, burning, mowing, management of shrub encroachment, etc.) throughout the species’ range, have impacts on Grasshopper Sparrow distribution, abundance, and reproduction and may represent limiting factors or threats given steep declines in this species’ population. Because of the concerns for this species, Grasshopper Sparrow has been identified as a focal species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and this Status Assessment and Conservation Plan for Grasshopper Sparrow has been developed. Through literature searches and input from stakeholders across its range, this plan presents information about

  12. Reproductive success of Belding's Savannah Sparrows in a highly fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A.N.; Collier, Christine L.

    1998-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation can influence the abundance and distribution of birds. Decreases in patch size increase the amount of edge habitat, which can allow greater invasion by exotic species, predators, and brood parasites (Hagan and Johnston 1992, Donovan et al., 1995). Fragmented habitats may act as population sinks and result in local extinctions unless immigration occurs from source habitats (Pulliam 1988, Howeet al., 1991, Pulliam et al., 1992, Stacey and Taper 1992).Fragmentation is especially severe in coastal California, where about 75% of the presettlement acreage of coastal wetlands has been lost to development (Zedler 1982, Zedler and Powell 1993). This degradation has produced a highly fragmented landscape that may have a negative influence on the Belding's Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi), which is one of two wetland-dependent bird species endemic to coastal salt marshes in southern California. This nonmigratory subspecies is listed as endangered by the State of California. Statewide censuses of Belding's Savannah Sparrows reveal wide fluctuations in local population sizes, with local extinctions occurring in some years (Zembalet al. 1988). Thus, the population dynamics of Belding's Savannah Sparrow may reflect the effects of fragmentation.

  13. Concerning nest ecology of the house sparrow and tree sparrow in the central part of Ciscaucasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Chursinova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contemplates nest ecology of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus and the tree sparrow (Passer montanus living in the conditions of the central part of Ciscaucasia. In the publication we can see an observation of nest – building, clutch – sizing and the effectiveness of breeding of the birds of both species.

  14. 2007 SRWMD Lidar: Mallory Swamp (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of Mallory Swamp. These data were produced for SRWMD. The Mallory Swamp LiDAR Survey project area...

  15. Physiological responses to food deprivation in the house sparrow, a species not adapted to prolonged fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilieh, Anton; McCue, Marshall D; Pinshow, Berry

    2012-09-01

    Many wild birds fast during reproduction, molting, migration, or because of limited food availability. Species that are adapted to fasting sequentially oxidize endogenous fuels in three discrete phases. We hypothesized that species not adapted to long fasts have truncated, but otherwise similar, phases of fasting, sequential changes in fuel oxidization, and similar changes in blood metabolites to fasting-adapted species. We tested salient predictions in house sparrows (Passer domesticus biblicus), a subspecies that is unable to tolerate more than ~32 h of fasting. Our main hypothesis was that fasting sparrows sequentially oxidize substrates in the order carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. We dosed 24 house sparrows with [(13)C]glucose, palmitic acid, or glycine and measured (13)CO(2) in their breath while they fasted for 24 h. To ascertain whether blood metabolite levels reflect fasting-induced changes in metabolic fuels, we also measured glucose, triacylglycerides, and β-hydroxybutyrate in the birds' blood. The results of both breath (13)CO(2) and plasma metabolite analyses did not support our hypothesis; i.e., that sparrows have the same metabolic responses characteristic of fasting-adapted species, but on a shorter time scale. Contrary to our main prediction, we found that recently assimilated (13)C-tracers were oxidized continuously in different patterns with no definite peaks corresponding to the three phases of fasting and also that changes in plasma metabolite levels accurately tracked the changes found by breath analysis. Notably, the rate of recently assimilated [(13)C]glycine oxidization was significantly higher (P fast for longer than 32 h is likely related to their inability to accrue large lipid stores, separately oxidize different fuels, and/or spare protein during fasting.

  16. From song dialects to speciation in white-crowned sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, David P L

    2017-06-01

    The behavioural signals used in mate selection are a key component in the evolution of premating isolating barriers and, subsequently, the formation of new species. The importance of mating signals has a long tradition of study in songbirds, where many species differ in their song characteristics. In oscine songbirds, individual birds usually learn their songs from a tutor. Mistakes during learning can help generate geographic dialects, akin to those within human language groups. In songbirds, dialect differences can often be substantial and there is an intuitive connection between the evolution of song amongst populations at a small scale, and the more substantive song differences between bird species and presumably used in species recognition. However, studies investigating the concordance between putative genetic and behavioural boundaries have generated mixed results. In many cases, this is possibly a function of the poor resolving power of the genetic markers employed. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lipshutz et al. () combine genomic markers with a robust behavioural assay to address the importance of song variation amongst white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) subspecies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V

    2016-01-01

    At high trophic levels, environmental contaminants have been found to affect endocrinological processes. Less attention has been paid to species at lower trophic levels. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be a useful model for investigating effects of POPs in mid-range trophic level species....... In male house sparrows, ornamental traits involved in male quality signalling are important for female selection. These traits are governed by endocrinological systems, and POPs may therefore interfere with male quality signalling. The aim of the present study was to use the house sparrow as a mid......-range trophic level model species to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrinology and male quality signalling. We analysed the levels of selected PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs and investigated the possible effects of these contaminants on circulating levels of steroid hormones (4 progestagens, 4...

  18. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Marafiga Degrandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the "river buffaloes" with 2n = 50 and the "swamp buffaloes", 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24 in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23. The F1 crossbreed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies.

  19. Latitudinal variation of immune defense and sickness behavior in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Ashley, Noah T; Hasselquist, Dennis; Råberg, Lars; Wingfield, John C

    2008-05-01

    There is a general trend that parasitism risk declines as latitude increases. Host populations breeding at high latitudes should therefore invest less in costly immune defenses than populations breeding in temperate or tropical zones, although it is unknown if such an effect is mediated by environmental (photoperiodic) or genetic factors or both. Acquired immune function (humoral, cell-mediated) and behavioral sickness responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; mimics bacterial infection) were assessed in two subspecies of white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) that breed at different latitudes in western North America. Zonotrichia l. gambelii (GWCS) is a high-latitude breeder (47-68 degrees N) while Z. l. pugetensis (PWCS) breeds at temperate latitudes (40-49 degrees N). Captive males of each subspecies were acclimated to (1) a short day (non-breeding) photoperiod (8L:16D), (2) the breeding photoperiod of PWCS (16L:8D), or (3) the breeding photoperiod of GWCS (20L:4D). Photoperiod was manipulated because shorter day lengths may enhance immune function. In support of a genetic effect, humoral responses to diphtheria-tetanus vaccination were significantly higher in PWCS compared to GWCS, regardless of photoperiod. There were no differences in cell-mediated responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) between subspecies or among photoperiods. For sickness responses to LPS, a significant interaction between photoperiod and subspecies was found, with long day GWCS producing stronger sickness responses (losing more weight, eating less) than short day GWCS and PWCS on all day lengths. However, these effects were influenced by photoperiodic changes in body condition. In conclusion, we find evidence for genetic control of immune responses across latitude, but no support for environmental (photoperiodic) regulation.

  20. Adaptation to ephemeral habitat may overcome natural barriers and severe habitat fragmentation in a fire-dependent species, the Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerame, Blain; Cox, James A; Brumfield, Robb T; Tucker, James W; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2014-01-01

    Bachman's Sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis) is a fire-dependent species that has undergone range-wide population declines in recent decades. We examined genetic diversity in Bachman's Sparrows to determine whether natural barriers have led to distinct population units and to assess the effect of anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation. Genetic diversity was examined across the geographic range by genotyping 226 individuals at 18 microsatellite loci and sequencing 48 individuals at mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Multiple analyses consistently demonstrated little genetic structure and high levels of genetic variation, suggesting that populations are panmictic. Based on these genetic data, separate management units/subspecies designations or translocations to promote gene flow among fragmented populations do not appear to be necessary. Panmixia in Bachman's Sparrow may be a consequence of an historical range expansion and retraction. Alternatively, high vagility in Bachman's Sparrow may be an adaptation to the ephemeral, fire-mediated habitat that this species prefers. In recent times, high vagility also appears to have offset inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity in highly fragmented habitat.

  1. Remote Sensing of Wetland Types: Peat Swamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, D.H.

    2017-01-01

    Deposits of peat underneath peat swamp forests are among the world’s largest reservoirs of carbon. Although tropical peatlands occupy only about 0.3 % of the global land surface, they could contain as much as 20 % of the global soil carbon stock, representing 63–148 Gt of carbon.

    Peat swamp

  2. Distribution of breeding Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) in the southwestern United States: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2008-01-01

    The Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) breeds in desert grasslands of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico in the US, and in adjacent parts of northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. Roads that were surveyed in 1982 and 1987 in Arizona and New Mexico were relocated and roadside survey protocols were repeated in 2004 and 2005 to identify changes in distribution or abundance of the subspecies during the subsequent 17 yr. The Sonoita and San Rafael valleys in Arizona and the Animas Valley in New Mexico remain as primary population centers, supporting the highest mean numbers of singing males per stop, as well as the largest populations of Arizona Grasshopper Sparrows in the US. Mean number of singing males per stop was highest in the San Rafael Valley. Mean number of singing males per survey stop showed an increasing pattern from 1982–1987 and a subsequent decline to the present (2004–2005). Present bird densities are intermediate in value between 1982 and 1987 values. Small populations remain in the Altar, San Pedro, Sulphur Springs, and San Bernardino valleys in Arizona. The valleys evaluated in this and historical surveys represent the areas in which almost all Arizona Grasshopper Sparrows breed in the US; if any additional areas exist, they support peripheral, small, or remnant populations. Although historic, current, and future land use, and current and future threats differ among valleys, the primary factors posing threats to the future of Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow populations appear to be loss and/or degradation of habitat due to exurban development, overgrazing, and the effects of long-term drought.

  3. SUBSPECIALIZATION IN THE FIELD OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rationale for the application of orthopaedic subspecialization in the developing world. Data source: A pubmed search with the mesh term “subspecialization.” Data selection/extraction: Using the pubmed search engine, 452 abstracts were found discussing subspecialization. Twenty two relevant articles were found, studied ...

  4. 78 FR 8588 - Rg Steel Sparrows Point LLC, Formerly Known as Severstal Sparrows Point LLC, a Subsidiary of RG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Consulting, Crown Security, Eastern Automation, EDS(HP), Teksystems, URS Corporation, and B More Industrial... from B More Industrial Services LLC were employed on-site at the Sparrows Point, Maryland location of RG Steel Sparrows Point LLC. The Department has determined that these workers from B More Industrial...

  5. Kennedy Space Center: Swamp Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Robert

    2013-01-01

    When I began my internship with the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations laboratory (GMRO), also known as Swamp Works, I was given the unique opportunity to shadow many teams working on various projects, and decide what projects I wanted to take part in. Before I go into details of my experiences at Swamp Works, I would like to take a moment to explain what I discovered Swamp Works to be. Swamp Works is a family of hardworking, dedicated, and driven people from various backgrounds and skill sets. These people all work to advance technologies and make science fiction science fact through means of rapid prototyping. They support and encourage failure as an option when learning new things, as long as lesson learned from said failure. In fact, their motto states "Fail, Fast, Forward." What this means is, not if but when one fails he or she must do so quickly and spring forward from the failure so that his or her progress is not delayed. With this acceptance, it provided me the confidence to dive into a multitude of projects working in various fields and with a wide range of skill sets. The first project I joined was Badger. My motivation for taking on this project was the opportunity I would have to obtain valuable experience working with 3D modeling and 3D printing technologies. Badger was a digging apparatus to be used in a highly dusty environment in a material known as Regolith. Regolith is a scientific term for the dirt or top soil found on planetary bodies. Regolith contains a large quantity of sediments less than lOppm and as a result poses a challenge of keeping it out of any cracks and crevices. Furthermore, regolith can create high levels of electrostatic energy, which can prove damaging to sensitive electrical hardware. With these characteristics in mind, I decided to take on the task of designing and manufacturing a dust proof cover for the sensitive electrical hardware. When I began this project, I did not have the slightest idea as to how to use 3D

  6. Corticosterone regulation in house sparrows invading Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn B; Kilvitis, Holly J; Thiam, Massamba; Ardia, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    What traits help organisms expand their ranges? Several behavioral and life history traits have been identified, but physiological and especially endocrinological factors have been minimally considered. Here, we asked whether steroid hormonal responses to stressors might be important. Previously, we found that corticosterone (CORT) responses to a standard restraint stressor were stronger at a range edge than at the core of the recent house sparrow (Passer domesticus) invasion of Kenya. In related work in the same system, we found that various behaviors (exploratory activity, responses to novelty, etc.) that are affected by CORT in other systems varied among sparrow populations in a manner that would suggest that CORT regulation directly influenced colonization success; birds at the range edge were less averse to novelty and more exploratory than birds from the core. Here, we asked whether the pattern in CORT regulation we observed in Kenya was also detectable in the more recent (∼1970) and independent invasion of Senegal. We found, as in Kenya, that Senegalese range-edge birds mounted stronger CORT responses to restraint than core birds. We also found lower baseline CORT in range-edge than core Senegalese birds, but little evidence for effects of individual sex, body mass or body size on CORT. Follow-up work will be necessary to resolve whether CORT regulation in Senegal (and Kenya) actively facilitated colonization success, but our work implicates glucocorticoids as a mediator of range expansion success, making stress responses potentially useful biomarkers of invasion risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reflecting on the Relationship Between Human Beings and Sparrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Trehan Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Birdman of India, Salim Moizuddin Abdul Ali, was one of the first Indians to conduct a systematic and patterned survey of birds in India. W.S. Millard, the Secretary of the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS had introduced Salim Ali to the beautiful world of the birds. Millard had identified an unusually coloured sparrow that was actually shot by a young Salim Ali with his air gun. This was a yellow-throated sparrow. Following this, Millard showed Salim Ali the Society’s collection of stuffed birds, and this became the beginning of a marvelous journey of exploring the bird kingdom and establishing great landmarks by Salim Ali. The sparrow had transformed Salim Ali’s world. Undoubtedly, his autobiography was later titled ‘The Fall of a Sparrow’. Salim Ali has very carefully noted in his autobiography as to how this yellow-throated sparrow became the turning point in his life that led him into the fascinating world of ornithology. This research contribution is not about the birdman but the bird, which is rapidly vanishing from our vicinity. The reasons for the decline of the sparrow are varied but the fact of the matter is that the natural world around us is rapidly receding. And the decline of the sparrow is an alarm, a warning against the degrading ecosystems, and an alarm against blind-folded urbanisation which is leading to human-induced disasters.

  8. Reproduction and genetic diversity of the swamp buffalo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yindee, M.

    2010-01-01

    The water buffalo is one of the most important domestic animals in Southeast Asia including Thailand. As the Thai swamp buffalo population declined during the last two decades, the swamp buffalo reproductive performance needs to be improved. Lack of knowledge on swamp buffalo reproduction, improper

  9. The role of Bahi swamp wetlands in enhancing household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the role of Bahi swamp resources in enhancing household food security and income of adjacent communities. Specifically, the study assessed the socioeconomic activities in the swamp with a potential contribution to local livelihoods, the contribution of the swamp in enhancing ...

  10. Factors associated with arrival densities of grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and baird's sparrow (A. bairdii) in the upper great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlering, M.A.; Johnson, D.H.; Faaborg, John

    2009-01-01

    Although critical to habitat and population management, the proximate cues that birds use to establish territories are largely unknown. Understanding these cues is important for birds, such as many grassland birds, that exhibit high annual variability in population density and make new habitat-selection decisions annually. Identifying the actual cues used is difficult in the field, but the factors associated with the arrival densities of birds can help uncover variables that are involved in or correlated with cues used for selection. During the summers of 2002–2004, we investigated how weather and local vegetation factors were related to arrival densities of Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and Baird's Sparrows (A. bairdii) at three locations across North Dakota and Saskatchewan. Spring densities of Grasshopper Sparrows were positively correlated with concurrent May precipitation, whereas densities of Baird's Sparrows were negatively correlated with the previous winter's snowfall. We used a model-selection approach to evaluate the vegetation characteristics associated with arrival densities of birds. Grasshopper Sparrow densities showed a strong negative relationship to woody cover, and Baird's Sparrow densities showed a negative relationship to vegetation height and vegetation density near the ground. Our results provide a first detailed look at habitat and weather associations immediately after arrival in spring and an important first step in uncovering factors that may be involved in habitat selection in two grassland species.

  11. Studies on mangrove swamps of Goa 1. Heterotrophic bacterial flora from mangrove swamps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mathani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Heterotrophic bacterial flora from the mangrove swamps of Goa consisted of physiologically active organisms exhibiting cellulolytic, pectinolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and H2S forming activities, throughout the year. Coryneform and Bacillus were...

  12. Equipment for neutron measurements at VR-1 Sparrow training reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolros, Antonin; Huml, Ondrej; Kríz, Martin; Kos, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The VR-1 sparrow reactor is an experimental nuclear facility for training, student education and teaching purposes. The sparrow reactor is an educational platform for the basic experiments at the reactor physic and dosimetry. The aim of this article is to describe the new experimental equipment EMK310 features and possibilities for neutron detection by different gas filled detectors at VR-1 reactor. Among the EMK310 equipment typical attributes belong precise set-up, simple control, resistance to electromagnetic interference, high throughput (counting rate), versatility and remote controllability. The methods for non-linearity correction of pulse neutron detection system and reactimeter application are presented. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Reproduction and genetic diversity of the swamp buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Yindee, M.

    2011-01-01

    The water buffalo is one of the most important domestic animals in Southeast Asia including Thailand. As the Thai swamp buffalo population declined during the last two decades, the swamp buffalo reproductive performance needs to be improved. Lack of knowledge on swamp buffalo reproduction, improper management and failure to use genetic superior males and females in breeding programs are the major factors to be considered. Artificial insemination was applied in Thailand but is inefficient due ...

  14. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alp...

  15. Integral handling of the swamps for indigenous communities - Caribbean of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paez, Heliodoro; Ulloa Delgado Giovanni, Andres; Tavera Escobar, Hector Arsenio

    2004-06-01

    The book includes topics like the ecosystems of swamps, zonification for its handling, growth of species of swamps, restoration and vegetation, integral plan of handling of swamps and its fauna among other topics

  16. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Swamps, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_swamp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) swamps data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  17. The House Sparrows Passer domesticus and Tree Sparrows Passer montanus: fine-scale distribution, population densities, and habitat selection in a Central European city

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Riegert, J.; Grill, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-232 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : House Sparrow * Tree Sparrow * urban environment * city green * built-up area * habitat selection * nest-site selection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2015

  18. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economics of swamp rice production among peasant farmers in the Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State for 2001 cropping year. A total of 50 swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from 5 villages using multistage sampling technique. The data collected, with the aid of ...

  19. Analysis of Technical Efficiency among Swamp Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the Technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 159 swamp rice farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the stochastic frontier production function. The results showed ...

  20. Economic analysis of swamp rice production in Ebonyi Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the determinants and profitability of the output of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi southern Agricultural zone of Ebonyi State. Primary data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaires. A total of eighty (80) swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from the different blocks ...

  1. Genome characterization of Pasteurella multocida subspecies septica and comparison with Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida and gallicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhong; Liang, Wan; Liu, Wenjing; Chen, Huanchun; Wu, Bin

    2017-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida: subspecies multocida, gallicida, and septica are noted to have a contribution to fowl cholera, a life-threatening disease to both domestic and wild bird species. The genome sequences of avian P. multocida subspecies gallicida and multocida have been well analyzed and compared. However, the genome characterization of avian P. multocida subspecies septica is rarely discussed. In this study, we determined the draft genome sequence of a virulent P. multocida subspecies septica serogroup A strain HB02. The genome of P. multocida HB02 was composed of a single chromosome of 2,213,604 bp with a 40.27% G + C content, which showed a similar genome size and %GC content to the P. multocida subspecies multocida and gallicida genomes. The entire sequence specified 2002 putative coding DNA sequences plus 2 encoded rRNAs and 46 encoded tRNAs. In addition, the subspecies septica had a similar content of genes coding for metabolic traits that found in the subspecies gallicida and multocida. In addition, comparison of virulent versus avirulent avian P. multocida genomes identified 657 unique genes in either of the virulent strains HB02, P1059 and/or X73 compared to the avirulent strain Pm70. These genes should be the potential virulence-associated genes. Our work may add a novel genome sequence for the avian P. multocida genome database and shed a light on the pathogenesis of P. multocida.

  2. A Survey of Neospora caninum infection in sparrows (Passer domesticus in Khuzestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the presence of N. caninum DNA by PCR in brain tissues of house sparrows. The results showed that 6 (2.8% of brain samples were positive for N. caninum. This is the first report for detection of N. caninum in sparrows, in Khuzestan Province. The results suggest that the meat of infected sparrows can be the source for dogs' infection.

  3. Discrimination of consonance and dissonance in Java sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Uozumi, M; Tanaka, N

    2005-09-30

    Six adult Java sparrows were trained to discriminate between consonant and dissonant sounds consisting of three tones. In the consonance group, the perching response was reinforced when consonance was presented, but not when dissonance was presented. Both groups were given an inversion test, in which the first inversion of the chord was used as a stimulus. Four of six birds learned the discrimination and were given two tests. In the first test, novel consonances and novel dissonances were presented. All birds maintained the discrimination. When inverted consonances and dissonances were presented in the second test, the discriminative behavior was not well demonstrated. When novel dissonances consisting of tones with different intervals were presented in the third test, birds trained to perch for dissonance performed well, whereas those trained to perch for consonance did not. In summary, Java sparrows were able to discriminate between consonances and dissonances and demonstrated generalization to new combinations, they do not discriminate the same consonances and dissonances.

  4. The scientific value and potential of New Zealand swamp kauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Boswijk, Gretel; Hogg, Alan; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Christian S. M.; Fowler, Anthony M.; Ogden, John; Woolley, John-Mark

    2018-03-01

    New Zealand swamp kauri (Agathis australis) are relic trees that have been buried and preserved in anoxic bog environments of northern New Zealand for centuries through to hundreds of millennia. Kauri are massive in proportion to other native New Zealand trees and they can attain ages greater than 1000 years. The export market for swamp (subfossil) kauri has recently been driven by demand for a high-value workable timber, but there are concerns about the sustainability of the remaining resource, a situation exacerbated in recent years by the rapid extraction of wood. Economic exploitation of swamp kauri presents several unique opportunities for Quaternary science, however the scientific value of this wood is not well understood by the wider research community and public. Here, we summarise the history of scientific research on swamp kauri, and explore the considerable potential of this unique resource. Swamp kauri tree-ring chronologies are temporally unique, and secondary analyses (such as radiocarbon and isotopic analyses) have value for improving our understanding of Earth's recent geologic history and pre-instrumental climate history. Swamp kauri deposits that span the last interglacial-glacial cycle show potential to yield "ultra-long" multi-millennia tree-ring chronologies, and composite records spanning large parts of MIS3 (and most of the Holocene) may be possible. High-precision radiocarbon dating of swamp kauri chronologies can improve the resolution of the global radiocarbon calibration curve, while testing age modelling and chronologic alignment of other independent long-term high-resolution proxy records. Swamp kauri also has the potential to facilitate absolute dating and verification of cosmogenic events found in long Northern Hemisphere tree-ring chronologies. Future efforts to conserve these identified values requires scientists to work closely with swamp kauri industry operators, resource consent authorities, and export regulators to mitigate

  5. The fungal flora of the mangrove swamps of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahtani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Mangrove swamps of Goa (India) showed the presence of fungi belonging to 14 different genera, predominant ones being Monilia, Mucor, Syncephalastrum, Aspergillus and Trichothecium. Most of the isolates were found to be physiologically active...

  6. Regeneration potential of Taxodium distichum swamps and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Seed bank densities respond to factors across local to landscape scales, and therefore, knowledge of these responses may be necessary in forecasting the effects of climate change on the regeneration of species. This study relates the seed bank densities of species of Taxodium distichum swamps to local water regime and regional climate factors at five latitudes across the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley from southern Illinois to Louisiana. In an outdoor nursery setting, the seed banks of twenty-five swamps were exposed to non-flooded (freely drained) or flooded treatments, and the number and species of seeds germinating were recorded from each swamp during one growing season. Based on ANOVA analysis, the majority of dominant species had a higher rate of germination in non-flooded versus flooded treatments. Similarly, an NMS comparison, which considered the local water regime and regional climate of the swamps, found that the species of seeds germinating, almost completely shifted under non-flooded versus flooded treatments. For example, in wetter northern swamps, seeds of Taxodium distichum germinated in non-flooded conditions, but did not germinate from the same seed banks in flooded conditions. In wetter southern swamps, seeds of Eleocharis cellulosa germinated in flooded conditions, but did not germinate in non-flooded conditions. The strong relationship of seed germination and density relationships with local water regime and regional climate variables suggests that the forecasting of climate change effects on swamps and other wetlands needs to consider a variety of interrelated variables to make adequate projections of the regeneration responses of species to climate change. Because regeneration is an important aspect of species maintenance and restoration, climate drying could influence the species distribution of these swamps in the future. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible

  8. North African hybrid sparrows (Passer domesticus, P. hispaniolensis) back from oblivion - ecological segregation and asymmetric mitochondrial introgression between parental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Belkacem, Abdelkrim; Gast, Oliver; Stuckas, Heiko; Canal, David; LoValvo, Mario; Giacalone, Gabriele; Päckert, Martin

    2016-08-01

    A stabilized hybrid form of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the Spanish sparrow (P. hispaniolensis) is known as Passer italiae from the Italian Peninsula and a few Mediterranean islands. The growing attention for the Italian hybrid sparrow and increasing knowledge on its biology and genetic constitution greatly contrast the complete lack of knowledge of the long-known phenotypical hybrid sparrow populations from North Africa. Our study provides new data on the breeding biology and variation of mitochondrial DNA in three Algerian populations of house sparrows, Spanish sparrows, and phenotypical hybrids. In two field seasons, the two species occupied different breeding habitats: Spanish sparrows were only found in rural areas outside the cities and bred in open-cup nests built in large jujube bushes. In contrast, house sparrows bred only in the town centers and occupied nesting holes in walls of buildings. Phenotypical hybrids were always associated with house sparrow populations. House sparrows and phenotypical hybrids started breeding mid of March, and most pairs had three successive clutches, whereas Spanish sparrows started breeding almost one month later and had only two successive clutches. Mitochondrial introgression is strongly asymmetric because about 75% of the rural Spanish sparrow population carried house sparrow haplotypes. In contrast, populations of the Italian hybrid form, P. italiae, were genetically least diverse among all study populations and showed a near-fixation of house sparrow haplotypes that elsewhere were extremely rare or that were even unique for the Italian Peninsula. Such differences between mitochondrial gene pools of Italian and North African hybrid sparrow populations provide first evidence that different demographic histories have shaped the extant genetic diversity observed on both continents.

  9. To flock or fight: neurochemical signatures of divergent life histories in sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, James L; Wilson, Leah C; Schrock, Sara E

    2012-06-26

    Many bird species exhibit dramatic seasonal switches between territoriality and flocking, but whereas neuroendocrine mechanisms of territorial aggression have been extensively studied, those of seasonal flocking are unknown. We collected brains in spring and winter from male field sparrows (Spizella pusilla), which seasonally flock, and male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), which are territorial year-round in much of their range. Spring collections were preceded by field-based assessments of aggression. Tissue series were immunofluorescently multilabeled for vasotocin, mesotocin (MT), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, tyrosine hydroxylase, and aromatase, and labeling densities were measured in many socially relevant brain areas. Extensive seasonal differences are shared by both species. Many measures correlate significantly with both individual and species differences in aggression, likely reflecting evolved mechanisms that differentiate the less aggressive field sparrow from the more aggressive song sparrow. Winter-specific species differences include a substantial increase of MT and CRH immunoreactivity in the dorsal lateral septum (LS) and medial amygdala of field sparrows but not song sparrows. These species differences likely relate to flocking rather than the suppression of winter aggression in field sparrows, because similar winter differences were found for two other emberizids that are not territorial in winter--dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), which seasonally flock, and eastern towhees (Pipilo erythropthalmus), which do not flock. MT signaling in the dorsal LS is also associated with year-round species differences in grouping in estrildid finches, suggesting that common mechanisms are targeted during the evolution of different life histories.

  10. Song variation and environmental auditory masking in the grasshopper sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Bernard; Dooling, Robert J.; Gill, Douglas E.

    2004-05-01

    Some grassland bird species, in particular grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), sing songs with especially high mean frequencies (7.0-8.0 kHz). Acoustic interference is one potential explanation for the evolution of high frequency vocalizations, particularly in open habitats. We tested predictions from a model of effective auditory communication distances to understand the potential effects of vocal production and environmental auditory masking on vocal behavior and territoriality. Variation in the spectral structure of songs and the size and shape of territories was measured for grasshopper sparrows in typical grassland habitats. Median territory areas were 1629 m2 at a site in the center of the species range in Nebraska, and 1466 m2 at our study site in Maryland, with average territory diameters measuring 20.2 m. Species densities and sound pressure levels also were determined for stridulating insects and other noise sources in the habitat. Based on current models of effective communication distances, known noise levels, and information on hearing abilities, our results suggest that auditory sensitivity and environmental noise could be factors influencing the mean frequency and spatial dynamics of territorial behavior in grassland birds. [Work supported by NIH and the CRFRC.

  11. Structure and phytogeographic relationships of swamp forests of Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Coutinho Kurtz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Swamp forests are associated with soils that are saturated or inundated because of a high water table. In Brazil, little is known about the plant ecology of such forests. In this paper, we aimed to describe the phytosociological structure of the tree layer of swamp forests in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, in the northern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro, and to evaluate the floristic similarities between these forests and some other possibly related types of vegetation formations in Brazil. The sampling included 84 species, within 62 genera and 34 families. The Shannon diversity index was 3.42, and the Shannon evenness index was 0.77. The forests studied showed an oligarchic structure; Tapirira guianensis, Calophyllum brasiliense and Protium icicariba were the most important species. Oligarchy, or monodominance, and relatively low species richness are the norm in the swamp forests of southeastern Brazil and result from the strong selective character of the saturated/inundated soils. In comparison with local areas of restinga (coastal woodland, Atlantic Forest sensu stricto, other swamp forests and flooded riparian forests, the similarity was low (Jaccard similarity coefficient < 0.25. In addition to the similar ecological conditions, geographic proximity was a key factor determining the patterns of similarity found. Our results indicate that the swamp forests of southeastern Brazil do not represent a distinguishable floristic unit, due to sources of local variation, notably migration and the establishment of adaptive species from neighboring vegetation formations (some 70% of the species surveyed.

  12. Benefits of Riverine Water Discharge into the Lorian Swamp, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipporah Musyimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. This paper reviews information on water use in the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment, Kenya, to evaluate the effects of upstream abstraction on the Lorian Swamp, a wetland used by pastoralists downstream. We first assess the abstractions and demands for water upstream and the river water supplies at the upper and the lower end of the Lorian Swamp. Further analysis of 12 years of monthly SPOT-VEGETATION satellite imagery reveals higher NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index values in the swamp than nearby rainfed areas, with the difference in NDVI between the two positively related to river water discharged into the swamp. The paper next reviews the benefits derived from water entering the swamp and the vulnerability to abstractions for three categories of water: (i the surface water used for drinking and sanitation; (ii the surface water that supports forage production; and (iii the water that recharges the Merti Aquifer. Our results suggest that benefits from surface water for domestic use and forage production are vulnerable to abstractions upstream whereas the benefits from the aquifer, with significant fossil water, are likely to be affected in the long run, but not the short term.

  13. Swamp Buffalo in South Kalimantan : Problem, Disease and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have been carried out to evaluate and investigate the important diseases of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus carabanensis in Kalimantan . More attention has been focused on the case of acute infectious diseases and sudden death in the buffaloes . Fasciolosis black disease, acute enteritis, especially fatal enterotoxaemia haemorrhagic septicaemia . and trypanosomiasis (Surra, are some of the important diseases found in these animals . Black disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium novyi occurs in the presence of the organism in the liver and the degree of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation . In regions where black disease is enzootic, Cl. novvi can be isolated from livers of normal healthy animals . In Hulu Sungai Utara district, South Kalimantan, the prevalence of fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica in swamp buffalo was 77% in 1991 . A gross sudden change in diet due to seasonal changes could induce rumen and intestinal stasis, which provide a favourable environment for the rapid proliferation of commensal toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine . Subsequent absorption of the toxin produced through the gut wall and its generalized dissemination culminated in a fatal enterotoxaemia . Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS is an acute, fatal disease affecting swamp buffalo, and caused by Pasteurella multocida B : 2 . The swamp buffalo is particularly susceptible for HS, and the reported greatest losses of swamp buffalo in Kalimantan due to HS is recorded in 1980s. The clinical signs of Surra in swamp buffalo were also found in certain areas in Danau Panggang area . Hulu Sungai Utara district . Vaccination is the accepted method for controlling Black disease, enterotoxaemia and HS. Multi component vaccine, alum adjuvant containing at least 5 types of clostridial toxoids and P. multocida B2 bacterin have been used and provide good protection to the animals . Control and treatment of liver fluke infestation

  14. A new subspecies of Typhlosaurus lineatus Boulenger 1887 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-10-01

    Oct 1, 1986 ... totale ventrale skubteliings. Geografiese afsondering is oak duidelik. Introduction. The genus TyphlosauTlls Wiegmann. 1834 has recently been revised by Broadley (1968). He lists 12 species and subspecies including three subspecies of Tlinealus. One of these, T. I. subtaenialus Broadley. differs from the.

  15. The Sparrow Question: Social and Scientific Accord in Britain, 1850-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    During the latter-half of the nineteenth century, the utility of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) to humankind was a contentious topic. In Britain, numerous actors from various backgrounds including natural history, acclimatisation, agriculture and economic ornithology converged on the bird, as contemporaries sought to calculate its economic cost and benefit to growers. Periodicals and newspapers provided an accessible and anonymous means of expression, through which the debate raged for over 50 years. By the end of the century, sparrows had been cast as detrimental to agriculture. Yet consensus was not achieved through new scientific methods, instruments, or changes in practice. This study instead argues that the rise and fall of scientific disciplines and movements paved the way for consensus on "the sparrow question." The decline of natural history and acclimatisation stifled a raging debate, while the rising science of economic ornithology sought to align itself with agricultural interests: the latter overwhelmingly hostile to sparrows.

  16. Effects of urbanization on host-pathogen interactions, using Yersinia in house sparrows as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Strubbe, Diederik; Teyssier, Aimeric; Salleh Hudin, Noraine; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Haesendonck, Roel; Delmée, Michel; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Lens, Luc; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization strongly affects biodiversity, altering natural communities and often leading to a reduced species richness. Yet, despite its increasingly recognized importance, how urbanization impacts on the health of individual animals, wildlife populations and on disease ecology remains poorly understood. To test whether, and how, urbanization-driven ecosystem alterations influence pathogen dynamics and avian health, we use house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Yersinia spp. (pathogenic for passerines) as a case study. Sparrows are granivorous urban exploiters, whose western European populations have declined over the past decades, especially in highly urbanized areas. We sampled 329 house sparrows originating from 36 populations along an urbanization gradient across Flanders (Belgium), and used isolation combined with 'matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry' (MALDI-TOF MS) and PCR methods for detecting the presence of different Yersinia species. Yersinia spp. were recovered from 57.43% of the sampled house sparrows, of which 4.06%, 53.30% and 69.54% were identified as Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica and other Yersinia species, respectively. Presence of Yersinia was related to the degree of urbanization, average daily temperatures and the community of granivorous birds present at sparrow capture locations. Body condition of suburban house sparrows was found to be higher compared to urban and rural house sparrows, but no relationships between sparrows' body condition and presence of Yersinia spp. were found. We conclude that two determinants of pathogen infection dynamics, body condition and pathogen occurrence, vary along an urbanization gradient, potentially mediating the impact of urbanization on avian health.

  17. Avian metapneumovirus subtype B experimental infection and tissue distribution in chickens, sparrows, and pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, S; Shamoun, M

    2012-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respiratory virus that infects a range of avian hosts, including chickens and turkeys. Migratory and local wild birds are implicated in aMPV spread among farms, countries, and seasonal outbreaks of the disease. A subtype B aMPV isolate from commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease was experimentally inoculated oculonasally into 7-week old chickens, young pigeons, and sparrows. Chickens showed minimal tracheal rales, whereas pigeons and sparrows were asymptomatic. Shedding of aMPV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on homogenates from nasal turbinates. At 5 days postinfection, 5 of 5 chickens, 2 of 5 pigeons, and 1 of 5 sparrows were positive; at 10 or 15 days, none were positive. At 2 and 5 days, aMPV antigens were localized at the ciliated boarder of respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity and trachea of chickens, as well as to the conjunctival epithelium. Pigeons had detectable viral antigens in only the trachea at 2 and 5 days; sparrow tissues did not show any positive staining. At the end of the experiment, at 21 days postinfection, 14 of 15 inoculated chickens seroconverted against aMPV, but none of the inoculated pigeons or sparrows did. The authors believe that pigeons and sparrows have the ability to transmit the virus between chicken farms, although they do not consider pigeons and sparrows as natural hosts for aMPV, given that they failed to seroconvert. In conclusion, pigeons and sparrows are partially susceptible to aMPV infection, probably acting more as mechanical vectors because infection is only temporary and short-lived.

  18. Conservation Controversy: Sparrow, Marshall, and the Mi’kmaq of Esgenoôpetitj

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah J. King

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the Sparrow and Marshall decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada, and the sovereigntist and traditionalist convictions of the Mi’kmaq of the Esgenoôpetitj/BurntChurch First Nation, as expressed in the conservationist language of the Draft for the Esgenoopotitj First Nations (EFN) Fishery Act (Fisheries Policy). With the Supreme Court of Canada’s decision in Sparrow, conservation became an important justification available to the Canadian government t...

  19. Characteristics of mangrove swamps managed for mosquito control in eastern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Devlin, D.; Proffitt, E.; McKee, K.; Cretini, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulations of the vegetation and hydrology of wetlands for mosquito control are common worldwide, but these modifications may affect vital ecosystem processes. To control mosquitoes in mangrove swamps in eastern Florida, managers have used rotational impoundment management (RIM) as an alternative to the worldwide practice of mosquito ditching. Levees surround RIM swamps, and water is pumped into the impoundment during the summer, a season when natural swamps have low water levels. In the New World, these mosquito-managed swamps resemble the mixed basin type of mangrove swamp (based on PCA analysis). An assessment was made of RIM, natural (control), and breached-RIM (restored) swamps in eastern Florida to compare their structural complexities, soil development, and resistance to invasion. Regarding structural complexity, dominant species composition differed between these swamps; the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle occurred at a higher relative density in RIM and breached-RIM swamps, and the black mangrove Avicennia germinans had a higher relative density in natural swamps. Tree density and canopy cover were higher and tree height lower in RIM swamps than in natural and breached-RIM swamps. Soil organic matter in RIM swamps was twice that in natural or breached-RIM swamps. RIM swamps had a lower resistance to invasion by the Brazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthifolius, which is likely attributable to the lower porewater salinity in RIM swamps. These characteristics may reflect differences in important ecosystem processes (primary production, trophic structure, nutrient cycling, decomposition). Comparative assessments of managed wetlands are vital for land managers, so that they can make informed decisions compatible with conservation objectives. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  20. Biology and control of swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewick, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model predicting swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd.) emergence was developed. The model states that 0.1% of the cranberry seedlings will emerge after 150 to 170 GDD have accumulated after the winter ice has melted on the cranberry beds, using 0 C as the low temperature threshold. Experiments in cranberry showed that pronamide [3,5-dichloro-(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide] was effective in controlling swamp dodder when applied preemergence. Rates below 2.4 kg ai/ha appeared to be safe for cranberry plants and fruit. Experiments with 14 C glyphosate showed that the herbicide moved out of carrot leaves to the physiological sinks in the plant. In carrots parasitized by swamp dodder the dodder acted as one of the strongest sinks for photosynthates from the host. In cranberry glyphosate moved out of the leaves, but most remained in the stem to which the treated leaves were attached. The only physiological sinks that accumulated significant amounts of label were the stem apices. The concentration of the herbicide in this sink decreased with time. Swamp dodder stems were able to absorb glyphosate directly from solution

  1. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  2. Production Efficiency of Swamp Rice Production in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares profit maximization, output optimization and resource use efficiency in production of two varieties of swamp rice by farmers in Cross River State of Nigeria. Data were collected from 224 rice farmers from twelve Local Government Areas in Cross River State were interviewed using three-stage stratified ...

  3. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  4. Invertebrate Encrustations On The Mangrove Swamp Oyster And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mangrove swamp oyster Crassostrea tulipa demonstrates a symbiotic relationship with the barnacle. Balnus sp and other encrusting invertebrates. It is inferred that the latter militate against predatory drilling on the oyster by Thais califera as well as prevent algal infestation and the consequent bioerosion by herbivorous ...

  5. The velocity-thickness characteristics of the mangrove swamp low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 14 upholes were shot in the Mangrove Swamp of the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The aim of the survey was to determine the thickness and velocity of the low velocity layer (LVL). The velocities and thickness of the layers were computed from the reciprocals of the slopes of the straight-line segments using the FACE ...

  6. SURVEY OF ECONOMIC TREES IN FRESH WATER SWAMP OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... availability because it determines the number of surviving individuals. This is true for all species of .... 2010). CRUTECH, Calabar forest is a pseudo forest having characteristics of rain and swamp forests. ... as reflected in the random and contiguous distribution. (clumped or aggregated population) of the ...

  7. Using Cape Sable seaside sparrow distribution data for water management decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, James M.; Romañach, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis; hereafter sparrow) is endemic to south Florida and a key indicator species of marl prairie, the most diverse freshwater community in the Florida Everglades. Marl prairie habitat is shaped by intermediate levels of disturbances such as flooding, drying, and fire, which maintain periphyton production (Gaiser et al. 2011), vegetation composition (Sah et al. 2011), and habitat structure for wildlife (Lockwood et al. 2003). Historically, patches of marl prairie shifted in response to changing climatic conditions,; however, habitat loss and hydrologic alteration have restricted the sparrow’s range and increased their sensitivity to changing hydropatterns. As a result, sparrow numbers have declined as much as 60% range-wide since 1992 (Curnutt et al. 1998, Nott et al. 1998). Currently, the sparrow is restricted to the freshwater prairies of the Everglades National Park (ENP) and Big Cypress Preserve (Lockwood et al. 1997). Because this non-migratory bird is restricted in its range it was among the first species to be listed as endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service on March 11, 1967 (Pimm et al. 2000). Now protected by the Endangered Species Act of 1973, the sparrow is listed as an endangered species, and the marl prairies that it resides in are listed as critical habitat. Since its designation as an endangered species, federal agencies have a statutory obligation to not jeopardize the survival of the species or modify its critical habitat. However, there are still uncertainties in how to increase suitable habitat within and surrounding the six existing sparrow subpopulations (Fig. 1) which are vulnerable to environmental stochasticity because of their small population size and restricted range. Since Because maintenance and creation of suitable habitat is seen as the most important pathway to the persistence of sparrow subpopulations (Sustainable Ecosystems Institute 2007), emphasis should be on

  8. Effects of urbanization on host-pathogen interactions, using Yersinia in house sparrows as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Diederik; Teyssier, Aimeric; Salleh Hudin, Noraine; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Haesendonck, Roel; Delmée, Michel; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Lens, Luc; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization strongly affects biodiversity, altering natural communities and often leading to a reduced species richness. Yet, despite its increasingly recognized importance, how urbanization impacts on the health of individual animals, wildlife populations and on disease ecology remains poorly understood. To test whether, and how, urbanization-driven ecosystem alterations influence pathogen dynamics and avian health, we use house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Yersinia spp. (pathogenic for passerines) as a case study. Sparrows are granivorous urban exploiters, whose western European populations have declined over the past decades, especially in highly urbanized areas. We sampled 329 house sparrows originating from 36 populations along an urbanization gradient across Flanders (Belgium), and used isolation combined with ‘matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight mass spectrometry’ (MALDI-TOF MS) and PCR methods for detecting the presence of different Yersinia species. Yersinia spp. were recovered from 57.43% of the sampled house sparrows, of which 4.06%, 53.30% and 69.54% were identified as Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica and other Yersinia species, respectively. Presence of Yersinia was related to the degree of urbanization, average daily temperatures and the community of granivorous birds present at sparrow capture locations. Body condition of suburban house sparrows was found to be higher compared to urban and rural house sparrows, but no relationships between sparrows’ body condition and presence of Yersinia spp. were found. We conclude that two determinants of pathogen infection dynamics, body condition and pathogen occurrence, vary along an urbanization gradient, potentially mediating the impact of urbanization on avian health. PMID:29281672

  9. Evidence for mito-nuclear and sex-linked reproductive barriers between the hybrid Italian sparrow and its parent species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra N Trier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P. domesticus and Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis. Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. After filtering for coverage, genotyping success (>97% and multiple SNPs per gene, we retained 86 species-informative, genic, nuclear and mitochondrial SNP markers from 84 genes for analysis of 612 male individuals. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers. We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function ("mother's curse" at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome

  10. Evidence for Mito-Nuclear and Sex-Linked Reproductive Barriers between the Hybrid Italian Sparrow and Its Parent Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sætre, Glenn-Peter; Bailey, Richard I.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P. domesticus and Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis. Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After filtering for coverage, genotyping success (>97%) and multiple SNPs per gene, we retained 86 species-informative, genic, nuclear and mitochondrial SNP markers from 84 genes for analysis of 612 male individuals. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers. We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function (“mother's curse”) at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome, have spread

  11. Multiplex PCR-based identification of Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriconi, M; Acke, E; Petrelli, D; Preziuso, S

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus canis (S. canis), Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies (S. dysgalactiae subspecies) are β-haemolytic Gram positive bacteria infecting animals and humans. S. canis and S. zooepidemicus are considered as two of the major zoonotic species of Streptococcus, while more research is needed on S. dysgalactiae subspecies bacteria. In this work, a multiplex-PCR protocol was tested on strains and clinical samples to detect S. canis, S. dysgalactiae subspecies and S. equi subspecies bacteria in dogs. All strains were correctly identified as S. canis, S. equi subspecies or S. dysgalactiae subspecies by the multiplex-PCR. The main Streptococcus species isolated from symptomatic dogs were confirmed S. canis. The multiplex-PCR protocol described is a rapid, accurate and efficient method for identifying S. canis, S. equi subspecies and S. dysgalactiae subspecies in dogs and could be used for diagnostic purposes and for epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  13. Morph matters: aggression bias in a polymorphic sparrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent M Horton

    Full Text Available In species with discrete morphs exhibiting alternative behavioral strategies, individuals may vary their aggressive behavior in competitive encounters according to the phenotype of their opponent. Such aggression bias has been documented in multiple polymorphic species evolving under negative frequency-dependent selection, but it has not been well-studied under other selection regimes. We investigated this phenomenon in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis, a passerine with plumage polychromatism maintained by disassortative mating. The two distinct color morphs differ with respect to reproductive strategy in that white-striped birds invest more in territorial aggression than tan-striped birds. Whether territorial aggression in this species is biased according to the morph of an intruder is less understood. We found that during peak territorial and mating activity, both color morphs and sexes can exhibit aggression bias, but whether they do so depends on the strategy (morph of the intruder. During simulated territorial intrusions, resident white-striped males and tan-striped females, which represent the opposite ends of a continuum from high to low territorial aggression, altered their territorial responses according to intruder morph. Tan-striped males and white-striped females, which represent the middle of the continuum, did not show a bias. We propose that because of the disassortative mating system and morph differences in reproductive strategy, the fitness risks of intrusions vary according to the morphs of the resident and the intruder, and that aggression bias is an attuned response to varying threats to fitness.

  14. Palynological analysis of a palm swamp in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-vicentini, K. R.; Salgado-Labouriau, M. L.

    1996-07-01

    A 281 cm core collected in a palm swamp in Central Brazil yielded ages from more than 32,400 radiocarbon years B.P. to about 3,500 B.P. The palynological analysis indicates changes and oscillations in the climate during this time. At more than 32,400 years B.P. a palm swamp ( Mauritia) and a gallery forest occupied the coring site and an arboreal cerrado (savannalike vegetation) occurred in the region around the studied area. This indicates a vegetation similar to the present, suggesting a warm semi-humid climate with four to five months dry season as at present. At the end of the Middle Pleniglacial (32,400 to ca. 28,300) trees and shrubs started to decline in the region. From ca. 27,000 to ca. 20,000 B.P. the palm swamp was replaced by a shallow lake and a grassland occupied the region. This phase was humid and probably colder than the preceding two phases and the present climate. The decrease of pollen, spores and algae concentration from ca. 18,500 to ca. 11,300 suggests a dry and perhaps cold phase at the end of the Pleistocene. The dryness (but not the cold) continued from ca. 10,500 until ca. 7,700 and the site was burned during this phase, suggesting the dry season was longer than at present. From 6,680 to ca. 3,500 B.P. the Mauritia swamp, the gallery forest and the arboreal cerrado started to return to the region indicating an increase in humidity. There is no record from there to the present because of present human disturbance. The occurrence of abundant charcoal particles in the older sediments suggest that natural fires burned the cerrado several times during the Pleniglacial time, although the palm swamp was not directly burned. The presence of charcoal particles in the beginning of the Holocene could be in part produced by human occupation of the land. Comparison is made with results of other palynological analyses from cerrados and savannas of northern South America.

  15. Spectrophotometry of Artemisia tridentata to quantitatively determine subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bryce; Boyd, Alicia; Tobiasson, Tanner; Germino, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Ecological restoration is predicated on our abilities to discern plant taxa. Taxonomic identification is a first step in ensuring that plants are appropriately adapted to the site. An example of the need to identify taxonomic differences comes from big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). This species is composed of three predominant subspecies occupying distinct environmental niches, but overlap and hybridization are common in ecotones. Restoration of A. tridentata largely occurs using wildland collected seed, but there is uncertainty in the identification of subspecies or mix of subspecies from seed collections. Laboratory techniques that can determine subspecies composition would be desirable to ensure that subspecies match the restoration site environment. In this study, we use spectrophotometry to quantify chemical differences in the water-soluble compound, coumarin. Ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of A. tridentata subsp. vaseyana showed distinct differences among A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. No UV absorbance differences were detected between A.t. tridentata and wyomingensis. Analyses of samples from > 600 plants growing in two common gardens showed that UV absorbance was unaffected by environment. Moreover, plant tissues (leaves and seed chaff) explained only a small amount of the variance. UV fluorescence of water-eluted plant tissue has been used for many years to indicate A.t. vaseyana; however, interpretation has been subjective. Use of spectrophotometry to acquire UV absorbance provides empirical results that can be used in seed testing laboratories using the seed chaff present with the seed to certify A. tridentata subspecies composition. On the basis of our methods, UV absorbance values 3.1 would indicate either A.t. tridentata or wyomingensis. UV absorbance values between 2.7 and 3.1 would indicate a mixture of A.t. vaseyana and the other two subspecies.

  16. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data ...

  17. Rock sparrow song reflects male age and reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Nemeth

    Full Text Available The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia. In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also analysed for the first time whether the sound pressure level of bird song reflects reproductive success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males might try to compensate their inferior status by increased song rates and lower pitch. Independent of age and quality, high-amplitude songs correlated with paternity loss in the own nest, suggesting that in this species song amplitude is not an indicator of male quality but high-intensity songs may be rather a response to unfaithful social mates.

  18. Characterization of the nest site preferences of Saltmarsh and Nelson's Sparrows, and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltmarsh Sparrows (hereafter SALS) are named on the National Audubon Society’s current WatchList as a species of global conservation concern (National Audubon Society 2007). Anthropogenic climate change is perhaps the largest threat to SALS populations because sea level ri...

  19. Reading, Laterality, and the Brain: Early Contributions on Reading Disabilities by Sara S. Sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Morris, Robin D.

    2014-01-01

    Although best known for work with children and adults with intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders, training in speech pathology and a doctorate in clinical psychology and neuropsychology was the foundation for Sara Sparrow's long-term interest in reading disabilities. Her first papers were on dyslexia and laterality, and the…

  20. Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Tree Sparrow, Shanghai, China, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baihui; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Wenfei; Teng, Zheng; Yu, Xuelian; Gao, Ye; Wu, Di; Pei, Enle; Yuan, Zhengan; Yang, Lei; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2013, influenza A(H7N9) virus was isolated from an apparently healthy tree sparrow in Chongming Dongping National Forest Park, Shanghai City, China. The entire gene constellation of the virus is similar to that of isolates from humans, highlighting the need to monitor influenza A(H7N9) viruses in different species. PMID:24751370

  1. 76 FR 65118 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Sparrows Point, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... regulation. The Baltimore County Revenue Authority (Dundalk Avenue) highway toll drawbridge across Bear Creek... applicable or necessary. Basis and Purpose The drawbridge across Bear Creek, mile 1.5 was removed and...

  2. Migratory sleeplessness in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C Rattenborg

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Twice a year, normally diurnal songbirds engage in long-distance nocturnal migrations between their wintering and breeding grounds. If and how songbirds sleep during these periods of increased activity has remained a mystery. We used a combination of electrophysiological recording and neurobehavioral testing to characterize seasonal changes in sleep and cognition in captive white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii across nonmigratory and migratory seasons. Compared to sparrows in a nonmigratory state, migratory sparrows spent approximately two-thirds less time sleeping. Despite reducing sleep during migration, accuracy and responding on a repeated-acquisition task remained at a high level in sparrows in a migratory state. This resistance to sleep loss during the prolonged migratory season is in direct contrast to the decline in accuracy and responding observed following as little as one night of experimenter-induced sleep restriction in the same birds during the nonmigratory season. Our results suggest that despite being adversely affected by sleep loss during the nonmigratory season, songbirds exhibit an unprecedented capacity to reduce sleep during migration for long periods of time without associated deficits in cognitive function. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate migratory sleeplessness may provide insights into the etiology of changes in sleep and behavior in seasonal mood disorders, as well as into the functions of sleep itself.

  3. Predation on Japanese quail vs. house sparrow eggs in artificial nests: small eggs reveal small predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Maier; Richard M. DeGraaf

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation studies frequently use eggs such as Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) to identify potential predators of Neotropical migrants' eggs, but such eggs may be too large or thick-shelled to identify the full complement of potential predators. We compared predation events and predators of Japanese Quail and smaller House Sparrow (

  4. Male song sparrows have elevated testosterone in response to neighbors versus strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser-Purdy, Christopher; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A; Bonier, Frances; Graham, Brendan A; Boyer, Andrea C; Mennill, Daniel J

    2017-07-01

    Upon hearing a conspecific signal, animals must assess their relationship with the signaller and respond appropriately. Territorial animals usually respond more aggressively to strangers than neighbors in a phenomenon known as the "dear enemy effect". This phenomenon likely evolved because strangers represent a threat to an animal's territory tenure and parentage, whereas neighbors only represent a threat to an animal's parentage because they already possess a territory (providing territory boundaries are established and stable). Although the dear enemy effect has been widely documented using behavioral response variables, little research has been conducted on the physiological responses of animals to neighbors versus strangers. We sought to investigate whether the dear enemy effect is observed physiologically by exposing territorial male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to playback simulating a neighbor or a stranger, and then collecting blood samples to measure plasma testosterone levels. We predicted that song sparrows would exhibit increased testosterone levels after exposure to stranger playback compared to neighbor playback, due to the role testosterone plays in regulating aggression. Contrary to our prediction, we found that song sparrows had higher testosterone levels after exposure to neighbor playback compared to stranger playback. We discuss several explanations for our result, notably that corticosterone may regulate the dear enemy effect in male song sparrows and this may inhibit plasma testosterone. Future studies will benefit from examining corticosterone in addition to testosterone, to better understand the hormonal underpinnings of the dear enemy effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of UV absorption for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spomer, G.G.; Henderson, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Use of UV absorption spectra for identifying subspecies of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. was investigated by analyzing the relative optical densities of alcohol extracts from herbarium and fresh plant material at 240 nm, 250 nm, and 265 nm. In all but 1 comparison, mean relative optical densities were significantly different (p=0.95) between subspecies, but intraplant and intrasubspecies variation and overlap was found to be too large to permit use of UV absorbance alone for identifying individual specimens. These results held whether dry or fresh leaves were extracted, or whether methanol or ethanol was used as the extracting solvent. (author)

  6. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to

  7. 75 FR 41879 - Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, NJ AGENCY: Fish and... (CCP) and associated environmental assessment (EA) for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). We... intentions to conduct detailed planning on refuges and obtain suggestions and information about the scope of...

  8. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  9. Occupancy patterns of regionally declining grassland sparrow populations in a forested Pennsylvania landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason M; Diefenbach, Duane R

    2014-06-01

    Organisms can be affected by processes in the surrounding landscape outside the boundary of habitat areas and by local vegetation characteristics. There is substantial interest in understanding how these processes affect populations of grassland birds, which have experienced substantial population declines. Much of our knowledge regarding patterns of occupancy and density stem from prairie systems, whereas relatively little is known regarding how occurrence and abundance of grassland birds vary in reclaimed surface mine grasslands. Using distance sampling and single-season occupancy models, we investigated how the occupancy probability of Grasshopper (Ammodramus savannarum) and Henslow's Sparrows (A. henslowii) on 61 surface mine grasslands (1591 ha) in Pennsylvania changed from 2002 through 2011 in response to landscape, grassland, and local vegetation characteristics . A subset (n = 23; 784 ha) of those grasslands were surveyed in 2002, and we estimated changes in sparrow density and vegetation across 10 years. Grasshopper and Henslow's Sparrow populations declined 72% and 49%, respectively from 2002 to 2011, whereas overall woody vegetation density increased 2.6 fold. Henslow's Sparrows avoided grasslands with perimeter-area ratios ≥0.141 km/ha and woody shrub densities ≥0.04 shrubs/m(2). Both species occupied grasslands ≤13 ha, but occupancy probability declined with increasing grassland perimeter-area ratio and woody shrub density. Grassland size, proximity to nearest neighboring grassland (x = 0.2 km), and surrounding landscape composition at 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 km were not parsimonious predictors of occupancy probability for either species. Our results suggest that reclaimed surface mine grasslands, without management intervention, are ephemeral habitats for Grasshopper and Henslow's Sparrows. Given the forecasted decline in surface coal production for Pennsylvania, it is likely that both species will continue to decline in our study region for the

  10. Lean birds in the city: body size and condition of house sparrows along the urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liker, A; Papp, Z; Bókony, V; Lendvai, A Z

    2008-07-01

    1. Urbanized habitats differ from natural ones in several ecological features, including climate, food availability, strength of predation and competition. Although the effects of urbanization on avian community composition are well known, there is much less information about how individual birds are affected by these human-generated habitat differences. 2. In this study we investigated the relationships between the morphological characteristics and the degree of habitat urbanization in house sparrows, Passer domesticus (Linne 1758) . We collected data for more than 1000 non-breeding adult birds in Hungary between 1997 and 2006, from seven sites including farmlands, suburban areas and city centres. 3. We found that the body mass, tarsus length and body condition of free-living sparrows differed among the sites: birds in more urbanized habitats were consistently smaller and in worse condition than birds in more rural habitats. A composite measure of habitat urbanization (based on building density, road density and vegetation cover) explained over 75% of variance between sites in the studied traits, after we controlled for the effects of sex, year, season and time of capture. 4. The difference in body mass between rural and urban sparrows was significant when birds were kept in aviaries under identical conditions, with constant ad libitum food availability. It is therefore unlikely that the reduced body size and condition of urban sparrows are a consequence of reduced access to food for adults (e.g. due to strong competition), or their short-term responses to high food predictability (e.g. by strategic mass regulation). 5. We suggest that habitat differences in nestling development or adaptive divergence of sparrow populations due to distinct environmental conditions (such as differing predation pressure) may account for the differences along the urbanization gradient.

  11. Occupancy patterns of regionally declining grassland sparrow populations in a forested Pennsylvania landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason M.; Diefenbach, Duane R.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms can be affected by processes in the surrounding landscape outside the boundary of habitat areas and by local vegetation characteristics. There is substantial interest in understanding how these processes affect populations of grassland birds, which have experienced substantial population declines. Much of our knowledge regarding patterns of occupancy and density stem from prairie systems, whereas relatively little is known regarding how occurrence and abundance of grassland birds vary in reclaimed surface mine grasslands. Using distance sampling and single-season occupancy models, we investigated how the occupancy probability of Grasshopper (Ammodramus savannarum) and Henslow's Sparrows (A. henslowii) on 61 surface mine grasslands (1591 ha) in Pennsylvania changed from 2002 through 2011 in response to landscape, grassland, and local vegetation characteristics . A subset (n = 23; 784 ha) of those grasslands were surveyed in 2002, and we estimated changes in sparrow density and vegetation across 10 years. Grasshopper and Henslow's Sparrow populations declined 72% and 49%, respectively from 2002 to 2011, whereas overall woody vegetation density increased 2.6 fold. Henslow's Sparrows avoided grasslands with perimeter–area ratios ≥0.141 km/ha and woody shrub densities ≥0.04 shrubs/m2. Both species occupied grasslands ≤13 ha, but occupancy probability declined with increasing grassland perimeter–area ratio and woody shrub density. Grassland size, proximity to nearest neighboring grassland ( = 0.2 km), and surrounding landscape composition at 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 km were not parsimonious predictors of occupancy probability for either species. Our results suggest that reclaimed surface mine grasslands, without management intervention, are ephemeral habitats for Grasshopper and Henslow's Sparrows. Given the forecasted decline in surface coal production for Pennsylvania, it is likely that both species will continue to decline in our study region for the

  12. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of a greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Ri; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2013-02-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in South Korea. The Korean greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis, is distributed only in Jeju Island. The complete mitochondrial genome of the island subspecies was determined and revealed 99.7% similarity to the mainland subspecies Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai. If d-loop region is excluded, similarity of the two genomes was 99.9%.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of a Chinese rufous horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu

    2016-09-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen.

  14. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  15. Egyptian Vultures and the principle of subspecies in vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Donazar, J.A., Negro, J.J., Palacios, C.J., Gangoso, L., Godoy, J.A., Ceballos,. O., Hiraldo, F. & Capote, N. 2002. Description of a new subspecies of the. Egyptian Vulture (Accipitridae: Neophron percnopterus) from the Canary. Islands. Journal of Raptor Research 36: 17-23. Ferguson-Lees, J. & Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of ...

  16. Isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides (SC) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the isolation of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides (SC) in small ruminants and its implication on disease control was carried out in the Sahel zone of Nigeria. This was achieved by the examination of pneumonic lesions in apparently normal and affected lungs of sheep and goats slaughtered at ...

  17. Genetic diversity analysis and subspecies classification of Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity among 126 rice accessions, including 110 Thai landraces and 16 varieties used as subspecies reference, were evaluated by three types of DNA markers, InDel (Insertion/Deletion), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Twelve InDel primer pairs, based on DNA ...

  18. Palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum Bertol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linum mucronatum is a heterostylous species from sect. Syllinum with four subspecies in Iran. The present study examines palynological characteristics of the heterostylous subspecies of Linum mucronatum, pollen characters of brevistylous individuals (pins as well as longistylous individuals (thrums of these plants by scanning electron microscope and light microscope using the prolonged acetolysis procedure. Sixteen qualitative and quantitative characters were investigated. Pollen equatorial shapes varied between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies with the exception of L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. Pollen sculptures varied between pin and thrum samples of each subspecies and were seen in the gemmate, clavate and baculate shapes. In addition, quantitative palynological characters differed between plants and ANOVA test showed significant variations for traits such as equatorial length, colpi width and apocolpium diameter. Hetrostylous individuals of each subspecies were separated from others in the UPGMA tree and also in the PCO and PCA plots. This study confirmed variations in pollen features between pin and thrum individuals of each subspecies.Linum mucronatum es una especie con heterostilia, que pertenece a la sección Syllinum del género Linum, y tiene cuatro subespecies en Irán. En el presente estudio se examinan las características palinológicas de las subespecies heterostilas de Linum mucronatum Bertol., así como los caracteres polínicos de individuos de los morfos brevistilo (pin y longistilo (thrum de estas plantas, mediante microscopía electrónica de scanning y microscopía óptica usando el método de acetolisis prolongada. Se estudiaron un total de 16 caracteres cualitativos y cuantitativos. La forma ecuatorial del polen varía entre los morfos pin y thrum en todas las subspecies, excepto en L. mucronatum subsp. assyriacum. La ornamentación también varía entre las muestras de morfos pin y thrum de cada subespecie

  19. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  20. Developing a Dynamic SPARROW Water Quality Decision Support System Using NASA Remotely-Sensed Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Smith, R. A.; Hoos, A.; Schwarz, G. E.; Alexander, R. B.; Crosson, W. L.; Srikishen, J.; Estes, M., Jr.; Cruise, J.; Al-Hamdan, A.; Ellenburg, W. L., II; Flores, A.; Sanford, W. E.; Zell, W.; Reitz, M.; Miller, M. P.; Journey, C. A.; Befus, K. M.; Swann, R.; Herder, T.; Sherwood, E.; Leverone, J.; Shelton, M.; Smith, E. T.; Anastasiou, C. J.; Seachrist, J.; Hughes, A.; Graves, D.

    2017-12-01

    The USGS Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) surface water quality modeling system has been widely used for long term, steady state water quality analysis. However, users have increasingly requested a dynamic version of SPARROW that can provide seasonal estimates of nutrients and suspended sediment to receiving waters. The goal of this NASA-funded project is to develop a dynamic decision support system to enhance the southeast SPARROW water quality model and finer-scale dynamic models for selected coastal watersheds through the use of remotely-sensed data and other NASA Land Information System (LIS) products. The spatial and temporal scale of satellite remote sensing products and LIS modeling data make these sources ideal for the purposes of development and operation of the dynamic SPARROW model. Remote sensing products including MODIS vegetation indices, SMAP surface soil moisture, and OMI atmospheric chemistry along with LIS-derived evapotranspiration (ET) and soil temperature and moisture products will be included in model development and operation. MODIS data will also be used to map annual land cover/land use in the study areas and in conjunction with Landsat and Sentinel to identify disturbed areas that might be sources of sediment and increased phosphorus loading through exposure of the bare soil. These data and others constitute the independent variables in a regression analysis whose dependent variables are the water quality constituents total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment. Remotely-sensed variables such as vegetation indices and ET can be proxies for nutrient uptake by vegetation; MODIS Leaf Area Index can indicate sources of phosphorus from vegetation; soil moisture and temperature are known to control rates of denitrification; and bare soil areas serve as sources of enhanced nutrient and sediment production. The enhanced SPARROW dynamic models will provide improved tools for end users to manage water

  1. Holocene mangrove swamps of West Africa sedimentology and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius, C.; Lucas, J.

    The mangrove swamps of West African Coast belong to the Atlantic type which is characterized by a small number of species. They colonize tidal environments which are dissected by numerous meandering tidal channels and are presently subject to a low rate of sediment accumulation. The mangrove vegetation exhibits a characteristic zonation pattern that basically reflects the adaptation of the various species to saline conditions. The typical zonation sequence is: Rhizophora racemosa (or Rh. mangle), Rh. mangle + Avicennia africana, Avicennia, flooded tanne, barren tanne, herbaceous tanne. The tannes are generated by aridic climatic conditions, heavy soil and water salt content, and are, in a way a peculiar feature of mangrove swamps in West Africa. The sediment colonized by the mangroves is relatively homogenous. Mineralogically, they are dominated by quartz and clay to which are associated halite, pyrite and jarosite. The clay suite is mainly composed of smectite and kaolinite. Smectite is predominant in the inlet areas and is replaced inland by kaolinite. Chemically, the sediments contain very low amounts of Ca, bases and trace elements. The mangrove swamp floodwaters have a chemical composition similar to that of seawater. It is dominated by sodium and chloride. Morphologically, the ripening of the soils appears with a chestnut mash colour horizon and buttery consistency in relation with the decomposition of fibrous roots of Rhizophora and also with pale yellow jarosite mottles in the top horizons of the tanne profiles due to the oxidation of pyrine. The two main properties of the mangrove soils of West Africa are acidity and salinity; the first is related to the high content of sulphur and the second to the sea influence. The acidity has to be connected mainly to the Rhizophora vegetation whose the root system is a real trap for catching the pyrites resulting from the reduction of the sulphates of sea water by the sulphate reducing bacteria, in a reduced

  2. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sleeter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting. Results We modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985–2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C coming from above-ground biomass and detritus. Conclusions Natural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha−1/year−1 for Atlantic white cedar, the total

  3. SWAMP+: multiple subsequence alignment using associative massive parallelism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfadt, Shannon Irene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Johnnie W [KENT STATE UNIV.

    2010-10-18

    A new parallel algorithm SWAMP+ incorporates the Smith-Waterman sequence alignment on an associative parallel model known as ASC. It is a highly sensitive parallel approach that expands traditional pairwise sequence alignment. This is the first parallel algorithm to provide multiple non-overlapping, non-intersecting subsequence alignments with the accuracy of Smith-Waterman. The efficient algorithm provides multiple alignments similar to BLAST while creating a better workflow for the end users. The parallel portions of the code run in O(m+n) time using m processors. When m = n, the algorithmic analysis becomes O(n) with a coefficient of two, yielding a linear speedup. Implementation of the algorithm on the SIMD ClearSpeed CSX620 confirms this theoretical linear speedup with real timings.

  4. Ornithological aspects on the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GACHE Carmen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This ornithological notice present information on the avifauna recorded in the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia beginning with the 1998’s summer. We identified 132 species of birds. The reedbeds cover about 35% of the swamp’s surface, offering good conditions for the breeding season (Ixobrychus minutus, Botaurus stellaris, Cygnus olor, Himantopus himantopus, Recurvirostra avosetta and Sterna hirundo but also for migration period. The breeding population is low due the high level of the human pressure. Due the presence of sulphurous sources and peat bed, the water is not freezing during the winter, transforming this territory in an important wintering site in the southeastern Dobroudja. Interesting is also the presence in this area during the winter of some summer visitors’ species for Romania like: Phalacrocorax pygmeus, Botaurus stellaris and Rallus aquaticus.

  5. Weeds optimally grow in peat swamp after burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Susanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After clearing land by burning the peat, then the weeds and undergrowth will flourish. Even sometimes, the weeds are eventually burned again. Weed is known as a destroyer plant that has to be controlled. Through proper treatment, the existing weeds in peatlands can be potentiallly exploited. The purpose of this study was to determine the calorific value of briquettes as one of peatland weeds utilization. The results showed that the calorific value ranged from 2,492 cal/g to 5,230 cal/g. The lowest calorific value was on ‘teki kecil’ grass (Scirpus grossus Lf, while the highest calorific value was observed for ‘bantalaki grass’ (Hymenachne amplexicaulis Nees. The high calorific value of the peat weeds are potential for biomass briquettes raw materials. The utilization and use of peat weed briquettes as a raw materials expected can reduce land degradation due to peat swamp burning

  6. Geomorphic controls on fluvial carbon exports and emissions from upland swamps in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten; Looman, Arun; Maher, Damien T; Fryirs, Kirstie

    2018-03-15

    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are upland wetlands, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage. To assess the effect of channelisation on carbon budgets in these ecosystems it is essential to identify and quantify differences in carbon export, emissions and stocks of carbon of intact swamps and those that have become channelised. We undertook seasonal sampling of the perched swamp aquifers and surface waters of two intact swamps and two channelised fills in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, to investigate differences in carbon exports and emissions between the two swamp types. We found that channelised fills' mean CO 2 emissions were almost four times higher than intact swamps with mean CH 4 emissions up to five times higher. Annual fluvial carbon exports for channelised fills were up to 18 times that of intact swamps. Channelised fill exports and emissions can represent up to 2% of the total swamp carbon stocks per annum which is 40 times higher than the intact swamps. This work clearly demonstrates that changes in geomorphic structure brought about by incision and channelisation results in profound changes to the carbon storage function of THPSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity. PMID:29135909

  8. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-11-14

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity ( p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality ( p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  9. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Cooksey-Stowers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision. Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16. Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05 and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01. Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  10. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  11. Studying wildlife at local and landscape scales: Bachman's Sparrows at the Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, J.B.; Danielson, B.J.; Watts, B.D.; Liu, L.; Krementz, D.G.; Dunning, John B.=; Kilgo, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, mutual research interests between land managers at the Savannah River Site and biologists at the University of Georgia resulted in a landscape-ecology study of the Bachman's Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis). This species had been declining throughout its range for several decades and was considered a species of management concern by the U.S. Forest Service. The reasons for its decline were obscure, but the distribution of suitable habitat across complex landscapes was a possible factor. Thus the species seemed well suited for a pioneer study on landscape influences on avian population dynamics. A cooperative research program developed from these mutual interests, including quantifying the landscape and local habitat patterns shown by the sparrow, spatially explicit modeling of population response to landscape change, and demographic field studies of reproductive success, survivorship and dispersal. These studies are summarized, and the value of the research to both management and research interests is discussed.

  12. Sex-specific fitness correlates of dispersal in a house sparrow metapopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärn, Henrik; Jensen, Henrik; Ringsby, Thor H; Saether, Bernt-Erik

    2009-11-01

    1. Dispersal affects many important ecological and evolutionary processes. Still, little is known about the fitness of dispersing individuals. 2. Here, we use data from a long-term study of a house sparrow Passer domesticus metapopulation to compare lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of resident and immigrant individuals, all with known origin. 3. Lifetime production of recruits by immigrant males was much lower than for resident males, because of shorter life span and lower annual mating success. In contrast, lifetime production of recruits did not differ significantly between immigrant and resident females. 4. Over their lifetime, dispersers contributed fewer recruits to the local population than residents. This shows that immigrant house sparrows have different, sex specific, demographic effects on the population dynamics than residents.

  13. Effects of urbanization on host-pathogen interactions, using Yersinia in house sparrows as a model

    OpenAIRE

    Rouffaer, Lieze; Strubbe, Diederik; Teyssier, Aimeric; Salleh Hudin, Noraine; Van Den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Haesendonck, Roel; Delmée, Michel; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Lens, Luc; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization strongly affects biodiversity, altering natural communities and often leading to a reduced species richness. Yet, despite its increasingly recognized importance, how urbanization impacts on the health of individual animals, wildlife populations and on disease ecology remains poorly understood. To test whether, and how, urbanization-driven ecosystem alterations influence pathogen dynamics and avian health, we use house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Yersinia spp. (pathogenic for...

  14. Genes located in a chromosomal inversion are correlated with territorial song in white-throated sparrows

    OpenAIRE

    Zinzow-Kramer, Wendy M.; Horton, Brent M.; McKee, Clifton D.; Michaud, Justin M.; Tharp, Gregory K.; Thomas, James W.; Tuttle, Elaina M.; Yi, Soojin; Maney, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    The genome of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) contains an inversion polymorphism on chromosome 2 that is linked to predictable variation in a suite of phenotypic traits including plumage color, aggression, and parental behavior. Differences in gene expression between the two color morphs, which represent the two common inversion genotypes (ZAL2/ZAL2 and ZAL2/ZAL2m), are therefore of potential interest toward understanding the molecular underpinnings of these phenotypes. To...

  15. Estimates of Nitrogen Removal in U.S. Streams and Reservoirs from the SPARROW Watershed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Schwarz, G. E.; Nolan, J. V.; Boyer, E. W.

    2003-12-01

    Greater understanding is needed of the biotic and abiotic processes that remove nitrogen (N) from streams and reservoirs to quantify transport to downstream coastal waters where eutrophication is a major concern. Recent studies have improved estimates of N removal rates (e.g., denitrification, biological uptake) over small spatial scales in low-order streams. However, limited knowledge of the factors that explain the large variation in literature removal rates has made it difficult to accurately predict N transport through the range of stream and reservoir sizes that link sources to downstream waters. Spatially referenced watershed models (SPARROW) have been used to statistically estimate long-term mean-annual rates of total nitrogen removal in streams and reservoirs over large spatial scales. These rates are estimated as a function of physical and hydraulic properties (channel depth, water travel time) that influence the contact and exchange of water with benthic sediment. We recently refined our SPARROW model structure with expanded descriptions of climatic, topographic, and other surficial features of terrestrial and aquatic landscapes. We find that the net rates of N removal decline from about 0.3 day-1 of water travel time in streams with depths less than 0.5 meters to negligible quantities in large rivers (greater than 4 meters). These rates are generally consistent with those of earlier regional and national SPARROW models and with measured rates from the literature (adjusted for water travel time) over the reported range of stream depths. A settling velocity of approximately 8 meters year-1 is estimated for lakes and reservoirs and agrees well with literature rates for lakes where denitrification is the predominant removal process. We applied these removal rates within the SPARROW stream and reservoir network to estimate the regional-scale N transport and delivery to U.S. coastal waters.

  16. Male Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia) Nest Defence Correlates with Female Ornament Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d-old nest...... defence factor was significantly related only to female breast patch size. We argue that male rock sparrows apparently make parental investment decisions according to their mate's quality, and examine possible alternative hypotheses.......We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d......-old nestlings, and measured the intensity of male and female defence reaction. We measured the frequency of attack flights, intensity of alarm calling and total time spent in view, and then combined these for each individual, in a single defence factor by principal component analysis. All the females arrived...

  17. SPARROW models used to understand nutrient sources in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) has been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. To describe where and from what sources those loads originate, SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were constructed for the MARB using geospatial datasets for 2002, including inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and calibration sites throughout the MARB. Previous studies found that highest N and P yields were from the north-central part of the MARB (Corn Belt). Based on the MARB SPARROW models, highest N yields were still from the Corn Belt but centered over Iowa and Indiana, and highest P yields were widely distributed throughout the center of the MARB. Similar to that found in other studies, agricultural inputs were found to be the largest N and P sources throughout most of the MARB: farm fertilizers were the largest N source, whereas farm fertilizers, manure, and urban inputs were dominant P sources. The MARB models enable individual N and P sources to be defined at scales ranging from SPARROW catchments (∼50 km2) to the entire area of the MARB. Inputs of P from WWTPs and urban areas were more important than found in most other studies. Information from this study will help to reduce nutrient loading from the MARB by providing managers with a description of where each of the sources of N and P are most important, thus providing a basis for prioritizing management actions and ultimately reducing the extent of Gulf hypoxia.

  18. White-throated sparrows alter songs differentially in response to chorusing anurans and other background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenske, Ariel K; La, Van T

    2014-06-01

    Animals can use acoustic signals to attract mates and defend territories. As a consequence, background noise that interferes with signal transmission has the potential to reduce fitness, especially in birds that rely on song. While much research on bird song has investigated vocal flexibility in response to urban noise, weather and other birds, the possibility of inter-class acoustic competition from anurans has not been previously studied. Using sound recordings from central Ontario wetlands, we tested if white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicolis) make short-term changes to their singing behaviour in response to chorusing spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), as well as to car noise, wind and other bird vocalizations. White-throated sparrow songs that were sung during the spring peeper chorus were shorter with higher minimum frequencies and narrower bandwidths resulting in reduced frequency overlap. Additionally, sparrows were less likely to sing when car noise and the vocalizations of other birds were present. These patterns suggest that birds use multiple adjustment strategies. This is the first report to demonstrate that birds may alter their songs differentially in response to different sources of noise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Conservation Controversy: Sparrow, Marshall, and the Mi’kmaq of Esgenoôpetitj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. King

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the interplay between the Sparrow and Marshall decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada, and the sovereigntist and traditionalist convictions of the Mi’kmaq of the Esgenoôpetitj/BurntChurch First Nation, as expressed in the conservationist language of the Draft for the Esgenoopotitj First Nations (EFN Fishery Act (Fisheries Policy. With the Supreme Court of Canada’s decision in Sparrow, conservation became an important justification available to the Canadian government to support its regulatory infringement on aboriginal and treaty rights. Ten years later, in Marshall, the Court recognized the treaty rights of the Mi’kmaq to a limited commercial fishery. The EFN Fishery Act, written to govern thecontroversial post-Marshall fishery in Esgenoôpetitj (also known as the Burnt Church First Nation demonstrates that for the Mi’kmaq, scientific management, traditional knowledge, sovereignty and spirituality are understood in a holistic philosophy. The focus placed on conservation by the courts, and the managementfocusedapproach taken by the government at Esgenoôpetitj have led to government policy which treats conservation simply as a resource access and management problem. Conservation, which the Court deems“uncontroversial” in Sparrow, is a politically loaded ideal in post-Marshall Burnt Church.

  20. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  1. Morphology-function relationships and repeatability in the sperm of Passer sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Emily R A; Laskemoen, Terje; Stensrud, Even; Rowe, Melissah; Haas, Fredrik; Lifjeld, Jan T; Saetre, Glenn-Peter; Johnsen, Arild

    2015-04-01

    Sperm performance is likely to be an important determinant of male reproductive success, especially when females copulate with multiple males. Understanding sperm performance is therefore crucial to fully understand the evolution of male reproductive strategies. In this study, we examined the repeatability of sperm morphology and motility measures over three breeding seasons, and we studied relationships between sperm morphology and function. We conducted this study in wild-derived captive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (P. hispaniolensis). Results for the two species were similar. As predicted from results in other passerine species, total sperm length was highly repeatable across ejaculates, and repeatability for the length of other components was moderate. The repeatability of sperm swimming speed across ejaculates was lower, but statistically significant, suggesting that sperm velocity may be a relatively dynamic trait. Surprisingly, swimming speed did not correlate with the relative length of the midpiece, and it correlated negatively with the relative length of the flagellum and with total sperm length. This pattern is the opposite of what theory predicts and differs from what has been found in house sparrows before. Also contrary to previous work, we found no evidence that total sperm length correlates with sperm longevity. These results therefore highlight the need for a better understanding of relationships between sperm morphology and function in passerine birds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Discriminative and reinforcing properties of paintings in Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that non-human animals can discriminate two different artworks (such as music or paintings) that were created by humans. However, such studies rarely examined whether those animals were reinforced by one artwork more than another. It has been shown that music composed by humans has both discriminative and reinforcing properties when played for Java sparrows. Here, we investigated the effects of another artistic medium in Java sparrows, namely paintings. The first experiment tested the reinforcing properties. Staying time at three painting categories--Japanese, cubist, and impressionist--was measured as an index of their reinforcing properties. The second experiment used operant conditioning to reveal the discriminative properties of the different artistic styles of such paintings. Results suggest that the paintings have both discriminative and reinforcing properties for Java sparrows. However, the reinforcing properties vary from individual to individual. This is the first report demonstrating reinforcing properties of visual artworks in non-human animals. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  3. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from mangrove swamps. 2. Their ecology and physiology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Oak, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    , D. acetoxidans, Desulfosarcina variabilis, Desulfococcus multivorans, and Desulfovibrio sapovorons. It is suggested that sulfate-reduction in these mangrove swamps may not only be mediated through hydrogen, lactate and acetate but also through...

  4. Report of mortmorilloniticas clay in the Medina swamp (Cerro Largo district)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.; Heinzen, W.; Theune, C.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the prospect ion work for the montmorillonitics clay in the region of Medina swamp in Cerro Largo district. The existence of new deposits was detected by cartography and geological study.

  5. Two Neural Measures Differ between Urban and Rural Song Sparrows after Conspecific Song Playback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra B. Sewall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a critical form of environmental change that can affect the physiology and behavior of wild animals and, notably, birds. One behavioral difference between birds living in urban and rural habitats is that urban males show elevated boldness or territorial aggression in response to simulated social challenge. This pattern has been described in several populations of song sparrow, Melospiza melodia. Such behavioral differences must be underpinned by differences in the brain, yet little work has explored how urbanization and neural function may be interrelated. We explored the relationship between urbanization and neural activation within a network of brain regions, collectively called the social behavior network, which contributes to the regulation of territorial aggression. Specifically, we captured free-living, territorial male song sparrows by playing them conspecific songs for 6–11 min, and then collected their brains. We estimated recent neural activation, as indicated by the immediate early gene FOS, and measured levels of a neuropeptide, arginine vasotocin (AVT, which is involved in the regulation of social behavior. Based on previous studies we expected urban males, which are generally more territorially aggressive, to have lower FOS expression in a node of the social behavior network implicated in regulating territoriality, the lateral septum (LS. Additionally, we expected urban males to have lower AVT expression in a brain region involved in the regulation of sociality, the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm. We found that, compared to rural males, urban male song sparrows did have lower FOS expression in the LS. This pattern suggests that lower neural activation in the LS could contribute to behavioral adjustments to urbanization in male song sparrows. Additionally, counter to our predictions, urban male song sparrows had higher AVT-like immunoreactivity in the BSTm. Future work building upon these findings

  6. Le Conte's sparrows breeding in Conservation Reserve Program fields: precipitation and patterns of population change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    1999-01-01

    The climate of the North American Great Plains is highly dynamic, with great year-to-year variability in precipitation and periodic, often extreme, wet and dry cycles (Bragg 1995). Drought is a major force of ecological disturbance on the Great Plains and has played a key role in directing the evolution of the grassland biota of this region (Knopf and Samson 1997). Although grassland birds may differ in their responses to enviromenental variations (Rotenberry and Wiens 1991), climatic variability and concomitant unpredictability of resources strongly influence populations of grassland birds across space and time (Wiens 1974, 1986; Cody 1985). Not surprisingly, breeding bird populations on the Great Plains are highly dynamic, exhibiting considerable annual variation in composition, abundance, and distribution (Johnson and Grier 1988, George et al. 1992, Zimmerman 1992, Igl and Johnson 1997). Recently, interest in grassland birds has increased with the recognition that many species are declining both continentally (Droege and Sauer 1994) and globally (Goriup 1988). Identification of the specific factors associated with grassland bird declines in North America, however, remains largely enigmatic (Herkert 1997), and it is complicated by the considerable annual fluctuations in grassland bird distribution and abundance (Igl and Johnson 1997). Although there is evidence that land-use changes on the breeding grounds may have contributed to grassland bird declines (e.g., Igl and Johnson 1997), there also is an indication that long-term drought conditions may have influenced recent population changes of some breeding birds on the Great Plains (Droege and Sauer 1989, Peterjohn and Sauer 1993, Bethke and Nudds 1995, Igl and Johnson 1997). Le Conte's Sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii) is a secretive grassland bird that breeds in central and southern Canada and the northcentral United States (Murray 1969). It winters primarily in the southern United States (Peterson 1980, 1990

  7. Swamp land optimization in supporting food security and enhancing farmers welfare in South Sumatra Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwenita; Hutapea, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Swamp land in Indonesia spread in Sumatra, Kalimantan and West Papua. In Sumatra the largest swamp land area is located in South Sumatera Province. Unfortunately only few of the areas have been utilized due to its fragility, in which farmers could only cultivate rice on it once a year. The purpose of this paper is to develop a feasible farming pattern in swamp land to help farmers and practitioners in optimizing it by managing its water level. Shallow and mid swamp land can be cultivated using rotation model of crops (rice, corn, cassava), horticulture (cucumber, long beans, watermelon etc), fish farming (catfish, snake head fish, tilapia), and duck farming, whereas submergence tolerant rice varieties can be cultivated alternating with fish farming in deep swamp land. This study shows that such swamp land management is financially feasible showing by its positive NPV value, BCR value is above 1.00, and IRR value is greater than the interest rate. Therefore, implementation of this farming pattern is expected to increase farmers’ income and household food supply as well as village food supply.

  8. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Joris; Bauwens, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi(2)-tests and AIC-criteria, Pnegative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.

  9. Intestinal parasitic infections and swamp development in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbakima, Aiah A.

    1994-11-01

    The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and other intestinal and urogenital parasites were assessed in five Inland Valley Swamp (IVS) development faming communities in the Moyamba District, South-central Sierra Leone. Stool and urine samples were submitted by 1106 individuals and examined by the iron-haematoxylin staining and the formalin-ether concentration techniques for faecal sample and centrifugation method for the urine samples. The overall parasitic infection rate was 61.7% while 5.9% of the population had multiple infections. E. histolytica infection rate was 12.3 % and most of the infected individuals were passing cysts. Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis infection rates were 10.0% and 0.4% respectively. Among the helminth infections, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly observed (13.7%), followed by hookworms (12.1 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.7%) and tapeworms (2.6%). The high parasitic infection rate (61.7%) and the frequency of multiple infections indicate an interrelationship of environmental factors which support transmission rather than a single factor.

  10. The molecular epidemiology of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Daphne Y.; Giacani, Lorenzo; Centurión-Lara, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Pathogens adapt and evolve in response to pressures exerted by host environments, leading to generation of genetically diverse variants. Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum displays a substantial amount of interstrain diversity. These variants have been identified in various parts of the world, indicating transmission linkage between geographical regions. Genotyping is based on molecular characterisation of various loci in the syphilis treponeme genome, but still require further development and continued research, as new bacterial types are continually being detected. The goal for studying the molecular epidemiology of Treponema pallidum variants is the global monitoring of the transmission of genetically distinct organisms with different drug sensitivities and, potentially, different virulence proprieties. PMID:25844928

  11. Mineral uptake by taro (colocasla esculenta) in swamp agroecosystem following gramoxone paraquat herbicide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Mazleha Maskin; Abdul Khalik Wood

    2006-01-01

    Mineral elemental uptake by Colocasia esculenta growing in swamp agroecosystem was studied following 14, 18 or 28 months of field spraying (MAT, months after treatment) with herbicide Gramoxone paraquat. In overall, Al (68226.67 ± 24066.56 μ/g dw) was the major element in riverine alluvial swamp soil, followed by micronutrient Fe (22280.00 ± 6328.87 μ/g dw). Concentration of macronutrient K (20733.33 ± 7371.82, μ/g dw) was the highest in swamp taro leaf followed by macronutrient Ca (7050.00 ± 3767.26 μ/g dw). In overall, the order of importance of the average mineral concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Na > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. However at 14 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Al > Na > Mn > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. At 18 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Fe > Na > Zn > Br > Co. At 28 AMT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Fe > Al > Zn > Na > Br > Co. In overall, the average order of importance of mineral elemental uptake or the soil plant transfer coefficient was Mn > K > Na > Zn > Co > Fe > Al; similar with the order at 28 MAT However, at 14 MAT the order of importance of the soil plant transfer coefficient was different at Mn > K > Na > Co > Zn > Al > Fe. (Author)

  12. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.

    2017-06-09

    The use of freshwater diversions (river reintroductions) from the Mississippi River as a restoration tool to rehabilitate Louisiana coastal wetlands has been promoted widely since the first such diversion at Caernarvon became operational in the early 1990s. To date, aside from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (which is designed and operated for flood control), there are only four operational Mississippi River freshwater diversions (two gated structures and two siphons) in coastal Louisiana, and they all target salinity intrusion, shellfish management, and (or) the enhancement of the integrity of marsh habitat. River reintroductions carry small sediment loads for various design reasons, but they can be effective in delivering fresh­water to combat saltwater intrusion and increase the delivery of nutrients and suspended fine-grained sediments to receiving wetlands. River reintroductions may be an ideal restoration tool for targeting coastal swamp forest habitat; much of the area of swamp forest habitat in coastal Louisiana is undergo­ing saltwater intrusion, high rates of submergence, and lack of riverine flow leading to reduced concentrations of important nutrients and suspended sediments, which sustain growth and regeneration, help to aerate swamp soils, and remove toxic compounds from the rhizosphere.The State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restora­tion Authority (CPRA) has made it a priority to establish a small freshwater river diversion into a coastal swamp forest located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, to reintroduce Mississippi River water to Maurepas Swamp. While a full understanding of how a coastal swamp forest will respond to new freshwater loading through a Mississippi River reintroduction is unknown, this report provides guidance based on the available literature for establishing performance measures that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

  13. Captivity influences immune responses, stress endocrinology, and organ size in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Ashley C; Lovern, Matthew B; DuRant, Sarah E

    2017-10-01

    Studies using wild animals in laboratory-based research require bringing wild-captured organisms into a novel setting, which can have long-lasting impacts on physiology and behavior. In several species, captivity stimulates stress hormone production and can alter immune function. Despite this, there is little consensus on how captivity influences stress hormone regulation, or if captivity-induced changes in stress hormone production and regulation mediate changes in immune function. In this study, we investigate the influence of captivity on the physiology of a wild bird commonly-used in laboratory-based research, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). We tested how captivity influences stress endocrinology, immune responses, and organ mass, and also investigated if the production or regulation of corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, correlated with changes in immunity. We found that baseline corticosterone concentrations and maximum capacity of the adrenals to secrete corticosterone increase following captivity and remain elevated after 9weeks of captivity. A measure of innate immune function, the bactericidal ability of plasma, also increased with time spent in captivity. Wound healing was also influenced by time spent in captivity, with birds taking almost 2days longer to heal if they were wounded after 3weeks in captivity when compared with birds that were wounded immediately upon capture. Additionally, captivity caused notable reductions in spleen and liver mass. Together, these results imply that captivity can have long-lasting effects on house sparrow corticosterone release and immune function, and suggest that even after 9weeks house sparrows do not acclimate physiologically to life in captivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a reproductive index to estimate grasshopper sparrow and eastern meadowlark reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Donald P.; Gipson, P.S.; Pontius, J.S.; Japuntich, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    We compared an index of reproductive success based on breeding behavior to actual nest fates of grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) on 12 plots (4-ha). Concordance of results between the two methods was 58% for grasshopper sparrows and 42% for eastern meadowlarks on a plot-by-plot basis. The indirect method yielded higher estimates of reproductive activity than nest monitoring for the balance of the plots,. There was little evidence that brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism influenced the estimates of reproductive success using the indirect method. We concluded that nests and about-to-fledge nestlings were missed during searches on some plots. It may be appropriate to use an indirect method to more efficiently survey territories and/or plots for species with hard-to-find nests or when monitoring large areas. Use of a reproductive index may be appropriate and more time-efficient than nest searching and monitoring for comparing management effects such as burning, grazing, haying, military training, and other localized disturbances that are likely to affect reproductive success of grasshopper sparrows and eastern meadowlarks. However, nest monitoring may be necessary for more precise estimates of productivity necessary for long-term monitoring. Nest monitoring results are also likely to allow for direct comparisons to results from other studies because the index method requires intimate knowledge of the species being evaluated - a factor that could lead to reduced precision because the experience level of technicians relying only on behavioral cues from study-to-study is likely to vary considerably.

  15. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Avipoxvirus in House Sparrows in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Martínez, Jorge; Ferraguti, Martina; Figuerola, Jordi; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Williams, Richard Alexander John; Herrera-Dueñas, Amparo; Aguirre, José Ignacio; Soriguer, Ramón; Escudero, Clara; Moens, Michaël André Jean; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Benítez, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Avipoxvirus (APV) is a fairly common virus affecting birds that causes morbidity and mortality in wild and captive birds. We studied the prevalence of pox-like lesions and genetic diversity of APV in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in natural, agricultural and urban areas in southern Spain in 2013 and 2014 and in central Spain for 8 months (2012-2013). Overall, 3.2% of 2,341 house sparrows visually examined in southern Spain had cutaneous lesions consistent with avian pox. A similar prevalence (3%) was found in 338 birds from central Spain. Prevalence was higher in hatch-year birds than in adults. We did not detect any clear spatial or temporal patterns of APV distribution. Molecular analyses of poxvirus-like lesions revealed that 63% of the samples were positive. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 29 DNA sequences from the fpv167 gene, detected two strains belonging to the canarypox clade (subclades B1 and B2) previously found in Spain. One of them appears predominant in Iberia and North Africa and shares 70% similarity to fowlpox and canarypox virus. This APV strain has been identified in a limited number of species in the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco and Hungary. The second one has a global distribution and has been found in numerous wild bird species around the world. To our knowledge, this represents the largest study of avian poxvirus disease in the broadly distributed house sparrow and strongly supports the findings that Avipox prevalence in this species in South and central Spain is moderate and the genetic diversity low.

  16. California's Endangered Belding's Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi: Tolerance of Pedestrian Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fernández-Juricic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt marshes constitute habitat islands for many endemic animal species, particularly along the California coast, where urban sprawl has fragmented this habitat. Recreational activities in salt marshes have increased recently, posing an interesting problem: how do endemic species lacking alternative habitat modify their tolerance to humans? We assessed seasonal and site variations in three tolerance parameters (distances at which animals became alert, fled, and moved after fleeing of California's endangered Belding's Savannah Sparrow ((Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi. We approached individuals on trails in three salt marshes with different levels of vehicle and pedestrian traffic. Belding's Savannah Sparrows became aware and fled at shorter distances in the salt marsh coincident with greater levels of recreational activity as a result of habituation or visual obstruction effects. Seasonal effects in tolerance varied between sites. Alert and flight initiation distances were higher in the pre-nesting than in the non-breeding season in the site with the highest levels of recreational use likely due to greater exposure of breeding individuals; however, the opposite seasonal trend was found in each of the two sites with relatively lower human use, probably because individuals were less spatially attached in the non-breeding season when they foraged in aggregations. Distance fled was greater in the non-breeding than in the breeding season. Our findings call for dynamic management of recreational activities in different salt marshes depending on the degree of exposure to humans and seasonal variations in tolerance. We recommend a minimum approaching distance of 63 m and buffer areas of 1.3 ha around Belding's Savannah Sparrows.

  17. Male rock sparrows differentially allocate nest defence but not food provisioning to offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Carmagnani, Cristina; Griggio, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    for a number of species, while male differential allocation based on female secondary sexual traits has received less attention. Yet females of many species, among birds in particular, are ornamented. We performed a test of male differential allocation based on a female ornament in the rock sparrow (Petronia......Secondary sexual characters may provide information about individual quality to a partner, which may use it during parental care to strategically allocate resources to the current breeding attempt (Differential Allocation Hypothesis). Differential allocation by females has been demonstrated...

  18. Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental or mating investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilastro, Andrea; Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relations between female quality and ornamentation and between male breeding investment and female ornamentation in the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, a passerine in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch. Breast patch size in females was positively correlated with body...... trend for females with enlarged ornaments, contrary to predictions, to increase their feeding rate. Reducing female ornaments resulted in a decrease in male nest attendance, a measure of passive brood defence, whereas enlarging the ornament had no effect. Males concurrently reduced their territorial...

  19. Zoneamento ambiental em Pantanais (Banhados Environmental zoning in swamp regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. Kurtz

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O zoneamento ambiental em pantanais (Banhados permitiu avaliar a deterioração ambiental dos ecossistemas existentes na Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC/TAIM municípios de Rio Grande, RS, e Santa Vitória do Palmar, RS. Considerou-se dois tipos distintos de ecossistemas: o do Banhado (ECO1 = Ecossistema Límnico e o da Planície Marítima (ECO2 = Ecossistema Planície Marítima. A ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 apresentou 64% da classe APP (Área de Preservação Permanente, 27,6% de ACP (Área de Conservação Permanente, e 5,6% de AUO (Área de Uso e Ocupação, enquanto em menor porcentagem se encontra a classe AR (Área de Restauração com 2,8%. A deterioração ambiental da ESEC/TAIM (ECO TOTAL ficou em 13,65%. Com relação à análise fatorial, conclui-se que esta técnica permitiu conhecer a estrutura dos dados, mostrando as correlações entre cada variável (classes de exuberância e seu respectivo fator; entretanto, não foi possível separar grupos ou quantificar a influência de uma ou mais variáveis sobre outra de interesse (variável resposta. Recomenda-se que o zoneamento ambiental seja elaborado pelos órgãos públicos ambientais, nas demais estações ecológicas e nas unidades de conservação.The environmental zoning in swamp regions allowed the evaluation of the environmental deterioration of the ecosystems in the Ecological Station of Taim (ESEC/TAIM, in Rio Grande and Santa Vitória of Palmar (in the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil. Two different types of ecosystems were considered: swamp regions (ECO1 = Límnico Ecosystem and the Marine Plain (ECO2 = Ecosystem Marine Plain. The ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 presented 64% of the class APP (Permanent Preservation Area, 27.6% of ACP (Permanent Conservation Area, 5.6% of AUO (Occupation and Use Area, and in a smaller percentage the class AR (Restoration Area with 2.8%. The environmental deterioration of ESEC/TAIM (ECO TOTAL was 13.65%. The factorial analysis technique permitted

  20. Validating bifidobacterial species and subspecies identity in commercial probiotic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zachery T; Shani, Guy; Masarweh, Chad F; Popovic, Mina; Frese, Steve A; Sela, David A; Underwood, Mark A; Mills, David A

    2016-03-01

    The ingestion of probiotics to attempt to improve health is increasingly common; however, quality control of some commercial products can be limited. Clinical practice is shifting toward the routine use of probiotics to aid in prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and probiotic administration to term infants is increasingly common to treat colic and/or prevent atopic disease. Since bifidobacteria dominate the feces of healthy breast-fed infants, they are often included in infant-targeted probiotics. We evaluated 16 probiotic products to determine how well their label claims describe the species of detectable bifidobacteria in the product. Recently developed DNA-based methods were used as a primary means of identification, and were confirmed using culture-based techniques. We found that the contents of many bifidobacterial probiotic products differ from the ingredient list, sometimes at a subspecies level. Only 1 of the 16 probiotics perfectly matched its bifidobacterial label claims in all samples tested, and both pill-to-pill and lot-to-lot variation were observed. Given the known differences between various bifidobacterial species and subspecies in metabolic capacity and colonization abilities, the prevalence of misidentified bifidobacteria in these products is cause for concern for those involved in clinical trials and consumers of probiotic products.

  1. Relationship and genetic diversity of mistletoe (Viscum album L. subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the help of 21 putative isoenzyme loci, the genetic diversity and variations of Viscum album ssp. album L. from 42 species, subspecies, varieties and hybrids of broadleaf trees, Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb. Vollmann, from 4 populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Viscum album ssp. abietis (Wiesb. Abromeit, from 8 populations of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill. were analyzed. On the dendrogram, the three investigated subspecies form three clusters, each clearly separated from the other, so we suggest a revision of the systematic nomenclature proposed to take into consideration a return to an earlier system of dividing the European mistletoe into three species: Viscum album L., Viscum abietis Beck, and Viscum laxum Boiss. et Reut. From among the 21 tested loci only one locus, SOD-A, was monomorphic. The average number of actual alleles (Na and effective alleles (Ne was 2.23 and 1.61 respectively. The observed heterozygosity (Ho varied from 0.199 in V. album ssp. abietis to 0.345 in the V.a. ssp. album populations. Average FST = 0.277 indicates that about 28% of genetic differentiation is due to an interpopulation diversity of Viscum album populations. There is a small gene flux between Viscum album populations with only one immigrant successfully entering a population per two generations (Nm = 0,653.

  2. Rapid diagnosis of strangles (Streptococcus equi subspecies equi) using PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoni, Guido; Williams, Adele; Durham, Andy; Florio, Daniela; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; La Ragione, Roberto M

    2015-10-01

    Strangles is one of the most common equine infectious diseases with serious health, welfare and socio-economic impact. However, the detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi can be challenging and persistently infected carriers are common. Furthermore, the use of classical microbiology can result in an underestimation of the prevalence of the disease. The difficulties associated with the slow diagnosis of Strangles can result in rapid spread of the disease. Therefore, rapid and economical diagnostic tests are urgently required. Here, two multiplex assays, were developed and validated for the detection of S. equi and S. equi subspecies zooepidemicus, the most common differential diagnosis. Using 59 S. equi and 59 S. zooepidemicus strains collected from various geographical areas, the PCR tests demonstrated a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 98%. Furthermore, the assay can be performed directly from clinical swabs. Thus, the assays designed here provide a rapid, reliable and economical solution for the diagnosis of Strangles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  4. Floristic and phytosociological analysis of palm swamps in the central part of the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Lucia de Morais Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the floristics and phytosociology of three palm swamps in the municipality of Bela Vista de Goiás, located in the state of Goiás, Brazil, in the central part of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. The floristic surveys were conducted monthly from May 2008 to April 2009, and 310 species were recorded (seven bryophytes, 15 ferns and 288 angiosperms. Bryophytes belonged to five genera and five families; ferns belonged to nine genera and nine families; and angiosperms belonged to 134 genera and 45 families. The angiosperm families with the highest species richness were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae and Fabaceae. The palm swamps were divided into three zones of increasing humidity: edge, middle and core. The number of species was higher in the middle than at the edge and the core. The families with the highest cover values were Cyperaceae, Melastomataceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae. Although the palm swamps had been disturbed to varying degrees, those disturbances did not affect the flora in the middle or the core. Floristic similarity was high between these two zones within a given palm swamp and low between the edges of different palm swamps.

  5. Three new species and one new subspecies of Toxorhynchites (Diptera: Culicidae) of the afrotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Henrique

    2005-05-01

    Three new species and one new subspecies in the subgenus Afrorhynchus of the genus Toxorhynchites are described from the Afrotropical region. With the addition of these four new taxa, 14 species and two subspecies of subgenus Afrorhynchus are presently known in the region. Keys are provided for the identification of adult males and females of the subgenus Afrorhynchus in Africa.

  6. Subspecies recognition in Knot Calidris canutus and occurrence of races in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roselaar, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    Based on migrant and winter specimens, 2 separate populations of Knot Calidris canutus are shown to occur in the Netherlands. Both are sufficiently differentiated to deserve recognition on subspecies level. Breeding range, migration routes, and winter areas of both these subspecies are defined.

  7. Influences of deforestation on radiation and heat balances in tropical peat swamp forest in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Ishida, T.; Nagano, T.; Matsukawa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The difference of radiation and heat balances between a natural peat swamp forest and a deforested secondary forest has been investigated in Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Micrometeorological measurements were conducted continuously on observation towers 38 m and 4 m in heights in the primary forest and the secondary forest respectively. Results show that the deforestation of peat swamp forest leads to an increase in the sensible heat flux in the secondary forest. The yearly average ratio of the sensible heat flux to the net radiation was 20.9% in the peat swamp forest, and 33.2% in the secondary forest from Aug. 1995 to Jul. 1996. A ratio more than 40% was observed only in the dry season in the secondary forest. The change in sensible heat flux seemed to be influenced by the change in ground water levels. (author)

  8. Project conservation and handling for the multiple uses and the development of the swamps of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paez, Heliodoro

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia the swamps are distributed in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts; they are located in areas with conditions of pluvial precipitation that varies from annual 200 mm in the Guajira department; nine species of mangroves have registered for Colombia, which are related following a zonation starting from the tide line, still when this pattern not always stays and it depends on the influence of diverse factors and local conditions. The project conservation and handling for the multiple use and the development of the swamps of Colombia, had as objectives; to watch and to control the parameters of salinity, level of water and flow to laminate and of strengthening the generation of alternative productive social and environmentally appropriate for the sustainable use, guaranteeing their conservation and preservation of the swamps. The project was developed in two phases, one of diagnostic and planning and the other of dynamics of growth, phenology and natural regeneration

  9. Genetic subspecies diversity of the chimpanzee CD4 virus-receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Siegismund, Hans R

    2008-01-01

    Chimpanzees are naturally and asymptomatically infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Pathogenic properties of SIV/HIV vary and differences in susceptibility and pathogenicity of SIV/HIV depend in part on host-specific factors such as virus-receptor/co-receptor interactions. Since CD4...... plays a primary role in virus binding and since SIVcpz have been found only in two African chimpanzee subspecies, we characterized the genetic diversity of CD4 receptors in all four recognized subspecies of chimpanzees. We found noticeable variation in the first variable region V1 of CD4 and in intron...... six among the subspecies of chimpanzees. We found the CD4 receptor to be conserved in individuals belonging to the P. t. verus subspecies and divergent from the other three subspecies, which harbored highly variable CD4 receptors. The CD4 receptor of chimpanzees differed from that of humans. We...

  10. House sparrows mitigate growth effects of post-natal glucocorticoid exposure at the expense of longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Jacquelyn K; Froud, Louise; Meillère, Alizée; Angelier, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    Acute, short-term effects of early-life stress and associated glucocorticoid upregulation on physiology and survival are widely documented across vertebrates. However, the persistence and severity of these effects are largely unknown, especially through the adult stage and for natural systems. Here, we investigate physiological, morphological, and survival effects of post-natal glucocorticoid upregulation across the nestling, juvenile, and adult life stages in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We manipulate circulating corticosterone concentration in wild, free-living house sparrow nestlings and monitor body size, size-corrected mass, two measures of health (hematocrit and phytohemagglutinin-induced skin swelling), and survival in a captive environment until adulthood. We find that early-life corticosterone exposure depresses nestling size-corrected mass in both sexes, with no strong effect of the treatment on body size or our two measures of health. Birds are able to compensate for negative effects of high early-life corticosterone exposure in the long-term and this effect largely disappears by the juvenile and adult stages. However, treatment has a negative effect on survival through one year of age, suggesting that long-term compensation comes at a price. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure of resident sparrows to West Nile virus evidenced in South Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, A; Lecollinet, S; Hamza, F; Nasri, I; Neb, A; Selmi, S

    2015-12-01

    During the last few years, several cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in humans have been reported in Tunisia. However, detailed information on WNV infection in wild birds, the primary amplifying host of WNV, are lacking. In this work, we investigated the exposure of wild sparrows (hybrid Passer domesticus × hispaniolensis) living in two oases in southern Tunisia (Gabès and Kébili oases) to WNV, through the detection of WNV-specific antibodies by using ELISA and microneutralization tests. In total, 208 birds were sampled (54 from Kébili, 154 from Gabès). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in two birds, corresponding to an overall seroprevalence of 1%. There was no significant difference between the two sampled populations [1·85% (1/54) in Kébili, 0·65% (1/154) in Gabès]. These data provide indirect evidence of the exposure of resident sparrows in southern Tunisia to WNV.

  12. Habitat Use Patterns of Bobolinks and Savannah Sparrows in the Northeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Shustack

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the northeastern United States, grassland birds regularly use agricultural fields as nesting habitat. However, birds that nest in these fields regularly experience nest failure as a result of agricultural practices, such as mowing and grazing. Therefore, information on both spatial and temporal patterns of habitat use is needed to effectively manage these species. We addressed these complex habitat use patterns by conducting point counts during three time intervals between May 21, 2002 and July 2, 2002 in agricultural fields across the Champlain Valley in Vermont and New York. Early in the breeding season, Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus used fields in which the landscape within 2500 m was dominated by open habitats. As mowing began, suitable habitat within 500 m became more important. Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis initially used fields that contained a high proportion of suitable habitat within 500 m. After mowing, features of the field (i.e., size and amount of woody edge became more important. Each species responded differently to mowing: Savannah Sparrows were equally abundant in mowed and uncut fields, whereas Bobolinks were more abundant in uncut fields. In agricultural areas in the Northeast, large areas (2000 ha that are mostly nonforested and undeveloped should be targeted for conservation. Within large open areas, smaller patches (80 ha should be maintained as high-quality, late-cut grassland habitat.

  13. Postfledging survival of Grasshopper Sparrows in grasslands managed with fire and grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Torre J.; Miller, James R.; Koford, Rolf R.; Engle, David M.; Debinski, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    More accurate estimates of survival after nestlings fledge are needed for population models to be parameterized and population dynamics to be understood during this vulnerable life stage. The period after fledging is the time when chicks learn to fly, forage, and hide from predators. We monitored postfledging survival, causespecific mortality, and movements of Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) in grassland managed with fire and grazing. In 2009, we attached radio transmitters to 50 nestlings from 50 different broods and modeled their survival in response to climatic, biological, and ecological variables. There was no effect of treatment on survival. The factor most influencing postfledging survival was age; no other variable was significant. The majority of chicks (74%) died within 3 days of radio-transmitter attachment. We attributed most mortality to mesopredators (48%) and exposure (28%). Fledglings' movements increased rapidly for the first 4 days after they left the nest and were relatively stable for the remaining 10 days we tracked them. On average, fledglings took flight for the first time 4 days after fledging and flew ≥10 m 9 days after fledging. Our data show that the Grasshopper Sparrow's survival rates may be less than most models relying on nest-success estimates predict, and we emphasize the importance of incorporating estimates of survival during the postfledging period in demographic models.

  14. Size differentiation in Finnish house sparrows follows Bergmann's rule with evidence of local adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, J E; Hanski, I K; Kekkonen, J; Väisänen, R A

    2014-04-01

    Bergmann's rule predicts that individuals are larger in more poleward populations and that this size gradient has an adaptive basis. Hence, phenotypic divergence in size traits between populations (PST ) is expected to exceed the level of divergence by drift alone (FST ). We measured 16 skeletal traits, body mass and wing length in 409 male and 296 female house sparrows Passer domesticus sampled in 12 populations throughout Finland, where the species has its northernmost European distributional margin. Morphometric differentiation across populations (PST ) was compared with differentiation in 13 microsatellites (FST ). We find that twelve traits phenotypically diverged more than FST in both sexes, and an additional two traits diverged in males. The phenotypic divergence exceeded FST in several traits to such a degree that findings were robust also to strong between-population environmental effects. Divergence was particularly strong in dimensions of the bill, making it a strong candidate for the study of adaptive molecular genetic divergence. Divergent traits increased in size in more northern populations. We conclude that house sparrows show evidence of an adaptive latitudinal size gradient consistent with Bergmann's rule on the modest spatial scale of ca. 600 km. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Characterization of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) transcriptome: a resource for molecular ecology and immunogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom, Robert; Wennekes, Paul; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Burke, Terry

    2014-05-01

    The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is an important model species in ecology and evolution. However, until recently, genomic resources for molecular ecological projects have been lacking in this species. Here, we present transcriptome sequencing data (RNA-Seq) from three different house sparrow tissues (spleen, blood and bursa). These tissues were specifically chosen to obtain a diverse representation of expressed genes and to maximize the yield of immune-related gene functions. After de novo assembly, 15,250 contigs were identified, representing sequence data from a total of 8756 known avian genes (as inferred from the closely related zebra finch). The transcriptome assembly contain sequence data from nine manually annotated MHC genes, including an almost complete MHC class I coding sequence. There were 407, 303 and 68 genes overexpressed in spleen, blood and bursa, respectively. Gene ontology terms related to ribosomal function were associated with overexpression in spleen and oxygen transport functions with overexpression in blood. In addition to the transcript sequences, we provide 327 gene-linked microsatellites (SSRs) with sufficient flanking sequences for primer design, and 3177 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes, that can be used in follow-up molecular ecology studies of this ecological well-studied species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Surface ultrastructural (SEM) characteristics of oropharyngeal cavity of house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abumandour, Mohamed M A

    2017-12-22

    The focus of the present study is to provide a full morphological description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the house sparrow. The head of six birds was prepared for gross examination and by stereo and electron microscopy. The bifid lingual apex has multiple long, rostrally directed needle-like processes. The lateral border of the apex carries rostromedially directed needle-like processes. The dorsal lingual surface of the apex and body carries numerous caudomedially directed filiform papillae and many orifices of lingual salivary glands. The lingual body is divided into two parts: rostral and caudal. The caudal part is divided into two laterally elevated regions by a median groove, while the rostral part is bounded laterally by a rostrodorsally directed papillary row, which on SEM is formed from two rows. On SEM, the lingual root has many orifices of posterior salivary glands. The pharyngeal papillary row is located at the caudal border of the laryngeal mound, but this single papillary row is formed from two rows at SEM magnification. The laryngeal cleft continues caudally as a laryngeal fissure bounded by two longitudinal rows of caudally directed papillae; at high SEM magnification, this fissure is divided into two halves by a median ridge which carries caudally directed papillae on its posterior part. The choanal cleft proceeds rostrally by the median tubercle. There are a small number of orifices of palatine salivary glands. The morphological characters of the oropharyngeal cavity of the sparrow confirm its adaptation to surrounding environmental conditions and available food particles.

  17. The effect of flight, fasting and p,p'-DDT on thyroid hormones and corticosterone in Gambel's white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollon, Edward J; Carr, James A; Cobb, George P

    2004-02-01

    This study examined the effects of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), fasting and flight on thyroid hormones and corticosterone in Gambel's White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelli). Female sparrows were dosed daily with either 5 mg p,p'-DDT per kg body mass or corn oil vehicle over 3 days. On the fifth day the sparrows were divided into 3 groups: (1) unstressed - non-stressed control sparrows; (2) fasted - sparrows fasted for intervals ranging from 20 min to 9 h; or (3) flown - sparrows flown in a wind tunnel for intervals between 20 min and 2.5 h while fasting. Half the sparrows from each group received DDT (DDT-dosed sparrows) and the other half corn oil vehicle only (vehicle sparrows). Trunk blood plasma was analyzed for thyroxine, triiodothyronine and corticosterone using radioimmunoassay. In the flown group, corticosterone was elevated (DDT-dosed 35.52 ng/ml, P < or = 0.05), and thyroxine was depressed (DDT-dosed 4.09 ng/ml, P < or = 0.05; vehicle 4.33 ng/ml, P < or = 0.05). Elevated corticosterone likely decreased thyroid hormone production through a negative feedback mechanism originating at the hypothalamus. Mean triiodothyronine concentrations did not differ among any of the test groups. Relative to time fasted and flown, thyroxine decreased in flown birds dosed with DDT (P < 0.001) and triiodothyronine decreased in fasted birds dosed with DDT (P = 0.004). The increased rate of hormone diminution may be a result of the ability of DDT to induce microsomal enzyme production.

  18. The impact of the Suwannee River Sill on the surface hydrology of Okefenokee Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhi-Yong; Brook, George A.

    1992-08-01

    Okefenokee Swamp, located in southeastern Georgia and northeastern Florida, is one of the largest freshwater wetland complexes and a National Wildlife Refuge in the United States. A low earthen dam, the Suwannee River Sill, was built on the largest outlet stream of Okefenokee Swamp in the early 1960s. The purpose was to raise the water level and thus reduce fire frequency in this National Wildlife Refuge. In this study, hydrologic conditions in the swamp prior to (1937-1962) and after (1963-1986) sill construction were compared by statistical procedures. An average 9 cm increase in swamp water level at the Suwannee Canal Recreation Area was attributed to the sill. Increased precipitation and decreased evapotranspiration during the study period caused another 5 cm increase in water levels. Seasonal changes in climatic factors were also responsible for seasonal changes in water levels and streamflow in the pre- and post-sill periods. Although the effect of the sill on water level was more significant during dry periods, it is doubtful that the Suwannee River Sill actually prevented occurrence of severe fibres in the post-sill period, which was wetter than the period before sill construction. The sill diverted 2.6% of swamp outflow from the Suwannee River to the St. Mary's River. Diversion of flow was more marked during low flow periods. Therefore, the discharge of the St. Mary's River in the post-sill increased more than the discharge of the Suwannee River and its variability became lower that of the Suwannee River. The relationships between swamp water level, streamflow and precipitation were also changed due to construction of the sill.

  19. Long- and short-term flooding effects on survival and sink-source relationships of swamp-adapted tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.N. Angelov; Shi-Jean S. Sung; R.L. Doong; W.R. Harms; Paul P. Kormanik; C.C. Black

    1995-01-01

    About 95% of swamp tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora (Walt.) Sarg.) And sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seedlings survived continuous root flooding for more than two years, whereas none of the swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) And cherrybark oak (Q. falcata var. pagodifolia Ell.) Seedlings survived one year of flooding.Flooding caused increases in...

  20. 75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...] AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity... revised draft Final General Conformity Determination (GCD) for Pennsylvania to assess the potential air... the above-referenced dockets. In accordance with the General Conformity Regulations under the Code of...

  1. Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lydia E S; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c . 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance. Evidence for episodes of climatic variability, predominantly linked to ENSO events, and wildfires is present throughout. However, in the last c . 500 years, burning and indicators of human disturbance have elevated beyond past levels at these sites, concurrent with a reduction in peat swamp forest pollen. 4. Two key insights have been gained through this palaeoecological analysis: (i) peat swamp forest vegetation has demonstrated resilience to disturbance caused by burning and climatic variability in Sarawak in the late Holocene, however (ii) coincident with increased fire combined with human impact c . 500 years ago, these communities started to decline. 5. Synthesis . Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggest that recent, anthropogenic disturbances are of a greater magnitude

  2. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  3. Genome-wide sequence variations among Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi eHsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap, the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD, infects many farmed ruminants, wildlife animals and humans. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of these infections, we analyzed the whole genome sequences of several M. ap and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium strains isolated from various hosts and environments. Using Next-generation sequencing technology, all 6 M. ap isolates showed a high percentage of homology (98% to the reference genome sequence of M. ap K-10 isolated from cattle. However, 2 M. avium isolates (DT 78 and Env 77 showed significant sequence diversity from the reference strain M. avium 104. The genomes of M. avium isolates DT 78 and Env 77 exhibited only 87% and 40% homology, respectively, to the M. avium 104 reference genome. Within the M. ap isolates, genomic rearrangements (insertions/deletions, Indels were not detected, and only unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were observed among the 6 M. ap strains. While most of the SNPs (~100 in M. ap genomes were non-synonymous, a total of ~ 6000 SNPs were detected among M. avium genomes, most of them were synonymous suggesting a differential selective pressure between M. ap and M. avium isolates. In addition, SNPs-based phylo-genomic analysis showed that isolates from goat and Oryx are closely related to the cattle (K-10 strain while the human isolate (M. ap 4B is closely related to the environmental strains, indicating environmental source to human infections. Overall, SNPs were the most common variations among M. ap isolates while SNPs in addition to Indels were prevalent among M. avium isolates. Genomic variations will be useful in designing host-specific markers for the analysis of mycobacterial evolution and for developing novel diagnostics directed against Johne’s disease in animals.

  4. Sparrow nest survival in relation to prescribed fire and woody plant invasion in a northern mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert K.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.; Derrig, James L.; Rubin, Cory S.; Kerns, Courtney K.

    2017-01-01

    Prescribed fire is used to reverse invasion by woody vegetation on grasslands, but managers often are uncertain whether influences of shrub and tree reduction outweigh potential effects of fire on nest survival of grassland birds. During the 2001–2003 breeding seasons, we examined relationships of prescribed fire and woody vegetation to nest survival of clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida) and Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) in mixed-grass prairie at Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern North Dakota, USA. We assessed relationships of nest survival to 1) recent fire history, in terms of number of breeding seasons (2, 3, or 4–5) since the last prescribed fire, and 2) prevalence of trees and tall (>1.5 m) shrubs in the landscape and of low (≤1.5 m) shrubs within 5 m of nests. Nest survival of both species exhibited distinct patterns related to age of the nest and day of year, but bore no relationship to fire history. Survival of clay-colored sparrow nests declined as the amount of trees and tall shrubs within 100 m increased, but we found no relationship to suggest nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) as an underlying mechanism. We found little evidence linking nest survival of Savannah sparrow to woody vegetation. Our results suggest that fire can be used to restore northern mixed-grass prairies without adversely affecting nest survival of ≥2 widespread passerine species. Survival of nests of clay-colored sparrow may increase when tall woody cover is reduced by fire. Our data lend support to the use of fire for reducing scattered patches of tall woody cover to enhance survival of nests of ≥1 grassland bird species in northern mixed-grass prairies, but further study is needed that incorporates experimental approaches and assessments of shorter term effects of fire on survival of nests of grassland passerines.

  5. House sparrow biomarkers as lead pollution bioindicators. Evaluation of dose and exposition length on hematological and oxidative stress parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Fabricio D; Fernández, Noelia C; Pérez-Chaca, María V; Pardo, Rafael; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Chediack, Juan G

    2018-06-15

    House sparrows (Passer domesticus) have been proposed as a key ecological indicator of urban pollution. Remarkably, we lack knowledge about the physiological effects of lead on this bird species. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Pb on several physiological parameters in house sparrows exposed to environmental Pb concentrations. In a first experiment, birds were exposed to Pb sub-lethal doses (from 1.3 to 14.0 µg of Pb/g animal/day) during 5 days, which resulted in a dose response increase of blood Pb levels and decrease of blood ALAD activity. However, at the higher doses tested (> 7 μg of Pb/g animal/day) the blood ALAD activity inhibition (~82%) remained constant. Hematocrit and hemoglobin were significantly reduced only at the highest-doses, and the stress indicator, heterophils to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, did not show apparent changes. In a second experiment, house sparrows were exposed to Pb in drinking water (12.3 ppm) during either 15 or 30 days. Pb concentration used in this study was enough to produce blood lead levels equivalents to those found recently in house sparrows inhabiting urban areas, reduced blood ALAD activity and inversion of the H/L ratio. Decreasing blood ALAD activities were correlated with increasing blood Pb levels. In addition, Pb exposure produced modification in the levels of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, increased GST activity and decreased CAT activity, without lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, our results suggest that blood ALAD activity is a reliable and sensitive biomarker for environmental Pb exposure in house sparrows, additionally chronic exposure produce physiological stress (H/L inversion) and small changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. Finally, this specie could be considered a bioindicator for monitoring the urban Pb contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of intraosseous pentobarbital administration and thoracic compression for euthanasia of anesthetized sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Engilis, Andrew; Pascoe, Peter J; Williams, D Colette; Gustavsen, Kate A; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Keel, M Kevin; Polley, Tamsen M; Engilis, Irene E

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare intraosseous pentobarbital treatment (IPT) and thoracic compression (TC) on time to circulatory arrest and an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) in anesthetized passerine birds. ANIMALS 30 wild-caught adult birds (17 house sparrows [Passer domesticus] and 13 European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris]). PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive IPT or TC (n = 6/species/group). Birds were anesthetized, and carotid arterial pulses were monitored by Doppler methodology. Five subdermal braided-wire electrodes were used for EEG. Anesthetic depth was adjusted until a continuous EEG pattern was maintained, then euthanasia was performed. Times from initiation of euthanasia to cessation of carotid pulse and irreversible isoelectric EEG (indicators of death) were measured. Data (medians and first to third quartiles) were summarized and compared between groups within species. Necropsies were performed for all birds included in experiments and for another 6 birds euthanized under anesthesia by TC (4 sparrows and 1 starling) or IPT (1 sparrow). RESULTS Median time to isoelectric EEG did not differ significantly between treatment groups for sparrows (19.0 and 6.0 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively) or starlings (88.5 and 77.5 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively). Median times to cessation of pulse were significantly shorter for TC than for IPT in sparrows (0.0 vs 18.5 seconds) and starlings (9.5 vs 151.0 seconds). On necropsy, most (14/17) birds that underwent TC had grossly visible coelomic, pericardial, or perihepatic hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that TC might be an efficient euthanasia method for small birds. Digital pressure directly over the heart during TC obstructed venous return, causing rapid circulatory arrest, with rupture of the atria or vena cava in several birds. The authors propose that cardiac compression is a more accurate description than TC for this procedure.

  7. A Molecular Method for the Identification of Honey Bee Subspecies Used by Beekeepers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikov, Mikhail Y.; Borodachev, Anatoly V.; Kokina, Anastasia V.; Popov, Vasily N.

    2018-01-01

    Apis mellifera L. includes several recognized subspecies that differ in their biological properties and agricultural characteristics. Distinguishing between honey bee subspecies is complicated. We analyzed the Folmer region of the COX1 gene in honey bee subspecies cultivated at bee farms in Russia and identified subspecies-specific SNPs. DNA analysis revealed two clearly distinct haplogroups in A. mellifera mellifera. The first one was characterized by multiple cytosine-thymine (thymine–cytosine) transitions, one adenine-guanine substitution, and one thymine–adenine substitution. The nucleotide sequence of the second haplogroup coincided with sequences from other subspecies, except the unique C/A SNP at position 421 of the 658-bp Folmer region. A. mellifera carnica and A. mellifera carpatica could be distinguished from A. mellifera mellifera and A. mellifera caucasica by the presence of the A/G SNP at position 99 of the 658-bp Folmer region. The G/A SNP at position 448 was typical for A. mellifera carnica. A. mellifera caucasica COX1 sequence lacked all the above-mentioned sites. We developed a procedure for rapid identification of honey bee subspecies by PCR with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using mutagenic primers. The developed molecular method for honey bee subspecies identification is fast and inexpensive. PMID:29382048

  8. Morphological traits of Pacific Flyway Canada Geese as an aid to subspecies identification and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.; Bollinger, Karen S.

    2003-01-01

    Subspecies of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) exhibit wide variation in body size across their range. To monitor harvest levels in the Pacific Flyway, biologists commonly use culmen length and plumage color to differentiate among subspecies on sympatric wintering grounds. Among the four large-bodied Pacific subspecies (B. c. parvipes, B. c. occidentalis, B. c. fulva, and B. c. moffitti), overlap in culmen length and subjectivity of visually assessing color results in misclassification and inaccurate harvest estimates. We examined the morphology of Pacific large-bodied Canada Geese to characterize body size variation among subspecies and provide more discriminatory measures for harvest assessments. We found that culmen length, one of the most commonly used field measures, overlapped widely among subspecies, and it had little support for inclusion in discriminatory models. Morphological measures with greater explanatory power included bill width at nail, bill width at base, head length, and mid wing. If culmen length and plumage color continue to be used to assess winter harvest, we recommend the addition of at least one sex-specific measurement to reduce levels of misclassification among subspecies. If an additional morphological measure is included, further evaluation on the wintering grounds should be conducted as this measure's effectiveness may vary depending upon observer bias, temporal and spatial variation in subspecies abundance, and the proportion of birds accurately sexed by cloacal examination.

  9. Genetic diversity and demography of two endangered captive pronghorn subspecies from the Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Anastasia; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Hoffman, Joseph I.; Culver, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Species that have experienced population reduction provide valuable case studies for understanding genetic responses to demographic change. Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) were once widespread across the North American plains but were subject to drastic population reductions due to overexploitation and habitat fragmentation during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A. a. peninsularis and A. a. sonoriensis, 2 pronghorn subspecies that inhabit the southern edge of the species' distribution, are almost extinct and now breed almost exclusively in captivity. We therefore sequenced the complete mitochondrial control region and genotyped 18 microsatellite loci in 109 individuals to evaluate the impact of population bottlenecks, captive breeding, small population sizes, and isolation on the genetic composition of captive populations of these 2 subspecies. We found extremely low levels of genetic diversity in both subspecies. The 2 subspecies showed high and significant genetic differentiation, indicating the absence of historic and recent gene flow despite their geographic proximity within the Sonoran Desert. Historical effective population size estimates for the 2 subspecies were inferred to be similar, whereas the Sonoran pronghorn has a contemporary effective size (Ne) more than twice as high as the Peninsular subspecies. Our findings suggest the need for careful genetic management of both subspecies in order to minimize the further loss of genetic variability.

  10. Subspecialized Radiological Reporting Expedites Turnaround Time of Radiology Reports and Increases Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Christoph; Boehm, Thomas; Seifert, Burkhardt; Kawel-Boehm, Nadine

    2018-02-15

     To assess the impact of changing from general to subspecialized reporting on turnaround time of radiology reports (TAT), the fraction of radiology reports available within 24 hours (RReporting workflow in our radiology department was changed from general reporting (radiologists report imaging studies of all areas [neuroradiological, abdominal, musculoskeletal imaging et cetera]) to subspecialized reporting (radiologists solely report imaging studies of their subspecialty field [e. g. musculoskeletal]). TAT, Rreporting (January-December 2012) and compared to a 12-month period of subspecialized reporting (April 2014-March 2015) using Mann Whitney U-test, Pearson chi-square test and odds ratios, respectively.  Report TAT decreased from a median of 17:04 hours (h) during general reporting to 3:38 h during subspecialized reporting, resulting in a 4.7-fold improvement (p report being available reporting. Productivity increased from a median of 301 to 376 (reports/full-time radiologist/month) (p = 0.001).  Changing the workflow from general to subspecialized reporting significantly improved the turnaround time of radiology reports, the fraction of radiology reports available within 24 hours and productivity.   · Changing the radiology reporting workflow from general to subspecialized reporting is feasible.. · Implementation of subspecialized reporting yielded significant improvement of radiology report turnaround time.. · Implementation of subspecialized reporting substantially increased the fraction of radiology reports available reporting.. · Stern C, Boehm T, Seifert B et al. Subspecialized Radiological Reporting Expedites Turnaround Time of Radiology Reports and Increases Productivity. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2018; DOI: 10.1055/s-0044-100728. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Utilization of Organic Fertilizer on Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt Crop at Shallow Swamp Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midranisiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow lowland swamp area has significant potential for cultivation of sweet corn crop. This lowland swamp has rich natural resources such as organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC that are not maximally utilized yet by farmers. These organic fertilizers can be utilized to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop. The research objective was to determine organic fertilizer types that capable to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop at shallow lowland swamp area. This research had been conducted from January to April 2015 in Pulau Semambu Village, North Indralaya Subdistrict, Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra Province. The design used in this research was non-factorial Randomized Block Design (RBD with four treatments of organic fertilizer types with six replications for each treatment. The treatments were consisted of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC. The results showed that treatment of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk could increase the growth and production of sweet corn at shallow lowland swamp area with yield level of 4.37 kg.plot −1.

  12. Composition and species diversity of pine-wiregrass savannas of the Green Swamp, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan Walker; Robert K. Peet

    1983-01-01

    Fire-maintained, species-rich pines wiregrass savannas in the Green Swamp, North Carolina were sampled over their natural range of environmental conditions and fire frequencies. Species composition, species richness, diversity (Exp H', I/ C), and aboveground production were documented and fertilization experiments conducted to assess possible mechanisms for the...

  13. Diversity and Antagonistic Activity of Actinomycete Strains From Myristica Swamp Soils Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Rlnoy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the present investigation Actinomycetes were isolated from the soils of Myristica swamps of southern Western Ghats and the antagonistic activity against different human bacterial pathogens was evaluated. Results of the present study revealed that Actinomycetes population in the soils of Myristica swamp was spatially and seasonally varied. Actinomycetes load was varied from 24×104 to 71×103, from 129×103 to 40×103 and from 31×104 to 84×103 in post monsoon, monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. A total of 23 Actinomycetes strains belonging to six genera were isolated from swamp soils. Identification of the isolates showed that most of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces (11, followed by Nocardia (6, Micromonospora (3, Pseudonocardia (1, Streptosporangium (1, and Nocardiopsis (1. Antagonistic studies revealed that 91.3% of Actinomycete isolates were active against one or more tested pathogens, of that 56.52% exhibited activity against Gram negative and 86.95% showed activity against Gram positive bacteria. 39.13% isolates were active against all the bacterial pathogens selected and its inhibition zone diameter was also high. 69.5% of Actinomycetes were exhibited antibacterial activity against Listeria followed by Bacillus cereus (65.21%, Staphylococcus (60.86%, Vibrio cholera (52.17%, Salmonella (52.17% and E. coli (39.13%. The results indicate that the Myristica swamp soils of Southern Western Ghats might be a remarkable reserve of Actinomycetes with potential antagonistic activity.

  14. The Fish and Fisheries of the Lower Volta Mangrove Swamps in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fish and fisheries of the Lower Volta mangrove swamps were studied to provide data for the formulation of management strategies to sustain utilisation of the fishery resources in the area. Thirty-eight finfishes and 14 shellfishes species were encountered during the study period. Gerres melanopterus, Clarias anguillaris, ...

  15. The Productivity and Natural Increase of Swamp Buffalo in District Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, A.; Ciptadi, G.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect the basic information needed to develop a sustainable breeding program, which includes the potential for production and reproduction of buffaloes. This research was conducted on swamp buffalo in Malang Regency East Java. The research method used was survey method. Primary data was obtained from direct observation on 323 tails owned by 98 breeders. Variables observed were population growth and reproductive performance. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the initial population study of swamp Buffaloes in Malang as many as 1155 with male and female ratio 1: 2. The ratios of male and female swamp Buffalo 20 percent male and 80 percent female. Overall, the buffalo reproduction performance was still low. Service per conception 2.06 ± 0.88; Anestrus Postpartum 7.46 ± 3.83 months; calving interval distance 17.82 ± 4.86 months; 20.43 % birth rate and 4.33% mortality rate of Natural Increase (NI) population was about 16,1%. In conclusion, the value of NI of swamp Buffalo in Malang Regency is still low. To increase buffalo productivity, buffalo breeding program is continuously based on reproduction control.

  16. Oil spill impact on the finfish of Azhiwari swamp, Joinkrama in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of an oil spill on surface water, sediment and finfish assemblage characteristics in a freshwater swamp forest was assessed by dividing the wetland into four zones on the basis of spilled oil cover on the water surface – High Impact Zone (HIZ >60%), Medium Impact Zone (MIZ 30 – 60%), Low Impact Zone - (LIZ 5 ...

  17. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Interagency Assistance Group : transportation observations, considerations and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In March 2014, U.S. FWS hosted a Transportation Assistance Group at the Great Dismal Swamp in Virginia. The purpose of the meeting was to identify transportation issues impacting the refuge, ways to improve access to and within the refuge, as well as...

  18. Skin disease affecting the conservation of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, J M; Kuchling, G; Burford, D; Boardman, W; Raidal, S R

    1998-11-01

    To review the present position of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) as an endangered species and significant health issues affecting efforts to save it from extinction. A retrospective analysis of the husbandry, hospital and pathology records of the western swamp tortoise captive breeding program at Perth Zoo. In 1987 a captive breeding project was developed to prevent the extinction of the western swamp tortoise but an outbreak of a necrotising dermatitis in 1989 threatened the survival of the captive bred hatchlings. Less severe outbreaks occurred in 1990 and 1993, with isolated cases in between. Of 283 tortoises that were born in captivity or came into captivity from the wild, 37 (13.1%) were affected, comprising 37% of all males, 26% of all females and 13% of animals of unknown gender. Of the affected animals, 70% were less than 2 years of age and 29% were older. Males were 1.6 times more likely to be infected than females but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.27). Culture of the lesions consistently yielded unidentified Pseudomonas sp. Improved husbandry, such as strict maintenance of water quality and temperature conditions similar to that of the animal's natural habitat, and monitoring the health of individual tortoises have successfully controlled skin disease in the captive breeding of the western swamp tortoise.

  19. Decline of the Maurepas Swamp, Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, and Approaches to Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P. Shaffer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maurepas swamp is the second largest contiguous coastal forest in Louisiana but it is highly degraded due to subsidence, near permanent flooding, nutrient starvation, nutria herbivory, and saltwater intrusion. Observed tree mortality rates at study sites in the Maurepas swamp are very high (up to 100% tree mortality in 11 years and basal area decreased with average salinities of <1 ppt. Habitat classification, vegetation productivity and mortality, and surface elevation changes show a clear trajectory from stagnant, nearly permanently flooded forests with broken canopy to degraded forests with sparse baldcypress and dominated by herbaceous species and open water to open water habitat for most of the Maurepas swamp without introduction of fresh water to combat saltwater intrusion and stimulate productivity and accretion. Healthy forests in the Maurepas are receiving fresh water containing nutrients and sediments from urban areas, high quality river water, or secondarily treated municipal effluent. Currently, two proposed diversions into the swamp are via Hope Canal (57 m3·s−1 and Blind River (142 m3·s−1. These diversions would greatly benefit their immediate area but they are too small to influence the entire Maurepas sub-basin, especially in terms of accretion. A large diversion (>1422 m3·s−1 is needed to deliver the adequate sediments to achieve high accretion rates and stimulate organic soil formation.

  20. Improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Kaiso” and “Supa” are the main local swamp-rice (Oryza Sativa) varieties currently grown in Uganda mainly by smallholder farmers on small gardens (0.5 – 2ha). Due to lack of mechanized drying equipment and owing to the low volumes of their harvests, these farmers use open-sun drying methods, where the paddy is ...

  1. Expression and phylogenetic analyses reveal paralogous lineages of putatively classical and non-classical MHC-I genes in three sparrow species (Passer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Anna; Strandh, Maria; Råberg, Lars; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-06-26

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a central role in immunity and has been given considerable attention by evolutionary ecologists due to its associations with fitness-related traits. Songbirds have unusually high numbers of MHC class I (MHC-I) genes, but it is not known whether all are expressed and equally important for immune function. Classical MHC-I genes are highly expressed, polymorphic and present peptides to T-cells whereas non-classical MHC-I genes have lower expression, are more monomorphic and do not present peptides to T-cells. To get a better understanding of the highly duplicated MHC genes in songbirds, we studied gene expression in a phylogenetic framework in three species of sparrows (house sparrow, tree sparrow and Spanish sparrow), using high-throughput sequencing. We hypothesize that sparrows could have classical and non-classical genes, as previously indicated though never tested using gene expression. The phylogenetic analyses reveal two distinct types of MHC-I alleles among the three sparrow species, one with high and one with low level of polymorphism, thus resembling classical and non-classical genes, respectively. All individuals had both types of alleles, but there was copy number variation both within and among the sparrow species. However, the number of highly polymorphic alleles that were expressed did not vary between species, suggesting that the structural genomic variation is counterbalanced by conserved gene expression. Overall, 50% of the MHC-I alleles were expressed in sparrows. Expression of the highly polymorphic alleles was very variable, whereas the alleles with low polymorphism had uniformly low expression. Interestingly, within an individual only one or two alleles from the polymorphic genes were highly expressed, indicating that only a single copy of these is highly expressed. Taken together, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the analyses of expression suggest that sparrows have both classical and non

  2. Transforming Swamp Buffaloes to Producers of Milk and Meat Through Crossbreeding and Backcrossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Cruz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of water buffaloes in the world, the riverine type and the swamp type. The total number of Swamp buffalo is 37.6 M and represents 21.8% of the world’s buffalo population. The swamp buffaloes have played a major role in draft animal-dependent farming system. But intensified rice production became more pronounced in irrigated areas and this has led to increased utilization of small farm machineries, displacing significantly the draft buffaloes for land tillage. To some extent, the introduction of tractors for land preparation and transport for corn, sugarcane and other crops in production areas has similar effect. Utilization of the existing population of swamp buffaloes to meet the growing domestic demand for milk and meat, against the background of increasing farm mechanization, is a good reason to transform the huge number of draft animals into producers of milk and meat. According to the UNDP/FAO-assisted project in the Philippines carried from 1982 to 1998, that crossing swamp buffalo and riverine buffaloes, despite the differences in chromosome numbers, is producing crossbreds with high growth rate potentials and milk production abilities several folds over the swamp buffalo parents. The known fact that swamp and riverine buffaloes have different chromosome number, the diploid chromosome number of the swamp buffalo is 48 and that of the river buffalo is 50. When crossbreeding between the 2 buffalo types occur, males and females of the F1 generation are heterozygous for the fusion and are apparently fertile with chromosome 2n = 49. Three-way crossbred hybrids were obtained by (native buffalo x Murrah x Nili Ravi or (native buffalo x Nili Ravi x Murrah. They had two chromosome categories viz. 2n=49 and 2n=50, respectively. Crossbreeding Swamp with Riverine Breed is done for quality beef. Most of the NT produced TenderBuff is farm-bred or purchased from other suppliers as swamp buffalo yearlings and growth out for a

  3. Gender identification of Grasshopper Sparrows comparing behavioral, morphological, and molecular techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, F.K.; Wood, P.B.; McPherson, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct gender identification in monomorphic species is often difficult especially if males and females do not display obvious behavioral and breeding differences. We compared gender specific morphology and behavior with recently developed DNA techniques for gender identification in the monomorphic Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Gender was ascertained with DNA in 213 individuals using the 2550F/2718R primer set and 3% agarose gel electrophoresis. Field observations using behavior and breeding characteristics to identify gender matched DNA analyses with 100% accuracy for adult males and females. Gender was identified with DNA for all captured juveniles that did not display gender specific traits or behaviors in the field. The molecular techniques used offered a high level of accuracy and may be useful in studies of dispersal mechanisms and winter assemblage composition in monomorphic species.

  4. Should I stay or should I go? Female brood desertion and male counterstrategy in rock sparrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Brood desertion involves a series of interactions between the members of a pair. This process is likely to be based on either member's perception of the other's propensity to desert. We manipulated this perception in males by experimentally increasing female body mass in the rock sparrow (Petronia...... petronia), a species in which females can desert their first brood before the nestlings from the first brood leave the nest. We predicted that the male would either desert the brood first or stay even if this implied the risk of caring for the brood alone. We found that males mated to loaded females did...... not leave but stayed and significantly increased their courtship rate and mate guarding. Unexpectedly, they also increased their food provisioning to the nestlings, even though loaded females did not reduce their nestling-feeding rate. The increase in male feeding rate may be explained as a way for the male...

  5. Reading, laterality, and the brain: early contributions on reading disabilities by Sara S. Sparrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jack M; Morris, Robin D

    2014-02-01

    Although best known for work with children and adults with intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders, training in speech pathology and a doctorate in clinical psychology and neuropsychology was the foundation for Sara Sparrow's long-term interest in reading disabilities. Her first papers were on dyslexia and laterality, and the maturational lag theory of developmental dyslexia proposed with Paul Satz, her mentor. The research program that emerged from this work had a wide impact on early neuropsychological models of reading disabilities. Although Sara went on to research focused on children with other developmental disabilities after she moved to Yale University, this initial research influenced her career- long interests in assessment, developmental models of disabilities, and early screening methods.

  6. κ-CASEIN GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN RIVERINE AND SWAMP BUFFALO IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Rini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kappa-casein (κ-casein gene is known as a gene that plays a role in controlling milk protein andalso play a crucial role in the coagulation and curdling of milk. This study was aimed to identifypolymorphisms of the κ-Casein gene of local buffaloes in Indonesia. A total number of 40 heads ofriverine buffalo and 250 heads of swamp buffalo. This study used PCR-RFLP method, whichamplification of the κ-Casein gene resulted an amplicon with length of 157 bp, located in exon 4. Theamplified fragment were digested with EcoRV restriction enzyme, which cut the κ-Casein gene in exon4 at nucleotides of GAT|ATC, revealed the presence of one polymorphism at the base position of 23 bpthat occurs with a substitution of Ile (ATC of the T genetic variant into Thr (ACC of the C geneticvariant. Genotyping κ-Casein gene in riverine buffalo produced two types of allele, namely C allele (157bp and T allele (136 and 21 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotypes, namely CC, CT,and TT. Frequency of the C allele was dominant to T allele. κ-Casein gene in swamp buffalo wasmonomorphic with one allele, namely C allele. Heterozygosity value of riverine and swamp buffaloeswere low. PIC value in riverine and swamp buffalo ranged 0.000-0.288. Fixation index of κ-Casein genein riverine buffalo was low (Siborong-borong SBBC = -0,0036; Deli Serdang = -0.025, but in swampbuffalo was in fixation. This study showed that κ-Casein|EcoRV were polymorphic in riverine buffaloand monomorphic in swamp buffalo.

  7. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  8. Logged peat swamp forest supports greater macrofungal biodiversity than large-scale oil palm plantations and smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-09-01

    Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.

  9. A Digital Hydrologic Network Supporting NAWQA MRB SPARROW Modeling--MRB_E2RF1WS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, J.W.; Terziotti, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    A digital hydrologic network was developed to support SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models within selected regions of the United States. These regions correspond with the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Major River Basin (MRB) study units 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 (Preston and others, 2009). MRB2, covers the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins. MRB3, covers the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins. MRB4, covers the Missouri River basins. MRB5, covers the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf River basins. MRB7, covers the Pacific Northwest River basins. The digital hydrologic network described here represents surface-water pathways (MRB_E2RF1) and associated catchments (MRB_E2RF1WS). It serves as the fundamental framework to spatially reference and summarize explanatory information supporting nutrient SPARROW models (Brakebill and others, 2011; Wieczorek and LaMotte, 2011). The principal geospatial dataset used to support this regional effort was based on an enhanced version of a 1:500,000 scale digital stream-reach network (ERF1_2) (Nolan et al., 2002). Enhancements included associating over 3,500 water-quality monitoring sites to the reach network, improving physical locations of stream reaches at or near monitoring locations, and generating drainage catchments based on 100m elevation data. A unique number (MRB_ID) identifies each reach as a single unit. This unique number is also shared by the catchment area drained by the reach, thus spatially linking the hydrologically connected streams and the respective drainage area characteristics. In addition, other relevant physical, environmental, and monitoring information can be associated to the common network and accessed using the unique identification number.

  10. A Digital Hydrologic Network Supporting NAWQA MRB SPARROW Modeling--MRB_E2RF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, J.W.; Terziotti, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    A digital hydrologic network was developed to support SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models within selected regions of the United States. These regions correspond with the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Major River Basin (MRB) study units 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 (Preston and others, 2009). MRB2, covers the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins. MRB3, covers the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins. MRB4, covers the Missouri River basins. MRB5, covers the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf River basins. MRB7, covers the Pacific Northwest River basins. The digital hydrologic network described here represents surface-water pathways (MRB_E2RF1) and associated catchments (MRB_E2RF1WS). It serves as the fundamental framework to spatially reference and summarize explanatory information supporting nutrient SPARROW models (Brakebill and others, 2011; Wieczorek and LaMotte, 2011). The principal geospatial dataset used to support this regional effort was based on an enhanced version of a 1:500,000 scale digital stream-reach network (ERF1_2) (Nolan et al., 2002). Enhancements included associating over 3,500 water-quality monitoring sites to the reach network, improving physical locations of stream reaches at or near monitoring locations, and generating drainage catchments based on 100m elevation data. A unique number (MRB_ID) identifies each reach as a single unit. This unique number is also shared by the catchment area drained by the reach, thus spatially linking the hydrologically connected streams and the respective drainage area characteristics. In addition, other relevant physical, environmental, and monitoring information can be associated to the common network and accessed using the unique identification number.

  11. Genes located in a chromosomal inversion are correlated with territorial song in white-throated sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow-Kramer, W M; Horton, B M; McKee, C D; Michaud, J M; Tharp, G K; Thomas, J W; Tuttle, E M; Yi, S; Maney, D L

    2015-11-01

    The genome of the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) contains an inversion polymorphism on chromosome 2 that is linked to predictable variation in a suite of phenotypic traits including plumage color, aggression and parental behavior. Differences in gene expression between the two color morphs, which represent the two common inversion genotypes (ZAL2/ZAL2 and ZAL2/ZAL2(m) ), may therefore advance our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of these phenotypes. To identify genes that are differentially expressed between the two morphs and correlated with behavior, we quantified gene expression and terrirorial aggression, including song, in a population of free-living white-throated sparrows. We analyzed gene expression in two brain regions, the medial amygdala (MeA) and hypothalamus. Both regions are part of a 'social behavior network', which is rich in steroid hormone receptors and previously linked with territorial behavior. Using weighted gene co-expression network analyses, we identified modules of genes that were correlated with both morph and singing behavior. The majority of these genes were located within the inversion, showing the profound effect of the inversion on the expression of genes captured by the rearrangement. These modules were enriched with genes related to retinoic acid signaling and basic cellular functioning. In the MeA, the most prominent pathways were those related to steroid hormone receptor activity. Within these pathways, the only gene encoding such a receptor was ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1), a gene previously shown to predict song rate in this species. The set of candidate genes we identified may mediate the effects of a chromosomal inversion on territorial behavior. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. Territory and nest site selection patterns by Grasshopper Sparrows in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2017-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are showing some of the greatest rates of decline of any North American birds, prompting measures to protect and improve important habitat. We assessed how vegetation structure and composition, habitat features often targeted for management, affected territory and nest site selection by Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) in southeastern Arizona. To identify features important to males establishing territories, we compared vegetation characteristics of known territories and random samples on 2 sites over 5 years. We examined habitat selection patterns of females by comparing characteristics of nest sites with territories over 3 years. Males selected territories in areas of sparser vegetation structure and more tall shrubs (>2 m) than random plots on the site with low shrub densities. Males did not select territories based on the proportion of exotic grasses. Females generally located nest sites in areas with lower small shrub (1–2 m tall) densities than territories overall when possible and preferentially selected native grasses for nest construction. Whether habitat selection was apparent depended upon the range of vegetation structure that was available. We identified an upper threshold above which grass structure seemed to be too high and dense for Grasshopper Sparrows. Our results suggest that some management that reduces vegetative structure may benefit this species in desert grasslands at the nest and territory scale. However, we did not assess initial male habitat selection at a broader landscape scale where their selection patterns may be different and could be influenced by vegetation density and structure outside the range of values sampled in this study.

  13. Campylobacter fetus subspecies: Comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Soares, Siomar C.; Santos, Anderson R.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter contains pathogens causing a wide range of diseases, targeting both humans and animals. Among them, the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis deserve special attention, as they are the etiological agents of human bacterial gastroenteritis and bovine genital...... campylobacteriosis, respectively. We compare the whole genomes of both subspecies to get insights into genomic architecture, phylogenetic relationships, genome conservation and core virulence factors. Pan-genomic approach was applied to identify the core- and pan-genome for both C. fetus subspecies and members...... of the genus. The C. fetus subspecies conserved (76%) proteome were then analyzed for their subcellular localization and protein functions in biological processes. Furthermore, with pathogenomic strategies, unique candidate regions in the genomes and several potential core-virulence factors were identified...

  14. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C; Pyke, David A

    2012-03-01

    Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30-40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and seeds in the seed bank was highly heterogeneous both spatially and temporally, and attrition varied significantly by region. Our study suggests that Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  15. A multiphasic typing approach to subtype Streptococcus equi subspecies equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanka, Saraswathi; Borst, Luke B; Patterson, Sheila K; Maddox, Carol W

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to differentiate between strains of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi implicated in abscess formation in vaccinated horses. Streptococcus equi isolates recovered from clinical specimens associated with equine strangles cases submitted to the University of Illinois Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory were compared with S. equi isolates representing at least 12 lots of a commercial modified live vaccine (MLV) to determine whether the isolates obtained from the abscesses were vaccine or wild type. Genotyping techniques evaluated included enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), repetitive extragenic palindrome PCR, BOX element PCR, ribotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Phenotypic evaluations were performed using the Biolog GP2 Microplate (hereafter, Biolog). In cases where Biolog and PFGE results did not coincide, a single nucleotide polymorphism located in the upstream regulatory region of szp gene was used to identify the S. equi strains. PFGE and Biolog successfully differentiated wild-type S. equi strains isolated from clinical submissions from isolates of the MLV. PFGE genotyping enabled further subtyping of the wild-type strains, whereas Biolog combined with szp sequencing was useful in differentiating the MLV strain from its wild-type progenitor. Deletion of a single guanine residue located in the upstream regulatory region of the szp gene appears to be conserved among vaccine isolates, and shows a 98.5% correlation to Biolog identification. This multiphasic approach can be used to answer specific diagnostic questions pertaining to the source of infection and/or outbreak, or to address quarantine concerns.

  16. Comparative genomics of Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies, pathogens of important agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambong, James T

    2017-01-01

    Subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis are important phytobacterial pathogens causing devastating diseases in several agricultural crops. The genome organizations of these pathogens are poorly understood. Here, the complete genomes of 5 subspecies (C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Cmi; C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Cms; C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, Cmn; C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, Cmi and C. michiganensis subsp. capsici, Cmc) were analyzed. This study assessed the taxonomic position of the subspecies based on 16S rRNA and genome-based DNA homology and concludes that there is ample evidence to elevate some of the subspecies to species-level. Comparative genomics analysis indicated distinct genomic features evident on the DNA structural atlases and annotation features. Based on orthologous gene analysis, about 2300 CDSs are shared across all the subspecies; and Cms showed the highest number of subspecies-specific CDS, most of which are mobile elements suggesting that Cms could be more prone to translocation of foreign genes. Cms and Cmi had the highest number of pseudogenes, an indication of potential degenerating genomes. The stress response factors that may be involved in cold/heat shock, detoxification, oxidative stress, osmoregulation, and carbon utilization are outlined. For example, the wco-cluster encoding for extracellular polysaccharide II is highly conserved while the sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose-6-phosphate yielding glucose-6-phosphate and fructose is highly divergent. A unique second form of the enzyme is only present in Cmn NCPPB 2581. Also, twenty-eight plasmid-borne CDSs in the other subspecies were found to have homologues in the chromosomal genome of Cmn which is known not to carry plasmids. These CDSs include pathogenesis-related factors such as Endocellulases E1 and Beta-glucosidase. The results presented here provide an insight of the functional organization of the genomes of

  17. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  18. Intestinal digestive enzyme modulation in house sparrow nestlings occurs within 24 h of a change in diet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Katherine H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2017-08-01

    Nestling house sparrows near fledging age (12 days) were previously found to reversibly modulate the activity of their intestinal digestive enzymes in response to changes in diet composition. However, it is not known how quickly nestlings can adjust to new diets with different substrate compositions, nor is it known how early in life nestlings can modulate their enzyme activity in response to changes in diet. In the present study, 3-day-old nestlings were captured from the wild and fed and switched among contrasting diets - one high in protein and low in carbohydrate and another higher in carbohydrate and with lower, but adequate, protein - in order to determine (1) how quickly house sparrow nestlings could adjust to changes in diet composition, (2) how early in life nestlings could modulate their digestive enzyme activity in response to these changes and (3) which digestive enzymes could be modulated in house sparrow nestlings earlier in life. We found that house sparrow nestlings as young as 3 days post-hatch were capable of modulating their intestinal disaccharidase activity within 24 h of a change in diet composition, and nestlings gained the ability to modulate aminopeptidase-N by 6 or 7 days of age. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of digestive enzyme modulation completed within 24 h of a change in diet in an avian species and the first study to show intestinal digestive enzyme modulation in response to changes in diet composition in any animal this early in development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Large-scale spatial variation in feather corticosterone in invasive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Mexico is related to climate

    OpenAIRE

    Treen, Gillian D; Hobson, Keith A; Marchant, Tracy A; Bortolotti, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists frequently use physiological tools to understand how organisms cope with their surroundings but rarely at macroecological scales. This study describes spatial variation in corticosterone (CORT) levels in feathers of invasive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) across their range in Mexico and evaluates CORT–climate relationships with a focus on temperature and precipitation. Samples were collected from 49 sites across Mexico. Feather CORT (CORTf) was measured using methanol-based ex...

  20. Large-scale spatial variation in feather corticosterone in invasive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Mexico is related to climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treen, Gillian D; Hobson, Keith A; Marchant, Tracy A; Bortolotti, Gary R

    2015-09-01

    Ecologists frequently use physiological tools to understand how organisms cope with their surroundings but rarely at macroecological scales. This study describes spatial variation in corticosterone (CORT) levels in feathers of invasive house sparrows (Passer domesticus) across their range in Mexico and evaluates CORT-climate relationships with a focus on temperature and precipitation. Samples were collected from 49 sites across Mexico. Feather CORT (CORTf) was measured using methanol-based extraction and radioimmunoassay. Relationships between CORTf and spatial and climate variables were examined using simple linear regressions. Ordination was used on climate data, CORTf was plotted against the resulting axes, and univariate regression trees were used to identify important predictors of CORTf. Universal kriging interpolation was used to illustrate spatial variation in CORTf across Mexico. Correlations with ordination axes showed that high CORTf was associated with low precipitation during the rainy season and low dry season temperatures. Specifically, CORTf was negatively related to May precipitation and January and July minimum temperatures, and positively related to April deuterium excess and June minimum temperatures. CORTf was higher in second-year birds compared to after-hatch years and after-second years. House sparrows had higher CORTf levels in the hot, dry, north-central region of Mexico, and CORTf was negatively related to temperature and precipitation. House sparrows molt primarily from August-September but climate conditions throughout the year were important predictors of CORTf, suggesting that conditions outside of molt can carry over to influence energetics during feather growth. These data suggest that dry conditions are challenging for house sparrows in Mexico, supporting previous work showing that precipitation is an important predictor of broad-scale CORT variation. This work highlights the utility of CORTf for evaluating the influence of

  1. Comparative BAC-based mapping in the white-throated sparrow, a novel behavioral genomics model, using interspecies overgo hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonser Rusty A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomics era has produced an arsenal of resources from sequenced organisms allowing researchers to target species that do not have comparable mapping and sequence information. These new "non-model" organisms offer unique opportunities to examine environmental effects on genomic patterns and processes. Here we use comparative mapping as a first step in characterizing the genome organization of a novel animal model, the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis, which occurs as white or tan morphs that exhibit alternative behaviors and physiology. Morph is determined by the presence or absence of a complex chromosomal rearrangement. This species is an ideal model for behavioral genomics because the association between genotype and phenotype is absolute, making it possible to identify the genomic bases of phenotypic variation. Findings We initiated a genomic study in this species by characterizing the white-throated sparrow BAC library via filter hybridization with overgo probes designed for the chicken, turkey, and zebra finch. Cross-species hybridization resulted in 640 positive sparrow BACs assigned to 77 chicken loci across almost all macro-and microchromosomes, with a focus on the chromosomes associated with morph. Out of 216 overgos, 36% of the probes hybridized successfully, with an average number of 3.0 positive sparrow BACs per overgo. Conclusions These data will be utilized for determining chromosomal architecture and for fine-scale mapping of candidate genes associated with phenotypic differences. Our research confirms the utility of interspecies hybridization for developing comparative maps in other non-model organisms.

  2. The Influence of Urban Environments on Oxidative Stress Balance: A Case Study on the House Sparrow in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Herrera-Dueñas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The House Sparrow is a globally distributed species and is closely associated with anthropised environments. They are well-adapted to urban life; therefore the decline of their populations in Europe represents an unexpected event that demands an investigation into its causes. Causes that have promoted this decline are not well-known, but one of the highlighted hypotheses is an increase of oxidative stress linked to the toxicity of pollution in urban areas. From an ecophysiological perspective, oxidative damage, antioxidant defense, and oxidative balance are considered reliable indicators of environmental stressors such as pollutants. To carry out this study, blood samples were collected from House Sparrows in three different habitats that varied in terms of urbanization degree: urban, suburban, and rural; during the winter and breeding season. According to our results, urban sparrows showed higher levels of oxidative damage and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, but lower antioxidant capacity in comparison with the rural birds; and these differences especially increase during the breeding season. The maintenance of oxidative balance increases in an urban environment in comparison to a rural one; we suggest that the high level of pollution and the poor quality diet linked to urban environments. The breeding season is expected to be particularly challenging for the oxidative balance of urban birds, when the reallocation of resources between self-maintenance and reproduction may be critical due to the scarcity of antioxidants found in urban areas. This study may contribute to determining the causes of the population decrease of House Sparrows in cities.

  3. Experimental removal of woody vegetation does not increase nesting success or fledgling production in two grassland sparrows (Ammodramus) in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason M.; Diefenbach, Duane R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of vegetation structure on the probability of daily nest survival (DNS) for grassland passerines has received considerable attention. Some correlative studies suggest that the presence of woody vegetation lowers DNS. Over 3 years (2009–2011), we monitored 215 nests of the Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and Henslow's Sparrow (A. henslowii) on 162 ha of reclaimed surface-mine grasslands in Pennsylvania. We removed shrubs from treatment plots with ≤36% areal coverage of woody vegetation in a before-after-control-impact-pairs (BACIP) design framework. Daily nest survival (95% CI: 0.94–0.96) was as high as previous studies have reported but was not associated with woody vegetative cover, proximity to woody vegetation, or woody stem density. Variation in DNS was best explained by increasing nonwoody-vegetation height. Grasshopper Sparrow fledgling production on treatment plots in 2010 (95% CI: 3.3–4.7) and 2011 (95% CI: 3.8–5.0) was similar to baseline conditions of treatment plots (95% CI: 3.4–4.9) and control plots (95% CI: 3.2–4.5) in 2009. Fledgling production was associated with thatch depth (β ± SE = 0.13 ± 0.09) and bare ground (β ± SE = -2.62 ± 1.29) adjacent to the nest and plot woody vegetative cover ( ± SE = -3.09 ± 1.02). Our experimental research suggests that overall reproductive success of Grasshopper and Henslow's sparrows on reclaimed surfacemine grasslands is driven by a suite of largely nonwoody—vegetation components, and both species can successfully nest and produce young in habitats with greater amounts of scattered woody vegetation than has generally been considered.

  4. Nutrient delivery to Lake Winnipeg from the Red-Assiniboine River Basin – A binational application of the SPARROW model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoy, Glenn A; Jenkinson, R. Wayne; Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive phosphorus (TP) and nitrogen (TN) inputs from the Red–Assiniboine River Basin (RARB) have been linked to eutrophication of Lake Winnipeg; therefore, it is important for the management of water resources to understand where and from what sources these nutrients originate. The RARB straddles the Canada–United States border and includes portions of two provinces and three states. This study represents the first binationally focused application of SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to estimate loads and sources of TP and TN by jurisdiction and basin at multiple spatial scales. Major hurdles overcome to develop these models included: (1) harmonization of geospatial data sets, particularly construction of a contiguous stream network; and (2) use of novel calibration steps to accommodate limitations in spatial variability across the model extent and in the number of calibration sites. Using nutrient inputs for a 2002 base year, a RARB TP SPARROW model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, forests and wetlands, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and stream channels, and a TN model was calibrated that included inputs from agriculture, WWTPs and atmospheric deposition. At the RARB outlet, downstream from Winnipeg, Manitoba, the majority of the delivered TP and TN came from the Red River Basin (90%), followed by the Upper Assiniboine River and Souris River basins. Agriculture was the single most important TP and TN source for each major basin, province and state. In general, stream channels (historically deposited nutrients and from bank erosion) were the second most important source of TP. Performance metrics for the RARB SPARROW model are similarly robust compared to other, larger US SPARROW models making it a potentially useful tool to address questions of where nutrients originate and their relative contributions to loads delivered to Lake Winnipeg.

  5. Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks Show a Mixed Response to Cattle Grazing in the Intermountain Region of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Harrison

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing in the shortgrass steppe of the Intermountain region of British Columbia is predicted to have significant effects on grassland habitats and their associated ground-nesting bird communities. We tested whether grazed and ungrazed sites could be discriminated on the basis of their vegetation communities, whether the abundance of two ground-nesting bird species, Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus and Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta, differed between grazed and ungrazed sites, and whether vegetation variables found to differ between grazed and ungrazed plots could be used to predict the abundance of the two bird species at a fine scale. Grazed sites were easily distinguishable from a site that had been ungrazed for >30 years based on the structure and composition of their vegetation communities. However, more detailed grazing categories could not be distinguished on the basis of vegetation characteristics. Despite the existence of grazing effects on vegetation structure and composition, we found no consistent differences in abundance of Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks between the grazed and ungrazed sites. However, there was weak evidence that the abundance of both species was higher at fine-scale plots (100 m radius point count station with less bare ground and taller vegetation. Bare ground cover was lower on grazed plots, but vegetation was taller on ungrazed plots. Combined, our results suggest that low intensity grazing leads to grassland habitat change with both negative and positive effects on Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks, resulting in no net change in their broad-scale abundance.

  6. Spatial variability in nutrient transport by HUC8, state, and subbasin based on Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin SPARROW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) has been linked to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. With geospatial datasets for 2002, including inputs from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and monitored loads throughout the MARB, SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) watershed models were constructed specifically for the MARB, which reduced simulation errors from previous models. Based on these models, N loads/yields were highest from the central part (centered over Iowa and Indiana) of the MARB (Corn Belt), and the highest P yields were scattered throughout the MARB. Spatial differences in yields from previous studies resulted from different descriptions of the dominant sources (N yields are highest with crop-oriented agriculture and P yields are highest with crop and animal agriculture and major WWTPs) and different descriptions of downstream transport. Delivered loads/yields from the MARB SPARROW models are used to rank subbasins, states, and eight-digit Hydrologic Unit Code basins (HUC8s) by N and P contributions and then rankings are compared with those from other studies. Changes in delivered yields result in an average absolute change of 1.3 (N) and 1.9 (P) places in state ranking and 41 (N) and 69 (P) places in HUC8 ranking from those made with previous national-scale SPARROW models. This information may help managers decide where efforts could have the largest effects (highest ranked areas) and thus reduce hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  8. [Amphibians and reptiles in the swamps dominated by the palm Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Beneyto, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    The herpetofauna that inhabits Caribbean Costa Rica has received considerable attention in the last two decades. This assemblage includes a total of 141 species of reptiles and 95 amphibians mostly distributed in tropical wet and moist lowland forests. While most information available came from primary and secondary forest sites, little is known about the amphibians and reptiles that inhabit more open habitats, such as wetlands and swamps. For instances, swaps dominated by the yolillo palm Raphia taedigera extend through much of the northeastern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and eastern Nicaragua, but information about the herpetological community that uses such environments remains practically unknown. This situation reflects the little research conducted in such inhospitable environments. Here, we report the results of an intensive survey conducted to assess the herpetological community that inhabit R. taedigera palm-swamps. A total of 14 species of amphibians and 17 of reptiles have been recorded from these swamps. Amphibians and reptiles that inhabit yolillo swamps have wide distributions along much of Middle America and are considered common species throughout their range. In general, yolillo swamps are poor environments for herpetofauna: richness of reptiles and amphibians is almost two times higher in the adjacent forest than in the palm dominated swamps. Furthermore, most species observed in this swamps can be considered habitat generalists that are well adapted to the extreme conditions imposed by the changes in hydroperiods, reduce understory cover, low tree diversity and simple forest architecture of these environments. Despite similarities in the herpetofauna, it is clear that not all forest species use yolillo habitat, a characteristic that is discussed in terms of physical stress driven by the prolonged hydroperiod and reduced leaflitter in the ground, as these features drive habitat structure and herpetofaunal complexity. Our list of species using

  9. Isolation of vibrio spp. In oysters (crassostrea rhizophorea) caught in the ‘de la virgen’ swamp

    OpenAIRE

    López Gutiérrez, Lercy; Autor; Manjarrez Pava, Ganiveth; Autor; Herrera Rodríguez, Lilibeth; Autor; Montes Payares, Ana Elena; Autor; Olascuaga Ruíz, Yuranis Paola; Autor; Ortega Quiroz, Rolando José; Autor

    2015-01-01

    Objective:  To establish contamination by Vibrio in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) caught in De La Virgen Swamp, in order to alert entities in charge or protecting consumer health in Cartagena city. Methods: Between February and April 2006, 67 oysters from 5 strategic sites along De La Virgen Swamp, were analyzed. Insulation and identification of Vibrio was performed through a culture and biochemical tests.Results.  Predominant species were V. alginolyticus (23%),V fluvialis  (20%),V. para...

  10. Comparison of the Fibronectin-Binding Protein FNE from Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi with FNZ from S. equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Reveals a Major and Conserved Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmark, Hans; Nilsson, Martin; Guss, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The gene fnz from Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus encodes a cell surface protein that binds fibronectin (Fn). Fifty tested isolates of S. equi subspecies equi all contain DNA sequences with similarity to fnz. This work describes the cloning and sequencing of a gene, designated fne, with similarity to fnz from two S. equi subspecies equi isolates. The DNA sequences were found to be identical in the two strains, and sequence comparison of the fne and fnz genes revealed only minor differences. However, one base deletion was found in the middle of the fne gene and eight base pairs downstream of the altered reading frame there is a stop codon. An Fn-binding protein was purified from the growth medium of a subspecies equi culture. Determination of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and molecular mass, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, revealed that the purified protein is the gene product of the 5′-terminal half of fne. Fn-binding activity has earlier only been found in the COOH-terminal half of FNZ. By the use of a purified recombinant protein containing the NH2 half of FNZ, we provide here evidence that this half of the protein also harbors an Fn-binding domain. PMID:11292736

  11. Organic Turkey Flocks: A Reservoir of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schulz

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus can colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and is known to cause similar infections in both humans and animals. Data about the spread or prevalence in farm animals are missing. In this study, Trypton Soya Agar was modified to a selective medium enabling the isolation and quantification of S. gallolyticus from faecal samples. The bacterium was observed in 82 out of 91 faecal samples obtained from 18 different organic turkey flocks. The prevalence of shedding birds was estimated by the number of positive fresh droppings and reached up to 100% on most farms. Furthermore, for the first time S. gallolyticus was quantified in faeces from poultry flocks. The median of colony forming units (CFU per gramme faeces was 3.6 x 10(5 CFU/g. Typing of one isolate from each positive faecal sample by multilocus sequence typing delivered 24 sequence types (STs. Most of the isolates belonged to the clonal complex CC58. The same STs of this complex were detected in up to six different flocks. Partly, these flocks were located in various regions and stocked with varying breeding lines. Regarding the biochemical profiles of the same STs from different farms, the results did not contradict a spread of specific STs in the organic turkey production. Moreover, checking the pubMLST database revealed that STs found in this study were also found in other animal species and in humans. The high detection rate and the number of S. gallolyticus in turkey faeces indicate that this bacterium probably belongs to the common microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys from organic flocks. Furthermore, the findings of this study support the suggestion of a possible interspecies transmission.

  12. Studies on algea of Da′erbin lake and its surrounding swamps in daxing anling mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiaofei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports 234 taxa of algae (excluding diatomas and desmids in Da′erbin Lake and its surrounding swamps in the Great Xing′an Mountains.They were identified belong to 6 phylums 79 generas 197 species 31 varieties and 6 forms.Among them Characium ornithocephalum var.pringsheimii (A.Br. Kom.,Characium pluricoccum Kor.,Quadrigula korsikovii Kom.,Crucigeniella rectangularis (Ng. Kom.are newly reported in China.

  13. Polyancora globosa gen. sp. nov., an aeroaquatic fungus from Malaysian peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Yule, Catherine M

    2006-10-01

    During an investigation of submerged leaves and twigs sampled from tropical peat swamp forests located in Peninsular Malaysia, an anamorphic fungus not attributable to a described genus was detected and isolated in pure culture. Conidial ontogeny was thoroughly studied and illustrated using both light and SEM, which revealed a unique conidial morphology. Analysis of partial nuLSU rDNA and ITS data revealed a phylogenetic position within the Xylariales (Ascomycota), but family affiliation remained unclear.

  14. Aquatic organisms as amber inclusions and examples from a modern swamp forest

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Alexander R.; Dilcher, David L.

    2007-01-01

    To find aquatic organisms in tree resin may seem to be highly unlikely, but the fossil record provides numerous amber-preserved limnetic arthropods (e.g., water beetles, water striders, and crustaceans) and microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, algae, ciliates, testate amoebae, and rotifers). Here we explain the frequently discussed process of embedding aquatic organisms in tree resin based on field studies in a Florida swamp forest. Different aquatic arthropods and all major groups of limnetic mic...

  15. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Sheng; Wei Zhao; Ying Song; Zhigang Li; Majing Luo; Quan Lei; Hanhua Cheng; Rongjia Zhou

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transf...

  16. Nariva Swamp Ramsar Site, Trinidad and Tobago (West Indies) Wetland Habitat Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat Carbonell; Nadra Nathai-Gyan

    2005-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago, a twin island nation, is the most southerly of the Caribbean islands and lies just 11 km off the coast of Venezuela, near the Orinoco delta. Trinidad, the larger of the two islands, is approximately 5,000 km² and the Nariva Swamp is located on its eastern coast (fig. 1). In 1993, this site was designated as a wetland of international...

  17. Spatial analysis of Carbon-14 dynamics in a wetland ecosystem (Duke Swamp, Chalk River Laboratories, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, T L; King-Sharp, K J; Carr, J; Robertson, E; Killey, R W D; Beresford, N A; Wood, M D

    2014-11-01

    A detailed survey was conducted to quantify the spatial distribution of (14)C in Sphagnum moss and underlying soil collected in Duke Swamp. This wetland environment receives (14)C via groundwater pathways from a historic radioactive Waste Management Area (WMA) on Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. Trends in (14)C specific activities were evaluated with distance from the sampling location with the maximum (14)C specific activity (DSS-35), which was situated adjacent to the WMA and close to an area of groundwater discharge. Based on a spatial evaluation of the data, an east-to-west (14)C gradient was found, due to the influence of the WMA on (14)C specific activities in the swamp. In addition, it was possible to identify two groups of sites, each showing significant exponential declines with distance from the groundwater source area. One of the groups showed relatively more elevated (14)C specific activities at a given distance from source, likely due to their proximity to the WMA, the location of the sub-surface plume originating from the WMA, the presence of marsh and swamp habitat types, which facilitated (14)C transport to the atmosphere, and possibly, (14)C air dispersion patterns along the eastern edge of the swamp. The other group, which had lower (14)C specific activities at a given distance from the groundwater source area, included locations that were more distant from the WMA and the sub-surface plume, and contained fen habitat, which is known to act as barrier to groundwater flow. The findings suggest that proximity to source, groundwater flow patterns and habitat physical characteristics can play an important role in the dynamics of (14)C being carried by discharging groundwater into terrestrial and wetland environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Latitudinal variation in carbon storage can help predict changes in swamps affected by global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Plants may offer our best hope of removing greenhouse gases (gases that contribute to global warming) emitted to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. At the same time, global warming could change environments so that natural plant communities will either need to shift into cooler climate zones, or become extirpated (Prasad and Iverson, 1999; Crumpacker and others, 2001; Davis and Shaw, 2001). It is impossible to know the future, but studies combining field observation of production and modeling can help us make predictions about what may happen to these wetland communities in the future. Widespread wetland types such as baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps in the southeastern portion of the United States could be especially good at carbon sequestration (amount of CO2 stored by forests) from the atmosphere. They have high levels of production and sometimes store undecomposed dead plant material in wet conditions with low oxygen, thus keeping gases stored that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere (fig. 1). To study the ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon, our project has taken two approaches. The first analysis looked at published data to develop an idea (hypothesis) of how production levels change across a temperature gradient in the baldcypress region (published data study). The second study tested this idea by comparing production levels across a latitudinal range by using swamps in similar field conditions (ongoing carbon storage study). These studies will help us make predictions about the future ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon in soil and plant biomass, as well as the ability of these forests to shift northward with global warming.

  19. Repeated drought alters resistance of seed bank regeneration in baldcypress swamps of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Middleton, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Recurring drying and wetting events are likely to increase in frequency and intensity in predicted future droughts in the central USA and alter the regeneration potential of species. We explored the resistance of seed banks to successive droughts in 53 sites across the nine locations in baldcypress swamps in the southeastern USA. Along the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley and northern Gulf of Mexico, we investigated the capacity of seed banks to retain viable seeds after successive periods of drying and wetting in a greenhouse study. Mean differences in species richness and seed density were compared to examine the interactions of successive droughts, geographical location and water regime. The results showed that both species richness and total density of germinating seedlings decreased over repeated drought trials. These responses were more pronounced in geographical areas with higher annual mean temperature. In seed banks across the southeastern swamp region, most species were exhausted after Trial 2 or 3, except for semiaquatic species in Illinois and Tennessee, and aquatic species in Texas. Distinct geographical trends in seed bank resistance to drought demonstrate that climate-induced drying of baldcypress swamps could influence the regeneration of species differently across their ranges. Despite the health of adult individuals, lack of regeneration may push ecosystems into a relict status. Seed bank depletion by germination without replenishment may be a major conservation threat in a future with recurring droughts far less severe than megadrought. Nevertheless, the protection of moist refugia might aid conservation.

  20. [The Raffia-swamps as sources or sinks of avifauna: a first approach to the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneyto, Davinia; Monrós, Juan S; Piculo, Rubén

    2013-09-01

    In the Tortuguero region, northeastern Costa Rica, tropical forests are home to over 300 species of birds. Within this ecosystem, wetlands dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera and the royal palm Manicaria saccifera extend in large monospecific swamps locally known as yolillales. These wetlands are characterized by low plant diversity, simple structure, waterlogged soils, and extended hydroperiod. There is hardly any information on the bird communities that inhabit or uses yolillales. We describe this omitofauna, comparing the species that inhabit the palm-swams and in the adjacent forest in terms of species richness and diversity. During October-November 2008, we used transects and hearing stations in both habitats in four locations in the region. We located a total of 11 bird species in the palm-swamps and 31 in the adjacent forests. Our observations suggest that palm-swamps have lower species richness than adjacent forests and that these environments also differ in species composition. Despite their low diversity, yolillales are employed by species with different degrees of vulnerability, so that they may be important for bird conservation in the region. Sampling in yolillales is very hard, so our data should be considered preliminary. Further efforts in these environments are needed to improve our knowledge on the bird community that uses them.

  1. BIOCONTROL FOR RHIZOCTONIA STEM ROT DISEASE BY USING COMBINATION OF SPECIFIC ENDOPHYTE IN PADDY TIDAL SWAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismed Setya Budi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of combination of specific endophytic in tidal swamps to control stem root disease as biological control agents has not been done. It is expected that this combination is able to continuously protect plants from pathogen interference. The research was carried out in type C tidal swamp in Banjar regency of South Kalimantan, from March to November 2011, temperature 29-32oC, and pH 4.0-5.5. The method used was Split Plot design. Biocontrol preparation for both types of endophytic was applied in seeds in 7 days after planting (DAP. Observation on high intensity and plant diseases of planting stage on tidal swamps (taradak, ampak and lacak was conducted. The results showed that there was a reduction of disease ranging from 58.70 to 87.29%. The application of combination of two biocontrol agents (T. viride PS-2.1 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8, (Fusarium non-pathogenic PS-1.5 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8 and (T. viride PS-2.1+ FNP PS-1.5 isolate gave the best inhibition result, reduced disease intensity, and increased plant height. The result of soil analysis before and after application of endophytic showed that there was an increase in soil fertility with the element addition of N, P, K and pH.

  2. Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeeli Mui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents’ health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models. Over the study period, the average food swamp index increased from 93.5 to 95.3 percentage points across all neighborhoods. Among non-African American neighborhoods, increases in the vacancy rate were associated with statistically significant decreases in the food swamp index (b = −0.38; 90% CI, −0.64 to −0.12; p-value: 0.015, after accounting for changes in neighborhood SES, racial diversity, and population size. A positive association was found among low-SES neighborhoods (b = 0.15; 90% CI, 0.037 to 0.27; p-value: 0.031. Vacant homes may influence the composition of food outlets in urban neighborhoods. Future research should further elucidate the mechanisms by which more distal, contextual factors, such as boarded-up vacant homes, may affect food choices and diet-related health outcomes.

  3. Producer farmer’s sovereignty in dry land and swamps areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaeti, RN; Wahyuni, S.

    2018-01-01

    Farmers could perform their farming if they have sovereignty on their farming production inputs and marketing. Suboptimal land, such as dry land and swamps areas have good prospect if applying appropriate technologies. A research in 2015, on status of farmers’ sovereignty, had been conducted in Piani and North Candi Laras Subdistricts, Tapin District, South Borneo Province, representing swamp land and dry land respectively. Data and information were obtained through interviewing related agencies at provincial and district levels and 30 units of farmer’s households. The primary and secondary data were analyzed descriptively. The research results showed that farmers in swamps and dry land were categorized as large farmers and had sovereignty over the land and production. Water shortage and excessive in both land types could be overcome by giving access on appropriate technology such as programs making farmers improve their farming techniques and providing levees. In addition, land certification program, farming expansion and constructing new irrigated lowland were also some efforts to improve farmers’ sovereignty. It was crucial to identify and improve farmer’s sovereignty indicators through research in larger sites and samples.

  4. Approaches for the environmental evaluation of two swamp complexes of the Momposina depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, Humberto; Durango, Consuelo

    1998-01-01

    The swamp complexes of the Momposina depression in the lower Magdalena River have been submitted to irrational exploitation, transformation and contamination mainly since the beginning of the century, process that has be en getting worse in the last decade. The most evident manifestation of the environmental deterioration is expressed by the drastic reduction of fishing, with important socio-economic effects to the population that lives from this source. The most notorious causes of the actual state of the ecosystem were detected, and some preliminary considerations for its management are presented. However, due to the modifications that the complexes have suffered (closure of the natural sewer, construction of jarillones, modifications of the internal water flows and sediments, over exploitation, of fish and herpetofauna), the deterioration of the limnologic conditions is moderated, which allows to begin recuperation plans. The major impacts were observed in the fauna of birds and reptiles associated to the swamps; the decrease of the ictics populations seems to be related to the strong impact generated by the fishing action used and the interruption of the natural cycles of fish. The possibility of rebuilding the communication swamp-river should be studied with care because it seems the system has arrived to new conditions. The re-opening of the sewers could mean a new unbalanced condition represented mainly by the contamination coming from the Magdalena River

  5. Homeostatic regulation of sleep in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirelli Chiara

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep is regulated by both a circadian and a homeostatic process. The homeostatic process reflects the duration of prior wakefulness: the longer one stays awake, the longer and/or more intense is subsequent sleep. In mammals, the best marker of the homeostatic sleep drive is slow wave activity (SWA, the electroencephalographic (EEG power spectrum in the 0.5–4 Hz frequency range during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. In mammals, NREM sleep SWA is high at sleep onset, when sleep pressure is high, and decreases progressively to reach low levels in late sleep. Moreover, SWA increases further with sleep deprivation, when sleep also becomes less fragmented (the duration of sleep episodes increases, and the number of brief awakenings decreases. Although avian and mammalian sleep share several features, the evidence of a clear homeostatic response to sleep loss has been conflicting in the few avian species studied so far. The aim of the current study was therefore to ascertain whether established markers of sleep homeostasis in mammals are also present in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, a migratory songbird of the order Passeriformes. To accomplish this goal, we investigated amount of sleep, sleep time course, and measures of sleep intensity in 6 birds during baseline sleep and during recovery sleep following 6 hours of sleep deprivation. Results Continuous (24 hours EEG and video recordings were used to measure baseline sleep and recovery sleep following short-term sleep deprivation. Sleep stages were scored visually based on 4-sec epochs. EEG power spectra (0.5–25 Hz were calculated on consecutive 4-sec epochs. Four vigilance states were reliably distinguished based on behavior, visual inspection of the EEG, and spectral EEG analysis: Wakefulness (W, Drowsiness (D, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid-eye movement (REM sleep. During baseline, SWA during D, SWS, and NREM sleep (defined as D and SWS

  6. Subspecies distribution and macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance genetics of Mycobacterium abscessus in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Sung, H; Park, J-S; Choi, S-H; Shim, T-S; Kim, M-N

    2016-01-01

    Treating Mycobacterium abscessus infections with antimicrobials remains difficult, possibly due to drug resistance. To investigate the subspecies distribution of M. abscessus and its correlation with antibiotic susceptibility and the genetics of antibiotic resistance, focusing on macrolides and fluoroquinolones, in the Republic of Korea. A total of 53 M. abscessus isolates were identified to the subspecies level by sequencing of hsp65 and erm(41). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clarithromycin (CLM) and ciprofloxacin (CFX) were determined using Sensititre™ RAPMYCO plates. The rrl, gyrA and gyrB genes were sequenced to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance. Isolates included 22 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 31 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. erm(41) sequences showing subspecies-specific deletions and sequence variations in the 28th nucleotide were concordant with inducible CLM resistance; however, mutations in rrl were not detected. Low- and high-level CFX resistance was observed in respectively 19 (35.8%) and 10 (18.9%) of the 53 clinical isolates, regardless of subspecies. However, no non-synonymous mutations were detected in gyrA or gyrB. Sequencing of the erm gene and subspeciation of M. abscessus may be used to predict inducible macrolide susceptibility. Further studies of the relationship between specific mutations in gyrA or gyrB to MIC change are required.

  7. Subspecies genetic assignments of worldwide captive tigers increase conservation value of captive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Martenson, Janice; Antunes, Agostinho; Martelli, Paolo; Uphyrkina, Olga; Traylor-Holzer, Kathy; Smith, James L D; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-04-22

    Tigers (Panthera tigris) are disappearing rapidly from the wild, from over 100,000 in the 1900s to as few as 3000. Javan (P.t. sondaica), Bali (P.t. balica), and Caspian (P.t. virgata) subspecies are extinct, whereas the South China tiger (P.t. amoyensis) persists only in zoos. By contrast, captive tigers are flourishing, with 15,000-20,000 individuals worldwide, outnumbering their wild relatives five to seven times. We assessed subspecies genetic ancestry of 105 captive tigers from 14 countries and regions by using Bayesian analysis and diagnostic genetic markers defined by a prior analysis of 134 voucher tigers of significant genetic distinctiveness. We assigned 49 tigers to one of five subspecies (Bengal P.t. tigris, Sumatran P.t. sumatrae, Indochinese P.t. corbetti, Amur P.t. altaica, and Malayan P.t. jacksoni tigers) and determined 52 had admixed subspecies origins. The tested captive tigers retain appreciable genomic diversity unobserved in their wild counterparts, perhaps a consequence of large population size, century-long introduction of new founders, and managed-breeding strategies to retain genetic variability. Assessment of verified subspecies ancestry offers a powerful tool that, if applied to tigers of uncertain background, may considerably increase the number of purebred tigers suitable for conservation management.

  8. Phylogenomic Analysis Identifies Gene Gains That Define Salmonella enterica Subspecies I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienau, E. Kurt; Blazar, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Charles; Brown, Eric W.; Stones, Robert; Musser, Steven; Allard, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative methods for analyzing whole genome sequence (WGS) data enable us to assess the genetic information available for reconstructing the evolutionary history of pathogens. We used the comparative approach to determine diagnostic genes for Salmonella enterica subspecies I. S. enterica subsp. I strains are known to infect warm-blooded organisms regularly while its close relatives tend to infect only cold-blooded organisms. We found 71 genes gained by the common ancestor of Salmonella enterica subspecies I and not subsequently lost by any member of this subspecies sequenced to date. These genes included many putative functional phenotypes. Twenty-seven of these genes are found only in Salmonella enterica subspecies I; we designed primers to test these genes for use as diagnostic sequence targets and data mined the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database for draft genomes which carried these genes. We found that the sequence specificity and variability of these amplicons can be used to detect and discriminate among 317 different serovars and strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies I. PMID:24204679

  9. Using survival analysis of artificial and Real Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri) nests to model site level and nest site factors associated with nest success in the South Okanagan region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pam Krannitz Kym Welstead

    2005-01-01

    Predation is the predominant cause of nest failure for the Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri breweri), a provincially red-listed shrub-steppe species that has experienced significant declines throughout most of its range. We monitored Brewer’s Sparrow nests and conducted an artificial nest experiment, in the South Okanagan Valley,...

  10. Effect of fasting in the digestive system: histological study of the small intestine in house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes, Samanta Celeste; Filippa, Verónica Palmira; Cid, Fabricio Damián; Mohamed, Fabián; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Chediack, Juan Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    In birds and mammals the metabolic response to fasting has been studied and can be characterized by three consecutive phases reflecting metabolic and physiological adjustments. An effective way to minimize energy expenditure during food scarcity is to decrease the mass of the organs. As the digestive system is metabolically expensive to maintain, the small intestine and the liver are the most affected organs. We evaluated the effects of phase III starvation on the mass of the different organs and histological parameters on house sparrows, a small non-migrant bird. In a short period of time (34 h) we observed a larger reduction in the digestive organ mass when compared to the mass of the body and non-alimentary tissues. Furthermore, the intestinal mass was proportionally more reduced than its length and nominal surface area. A reduction on the intestinal mucosal layer also resulted in a shortening of villus (length and thickness) and crypt depth. Moreover, the morphology of the enterocytes changed from cylindrical to cubical, suggesting that the surface exposed to the lumen was conserved. This may indicate an adaptive response to the moment of refeeding. The nominal surface area/body mass remained constant in both groups and several histological parameters were reduced, suggesting that starving induces the atrophy of the small intestine. However, the goblet cells were conserved after fasting indicating a protective tendency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of effective population size to demographic parameters in house sparrow populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Marlene Waege; Myhre, Ane Marlene; Holand, Håkon; Kvalnes, Thomas; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Jensen, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The ratio between the effective and the census population size, Ne/N, is an important measure of the long-term viability and sustainability of a population. Understanding which demographic processes that affect Ne/N most will improve our understanding of how genetic drift and the probability of fixation of alleles is affected by demography. This knowledge may also be of vital importance in management of endangered populations and species. Here, we use data from 13 natural populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Norway to calculate the demographic parameters that determine Ne/N. Using the global variance-based Sobol' method for the sensitivity analyses, we found that Ne/N was most sensitive to demographic variance, especially among older individuals. Furthermore, the individual reproductive values (that determine the demographic variance) were most sensitive to variation in fecundity. Our results draw attention to the applicability of sensitivity analyses in population management and conservation. For population management aiming to reduce the loss of genetic variation, a sensitivity analysis may indicate the demographic parameters towards which resources should be focused. The result of such an analysis may depend on the life history and mating system of the population or species under consideration, because the vital rates and sex-age classes that Ne/N is most sensitive to may change accordingly. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. External and gastrointestinal parasites of the rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes, Emberizidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Llanos-Soto

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 277 rufous-collared sparrows, Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae, were examined for external parasites. The birds were captured using mist nets in seven locations in northern and central Chile. Additionally, seven carcasses from central Chile (the Biobío region were necropsied to evaluate the presence of endoparasite infection. Ectoparasites were found on 35.8% (99/277 of the examined birds and they were represented by the following arthropods: feather mites Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, and Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae; a louse Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera; and ticks Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae and Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae. Two of the seven necropsied carcasses were infected with the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae. To our knowledge, this study reports P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum, and M. papillosus for the first time for Z. capensis and expands the distributional range for T. capensis to Chile.

  13. No evidence of inbreeding depression in sperm performance traits in wild song sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losdat, Sylvain; Germain, Ryan R; Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M

    2018-02-01

    Inbreeding is widely hypothesized to shape mating systems and population persistence, but such effects will depend on which traits show inbreeding depression. Population and evolutionary consequences could be substantial if inbreeding decreases sperm performance and hence decreases male fertilization success and female fertility. However, the magnitude of inbreeding depression in sperm performance traits has rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural variation in inbreeding. Further, the hypothesis that inbreeding could increase within-ejaculate variation in sperm traits and thereby further affect male fertilization success has not been explicitly tested. We used a wild pedigreed song sparrow ( Melospiza melodia ) population, where frequent extrapair copulations likely create strong postcopulatory competition for fertilization success, to quantify effects of male coefficient of inbreeding ( f ) on key sperm performance traits. We found no evidence of inbreeding depression in sperm motility, longevity, or velocity, and the within-ejaculate variance in sperm velocity did not increase with male f . Contrary to inferences from highly inbred captive and experimental populations, our results imply that moderate inbreeding will not necessarily constrain sperm performance in wild populations. Consequently, the widely observed individual-level and population-level inbreeding depression in male and female fitness may not stem from reduced sperm performance in inbred males.

  14. Extrapair paternity rates vary with latitude and elevation in emberizid sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonier, Frances; Eikenaar, Cas; Martin, Paul R; Moore, Ignacio T

    2014-01-01

    Mating systems can vary among species and populations and thus influence evolutionary trajectories, ecological traits, and population demography. The siring of offspring by an extrapair male, or extrapair paternity (EPP), is a widespread and varied phenomenon in all vertebrate classes. However, we do not understand all of the factors associated with variation in EPP rates. The breeding synchrony hypothesis suggests that EPP rates should increase with latitude and elevation, whereas the paternal care hypothesis predicts that EPP rates should decrease with elevation. To address these hypotheses, we investigated how population EPP rates vary over elevation and latitude in emberizid sparrows. In comparative analyses including the effects of phylogeny, the relationship between EPP rates and elevation depended on latitude. EPP rates were greater in higher-latitude populations. But within higher-latitude populations, EPP rates decreased with increasing elevation. These findings provide support for both the breeding synchrony and paternal care hypotheses, suggesting that in lower-latitude, higher-elevation populations, the need for male parental care does not outweigh the benefits of seeking extrapair fertilizations in populations with relatively synchronous breeding. In contrast, at higher-latitude, higher-elevation sites, the need for male parental care is greater and might drive lower rates of extrapair mating despite highly synchronous breeding.

  15. Within-species digestive tract flexibility in rufous-collared sparrows and the climatic variability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Karin; Bozinovic, Francisco; Rojas, José M; Sabat, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The climatic variability hypothesis (CVH) states that species are geographically more widespread at higher latitudes because individuals have a broader range of physiological tolerance or phenotypic flexibility as latitude and climatic variability increase. However, it remains unclear to what extent climatic variability or latitude, acting on the phenotype, account for any observed geographical gradient in mean range size. In this study, we analyzed the physiological flexibility within the CVH framework by using an intraspecific population experimental approach. We tested for a positive relationship between digestive-tract flexibility (i.e., morphology and enzyme activities) and latitude and climatic and natural diet variability in populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) captured in desert (27°S), Mediterranean (33°S), and cold-temperate (41°S) sites in Chile. In accordance with the CVH, we observed a positive relationship between the magnitude of digestive-tract flexibility and environmental variability but not latitude. The greatest digestive flexibility was observed in birds at middle latitudes, which experience the most environmental variability (a Mediterranean climate), whereas individuals from the most stable climates (desert and cold-temperate) exhibited little or no digestive-tract flexibility in response to experimental diets. Our findings support the idea that latitudinal gradients in geographical ranges may be strongly affected by the action of regional features, which makes it difficult to find general patterns in the distribution of species.

  16. Dynamics of West Nile virus persistence in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Wheeler

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is now endemic throughout North America, with annual recurrence dependent upon successful overwintering when cold temperatures drive mosquito vectors into inactivity and halt transmission. To investigate whether avian hosts may serve as an overwintering mechanism, groups of eight to ten House Sparrows were experimentally infected with a WN02 genotype of WNV and then held until necropsy at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, or 18 weeks post-infection (pi when they were assessed for the presence of persistent infection. Blood was collected from all remaining birds every two weeks pi, and sera tested for WNV RNA and WNV neutralizing antibodies. West Nile virus RNA was present in the sera of some birds up to 7 weeks pi and all birds retained neutralizing antibodies throughout the experiment. The detection of persistently infected birds decreased with time, from 100% (n = 13 positive at 3 weeks post-infection (pi to 12.5% (n = 8 at 18 weeks pi. Infectious virus was isolated from the spleens of birds necropsied at 3, 5, 7 and 12 weeks pi. The current study confirmed previous reports of infectious WNV persistence in avian hosts, and further characterized the temporal nature of these infections. Although these persistent infections supported the hypothesis that infected birds may serve as an overwintering mechanism, mosquito-infectious recrudescent viremias have yet to be demonstrated thereby providing proof of principle.

  17. Individual-learning ability predicts social-foraging strategy in house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsnelson, Edith; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2011-02-22

    Social foragers can use either a 'producer' strategy, which involves searching for food, or a 'scrounger' strategy, which involves joining others' food discoveries. While producers rely on personal information and past experience, we may ask whether the tendency to forage as a producer is related to being a better learner. To answer this question, we hand-raised house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings that upon independence were given an individual-learning task that required them to associate colour signal and food presence. Following the testing phase, all fledglings were released into a shared aviary, and their social-foraging tendencies were measured. We found a significant positive correlation between individual's performance in the individual-learning task and subsequent tendency to use searching (producing) behaviour. Individual-learning score was negatively correlated with initial fear of the test apparatus and with body weight. However, the correlation between individual learning and searching remained significant after controlling for these variables. Since it was measured before the birds entered a social group, individual-learning ability could not be the outcome of being a producer. However, the two traits may be initially associated, or individual learning could facilitate producing behaviour. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that associates individual-learning abilities with social-foraging strategies in animal groups.

  18. Impacts of short-term food restriction on immune development in altricial house sparrow nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killpack, Tess L; Carrel, Elijah; Karasov, William H

    2015-01-01

    Food limitation is a common ecological scenario for nestling altricial birds, and reductions in growth and maintenance have been observed in resource-limited nestlings. Substantial development of the immune system occurs during the nestling period, yet the resource dependence of this immune development is understudied. We examined constitutive immune system development as well as acute-phase responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection after 48 h of food restriction in house sparrows at 7 and 13 d posthatch. We also examined nestlings that were restricted early (5-7 d) but refed and tested at 13 d posthatch to determine whether altered immune function and growth early in the nestling period were recovered upon return to adequate resource supply. Induced acute-phase protein response was reduced in food-restricted birds, yet no lasting reductions in acute-phase protein levels were observed in previously restricted nestlings that were challenged with LPS after refeeding. Food restriction did not significantly impact constitutive levels of complement-mediated lysis or circulating IgY antibodies. As a comparator to immune measures, we found that organ and tarsus size, as well as muscle size and citrate synthase enzyme activity (an index of muscle cellular aerobic capacity), were significantly reduced in food-restricted nestlings. Reductions in flight muscle mass and function persisted in birds refed after early food restriction, which may have contributed to persistent body temperature reductions observed in refed birds.

  19. Reproduction and modulation of the stress response: an experimental test in the house sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Ádám Zoltán; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Chastel, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    The stress response is highly variable among individuals, but the causes of this variation remain largely unknown. In response to stressors, vertebrates secrete elevated levels of glucocorticoids which enhance survival, but concurrently interfere with reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that individuals flexibly modulate their stress response with respect to the reproductive value of their brood in free-living house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We experimentally increased or decreased clutch size during the nestling period and found that parents tending enlarged clutches responded less strongly to a stressor than those tending reduced clutches. In addition, we examined whether individuals responded less strongly to a stressor as the breeding season progressed and future reproductive opportunities declined. We found that the stress response decreased with breeding date during the birds' first breeding attempt, but it remained constant during their second breeding attempt. Within-individual variability in the stress response was related to the brood size manipulations the birds received in their two consecutive breeding attempts. These results provide the first experimental support for the hypothesis that individuals actively modulate their stress response with respect to the value of current reproduction. PMID:17164203

  20. Plasmodium relictum infection and MHC diversity in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Claire; Zoorob, Rima; Robert, Alexandre; Chastel, Olivier; Julliard, Romain; Sorci, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites has been proposed as a mechanism maintaining genetic diversity in both host and parasite populations. In particular, the high level of genetic diversity usually observed at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is generally thought to be maintained by parasite-driven selection. Among the possible ways through which parasites can maintain MHC diversity, diversifying selection has received relatively less attention. This hypothesis is based on the idea that parasites exert spatially variable selection pressures because of heterogeneity in parasite genetic structure, abundance or virulence. Variable selection pressures should select for different host allelic lineages resulting in population-specific associations between MHC alleles and risk of infection. In this study, we took advantage of a large survey of avian malaria in 13 populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) to test this hypothesis. We found that (i) several MHC alleles were either associated with increased or decreased risk to be infected with Plasmodium relictum, (ii) the effects were population specific, and (iii) some alleles had antagonistic effects across populations. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that diversifying selection in space can maintain MHC variation and suggest a pattern of local adaptation where MHC alleles are selected at the local host population level. PMID:20943698

  1. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F Stuber

    Full Text Available White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  2. Lower food chain community study: thermal effects and post-thermal recovery in the streams and swamps of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratieff, P.; Kondratieff, B.C.

    1985-07-01

    The effects of thermal stress on lower food chain communities of streams and swamps of the Savannah River Plant. Both the autotroph assemblages and the macro invertebrate communities were studied in streams receiving heated reactor effluent. To document stream and swamp ecosystem recovery from thermal stress, the same communities of organisms were studied in a stream/swamp ecosystem which had received heated reactor effluent in the past. (ACR)

  3. Rapid and accurate identification of Streptococcus equi subspecies by MALDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Welker, Martin; Knudsen, Nanna Reumert

    2015-01-01

    phenotypic and sequence similarity between three subspecies their discrimination remains difficult. In this study, we aimed to design and validate a novel, Superspectra based, MALDI-TOF MS approach for reliable, rapid and cost-effective identification of SEE and SEZ, the most frequent S. equi subspecies.......3±7.5%). This result may be attributed to the highly clonal population structure of SEE, as opposed to the diversity of SEZ seen in horses. Importantly strains with atypical colony appearance both within SEE and SEZ did not affect correct identification of the strains by MALDI-TOF MS. Atypical colony variants...... are often associated with a higher persistence or virulence of S. equi, thus their correct identification using the current method strengthens its potential use in routine clinical diagnostics. In conclusion, reliable identification of S. equi subspecies was achieved by combining a MALDI-TOF MS method...

  4. Description of a new subspecies, Macrobrachium aemulum madhusoodani (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from Neyyar River, Kerala, S. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, P M; Unnikrishnan, V

    2013-01-01

    Macrobrachium aemulum madhusoodani, a new subspecies of M. aemulum (Nobili, 1906) is described and illustrated. The distinctive characters of the subspecies are: rostral formula 9-13/2, second pereiopods dissimilar in shape and unequal in size, movable finger of larger second pereiopod with 2 large denticles on the proximal part and 6 weak denticles on distal part. Similar pattern of dentition is present on immovable finger also. In second small pereiopod, fingers stout, equal, unarmed with distinct gap in between when closed. Numerous stiff setae present on cutting edges of fingers. Telson extends beyond the level of the outer lateral spine of the uropodal exopod. Some of the distinctive morphometric and meristic characters of the specimens did not conform to that collected and described from New Caledonia by Nobili (1906) and recorded from India by Jayachandran and Joseph (1988). Since the features cannot be reckoned as mere growth variations, it is described herein as a new subspecies.

  5. Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium avium subspecies silvaticum from a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiers, Koen; Deschaght, Pieter; De Baere, Thierry; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Kotlowski, Roman; De Clercq, Dominique; Ducatelle, Richard; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2012-07-01

    Routine cultivation methods are able to distinguish between isolates of the Mycobacterium avium and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. However, molecular tools are needed to further identify the several subspecies in the M. avium complex, especially for the subspecies avium and silvaticum. A rapid technique using HhaI restriction digestion of a 349 bp amplification product of the 85B antigen (α-antigen) gene was used for the identification of M. avium subsp. silvaticum in a three-year-old gelding presenting with caseous, necrotizing, granulomatous lesions. The result was confirmed by sequencing of the 85B antigen gene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genome-Based Reclassification of Fusobacterium nucleatum Subspecies at the Species Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Joong-Ki; Park, Soon-Nang; Lim, Yun Kyong; Cho, Eugene; Jo, Eojin; Roh, Hansung; Shin, Yeseul; Paek, Jayoung; Kim, Hwa-Sook; Kim, Hongik; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Chang, Young-Hyo

    2017-10-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is classified as four subspecies, subsp. nucleatum, polymorphum, vincentii, and animalis, based on DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) patterns, phenotypic characteristics, and/or multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The gold standards for classification of bacterial species are DDH and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequence homology. The thresholds of DDH and 16S rDNA similarity for delineation of bacterial species have been suggested to be >70 and 98.65%, respectively. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) and genome-to-genome distance (GGD) analysis based on genome sequences were recently introduced as a replacement for DDH to delineate bacterial species with ANI (95-96%) and GGD (70%) threshold values. In a previous study, F. hwasookii was classified as a new species based on MLSA and DDH results. 16S rDNA similarity between F. hwasookii type strain and F. nucleatum subspecies type strains was higher than that between F. nucleatum subspecies type strains. Therefore, it is possible that the four F. nucleatum subspecies can be classified as Fusobacterium species. In this study, we performed ANI and GGD analyses using the genome sequences of 36 F. nucleatum, five F. hwasookii, and one Fusobacterium periodonticum strain to determine whether the four F. nucleatum subspecies could be classified as species using OrthoANI and ANI web-based softwares provided by ChunLab and Kostas lab, respectively, and GGD calculator offered by German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures. ANI values calculated from OrthoANI and ANI calculators between the type strains of F. nucleatum subspecies ranged from 89.80 to 92.97 and from 90.40 to 91.90%, respectively. GGD values between the type strains of F. nucleatum subspecies ranged from 42.3 to 46.0%. ANI and GGD values among strains belonging to the same F. nucleatum subspecies, subsp. nucleatum, subsp. polymorphum, subsp. vincentii, and subsp. animalis were >96 and >68.2%, respectively. These results strongly

  7. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  8. Rich soil carbon and nitrogen but low atmospheric greenhouse gas fluxes from North Sulawesi mangrove swamps in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang C; Ulumuddin, Yaya I; Pramudji, Sastro; Chen, Shun Y; Chen, Bin; Ye, Yong; Ou, Dan Y; Ma, Zhi Y; Huang, Hao; Wang, Jing K

    2014-07-15

    The soil to atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 and their relationships with soil characteristics were investigated in three tropical oceanic mangrove swamps (Teremaal, Likupang and Kema) in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Mangrove soils in North Sulawesi were rich in organic carbon and nitrogen, but the greenhouse gas fluxes were low in these mangroves. The fluxes ranged -6.05-13.14 μmol m(-2)h(-1), -0.35-0.61 μmol m(-2)h(-1) and -1.34-3.88 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N2O, CH4 and CO2, respectively. The differences in both N2O and CH4 fluxes among different mangrove swamps and among tidal positions in each mangrove swamp were insignificant. CO2 flux was influenced only by mangrove swamps and the value was higher in Kema mangrove. None of the measured soil parameters could explain the variation of CH4 fluxes among the sampling plots. N2O flux was negatively related to porewater salinity, while CO2 flux was negatively correlated with water content and organic carbon. This study suggested that the low gas emissions due to slow metabolisms would lead to the accumulations of organic matters in North Sulawesi mangrove swamps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating summer nutrient concentrations in Northeastern lakes from SPARROW load predictions and modeled lake depth and volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Bryan Milstead

    Full Text Available Global nutrient cycles have been altered by the use of fossil fuels and fertilizers resulting in increases in nutrient loads to aquatic systems. In the United States, excess nutrients have been repeatedly reported as the primary cause of lake water quality impairments. Setting nutrient criteria that are protective of a lakes ecological condition is one common solution; however, the data required to do this are not always easily available. A useful solution for this is to combine available field data (i.e., The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA National Lake Assessment (NLA with average annual nutrient load models (i.e., USGS SPARROW model to estimate summer concentrations across a large number of lakes. In this paper we use this combined approach and compare the observed total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TN concentrations in Northeastern lakes from the 2007 National Lake Assessment to those predicted by the Northeast SPARROW model. We successfully adjusted the SPARROW predictions to the NLA observations with the use of Vollenweider equations, simple input-output models that predict nutrient concentrations in lakes based on nutrient loads and hydraulic residence time. This allows us to better predict summer concentrations of TN and TP in Northeastern lakes and ponds. On average we improved our predicted concentrations of TN and TP with Vollenweider models by 18.7% for nitrogen and 19.0% for phosphorus. These improved predictions are being used in other studies to model ecosystem services (e.g., aesthetics and dis-services (e.g. cyanobacterial blooms for ~18,000 lakes in the Northeastern United States.

  10. Niche tracking and rapid establishment of distributional equilibrium in the house sparrow show potential responsiveness of species to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Monahan

    Full Text Available The ability of species to respond to novel future climates is determined in part by their physiological capacity to tolerate climate change and the degree to which they have reached and continue to maintain distributional equilibrium with the environment. While broad-scale correlative climatic measurements of a species' niche are often described as estimating the fundamental niche, it is unclear how well these occupied portions actually approximate the fundamental niche per se, versus the fundamental niche that exists in environmental space, and what fitness values bounding the niche are necessary to maintain distributional equilibrium. Here, we investigate these questions by comparing physiological and correlative estimates of the thermal niche in the introduced North American house sparrow (Passer domesticus. Our results indicate that occupied portions of the fundamental niche derived from temperature correlations closely approximate the centroid of the existing fundamental niche calculated on a fitness threshold of 50% population mortality. Using these niche measures, a 75-year time series analysis (1930-2004 further shows that: (i existing fundamental and occupied niche centroids did not undergo directional change, (ii interannual changes in the two niche centroids were correlated, (iii temperatures in North America moved through niche space in a net centripetal fashion, and consequently, (iv most areas throughout the range of the house sparrow tracked the existing fundamental niche centroid with respect to at least one temperature gradient. Following introduction to a new continent, the house sparrow rapidly tracked its thermal niche and established continent-wide distributional equilibrium with respect to major temperature gradients. These dynamics were mediated in large part by the species' broad thermal physiological tolerances, high dispersal potential, competitive advantage in human-dominated landscapes, and climatically induced

  11. Descriptions of a new species and subspecies of Halysidota Hübner, [1819] from Mexico (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Benoît Vincent; Michel Laguerre

    2017-01-01

    A new species and subspecies of the genus Halysidota are described from Mexico and Guadeloupe respectively: Halysidota witti sp. nov. and Halysidota leda guadulpensis ssp. nov. Details of the new species and subspecies descriptions are based upon morphological and molecular characters as well as distributional data.

  12. Structure and amount of genetic variation at minisatellite loci within the subspecies complex of Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; Bijlsma, R.; Osterhaus, ADME; van Delden, W.; van de Zande, L.

    The structure and amount of genetic variation within and between three subspecies of the harbour seal Phoca vitulina was assessed by multilocus DNA fingerprinting. Bandsharing similarity indicates that the subspecies Phoca vitulina richarhsi (Alaska, East Pacific) is clearly separated from the other

  13. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two subspecies (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus) of the greater horseshoe bat (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanhong; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in China. In this study, their mitochondrial genomes were completely sequenced and annotated. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that R. f. nippon has a close relationship with two subspecies of R. ferrumequinum from Korea with 0.1% divergence, which indicated they are synonyms.

  14. Mitochondrial genome diversity and population structure of two western honey bee subspecies in the Republic of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimanifar, Amin; Kimball, Rebecca T; Braun, Edward L; Ellis, James D

    2018-01-22

    Apis mellifera capensis Eschscholtz and A.m. scutellata Lepeletier are subspecies of western honey bees that are indigenous to the Republic of South Africa (RSA). Both subspecies have invasive potential and are organisms of concern for areas outside their native range, though they are important bees to beekeepers, agriculture, and the environment where they are native. The aim of the present study was to examine genetic differentiation among these subspecies and estimate their phylogenetic relationships using complete mitochondrial genomes sequences. We used 25 individuals that were either assigned to one of the subspecies or designated hybrids using morphometric analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenome sequences by maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference identified a monophyletic RSA clade, subdivided into two clades. A haplotype network was consistent with the phylogenetic trees. However, members of both subspecies occurred in both clades, indicating that A.m. capensis and A.m. scutellata are neither reciprocally monophyletic nor do they exhibit paraphyly with one subspecies nested within the other subspecies. Furthermore, no mitogenomic features were diagnostic to either subspecies. All bees analyzed from the RSA expressed a substantial level of haplotype diversity (most samples had unique haplotypes) but limited nucleotide diversity. The number of variable codons across protein-coding genes (PCGs) differed among loci, with CO3 exhibiting the most variation and ATP6 the least.

  15. Descriptions of a new species and subspecies of Halysidota Hübner, [1819] from Mexico (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Vincent

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species and subspecies of the genus Halysidota are described from Mexico and Guadeloupe respectively: Halysidota witti sp. nov. and Halysidota leda guadulpensis ssp. nov. Details of the new species and subspecies descriptions are based upon morphological and molecular characters as well as distributional data.

  16. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  17. Ovarian activity and sexual behavior in the postpartum Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Colenbrander

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Early postpartum follicular activity and sexual behavior was evaluated in the swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in a tropical climate. Sixteen multiparous postpartum swamp buffaloes, 4-12 years of age, (432 - 676 kg were studied starting between 5-29 days after parturition. Ovarian follicular activity was examined daily in the morning with a real-time B-mode linear array ultrasound scanner (Aloka SSD-500, Tokyo, Japan equipped with a 7.5 MHz transrectal transducer. Estrous detection was performed daily using a mature bull, via personal observation as well as via video registration. In addition, vaginal discharge around estrus was evaluated. Uterine involution took 28.74+1.21 days (mean +SEM, range 22-41 d, n=16. Follicular activity prior to the first ovulation was characterized by a wave like pattern. Follicular growth rates and maximum diameter of the follicle in the second, third and fourth cycle post partum did not differ while that of the first ovulation follicle was significantly lower (p<0.05. Short ovarian cycles were observed in 93.3% of the buffaloes in the first to second ovulation interval (10.14+40 d, and in 50.0% of the buffaloes in the second to third ovulation interval (12.00+1.53 d, while one buffalo cow then had a long estrus cycle (27 d. The behavioral characteristics of estrus around the first postpartum ovulation were not as obvious as around the second, third and fourth postpartum ovulation. It can be concluded that for optimal reproductive efficiency the swamp buffalo should be mated between 1- 2 months postpartum at the second ovulation.

  18. Sexual dimorphism in immune function changes during the annual cycle in house sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Péter László; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Vágási, Csongor István; Barta, Zoltán; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2010-10-01

    Difference between sexes in parasitism is a common phenomenon among birds, which may be related to differences between males and females in their investment into immune functions or as a consequence of differential exposure to parasites. Because life-history strategies change sex specifically during the annual cycle, immunological responses of the host aiming to reduce the impact of parasites may be sexually dimorphic. Despite the great complexity of the immune system, studies on immunoecology generally characterise the immune status through a few variables, often overlooking potentially important seasonal and gender effects. However, because of the differences in physiological and defence mechanisms among different arms of the immune system, we expect divergent responses of immune components to environmental seasonality. In male and female house sparrows ( Passer domesticus), we measured the major components of the immune system (innate, acquired, cellular and humoral) during four important life-history stages across the year: (1) mating, (2) breeding, (3) moulting and (4) during the winter capture and also following introduction to captivity in aviary. Different individuals were sampled from the same population during the four life cycle stages. We found that three out of eight immune variables showed a significant life cycle stage × sex interaction. The difference in immune response between the sexes was significant in five immune variables during the mating stage, when females had consistently stronger immune function than males, while variables varied generally non-significantly with sex during the remaining three life cycle stages. Our results show that the immune system is highly variable between life cycle stages and sexes, highlighting the potential fine tuning of the immune system to specific physiological states and environmental conditions.

  19. Urbanization, trace metal pollution, and malaria prevalence in the house sparrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Bichet

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pollution poses a threat for the environment and wildlife. Trace metals (TMs are known to have negative effects on haematological status, oxidative balance, and reproductive success in birds. These pollutants particularly increase in concentration in industrialized, urbanized and intensive agricultural areas. Pollutants can also interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and, as such, alter the dynamics of host-parasite interactions. Nevertheless, the impact of pollution on infectious diseases has been largely neglected in natural populations of vertebrates. Here, we used a large spatial scale monitoring of 16 house sparrow (Passer domesticus populations to identify environmental variables likely to explain variation in TMs (lead, cadmium, zinc concentrations in the feathers. In five of these populations, we also studied the potential link between TMs, prevalence of infection with one species of avian malaria, Plasmodium relictum, and body condition. Our results show that lead concentration is associated with heavily urbanized habitats and that areas with large woodland coverage have higher cadmium and zinc feather concentrations. Our results suggest that lead concentration in the feathers positively correlates with P. relictum prevalence, and that a complex relationship links TM concentrations, infection status, and body condition. This is one of the first studies showing that environmental pollutants are associated with prevalence of an infectious disease in wildlife. The mechanisms underlying this effect are still unknown even though it is tempting to suggest that lead could interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system, as shown in other species. We suggest that more effort should be devoted to elucidate the link between pollution and the dynamics of infectious diseases.

  20. Urbanization, trace metal pollution, and malaria prevalence in the house sparrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Coraline; Scheifler, Renaud; Cœurdassier, Michaël; Julliard, Romain; Sorci, Gabriele; Loiseau, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic pollution poses a threat for the environment and wildlife. Trace metals (TMs) are known to have negative effects on haematological status, oxidative balance, and reproductive success in birds. These pollutants particularly increase in concentration in industrialized, urbanized and intensive agricultural areas. Pollutants can also interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and, as such, alter the dynamics of host-parasite interactions. Nevertheless, the impact of pollution on infectious diseases has been largely neglected in natural populations of vertebrates. Here, we used a large spatial scale monitoring of 16 house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations to identify environmental variables likely to explain variation in TMs (lead, cadmium, zinc) concentrations in the feathers. In five of these populations, we also studied the potential link between TMs, prevalence of infection with one species of avian malaria, Plasmodium relictum, and body condition. Our results show that lead concentration is associated with heavily urbanized habitats and that areas with large woodland coverage have higher cadmium and zinc feather concentrations. Our results suggest that lead concentration in the feathers positively correlates with P. relictum prevalence, and that a complex relationship links TM concentrations, infection status, and body condition. This is one of the first studies showing that environmental pollutants are associated with prevalence of an infectious disease in wildlife. The mechanisms underlying this effect are still unknown even though it is tempting to suggest that lead could interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system, as shown in other species. We suggest that more effort should be devoted to elucidate the link between pollution and the dynamics of infectious diseases.

  1. Costs of immunity and their role in the range expansion of the house sparrow in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn B; Kilvitis, Holly J; Brace, Amber J; Cooper, Laken; Haussmann, Mark F; Mutati, Alex; Fasanello, Vincent; O'Brien, Sara; Ardia, Daniel R

    2017-06-15

    There are at least two reasons to study traits that mediate successful range expansions. First, dispersers will found new populations and thus impact the distribution and evolution of species. Second, organisms moving into new areas will influence the fate of resident communities, directly competing with or indirectly affecting residents by spreading non-native or spilling-back native parasites. The success of invaders in new areas is likely mediated by a counterbalancing of costly traits. In new areas where threats are comparatively rare, individuals that grow rapidly and breed prolifically should be at an advantage. High investment in defenses should thus be disfavored. In the present study, we compared the energetic, nutritional and collateral damage costs of an inflammatory response among Kenyan house sparrow ( Passer domesticus ) populations of different ages, asking whether costs were related to traits of individuals from three different capture sites. Kenya is among the world's most recent range expansions for this species, and we recently found that the expression of Toll-like receptors ( TLRs ), leukocyte receptors that instigate inflammatory responses when bound to microbial elements, was related to the range expansion across the country. Here, we found (contrary to our expectations) that energetic and nutritional costs of inflammation were higher, but damage costs were lower, in range-edge compared with core birds. Moreover, at the individual level, TLR-4 expression was negatively related to commodity costs (energy and a critical amino acid) of inflammation. Our data thus suggest that costs of inflammation, perhaps mediated by TLR expression, might mitigate successful range expansions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Activity of intestinal carbohydrases responds to multiple dietary signals in nestling house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Paweł; Kohl, Kevin D; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2013-11-01

    The 'adaptive modulation hypothesis' predicts that activity of digestive enzymes should match the amount of their substrates in diet. Interestingly, many passerine birds do not adjust the activity of intestinal carbohydrases to dietary carbohydrate content. It is difficult to assess the generality of this rule, because in some studies passerines fed on low-carbohydrate and high-lipid diet showed reduced activity of intestinal carbohydrases. However, as carbohydrase activity may be inhibited by high dietary lipid content, it is unclear whether observed effects reflected lack of induction by the low carbohydrate levels or suppression by the high lipid levels. Here, we isolated the specific effects of dietary carbohydrate and lipid on carbohydrases. We hand-fed house sparrow nestlings on diets with 25% starch and 8% lipid (diet HS), no starch and 20% lipid (HL), or 25% starch and 20% lipid (HSL). Our results show that activity of intestinal carbohydrases is simultaneously induced by dietary carbohydrates and decreased by dietary lipid, although the latter effect seems stronger. Activities of maltase and sucrase summed over the total intestine decreased in the order HS>HSL>HL. We observed a complex interaction between diet composition and intestinal position for mass-specific activity of these enzymes, suggesting site-specific responses to changes in digesta composition along the intestines caused by digestion and absorption. We re-interpret results of earlier studies and conclude that there is no unequivocal example of adaptive modulation of intestinal carbohydrases by dietary carbohydrate in adult passerine birds, whereas the present experiment confirms that nestlings of at least some species possess such capacity.

  3. Population Differences at MHC Do Not Explain Enhanced Resistance of Song Sparrows to Local Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Joel W G; Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina; Gloor, Gregory B; Lachance, Marc-André; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-01

    Infectious disease represents an emerging threat to natural populations, particularly when hosts are more susceptible to novel parasites (allopatric) than to parasites from the local area (sympatric). This pattern could arise through evolutionary processes (host populations become adapted to their local parasites and genetically differentiated from other populations at immune-related loci) and/or through ecological interactions (host individuals develop resistance to local parasites through previous exposure). The relative importance of these candidate mechanisms remains unclear. In jawed vertebrates, genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a fundamental role in immunity and are compelling candidates for spatially varying selection. We recently showed that song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) are more susceptible to allopatric than to sympatric strains of malaria (Plasmodium). In the current study, to determine whether population differences at MHC explain this pattern, we characterized the peptide-binding regions of MHC (classes I and II) of birds that did or did not become infected in the previous experiment. We recovered up to 4 alleles per individual at class I, implying at least 2 loci, and up to 26 alleles per individual at class II, implying at least 13 loci. Individuals with more class I alleles were less likely to become infected by Plasmodium, consistent with parasite-mediated balancing selection. However, we found no evidence for population genetic differentiation at either class of MHC, based on 36 individuals sequenced. Resistance to sympatric parasites previously described for this system likely stems from individuals' prior immune experience, not from population differentiation and locally protective alleles at MHC. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Genetic population structure in an equatorial sparrow: roles for culture and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, J E; Fleischer, R C; Danner, R M; Moore, I T

    2017-06-01

    Female preference for local cultural traits has been proposed as a barrier to breeding among animal populations. As such, several studies have found correlations between male bird song dialects and population genetics over relatively large distances. To investigate whether female choice for local dialects could act as a barrier to breeding between nearby and contiguous populations, we tested whether variation in male song dialects explains genetic structure among eight populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Ecuador. Our study sites lay along a transect, and adjacent study sites were separated by approximately 25 km, an order of magnitude less than previously examined for this and most other species. This transect crossed an Andean ridge and through the Quijos River Valley, both of which may be barriers to gene flow. Using a variance partitioning approach, we show that song dialect is important in explaining population genetics, independent of the geographic variables: distance, the river valley and the Andean Ridge. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that song acts as a barrier to breeding among populations in close proximity. In addition, songs of contiguous populations differed by the same degree or more than between two populations previously shown to exhibit female preference for local dialect, suggesting that birds from these populations would also breed preferentially with locals. As expected, all geographic variables (distance, the river valley and the Andean Ridge) also predicted population genetic structure. Our results have important implications for the understanding whether, and at what spatial scale, culture can affect population divergence. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Comparisons of patch-use models for wintering American tree sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tome, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Optimal foraging theory has stimulated numerous theoretical and empirical studies of foraging behavior for >20 years. These models provide a valuable tool for studying the foraging behavior of an organism. As with any other tool, the models are most effective when properly used. For example, to obtain a robust test of a foraging model, Stephens and Krebs (1986) recommend experimental designs in which four questions are answered in the affirmative. First, do the foragers play the same "game" as the model? Sec- ond, are the assumptions of the model met? Third, does the test rule out alternative possibilities? Finally, are the appropriate variables measured? Negative an- swers to any of these questions could invalidate the model and lead to confusion over the usefulness of foraging theory in conducting ecological studies. Gaines (1989) attempted to determine whether American Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea) foraged by a time (Krebs 1973) or number expectation rule (Gibb 1962), or in a manner consistent with the predictions of Charnov's (1976) marginal value theorem (MVT). Gaines (1989: 118) noted appropriately that field tests of foraging models frequently involve uncontrollable circumstances; thus, it is often difficult to meet the assumptions of the models. Gaines also states (1989: 118) that "violations of the assumptions are also in- formative but do not constitute robust tests of predicted hypotheses," and that "the problem can be avoided by experimental analyses which concurrently test mutually exclusive hypotheses so that alter- native predictions will be eliminated if falsified." There is a problem with this approach because, when major assumptions of models are not satisfied, it is not justifiable to compare a predator's foraging behavior with the model's predictions. I submit that failing to follow the advice offered by Stephens and Krebs (1986) can invalidate tests of foraging models.

  6. Greenhouse gas efflux from an impacted Malaysian tropical peat swamp (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, S.; Vihermaa, L. E.; Evers, S.; Garnett, M.; Newton, J.; Padfield, R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~11% of global peatland area and ~12% of the global peat C pool. Malaysia alone contains 10% of tropical peats. Due to rising global demands for food and biofuels, SE-Asia peat swamp forest ecosystems are threatened by increasing amounts of drainage, fire and conversion to plantation. These processes can change the GHG emissions and thus net ecosystem C balance. However, in comparison to temperate and boreal peatlands, there is a lack of data on terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric carbon transfer from tropical peatlands, both those that are little disturbed and those facing anthropogenic pressures. Lateral transport of soil-respired carbon, and fluvial respiration or UV-oxidation of terrestrial DOC primes atmospheric carbon dioxide efflux. We now know that DOC lost from disturbed tropical peat swamp forests can be centuries to millennia old and originates deep within the peat column - this carbon may fuel efflux of old carbon dioxide and so anthropogenic land-use change renders the older, slower carbon cycles shorter and faster. Currently we have no knowledge of how significant ';older-slower' terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric cycles are in disturbed tropical peatlands. Further, in some areas for commercial reasons, or by conservation bodies trying to minimise peat habitat loss, logged peats have been left to regenerate. Consequently, unpicking the legacy of multiple land uses on magnitude, age and source of GHG emissions is challenging but required to support land management decisions and projections of response to a changing climate. Here, we present the results of our first field campaign in July 2013 to the Raja Musa and Sungai Karang Peat Swamp Forest Reserves in North Selangor, Malaysia. This is one of Malaysia's largest oceanic peat swamps, and has been selectively logged and drained for 80 years, but is now subject to a 30 year logging ban to aid forest regeneration and build up wood stocks. From sites subject to different land use

  7. Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces Cerevisae + Candida Utilis) and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyuddin, P; Widiawati, Y

    2010-01-01

    A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation conta...

  8. Study, using stable isotopes, of flow distribution, surface-groundwater relations and evapotranspiration in the Okavango Swamp, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, T.; Hutton, L.G.; Kupee, B.B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Stable isotope data collected in the Okavango Delta have confirmed that the central distributary system is more active at present than the peripheral systems. The data also show that there is no groundwater outflow at the western and southern margins of the delta. A salinity-isotope model of the deltaic swamp has been developed to study the relation between the salinity and isotopic composition of the swamp waters. An attempt has been made to separate the atmospheric losses from the swamp into its evapotranspiration components. The results indicate that in winter, when high water levels prevail, these losses are almost entirely due to evaporation whilst in summer, when the water levels are low, evaporation and transpiration contribute almost equally to the total atmospheric losses. (author)

  9. Mitogenomic phylogenetics of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.) : Genetic evidence for revision of subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Frederick I.; Morin, Phillip A.; Hancock-Hanser, Brittany L.; Robertson, Kelly M.; Leslie, Matthew S.; Bérubé, Martine; Panigada, Simone; Taylor, Barbara L.

    2013-01-01

    There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus): B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North

  10. Giemsa C-banding Karyotypes of Two Subspecies of Hordeum brevisubulatum from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R.

    1984-01-01

    C-banding patterns ofH. brevisubulatum subsp.brevisubulatum (2x) and subsp.turkestanicum (4x) had conspicuous telomeric C-bands in at least one chromosome arm with a minor difference in average band size between subspecies. Other conspicuous bands were few in number as in other taxa of the specie...

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. This bacterium is a slow growing, gram-positive, acid-fast organism which can be difficult to culture from the environment. For ...

  12. Multivariate analysis of morphological diversity among closely related Daucus species and subspecies in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Daucus includes about 20-25 species worldwide. Northern Africa represents a major center of diversity of Daucus, with Tunisia thought to contain 11 species and seven subspecies. We assessed morphological diversity from a Daucus germplasm collection of 103 accessions at the National Gene Ba...

  13. Subspecies identification of captive Orang Utan in Melaka based on D-loop mitochondria DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaluddin, Siti Norsyuhada; Yaakop, Salmah; Idris, Wan Mohd Razi; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2018-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA of Bornean Orang Utan populations suggests that there are three different subspecies (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus; Sarawak & Northwest Kalimantan, P. p. wurmbii; Southern West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, P. p. morio; East Kalimantan and Sabah). The subspecies of Orang Utans in captivity are difficult to determine through morphological observation. Thus, misidentification by ranger or zoo staffs leads to unwanted consequences especially towards conservation efforts of Orang Utan. The main objective of this study was to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of 10 Orang Utans in Zoo Melaka and A' Famosa by using partial mitochondrial D-loop gene sequences. DNA of all individuals was extracted from FTA Card. Data analyses were performed using Maximum Parsimony, MP and Neighbor Joining, NJ. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that all the samples likely belong to one species of Sumatran Orang Utan (P. abelii) and three different subspecies of Bornean Orang Utans (P. p. pygmaeus, P. p. morio, and P. p. wurmbii). The results obtained in this study indirectly help the management of zoos in term of conservation and visitor's education.

  14. Comparison of the bioluminescence of Photorhabdus species and subspecies type strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyršl, P.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2004), s. 539 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5004009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : bioluminescence * Photorhabdus species type strains * Photorhabdus subspecies type strains Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  15. Characteristics of an Extensive Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Recombinant Protein Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the first step of a comprehensive large-scale antigen discovery project, 651 Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis proteins were produced in Escherichia coli. All of these were purified by affinity chromatography, dialyzed in phosphate buffered saline, and analyzed on SDS-PAGE gels. C...

  16. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis recombinant proteins modulate antimycobacterial functions of bovine macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been shown that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) activates the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) p38 pathway, yet it is unclear which components of M. paratuberculosis are involved in the process. Therefore, a set of 42 M. paratuberculosis recombinan...

  17. Interest in Providing Multiple Sclerosis Care and Subspecializing in Multiple Sclerosis Among Neurology Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie; Kane, Heather L.; Frost, A. Corey; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although detailed knowledge regarding treatment options for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is largely limited to neurologists, shortages in the neurologist workforce, including MS subspecialists, are predicted. Thus, MS patients may have difficulties in gaining access to appropriate care. No systematic evaluation has yet been performed of the number of neurology residents planning to pursue MS subspecialization. This study identifies factors affecting interest in providing MS patient care or MS subspecialization among current neurology residents. Methods: We randomly selected half of all Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education–certified neurology residency programs in the continental United States to receive the neurology resident survey. Completed surveys were received from 218 residents. Results: Residents were significantly more likely to have increased interest in MS care when they participated in MS research, were interested in teaching, and indicated that the “ability to improve patient outcomes and quality of life” was a positive factor influencing their desire to provide MS patient care. Residents who were interested in providing MS care, interested in teaching, and indicated that “research opportunities” was a positive factor for providing MS patient care were significantly more likely to express interest in MS subspecialization. Conclusions: Increasing opportunities to interact with MS patients, learn about MS care, and participate in MS research may increase interest in MS care and subspecialization among neurology residents. Opportunities to educate residents regarding MS patient care may affect residents’ attitudes. PMID:24688352

  18. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus Infections in Humans by Zoonotic Transmission from Horses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-12

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ article, Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus Infections in Humans by Zoonotic Transmission from Horses.  Created: 6/12/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/3/2013.

  19. A new subspecies of Phascolion Theel, 1875 (Sipuncula: Golfingiidae) from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saiz, J.I.; Bustamante, M.; Tajadura, J.; Vijapure, T.; Sukumaran, S.

    , vol.3931(3); 2015; 433-437 A new subspecies of Phascolion Théel, 1875 (Sipuncula: Golfingiidae) from Indian waters JOSÉ I. SAIZ1, MARIA BUSTAMANTE1, JAVIER TAJADURA1, TEJAL VIJAPURE2 & SONIYA SUKUMARAN2 1 Universidad del País Vasco / EHU, 48080...

  20. Chronological enumeration of nominal species and subspecies of Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A complete list of species and subspecies accepted as members of the genus Corydoras Lacépède, 1803, is given. They are arranged in chronological order. Invalid specific names are followed by their senior synonym. Nomina nuda are listed separately. A bibliography covering all publications containing

  1. Characterizing the molecular variation among American marten (Martes americana) subspecies from Oregon and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Slauson; Bill Zielinski; Karen D. Stone

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the subspecific identity of a rediscovered population of American martens within the range of a presumed extinct subspecies (Martes americana humboldtensis) by comparing mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity from contemporary individuals within the described ranges of M. a. humboldtensis, nearby ranges of

  2. Differentiation of Bifidobacterium longum subspecies longum and infantis by quantitative PCR using functional gene targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair Lawley

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are abundant in the feces of babies during the exclusively-milk-diet period of life. Bifidobacterium longum is reported to be a common member of the infant fecal microbiota. However, B. longum is composed of three subspecies, two of which are represented in the bowel microbiota (B. longum subsp. longum; B. longum subsp. infantis. B. longum subspecies are not differentiated in many studies, so that their prevalence and relative abundances are not accurately known. This may largely be due to difficulty in assigning subspecies identity using DNA sequences of 16S rRNA or tuf genes that are commonly used in bacterial taxonomy. Methods We developed a qPCR method targeting the sialidase gene (subsp. infantis and sugar kinase gene (subsp. longum to differentiate the subspecies using specific primers and probes. Specificity of the primers/probes was tested by in silico, pangenomic search, and using DNA from standard cultures of bifidobacterial species. The utility of the method was further examined using DNA from feces that had been collected from infants inhabiting various geographical regions. Results A pangenomic search of the NCBI genomic database showed that the PCR primers/probes targeted only the respective genes of the two subspecies. The primers/probes showed total specificity when tested against DNA extracted from the gold standard strains (type cultures of bifidobacterial species detected in infant feces. Use of the qPCR method with DNA extracted from the feces of infants of different ages, delivery method and nutrition, showed that subsp. infantis was detectable (0–32.4% prevalence in the feces of Australian (n = 90, South-East Asian (n = 24, and Chinese babies (n = 91, but in all cases at low abundance (<0.01–4.6% compared to subsp. longum (0.1–33.7% abundance; 21.4–100% prevalence. Discussion Our qPCR method differentiates B. longum subspecies longum and infantis using

  3. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-01-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb),...

  4. Rapid and accurate identification of Streptococcus equi subspecies by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Welker, Martin; Knudsen, Nanna R; Bojesen, Anders M

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus equi includes very important animal and human pathogens. S. equi subsp. equi (SEE) is a highly pathogenic equine specific subspecies, while S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) and S. equi subsp. ruminatorum are opportunistic pathogens of various animal species and humans. Due to great phenotypic and sequence similarity between three subspecies their discrimination remains difficult. In this study, we aimed to design and validate a novel, Superspectra based, MALDI-TOF MS approach for reliable, rapid and cost-effective identification of SEE and SEZ, the most frequent S. equi subspecies in horses. Superspectra created in this study enabled correct identification of 86 strains belonging to different subspecies of S. equi, isolated from various hosts, infection sites and years. In general, higher average identification accuracy was achieved for SEE (99.0±3.0%) than for SEZ (93.3±7.5%). This result may be attributed to the highly clonal population structure of SEE, as opposed to the diversity of SEZ seen in horses. Importantly strains with atypical colony appearance both within SEE and SEZ did not affect correct identification of the strains by MALDI-TOF MS. Atypical colony variants are often associated with a higher persistence or virulence of S. equi, thus their correct identification using the current method strengthens its potential use in routine clinical diagnostics. In conclusion, reliable identification of S. equi subspecies was achieved by combining a MALDI-TOF MS method with spectra analyses using the SARAMIS database. Additionally, first results on subtyping of SEZ indicated that a more refined discrimination, for example for epidemiological surveys, may be possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Island Evolution and Systematic Revision of Comoran Snakes: Why and When Subspecies Still Make Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawlitschek, Oliver; Nagy, Zoltán T.; Glaw, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Species delimitation and species concepts have been a matter of debate among biodiversity researchers in the last decades, resulting in integrative taxonomy approaches and the use of modern species concepts, such as the phylogenetic, evolutionary or general lineage species concepts. The discussion of subspecies status and concepts has been addressed much less extensively, with some researchers completely refraining from recognizing subspecies. However, allopatric insular populations that are particularly differentiated have traditionally been assigned subspecies status. We studied the molecular phylogeny and morphology of endemic Comoran tree snakes of the genus Lycodryas. Taking an integrative taxonomic approach, we used the concept of independent lines of evidence to discriminate between evidence for specific and subspecific status. Molecular (mtDNA) and morphological data provided sufficient evidence to support four different taxa within Comoran Lycodryas. In a revision of this group, we propose two species, each with two subspecies. We present a discussion of the strong sexual dichromatism unique to Comoran Lycodryas within the genus and related genera that may be explained by sexual selection in combination with the absence of major predators. Then, we discuss the effects of insular evolution and the “island rule” on morphological traits in Comoran Lycodryas and in Liophidium mayottensis, another snake endemic to the Comoros. The absence of larger-bodied snakes may have promoted an increase in body size and the number of dorsal scale rows in these species. Finally, we discuss the subspecies concept, its applications and its significance for integrative taxonomy and for limiting taxonomic inflation. We emphasize that taxon descriptions should be based on an integrative approach using several lines of evidence, preferably in combination with statements on the underlying species concepts or operational criteria, to increase the objectivity and comparability

  6. Factors affecting stream nutrient loads: A synthesis of regional SPARROW model results for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Haste makes waste: accelerated molt adversely affects the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage ornaments in house sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated.We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar.These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt.

  8. Participation of endogenous circadian rhythm in photoperiodic time measurement during ovarian responses of the subtropical tree sparrow, Passer montanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namram Sushindrajit; Dixit, Anand Shanker

    2014-05-01

    Resonance experiment was employed to investigate the mechanism of photoperiodic time measurement during initiation of ovarian growth and functions in the subtropical population of female tree sparrow (Passer montanus) at Shillong (Latitude 25 degrees 34 'N, Longitude 91 degrees 53 'E). Photosensitive birds were subjected to various resonance light dark cycles of different durations such as: 12-(6L:6D), 24-(6L:18D), 36-(6L:30D), 48-(6L:42D), 60-(6L:54D) and 72-(6L:66D) h along with a control group under long days (14L:10D) for 35 days. Birds, exposed to long days, exhibited ovarian growth confirming their photosensitivity at the beginning of the experiment. The birds experiencing resonance light/dark cycles of 12, 36 and 60 h responded well while those exposed to 24, 48 and 72 h cycles did not. Serum levels of estradiol-17beta ran almost parallel to changes in the follicular size. Further, histomorphometric analyses of ovaries of the birds subjected to various resonance light dark cycles revealed distinct correlation with the ovarian growth and the serum levels of estradiol-17beta. No significant change in body weight was observed in the birds under any of the light regimes. The results are in agreement with the avian external coincidence model of photoperiodic time measurement and indicate that an endogenous circadian rhythm is involved during the initiation of the gonadal growth and functions in the female tree sparrow.

  9. High costs of infection: Alphavirus infection reduces digestive function and bone and feather growth in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder-Orth, Carol A.; Killpack, Tess L.; Goto, Dylan S.; Rainwater, Ellecia L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2018-01-01

    Increasingly, ecoimmunology studies aim to use relevant pathogen exposure to examine the impacts of infection on physiological processes in wild animals. Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses (“arboviruses”) responsible for millions of cases of human illnesses each year. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is a unique alphavirus that is transmitted by a cimicid insect, the swallow bug, and is amplified in two avian species: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). BCRV, like many alphaviruses, exhibits age-dependent susceptibility where the young are most susceptible to developing disease and exhibit a high mortality rate. However, alphavirus disease etiology in nestling birds is unknown. In this study, we infected nestling house sparrows with Buggy Creek virus and measured virological, pathological, growth, and digestive parameters following infection. Buggy Creek virus caused severe encephalitis in all infected nestlings, and the peak viral concentration in brain tissue was over 34 times greater than any other tissue. Growth, tissue development, and digestive function were all significantly impaired during BCRV infection. However, based on histopathological analysis performed, this impairment does not appear to be the result of direct tissue damage by the virus, but likely caused by encephalitis and neuronal invasion and impairment of the central nervous system. This is the first study to examine the course of alphavirus diseases in nestling birds and these results will improve our understanding of age-dependent infections of alphaviruses in vertebrate hosts.

  10. Effects of experimentally elevated traffic noise on nestling white-crowned sparrow stress physiology, immune function and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crino, Ondi L; Johnson, Erin E; Blickley, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Breuner, Creagh W

    2013-06-01

    Roads have been associated with behavioral and physiological changes in wildlife. In birds, roads decrease reproductive success and biodiversity and increase physiological stress. Although the consequences of roads on individuals and communities have been well described, the mechanisms through which roads affect birds remain largely unexplored. Here, we examine one mechanism through which roads could affect birds: traffic noise. We exposed nestling mountain white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha) to experimentally elevated traffic noise for 5 days during the nestling period. Following exposure to traffic noise we measured nestling stress physiology, immune function, body size, condition and survival. Based on prior studies, we expected the traffic noise treatment to result in elevated stress hormones (glucocorticoids), and declines in immune function, body size, condition and survival. Surprisingly, nestlings exposed to traffic noise had lower glucocorticoid levels and improved condition relative to control nests. These results indicate that traffic noise does affect physiology and development in white-crowned sparrows, but not at all as predicted. Therefore, when evaluating the mechanisms through which roads affect avian populations, other factors (e.g. edge effects, pollution and mechanical vibration) may be more important than traffic noise in explaining elevated nestling stress responses in this species.

  11. Range expansion of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Kenya: evidence of genetic admixture and human-mediated dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Aaron W; Liebl, Andrea L; Richards, Christina L; Martin, Lynn B

    2014-01-01

    Introduced species offer an opportunity to study the ecological process of range expansions. Recently, 3 mechanisms have been identified that may resolve the genetic paradox (the seemingly unlikely success of introduced species given the expected reduction in genetic diversity through bottlenecks or founder effects): multiple introductions, high propagule pressure, and epigenetics. These mechanisms are probably also important in range expansions (either natural or anthropogenic), yet this possibility remains untested in vertebrates. We used microsatellite variation (7 loci) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus), an introduced species that has been spreading across Kenya for ~60 years, to determine if patterns of variation could explain how this human commensal overcame the genetic paradox and expresses such considerable phenotypic differentiation across this new range. We note that in some cases, polygenic traits and epistasis among genes, for example, may not have negative effects on populations. House sparrows arrived in Kenya by a single introduction event (to Mombasa, ~1950) and have lower genetic diversity than native European and introduced North American populations. We used Bayesian clustering of individuals (n = 233) to detect that at least 2 types of range expansion occurred in Kenya: one with genetic admixture and one with little to no admixture. We also found that genetic diversity increased toward a range edge, and the range expansion was consistent with long-distance dispersal. Based on these data, we expect that the Kenyan range expansion was anthropogenically influenced, as the expansions of other introduced human commensals may also be.

  12. Aquatic organisms as amber inclusions and examples from a modern swamp forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander R.; Dilcher, David L.

    2007-01-01

    To find aquatic organisms in tree resin may seem to be highly unlikely, but the fossil record provides numerous amber-preserved limnetic arthropods (e.g., water beetles, water striders, and crustaceans) and microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, algae, ciliates, testate amoebae, and rotifers). Here we explain the frequently discussed process of embedding aquatic organisms in tree resin based on field studies in a Florida swamp forest. Different aquatic arthropods and all major groups of limnetic microorganisms were found embedded in resin that had contact with swamp water. The taphonomy of aquatic organisms differs from that of terrestrial plants and animals that get stuck on resin surfaces and are enclosed by successive resin outflows. Large and highly motile arthropods are predestined for embedding. The number of microbial inclusions is increased when tiny drops of water with aquatic organisms become enclosed in resin while it is flowing in an aquatic environment. Bacteria and fungi may grow inside the resin as long as it has not solidified and therefore become secondarily accumulated. In contact with air, even resin that had initially been flowing into water may solidify and potentially form amber. PMID:17940051

  13. STRUCTURE OF NATURAL REGENERATION IN RELATION TO SOIL PROPERTIES AND DISTURBANCE IN TWO SWAMP FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Antonielle Ávila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Veredas (palm swamps is a type of vegetation associated with watercourses, characterized by the presence of Mauritia flexuosa palm trees. These systems are not well understood and suffer from high anthropogenic pressure. The aims of this study were to describe the natural regeneration of two swamp forests in vereda systems with different anthropogenic impacts and investigate if the variation in these plant communities are associated to edaphic conditions. The study was performed in preserved and impacted sites located in the Environmental Protection Area of the Pandeiros River in northern Minas Gerais. At each site, one hundred 25 m2 plots were established for surveying regenerating shrubs and trees (≥1 cm diameter at the base of the stem and < 3 cm diameter at breast height. Vegetation structure was evaluated by phytosociological parameters, similarity index, and size distribution of individuals. Regenerating strata was correlated with chemical and physical soil analyses. The vegetation at the preserved site was characterized by a higher number of individuals and a lower diversity but contained species that were typical of flooded areas. The results also showed differences in soil nutrient availability between sites that influenced the distribution of species at the two study sites.

  14. How Latina mothers navigate a 'food swamp' to feed their children: a photovoice approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Cremm, Elena; Rivera, Ivonne M; Andrade, Elizabeth L; Edberg, Mark C

    2017-08-01

    To understand how mothers who recently migrated from Central America to the USA feed their children in a neighbourhood saturated with unhealthful food choices ('food swamp') and to formulate a mother-driven plan of action to facilitate their acquisition of foods. Design/Setting/Subjects We purposively sampled mothers with children (feeding their children. Mothers valued foods that they considered to be 'traditional' and 'healthful'. They navigated their food retail environment looking for these foods (of good quality and well-priced). Food values were reinforced by pre-migration food customs and culture, health professionals' advice and, in some cases, by the desire to avoid conflict with their children. The neighbourhood food environment could directly influence children's food preferences and often created conflict between what the child wanted to eat and the foods that mothers valued. Mothers in this 'food swamp' wanted to be engaged in addressing the selection of foods offered in schools and in neighbourhood food venues to reflect their own food values. These mothers' feeding choices were influenced directly by their food values, and indirectly by the neighbourhood and school food environments via their children's preferences.

  15. Effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and reproductive hormone of weaned Swamp buffalo and Murrah X Swamp buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamonpatana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and plasma Oestradiol 17- β (E2, Progesterone (P4 and Testosterone (T were studied in 16 male and female swamp (SS buffaloes and Murrah x Swamp buffalo crossbreeds (MS calves. The treatment group was fed with a concentrate supplemented with 30 g of dry powder of L. spinosa/head/d for 7 months. It was found that L .spinosa could have effect on male and female buffalo growth rate. The growth rate of male SS treated group were 130 g/d higher than control group. In female both SS and MS buffalo, the highest growth rate (830 to 840 g/d was found after the 2nd month of treatment while a reduction in growth rate (-1,030 to - 450 g/d was found in the 3rd month. After that the growth rate of SS and MS gradually increased until the last three months to 200 and 80 g/d in average, respectively. In female MS, plasma E2 in the treated group was lower than control group during Jan to Jul. Similar result was found in SS female, level of plasma E2 in treated group was lower than in control group in the first and last three month and there was no difference of plasma E2 in May. In MS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in Jan, Mar, Apr and Jul. In SS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in every month except in Jul. In female SS, L. spinosa could decreased plasma P4 through the experiment and could not have an effect on plasma P4 in female MS and plasma T in male buffalo calves. In conclusion, the addition to the concentrate of dry powder of L. spinosa 30 g/headl/d had an effect to increase growth rate in male SS and female MS buffalo calves, decrease plasma E2 in female both SS and MS and male SS and decrease plasma P4 in female SS.

  16. Publically accessible decision support system of the spatially referenced regressions on watershed attributes (SPARROW) model and model enhancements in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste Journey; Anne B. Hoos; David E. Ladd; John W. brakebill; Richard A. Smith

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment program has developed a web-based decision support system (DSS) to provide free public access to the steady-stateSPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model simulation results on nutrient conditions in streams and rivers and to offer scenario testing capabilities for...

  17. Histological and biochemical biomarkers analysis reveal strong toxicological impacts of pollution in hybrid sparrow (Passer domesticus × Passer hispaniolensis) in southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Nahed; Rahmouni, Fatma; Chokri, Med Ali; Rebai, Tarek; Badraoui, Riadh

    2017-07-01

    Environmental pollution is a great concern worldwide. Our aim was to investigate the histopathological injuries and oxidative stress induced by exposure to contaminants in liver tissues of hybrid sparrows (Passer domesticus × Passer hispaniolensis) living in Gabès city, which is one of the most polluted hot spot in Tunisia. Our results show evidence of a pronounced impairment in liver function which is confirmed by histopathological changes as well as remarkable blood chemical alterations in sparrows living near the Gabès-Ghannouche factory complex of phosphate treatment. Moreover, a significant decrease in the hepatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was observed in birds from Ghannouche when compared to other distant areas. Our study revealed also a significant increase in the liver levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), in sparrows living in Ghannouche, indicating oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Overall, our results suggest that the hybrid sparrow offers a suitable model for biomonitoring programs of atmosphere pollutants and the selected biomarkers may function as useful tool to evaluate the effects of pollutants on living organisms.

  18. Susceptibility and antibody response of Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus) to West Nile virus: A potential amplification host in sagebrush-grassland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Fassbinder-Orth, Carol; Owen, Benjamin; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) spread to the US western plains states in 2003, when a significant mortality event attributed to WNV occurred in Greater Sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ). The role of avian species inhabiting sagebrush in the amplification of WNV in arid and semiarid regions of the North America is unknown. We conducted an experimental WNV challenge study in Vesper Sparrows ( Pooecetes gramineus ), a species common to sagebrush and grassland habitats found throughout much of North America. We found Vesper Sparrows to be moderately susceptible to WNV, developing viremia considered sufficient to transmit WNV to feeding mosquitoes, but the majority of birds were capable of surviving infection and developing a humoral immune response to the WNV nonstructural 1 and envelope proteins. Despite clearance of viremia, after 6 mo, WNV was detected molecularly in three birds and cultured from one bird. Surviving Vesper Sparrows were resistant to reinfection 6 mo after the initial challenge. Vesper sparrows could play a role in the amplification of WNV in sagebrush habitat and other areas of their range, but rapid clearance of WNV may limit their importance as competent amplification hosts of WNV.

  19. Molecular analysis of stomach contents reveals important grass seeds in the winter diet of Baird's and Grasshopper sparrows, two declining grassland bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titulaer, Mieke; Melgoza-Castillo, Alicia; Panjabi, Arvind O; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Macías-Duarte, Alberto; Fernandez, Jesús A

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the diet of Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii) and Grasshopper Sparrow (A. savannarum) in three different sites and sampling periods across the Chihuahuan Desert in northern Mexico. DNA from seeds in regurgitated stomach contents was sequenced using NGS technology and identified with a barcoding approach using the P6 loop of the trnL intron as genetic marker. During each sampling period, we collected random soil samples to estimate seed availability in the soil seed bank. Due to the variability and size of the genetic marker, the resolution was limited to a family level resolution for taxonomic classification of seeds, but in several cases a genus level was achieved. Diets contained a high diversity of seeds but were dominated by a limited number of genera/families. Seeds from Panicoideae (from the genera Panicum, Setaria, Eriochloa, Botriochloa, and Hackelochloa) contributed for the largest part to the diets (53 ± 19%), followed by Bouteloua (10 ± 12%). Depending on the site and sampling period, other important seeds in the diets were Eragrostideae, Pleuraphis, Asteraceae, Verbena, and Amaranthus. The most abundant seeds were not always preferred. Aristida and Chloris were common in the soil seed bank but these seeds were avoided by both bird species. Baird's and Grasshopper sparrows did not differ in seed preferences. This work highlights the importance of range management practices that favor seed production of Panicoideae and Bouteloua grasses to enhance winter habitat use and survival of Baird's and Grasshopper sparrows in the Chihuahuan Desert.

  20. Distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), upper Santa Cruz River watershed, southern Arizona, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems in arid environments provide critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds, yet are often at risk of contamination by heavy metals. Birds and other animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (3) assess sparrow condition among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure. We examined six study sites that reflected different potential sources of contamination. Hematocrit values, body mass residuals, and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium exceeded background concentrations at some sites, but generally were lower than or similar to concentrations found in earlier studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade. Concentrations were higher in recaptured birds in 2012 than in 2011 for 7 metals in feathers and 14 metals in blood, suggesting possible bioaccumulation. We found no cascading effects as a result of heavy metal exposure, but did find that heavy metal concentrations were reduced following the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade.

  1. Newcastle disease virus infection in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linneaus, 1758 captured in poultry farms of the agreste region of the State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JSA Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir competence for the Newcastle Disease virus (NDV was evaluated in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linnaeus 1758 captured on a commercial poultry farm and a chicken hatchery in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A total number of 103 birds collected from a poultry farm (24/103 and a chicken hatchery (79/103 were examined. Hemagglutination inhibition tests, isolation, and viral characterization were performed in all samples collected from each bird. Titers ranging from 1:2 to 1:64 were detectable in 10.68% of sparrows, but positive serology and viral isolation were obtained only from sparrows captured at the hatchery. Hemagglutination activity was inhibited by anti-avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1 serum, and this sample showed an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICOI of 0.21, which is similar to the B1 stock vaccine (0.20 used for vaccination in those farms. Therefore, it was concluded that the sparrows were infected by stock vaccine virus, and that these birds could be a reservoir for NDV. However, additional studies involving sequencing of the virus genome of stock vaccine must be carried out.

  2. Bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus is associated with digestive tract malignancies and resistance to macrolides and clindamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-08-01

    This study was intended to delineate the association between digestive tract malignancies and bacteraemia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus. We reviewed the medical records and microbiological results of patients with bacteraemia due to Streptococcus bovis during the period 2000-2012. Species and subspecies identification of isolates originally classified as S. bovis was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assays. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents were determined by the broth microdilution method. Of the 172 S. bovis complex isolates obtained from 172 patients (age range, Streptococcus infantarius. The majority (n = 104, 60%) of patients were male and had underlying malignancies (n = 87, 51%). Bacteraemia due to S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus was significantly associated with endocarditis while S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus was more likely to be associated with malignancies of the digestive tract, including gastric, pancreatic, hepatobiliary and colorectal cancers. Septic shock at presentation was the only factor associated with mortality among patients with bacteraemia due to either subspecies of S. bovis. Isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus had higher rates of resistance to macrolides and clindamycin than isolates of S. gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus. Extensive diagnostic work-up for digestive tract malignancies and trans-esophageal echocardiogram should be investigated in patients with bacteraemia caused by S. gallolyticus. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Swamp Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The fields of anthropology, evironmental science, and "planetary health" are all speaking about the need to properly assess the relationships between human health and anthropogenic environmental influences. Using ethnographic data gathered from an NSF-funded research project in the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina after Hurricane Matthew, I will present the importance of specific, culturally-centered, historically contextualized studies of the environment as we are increasingly placed in highly important (but too general) global environmental discussions. I will focus on the importance of the Lumbee Tribe (one of the largest Native American communities in the U.S.) as a key research site to help us understand how to engage in global environmental debates. I will illustrate how we must take account particular communities as they fade into and out of one another in the past and present. As such, I will argue that "planetary health" and other environemental health discourses must be accountable through interdisciplinary/interprofessional/interclass relationships that place the power of academic work in the environment safely in the hands of the most vulnerable populations.

  4. Little effect of extrapair paternity on the opportunity for sexual selection in Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Meiklejohn, Katherine E; States, Sarah L; Sollecito, Suzanne V

    2005-02-01

    Extrapair paternity (EPP) can dramatically increase the opportunity for sexual selection if relatively few males are able to monopolize the majority of fertilizations in a population. Although recent work with birds suggests that EPP can increase the standardized variance in male reproductive success (Is) as much as 13-fold, only a male's within-pair success is typically quantified with any accuracy. In most cases, nearly half of all extrapair young are of unknown parentage. A strong, negative correlation across studies between the proportion of extrapair young for which parentage is known and the apparent effect of EPP on Is (r(s) = -0.71, P = 0.013, N = 13 studies) suggests that the incomplete sampling of extrapair sires has greatly exaggerated the influence of EPP. To achieve a more thorough accounting of EPP and its importance to variation in male fitness, we used a suite of four to six microsatellite loci to identify extrapair young and their sires in a polygynous population of Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). Pooling over the 2002 and 2003 breeding seasons, 79 of 116 females (68.1%) produced young outside of the pairbond and 194 of 411 offspring (47.2%) were extrapair. We identified sires for 96.4% of all young (N = 396), including sires for 92.3% of the extrapair young (N = 179), allowing us to partition Is into within-pair and extrapair components. In both years, EPP-related fitness components generated more variation in male reproductive success than the number or quality of within-pair mates. Differences among males in the number of extrapair mates alone accounted for 56.6% of Is in 2002 and for 23.6% of Is in 2003. Nonetheless, in absolute terms, the occurrence of EPP on Kent Island increased the opportunity for sexual selection less than two-fold. Averaging over the two years, Is was only 78% higher than Is,app, the variance in male reproductive success that would have occurred had EPP been nonexistent and males sired all young on their

  5. Use of MODIS Data in Dynamic SPARROW Analysis of Watershed Loading Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Schwarz, G. E.; Brakebill, J. W.; Hoos, A.; Moore, R. B.; Nolin, A. W.; Shih, J. S.; Journey, C. A.; Macauley, M.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the temporal response of stream water quality to a proposed reduction in contaminant loading is a major watershed management problem due to temporary storage of contaminants in groundwater, vegetation, snowpack, etc. We describe the response of dynamically calibrated SPARROW models of total nitrogen (TN) flux to hypothetical reductions in reactive nitrogen inputs in three sub-regional watersheds: Potomac River Basin (Chesapeake Bay drainage), Long Island Sound drainage, and South Carolina coastal drainage. The models are based on seasonal water quality and watershed input data from 170 monitoring stations for the period 2002 to 2008.The spatial reference frames of the three models are stream networks containing an average 38,000 catchments and the time step is seasonal. We use MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and snow/ice cover data to parameterize seasonal uptake and release of nitrogen from vegetation and snowpack. The model accounts for storage of total nitrogen inputs from fertilized cropland, pasture, urban land, and atmospheric deposition. Model calibration is by non-linear regression. Model source terms based on previous season export allow for recursive simulation of stream flux and can be used to estimate the approximate residence times of TN in the watersheds. Catchment residence times in the Long Island Sound Basin are shorter (typically 1 year), in part, because a significant fraction of nitrogen flux derives from snowmelt and occurs within one season of snowfall. We use the calibrated models to examine the response of TN flux to hypothetical step reductions in source inputs at the beginning of the 2002-2008 period and the influence of observed fluctuations in precipitation, temperature, vegetation growth and snow melt over the period. Following non-point source reductions of up to 100%, stream flux was found to continue to vary greatly for several years as a function of seasonal conditions, with high values in both winter (January

  6. Characterisation of Indica Special Protein (ISP), a marker protein for the differentiation of Oryza sativa subspecies indica and japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Keming; Min, Chao; Xia, Hengchuan; Yang, Yanhua; Wang, Bin; Chen, Keping

    2014-04-29

    Based on both morphological and physiological traits, Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) can be classified into two distinct subspecies, indica and japonica. To better understand the differences between the two subspecies, a proteomic approach was used to profile proteins present in the yellow seedling stage of 10 indica and 10 japonica rice varieties. We report the discovery of a new protein, Indica Special Protein (ISP), which was only detected in yellow seedlings of indica varieties, and was absent from japonica varieties. Hence, ISP may represent a key gene for the differentiation of indica and japonica subspecies.

  7. Characterisation of Indica Special Protein (ISP, a Marker Protein for the Differentiation of Oryza sativa Subspecies indica and japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Zhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on both morphological and physiological traits, Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. can be classified into two distinct subspecies, indica and japonica. To better understand the differences between the two subspecies, a proteomic approach was used to profile proteins present in the yellow seedling stage of 10 indica and 10 japonica rice varieties. We report the discovery of a new protein, Indica Special Protein (ISP, which was only detected in yellow seedlings of indica varieties, and was absent from japonica varieties. Hence, ISP may represent a key gene for the differentiation of indica and japonica subspecies.

  8. Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuping; Tian, Baoyu; Wang, Xiaowei; Pincus, David H; Welker, Martin; Gilhuley, Kathleen; Lu, Xuedong; Han, Yiping W; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2015-04-01

    We explored the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies. MALDI-TOF MS spectra of five F. nucleatum subspecies (animalis, fusiforme, nucleatum, polymorphum, and vincentii) were analyzed and divided into four distinct clusters, including subsp. animalis, nucleatum, polymorphum, and fusiforme/vincentii. MALDI-TOF MS with the modified SARAMIS database further correctly identified 28 of 34 F. nucleatum clinical isolates to the subspecies level. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  10. Variation in flood tolerance of container-grown seedlings of swamp white oak, bur oak, and white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall

    2008-01-01

    How much variation in flood tolerance exists among seedlings within oak species, given the flood frequency of sites from which acorns are collected, has been largely unexplored. Our studies examined initial growth and flood tolerance for seedlings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa L.), and white...

  11. Growth Response and Tolerance to Heavy Metals of two Swamp Species inoculated with a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Labra-Cardon, D.; Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the sensitivity and the sequestration ability of the microbial communities to heavy metals, microbes have been used for bioremediation. Recently the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the bioremediation of this kind of contaminants has been done. This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to heavy metals of two swamp species. (Author)

  12. Growth Response and Tolerance to Heavy Metals of two Swamp Species inoculated with a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Labra-Cardon, D.; Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the sensitivity and the sequestration ability of the microbial communities to heavy metals, microbes have been used for bioremediation. Recently the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the bioremediation of this kind of contaminants has been done. This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to heavy metals of two swamp species. (Author)

  13. On a new species of blackwater prawn, Macrobrachium oxyphilus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae), from peat swamps in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new species of freshwater palaemonid prawn, Macrobrachium oxyphilus spec, nov., is described from highly acidic blackwaters in a peat swamp forest in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. The species differs from its nearest congener, M. trompii (de Man, 1898), in having proportionately smaller eyes,

  14. Evaluation of six herbicides for control of swamp smartweed [Persicaria hydropiperoides (Michx.) Small] under flooded and moist soil conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six herbicides (2,4-D, diquat, glyphosate, imazamox, imazapyr, and triclopyr) were tested for efficacy on swamp smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) in two studies in Mississippi. In the first study in a pond, glyphosate (2.1 and 4.2 kg ai ha-1), imazapyr (0.3 and 0.5 kg ai ha-1), and tricl...

  15. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  16. Ecological studies on a population of the water snake Grayia smythii in a rainforest swamp of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akani, Godfrey C.; Luiselli, Luca

    2001-01-01

    The ecology of the water snake, Grayia smythii (Reptilia: Colubridae) occurring in a seasonal rainforest swamp of the Niger Delta (southern Nigeria) was investigated between December 1998 and March 2000. Females and males were similar in body sizes (SVL) and head sizes, but males had tails

  17. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  18. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Thao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis crude oils (EuO supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS without EuO (T1 and with EuO (T2 supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS without EuO (T3 and with EuO (T4 supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p0.05 affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01 by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas

  19. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi

    We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on Löwen......We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....

  20. [Prokaryotic expression and immunogenicity of IgG-binding protein of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jungao; Jiang, Huijiao; Chang, Jianxin; Zhang, Baojiang; Li, Shanchun; Su, Yan

    2016-05-25

    To analyze the immunogenicity and protective ability of recombinant IgG-binding protein (EAG) of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and to evaluate its value when used as equine vaccine antigen, EAG gene was amplified by PCR and inserted into pET-28a vector. The EAG recombinant proteins were expressed and purified to immune mice. The serum antibody and challenge protection were tested. The purified recombinant protein of EAG was 26 kDa, and the protein reacted specifically with positive serum of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi. The mice antibody level for EAG immunization group was 1∶8 100. The immunological protection result showed that the protection rate of the EAG recombinant protein was 90%. The results suggested that the EAG protein has good immunogenicity and immunological protection, and it can effectively increase the humoral immune response and immunological protection of mice.

  1. Inference of purifying and positive selection in three subspecies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Duan, Jinjie; Hvilsom, Christina

    2015-01-01

    of recent gene flow from Western into Eastern chimpanzees. The striking contrast in X-linked vs. autosomal polymorphism and divergence previously reported in Central chimpanzees is also found in Eastern and Western chimpanzees. We show that the direction of selection (DoS) statistic exhibits a strong non......-monotonic relationship with the strength of purifying selection S, making it inappropriate for estimating S. We instead use counts in synonymous vs. non-synonymous frequency classes to infer the distribution of S coefficients acting on non-synonymous mutations in each subspecies. The strength of purifying selection we...... infer is congruent with the differences in effective sizes of each subspecies: Central chimpanzees are undergoing the strongest purifying selection followed by Eastern and Western chimpanzees. Coding indels show stronger selection against indels changing the reading frame than observed in human...

  2. Clarifying the Dioscorea buchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Paul; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Dioscorea buchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorea rupicola Kunth and Dioscorea multiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscorea buchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscorea buchananii subsp. undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made. PMID:25931973

  3. Mercury on national wildlife refuges as a threat to long-term viability of saltmarsh and Nelson’s sparrows in the face of climate induced sea level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Nelson’s and saltmarsh sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni and A. caudacutus) have recently been recognized as separate species, and because of their limited distributions...

  4. Mucilage chemical profile and antioxidant properties of giant swamp taro tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Nguimbou, Richard Marcel; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Himeda, Makhlouf; Scher, Joël; Mbofung, Carl M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The yellow (YP) and white (WP) sections of giant swamp taro (GST) contain 40.0 g/kg and 51.5 g/kg (dry wt) respectively of pure mucilage made up of D-glucose (44.95–78.85 %), D-galactose (8.70–25.35 %), D-mannose (3.20–10.45 %), D-arabinose (2.45–5.20 %) and small amounts of glucuronic acid and rhamnose. Arabinogalactan-proteins (5.30–8.83 g/kg) contain mainly arabinose and galactose (in a 1:1 proportion) and also significant amounts of rhamnose, xylose, glucuronic acid and mannose. Antioxida...

  5. Autonomic control of the heart in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Nina Kerting; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is an air-breathing teleost with very reduced gills that uses the buccal cavity for air-breathing. Here we characterise the cardiovascular changes associated with the intermittent breathing pattern in M. albus and we study the autonomic control of the heart.......3 cm H2O). The autonomic control of the heart during water- and air-breathing was revealed by infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and muscarinic antagonist atropine (3 mg kg− 1) in eels instrumented with an arterial catheter. Inhibition of the sympathetic and parasympathetic...... innervations of the heart revealed a strong vagal tone on the heart of water-breathing eels and that the tachycardia during air-breathing is primarily mediated by withdrawal of cholinergic tone....

  6. Modeling Flood Plain Hydrology and Forest Productivity of Congaree Swamp, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    An ecological field and modeling study was conducted to examine the flood relations of backswamp forests and park trails of the flood plain portion of Congaree National Park, S.C. Continuous water level gages were distributed across the length and width of the flood plain portion - referred to as 'Congaree Swamp' - to facilitate understanding of the lag and peak flood coupling with stage of the Congaree River. A severe and prolonged drought at study start in 2001 extended into late 2002 before backswamp zones circulated floodwaters. Water levels were monitored at 10 gaging stations over a 4-year period from 2002 to 2006. Historical water level stage and discharge data from the Congaree River were digitized from published sources and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) archives to obtain long-term daily averages for an upstream gage at Columbia, S.C., dating back to 1892. Elevation of ground surface was surveyed for all park trails, water level gages, and additional circuits of roads and boundaries. Rectified elevation data were interpolated into a digital elevation model of the park trail system. Regression models were applied to establish time lags and stage relations between gages at Columbia, S.C., and gages in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the river and backswamp within the park. Flood relations among backswamp gages exhibited different retention and recession behavior between flood plain reaches with greater hydroperiod in the lower reach than those in the upper and middle reaches of the Congaree Swamp. A flood plain inundation model was developed from gage relations to predict critical river stages and potential inundation of hiking trails on a real-time basis and to forecast the 24-hour flood In addition, tree-ring analysis was used to evaluate the effects of flood events and flooding history on forest resources at Congaree National Park. Tree cores were collected from populations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), water

  7. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-18

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.

  8. Genetic Relationship among Three Subspecies of Oncorhynchus masou Determined by Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiro, Oohara; Toshio, Okazaki; National Research Institute of Aquaculture; National Research Institute of Aquaculture

    1996-01-01

    It is generally accepted that there are 3 subspecies of Oncorhynchus masou in Japan, namely, Masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou masou (Brevoort)), Amago salmon (O. masou ishikawae Jordan & McGregor), and Biwa salmon (O. masou rhodurus Jordan & McGregor or O. masou subsp. Kimura). Since the genetic relationship of these three taxa is not well known, there has been considerable confusion over their nomenclature. We have clarified the genetic relationship among these three taxa by partially sequenc...

  9. A new subspecies of sea snake, Hydrophis platurus xanthos, from Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Bessesen,Brooke; Galbreath,Gary

    2017-01-01

    We describe a distinctive new subspecies of sea snake from the occasionally anoxic inner-basin waters of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, based on combined data garnered between 2010 and 2017 for 154 specimens, 123 free-ranging and 31 museum-held. The yellow sea snake, Hydrophis platurus xanthos Bessesen & Galbreath, subsp. n., is diagnosed by a notably smaller body size and nearly uniform yellow coloration, which contrasts with the black and yellow striae and tail spots or bands typical of t...

  10. A genetic comparison of two alleged subspecies of Philippine cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Glenn; Ng, Jillian; George, Debra; Trask, Jessica Satkoski; Houghton, Paul; Singh, Balbir; Villano, Jason; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan

    2014-09-01

    Two subspecies of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are alleged to co-exist in the Philippines, M. f. philippensis in the north and M. f. fascicularis in the south. However, genetic differences between the cynomolgus macaques in the two regions have never been studied to document the propriety of their subspecies status. We genotyped samples of cynomolgus macaques from Batangas in southwestern Luzon and Zamboanga in southwestern Mindanao for 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci and sequenced an 835 bp fragment of the mtDNA of these animals. The STR genotypes were compared with those of cynomolgus macaques from southern Sumatra, Singapore, Mauritius and Cambodia, and the mtDNA sequences of both Philippine populations were compared with those of cynomolgus macaques from southern Sumatra, Indonesia and Sarawak, Malaysia. We conducted STRUCTURE and PCA analyses based on the STRs and constructed a median joining network based on the mtDNA sequences. The Philippine population from Batangas exhibited much less genetic diversity and greater genetic divergence from all other populations, including the Philippine population from Zamboanga. Sequences from both Batangas and Zamboanga were most closely related to two different mtDNA haplotypes from Sarawak from which they are apparently derived. Those from Zamboanga were more recently derived than those from Batangas, consistent with their later arrival in the Philippines. However, clustering analyses do not support a sufficient genetic distinction of cynomolgus macaques from Batangas from other regional populations assigned to subspecies M. f. fascicularis to warrant the subspecies distinction M. f. philippensis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY ON ENDEMIC CROCUS OLIVIERI GAY SUBSP. ISTANBULENSIS MATHEW SUBSPECIES (IRIDACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yetişen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological and anatomical properties of Crocus olivieri Gay subsp. istanbulensis Mathew were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant were examined anddemonstrated by photographs. Most of the anatomical properties are similar to the other member of Iridaceae family. Sclerenchyma groups were observed around to leaf vascular bundle. Morphological and anatomical findings compared with other two subspecies of Crocus olivieri.

  12. Brain xanthophyll content and exploratory gene expression analysis: subspecies differences in rhesus macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Mohn, Emily S.; Erdman, John W.; Neuringer, Martha; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The dietary xanthophylls, lutein and zeaxanthin, accumulate in primate retina and brain, and emerging evidence indicates neural lutein content may be beneficial for cognition. Neural xanthophyll content in primates varies greatly among individuals, and genetic factors are likely to be significant contributors. Subspecies of rhesus macaques originating from different geographic locations are known to differ genetically, but the effect of origin on gene expression and carotenoid stat...

  13. A new subspecies of Celastrus (Celastraceae from the Palni hills of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. John Britto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Celastrus paniculatus Willd. ssp. angladeanus S.J. Britto, B. Mani and S. Thomas new subspecies from the Palni hills, Western Ghats of Tamilnadu, South India is described and illustrated. The new ssp. is similar to Celastrus paniculatus ssp. aggregatus but differs in flame-coloured branchlets, terminal, erect and stiff panicles exceeding leaves, prominent gibbous and oblique capsules, flowers polygamous but predominantly pistillate and 3-seeded capsules.

  14. The inorganic chemistry of peat from the Maunachira channel-swamp system, Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.S.; McIver, J.R.; Cairncross, B.; Ellery, W.N.; Ellery, K.

    1989-05-01

    The Okavango Delta is a large (18000 km/sup 2/), low gradient (1:3600), alluvial fan situated in the semi-arid Kalahari basin of northern Botswana. Seasonal floodwaters from tropical Angola disperse on the fan creating both perennial (6000 km/sup 2/) and seasonal (7000 to 12000 km/sup 2/) swamps. Ninety-five percent of this water is lost annually by evapotranspiration. Organic rich sediment (peat) is a major sediment of the perennial swamps. Peat formation commences during senescence of the plants, when certain nutrients are recycled while others are lost by rainwater leaching. Further changes in chemistry occur during subaqueous decay of the plants which involve both gains and losses of constituents. Decaying plants trap detrital mineral matter which becomes an integral part of the peat. The main sources and forms of inorganic matter in the peat are: allochthonous kaolinite (40%) and quartz (20%) and both allochthonous and autochthonous phytolithic silica (30%). several inorganic components (Fe, K, P, Na, Ca and Mg) which make up the remaining 10% are associated with the organic fraction. Ion exchange plays only a minor part in their uptake and it seems that these metals are taken up during bacterial activity in the peat. The weight proportion of inorganic matter (ash) decreases downstream, mainly due to a decrease in allochthonous mineral matter. Volume percentage also decreases but is low throughout, generally less than five percent. This study has revealed that the low-quantity allochthonous mineral matter is the main reason for the long-term survival of this ecosystem. Uptake of soluble ions by the peat is important in off-setting evaporative concentration of metals. 36 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Improvement of the productivity of the swamp buffalo of S.E. Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.E.; Vercoe, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The needs of an expanding human population necessitate an increase in numbers and efficiency of output if the swamp buffalo is to remain as a significant component of S.E. Asian agriculture. Biological constraints to an increase in numbers are associated mainly with high calf mortality and low reproductive rate. A combination of vaccination and deworming markedly increases calf survival and provides the simplest means for increasing buffalo numbers. However, methods for improvement of the low inherent fertility of buffaloes remain to be devised. A first step towards a genetic solution is to obtain accurate comparative data for reproductive rates of different buffalo breeds and measures of the magnitude of heterosis for reproductive rate. However, facilities to do this in the near future do not exist. Milk yield or draft power could be most rapidly increased by crossing to river breeds with the optimum proportion of river breed in the cross determined by that level of milk yield and size commensurate with the locally available feed. This is the only method currently available that allows genetic improvement to initially equal or exceed the rate of human population growth. The lack of both large, well-documented herds and efficient AI schemes at present rules against within-breed selection as a method of improvement for any productive trait. It is unrealistic to expect large amounts of high-quality feeds to ever become available for rearing swamp buffaloes and there is a need to develop the facilities and expertise to allow comparative evaluation of buffalo breeds, the exploitation of heterosis in crosses and ultimately, within-breed selection for higher productivity, on straw-based diets. (author)

  16. Ground survey of red lechwe in the Linyanti swamps and Chobe floodplains, northern Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phemelo Gadimang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A ground survey of red lechwe was carried out in the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains of northern Botswana in the dry and wet seasons of 2012 and 2013, respectively. We documented numbers, sex ratio and age structure of red lechwe within the linear strips of 25 km × 300 m along the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains. Results indicated a significant difference in the numbers of red lechwe between sites and seasons. About 66 and 755 red lechwe were estimated for Chobe in the dry and wet season, respectively, with 343 and 261 of them estimated for Linyanti in the dry and wet season, respectively. In Chobe, the red lechwe densities varied widely between seasons (9 red lechwe/km2 – 101 red lechwe/km2 compared with Linyanti, where the densities did not vary much between seasons (35 red lechwe/km2 – 46 red lechwe/km2 . The lower densities of red lechwe in Chobe in the dry season when compared with the wet season suggest a possible seasonal shift in the distribution of red lechwe to the nearby Zambezi floodplains in Namibia. Conservation implications: The higher number of red lechwe in the Chobe floodplains in the wet season indicates the potential of the floodplains as a habitat for this species in that season. The dry season shift in the distribution of red lechwe in Chobe presents an opportunity for local communities in Namibia to engage in tourism, whereas the return of the red lechwe to the floodplains in the wet season ensures protection of the animals as well as boosts the tourism potential of the Chobe National Park.

  17. Population density of red langurs in Sabangau tropical peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers Smith, David A; Ehlers Smith, Yvette C

    2013-08-01

    Because of the large-scale destruction of Borneo's rainforests on mineral soils, tropical peat-swamp forests (TPSFs) are increasingly essential for conserving remnant biodiversity, particularly in the lowlands where the majority of habitat conversion has occurred. Consequently, effective strategies for biodiversity conservation are required, which rely on accurate population density and distribution estimates as a baseline. We sought to establish the first population density estimates of the endemic red langur (Presbytis rubicunda) in Sabangau TPSF, the largest remaining contiguous lowland forest-block on Borneo. Using Distance sampling principles, we conducted line transect surveys in two of Sabangau's three principle habitat sub-classes and calculated group density at 2.52 groups km⁻² (95% CI 1.56-4.08) in the mixed-swamp forest sub-class. Based on an average recorded group size of 6.95 individuals, population density was 17.51 ind km⁻², the second highest density recorded in this species. The accessible area of the tall-interior forest, however, was too disturbed to yield density estimates representative of the entire sub-class, and P. rubicunda was absent from the low-pole forest, likely as a result of the low availability of the species' preferred foods. This absence in 30% of Sabangau's total area indicates the importance of in situ population surveys at the habitat-specific level for accurately informing conservation strategies. We highlight the conservation value of TPSFs for P. rubicunda given the high population density and large areas remaining, and recommend 1) quantifying the response of P. rubicunda to the logging and burning of its habitats; 2) surveying degraded TPSFs for viable populations, and 3) effectively delineating TPSF sub-class boundaries from remote imagery to facilitate population estimates across the wider peat landscape, given the stark contrast in densities found across the habitat sub-classes of Sabangau. © 2013 Wiley

  18. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  19. Effect of day or night grazing on behaviour of swamp buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somparn, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of day or night grazing on behaviour by swamp buffaloes. A grazing trial was conducted over 42 days in the late rainy season, during September to November2005 at Surin Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Surin province. The experimental period was divided into two 21-day periods. Twelve 2-year-old swamp buffalo heifers were allocated to four groups, eachcontaining three heifers, with the mean group weights being as similar as possible. Each group was allowed to graze either from 06:20 to 18:00 h (daytime treatment or from 18:20 to 06:00 h (nighttime treatment infour separate paddocks, each of 5 rai, using a cross-over design. When not at pasture the animals in each group were kept in the common corral with free access to fresh drinking water and mineral blocks. Individualanimal activity was recorded by visual observation at 1-min intervals during the period at pasture. Individual groups within each period were treated as replicates. Differences between group means weretested using MIXED procedure of SAS.The buffaloes on daytime treatment spent longer (P<0.05 grazing than those on nighttime treatment (423 vs 332 min. The number of meals differed (P<0.05 between treatments, but overall mean meal durationswere similar (73 min. Buffaloes allowed to graze during daylight had a tendency (P<0.10 toward a higher bite and step rates than those grazing during the night. With the reduction in grazing activity duringthe night on nighttime treatment, the animals ruminated for longer during the period at pasture (327 and 191 min, P<0.001. Live-weight change over periods of 20 days did not differ significantly. The difference intemporal behaviour patterns between treatments indicated that animals have to adapt foraging strategies appropriate for different situations in order to maintain feed intake and subsequently production.

  20. Control of annual reproductive cycle in the subtropical house sparrow (Passer domesticus): evidence for conservation of photoperiodic control mechanisms in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Amit K; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2006-08-22

    In many birds, day length (= photoperiod) regulates reproductive cycle. The photoperiodic environment varies between different seasons and latitudes. As a consequence, species at different latitudes may have evolved separate photoperiodic strategies or modified them as per their adaptive need. We studied this using house sparrow as a model since it is found worldwide and is widely investigated. In particular, we examined whether photoperiodism in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) at 27 degrees N, 81 degrees E shared features with those exhibited by its conspecifics at high latitudes. Initial experiment described in the wild and captive conditions the gonad development and molt (only in captives) cycles over a 12-month period. Both male and female sparrows had similar seasonal cycles, linked with annual variations in day length; this suggested that seasonal reproduction in house sparrows was under the photoperiodic control. However, a slower testis and attenuated follicular growth among captives indicated that other (supplementary) factors are also involved in controlling the reproductive cycle. Next experiment examined if sparrows underwent seasonal variations in their response to stimulatory effects of long day lengths. When birds were transferred every month over a period of 1 year to 16 hours light:8 hours darkness (16L:8D) for 17-26 weeks, there was indeed a time-of-year effect on the growth-regression cycle of gonads. The final experiment investigated response of house sparrows to a variety of light-dark (LD) cycles. In the first set, sparrows were exposed for 31 weeks to photoperiods that were close to what they receive in between the period from sunrise to sunset at this latitude: 9L:15D (close to shortest day length in December), 12L:12D (equinox, in March and September) 15L:9D (close to longest day length in June). They underwent testicular growth and regression and molt in 12L and 15L photoperiods, but not in 9L photoperiod. In the second set, sparrows

  1. Molecular genetic divergence of orang utan (Pongo pygmaeus) subspecies based on isozyme and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczewski, D N; Goldman, D; O'Brien, S J

    1990-01-01

    The orang utan (Pongo pygmaeus), as currently recognized, includes two geographically separated subspecies: Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, which resides on Borneo, and P. p. abelii, which inhabits Sumatra. At present, there is no known route of gene flow between the two populations except through captive individuals which have been released back into the wild over the last several decades. The two subspecies are differentiated by morphological and behavioral characters, and they can be distinguished by a subspecies specific pericentric chromosomal inversion. Nei-genetic distances were estimated between orang utan subspecies, gorilla, chimpanzee and humans using 44 isozyme loci and using 458 soluble fibroblast proteins which were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Phenetic analysis of both data sets supports the following conclusions: the orang utan subspecies distances are approximately 10 times closer to each other than they are to the African apes, and the orang utan subspecies are approximately as divergent as are the two chimpanzee species. Comparison of the genetic distances to genetic distance estimates done in the same laboratory under identical conditions reveals that the distance between Bornean vs. Sumatran orang utans is 5-10 times the distance measured between several pairs of subspecies including lions, cheetahs, and tigers. Near species level molecular genetic distances between orang utan subspecies would support the separate management of Bornean and Sumatran orang utans as evolutionary significant units (Ryder 1987). Evolutionary topologies were constructed from the distance data using both cladistic and phenetic methods. The majority of resulting trees affirmed previous molecular evolutionary studies that indicated that man and chimpanzee diverged from a common ancestor subsequent to the divergence of gorilla from the common ancestor.

  2. Redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) and description of a new subspecies from southern Iran (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsar-Kazerooni, Maryam; Zamanpoore, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on redescription of Gammarus pseudosyriacus (Karaman & Pinkster, 1977) based on new materials from Zagros Mountains and describes a new subspecies of freshwater amphipod, Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n., from the southern Zagros Mountains. The work is based on morphological and morphometric comparisons. This new subspecies has features similar to Gammarus pseudosyriacus. The distinct features that distinguish Gammarus pseudosyriacus issatisi subsp. n. from Gammarus pseudosyriacus are the smaller eyes, shorter body length, and shorter flagellum of antenna 1 and 2.

  3. Mitogenomic phylogenetics of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus spp.: genetic evidence for revision of subspecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick I Archer

    Full Text Available There are three described subspecies of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus: B. p. physalus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Northern Hemisphere, B. p. quoyi Fischer, 1829 in the Southern Hemisphere, and a recently described pygmy form, B. p. patachonica Burmeister, 1865. The discrete distribution in the North Pacific and North Atlantic raises the question of whether a single Northern Hemisphere subspecies is valid. We assess phylogenetic patterns using ~16 K base pairs of the complete mitogenome for 154 fin whales from the North Pacific, North Atlantic--including the Mediterranean Sea--and Southern Hemisphere. A Bayesian tree of the resulting 136 haplotypes revealed several well-supported clades representing each ocean basin, with no haplotypes shared among ocean basins. The North Atlantic haplotypes (n = 12 form a sister clade to those from the Southern Hemisphere (n = 42. The estimated time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA for this Atlantic/Southern Hemisphere clade and 81 of the 97 samples from the North Pacific was approximately 2 Ma. 14 of the remaining North Pacific samples formed a well-supported clade within the Southern Hemisphere. The TMRCA for this node suggests that at least one female from the Southern Hemisphere immigrated to the North Pacific approximately 0.37 Ma. These results provide strong evidence that North Pacific and North Atlantic fin whales should not be considered the same subspecies, and suggest the need for revision of the global taxonomy of the species.

  4. A morphological review of subspecies of the Asian box turtle, Cuora amboinensis (Testudines, Geomydidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carl H.; Laemmerzahl, Arndt F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The turtle Cuora amboinensis has an extensive distribution covering most of southern mainland Asia, Indonesia, and extending to the Philippine Islands. Unlike many species, C. amboinensis occurs on both sides of Wallace's Line separating Asian and Australian flora and fauna. Four subspecies are currently recognized; Cuora a. kamaroma (southern continental Asia, Java and the northern Philippines [introduced]), C. a. lineata (Kachin Province, Myanmar [Burma] and adjacent Yunnan Province, China), C. a. couro (Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa, and adjacent smaller Indonesian islands); and C. a. amboinensis (Moluccas, Sulawesi, Philippines). Five pattern and 33 morphological characters were examined for variation in 691 individuals from throughout the species' range. Our analyses suggest that only two presently recognized subspecies are valid: amboinensis andkamaroma. Neither couro nor lineata are supported by our analysis. We recommend that C. a. couroshould be synonymized with the species C. amboinensis and C. a. lineata with the subspecies C. a. kamaroma.

  5. Ecotype evolution in Glossina palpalis subspecies, major vectors of sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry De Meeûs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of environmental factors in driving adaptive trajectories of living organisms is still being debated. This is even more important to understand when dealing with important neglected diseases and their vectors.In this paper, we analysed genetic divergence, computed from seven microsatellite loci, of 614 tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis and Glossina palpalis palpalis, major vectors of animal and human trypanosomes from 28 sites of West and Central Africa. We found that the two subspecies are so divergent that they deserve the species status. Controlling for geographic and time distances that separate these samples, which have a significant effect, we found that G. p. gambiensis from different landscapes (Niayes of Senegal, savannah and coastal environments were significantly genetically different and thus represent different ecotypes or subspecies. We also confirm that G. p. palpalis from Ivory Coast, Cameroon and DRC are strongly divergent.These results provide an opportunity to examine whether new tsetse fly ecotypes might display different behaviour, dispersal patterns, host preferences and vectorial capacities. This work also urges a revision of taxonomic status of Glossina palpalis subspecies and highlights again how fast ecological divergence can be, especially in host-parasite-vector systems.

  6. Chimpanzee subspecies and ‘robust’ australopithecine holotypes, in the context of comments by Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of comparative anatomy (including chimpanzees, gorillas and other primates, Darwin1 suggested that Africa was the continent from which ‘progenitors’ of humankind evolved. Hominin fossils from this continent proved him correct. We present the results of morphometric analyses based on cranial data obtained from chimpanzee taxa currently recognised as distinct subspecies, namely Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, as well as Pan paniscus (bonobo. Our objective was to use a morphometric technique2 to quantify the degree of similarity between pairs of specimens, in the context of a statistical (probabilistic definition of a species.3–5 Results obtained from great apes, including two subspecies of chimpanzee, were assessed in relation to same-scale comparisons between the holotypes of ‘robust’ australopithecine (Plio-Pleistocene hominin taxa which have traditionally been distinguished at a species level, notably Paranthropus robustus from South Africa, and Paranthropus (Australopithecus/ Zinjanthropus boisei from East Africa. The question arises as to whether the holotypes of these two taxa, TM 1517 from Kromdraai6 and OH 5 from Olduvai,7 respectively, are different at the subspecies rather than at the species level.

  7. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND HOST USE IN HYBRIDIZING SUBSPECIES OF PAPILIO GLAUCUS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Robert H

    1990-12-01

    Two parapatric subspecies of the eastern tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio glaucus glaucus and P. g. canadensis, differ greatly in larval survival and growth on host plants in the Magnoliaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae. In the first part of this study, butterflies were collected from 17 sites along a transect from Georgia to Quebec and used for allozyme electrophoresis. Two X- (or Z-)linked enzyme loci (Ldh and Pgd) showed allele frequency differences that delineated a hybrid zone between the subspecies in northern Pennsylvania and south-central New York. No significant linkage disequilibrium could be detected among allozyme loci within the hybrid zone samples. Genetic differentiation at Ldh and Pgd coincides with subspecies differences in diapause control and female mimicry, which are also sex-linked. Larval offspring of butterflies from 13 of the sites were then tested in the laboratory for survival and growth on Liriodendron tulipifera (Magnoliaceae), Populus deltoïdes (Salicaceae) and Betula lutea (Betulaceae). Steep clines in survival rates matched the position of the hybrid zone. Hybrid zone larvae showed intermediate survival rates and significant heterogeneity among families on all three plants, indicating presence of substantial genetic variation. The results suggest that differential host use by P. g. glaucus and P. g. canadensis is maintained primarily by independent clines in selection intensity for ability to use allopatric sets of host plants, coupled with restricted gene flow across the hybrid zone. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Genome comparison of Candida orthopsilosis clinical strains reveals the existence of hybrids between two distinct subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryszcz, Leszek P; Németh, Tibor; Gácser, Attila; Gabaldón, Toni

    2014-05-01

    The Candida parapsilosis species complex comprises a group of emerging human pathogens of varying virulence. This complex was recently subdivided into three different species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis. Within the latter, at least two clearly distinct subspecies seem to be present among clinical isolates (Type 1 and Type 2). To gain insight into the genomic differences between these subspecies, we undertook the sequencing of a clinical isolate classified as Type 1 and compared it with the available sequence of a Type 2 clinical strain. Unexpectedly, the analysis of the newly sequenced strain revealed a highly heterozygous genome, which we show to be the consequence of a hybridization event between both identified subspecies. This implicitly suggests that C. orthopsilosis is able to mate, a so-far unanswered question. The resulting hybrid shows a chimeric genome that maintains a similar gene dosage from both parental lineages and displays ongoing loss of heterozygosity. Several of the differences found between the gene content in both strains relate to virulent-related families, with the hybrid strain presenting a higher copy number of genes coding for efflux pumps or secreted lipases. Remarkably, two clinical strains isolated from distant geographical locations (Texas and Singapore) are descendants of the same hybrid line, raising the intriguing possibility of a relationship between the hybridization event and the global spread of a virulent clone.

  9. Female rock sparrows (Petronia petronia), not males, respond differently to simulations of different courtship interaction outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2007-01-01

    Animals communicate in networks which spread beyond the classic sender-receiver dyad. Researchers have often concentrated on networks of signalling males, but the network-level effects of male-female signalling interactions are largely unexplored, even though these can contain information when...... individuals of both sexes have access to a range of mating strategies. We tested whether rock sparrows (Petronia petronia) behave differently after hearing playbacks of vocal interactions simulating a successful courtship as opposed to playback of an unsuccessful courtship. We found no support for our...... which heard the unsuccessful courtship simulation. Therefore, females responded to the treatments as if these represented different degrees of competition for either mates or nest sites. This is, to the best of our knowledge, among the first experimental demonstrations that female birds intercept...

  10. Photoperiod as a proximate factor in control of seasonality in the subtropical male Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Namram S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most species of birds exhibit well-defined seasonality in their various physiological and behavioral functions like reproduction, molt, bill color etc. such that they occur at the most appropriate time of the year. Day length has been shown to be a major source of temporal information regulating seasonal reproduction and associated events in a number of avian species. The present study aims to investigate the role of photoperiod in control of seasonal cycles in the subtropical male tree sparrow (Passer montanus and to compare its responses at Shillong (Latitude 25°34'N, Longitude 91°53'E with those exhibited by its conspecifics and related species at other latitudes. Results Initial experiment involving study of seasonal cycles revealed that the wild tree sparrows posses definite seasonal cycles of testicular volume, molt and bill color. These cycles were found remarkably linked to annual solar cycle suggesting the possibility of their photoperiodic control. To confirm this possibility in the next experiment, the photosensitive birds were exposed to three different light-dark regimes that were close to what they experience at this latitude: 9L/15D (close to shortest day length, 12L/12D (equinox day length and 14L/10D (close to longest day length for 18 months. Tree sparrows showed testicular growth followed by regression and development of photorefractoriness, molting and bill color changes only under long daily photoperiods (12 L and 14 L but not under short daily photoperiod (9 L. Birds, under stimulatory photoperiods, did not show reinitiation of the above responses after the completion of initiation regression cycle even after their exposure to these photoperiods for 18 months. This precludes the possibility of circannual rhythm generation and suggests the involvement of photoperiodic mechanism in control of their seasonal cycles. Further, replacement of body and primary feathers progressed with gonadal regression only

  11. Photoperiod as a proximate factor in control of seasonality in the subtropical male Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anand S; Singh, Namram S

    2011-01-11

    Most species of birds exhibit well-defined seasonality in their various physiological and behavioral functions like reproduction, molt, bill color etc. such that they occur at the most appropriate time of the year. Day length has been shown to be a major source of temporal information regulating seasonal reproduction and associated events in a number of avian species. The present study aims to investigate the role of photoperiod in control of seasonal cycles in the subtropical male tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and to compare its responses at Shillong (Latitude 25°34'N, Longitude 91°53'E) with those exhibited by its conspecifics and related species at other latitudes. Initial experiment involving study of seasonal cycles revealed that the wild tree sparrows posses definite seasonal cycles of testicular volume, molt and bill color. These cycles were found remarkably linked to annual solar cycle suggesting the possibility of their photoperiodic control. To confirm this possibility in the next experiment, the photosensitive birds were exposed to three different light-dark regimes that were close to what they experience at this latitude: 9L/15D (close to shortest day length), 12L/12D (equinox day length) and 14L/10D (close to longest day length) for 18 months. Tree sparrows showed testicular growth followed by regression and development of photorefractoriness, molting and bill color changes only under long daily photoperiods (12 L and 14 L) but not under short daily photoperiod (9 L). Birds, under stimulatory photoperiods, did not show reinitiation of the above responses after the completion of initiation regression cycle even after their exposure to these photoperiods for 18 months. This precludes the possibility of circannual rhythm generation and suggests the involvement of photoperiodic mechanism in control of their seasonal cycles. Further, replacement of body and primary feathers progressed with gonadal regression only under long days suggesting that the two

  12. Building a DNA Barcode Reference Library for the True Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Peninsula Malaysia: What about the Subspecies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John-James; Sing, Kong-Wah; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92%) and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%). In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity. PMID:24282514

  13. The songbird as a percussionist: syntactic rules for non-vocal sound and song production in Java sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Soma

    Full Text Available Music and dance are two remarkable human characteristics that are closely related. Communication through integrated vocal and motional signals is also common in the courtship displays of birds. The contribution of songbird studies to our understanding of vocal learning has already shed some light on the cognitive underpinnings of musical ability. Moreover, recent pioneering research has begun to show how animals can synchronize their behaviors with external stimuli, like metronome beats. However, few studies have applied such perspectives to unraveling how animals can integrate multimodal communicative signals that have natural functions. Additionally, studies have rarely asked how well these behaviors are learned. With this in mind, here we cast a spotlight on an unusual animal behavior: non-vocal sound production associated with singing in the Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora, a songbird. We show that male Java sparrows coordinate their bill-click sounds with the syntax of their song-note sequences, similar to percussionists. Analysis showed that they produced clicks frequently toward the beginning of songs and before/after specific song notes. We also show that bill-clicking patterns are similar between social fathers and their sons, suggesting that these behaviors might be learned from models or linked to learning-based vocalizations. Individuals untutored by conspecifics also exhibited stereotypical bill-clicking patterns in relation to song-note sequence, indicating that while the production of bill clicking itself is intrinsic, its syncopation appears to develop with songs. This paints an intriguing picture in which non-vocal sounds are integrated with vocal courtship signals in a songbird, a model that we expect will contribute to the further understanding of multimodal communication.

  14. Seasonal differences of gene expression profiles in song sparrow (Melospiza melodia hypothalamus in relation to territorial aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Mukai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia are territorial year-round; however, neuroendocrine responses to simulated territorial intrusion (STI differ between breeding (spring and non-breeding seasons (autumn. In spring, exposure to STI leads to increases in luteinizing hormone and testosterone, but not in autumn. These observations suggest that there are fundamental differences in the mechanisms driving neuroendocrine responses to STI between seasons. Microarrays, spotted with EST cDNA clones of zebra finch, were used to explore gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus after territorial aggression in two different seasons.Free-living territorial male song sparrows were exposed to either conspecific or heterospecific (control males in an STI in spring and autumn. Behavioral data were recorded, whole hypothalami were collected, and microarray hybridizations were performed. Quantitative PCR was performed for validation. Our results show 262 cDNAs were differentially expressed between spring and autumn in the control birds. There were 173 cDNAs significantly affected by STI in autumn; however, only 67 were significantly affected by STI in spring. There were 88 cDNAs that showed significant interactions in both season and STI.Results suggest that STI drives differential genomic responses in the hypothalamus in the spring vs. autumn. The number of cDNAs differentially expressed in relation to season was greater than in relation to social interactions, suggesting major underlying seasonal effects in the hypothalamus which may determine the differential response upon social interaction. Functional pathway analyses implicated genes that regulate thyroid hormone action and neuroplasticity as targets of this neuroendocrine regulation.

  15. Song competition affects monoamine levels in sensory and motor forebrain regions of male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii.

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    Kendra B Sewall

    Full Text Available Male animals often change their behavior in response to the level of competition for mates. Male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii modulate their competitive singing over the period of a week as a function of the level of challenge associated with competitors' songs. Differences in song challenge and associated shifts in competitive state should be accompanied by neural changes, potentially in regions that regulate perception and song production. The monoamines mediate neural plasticity in response to environmental cues to achieve shifts in behavioral state. Therefore, using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we compared levels of monoamines and their metabolites from male Lincoln's sparrows exposed to songs categorized as more or less challenging. We compared levels of norepinephrine and its principal metabolite in two perceptual regions of the auditory telencephalon, the caudomedial nidopallium and the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM, because this chemical is implicated in modulating auditory sensitivity to song. We also measured the levels of dopamine and its principal metabolite in two song control nuclei, area X and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA, because dopamine is implicated in regulating song output. We measured the levels of serotonin and its principal metabolite in all four brain regions because this monoamine is implicated in perception and behavioral output and is found throughout the avian forebrain. After controlling for recent singing, we found that males exposed to more challenging song had higher levels of norepinephrine metabolite in the CMM and lower levels of serotonin in the RA. Collectively, these findings are consistent with norepinephrine in perceptual brain regions and serotonin in song control regions contributing to neuroplasticity that underlies socially-induced changes in behavioral state.

  16. The songbird as a percussionist: syntactic rules for non-vocal sound and song production in Java sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Masayo; Mori, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Music and dance are two remarkable human characteristics that are closely related. Communication through integrated vocal and motional signals is also common in the courtship displays of birds. The contribution of songbird studies to our understanding of vocal learning has already shed some light on the cognitive underpinnings of musical ability. Moreover, recent pioneering research has begun to show how animals can synchronize their behaviors with external stimuli, like metronome beats. However, few studies have applied such perspectives to unraveling how animals can integrate multimodal communicative signals that have natural functions. Additionally, studies have rarely asked how well these behaviors are learned. With this in mind, here we cast a spotlight on an unusual animal behavior: non-vocal sound production associated with singing in the Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora), a songbird. We show that male Java sparrows coordinate their bill-click sounds with the syntax of their song-note sequences, similar to percussionists. Analysis showed that they produced clicks frequently toward the beginning of songs and before/after specific song notes. We also show that bill-clicking patterns are similar between social fathers and their sons, suggesting that these behaviors might be learned from models or linked to learning-based vocalizations. Individuals untutored by conspecifics also exhibited stereotypical bill-clicking patterns in relation to song-note sequence, indicating that while the production of bill clicking itself is intrinsic, its syncopation appears to develop with songs. This paints an intriguing picture in which non-vocal sounds are integrated with vocal courtship signals in a songbird, a model that we expect will contribute to the further understanding of multimodal communication.

  17. Heterozygosity predicts clutch and egg size but not plasticity in a house sparrow population with no evidence of inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Daniel P; Stewart, Ian R K; Westneat, David F

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the link between heterozygosity and the reaction norm attributes of reproductive performance in female house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We collected data on clutch size, egg size, hatching success and nestling survival in 2816 nesting attempts made by 791 marked individuals over a 16-year period. Pedigree analysis revealed no evidence of inbreeding. Neither parent-offspring regression nor an animal model revealed significant heritability in clutch or egg size. We selected 42 females that laid at least seven clutches at our study site and used a survey of 21 autosomal microsatellite loci to estimate heterozygosity for each female. We controlled for phenotypic plasticity and found that both clutch and egg size showed significant positive correlations with heterozygosity. We found no evidence that heterozygosity influenced the slope of individual reaction norms. Further analysis suggested that clutch size was affected by heterozygosity across the genome, but egg size had more complex relationships, with evidence favouring the influence of multiple loci. Given the apparent lack of inbreeding and large population size, our results suggest associative overdominance as the likely mechanism for the impact of heterozygosity, but also created a puzzle about the process producing associations between neutral markers and the genes affecting clutch size or egg size. One possible explanation is a long-term residual effect of the historical bottleneck that occurred when house sparrows were introduced into North America. The existence of heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a population with considerable phenotypic plasticity and little inbreeding implies that the effects of heterozygosity may be more significant than previously thought. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Hydrography - HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS: Lakes, Ponds, Reservoirs, Swamps, and Marshes in Watersheds of Indiana (U. S. Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains features of lakes, ponds, reservoirs, swamps and marshes in watersheds in and...

  19. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

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    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  20. Threatened and endangered subspecies with vulnerable ecological traits also have high susceptibility to sea level rise and habitat fragmentation.

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    Allison M Benscoter

    Full Text Available The presence of multiple interacting threats to biodiversity and the increasing rate of species extinction make it critical to prioritize management efforts on species and communities that maximize conservation success. We implemented a multi-step approach that coupled vulnerability assessments evaluating threats to Florida taxa such as climate change, sea-level rise, and habitat fragmentation with in-depth literature surveys of taxon-specific ecological traits. The vulnerability, adaptive capacity, and ecological traits of 12 threatened and endangered subspecies were compared to non-listed subspecies of the same parent species. Overall, the threatened and endangered subspecies showed high vulnerability and low adaptive capacity, in particular to sea level rise and habitat fragmentation. They also exhibited larger home ranges and greater dispersal limitation compared to non-endangered subspecies, which may inhibit their ability to track changing climate in fragmented landscapes. There was evidence for lower reproductive capacity in some of the threatened or endangered taxa, but not for most. Taxa located in the Florida Keys or in other low coastal areas were most vulnerable to sea level rise, and also showed low levels of adaptive capacity, indicating they may have a lower probability of conservation success. Our analysis of at-risk subspecies and closely related non-endangered subspecies demonstrates that ecological traits help to explain observed differences in vulnerability and adaptive capacity. This study points to the importance of assessing the relative contributions of multiple threats and evaluating conservation value at the species (or subspecies level when resources are limited and several factors affect conservation success.

  1. Threatened and endangered subspecies with vulnerable ecological traits Also have high susceptibility to sea level rise and habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benscoter, Allison M.; Reece, Joshua S.; Noss, Reed F.; Brandt, Laura B.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Watling, James I.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of multiple interacting threats to biodiversity and the increasing rate of species extinction make it critical to prioritize management efforts on species and communities that maximize conservation success. We implemented a multi-step approach that coupled vulnerability assessments evaluating threats to Florida taxa such as climate change, sea-level rise, and habitat fragmentation with in-depth literature surveys of taxon-specific ecological traits. The vulnerability, adaptive capacity, and ecological traits of 12 threatened and endangered subspecies were compared to non-listed subspecies of the same parent species. Overall, the threatened and endangered subspecies showed high vulnerability and low adaptive capacity, in particular to sea level rise and habitat fragmentation. They also exhibited larger home ranges and greater dispersal limitation compared to non-endangered subspecies, which may inhibit their ability to track changing climate in fragmented landscapes. There was evidence for lower reproductive capacity in some of the threatened or endangered taxa, but not for most. Taxa located in the Florida Keys or in other low coastal areas were most vulnerable to sea level rise, and also showed low levels of adaptive capacity, indicating they may have a lower probability of conservation success. Our analysis of at-risk subspecies and closely related non-endangered subspecies demonstrates that ecological traits help to explain observed differences in vulnerability and adaptive capacity. This study points to the importance of assessing the relative contributions of multiple threats and evaluating conservation value at the species (or subspecies) level when resources are limited and several factors affect conservation success.

  2. Hybridization of Southern Hemisphere blue whale subspecies and a sympatric area off Antarctica: impacts of whaling or climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Catherine R M; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Jenner, K Curt S; Gill, Peter C; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Morrice, Margaret G; Robertson, Kelly M; Möller, Luciana M

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the degree of genetic exchange between subspecies and populations is vital for the appropriate management of endangered species. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) have two recognized Southern Hemisphere subspecies that show differences in geographic distribution, morphology, vocalizations and genetics. During the austral summer feeding season, the Antarctic blue whale (B. m. intermedia) is found in polar waters and the pygmy blue whale (B. m. brevicauda) in temperate waters. Here, we genetically analyzed samples collected during the feeding season to report on several cases of hybridization between the two recognized blue whale Southern Hemisphere subspecies in a previously unconfirmed sympatric area off Antarctica. This means the pygmy blue whales using waters off Antarctica may migrate and then breed during the austral winter with the Antarctic subspecies. Alternatively, the subspecies may interbreed off Antarctica outside the expected austral winter breeding season. The genetically estimated recent migration rates from the pygmy to Antarctic subspecies were greater than estimates of evolutionary migration rates and previous estimates based on morphology of whaling catches. This discrepancy may be due to differences in the methods or an increase in the proportion of pygmy blue whales off Antarctica within the last four decades. Potential causes for the latter are whaling, anthropogenic climate change or a combination of these and may have led to hybridization between the subspecies. Our findings challenge the current knowledge about the breeding behaviour of the world's largest animal and provide key information that can be incorporated into management and conservation practices for this endangered species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Fully reversible phenotypic plasticity of digestive physiology in young house sparrows: lack of long-term effect of early diet composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Pawel; Kohl, Kevin D; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2011-08-15

    Feeding conditions during the nestling period may significantly affect whole-life fitness in altricial birds but little is known about the physiological mechanisms responsible for these effects. Permanent changes (irreversible developmental plasticity) in digestive physiology caused by the neonatal diet may form such a mechanism. We previously showed that the lack of starch in the diet of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings between 3 and 12 days post-hatching significantly decreased the activity of intestinal maltase, an enzyme essential for starch digestion. To check whether diet-induced variation in maltase activity in young house sparrows is reversible, we raised them under laboratory conditions from 3 until 30 days of age on diets with either 0% starch or 25% starch, with some individuals experiencing a switch in their assigned diet at 12 days of age. We found evidence for the presence of an internal, presumably genetic, program for changes in the activity of maltase and sucrase, which was, however, significantly affected by diet composition (i.e. environmental factor). Digestive enzyme activity in 30 day old birds was not influenced by diet composition prior to day 12 but instead depended only on diet that was fed between days 12 and 30. We conclude that plasticity in the activity of intestinal disaccharidases in house sparrow nestlings represents completely reversible phenotypic flexibility that can help young sparrows to cope with unpredictable variation in food composition during ontogeny without long-term effects on their digestive system. However, comparison with other species suggests that the magnitude of digestive flexibility in young passerines may be evolutionarily matched to species-specific variation in feeding conditions.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ANTHROPIC IMPACT IN THE AREA OF THE ORNITHOLOGIC RESERVATION “THE SWAMPS FROM SATCHINEZ” (TIMIŞ COUNTY

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    Rodica Török-Oance

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of the anthropic impact within the Ornithologic Reservation Swamps from Satchinez is based on the field notes in the period 2003-2005, the air photos taken in 2004 and the reconstitution of past situations (1963-1973 using the photoplans from that period. Within the reservation and the buffer area a series of anthropic activities are taking place, allowed or not, which have a negative impact on the protected area: agricultural works (including agro-chemical treatments, grazing, mowing, hydrotechnical arrangements, illegal tree felling, cutting and burning the reed, poaching, hunting and fishing, collecting biological material, transport, tourism and petrol exploitation. All these lead to the deterioration of the habitat, affect the life of the birds, the water, the clogging of the swamp and cause the disappearance of the clean water spots thus endangering the reservation itself.

  5. The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation

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    Jeannette Nijkamp

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation Since the 1980s, many initiatives have attempted to tackle the deprivation currently experienced in South Rotterdam. Efforts have been made to attract creative workers and, in a counter-reaction, other initiatives have aimed to encourage the creative talents of poorer residents to strengthen their economic position. One example of this is Freehouse, which has established projects in the Afrikaanderwijk, including a neighbourhood cooperative. Our article addresses two questions: 1 What are the effects of the Freehouse projects on the economic position of residents of the Afrikaanderwijk? and 2 Which insights do our results provide into the possible effects of local government policies that rely on citizens playing an active role? Although the economic effects of the projects were limited, our study reveals that citizens’ initiatives, such as the Afrikaander Cooperative, can help residents gain employment. In order to succeed, these initiatives should not be hindered by obstructive regulations, and they should include input from the residents who function as staff. However, in deprived neighbourhoods, many residents require support to be able to contribute to citizens’ initiatives, and cannot be expected to act like Baron Münchausen and pull themselves out of the swamp of deprivation by their own hair. Het Münchausen paradigma voor achterstandswijken: jezelf uit het moeras van achterstand trekken Sinds de jaren 80 hebben veel initiatieven geprobeerd het achterstandsniveau in Rotterdam Zuid te verminderen. Verschillende initiatieven waren gericht op het aantrekken van creatieve professionals. Als tegenreactie stimuleerden andere initiatieven de creatieve talenten van arme wijkbewoners teneinde hun economische positie te versterken. Een voorbeeld hiervan is Freehouse, dat projecten in de Afrikaanderwijk startte, waaronder de oprichting van

  6. Factors affecting oxidative peat decomposition due to land use in tropical peat swamp forests in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Masayuki; Okimoto, Yosuke; Hirano, Takashi; Kusin, Kitso

    2017-12-31

    The increasing frequency of fire due to drainage of tropical peatland has become a major environmental problem in Southeast Asia. To clarify the effects of changes in land use on carbon dioxide emissions, we measured oxidative peat decomposition (PD) at different stages of disturbance at three sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia: an undrained peat swamp forest (UF), a heavily drained peat swamp forest (DF), and a drained and burned ex-forest (DB). PD exhibited seasonality, being less in the wet season and greater in the dry season. From February 2014 to December 2015, mean PD (±SE) were 1.90±0.19, 2.30±0.33, and 1.97±0.25μmolm -2 s -1 at UF, DF, and DB, respectively. The groundwater level (GWL) was a major controlling factor of PD at all sites. At UF and DF, PD and GWL showed significant quadratic relationships. At DB, PD and GWL showed significant positive and negative relationships during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Using these relationships, we estimated annual PD from GWL data for 2014 and 2015 as 698 and 745gCm -2 yr -1 at UF (mean GWL: -0.23 and -0.39m), 775 and 825gCm -2 yr -1 at DF (-0.55 and -0.59m), and 646 and 748gCm -2 yr -1 at DB (-0.22 and -0.62m), respectively. The annual PD was significantly higher in DF than in UF or DB, in both years. Despite the very dry conditions, the annual PD values at these sites were much lower than those reported for tropical peat at plantations (e.g., oil palm, rubber, and acacia). The differences in the relationship between PD and GWL indicate that separate estimations are required for each type of land. Moreover, our results suggest that PD can be enhanced by drainage both in forests and at burned sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-fire fluxes and sources of carbon in previously burnt tropical swamp peatlands, Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupascu, M.; Akhtar, H.; Smith, T. E. L.; Sukmaria binti Hj Sukri, R.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical peatlands hold about 15-19% of the global organic carbon (C) pool of which 77% in Southeast Asia. Nonetheless Southeast Asian peatlands have been exploited for timber and land for agriculture leading to rapid deforestation, extensive drainage and frequent fires. Direct C-emissions through peat combustion must be quantified to examine the impact of peat fires on global and regional C-budgets, however it is also essential to evaluate oxidative decomposition of peat after fires for a complete understanding of ecosystem-scale fire impact. This kind of investigation is necessary also to understand the effect of peat burning on peat decomposition, because burning effects on the belowground environment are variable, depending on burnt frequency and fire severity. After a fire, ecosystems act as a C-source for months-to-years as ecosystem-respiration (Reco) exceeds photosynthesis. Furthermore during fires, the surface peat with a higher proportion of the more modern rapidly-cycled C burns preferentially. The loss of the surface peat possibly can reduce oxidative soil CO2 emissions, as the deeper, older peat, has more recalcitrant compounds. However, CO2emissions from this old C pool are a net flux to the atmosphere compared to the modern C. Within this context, we are quantifying the magnitudes and patterns of ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) through cavity-ring spectroscopy in different transects of an intact tropical peat swamp forest and in two degraded forest areas affected by two and six fires over the last 40 years in Brunei, on the island of Borneo. We are using natural tracers such as δ13C and 14C to investigate the age and sources (auto- and heterotrophic) of C contributing to Reco and we are continuously monitoring soil temperature and water table level. Preliminary data show a similar magnitude of CO2 efflux between the intact (5.3 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and burnt areas (6.4 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1), with higher soil

  8. Indigenous Knowledge of Dayaks Bakumpai in Barito Kuala District on the Management of Plant Diversity Growing at Streams and Swamps

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmono Dharmono; Ahmad Sofyan; Herita Warni

    2013-01-01

    Research aimed at describing profile of indigenous knowldge owned by the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district on managing the diversity of herbs growing at the river flow and swamp. Data on herb used by the tribe were grouped based on the etnobotanic study, covering study botany, etnofarmacology, etnoantrophology, etnolinguistik and etnoekologi. We also observed how the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district preserve the diversity of plant in around them, and how their efforts in bequeathing or tea...

  9. Science & education: Genetic analysis of winter social structure and social traits in a migratory sparrow & teaching argumentation in STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Nina N.

    Stable social organization in a wide variety of organisms has been linked to kinship, which can minimize conflict due to the indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with relatives. In birds, kin selection has been mostly studied in the context of reproduction or in species that are social year round. Many birds however are migratory and the role of kinship in the winter societies of these species is virtually unexplored. A previous study detected striking social complexity and stability in wintering populations of migratory golden-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla)---individuals repeatedly form close associations with the same social partners, including across multiple winters. In chapter one I test the possibility that kinship might be involved in these close and stable social affiliations. I examine the relationship between kinship and social structure for two of the consecutive wintering seasons from the previous study. I found no evidence that social structure was influenced by kinship---relatedness between most pairs of individuals was at most that of first cousins (and mostly far lower) and Mantel tests revealed no relationship between kinship and pairwise interaction frequency. Kinship also failed to predict social structure in more fine-grained analyses, including analyses of each sex separately (in the event that sex-biased migration might limit kin selection to one sex) and separate analyses for each social community. The complex winter societies of golden-crowned sparrows appear to be based on cooperative benefits unrelated to kin selection. Although the complex social structure detected in wintering golden-crowned sparrows is not predicted by kinship, genetic variation may play a role in variation of winter social traits. In chapter two, I investigate the genetic causes of variation in fitness-related traits in a winter population of golden-crowned sparrows. Individuals show great variation in morphological and behavioral traits that may play

  10. Gene flow, subspecies composition, and dengue virus-2 susceptibility among Aedes aegypti collections in Senegal.

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    Massamba Sylla

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the "yellow fever mosquito", is the primary vector to humans of the four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV1-4 and yellow fever virus (YFV and is a known vector of Chikungunya virus. There are two recognized subspecies of Ae. aegypti sensu latu (s.l.: the presumed ancestral form, Ae. aegypti formosus (Aaf, a primarily sylvan mosquito in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ae. aegypti aegypti (Aaa, found globally in tropical and subtropical regions typically in association with humans. The designation of Ae. aegypti s.l. subspecies arose from observations made in East Africa in the late 1950s that the frequency of pale "forms" of Ae. aegypti was higher in populations in and around human dwellings than in those of the nearby bush. But few studies have been made of Ae. aegypti s.l. in West Africa. To address this deficiency we have been studying the population genetics, subspecies composition and vector competence for DENV-2 of Ae. aegypti s.l. in Senegal.A population genetic analysis of gene flow was conducted among 1,040 Aedes aegypti s.l. from 19 collections distributed across the five phytogeographic regions of Senegal. Adults lacking pale scales on their first abdominal tergite were classified as Aedes aegypti formosus (Aaf following the original description of the subspecies and the remainder were classified as Aedes aegypti aegypti (Aaa. There was a clear northwest-southeast cline in the abundance of Aaa and Aaf. Collections from the northern Sahelian region contained only Aaa while southern Forest gallery collections contained only Aaf. The two subspecies occurred in sympatry in four collections north of the Gambia in the central Savannah region and Aaa was a minor component of two collections from the Forest gallery area. Mosquitoes from 11 collections were orally challenged with DENV-2 virus. In agreement with the early literature, Aaf had significantly lower vector competence than Aaa. Among pure Aaa collections, the disseminated

  11. Structure of the tree stratum of three swamp forest communities in southern Brazil under different soil conditions

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    Luciana Carla Mancino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga forests are commonly known to be plant communities rather poor in tree species. This study aimed to describe and explain the association between the floristic-structural similarities and the environmental conditions in three Swamp Restinga Forest communities in southern Brazil. In 13 plots of 100 m2 each, we sampled all individual trees (circumference at breast height >12 cm and height ≥3 m. We collected soil samples in each plot for chemical and textural analyses. Phytosociological parameters were calculated and different structural variables were compared between areas. The density of individuals did not differ between areas; however, the maximum height and abundance of species differed between the site with Histosols and the other two sites with Gleysols. Further, a canonical correspondence analysis based on a matrix of vegetation and that of environmental characteristics explained 31.5% of the total variation. The high floristic and environmental heterogeneity indicate that swamp-forests can shelter many species with low frequency. Most species were generalists that were not exclusive to this type of forest. Overall, our study showed that swamp-forests within the same region can show considerable differences in composition and structure and can include species-rich communities, mostly due to the presence of species with a broader distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest domain on sites with less stressful environmental conditions and without waterlogged conditions.

  12. Prevalence and intensity of third stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae in swamp eels sold in three large markets in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Nuchprayoon, Surang; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2002-01-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is a common human tissue parasite in Thailand. The swamp eel is the major intermediate or paratenic host for this parasite. The high prevalence of the infective third stage larvae (L3) of this parasite in the rainy season has been noted in previous studies. During June 1999 (rainy season), we performed a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence and the intensity of G. spinigerum L3s in the livers of swamp eels that were obtained from three large Bangkok markets (Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej). Of a total of 785 livers, G. spinigerum L3s were found in 97: an infection rate of 12%. The prevalence rates in Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej markets were 13%, 10% and 14% respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of infected eels between the markets (p > 0.05). The intensity of L3 burden in the livers ranged from 1-17 larvae, with an average of 2.60 +/- 0.24 larvae (mean +/- SE). In this study a high prevalence of G. spinigerum L3s was found; there was no significant difference in the intensity of larvae in swamp eels between markets. These findings emphasize the importance of public health education: people need to be aware of the dangers of consuming raw or undercooked food.

  13. Impacts of Land Cover Change on the Carbon Dynamics in Indonesian Tropical Forested Wetlands- Mangroves and Peat Swamp Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, J. B.; Arifanti, V. B.; Basuki, I.; Kurnianto, S.; Novita, N.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical wetland forests including mangroves and lowland peat swamp forests contain among the highest carbon stocks of any ecosystem on the planet. This is largely due to the accumulation of deep organic rich soils which have been sequestering carbon for millennia. Depth of organic layers (peats) can exceed 3 m in mangrove and 10 m in the peat swamp forests. The ecosystem carbon stocks may exceed 2000 Mg/ha in mangroves and 5000 Mg/ha in peat swamp forests. Ironically, rates of deforestation of these tropical forests are among the highest in the tropics. With land cover change comes dramatic shifts in carbon stocks, net ecosystem productivity, and greenhouse gas emissions. Land cover change results in carbon losses of practically all aboveground pools as well as losses arising from soil pools. Based upon studies where we have compared stock changes due to land use the carbon emissions arising from land cover change to shrimp ponds and oil palm have ranged from 800-3000 Mg CO2e/ha. The lowered carbon sequestration rates coupled with increased or similar emissions from decomposition results in an ecosystem shift from a carbon sink to a carbon source. Clearly the large carbon stocks, high rates of deforestation, and large emissions resulting from their degradation suggest that these ecosystems should receive great consideration in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  14. Morphometric and molecular differentiation between quetzal subspecies of Pharomachrus mocinno (Trogoniformes: Trogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Solórzano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The resplendent Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno is an endemic Mesoamerican bird species of conservation concern. Within this species, the subspecies P. m. costaricensis and P. m. mocinno, have been recognized by apparent morphometric differences; however, presently there is no sufficient data for confirmation. We analyzed eight morphometric attributes of the body from 41 quetzals: body length, tarsus and cord wing, as well as the length, wide and depth of the bill, body weight; and in the case of the males, the length of the long upper-tail cover feathers. We used multivariate analyses to discriminate morphometric differences between subspecies and contrasted each morphometric attribute between and within subspecies with paired non-parametric Wilcoxon test. In order to review the intraspecific taxonomic status of this bird, we added phylogenetic analysis, and genetic divergence and differentiation based on nucleotide variations in four sequences of mtDNA. The nucleotide variation was estimated in control region, subunit NDH6, and tRNA Glu and tRNA Phe in 26 quetzals from eight localities distributed in five countries. We estimated the genetic divergence and differentiation between subspecies according to a mutation-drift equilibrium model. We obtained the best mutation nucleotide model following the procedure implemented in model test program. We constructed the phylogenetic relationships between subspecies by maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood using PAUP, as well as with Bayesian statistics. The multivariate analyses showed two different morphometric groups, and individuals clustered according to the subspecies that they belong. The paired comparisons between subspecies showed strong differences in most of the attributes analyzed. Along the four mtDNA sequences, we identified 32 nucleotide positions that have a particular nucleotide according to the quetzals subspecies. The genetic divergence and the differentiation was strong and markedly

  15. A molecular marker distinguishes the subspecies Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponinae

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    Ana M. Waldschmidt

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The stingless bee species Melipona quadrifasciata includes two subspecies, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioids and Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The morphological difference between the two subspecies is the presence of three to five continuous yellow stripes on the terga on the 3rd to 6th segments in workers and males of M. q. quadrifasciata, and two to five interrupted bands in M. q. anthidioides. We identified a DNA marker which is present in M. q. quadrifasciata and absent in M. q. anthidioides. Only one among the M. q. quadrifasciata colonies did not present the marker. It was also absent in bees collected in northern Minas Gerais State (Brazil, despite their morphological resemblance to M. q. quadrifasciata. The marker can be used for studying the genetic structure of the hybridization zone formed by the intercrossing of the two subspecies.A espécie de abelha sem ferrão Melipona quadrifasciata apresenta duas subespécies, Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lep. e Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lep. A diferença morfológica entre as duas subespécies é a presença de três a cinco bandas tergais amarelas do 3º ao 6º segmentos em operárias e machos de M. q. quadrifasciata e duas a cinco bandas interrompidas em M. q. anthidioides. Nós identificamos um marcador de DNA que está presente em M. q. quadrifasciata e ausente em M. q. anthidioides. Este marcador está ausente em abelhas coletadas no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil, embora esses indivíduos apresentem morfologia similar à de M. q. quadrifasciata. Este marcador poderá ser utilizado em estudos da zona de hibridação entre as subespécies.

  16. Morpho- biochemical evaluation of Brassica rapa sub-species for salt tolerance

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    Jan Sohail Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is one of the key abiotic stresses that affect both the qualitative and quantitative characters of many Brassica rapa sub-species by disturbing its normal morphobiochemical processes. Therefore, the present research work was designed to study the effect of different NaCl events (0, 50,100 and 150 mmol on morphological and biochemical characters and to screen salt tolerant genotypes among brown, yellow and toria types of B. rapa sub-species. The plants were grown in test tubes with addition of four level of NaCl (0, 50,100 and 150 mmol. The effect of salinity on shoot and root length, shoot/ root fresh and dry weight, relative water content (RWC, proline and chlorophyll a, b, a+b contents was recorded after 4 weeks of sowing. The genotype 22861 (brown type showed excellent morphological and biochemical performance at all stress levels followed by Toria-Sathi and Toria-A respectively as compared to Check variety TS-1. The genotype 26158 (yellow type gave very poor performance and retard growth. The %RWC values and chlorophyll a, b and a+b contents were decreased several folds with the increase of salt concentration. While, the proline contents was increased with raising of salt stress. The brown and toria types showed maximum tolerance to salt stress at early germination stages as compare to yellows one. The present study will serve as model to develop quick salt tolerant genotypes among different plant sub-species against salt stress.

  17. Associations of anthropometry and lifestyle factors with HDL subspecies according to apolipoprotein C-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Manja; Furtado, Jeremy D; Jiang, Gordon Z; Gray, Brianna E; Cai, Tianxi; Sacks, Frank; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken K

    2017-06-01

    The presence of apoC-III on HDL impairs HDL's inverse association with coronary heart disease (CHD). Little is known about modifiable factors explaining variation in HDL subspecies defined according to apoC-III. The aim was to investigate cross-sectional associations of anthropometry and lifestyle with HDL subspecies in 3,631 participants from the Diet, Cancer, and Health study originally selected for a case-cohort study (36% women; age 50-65 years) who were all free of CHD. Greater adiposity and less activity were associated with higher HDL containing apoC-III and lower HDL lacking apoC-III. Per each 15 cm higher waist circumference, the level of HDL containing apoC-III was 2.8% higher (95% CI: 0.4, 5.3; P = 0.024) and the level of HDL not containing apoC-III was 4.7% lower (95% CI: -6.0, -3.4; P = <0.0001). Associations for physical activity were most robust to multivariable modeling. Each 20 metabolic equivalent task hours per week reported higher physical activity was associated with 0.9% (95% CI: -1.7, -0.1; P = 0.031) lower HDL containing apoC-III and 0.5% higher (95% CI: 0.1, 1.0; P = 0.029) HDL lacking apoC-III. Lower alcohol consumption was associated with lower HDL lacking apoC-III (percent difference per 15 g/day: 1.58 (95% CI: 0.84, 2.32; P = <0.0001). Adiposity and sedentary lifestyle were associated with a less favorable HDL subspecies profile. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. New insights about phenotypic heterogeneity withinPropionibacterium freudenreichiiargue against its division into subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Rosangela; Madec, Marie-Noelle; Chuat, Victoria; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Mukdsi, María C Abeijón; Falentin, Hélène; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is widely used in Swiss-type cheese manufacture, where it contributes to flavour and eye development. It is currently divided into two subspecies, according to the phenotype for lactose fermentation and nitrate reduction (lac + /nit - and lac - /nit + for P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii and subsp. freudenreichii , respectively). However, the existence of unclassifiable strains (lac + /nit + and lac - /nit - ) has also been reported. The aim of this study was to revisit the relevance of the subdivision of P. freudenreichii into subspecies, by confirming the existence of unclassifiable strains. Relevant conditions to test the ability of P. freudenreichii for lactose fermentation and nitrate reduction were first determined, by using 10 sequenced strains, in which the presence or absence of the lactose and nitrate genomic islands were known. We also determined whether the subdivision based on lac/nit phenotype was related to other phenotypic properties of interest in cheese manufacture, in this case, the production of aroma compounds, analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, for a total of 28 strains. The results showed that a too short incubation time can lead to false negative for lactose fermentation and nitrate reduction. They confirmed the existence of four lac/nit phenotypes instead of the two expected, thus leading to 13 unclassifiable strains out of the 28 characterized (7 lac + /nit + and 6 lac - /nit - ). The production of the 15 aroma compounds detected in all cultures varied more within a lac/nit phenotype (up to 20 times) than between them. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the division of P. freudenreichii into two subspecies does not appear to be relevant.

  19. First record of the genus Pycnodictya with its subspecies P. galinieri galinieri from Egypt (Orthoptera, Acrididae

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    Asmaa A. Haggag

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The band-winged Pycnodictya galinieri galinieri (Reiche & Fairmaire, 1849 and its genus Pycnodictya Stål, 1873 (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Oedipodinae are recorded for the first time for the Egyptian fauna. The species was collected from Gabal Elba, in the southeastern corner of Egypt. This record expands the known distributional range of P. galinieri towards the north of Africa. Descriptions of the genus and the Egyptian subspecies are given using multiple diagnostic characters. The descriptions are supplemented by drawings and photographs of the specimen collected. It is proposed that the genus Pycnodictya belongs to the tribe Locustini.

  20. First record of the genus Pycnodictya with its subspecies P. galinieri galinieri from Egypt (Orthoptera, Acrididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggag, Asmaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The band-winged Pycnodictya galinieri galinieri (Reiche & Fairmaire, 1849) and its genus Pycnodictya Stål, 1873 (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Oedipodinae) are recorded for the first time for the Egyptian fauna. The species was collected from Gabal Elba, in the southeastern corner of Egypt. This record expands the known distributional range of Pycnodictya galinieri towards the north of Africa. Descriptions of the genus and the Egyptian subspecies are given using multiple diagnostic characters. The descriptions are supplemented by drawings and photographs of the specimen collected. It is proposed that the genus Pycnodictya belongs to the tribe Locustini. PMID:27917042

  1. Purulent Pericarditis with Salmonella enterica Subspecies arizona in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ai; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Ohba, Kenji; Ito, Naomi; Sakai, Yuki; Kaneko, Akane; Machii, Masashi; Nonaka, Daishi; Goto, Yoshie; Takase, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-15

    Purulent pericarditis is a life-threatening disorder, even in the modern antibiotic era. Although diabetes mellitus is known to be associated with an increased risk of multiple types of infections, purulent pericarditis is extremely rare. We herein report an unusual case of pericarditis caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies arizona that was not associated with any evident underlying immunosuppressive disorder apart from uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because a pet snake was suspected as being the source of infection in the present case, patient education and a detailed review of exposure history could play an important role in treating patients with diabetes mellitus.

  2. Genetic relationships among some subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus L.), inferred from mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clayton M.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, George K.; Anderson, Clifford; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully colonize and persist in diverse environments likely requires broad morphological and behavioral plasticity and adaptability, and this may partly explain why the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) exhibits a large range of morphological characteristics across their global distribution. Regional and local differences within Peregrine Falcons were sufficiently variable that ∼75 subspecies have been described; many were subsumed, and currently 19 are generally recognized. We used sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial genome to test for concordance between genetic structure and representatives of 12 current subspecies and from two areas where subspecies distributions overlap. Haplotypes were broadly shared among subspecies, and all geographic locales shared a widely distributed common haplotype (FalconCR2). Haplotypes were distributed in a star-like phylogeny, consistent with rapid expansion of a recently derived species, with observed genetic patterns congruent with incomplete lineage sorting and/or differential rates of evolution on morphology and neutral genetic characters. Hierarchical analyses of molecular variance did not uncover genetic partitioning at the continental level, despite strong population-level structure (FST = 0.228). Similar analyses found weak partitioning, albeit significant, among subspecies (FCT = 0.138). All reconstructions placed the hierofalcons' (Gyrfalcon [F. rusticolus] and Saker Falcon [F. cherrug]) haplotypes in a well-supported clade either basal or unresolved with respect to the Peregrine Falcon. In addition, haplotypes representing Taita Falcon (F. fasciinucha) were placed within the Peregrine Falcon clade.

  3. Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in breast cancer-related lymphedema: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumazaki, Makoto; Saito, Fumi; Ogata, Hideaki; Yoshida, Miho; Kubota, Yorichika; Magoshi, Syunsuke; Kaneko, Hironori

    2017-07-14

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema often causes cellulitis and is one of the most common complications after breast cancer surgery. Streptococci are the major pathogens underlying such cellulitis. Among the streptococci, the importance of the Lancefield groups C and G is underappreciated; most cases involve Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Despite having a relatively weak toxicity compared with group A streptococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is associated with a mortality rate that is as high as that of group A streptococci in cases of invasive infection because Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis mainly affects elderly individuals who already have various comorbidities. An 83-year-old Japanese woman with breast cancer-related lymphedema in her left upper limb was referred to our hospital with high fever and acute pain with erythema in her left arm. She showed septic shock with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Blood culture showed positive results for Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis, confirming a diagnosis of streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome. She survived after successful intensive care. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis-induced streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome in a patient with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a common problem, and we must pay attention to invasive streptococcal soft tissue infections, particularly in elderly patients with chronic disease.

  4. Nitrogen fate in a subtropical mangrove swamp: Potential association with seawater-groundwater exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai; Wu, Jiapeng; Li, Hailong; Hong, Yiguo; Wilson, Alicia M; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Shananan, Meghan

    2018-04-18

    Coastal mangrove swamps play an important role in nutrient cycling at the land-ocean boundary. However, little is known about the role of periodic seawater-groundwater exchange in the nitrogen cycling processes. Seawater-groundwater exchange rates and inorganic nitrogen concentrations were investigated along a shore-perpendicular intertidal transect in Daya Bay, China. The intertidal transect comprises three hydrologic subzones (tidal creek, mangrove and bare mudflat zones), each with different physicochemical characteristics. Salinity and hydraulic head measurements taken along the transect were used to estimate the exchange rates between seawater and groundwater over a spring-neap tidal cycle. Results showed that the maximum seawater-groundwater exchange occurred within the tidal creek zone, which facilitated high-oxygen seawater infiltration and subsequent nitrification. In contrast, the lowest exchange rate found in the mangrove zone caused over-loading of organic matter and longer groundwater residence times. This created an anoxic environment conducive to nitrogen loss through the anammox and denitrification processes. Potential oxidation rates of ammonia and nitrite were measured by the rapid and high-throughput method and rates of denitrification and anammox were measured by the modified membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) with isotope pairing, respectively. In the whole transect, denitrification accounted for 90% of the total nitrogen loss, and anammox accounted for the remaining 10%. The average nitrogen removal rate was about 2.07g per day per cubic meter of mangrove sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of semen quality in Swamp Buffalo AI Bulls in Thailand

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    S. Koonjaenak

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Thai swamp buffalo bulls semen used for artificial insemination (AI in Thailand, aspects relevance in freezing and thawing of semen are review. Semen and sperm characteristics were evaluated included sperm count, motility (assessed subjectively and by CASA, morphology (using phase-contrast light microscopy and SEM, plasma membrane integrity (PMI (using a hypo-osmotic swelling test [HOST] and SYBR- 14/propidium iodide [PI], plasma membrane stability (PMS (using Annexin-V/PI and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity (using SCSA and flow cytometry [FCM]. The average ejaculate volume was about 3.0–4.0 mL, with good viability (PMI measured by the HOST and motility (>65% and >70%, respectively. Sperm concentration ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 billion/mL, being also affected by bull age. Whereas semen quality (including sperm output, pH and initial sperm motility did not differ between the seasons. Few spermatozoa (<15%/ ejaculate had abnormal morphology with abnormalities resembling those in other bovidae. In FT semen, PMI (using SYBR-14/PI and PMS were highest in winter. Across seasons, ~50% of post-thaw spermatozoa depicted linear motility, a proportion that decreased to ~35% during incubation (38oC for 60 minutes, without marking any seasonal difference. The sperm DNA was hardly damaged (with <3% fragmentation, expressed as DNA fragmentation index [DFI], among seasons.

  6. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  7. A Review of the Relative Merits of Conserving, Using, or Draining Papyrus Swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Ilya M. D.; Boar, Rosalind R.; Lugo, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Wetlands are a vital resource, particularly in Africa where livelihoods are closely linked to natural capital. In recent years, extensive drainage has occurred to make way for agriculture. To gain insight into whether drainage is justified, we review the value of African wetlands dominated by Cyperus papyrus in relation to use, conservation and conversion. Evidence suggests that the value derived from low-intensity, multifunctional wetland use far exceeds the value derived from swamp reclamation and generally exceeds that of conservation. At a local level, the main driver of wetland misuse appear to be a breakdown in collaborative management regimes and the main constraint on wetland use, the value of labor and selling-times. Local drivers are linked to regional factors such as the lack of coordinated wetland policies and difficulties in ensuring that legislation is absorbed by all sectors of society. We highlight opportunities for ensuring more effective collaborative management and legislation communication, which capitalize on existing governance structures. In contrast to predictions by Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons model, we argue that effective wetland management is best achieved by preventing privatization and promoting common property management regimes. We also argue that poverty and income inequity are more important drivers of unsustainable resource use than environmental managers commonly acknowledge.

  8. ADVANCED LAND COVER MAPPING OF TROPICAL PEAT SWAMP ECOSYSTEM USING AIRBORNE DISCRETE RETURN LIDAR

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    Solichin Manuri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to better understand tropical peat ecosystems for restoration and climate change mitigation is often hampered by the lack of availability accurate and detailed data on vegetation cover and hydrologys, which is typically only derived from detailed and high-resolution imaging or field-based measurements. The aims of this study were to explore the potential advantage of airborne discrete-return lidar for mapping of forest cover in peat swamp forests. We used 2.8 pulse.m-1 lidar and the associated 1-m DTM derived from an airborne platform. The lidar dataset fully covered a 120 thousand hectare protection forest in Central Kalimantan. We extracted maximum vegetation heights in 5-m grid resolution to allow detailed mapping of the forest. We followed forest definition from FAO for forest and non-forest classification. We found that lidar was able to capture detail variation of canopy height in high-resolution, thus provide more accurate classification. A comparison with existing maps suggested that the lidar-derived vegetation map was more consistent in defining canopy structure of the vegetation, with small standard deviations of the mean height of each class.

  9. Characterization of Population Genetic Structure of red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shaokui; Li, Yanhe; Shi, Linlin; Zhang, Long; Li, Qingbin; Chen, Jing

    2018-04-03

    The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) is one of the most economically important farmed aquatic species in China. However, it is also a famous invasive species in the world. This invasive species was dispersed most via human activities including intentional or unintentional carry in China. Thus, P. clarkii naturally distributed in China provides us a desirable mode to investigate the genetic structure of an invasive species dispersed mainly by human-mediated factors. To reveal the impact of human-mediated dispersal on genetic structure of P. clarkii in China, a total of 22,043 genome-wide SNPs were obtained from approximately 7.4 billion raw reads using 2b-RAD technique in this study. An evident pattern of population genetic structure and the asymmetrical migrational rates between different regions were observed with 22 populations based on these SNPs. This study provide a better understanding of the population genetic structure and demographic history of P. clarkii populations in China, inferring that anthropogenic factors (aquaculture or by accident) and ecological factors (e.g., complicated topography and climatic environment), as well as its special biological traits could account for the current population structure pattern and dispersal history of P. clarkii.

  10. Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in South Mexico: cost / benefit analysis

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    Cristian Tovilla Hernández

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day. A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2 555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD. Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented. After logging, temperatures increased 13 °C in the soil and 11°C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3 000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246: 1. There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR HOMING IN THE RED SWAMP CRAYFISH, PROCAMBARUS CLARKII

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    BARBARESI S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, is an efficient burrower, but its burrow fidelity has been recently questioned. In this study, we aimed at investigating whether individuals of this species are capable to learn the position of a goal (a wet burrow hidden to their sight in experimental tanks and to make more efficient with time their oriented movement towards it. We also analyzed crayfish behavior after having closed one of the two accesses to the goal. Indeed, in successive trials we recorded the crayfish tendency to reduce the distance covered to reach the goal and the time taken, except when they were already familiar to the experimental setting. Memory of the spatial configuration lasted for 16 hours at least and crayfish learned and maintained individual trajectories. The interruption of their usual path always caused a drastic increase of distance and time that however decreased in the successive trials. This study provided also some information of the sensory channels used by P. clarkii to orient. This crayfish, which can be active also during daytime, seemed to adopt a combination of tactile and visual information, together with the possible use of cues (i.e. humidity cues emitted by the goal. Future studies should clarify the paradox of a crayfish species whose individuals, although being physiologically capable to home, seem not to return to the previously occupied burrows at the end of their foraging excursions, notwithstanding the time and energy expended to excavate them.

  12. Is the herb-shrub composition of veredas (Brazilian palm swamps distinguishable?

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    Diogo Pereira da Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vereda (Brazilian palm swamp is a poorly known savannic phytophysiognomy that occurs on moist soils with high herb-shrub floristic richness. This study aimed to document the herb-shrub species of veredas of the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins - EESGTO, and compare this flora with other veredas in Brazil. Furthermore, we assessed the similarity of the herb-shrub flora of the studied veredas with that of inventories of other savannas and grasslands in order to evaluate whether veredas possess an exclusive flora. Ordination analysis was performed to understand the floristic relationship among these areas. We recorded 213 species, 105 genera and 49 families at EESGTO, including five new floral records for the Cerrado and 78 for the state of Tocantins. The floristic similarity among veredas at EESGTO and the other sites was low. For all sites, a total of 1,324 species were recorded, of which 342 were unique to veredas and 187 unique to moist grasslands (campos limpos úmidos. After reviewing databases, 14.3 % of these species remained exclusive to veredas and moist grasslands. The ordination analysis indicated a gradient in floristic composition from wet to dry phytophysiognomies. In conclusion, we recognize a flora that distinguishes veredas from other Cerrado phytophysiognomies.

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature and Immature Oocytes of the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Qiang Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Proteins from 500 immature oocytes and 500 in vitro matured oocytes were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and more than 400 spots were detected. Image analysis indicated that 17 proteins were differentially expressed between the two groups. Eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In mature oocytes, three proteins were down-regulated: major vault protein (MVP, N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (GCNT-2, and gem-associated protein (GEMIN8, whereas five other proteins, heat shock protein (HSP60, Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71, hemoglobin subunit α (HBA, and BMP-2-inducible protein kinase (BMP-2K, were up-regulated. The expression profiles of HSP60 and GEMIN8 were further verified by Western blotting. The changes in HSP60 protein expression demonstrate the increasing need for mitochondrial protein importation to facilitate macromolecular assembly during oocyte maturation. The down-regulation of GEMIN8 production implies that RNA splicing is impaired in mature oocytes.

  14. Structure of natural regeneration in Anadenanthera colubrina altitude swamp fragment in Bananeiras, PB, Brazil

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    Robson Luis Silva de Medeiros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The habitats destruction linked to fragmentation causes serious consequences for vegetation in general, especially considering the Northeast Atlantic Forest. The Northeastern Swamps of Altitudes are areas with microclimates dissociating from extensions where they are inserted. Knowledge of the natural regeneration potential is the key to understanding the dynamics of vegetation. The study aimed to evaluate the recruitment and mortality of Anadenanthera colubrina regenerating occurring in Open Rain Forest fragments. In a population of A. colubrina, ten plots with 10 m x 10 m were established, near matrices plants. All specimens with 1 m height or lower were numbered and monitored for 9 months. The stem diameter of the taxon showed continuous growth. The monthly average increment in diameter was at first 1.8 mm and at the end 2.3 mm, and the average stem increment in height was 20 cm at the first month  and 25.9 cm at the last month evaluate. The mortality rate reached 50%. Environmental and anthropogenic factors and seed predation contribute to mortality of regenerating individuals.

  15. Draining the swamp while making America great: senior dissonance in the age of Trump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Robert B

    2018-04-13

    In his surprise election as President, Donald Trump enjoyed disproportionate electoral support from older voters, many of whom saw in Trump a person who would work to reverse demographic, economic, and cultural forces that had transformed American life as they had long seen it. Yet, Trump's campaign and incumbency has also been very much about gutting the Washington policy establishment of officials, bureaucrats, and lobbyists (aka, the Swamp) which, for over half a century, has been instrumental in enacting and expanding legislation that has benefitted older Americans, far more than any other social policy constituency in the country. This article contrasts the value-oriented electoral support Trump enjoyed from older Americans with their interest concerns centered on policies such as the Affordable Care Act, Medicaid, and a host of smaller grant-in-aid programs. It then reviews the strong institutional base seniors and their advocates have in Washington, posing whether interest-oriented concerns may outweigh ideological ones as policy options emerge from a Republican-controlled government prior to the 2018 elections.

  16. Determination of endocrine patterns and their applications in the swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamonpatana, M.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of AI in swamp buffalo breeding has made hormonal measurement and treatment an important area of research. Hormonal regulation of buffalo reproduction is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring genetic progress and productivity. The development of immunoassay techniques for measuring progesterone was quickly identified as a suitable tool for monitoring the reproductive status of the water buffalo. Progesterone profiles during the oestrous cycle, pregnancy, parturition and post partum have been established. A knowledge of progesterone levels has helped to improve clinical skills in determining reproductive status. Attempts have been made to understand the role of gonadotrophins during these reproductive stages, to advance the onset of postpartum cyclicity, and to characterize the weak signs of oestrus. Peripartal changes of oestrone and prostaglandin have been monitored. Endocrinological methods for oestrus synchronization have been developed and applied and oestrone sulphate and progesterone have been used to assess pregnancy status and a rapid pregnancy test has been utilized to maximize reproductive efficiency in ranch-type breeding herds. In the male attempts have been made to clarify the testicular testosterone secretory capacity and the possible relationships between testosterone secretion, libido, semen characteristics and the influence of season. Within the context of long-term improvement, these studies should help to decrease calving intervals, improve heat and non-pregnancy detection, and allow for subfertility discrimination and sire selection with consequent increases in milk and meat production and draught power. (author)

  17. Measurements of wave attenuation due to a soft bottom: The SWAMP experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forristall, George Z.; Reece, Allan M.

    1985-03-01

    The Sea Wave Attenuation Measurement Program (SWAMP) was designed to provide measurements of the attenuation of waves as they travel from deep water to relatively shallow water off the Mississippi Delta. The soft bottom was suspected of causing strong attenuation in the area. This effect has now been measured. A wave staff and electromagnetic current meter were used to estimate directional wave spectra at the Cognac platform in 312 m (1025 feet) of water and at platform VV in South Pass Block 27 in 19 m (63 feet) of water. In addition, measurements of vertical bottom motion were made at platform VV. Seven storm periods from Sepember 1979 to February 1981 were studied. The directional spectral comparisons showed that the theoretically calculated refraction and shoaling can explain the changes in the spectra when the wave height is low. However, as the wave height increases, a nonlinear attenuation mechanism becomes increasingly strong. The attenuation is a strong function of deep-water wave height and a weak function of wave frequency. The bottom motion measurements showed that the bottom moved downward with small amplitude under wave crests.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii Reveals Genes Involved in Gonadal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hucheng; Xing, Zhijun; Lu, Wei; Qian, Zhaojun; Yu, Hongwei; Li, Jiale

    2014-01-01

    Background The red swamp crawfish, Procambarus clarkii, has become one of the most economically important cultured species in China. Currently, little is known about the gonadal development of this species. Isolation and characterization of genes are an initial step towards understanding gonadal development of P. clarkii. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we obtained a total of 1,134,993 high quality sequence reads from the crawfish testis and ovary libraries. We aimed to identify different genes with a potential role in gonad development. The assembly formed into 22,652 isotigs, distributed by GO analysis across 55 categories in the three ontologies, ‘molecular function’, ‘cellular component’, and ‘biological processes’. Comparative transcript analysis showed that 1,720 isotigs in the ovary were up-regulated and 2138 isotigs were down-regulated. Several gonad development related genes, such as vitellogenin, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinases 2, Dmc1 and ubiquitin were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the expression profiles of 14 differentially expressed genes, and confirmed the reliability of the 454 pyrosequencing. Conclusions Our findings provide an archive for future research on gonadal development at a molecular level in P. clarkii and other crustacean. This data will be helpful to develop new ideas for artificial regulation of the reproductive process in crawfish aquaculture. PMID:25118947

  19. A pilot village study to improve Philippine swamp buffalo production using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejandrino, A.L.; Alcantara, J.; Eduardo, S.

    1990-01-01

    An integrated Philippine village study on carabao (swamp buffalo) production was conducted in a pilot village. The quasi-experimental design was adopted in two areas designated 'with project' (W/P) and 'without project' (W/OP). The farmers' demographic and socio-economic characteristics, livestock management practices and carabao production were monitored during the baseline phase (18 months) and the intervention phase (24 months). The progesterone levels in milk and serum were measured by radioimmunoassay to assess the reproductive status of the carabaos. The improved management scheme for the intervention period consisted of urea + molasses in drinking water, a routine health programme of deworming and vaccination, and breeding by artificial insemination or natural mating. The level of parasitism was low and was mainly caused by infection with Fasciola sp. and amphistomes. Intermediate snail hosts infected with these parasites were found in the study area. Coccidial oocysts and eggs of Mecistocirrus digitatus were occasionally present in the faecal samples. Reproductive traits were improved in both areas during the intervention phase, with the animals in the W/OP area showing a higher increase in pregnancy rate (57.6%) than those in the W/P area (53.7%); however, the increase in the calving rate and calf survival were greater in the W/P area (45.5% and 100%, respectively) than those in the W/OP area (37% and 94.1%, respectively). (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  20. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data (n = 1686 were collected at baseline and 12- to 24-months post-intervention among residents surrounding eight stores, three of which implemented a multi-faceted intervention and five of which were comparisons. Bivariate analyses and logistic and linear regressions were employed to assess differences in time, treatment, and the interaction between time and treatment to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. Results Improvements were found in perceived healthy food accessibility and perceptions of corner stores. No changes were found, however, in store patronage, purchasing, or consumption of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Results suggest limited effectiveness of food retail interventions on improving health behaviors. Future research should focus on other strategies to reduce community-level obesity.

  1. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

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    M. Koskinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  2. Firing Room Remote Application Software Development & Swamp Works Laboratory Robot Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Janette

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is creating a way to send humans beyond low Earth orbit, and later to Mars. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is working to make this possible by developing a Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) which will allow the launch of Space Launch System (SLS). This paper's focus is on the work performed by the author in her first and second part of the internship as a remote application software developer. During the first part of her internship, the author worked on the SCCS's software application layer by assisting multiple ground subsystems teams including Launch Accessories (LACC) and Environmental Control System (ECS) on the design, development, integration, and testing of remote control software applications. Then, on the second part of the internship, the author worked on the development of robot software at the Swamp Works Laboratory which is a research and technology development group which focuses on inventing new technology to help future In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) missions.

  3. Restoration and Management of a Degraded Baldcypress Swamp and Freshwater Marsh in Coastal Louisiana

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    Rachael G. Hunter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Central Wetlands Unit (CWU, covering 12,000 hectares in St. Bernard and Orleans Parishes, Louisiana, was once a healthy baldcypress–water tupelo swamp and fresh and low salinity marsh before construction of levees isolated the region from Mississippi River floodwaters. Construction of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO, which funneled saltwater inland from the Gulf of Mexico, resulted in a drastic ecosystem change and caused mortality of almost all trees and low salinity marsh, but closure of the MRGO has led to decreases in soil and surface water salinity. Currently, the area is open water, brackish marsh, and remnant baldcypress stands. We measured hydrology, soils, water and sediment chemistry, vegetation composition and productivity, accretion, and soil strength to determine relative health of the wetlands. Vegetation species richness is low and above- and belowground biomass is up to 50% lower than a healthy marsh. Soil strength and bulk density are low over much of the area. A baldcypress wetland remains near a stormwater pumping station that also has received treated municipal effluent for about four decades. Based on the current health of the CWU, three restoration approaches are recommended, including: (1 mineral sediment input to increase elevation and soil strength; (2 nutrient-rich fresh water to increase productivity and buffer salinity; and (3 planting of freshwater forests, along with fresh and low salinity herbaceous vegetation.

  4. Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisae + Candida utilis and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo

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    P Mahyuddin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation containing combined yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida utilis, and herbs. All animals were fed basal diet of ammoniated rice straw and commercial concentrate with a ratio of 10: 90. There was no effect of probiotics+herbs on live weight gain, percentage of carcass, dressing, meat and by products, back fat thickness and eye muscle area. Addition of probiotics+herbs increased proportion of bone, reduced meat : bone ratio, body fat and proportion of offal. Although body fat content was reduced by the treatment, the compositions of fat were similar between the control and treated animals. (Animal Production 12(2: 69-73 (2010Key Words: buffalo, feedlot, yeast, carcass

  5. Tower-Based Validation and Improvement of MODIS Gross Primary Production in an Alpine Swamp Meadow on the Tibetan Plateau

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    Ben Niu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alpine swamp meadow on the Tibetan Plateau is among the most sensitive areas to climate change. Accurate quantification of the GPP in alpine swamp meadow can benefit our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The 8-day MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS gross primary production (GPP products (GPP_MOD provide a pathway to estimate GPP in this remote ecosystem. However, the accuracy of the GPP_MOD estimation in this representative alpine swamp meadow is still unknown. Here five years GPP_MOD was validated using GPP derived from the eddy covariance flux measurements (GPP_EC from 2009 to 2013. Our results indicated that the GPP_EC was strongly underestimated by GPP_MOD with a daily mean less than 40% of EC measurements. To reduce this error, the ground meteorological and vegetation leaf area index (LAIG measurements were used to revise the key inputs, the maximum light use efficiency (εmax and the fractional photosynthetically active radiation (FPARM in the MOD17 algorithm. Using two approaches to determine the site-specific εmax value, we suggested that the suitable εmax was about 1.61 g C MJ−1 for this alpine swamp meadow which was considerably larger than the default 0.68 g C MJ−1 for grassland. The FPARM underestimated 22.2% of the actual FPAR (FPARG simulated from the LAIG during the whole study period. Model comparisons showed that the large inaccuracies of GPP_MOD were mainly caused by the underestimation of the εmax and followed by that of the undervalued FPAR. However, the DAO meteorology data in the MOD17 algorithm did not exert a significant affection in the MODIS GPP underestimations. Therefore, site-specific optimized parameters inputs, especially the εmax and FPARG, are necessary to improve the performance of the MOD17 algorithm in GPP estimation, in which the calibrated MOD17A2 algorithm (GPP_MODR3 could explain 91.6% of GPP_EC variance for the alpine swamp meadow.

  6. Application of a multiplex PCR assay for Campylobacter fetus detection and subspecies differentiation in uncultured samples of aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Silveyra, Silvia; Velilla, Alejandra; Carretto, Luis; Rodríguez, Eliana; Pérez, Ruben

    2012-12-01

    Campylobacter (C.) fetus (epsilonproteobacteria) is an important veterinary pathogen. This species is currently divided into C. fetus subspecies (subsp.) fetus (Cff) and C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv). Cfv is the causative agent of bovine genital Campylobacteriosis, an infectious disease that leads to severe reproductive problems in cattle worldwide. Cff is a more general pathogen that causes reproductive problems mainly in sheep although cattle can also be affected. Here we describe a multiplex PCR method to detect C. fetus and differentiate between subspecies in a single step. The assay was standardized using cultured strains and successfully used to analyze the abomasal liquid of aborted bovine fetuses without any pre-enrichment step. Results of our assay were completely consistent with those of traditional bacteriological diagnostic methods. Furthermore, the multiplex PCR technique we developed may be easily adopted by any molecular diagnostic laboratory as a complementary tool for detecting C. fetus subspecies and obtaining epidemiological information about abortion events in cattle.

  7. Differentiation of Cannabis subspecies by THCA synthase gene analysis using RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirovic, Natasa; Kecmanovic, Miljana; Keckarevic, Dusan; Keckarevic Markovic, Milica

    2017-10-01

    Cannabis sativa subspecies, known as industrial hemp (C. sativa sativa) and marijuana (C. sativa indica) show no evident morphological distinctions, but they contain different levels of psychoactive Δ-9-tetrahidrocanabinol (THC), with considerably higher concentration in marijuana than in hemp. C. sativa subspecies differ in sequence of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, responsible for THC production, and only one active copy of the gene, distinctive for marijuana, is capable of producing THC in concentration more then 0,3% in dried plants, usually punishable by the law. Twenty different samples of marijuana that contain THC in concentration more then 0,3% and three varieties of industrial hemp were analyzed for presence of an active copy of THCA synthase gene using in-house developed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method All twenty samples of marijuana were positive for the active copy of THCA synthase gene, 16 of them heterozygous. All three varieties of industrial hemp were homozygous for inactive copy. An algorithm for the fast and accurate forensic analysis of samples suspected to be marijuana was constructed, answering the question if an analyzed sample is capable of producing THC in concentrations higher than 0.3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrocardiography in two subspecies of manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, J.; Estrada, A.; Bonde, R.K.; Wong, A.; Estrada, D.J.; Harr, K.

    2006-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements were recorded in two subspecies of awake, apparently healthy, wild manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and T. m. manatus) undergoing routine field examinations in Florida and Belize. Six unsedated juveniles (dependent and independent calves) and 6 adults were restrained in ventral recumbency for ECG measurements. Six lead ECGs were recorded for all manatees and the following parameters were determined: heart rate and rhythm; P, QRS, and T wave morphology, amplitude, and duration; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Statistical differences using a t-test for equality of means were determined. No statistical difference was seen based on sex or subspecies of manatees in the above measured criteria. Statistical differences existed in heart rate (P = 0.047), P wave duration (P = 0.019), PR interval (P = 0.025), and MEA (P = 0.021) between adult manatees and calves. Our findings revealed normal sinus rhythms, no detectable arrhythmias, prolonged PR and QT intervals, prolonged P wave duration, and small R wave amplitude as compared with cetacea and other marine mammals. This paper documents the techniques for and baseline recordings of ECGs in juvenile and adult free-living manatees. It also demonstrates that continual assessment of cardiac electrical activity in the awake manatee can be completed and can be used to aid veterinarians and biologists in routine health assessment, during procedures, and in detecting the presence of cardiac disease or dysfunction.

  9. First outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Berta in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, E; Sacchini, L; Persiani, T; Alessiani, A; Marotta, F; Zilli, K

    2012-08-01

    To provide an epidemiologic interpretation of a suspected outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Berta strains isolated from humans and from the leftovers of the implicated foods (cream, dairy-based desserts and eggs). We have correlated the similarity between the strains through genotyping with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), studying antimicrobial sensitivity patterns and epidemiological investigation. The clonal origin of the outbreak was confirmed by all laboratory tests. PFGE analysis of the restriction profiles obtained with XbaI and SpeI revealed a certainly correlation from the strains isolated from the various sources, while the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was the same in all cases, with all strains sensitive to all antibiotics tested. Poor hygiene conditions in the facility concerned, lack of hygiene in food handling, high summer temperatures and positive cultures from asymptomatic staff could all be implicated in the infection, with food being the means through which it spread. This study describes the first outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Berta (Salmonella Berta) reported in Italy. It confirms the importance of correlating epidemiological investigations with genotyping and phenotyping to understand the dynamics of infection. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Molecular analysis of phylogeographic subspecies in three Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species

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    Andreea Dudu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sturgeons (Order Acipenseriformes represent an extremely valuable natural resource that is now facing depletion. In the current study we evaluate if the traditional classification in subspecies of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Acipenser stellatus and Huso huso, endemic to Ponto-Caspian region is sustained by molecular analysis and if these represent Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs that should be managed separately in conservation programs. To examine the classification of taxonomic entities we sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial control region in case of three sturgeon species that inhabit the North-western of Black Sea and migrate for reproduction in the Lower Danube. Beside these sequences, we used previously published sequences from sturgeon individuals sampled in the Black Sea, Azov Sea and Caspian Sea. We determined the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation, conducted a Population Aggregation Analysis (PAA and inferred an intraspecific molecular phylogeny and haplotype network. The results indicated a low level of genetic differentiation between the geographically designated subspecies and did not support a significant divergence or reciprocal monophyly between them. Our results confirm previous genetic studies with smaller samples sizes, but additional analyses including nuclear markers should be conducted for proper recommendations aiming at the development of conservation programs.

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies in the gut associated lymphoid tissue of slaughtered rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, Rakel; Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia

    2015-06-11

    Rabbits are susceptible to infection by different species of the genus Mycobacterium. Particularly, development of specific lesions and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, both subspecies of the M. avium complex, has been reported in wildlife conditions. Although, rabbit meat production worldwide is 200 million tons per year, microbiological data on this source of meat is lacking and more specifically reports of mycobacterial presence in industrially reared rabbit for human consumption have not been published. To this end, we sought mycobacteria by microbiological and histopathological methods paying special attention to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits from commercial rabbitries from the North East of Spain. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was not detected either by culture or PCR. However, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was detected in 15.15% (10/66) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 1.51% (1/66) of gut associated lymphoid tissue of sampled animals by PCR, whereas caecal contents were negative. 9% (6/66) of the animals presented gross lesions suggestive of lymphoid activation, 6% (4/66) presented granulomatous lesions and 3% (2/66) contained acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterial isolation from samples was not achieved, although colonies of Thermoactinomycetes sp. were identified by 16s rRNA sequencing in 6% (4/66) of sampled animals. Apparently healthy farmed rabbits that go to slaughter may carry M. avium subspecies in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

  12. Phylogeography of Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: a case of too many poorly circumscribed subspecies

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    Stanislav K. Korb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae is distributed in the mountains of Central Asia. We analysed genetic and phylogeographic patterns throughout the western part of its range using a mitochondrial marker (COI. We also analysed the wing pattern using multivariate statistics. We found that the species contains several unique haplotypes in the west and shared haplotypes in the east. The haplotype groups do not correspond to the wing pattern and also the described subspecies do not correspond to either the haplotypes or the groups circumscribed by the wing pattern. Currently, there are more than ten subspecies of K. charltonius in Central Asia; based on our analyses we suggest a reduction to only five of them. The following nomenclatural changes are applied: (1 K. charltonius aenigma Dubatolov & Milko, 2003, syn. n., K. charltonius sochivkoi Churkin, 2009, syn.n., and K. charltonius alrashid Churkin & Pletnev, 2012, syn. n. are new synonyms of K. charltonius romanovi (Grum-Grshimailo, 1885; (2 K. charltonius marusya Churkin & Pletnev, 2012, syn. n., K. charltonius eugenia Churkin, 2009, syn. n., K. charltonius anjuta Stshetkin & Kaabak, 1985, syn. n., and K. charltonius mistericus Kaabak, Sotchivko & Titov, 1996, syn. n. are new synonyms of K. charltonius vaporosus (Avinov, 1913; and (3 K. charltonius safronovi Korb, Shaposhnikov, Zatakovoy & Nikolaev, 2013, syn. n. is a new synonym of K. charltonius voigti (Bang-Haas, 1927.

  13. Investigation of the Fim1 putative pilus locus of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Karen Frances; Robinson, Carl; Maskell, Duncan J; Nenci, Chiara; Waller, Andrew Stephen

    2017-07-28

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, among the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses worldwide. Genome analysis of S. equi strain 4047 (Se4047) identified a putative operon, Fim1, with similarity to the pilus loci of other Gram-positive bacteria. The Fim1 locus was present in all strains of S. equi and its close relative S. equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) that have been studied to date. In this study we provide evidence that the putative structural pilus proteins, SEQ_0936 and CNE, are produced on the cell surface during in vitro growth and in vivo infection. Although the proteins encoded within the Fim1 locus are not essential for attachment or biofilm formation, over-transcription of SEQ_0936 and CNE enhanced attachment to equine tissue in vitro. Our data suggest that whilst the Fim1 locus does not produce a polymerized pilus structure, the products of the Fim1 locus may fulfil an adhesive function. The putative pilus-associated regulator, tetR, which contains a nonsense mutation in S. equi, was able to regulate transcription of the Fim1 locus following repair and over-transcription, confirming its predicted role in the operon.

  14. Mitochondrial-DNA variation among subspecies and populations of sea otters (Enhydra lutris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Estes, James A.; Patton, John C.

    1996-01-01

    We used restriction-enzyme analysis of polymerase-chain reaction-amplified, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to assess genetic differentiation of subspecies and populations of sea otters, Enhydra lutris, throughout the range of the species. There were several haplotypes of mtDNA in each subspecies and geographically separate populations. MtDNA sequence divergence of haplotypes of sea otters was 0.0004–0.0041 base substitutions per nucleotide. E. L nereis appears to have monophyletic mitochondrial DNA, while E. I. lutris and E. I. kenyoni do not. Different frequencies of haplotypes of mtDNA among populations reflect current restriction of gene flow and the unique histories of different populations. There are two or three haplotypes of mtDNA and diversity of haplotypes is 0.1376–0.5854 in each population of otters. This is consistent with theoretical work, which suggests that population bottlenecks of sea otters probably did not result in major losses of genetic variation for individual populations, or the species as a whole.

  15. Spatial Variation and Survival of Salmonella enterica Subspecies in a Population of Australian Sleepy Lizards (Tiliqua rugosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sandra K.; Bull, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The life cycles of many enteric bacterial species require a transition between two very distinct environments. Their primary habitat is the gastrointestinal tract of the host, while their secondary habitat, during transmission from one host to another, consists of environments external to the host, such as soil, water, and sediments. Consequently, both host and environmental factors shape the genetic structure of enteric bacterial populations. This study examined the distribution of four Salmonella enterica subspecies in a population of sleepy lizards, Tiliqua rugosa, in a semiarid region of South Australia. The lizards living within the 1,920-m by 720-m study site were radio tracked, and their enteric bacteria were sampled at regular intervals throughout their active seasons in the years 2001, 2002, and 2006. Four of the six subspecies of S. enterica were present in this population and were nonrandomly distributed among the lizards. In particular, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae was restricted to lizards living in the most shaded parts of the study site with an overstorey of Casuarina trees. Experiments undertaken to investigate the survival of S. enterica cells under seminatural conditions revealed that cell survival decreased with increased exposure to elevated temperatures and UV light. Among the three S. enterica subspecies tested, S. enterica subsp. diarizonae consistently had an average expected life span that was shorter than that observed for the other two subspecies. There was no indication in the data that there was any competitive dominance hierarchy among the S. enterica subspecies within individual hosts. Thus, the nonrandom distribution of S. enterica subspecies in this population of lizards appears to be driven by their different survival characteristics in the external environment. PMID:26092451

  16. TEMPORAL VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN PEAT SWAMP AREA USING MODIS TIME-SERIES IMAGERY: A MONITORING APPROACH OF HIGH-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEM IN REGIONAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Setiawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp area is an essential ecosystem due to high vulnerability of functions and services. As the change of forest cover in peat swamp area has increased considerably, many studies on peat swamp have focused on forest conversion or forest degradation. Meanwhile, in the context of changes in the forestlands are the sum of several processes such as deforestation, reforestation/afforestation, regeneration of previously deforested areas, and the changing spatial location of the forest boundary. Remote sensing technology seems to be a powerful tool to provide information required following that concerns. A comparison imagery taken at the different dates over the same locations for assessing those changes tends to be limited by the vegetation phenology and land-management practices. Consequently, the simultaneous analysis seems to be a way to deal with the issues above, as a means for better understanding of the dynamics changes in peat swamp area. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using MODIS images during the last 14 years for detecting and monitoring the changes in peat swamp area. We identified several significant patterns that have been assigned as the specific peat swamp ecosystem. The results indicate that a different type of ecosystem and its response to the environmental changes can be portrayed well by the significant patterns. In understanding the complex situations of each pattern, several vegetation dynamics patterns were characterized by physical land characteristics, such as peat depth, land use, concessions and others. Characterizing the pathways of dynamics change in peat swamp area will allow further identification for the range of proximate and underlying factors of the forest cover change that can help to develop useful policy interventions in peatland management.

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in cutthroat trout subspecies using genome reduction, barcoding, and 454 pyro-sequencing

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    Houston Derek D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonids are popular sport fishes, and as such have been subjected to widespread stocking throughout western North America. Historically, stocking was done with little regard for genetic variation among populations and has resulted in genetic mixing among species and subspecies in many areas, thus putting the genetic integrity of native salmonid populations at risk and creating a need to assess the genetic constitution of native salmonid populations. Cutthroat trout is a salmonid species with pronounced geographic structure (there are 10 extant subspecies and a recent history of hybridization with introduced rainbow trout in many populations. Genetic admixture has also occurred among cutthroat trout subspecies in areas where introductions have brought two or more subspecies into contact. Consequently, management agencies have increased their efforts to evaluate the genetic composition of cutthroat trout populations to identify populations that remain uncompromised and manage them accordingly, but additional genetic markers are needed to do so effectively. Here we used genome reduction, MID-barcoding, and 454-pyrosequencing to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms that differentiate cutthroat trout subspecies and can be used as a rapid, cost-effective method to characterize the genetic composition of cutthroat trout populations. Results Thirty cutthroat and six rainbow trout individuals were subjected to genome reduction and next-generation sequencing. A total of 1,499,670 reads averaging 379 base pairs in length were generated by 454-pyrosequencing, resulting in 569,060,077 total base pairs sequenced. A total of 43,558 putative SNPs were identified, and of those, 125 SNP primers were developed that successfully amplified 96 cutthroat trout and rainbow trout individuals. These SNP loci were able to differentiate most cutthroat trout subspecies using distance methods and Structure analyses. Conclusions Genomic and

  18. Developmental timing of signals affects information content: song complexity but not consistency reflects innate immune strategy in male song sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, Shawn P; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A

    2014-05-01

    In short-lived animals, innate immunity is an important component of fitness and quality. Although receivers cannot generally assess a signaler's immune function directly, sexually selected displays such as birdsong may reflect past or current condition. We investigated the degree to which song complexity and consistency, thought to reflect condition over different developmental timescales, predict multiple aspects of innate immunity in male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). We also investigated correlations among immune measures. Noncellular components of innate immunity (soluble blood proteins including natural antibody and other protective proteins) were negatively related to cellular (phagocytosis-based) components, suggesting trade-offs within innate immune protection. This pattern underscores the risk of inferring "immunocompetence" from a single metric. Song complexity, a permanent trait in this species, was positively related to noncellular relative to cellular immune components and may thus provide information as to the singer's innate immune strategy (investment in noncellular vs. cellular activity). Such a relationship could arise through shared timing of song learning and antibody repertoire development in early life. Singing consistency, thought to track variation in current condition and measured at both whole-song and syllable scales, did not predict any immune measures. Developmental timing of signals thus appears to influence their information content.

  19. Sources and transport of phosphorus to rivers in California and adjacent states, U.S., as determined by SPARROW modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Saleh, Dina

    2015-01-01

    The SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes) model was used to simulate annual phosphorus loads and concentrations in unmonitored stream reaches in California, U.S., and portions of Nevada and Oregon. The model was calibrated using de-trended streamflow and phosphorus concentration data at 80 locations. The model explained 91% of the variability in loads and 51% of the variability in yields for a base year of 2002. Point sources, geological background, and cultivated land were significant sources. Variables used to explain delivery of phosphorus from land to water were precipitation and soil clay content. Aquatic loss of phosphorus was significant in streams of all sizes, with the greatest decay predicted in small- and intermediate-sized streams. Geological sources, including volcanic rocks and shales, were the principal control on concentrations and loads in many regions. Some localized formations such as the Monterey shale of southern California are important sources of phosphorus and may contribute to elevated stream concentrations. Many of the larger point source facilities were located in downstream areas, near the ocean, and do not affect inland streams except for a few locations. Large areas of cultivated land result in phosphorus load increases, but do not necessarily increase the loads above those of geological background in some cases because of local hydrology, which limits the potential of phosphorus transport from land to streams.

  20. Female house sparrows "count on" male genes: experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mate preference in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biard Clotilde

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Females can potentially assess the quality of potential mates using their secondary sexual traits, and obtain "good genes" that increase offspring fitness. Another potential indirect benefit from mating preferences is genetic compatibility, which does not require extravagant or viability indicator traits. Several studies with mammals and fish indicate that the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC influence olfactory cues and mating preferences, and such preferences confer genetic benefits to offspring. We investigated whether individual MHC diversity (class I influences mating preferences in house sparrows (Passer domesticus. Results Overall, we found no evidence that females preferred males with high individual MHC diversity. Yet, when we considered individual MHC allelic diversity of the females, we found that females with a low number of alleles were most attracted to males carrying a high number of MHC alleles, which might reflect a mating-up preference by allele counting. Conclusions This is the first experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mating preferences in an avian species to our knowledge. Our findings raise questions about the underlying mechanisms through which birds discriminate individual MHC diversity among conspecifics, and they suggest a novel mechanism through which mating preferences might promote the evolution of MHC polymorphisms and generate positive selection for duplicated MHC loci.

  1. Temporal and spatial variation in prevalence of the parasite Syngamus trachea in a metapopulation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holand, Håkon; Jensen, Henrik; Tufto, Jarle; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Ringsby, Thor Harald

    2013-09-01

    When investigating parasite-host dynamics in wild populations, a fundamental parameter to investigate is prevalence. This quantifies the percentage of individuals infected in the population. Investigating how prevalence changes over time and space can reveal interesting aspects in the parasite-host relationship in natural populations. We investigated the dynamic between a common avian parasite (Syngamus trachea) in a host metapopulation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) on the coast of Helgeland in northern Norway. We found that parasite prevalence varied in both time and space. In addition, the parasite prevalence was found to be different between demographic groups in the local populations. Our results reveal just how complex the dynamic between a host and its parasite may become in a fragmented landscape. Although temperature may be an important factor, the specific mechanisms causing this complexity are not fully understood, but need to be further examined to understand how parasite-host interactions may affect the ecological and evolutionary dynamics and viability of host populations.

  2. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W.; Borgo, Gina M.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  3. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined.

  4. Illustration of the Difficulty of Identifying Streptococcus equi Strains at the Subspecies Level through a Case of Endocarditis in an Immunocompetent Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubié, Anne Sophie; Defrance, Carine; Renvoisé, Aurélie; Barreda, Eleodoro; D'Alessandro, Cosimo; Brossier, Florence; Jarlier, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of endocarditis caused by Streptococcus equi in an immunocompetent patient who was subsequently cured after appropriate antibiotherapy and cardiac surgery. However, it was challenging to identify the strain to the subspecies level, which highlights the necessity of developing reliable molecular tools to discriminate between the subspecies. PMID:24478515

  5. Estimating methane gas generation from Devil's swamp landfill using greenhouse gas emission models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Ayodeji Thompson

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) has been a key issue in the study, design, and management of landfills. Landfill gas (LFG) is considered either as a significant source of renewable energy (if extracted and processed accordingly) or significant source of pollution and risk (if not mitigated or processed). A municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill emits a significant amount of methane, a potent GHG. Thus, quantification and mitigation of GHG emissions is an important area of study in engineering and other sciences related to landfill technology and management. The present study will focus on estimating methane generation from Devils swamp landfill (DSLF), a closed landfill in Baton Rouge, LA. The landfill operated for 53 years (1940-1993) and contains both industrial and municipal waste products. Since the Clean Air Act of 1963, landfills are now classified as New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) waste (i.e., waste that will decompose to generate LFG). Currently, the DSLF is being used as source of renewable energy through the "Waste to Energy" program. For this study, to estimate the methane potential in the DSLF, it is important to determine the characteristics and classification of the landfill's wastes. The study uses and compares different GHG modeling tools---LandGEM, a multiphase model, and a simple first-order model---to estimate methane gas emission and compare results with the actual emissions from the DSLF. The sensitivity of the methane generation rate was analyzed by the methane generation models to assess the effects of variables such as initial conditions, specific growth rate, and reaction rate constants. The study concludes that methane (L0) and initial organic concentration in waste (k) are the most important parameters when estimating methane generation using the models.

  6. Mucilage chemical profile and antioxidant properties of giant swamp taro tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguimbou, Richard Marcel; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Himeda, Makhlouf; Scher, Joël; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-12-01

    The yellow (YP) and white (WP) sections of giant swamp taro (GST) contain 40.0 g/kg and 51.5 g/kg (dry wt) respectively of pure mucilage made up of D-glucose (44.95-78.85 %), D-galactose (8.70-25.35 %), D-mannose (3.20-10.45 %), D-arabinose (2.45-5.20 %) and small amounts of glucuronic acid and rhamnose. Arabinogalactan-proteins (5.30-8.83 g/kg) contain mainly arabinose and galactose (in a 1:1 proportion) and also significant amounts of rhamnose, xylose, glucuronic acid and mannose. Antioxidant activity of YP was higher than those of WP while chelating ability and reducing power increased with mucilages content. Generally YP and WP showed better reducing power (1.06 ± 0.35 at 5 mg/mL) than ascorbic acid (0.89 ± 0.22). WP and YP chelated ferrous ions by 20.0-76.0 % and 16.4-71.0 % respectively. Effective concentrations (EC50) of mucilages (WP 1.28 ± 0.05 mg/mL; YP 1.42 ± 0.04 mg/mL) were lower than those of citric acid (1.58 ± 0.04 mg/mL). Generally mucilage from the WP and YP sections are excellent sources of chelating agents.

  7. How could a freshwater swamp produce a chemical signature characteristic of a saltmarsh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Terrence; Smith, Christopher G.; Liu, Kam-biu; Marot, Marci E.; Haller, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Reduction–oxidation (redox) reaction conditions, which are of great importance for the soil chemistry of coastal marshes, can be temporally dynamic. We present a transect of cores from northwest Florida wherein radical postdepositional changes in the redox regime has created atypical geochemical profiles at the bottom of the sedimentary column. The stratigraphy is consistent along the transect, consisting of, from the bottom upward, carbonate bedrock, a gray clay, an organic mud section, a dense clay layer, and an upper organic mud unit representing the current saltwater marsh. However, the geochemical signature of the lower organic mud unit suggests pervasive redox reactions, although the interval has been identified as representing a freshwater marsh, an unlikely environment for such conditions. Analyses indicate that this discrepancy results from postdepositional diagenesis driven by millennial-scale environmental parameters. Rising sea level that led to the deposition of the capping clay layer, created anaerobic conditions in the freshwater swamp interval, and isolated it hydrologically from the rest of the sediment column. The subsequent infiltration of marine water into this organic material led to sulfate reduction, the buildup of H2S and FeS, and anoxic conditions. Continued sulfidation eventually resulted in euxinic conditions, as evidenced by elevated levels of Fe, S, and especially Mo, the diagnostic marker of euxinia. Because this chemical transformation occurred long after the original deposition the geochemical signature does not reflect soil chemistry at the time of deposition and cannot be used to infer syn-depositional environmental conditions, emphasizing the importance of recognizing diagenetic processes in paleoenvironmental studies.

  8. Burrowing activity in channel levees: impact of the invasive red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, L.; Bendoni, M.; Consumi, L.; Haubrock, P.; Inghilesi, A.; Mazza, G.; Torrini, M.; Tricarico, E.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of animal burrowing, as an example of bioturbation on the stability of river levees has been recently raised to the scientific community as a consequence of the levee collapses of Secchia and Foenna rivers in Italy (Camici et al., 2010, 2014; Orlandini et al., 2015). Indeed, these authors showed that the presence of animal burrows is crucial in promoting the collapse of the bank. The American red swamp Crayfish Procambarus clarkii is an invasive species in Europe, mostly introduced for commercial purposes related to livestock. It is rapidly spreading throughout the Italian peninsula due to its plasticity, dispersal capability and high reproduction rate (Souty-Grosset et al., 2016). As well as the negative effects on local biodiversity, it damages the levees of the irrigation channel leading to disastrous collapses, relevant repairing and maintenance costs. In this work, we present an experimental activity where specimens of P. clarkii were monitored while burrowing into a small-scale physical model of an earthen levee, coupled with the mathematical modelling of the variations induced by the burrows on the seepage flow patterns through the levee.Preliminary results show the burrowing structure was quite irregular. Generally, crayfish start burrowing under the water level, developing tunnels (diameter ranging 4-7cm) both horizontally and heading upward, also above the water level. Some tunnels showed one or more circular chambers. The highest burrowing activity was observed during the experiments carried out in summer, when the species has a peak of maximum activity due to the higher temperature. Mathematical modelling shows that, for given boundary conditions and experimental duration, the presence of burrows in the levee raises the phreatic line. Critical conditions for levee integrity may be associated either to the internal erosion and stability of the system of tunnels and to the emergence of the phreatic line of the landside of the levee slope. These

  9. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  10. High blood oxygen affinity in the air-breathing swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Findorf, Inge; Helbo, Signe; Kocagoz, Yigit; Buchanan, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew 1793) is a facultative air-breathing fish with reduced gills. Previous studies have shown that gas exchange seems to occur across the epithelium of the buccopharyngeal cavity, the esophagus and the integument, resulting in substantial diffusion limitations that must be compensated by adaptations in others steps of the O₂ transport system to secure adequate O₂ delivery to the respiring tissues. We therefore investigated O₂ binding properties of whole blood, stripped hemoglobin (Hb), two major isoHb components and the myoglobin (Mb) from M. albus. Whole blood was sampled using indwelling catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of O₂ equilibrium curves. Hb was purified to assess the effects of endogenous allosteric effectors, and Mb was isolated from heart and skeletal muscle to determine its O₂ binding properties. The blood of M. albus has a high O₂ carrying capacity [hematocrit (Hct) of 42.4±4.5%] and binds O₂ with an unusually high affinity (P₅₀=2.8±0.4mmHg at 27°C and pH7.7), correlating with insensitivity of the Hb to the anionic allosteric effectors that normally decrease Hb-O₂ affinity. In addition, Mb is present at high concentrations in both heart and muscle (5.16±0.99 and 1.08±0.19mg ∙ g wet tissue⁻¹, respectively). We suggest that the high Hct and high blood O₂ affinity serve to overcome the low diffusion capacity in the relatively inefficient respiratory surfaces, while high Hct and Mb concentration aid in increasing the O₂ flux from the blood to the muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deforestation projections for carbon-rich peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Douglas O; Hardiono, Martin; Meijaard, Erik

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated three spatially explicit land use and cover change (LUCC) models to project deforestation from 2005-2020 in the carbon-rich peat swamp forests (PSF) of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Such models are increasingly used to evaluate the impact of deforestation on carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. We considered both business-as-usual (BAU) and a forest protection scenario to evaluate each model's accuracy, sensitivity, and total projected deforestation and landscape-level fragmentation patterns. The three models, Dinamica EGO (DE), GEOMOD and the Land Change Modeler (LCM), projected similar total deforestation amounts by 2020 with a mean of 1.01 million ha (Mha) and standard deviation of 0.17 Mha. The inclusion of a 0.54 Mha strict protected area in the LCM simulations reduced projected loss to 0.77 Mha over 15 years. Calibrated parameterizations of the models using nearly identical input drivers produced very different landscape properties, as measured by the number of forest patches, mean patch area, contagion, and Euclidean nearest neighbor determined using Fragstats software. The average BAU outputs of the models suggests that Central Kalimantan may lose slightly less than half (45.1%) of its 2005 PSF by 2020 if measures are not taken to reduce deforestation there. The relatively small reduction of 0.24 Mha in deforestation found in the 0.54 Mha protection scenario suggests that these models can identify potential leakage effects in which deforestation is forced to occur elsewhere in response to a policy intervention.

  12. Satellite tracking of the migratory pathways of the first-year Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus departing from the breeding grounds of different subspecies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pütz, Klemens; Rahbek, Carsten; Saurola, Pertti

    2007-01-01

    of the other subspecies. In addition, first-year birds from cross-breeding experiments between the two subspecies (fuscus x intermedius) were also equipped with satellite transmitters. In total, eleven first-year birds were successfully tracked during their initial autumn migration, at least one from each...... study group. First-year birds from the Danish intermedius subspecies migrated either southwest along the coast of the North Sea or through central Europe to Algeria. By contrast, first-year birds from the Finnish fuscus subspecies migrated on a south-southeastern course towards Ukraine and the Bosporus......The migratory behaviour of two Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus subspecies, fuscus and intermedius, was studied using satellite telemetry. To this end, first-year birds were equipped with satellite transmitters and released either at their natal site, or after transferring to a breeding site...

  13. Identifying food deserts and swamps based on relative healthy food access: a spatio-temporal Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hui; Law, Jane; Quick, Matthew

    2015-12-30

    Obesity and other adverse health outcomes are influenced by individual- and neighbourhood-scale risk factors, including the food environment. At the small-area scale, past research has analysed spatial patterns of food environments for one time period, overlooking how food environments change over time. Further, past research has infrequently analysed relative healthy food access (RHFA), a measure that is more representative of food purchasing and consumption behaviours than absolute outlet density. This research applies a Bayesian hierarchical model to analyse the spatio-temporal patterns of RHFA in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, from 2011 to 2014 at the small-area level. RHFA is calculated as the proportion of healthy food outlets (healthy outlets/healthy + unhealthy outlets) within 4-km from each small-area. This model measures spatial autocorrelation of RHFA, temporal trend of RHFA for the study region, and spatio-temporal trends of RHFA for small-areas. For the study region, a significant decreasing trend in RHFA is observed (-0.024), suggesting that food swamps have become more prevalent during the study period. For small-areas, significant decreasing temporal trends in RHFA were observed for all small-areas. Specific small-areas located in south Waterloo, north Kitchener, and southeast Cambridge exhibited the steepest decreasing spatio-temporal trends and are classified as spatio-temporal food swamps. This research demonstrates a Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach to analyse RHFA at the small-area scale. Results suggest that food swamps are more prevalent than food deserts in the Region of Waterloo. Analysing spatio-temporal trends of RHFA improves understanding of local food environment, highlighting specific small-areas where policies should be targeted to increase RHFA and reduce risk factors of adverse health outcomes such as obesity.

  14. Identical metabolic rate and thermal conductance in Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) subspecies with contrasting nonbreeding life histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruthrauff, Dan; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis

    Closely related species or subspecies can exhibit metabolic differences that reflect site-specific environmental conditions. Whether such differences represent fixed traits or flexible adjustments to local conditions, however, is difficult to predict across taxa. The nominate race of Rock Sandpiper

  15. DNA barcoding of gypsy moths from China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) reveals new haplotypes and divergence patterns within gypsy moth subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Youqing Luo; Melody A. Keena; Ying Wu; Peng Wu; Juan Shi

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome...

  16. Taxonomic reassessment of two subspecies of Chinese skink in Taiwan based on morphological and molecular investigations (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Nakamura, Yukiko; Okamoto, Taku; Lin, Si-Min; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese skink, Plestiodon chinensis (Gray, 1838), is widely distributed across continental China, Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula, and offshore islets, and consists of several subspecies. Here morphological and molecular methods have been used to reassess the taxonomic status and distributions of P. c. formosensis (Van Denburgh, 1912) and P. c. leucostictus (Hikida, 1988), which are endemic to Taiwan and Green Island (an islet off the east coast of Taiwan), respectively. It can be confirmed that the eastern Taiwanese populations of P. c. formosensis exhibit similar juvenile color patterning and genetic composition to the islet subspecies P. c. leucostictus , and are distinct from consubspecific populations in western Taiwan. Therefore, the eastern Taiwanese populations are assigned to P. c. leucostictus , and this subspecies is recognized as a distinct species, Plestiodon leucostictus (Hikida, 1988), based on their unique juvenile coloration and highly divergent DNA sequences. Our results also revealed that P. c. formosensis in western Taiwan is close to nominotypical subspecies from the continent, suggesting the necessity of a comprehensive taxonomic analysis in the future.

  17. Serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I isolated from mice caught on US poultry farms 1995 through 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole genome analysis of foodborne pathogens is standard practice for regulatory agencies in the US, and a goal of 1 million genomes for Salmonella enterica is currently 76% complete. Inclusion of a range of Salmonella enterica subspecies I serotypes is important because only 30 of approximately 150...

  18. Genetic relationship among subspecies of Musa acuminata Colla and A-genome consisting edible cultivated bananas assayed with ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phruet Racharak

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relationship among subspecies of Musa acuminata and A-genome consisting edible cultivated bananas was investigated by ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twelve samples of wild type bananas that were classified into 5 subspecies of Musa acuminata, thirty-three samples of edible cultivatedbananas and M. balbisiana were used as plant materials for this study. Of a total of 36 ISSR primers screened, 6 primers revealed a total of 128 alleles, allele size varied from 200 to 3,000 bp with an average of 21.33 alleles per primer, average of allele frequency was 0.18, polymorphic percentage was 1.0 and heterozygositywas 0.29. From the dendrogram, banana samples can be divided into two main clusters with similarity coefficient value at 0.18. The first cluster belonged to the out group which included Musa itinerans and Ensete glaucum, the second cluster belonged to Musa coccinea, M. laterita, all subspecies of M. acuminata, M. balbisiana and all the cultivar groups of the edible cultivated bananas and plantains. In addition, the results indicated two Musa species, consisting of M. coccinea and M. laterita, were sister group of the second cluster as well. All specimens of subspecies of M. acuminata were related to cultivated groups of A-genome consisting of cultivated bananas in Thailand.

  19. A global assessment of the conservation status of the nominate subspecies of Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Pol, M.; Atkinson, P.W.; Blew, J.; Duriez, O.P.M.; Ens, B.J.; Hälterlein, B.; Hötker, H.; Laursen, K.; Oosterbeek, K.H.; Petersen, A.; Thorup, O.; Tjørve, K.; Triplet, P.; Yésou, P.

    2014-01-01

    The nominate subspecies of Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus is the most abundant of all oystercatchers and the best studied. The main breeding and wintering areas are centered on the North Sea, but the distribution covers the European Atlantic coast to as far south as Ghana

  20. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomics responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, A. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Sardans, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Hódar, J. A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada Spain; Garcia-Porta, J. [Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Spain; Guenther, A. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine CA USA; Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Oravec, M. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Urban, O. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Peñuelas, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Leiss, K.

    2016-05-16

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at elemental and molecular levels have focused on nutrients or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defensive metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and to avoid those with higher levels of phenolics and terpenes. Unfortunately, the defensive role of phenolics in conifers is still unclear. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under the herbivorous attack by the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Herbivorous attack was not associated with any of the elements analyzed. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing the concentrations of various terpenes and phenolics. Systemic responses differed between subspecies and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Contrary as usually thought, foliar nutrient concentrations did not show to be a main factor of an alleged plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition. Local increases in phenolics were more associated with antioxidant function for protection against oxidative damage produced by folivory. On the other hand, terpenes were directly related to defense against herbivores. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, including both primary and secondary metabolisms, that was, however, less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Subspecies responded similarly locally but differently to folivory at systemic level.

  1. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Isolated From Infections in Dogs and Humans: Are Current Subspecies Identification Criteria accurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszewski, Marcin; Zegarski, Kamil; Szewczyk, Eligia M

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a pyogenic species pathogenic both for humans and animals. Until recently, it has been considered an exclusive animal pathogen causing infections in wild as well as domestic animals. Currently, human infections are being reported with increasing frequency, and their clinical picture is often similar to the ones caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Due to the fact that S. dysgalactiae is a heterogeneous species, it was divided into two subspecies: S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD). The first differentiation criterion, described in 1996, was based on strain isolation source. Currently applied criteria, published in 1998, are based on hemolysis type and Lancefield group classification. In this study, we compared subspecies identification results for 36 strains isolated from clinical cases both in humans and animals. Species differentiation was based on two previously described criteria as well as MALDI-TOF and genetic analyses: RISA and 16S rRNA genes sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were also determined according to CLSI guidelines. The results presented in our study suggest that the subspecies differentiation criteria previously described in the above two literature positions seem to be inaccurate in analyzed group of strains, the hemolysis type on blood agar, and Lancefield classification should not be here longer considered as criteria in subspecies identification. The antimicrobial susceptibility tests indicate emerging of multiresistant human SDSE strains resistant also to vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline, which might pose a substantial problem in treatment.

  2. Two new species and one new subspecies of the South American catfish genus Corydoras (Pisces, Siluriformes, Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.

    1971-01-01

    This paper contains descriptions and figures of two new species of Corydoras Lacépède, 1803, C. weitzmani from Peru, and C. blochi from Guyana, Brazil, and Venezuela. The latter species is represented by two subspecies, C. blochi blochi from the Amazonas, Branco, Orinoco, and Essequibo drainages,

  3. Nitrogen Dynamics Along a Headwater Stream Draining a Fen, Swamp, and Marsh in a Fractured Dolomite Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.; Waddington, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Stream-wetland interaction has been shown to have a significant effect on nutrient cycling and downstream water quality. Additionally, connection to regional groundwater systems can dilute or enrich stream water with a number of dissolved constituents. This study demonstrates the resultant downstream change in dissolved nitrogen species as a hardwater stream emerges from a calcareous aquifer and traverses a calcareous fen, a cedar swamp, and a cattail marsh over two growing seasons, a very dry 2006 and a very wet 2007. Upon emergence at a number of groundwater seeps, the water contained appreciable nitrate levels averaging 2.72±0.42 mg NO3-N L-1, minimal organic nitrogen, and ammonium below detectable levels. Through the gently sloping calcareous fen, with a stream residence time of ~ 5 hours, NO3-N concentration decreases of 0.35 mg L-1 were observed. Concomitantly, stream recharge into the dolomite bedrock depressed stream discharge values significantly, further removing nitrate from the stream system. This resulted in the fen-bedrock system acting as an estimated net sink of 432 kg of NO3-N in the early summer of 2007, for example. In contrast, the hydrological-biogeochemical systems became decoupled through the swamp during the same period, where concentrations increased from 2.58±0.34 mg L-1 entering the swamp to 2.65±0.58 mg L-1 exiting, but streamflow decreased in general by 5 L s- 1. This resulted in the swamp, with its large depression storage, acting as a small net sink of nitrate (75 kg through the early summer), which would not be detected simply from concentration changes. The concentration-discharge relation realigned through the marsh, where significant groundwater entered the wetland, increasing both concentration and discharge, yielding a small export of 93 kg over the same time period. A series of tracer injections in each wetland type will be presented to compare the streamflow- concentration patterns with the measured nutrient spiralling

  4. Food habitats of the Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Coswine Swamps (French Guiana, South America)

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegelberger, Thomas; Ganslosser, Udo

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyse the habitat of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758) in the Coswine Swamps of northwest French Guiana, South America. Water parameters were similar to those described in other studies: water depth varied from 2.5 m to more than 20 m; water temperature was between 24.5 °C and 30.3 °C and pH varied between 5.5 and 6.9. Salinity was low (0.0‰ to 1.3‰) with 86.9% of all samples taken in fresh water. No submerged aquatic vegetation was found in...

  5. A new subspecies of sea snake, Hydrophis platurus xanthos, from Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessesen, Brooke L; Galbreath, Gary J

    2017-01-01

    We describe a distinctive new subspecies of sea snake from the occasionally anoxic inner-basin waters of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, based on combined data garnered between 2010 and 2017 for 154 specimens, 123 free-ranging and 31 museum-held. The yellow sea snake, Hydrophis platurus xanthos Bessesen & Galbreath, subsp. n. , is diagnosed by a notably smaller body size and nearly uniform yellow coloration, which contrasts with the black and yellow striae and tail spots or bands typical of the species. Within the modest geographic range (circa 320 km 2 ), nearly all specimens possess both diagnostic character states. Bathymetrics appear to restrict genetic flow between this allopatric population and conspecifics in the broader Eastern Pacific. In perspicuous contrast to typical H. platurus , H. p. xanthos shows no association with drift lines, and feeds at night in turbulent waters, assuming a sinusoidal ambush posture never previously reported for the species. This evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) warrants taxonomic recognition and active protection.

  6. Flight activity and responses to climatic conditions of two subspecies of Melipona marginata Lepeletier (Apidae, Meliponinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert-Giovannini, A.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    The flight activity of two colonies of M. m. marginata and six colonies of M. m. obscurior was studied in Sao Paulo, Brazil during three periods in 1981-1983. All colonies were hived except for one colony of M. m. obscurior which nested in a hollow tree. The two subspecies showed the same responses to the climatic factors analyzed. Flight activity was correlated positively with temperature and negatively with RH. In favorable conditions foraging took place throughout the day but both species were most active between 11 and 13 h. In the last observation period (October 1982-January 1983), when only two obscurior colonies were studied, flight activity was not correlated to RH, occurring even when RH was unfavorably high. This was a very rainy season, and it is suggested that the behavior of the bees indicates a flexible response to prevailing weather conditions.

  7. Activation of persistent Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in mares with subclinical endometritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rønn; Skive, Bolette; Christoffersen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Endometritis in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) may be underdiagnosed due to traditional diagnostic methods lacking sensitivity and specificity. We serendipitously identified a bacterial growth medium (bActivate) that appeared capable of inducing...... negative for S. zooepidemicus on a low-volume uterine lavage, be negative on endometrial cytology and without clinical signs of endometritis to be included in the investigation. The mares were instilled with bActivate or PBS in the uterus. Growth of S. zooepidemicus was induced by bActivate in 64% (16...... penicillin resistance, but seemed to tolerate the antimicrobial due to dormancy. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of controlled growth induction of dormant bacteria from a subclinical infection. Moreover we demonstrated how endometritis can origin from a reservoir of dormant bacteria residing...

  8. Detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi using a triplex qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Katy; Barker, Colin; Harrison, Tihana; Heather, Zoe; Steward, Karen F; Robinson, Carl; Newton, J Richard; Waller, Andrew S

    2013-03-01

    Genome sequencing data for Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and zooepidemicus were used to develop a novel diagnostic triplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting two genes specific to S. equi (eqbE and SEQ2190) and a unique 100 base pair control DNA sequence (SZIC) inserted into the SZO07770 pseudogene of S. zooepidemicus strain H70. This triplex strangles qPCR assay can provide results within 2h of sample receipt, has an overall sensitivity of 93.9% and specificity of 96.6% relative to the eqbE singlex assay and detects S. equi at levels below the threshold of the culture assay, even in the presence of contaminating bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of a novel serological test for exposure to Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in hospitalised horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Mair, T S; Butcher, N; Waller, A S; Wood, J L N

    2010-03-06

    Thirty horses with no external signs of strangles were tested for exposure to Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S equi) using a new, commercially available serological test. The horses were also tested for persistent carriage of S equi by endoscopy of the guttural pouches and PCR analysis of lavage samples. The owners were questioned about the recent medical history of the horses. Serology suggested that four horses had been recently exposed to S equi. None of the horses had a known history of strangles but three of the four seropositive horses had recently shown non-specific signs of respiratory disease. One asymptomatic horse was positive for S equi by PCR, but none had both guttural pouch abnormalities and a positive PCR result. Ten additional horses known to have strangles were all seropositive by the serological test.

  10. Transmission of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus infection from horses to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkonen, Sinikka; Lindahl, Susanne B; Suomala, Päivi; Karhukorpi, Jari; Vuorinen, Sakari; Koivula, Irma; Väisänen, Tia; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Autio, Tiina; Tuuminen, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a zoonotic pathogen for persons in contact with horses. In horses, S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen, but human infections associated with S. zooepidemicus are often severe. Within 6 months in 2011, 3 unrelated cases of severe, disseminated S. zooepidemicus infection occurred in men working with horses in eastern Finland. To clarify the pathogen's epidemiology, we describe the clinical features of the infection in 3 patients and compare the S. zooepidemicus isolates from the human cases with S. zooepidemicus isolates from horses. The isolates were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing of the szP gene. Molecular typing methods showed that human and equine isolates were identical or closely related. These results emphasize that S. zooepidemicus transmitted from horses can lead to severe infections in humans. As leisure and professional equine sports continue to grow, this infection should be recognized as an emerging zoonosis.

  11. A Case of Disseminated Infection Caused by Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Poulin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human infections with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, a group C streptococcus, are very rare and are generally associated with contact with horses, and consumption of unpasteurized milk products, goat cheese or pork. In most cases S zooepidemicus leads to fulminant infections. The case of a middle-aged woman who had sporadic contact with horses is described in the present report. She developed a bacteremia with severe and extensive complications that included meningitis, mitral endocarditis and blindness due to bilateral endophthalmitis. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of an endophthalmitis due to S zooepidemicus. Because of a penicillin allergy, the patient was treated with ceftriaxone and rifampin over six weeks and survived. The present case report highlights the severe complications associated with S zooepidemicus infection.

  12. Purulent meningoventriculitis caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in a snow leopard (Panthera uncia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, R; Nakamura, S; Hori, H; Kato, Y; Une, Y

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (SEZ) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes respiratory tract infections in man and animals. SEZ infections are very rare in felids. This report describes purulent meningoventriculitis caused by SEZ in an approximately 16-year-old male snow leopard (Panthera uncia). The animal exhibited neurological signs and died 1 month after their onset. On necropsy examination, the surface blood vessels of the brain were swollen and there was an increased volume and turbidity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Microscopically, suppurative inflammation accompanied by gram-positive cocci was observed in the meninges and near the ventricles. SEZ was isolated from the brain tissue and CSF. This is the first report of infection with SEZ in a felid other than a domestic cat. This animal had not had direct contact with horses, but it had been fed horse flesh that may have been the source of infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Christine R; Ngai, Heather M; Romero, L Michael

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT). Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group). We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9) or control diets (n = 8), we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  14. Evaluating the Stress Response as a Bioindicator of Sub-Lethal Effects of Crude Oil Exposure in Wild House Sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Christine R.; Ngai, Heather M.; Romero, L. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT). Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why—does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group). We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9) or control diets (n = 8), we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure. PMID:25029334

  15. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Lattin

    Full Text Available Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT. Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group. We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9 or control diets (n = 8, we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  16. Seasonal and geographic variation of southern blue whale subspecies in the Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Samaran

    Full Text Available Understanding the seasonal movements and distribution patterns of migratory species over ocean basin scales is vital for appropriate conservation and management measures. However, assessing populations over remote regions is challenging, particularly if they are rare. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus spp are an endangered species found in the Southern and Indian Oceans. Here two recognized subspecies of blue whales and, based on passive acoustic monitoring, four "acoustic populations" occur. Three of these are pygmy blue whale (B.m. brevicauda populations while the fourth is the Antarctic blue whale (B.m. intermedia. Past whaling catches have dramatically reduced their numbers but recent acoustic recordings show that these oceans are still important habitat for blue whales. Presently little is known about the seasonal movements and degree of overlap of these four populations, particularly in the central Indian Ocean. We examined the geographic and seasonal occurrence of different blue whale acoustic populations using one year of passive acoustic recording from three sites located at different latitudes in the Indian Ocean. The vocalizations of the different blue whale subspecies and acoustic populations were recorded seasonally in different regions. For some call types and locations, there was spatial and temporal overlap, particularly between Antarctic and different pygmy blue whale acoustic populations. Except on the southernmost hydrophone, all three pygmy blue whale acoustic populations were found at different sites or during different seasons, which further suggests that these populations are generally geographically distinct. This unusual blue whale diversity in sub-Antarctic and sub-tropical waters indicates the importance of the area for blue whales in these former whaling grounds.

  17. Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2. The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92% and 1607 (86% of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops.

  18. [A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.

  19. Removal of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) from drinking water by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E A; Shin, G-A

    2015-03-01

    There has been a growing concern over human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) through drinking water due to its ubiquitous presence in natural waters and remarkable resistance to both chemical and physical disinfectants in drinking water treatment processes. However, little is known about the effectiveness of physico-chemical water treatment processes to remove MAH. Therefore, we determined the removal of MAH by alum coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes in optimized drinking water treatment conditions using standard jar test equipment. Contrary to the prevailing hypothesis, the results of this study show that removal of MAH by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes was only moderate (approx. 0.65 log10) under low turbidity treatment conditions and the removal of MAH was actually lower than that of Escherichia coli (reference bacterium) in all the waters tested. Overall, the results of this study suggested that coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes may not be a reliable treatment option for removing MAH, and more efforts to find an effective control measures against MAH should be made to reduce the risk of MAH infection from drinking water. Despite a growing concern over human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) through drinking water and its remarkable resistance to water disinfectants, little is known about the effectiveness of physico-chemical water treatment processes to remove MAH. Contrary to the prevailing hypothesis, the results of this study suggest that coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes may not be a reliable treatment option for MAH removal. As these processes have been the last remaining conventional drinking water treatment processes that might be effective against MAH, more efforts should be urgently made to find an effective control measures against this important waterborne pathogen. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Subspecies of Hypolepis rugosula (Dennstaedtiaceae; Pteridophyta around the world: morphological and biogeographic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bond Schwartsburd

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The "Hypolepis rugosula complex" has been the subject of great debate among pteridologists: some have considered H. rugosula a single subcosmopolitan (or circum-Antarctic species, whereas others have considered it a species-complex, encompassing several species. In the 1920s and 1930s, four geographically distinct varietiesof H. rugosula were recognized. In this work, we present a new taxonomy (with new combinations and statuses, as well as typification and full synonymy, together with complete distribution data for the species, with an infraspecific classification based on morphological and biogeographic perspectives. Hypolepis rugosula occurs in southern temperate regions and high-elevation tropical regions of the Americas, Africa (including Madagascar, Oceania and the Philippines, as well as in some isolated oceanic volcanic islands (e.g., Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha. Here, 15 geographically distinct subspecies are recognized. All subspecies are geographically segregated from each other, except in New Zealand, where two occur sympatrically-possibly due to two different arrival and colonization times. Four patterns of "indument" (referring to catenate and glandular hairs collectively are distinguished. Different lineages are successful in their respective habitats; we observed two lineages with different ploidy levels (tetraploid and octoploid. Although long-distance dispersal is the best explanation for the extant distribution of H. rugosula;we do not exclude vicariance as a possible explanation for their occurrence on the land masses that were once united as Gondwana. Therefore, we are assuming that a fern species could remain unchanged for more than 70 Myr, and we are adopting the refugia theory, albeit with a different focus.

  1. Seasonal and Geographic Variation of Southern Blue Whale Subspecies in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaran, Flore; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Branch, Trevor A.; Gedamke, Jason; Royer, Jean-Yves; Dziak, Robert P.; Guinet, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the seasonal movements and distribution patterns of migratory species over ocean basin scales is vital for appropriate conservation and management measures. However, assessing populations over remote regions is challenging, particularly if they are rare. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus spp) are an endangered species found in the Southern and Indian Oceans. Here two recognized subspecies of blue whales and, based on passive acoustic monitoring, four “acoustic populations” occur. Three of these are pygmy blue whale (B.m. brevicauda) populations while the fourth is the Antarctic blue whale (B.m. intermedia). Past whaling catches have dramatically reduced their numbers but recent acoustic recordings show that these oceans are still important habitat for blue whales. Presently little is known about the seasonal movements and degree of overlap of these four populations, particularly in the central Indian Ocean. We examined the geographic and seasonal occurrence of different blue whale acoustic populations using one year of passive acoustic recording from three sites located at different latitudes in the Indian Ocean. The vocalizations of the different blue whale subspecies and acoustic populations were recorded seasonally in different regions. For some call types and locations, there was spatial and temporal overlap, particularly between Antarctic and different pygmy blue whale acoustic populations. Except on the southernmost hydrophone, all three pygmy blue whale acoustic populations were found at different sites or during different seasons, which further suggests that these populations are generally geographically distinct. This unusual blue whale diversity in sub-Antarctic and sub-tropical waters indicates the importance of the area for blue whales in these former whaling grounds. PMID:23967221

  2. Immunocytochemical study of the distribuition of endocrine cells in the pancreas of the Brazilian sparrow species Zonotrichia Capensis Subtorquata (Swaison, 1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Nascimento

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated types of pancreatic endocrine cells and its respective peptides in the Brazilian sparrow species using immunocytochemistry. The use of polyclonal specific antisera for somatostatin, glucagon, avian pancreatic polypeptide (APP, YY polypeptide (PYY and insulin, revealed a diversified distribution in the pancreas. All these types of immunoreactive cells were observed in the pancreas with different amounts. Insulin- Immunoreactive cells to (B cells were most numerous, preferably occupying the central place in the pancreatic islets. Somatostatin, PPA, PYY and glucagon immunoreactive cells occurred in a lower frequency in the periphery of pancreatic islets.

  3. A case of leucism in House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in an island of São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Leucism in birds is a genetic disorder characterized by the total absence of melanin in some or all feathers, but unlike albinism, the other body parts, such as eyes, beak, and tarsi remain with the typical color of the species. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus is a bird native from Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has been introduced in North America, South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Currently, it is the bird species with the largest geographical range. Here, we report the record of a leucistic specimen of Passer domesticus from Rodeadouro island, São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil.

  4. Assessment of hybridization among wild and cultivated Vigna unguiculata subspecies revealed by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2012-01-01

    Intra-species hybridization and incompletely homogenized ribosomal RNA repeat units have earlier been reported in 21 accessions of Vigna unguiculata from six subspecies using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5S intergenic spacer (IGS) analyses. However, the relationships among these accessions were not clear from these analyses. We therefore assessed intra-species hybridization in the same set of accessions. Arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) analysis was carried out using 12 primers. The PCR products were resolved on agarose gels and the DNA fragments were scored manually. Genetic relationships were inferred by TREECON software using unweighted paired group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis evaluated by bootstrapping and compared with previous analyses based on ITS and 5S IGS. A total of 202 (86 %) fragments were found to be polymorphic and used for generating a genetic distance matrix. Twenty-one V. unguiculata accessions were grouped into three main clusters. The cultivated subspecies (var. unguiculata) and most of its wild progenitors (var. spontanea) were placed in cluster I along with ssp. pubescens and ssp. stenophylla. Whereas var. spontanea were grouped with ssp. alba and ssp. tenuis accessions in cluster II, ssp. alba and ssp. baoulensis were included in cluster III. Close affinities of ssp. unguiculata, ssp. alba and ssp. tenuis suggested inter-subspecies hybridization. Multi-locus AP-PCR analysis reveals that intra-species hybridization is prevalent among V. unguiculata subspecies and suggests that grouping of accessions from two different subspecies is not solely due to the similarity in the ITS and 5S IGS regions but also due to other regions of the genome.

  5. The palynology and sedimentology of a coastal swamp at Awana, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, from c. 7000 yr B.P. to present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analysis of two Holocene cores from Awana, Great Barrier Island, shows that at 7000 calibrated yr B.P. the local swamp was an estuarine salt marsh dominated by Restionaceae. By c. 6000 yr B.P. the water table was lower, and a fresh water swamp (Gleichenia-Leptospermum) had replaced the salt marsh. Regional conifer-hardwood forest c. 7000 yr B.P. was initially co-dominated by Libocedrus and Dacrydium cupressinum. Libocedrus declined from c. 6000 yr B.P. During the period c. 6000-c. 2500 yr B.P., relatively stable environmental conditions ensued with little change in local or regional vegetation. Around 2500 yr B.P., the swamp surface became drier and was invaded by Dacrycarpus and Laurelia swamp forest. This forest was subsequently repeatedly disturbed (not by fire), indicating climatic change to drier and windier conditions. Ascarina lucida was periodically a major component of swamp forest. Disturbance is also recorded in the clastic (mineral) sediments, where beds of sand within finer-grained sediment and peat are interpreted as wind blown material derived from partly devegetated dunes to seaward. The presence of the Kaharoa Tephra allows the timing of major Polynesian deforestation at Awana to be reliably dated to c. 600 calibrated yr B.P. In contrast, we see no evidence in the clastic sediment record of disturbance at Awana since Kaharoa time. We attribute this to the maintenance of stable dunes by a herb/scrub cover despite nearby fires, or to the presence of scrub or forest buffering the swamp from ablating dunes. (author). 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Gut microbes limit growth in house sparrow nestlings (Passer domesticus) but not through limitations in digestive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Kevin D; Brun, Antonio; Bordenstein, Seth R; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2018-03-01

    Recent research often lauds the services and beneficial effects of host-associated microbes on animals. However, hosting these microbes may come at a cost. For example, germ-free and antibiotic-treated birds generally grow faster than their conventional counterparts. In the wild, juvenile body size is correlated with survival, so hosting a microbiota may incur a fitness cost. Avian altricial nestlings represent an interesting study system in which to investigate these interactions, given that they exhibit the fastest growth rates among vertebrates, and growth is limited by their digestive capacity. We investigated whether reduction and restructuring of the microbiota by antibiotic treatment would: (i) increase growth and food conversion efficiency in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus); (ii) alter aspects of gut anatomy or function (particularly activities of digestive carbohydrases and their regulation in response to dietary change); and (iii) whether there were correlations between relative abundances of microbial taxa, digestive function and nestling growth. Antibiotic treatment significantly increased growth and food conversion efficiency in nestlings. Antibiotics did not alter aspects of gut anatomy that we considered but depressed intestinal maltase activity. There were no significant correlations between abundances of microbial taxa and aspects of host physiology. Overall, we conclude that microbial-induced growth limitation in developing birds is not driven by interactions with digestive capacity. Rather, decreased energetic and material costs of immune function or beneficial effects from microbes enriched under antibiotic treatment may underlie these effects. Understanding the costs and tradeoffs of hosting gut microbial communities represents an avenue of future research. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons

  7. Production, Characterization and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing IgY Epitopes Shared by Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant, Peafowl and Sparrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Biček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken antibodies are not only a part of immune defense but are more and more popular commercial products in form of chicken polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies. We produced and characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that recognize epitopes located on heavy or light chain of chicken immunoglobulin Y (chIgY shared also by some other Phasianidae birds. The use of mAbs 1F5 and 2F10 that recognize heavy chain on chIgY common epitopes was demonstrated on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and peafowl. Chicken IgY light chain specific mAb 3E10 revealed the presence of common epitopes on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and sparrow. Monoclonal antibody clone 1F5/3G2 was used to prepare horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugate and immunoadsorbent column. Conjugated mAbs were demonstrated to be excellent secondary antibodies for diagnostics of certain infections in different avian species. Since they do not react with mammalian immunoglobulins using our mAbs as secondary antibodies in human serodiagnostics would minimize background staining that appears when using mouse detection system. In dot immunobinding assay (DIBA and immunoblot assay they recognized specific IgY antibodies against Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Newcastle disease virus in sera of infected or vaccinated birds. Immunoadsorption as a method for removal of IgY from samples in which Mycoplasma synoviae specific IgY was predominant immunoglobulin class enabled more exact demonstration of specific IgA and IgM antibodies. Herein we are presenting effective mAbs useful in diagnostics of avian and mammalian infections as well as in final steps of detection and purification of chicken antibodies and their subunits produced in vivo or in vitro as polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies.

  8. Recent benthic foraminifera assemblages from mangrove swamp and channels of Abu Dhabi (UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Paul, Andreas; Song, Jianfeng; Freeman, Mark; Michel, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations from mangrove swamps and channels located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels). A 100 m transect across a natural channel in a mangal on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island was sampled in detail for sedimentological and foraminiferal analysis. Forty-seven samples were collected at 2 meter intervals along the transect in a number of different sedimentary facies including; fine sediment in areas exposed during low tide and close to mangrove trees (Avicennia marina), fine sediment rich in leaf material, coarse sediment in channels, and coarse sediments with a shell lag. At each sampling location environmental parameters were recorded, including water depth, salinity, temperature and pH. Samples collected for foraminiferal analysis were stained in rose Bengal in order to identify living specimens. Samples collected on the mud flat at the margin of the channel show a living foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Cribroelphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Sigmoilinita, Spiroloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicennia marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising small-sized opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Cribroelphidium along with rare Triloculina and

  9. A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gregory E.; Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.; Gray, John R.

    2001-01-01

    little direct evidence is available concerning the fate of sediment. The common practice of quantifying sediment fate with a sediment delivery ratio, estimated from a simple empirical relation with upstream basin area, does not articulate the relative importance of individual storage sites within a basin (Wolman, 1977). Rates of sediment deposition in reservoirs and flood plains can be determined from empirical measurements, but only a limited number of sites have been monitored, and net rates of deposition or loss from other potential sinks and sources is largely unknown (Stallard, 1998). In particular, little is known about how much sediment loss from fields ultimately makes its way to stream channels, and how much sediment is subsequently stored in or lost from the streambed (Meade and Parker, 1985, Trimble and Crosson, 2000).This paper reports on recent progress made to address empirically the question of sediment fate and transport on a national scale. The model presented here is based on the SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) methodology, first used to estimate the distribution of nutrients in streams and rivers of the United States, and subsequently shown to describe land and stream processes affecting the delivery of nutrients (Smith and others, 1997, Alexander and others, 2000, Preston and Brakebill, 1999). The model makes use of numerous spatial datasets, available at the national level, to explain long-term sediment water-quality conditions in major streams and rivers throughout the United States. Sediment sources are identified using sediment erosion rates from the National Resources Inventory (NRI) (Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2000) and apportioned over the landscape according to 30- meter resolution land-use information from the National Land Cover Data set (NLCD) (U.S. Geological Survey, 2000a). More than 76,000 reservoirs from the National Inventory of Dams (NID) (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1996) are

  10. Advanced three-dimensional imaging reveals the arterial vasculature in the head region of the air-breathing swamp eel, Monopterus albus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Pedersen, Michael; Huong, Do T

    Air-breathing fish exhibit many anatomical modifications that allow for oxygen uptake directly from air. This is certainly the case for the tropical swamp eels, Synbranchidae, where various structural adaptations of the vasculature within the buccopharyngeal region mediate an amphibious lifestyle....... In Synbranchus, the rigid gills allow for aerial gas exchange, while the Asian swamp eels rely on various air-breathing organs (ABO) within the buccopharyngeal cavity. The air-breathing organs of the commercially important Asian rice field eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793), is not well known...

  11. Subspecies identification of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (Primates: Hominidae from the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago, Chile, using mitochondrial DNA sequences

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    J.A. Vega

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural populations of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes are declining because of hunting and illegal live animal trafficking. Four subspecies of Chimpanzee have been reported: Pan troglodytes troglodytes, P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. ellioti, which have remained geographically separated by natural barriers such as the rivers Niger, Sanaga and Ubangi in central Africa. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been used for the determination of these subspecies, which indirectly can also suggest their geographic origin. It was decided to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of three captive chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile, by analyzing their mitochondrial DNA. DNA was extracted from the saliva of three adult chimpanzees (two males and one female. After the analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial hypervariable region (HVI, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using mitochondrial sequences of known Pan troglodytes subspecies. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are likely to belong to three different subspecies: P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. troglodytes. Identification of subspecies of the three chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile was possible due to mtDNA analysis. Future identification of chimpanzees will allow the development of a studbook for the chimpanzee subspecies in other Latin American zoos.

  12. Comparative analysis of fliC Gene from Salmonella enterica sub-species for biosensor probe design and phylogenetic tree construction

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    Sunderamurthe Satisvar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In tandem to the Salmonellosis infection worldwide, a study was conducted to determine the conserved and nonconserved region in Salmonella enterica sub-species so that it can be used to design probes in biosensors for the detection of Salmonella enterica as a species or sub-species distinctively. The region was selected for this study through fliC gene that is present in all Salmonella sub-species, encodes the Salmonella flagella or flagellin determines the serotype due to its H antigen and provides virulence to the bacteria. All sub-species were analyzed in a group of six and then analyzed individually in groups of two with all possible combinations to determine the overlapping regions. Based on the study, the predominant conserved region for S. enterica sub-species is between 103 and 158, whereas the non-conserved region is from 1245 to 1285. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the S. enterica sub-species to determine the evolution of the Salmonella sub-species.

  13. Epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain of southern Brazil: latitudinal effects on the plant community

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    Letícia S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fifty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into five ecological zones (strata, where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in floristic composition between ecological zones with richness differing significantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. These climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. The importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.

  14. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-12-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution.

  15. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  16. 'Leaves and eats shoots': direct terrestrial feeding can supplement invasive red swamp crayfish in times of need.

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    Jonathan Grey

    Full Text Available We used stable isotope analyses to characterise the feeding dynamics of a population of red swamp crayfish in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, after the crash of submerged macrophytes and associated macroinvertebrates, and during a natural draw-down of the lake water level. We expected a heavy reliance upon a diet of detrital matter to sustain the population as a consequence, and indeed, for the majority of the crayfish population caught from the lake, we saw a concomitant shift in isotopic values reflecting a dietary change. However, we also caught individual crayfish that had occupied the footprints of hippopotamus and effectively extended their range beyond the lake up to 40 m into the riparian zone. Isotopic analysis confirmed limited nocturnal observations that these individuals were consuming living terrestrial plants in the vicinity of the footprints. These are the first empirical data to demonstrate direct use of terrestrial resources by an aquatic crayfish species and further highlight the traits that make red swamp crayfish such opportunistic and successful invaders.

  17. Chronological Reorganization of Microtubules, Actin Microfilaments, and Chromatin during the First Cell Cycle in Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Embryos

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    Vibuntita Chankitisakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the dynamics of early embryonic development, in terms of redistribution of cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin microfilaments and chromatin configurations during the first cell cycle in swamp buffalo embryos. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro, and they were fixed at various time points after IVF. At 6 h after IVF, 44.4% matured oocytes were penetrated by spermatozoa. Partial ZP digestion, however, did not improve fertilization rate compared to control (P>.05. At 12 h after IVF, the fertilized oocytes progressed to the second meiotic division and formed the female pronucleus simultaneously with the paternal chromatin continued to decondense. A sperm aster was observed radiating from the base of the decondensing sperm head. At 18 h after IVF, most presumptive zygotes had reached the pronuclear stage. The sperm aster was concurrently enlarged to assist the migration and apposition of pronuclei. Cell cleavage was facilitated by microfilaments and firstly observed by 30 h after IVF. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton actively involves with the process of fertilization and cleavage in swamp buffalo oocytes. The centrosomal material is paternally inherited. Fertilization failure is predominantly caused by poor sperm penetration. However, partial digestion of ZP did not improve fertilization rate.

  18. Genetic variability and performance of Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793 from West Java cultured in saline water medium

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    Dinar Tri Soelistyowati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793 is freshwater fish species which is prospective for domestic and export markets. The production is limited depend on the catches of natural population. The cultivation of eel has been carried out to increase the production for sustainability. This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic variability and performance of Asian swamp eel from West Java and its potential cultivation in water based media with salinity. Three populations from West Java were collected of different altitudes from Sukabumi (673 m asl, Cianjur (429 m asl, Karawang (51 m asl sized 19–26.5 cm and weighed 4.95–11.4 g. The cultivation was performed during 30 days in water media without substrate at salinity 6 ppt with density of 1 kg/m2 and maintenance at container 50×30×30 cm completed with shelter pipe of ¾ inches diameter and 20 cm length, height of water 10 cm and water exchange 100% every day, fed at satiation using Tubificidae once a day. Genetically, all of the populations showed low heterozygosity at 1.19–1.23% and genetic distance 0.01–0.04. Asian swamp eel adapted better at water salinity 6 ppt which indicated by low mesure of osmotic gradient and blood glucose. Asian swamp eel from Karawang showed superior at survival rate (90% and daily growth rate (1.42/day. Keywords: Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus, cultivation, genetic variability, salinity  ABSTRAK  Belut sawah Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793 merupakan komoditas ikan air tawar potensial di pasar domestik maupun ekspor, namun produksinya masih mengandalkan hasil tangkapan dari alam karena budidaya belum berkembang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi keragaman genetik dan keragaan belut sawah asal Jawa Barat dan potensinya untuk dikembangkan dengan teknik budidaya di air bersalinitas tanpa lumpur. Tiga populasi belut sawah dikoleksi dari lokasi di Jawa Barat dengan ketinggian berbeda yaitu Sukabumi (673 m dpl, Cianjur (429 m dpl

  19. Establishing the breeding provenance of a temperate-wintering North American passerine, the Golden-crowned Sparrow, using light-level geolocation.

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    Nathaniel E Seavy

    Full Text Available The migratory biology and connectivity of passerines remains poorly known, even for those that move primarily within the temperate zone. We used light-level geolocators to describe the migratory geography of a North American temperate migrant passerine. From February to March of 2010, we attached geolocator tags to 33 Golden-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla wintering on the central coast of California, USA, and recovered four tags the following winter (October to December 2010. We used a bayesian state-space model to estimate the most likely breeding locations. All four birds spent the breeding season on the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. These locations spanned approximately 1200 kilometers, and none of the individuals bred in the same location. Speed of migration was nearly twice as fast during spring than fall. The return rate of birds tagged the previous season (33% was similar to that of control birds (39%, but comparing return rates was complicated because 7 of 11 returning birds had lost their tags. For birds that we recaptured before spring migration, we found no significant difference in mass change between tagged and control birds. Our results provide insight into the previously-unknown breeding provenance of a wintering population of Golden-crowned Sparrows and provide more evidence of the contributions that light-level geolocation can make to our understanding of the migratory geography of small passerines.

  20. Epigenetic Variation May Compensate for Decreased Genetic Variation with Introductions: A Case Study Using House Sparrows (Passer domesticus on Two Continents

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    Aaron W. Schrey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms impact several phenotypic traits and may be important for ecology and evolution. The introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus exhibits extensive phenotypic variation among and within populations. We screened methylation in populations from Kenya and Florida to determine if methylation varied among populations, varied with introduction history (Kenyan invasion <50 years old, Florida invasion ~150 years old, and could potentially compensate for decrease genetic variation with introductions. While recent literature has speculated on the importance of epigenetic effects for biological invasions, this is the first such study among wild vertebrates. Methylation was more frequent in Nairobi, and outlier loci suggest that populations may be differentiated. Methylation diversity was similar between populations, in spite of known lower genetic diversity in Nairobi, which suggests that epigenetic variation may compensate for decreased genetic diversity as a source of phenotypic variation during introduction. Our results suggest that methylation differences may be common among house sparrows, but research is needed to discern whether methylation impacts phenotypic variation.

  1. Report on changes in numbers of Seaside Sparrows on RI salt marshes since 1982, and how those changes relate to changes in the marsh and changes in surrounding land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the population status of breeding Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus maritimus) in Rhode Island, we repeated a 1982 survey conducted by Stoll and Golet (1983). In June and July 2007 and 2008, 19 marshes were surveyed in their entirety for the presence of breeding Seaside Spa...

  2. Photonic Biosensor Assays to Detect and Distinguish Subspecies of Francisella tularensis

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    Thomas J. Inzana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of photonic biosensor assays to diagnose the category-A select agent Francisella tularensis was investigated. Both interferometric and long period fiber grating sensing structures were successfully demonstrated; both these sensors are capable of detecting the optical changes induced by either immunological binding or DNA hybridization. Detection was made possible by the attachment of DNA probes or immunoglobulins (IgG directly to the fiber surface via layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly. An optical fiber biosensor was tested using a standard transmission mode long period fiber grating of length 15 mm and period 260 µm, and coated with the IgG fraction of antiserum to F. tularensis. The IgG was deposited onto the optical fiber surface in a nanostructured film, and the resulting refractive index change was measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The presence of F. tularensis was detected from the decrease of peak wavelength caused by binding of specific antigen. Detection and differentiation of F. tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A strain TI0902 and subspecies holarctica (type B strain LVS was further accomplished using a single-mode multi-cavity fiber Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor. These sensors were prepared by depositing seven polymer bilayers onto the fiber tip followed by attaching one of two DNA probes: (a a 101-bp probe from the yhhW gene unique to type-A strains, or (b a 117-bp probe of the lpnA gene, common to both type-A and type-B strains. The yhhW probe was reactive with the type-A, but not the type-B strain. Probe lpnA was reactive with both type-A and type-B strains. Nanogram quantities of the target DNA could be detected, highlighting the sensitivity of this method for DNA detection without the use of PCR. The DNA probe reacted with 100% homologous target DNA, but did not react with sequences containing 2-bp mismatches, indicating the high specificity of the assay. These assays will fill an

  3. Genomic analysis of Campylobacter fetus subspecies: identification of candidate virulence determinants and diagnostic assay targets

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    Sanchez Daniel O

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, asymptomatic in bulls the disease is spread to female cattle causing extensive reproductive loss. The microbiological and molecular differentiation of C. fetus subsp. venerealis from C. fetus subsp. fetus is extremely difficult. This study describes the analysis of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain genome (~75–80% to identify elements exclusively found in C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains as potential diagnostic targets and the characterisation of subspecies virulence genes. Results Eighty Kb of genomic sequence (22 contigs was identified as unique to C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 and consisted of type IV secretory pathway components, putative plasmid genes and hypothetical proteins. Of the 9 PCR assays developed to target C. fetus subsp. venerealis type IV secretion system genes, 4 of these were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis and did not detect C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius. Two assays were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain, with a further single assay specific for the AZUL-94 strain and C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius (and not the remaining C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis strains tested. C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were found to share most common Campylobacter virulence factors such as SAP, chemotaxis, flagellar biosynthesis, 2-component systems and cytolethal distending toxin subunits (A, B, C. We did not however, identify in C. fetus the full complement of bacterial adherence candidates commonly found in other Campylobacter spp. Conclusion The comparison of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis genome sequence with the C. fetus subsp. fetus genome identified 80 kb of unique C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL94 sequence, with subsequent PCR confirmation demonstrating

  4. A conjugative 38 kB plasmid is present in multiple subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E Rogers

    Full Text Available A ≈ 38kB plasmid (pXF-RIV5 was present in the Riv5 strain of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolated from ornamental plum in southern California. The complete nucleotide sequence of pXF-RIV5 is almost identical to that of pXFAS01 from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain M23; the two plasmids vary at only 6 nucleotide positions. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analyses indicate pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 share some similarity to chromosomal and plasmid (pXF51 sequences of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c and more distant similarity to plasmids from a wide variety of bacteria. Both pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 encode homologues of a complete Type IV secretion system involved in conjugation and DNA transfer among bacteria. Mating pair formation proteins (Trb from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP31758 are the mostly closely related non-X. fastidiosa proteins to most of the Trb proteins encoded by pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01. Unlike many bacterial conjugative plasmids, pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 do not carry homologues of known accessory modules that confer selective advantage on host bacteria. However, both plasmids encode seven hypothetical proteins of unknown function and possess a small transposon-associated region encoding a putative transposase and associated factor. Vegetative replication of pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 appears to be under control of RepA protein and both plasmids have an origin of DNA replication (oriV similar to that of pRP4 and pR751 from Escherichia coli. In contrast, conjugative plasmids commonly encode TrfA and have an oriV similar to those found in IncP-1 incompatibility group plasmids. The presence of nearly identical plasmids in single strains from two distinct subspecies of X. fastidiosa is indicative of recent horizontal transfer, probably subsequent to the introduction of subspecies fastidiosa to the United States in the late 19(th century.

  5. A conjugative 38 kB plasmid is present in multiple subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Elizabeth E; Stenger, Drake C

    2012-01-01

    A ≈ 38kB plasmid (pXF-RIV5) was present in the Riv5 strain of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolated from ornamental plum in southern California. The complete nucleotide sequence of pXF-RIV5 is almost identical to that of pXFAS01 from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa strain M23; the two plasmids vary at only 6 nucleotide positions. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analyses indicate pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 share some similarity to chromosomal and plasmid (pXF51) sequences of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c and more distant similarity to plasmids from a wide variety of bacteria. Both pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 encode homologues of a complete Type IV secretion system involved in conjugation and DNA transfer among bacteria. Mating pair formation proteins (Trb) from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP31758 are the mostly closely related non-X. fastidiosa proteins to most of the Trb proteins encoded by pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01. Unlike many bacterial conjugative plasmids, pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 do not carry homologues of known accessory modules that confer selective advantage on host bacteria. However, both plasmids encode seven hypothetical proteins of unknown function and possess a small transposon-associated region encoding a putative transposase and associated factor. Vegetative replication of pXF-RIV5 and pXFAS01 appears to be under control of RepA protein and both plasmids have an origin of DNA replication (oriV) similar to that of pRP4 and pR751 from Escherichia coli. In contrast, conjugative plasmids commonly encode TrfA and have an oriV similar to those found in IncP-1 incompatibility group plasmids. The presence of nearly identical plasmids in single strains from two distinct subspecies of X. fastidiosa is indicative of recent horizontal transfer, probably subsequent to the introduction of subspecies fastidiosa to the United States in the late 19(th) century.

  6. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  7. Comparing Avocado, Swamp Bay, and Camphortree as Hosts of Raffaelea lauricola Using a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Labeled Strain of the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A S; Ploetz, R C; Rollins, J A

    2017-01-01

    Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, causes laurel wilt in members of the Lauraceae plant family. North American species in the family, such as avocado (Persea americana) and swamp bay (P. palustris), are particularly susceptible to laurel wilt, whereas the Asian camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora) is relatively tolerant. To determine whether susceptibility is related to pathogen colonization, a green fluorescent protein-labeled strain of R. lauricola was generated and used to inoculate avocado, swamp bay, and camphortree. Trees were harvested 3, 10, and 30 days after inoculation (DAI), and disease severity was rated on a 1-to-10 scale. By 30 DAI, avocado and swamp bay developed significantly more severe disease than camphortree (mean severities of 6.8 and 5.5 versus 1.6, P avocado than camphortree (0.9% versus 0.1%, P avocado (r = 0.74), swamp bay (r = 0.82), and camphortree (r = 0.87), even severely affected trees of all species were scarcely colonized by the pathogen.

  8. Lower food chain community study: thermal effects and post-thermal recovery in the streams and swamps of the Savannah River Plant, November 1983-May 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratieff, B.C.; Kondratieff, P.

    1985-04-01

    This report documents a study of lower food chain (autotroph and macroinvertebrate assemblage) response to, and recovery from, thermal stress in the streams and swamps of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Data for the report were collected between November 1983 and May 1984. Elevated water temperature regimes in the thermal streams and swamps resulted in generally simplified lower food chain community structure. Thermally tolerant forms of both autotrophs (blue-green algae) and macroinvertebrates (oligochaetes, nematodes, snails and midges) were able to maintain populations in thermally stressed areas. The thermally tolerant taxa found in the perturbed streams and swamps often had high densities and biomass. It would appear tht many of the macroinvertebrate species occurring in SRP streams and swamps evolved in habitats subject to great thermal variation, both diel and seasonal. Based on the results of this study, certain temperature ranges are associated with certain general effects on the lower food chain. In temperatures >40/sup 0/C most taxa are eliminated, from 30 to 40/sup 0/C a stressed community exists with a few tolerant taxa and from 25 to 30/sup 0/C an assemblage resembling a summer ambient community in structure and function exists, often with reduced species composition. 74 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs. (ACR)

  9. A study of the vegetation of the “Turfkoele” and of the Palynological character of the peat deposited in this swamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, K.

    1957-01-01

    On the frontier of the municipalities “Melick en Herkenbosch” and “Vlodrop” near the road from Herkenbosch to boundery-mark 376, in the site named “Koezoep”, in the province of Limburg, Netherlands, is a peat swamp, known as the “Turfkoele”. From the geological map (no. 58, fourth part sheet 4) it

  10. The Analysis of Management and Timber Trade System of Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi From Peat Swamp Forest in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Firmanul Ariffin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Until now the raw material of wood especially Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi available for supporting the construction of housing and other infrastructures is increasingly large in Indonesia. On the Island of Borneo that partly consists of swamps needs Gelam very large and continuous, particularly for residential development. However, areas of peat swamp forest habitat of this plant from year to year are degradation and shrinkage. This situation is a very big influence on the population of Gelam, while the management and timber trade systems are not well regulated. This study aims to analyze the management and timber trade systems of Gelam particularly in South Kalimantan to provide input to the policy holder in the preservation of Gelam. The method was used a field survey and interviews with traders and policy holders related regulations. The results showed in South Kalimantan the potency of Gelam is only 2,9-7,1 m3/ha and decreasing yearly. Normally Gelam with a diameter <4 cm have been cut down, as well as > 30 cm. These dimensions should not be cut because of <4 cm too young and > 30 cm can be used as seed sources. Gelam derived from peat swamp forest, which mostly comes from the Batola District and some came from Kapuas District of Central Kalimantan. Distributions of Gelam were starting gatherers logging in the forest then sold to small gatherers, next to the large gatherers and distributed to all districts/cities in South Kalimantan, wood processing industries, and some of them were sent to Java. The silviculture system of Gelam was using selective cutting. Classification of wood sizes traded by the diameter divided into 3-4cm, 5-6cm, 7-8cm, 9-10cm, 11-12cm, 13-14cm, 15-19cm and > 20cm to 4m long. Its use consists of a small diameter (3-10cm for foundry building and firewood, while the large diameter (10-20cm for the construction of houses in swampy areas, and waste as well as the stems are bent and deformed used for firewood. Until now Gelam

  11. Estimating Divergence Time and Ancestral Effective Population Size of Bornean and Sumatran Orangutan Subspecies Using a Coalescent Hidden Markov Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien; Hobolth, Asger

    2011-01-01

    event has occurred to split them apart. The size of these segments of constant divergence depends on the recombination rate, but also on the speciation time, the effective population size of the ancestral population, as well as demographic effects and selection. Thus, inference of these parameters may......, and the ancestral effective population size. The model is efficient enough to allow inference on whole-genome data sets. We first investigate the power and consistency of the model with coalescent simulations and then apply it to the whole-genome sequences of the two orangutan sub-species, Bornean (P. p. pygmaeus......) and Sumatran (P. p. abelii) orangutans from the Orangutan Genome Project. We estimate the speciation time between the two sub-species to be thousand years ago and the effective population size of the ancestral orangutan species to be , consistent with recent results based on smaller data sets. We also report...

  12. Resprouting and seeding hypotheses: A test of the gap-dependent model using resprouting and obligate seeding subspecies of Arctostaphylos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Parker, V. Thomas; Vasey, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological factors favoring either postfire resprouting or postfire obligate seeding in plants have received considerable attention recently. Three ecological models have been proposed to explain patterns of these two life history types. In this study, we test these three models using data from California chaparral. We take an innovative approach to testing these models by not testing community or landscape patterns, but instead, investigating vegetation structure characteristic of four pairs of resprouting and (non-resprouting) obligate seeding subspecies of Arctostaphylos (Ericaceae), a dominant and diverse shrub genus in California chaparral. Data were analyzed for percentage bare ground, elevation, annual precipitation, number of fires, and time between fires and were compared independently for each subspecies pair. Results were consistently supportive of the gap-dependent model suggesting that obligate seeders are favored when post-disturbance gaps are large. Results were inconclusive or contrary to expectations for both of the other two models.

  13. Evolution of Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous) peat swamps of the Ruhr Basin, Germany: Comparison of palynological, coal petrographical and organic geochemical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, K. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Hartkopf-Froeder, C. [Geological Survey North Rhine-Westphalia, de-Greiff-Strasse 195, 47803 Krefeld (Germany); Flajs, G. [Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Littke, R. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the reconstruction of the environment during peat swamp development. Eight coal and sedimentary organic rock bearing seam successions were examined all belonging to the Duckmantian (Pennsylvanian, Late Carboniferous). 410 samples were analysed with coal petrographical methods, 155 of these also by palynological methods. In addition, on 55 samples organic geochemical investigations were carried out with respect to n-alkanes and iso-alkanes. The established coal petrographical parameters gelification index (GI), tissue preservation index (TPI), groundwater index (GWI) and vegetation index (VI) were used to characterize different periods of peat swamp development. Furthermore, the new index WCI (= Water Cover Index) was introduced to reflect water level conditions by using the ratio between hydrophilous/hygrophilous and mesophilous plants. In this study the index is based on palynological data but can be equally applied when quantitative macrofloral counts are available. GI versus TPI values show two general trends of peat swamp evolution: low GI and TPI values as indicator for drier swamp conditions like ombrogenous mires and high GI and TPI values which show a trend to water covered environments like topogenous mires. In addition, ash yields and GWI versus VI data also emphasize a general trend from topogenous to ombrogenous mires. A decrease in water level towards the top of the seams and thus resulting in the development of domed mires is reflected by the newly introduced WCI. Hence, these parameters show recurrent peat swamp successions, characterized by mineral- and vitrinite-rich coals, typical for topogenous swamps and an evolution towards inertinite/liptinite-rich coals with low ash yield, typical for ombrogenous swamps. n-alkane ratios like the carbon preference index (CPI), pristane/n-C{sub 17}, phytane/n-C{sub 18}, pristane/phytane and the n-C{sub 17}/n-C{sub 27} relationship indicate a strong correlation of these parameters with

  14. Four new species and one new subspecies of Asteroidea (Echinodermata) collected by the “Siboga” Expedition in the Indo-Malayan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Aznam; Jangoux, Michel

    1985-01-01

    Four new species and one new subspecies of asteroids collected by the “Siboga” Expedition in the Indo-Malayan region are described. They are deep-water species belonging to the families Goniasteridae, Solasteridae, Ganeriidae, Asteriidae and Brisingidae.

  15. Identification and epidemiological typing of Campylobacter hyointestinalis subspecies by phenotypic and genotypic methods and description of novel subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephan L.W.; Vandamme, P.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-eight type, reference, and field strains classified as, or closely resembling Campylobacter hyointestinalis, were characterised by phenotypic tests, whole-cell protein-, and macrorestriction profiling. The phenotypic, and protein data, were objectively evaluated by numerical analyses. Each...... and thus provide important information regarding the prevalence, importance, and epidemiology of the defined subspecies, and the novel groups described here. Simultaneous identification and subtyping of each taxon can be effected by protein- and/or macrorestriction profiling....

  16. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Type II and III isolates by a combination of MIRU-VNTR loci

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units and variable number tandem repeats typing (MIRU-VNTR) is a useful technique that has been recently applied to characterize members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The aim of this study was to examine the genetic variability among a collection of Spanish Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) isolates with a combination of MIRU-VNTR loci. For this purpose we tested six MIRU-VNTR loci (MI...

  17. Wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies of Sandhill Crane: Correlations between body size, site fidelity, and movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gary L.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Herziger, Caroline P.; Casazza, Michael L.; Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Body size is known to correlate with many aspects of life history in birds, and this knowledge can be used to manage and conserve bird species. However, few studies have compared the wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies that vary significantly in body size. We used radiotelemetry to examine the relationship between body size and site fidelity, movements, and home range in 2 subspecies of Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) wintering in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California, USA. Both subspecies showed high interannual return rates to the Delta study area, but Greater Sandhill Cranes (G. c. tabida) showed stronger within-winter fidelity to landscapes in our study region and to roost complexes within landscapes than did Lesser Sandhill Cranes (G. c. canadensis). Foraging flights from roost sites were shorter for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.01 km vs. 4.5 ± 0.01 km, respectively) and, consequently, the mean size of 95% fixed-kernel winter home ranges was an order of magnitude smaller for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.4 km2 vs. 21.9 ± 1.9 km2, respectively). Strong site fidelity indicates that conservation planning to manage for adequate food resources around traditional roost sites can be effective for meeting the habitat needs of these cranes, but the scale of conservation efforts should differ by subspecies. Analysis of movement patterns suggests that conservation planners and managers should consider all habitats within 5 km of