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Sample records for swamp racer mastigodryas

  1. Dieta e uso de habitat da jararaca-do-brejo, Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi (Serpentes, Colubridade) em domínio subtropical do Brasil Diet and habitat use of swamp racer snake, Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi (Serpentes, Colubridae) in subtropical domains of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro T. Leite; Simone de F. Nunes; Sonia Z. Cechin

    2007-01-01

    A serpente Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi, 1820 é um grande colubrídeo neotropical que habita áreas abertas na América do Sul. Sua dieta é composta principalmente por anfíbios, mas inclui outros itens como mamíferos e lagartos. A dissecção de 224 espécimes desta serpente, provenientes dos estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná, preservados em coleções herpetológicas do Brasil e um estudo de campo entre 1996 e 1998, fornecem informações sobre os hábitos alimentares e uso de habit...

  2. Dieta e uso de habitat da jararaca-do-brejo, Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi (Serpentes, Colubridade em domínio subtropical do Brasil Diet and habitat use of swamp racer snake, Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi (Serpentes, Colubridae in subtropical domains of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro T. Leite

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A serpente Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi, 1820 é um grande colubrídeo neotropical que habita áreas abertas na América do Sul. Sua dieta é composta principalmente por anfíbios, mas inclui outros itens como mamíferos e lagartos. A dissecção de 224 espécimes desta serpente, provenientes dos estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná, preservados em coleções herpetológicas do Brasil e um estudo de campo entre 1996 e 1998, fornecem informações sobre os hábitos alimentares e uso de habitat dessa serpente em domínio subtropical no Brasil. Essa serpente alimenta-se de anfíbios (80%, em sua maioria da família Leptodactylidae, mamíferos (10% e lagartos (2%. Foi verificada mudança ontogenética na dieta de M. bifossatus, o tamanho das presas ingeridas aumenta com o aumento de tamanho da serpente. Essa espécie ocorre principalmente em áreas abertas, algumas vezes perto de áreas antrópicas em domínio subtropical no Brasil.Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi, 1820 is a large neotropical colubrid snake that inhabits open areas in South America. The diet is mainly composed by frogs, but it includes other items like mammals and lizards. The dissection of 224 specimens of this snake, proceeding from the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, stored in herpetological collections in Brazil and a field study between 1996 and 1998, provided information on dietary habits and habitat use of this snake in subtropical domains in Brazil. This snake eats mainly amphibians of the family Leptodactylidae (80%, mammals (10% and lizards (2%. There is ontogenetic diet shift in M. bifossatus, as the snake grows, the range of preys grows as well. M. bifossatus occur in open areas.

  3. Geographical variation in the reproduction and sexual dimorphism of the Boddaert's tropical racer, Mastigodryas boddaerti (Serpentes: Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora M. Siqueira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We obtained data on time of sexual maturity, dimorphism, fecundity and on the reproductive cycle of Mastigodryas boddaerti (Sentzen, 1796 through the examination of 321 preserved specimens, of which 221 were collected in the Brazilian Amazon region and 100 in the Cerrado savannas of Central Brazil. The degree of sexual size dimorphism (snout-vent length, SVL was significantly greater in the specimens from the Cerrado in comparison with those from the Amazon. Females had a significantly larger number of ventral scales, on average, whereas males had more sub-caudal scales. However, there was no intersexual difference in tail length or head width, although the heads of the males were significantly longer, which may reflect dietary differences. Breeding females from the Amazon region contained between one and six eggs (N = 12, mean = 3.0, whereas two females from the Cerrado had four to six eggs (N = 10, mean = 5.0. No relationship was found between the SVL of the Amazonian females and the number of eggs or vitellogenic follicles they contained (Cerrado females were not analyzed here due to small sample size. Males are smaller than their female counterpart when they reach sexual maturity. Even though females from the Amazon reproduce throughout the year, females from the Cerrado breed seasonality.

  4. Reproductive cycle of the salmon-bellied racer, Mastigodryas melanolomus (Serpentes, Colubridae, from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goldberg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new information on the reproductive cycle of M. melanolomus from Costa Rica based onhistological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. The first information on the timing of the testicular cycle is alsopresented.

  5. Mangrove Swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrove swamps are coastal wetlands found in tropical and subtropical regions. They are characterized by halophytic (salt loving) trees, shrubs and other plants growing in brackish to saline tidal waters.

  6. Nutritional status of adventure racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalcman, Ioná; Guarita, Heloisa Vidigal; Juzwiak, Claudia Ridel; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Edwards, Ben; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2007-05-01

    We describe the usual food intake, body composition, and biochemical profile of adventure racers during their training season and evaluate their energy and nutrient intake in relation to current recommendations for ultraendurance athletes. Twenty-four adventure race athletes (18 men and 6 women), 24 to 42 y of age, participated in the study. Food intake was determined with a 3-d food record and body composition by plethysmography. Blood samples were obtained from all subjects for biochemical analyses. All assessments were made during the usual training phase. Female athletes had a higher body fat percentage than did male athletes (20.2 +/- 5.7% versus 12.5 +/- 3.5%). For men and women, food intake was high in protein (1.9 +/- 0.5 g/kg in men, 2.0 +/- 0.4 g/kg in women) and fat (1.6 +/- 0.3 g/kg in men, 1.5 +/- 1.3 g/kg in women). Carbohydrate intake of male athletes was at the lower limit of that recommended (5.9 +/- 1.8 g/kg). For most vitamins and minerals, athletes' intake was adequate, with the exception of magnesium, zinc, and potassium in men and women and vitamin E and calcium in women, which presented a high probability of being inadequate compared with reference values. High blood levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were found in female athletes (201.0 +/- 44.7 and 104.1 +/- 43.1 mg/dL, respectively) and all other biochemical analyses were within normal reference values. The adventure racers presented an inadequate nutritional profile when compared with recommendations for endurance exercise. These athletes need to be educated about consuming an adequate diet to meet the nutritional needs of their activity.

  7. Medical Concerns among Wheelchair Road Racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Santos F.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire administered to 43 wheelchair road racers suggest that their medical problems may lead to complications while training or racing. The study looked at the effects of training, injuries, bladder management, medications, and spasms. Sports medicine professionals are provided with information on handling disabled athletes.…

  8. Magruder Park Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  9. RACER: Effective Race Detection Using AspectJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Eric; Havelund, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The limits of coding with joint constraints on detected and undetected error rates Programming errors occur frequently in large software systems, and even more so if these systems are concurrent. In the past, researchers have developed specialized programs to aid programmers detecting concurrent programming errors such as deadlocks, livelocks, starvation and data races. In this work we propose a language extension to the aspect-oriented programming language AspectJ, in the form of three new built-in pointcuts, lock(), unlock() and may be Shared(), which allow programmers to monitor program events where locks are granted or handed back, and where values are accessed that may be shared amongst multiple Java threads. We decide thread-locality using a static thread-local objects analysis developed by others. Using the three new primitive pointcuts, researchers can directly implement efficient monitoring algorithms to detect concurrent programming errors online. As an example, we expose a new algorithm which we call RACER, an adoption of the well-known ERASER algorithm to the memory model of Java. We implemented the new pointcuts as an extension to the Aspect Bench Compiler, implemented the RACER algorithm using this language extension and then applied the algorithm to the NASA K9 Rover Executive. Our experiments proved our implementation very effective. In the Rover Executive RACER finds 70 data races. Only one of these races was previously known.We further applied the algorithm to two other multi-threaded programs written by Computer Science researchers, in which we found races as well.

  10. 2007 SRWMD Lidar: Mallory Swamp (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of Mallory Swamp. These data were produced for SRWMD. The Mallory Swamp LiDAR Survey project area...

  11. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in motocross racers: findings on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, Jan Louis; Peersman, Benjamin; Dyck, Pieter van; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Peersman, Geert; Roelant, Ella; Roeykens, Johan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to demonstrate the findings of MRI in motocross racers with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm. Racers with proven CECS and without CECS and male individuals not involved in strenuous activities with the forearm were included. Signal intensity (SI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained before and after exercise were compared (D-SNR). Magnetic resonance imaging after exercise showed an increase in SI and SNR in the muscles on T2-WI. The SI increase was obvious in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and profundus (FDP) in all CECS patients. In addition, a minor SI and SNR increase in the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) was noted. In the non-symptomatic group of motocross racers, there was only a minor increase in SI and the SNR, which was similar in the FDP and ECRL muscles. In the untrained individuals a remarkable increase in the SI and SNR of the FDS/FDP-ECRL was noted. This increased SI and SNR was not present in the majority of non-symptomatic racers. Post-exertional MRI produces significant findings in CECS of the forearm. The motocross racers without post-exertional oedema in the FDP/FDS had no CECS. (orig.)

  12. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in motocross racers: findings on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, Jan Louis [Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Antwerp University Hospital, Multidisciplinary Department of Sports Medicine, Antwerp (Belgium); Peersman, Benjamin; Dyck, Pieter van; Vanhoenacker, Filip [Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Peersman, Geert [ZNA, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Antwerp (Belgium); Roelant, Ella [Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Scientific Coordination, Antwerp (Belgium); Roeykens, Johan [Antwerp University Hospital, Multidisciplinary Department of Sports Medicine, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this prospective study was to demonstrate the findings of MRI in motocross racers with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm. Racers with proven CECS and without CECS and male individuals not involved in strenuous activities with the forearm were included. Signal intensity (SI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained before and after exercise were compared (D-SNR). Magnetic resonance imaging after exercise showed an increase in SI and SNR in the muscles on T2-WI. The SI increase was obvious in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and profundus (FDP) in all CECS patients. In addition, a minor SI and SNR increase in the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) was noted. In the non-symptomatic group of motocross racers, there was only a minor increase in SI and the SNR, which was similar in the FDP and ECRL muscles. In the untrained individuals a remarkable increase in the SI and SNR of the FDS/FDP-ECRL was noted. This increased SI and SNR was not present in the majority of non-symptomatic racers. Post-exertional MRI produces significant findings in CECS of the forearm. The motocross racers without post-exertional oedema in the FDP/FDS had no CECS. (orig.)

  13. A Retrospective Analysis of Concurrent Pathology in ACL-Reconstructed Knees of Elite Alpine Ski Racers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Doyle-Baker, Patricia; Heard, Mark

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is the most frequent injury in alpine ski racing, and there is a high prevalence of ACL reinjury. Limited data exist on the concurrent pathology with primary ACL tears in elite alpine ski racers and the magnitude of injury progression after primary...... ACL reconstruction (ACLR). PURPOSE: To evaluate (1) the involvement of intra-articular and multiligament pathologies at the time of primary ACLR, (2) the subsequent progression in meniscal/chondral injuries, and (3) the occurrence of ACL reinjury in elite alpine ski racers. STUDY DESIGN: Case series......; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Primary ACLR operative reports (n = 28) were obtained for 32 elite alpine ski racers along with the reports of 20 operative procedures that occurred subsequent to primary ACLR. Operative reports were evaluated to identify the presence/location of multiligament injury...

  14. Biomechanical factors influencing the performance of elite Alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-04-01

    Alpine ski racing is a popular international winter sport that is complex and challenging from physical, technical, and tactical perspectives. Despite the vast amount of scientific literature focusing on this sport, including topical reviews on physiology, ski-snow friction, and injuries, no review has yet addressed the biomechanics of elite alpine ski racers and which factors influence performance. In World Cup events, winning margins are often mere fractions of a second and biomechanics may well be a determining factor in podium place finishes. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify the biomechanical factors that influence the performance of elite alpine ski racers, with an emphasis on slalom, giant slalom, super-G, and downhill events. Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and key words, with an additional manual search of reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field. Articles were included if they addressed human biomechanics, elite alpine skiing, and performance. Only original research articles published in peer-reviewed journals and in the English language were reviewed. Articles that focused on skiing disciplines other than the four of primary interest were excluded (e.g., mogul, ski-cross and freestyle skiing). The articles subsequently included for review were quality assessed using a modified version of a validated quality assessment checklist. Data on the study population, design, location, and findings relating biomechanics to performance in alpine ski racers were extracted from each article using a standard data extraction form. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria, were reviewed, and scored an average of 69 ± 13% (range 40-89%) upon quality assessment. Five of the studies focused on giant slalom, four on slalom, and three on downhill disciplines, although these latter three articles were also relevant to super-G events

  15. Remote Sensing of Wetland Types: Peat Swamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, D.H.

    2017-01-01

    Deposits of peat underneath peat swamp forests are among the world’s largest reservoirs of carbon. Although tropical peatlands occupy only about 0.3 % of the global land surface, they could contain as much as 20 % of the global soil carbon stock, representing 63–148 Gt of carbon.

    Peat swamp

  16. Rapid Hamstrings/Quadriceps strength in ACL-reconstructed elite alpine ski racers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention, and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength was assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction ...

  17. RacerGISOnline: Enhancing Learning in Marketing Classes with Web-Based Business GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fred L.; Mangold, W. Glynn; Roach, Joy; Brockway, Gary; Johnston, Timothy; Linnhoff, Stefan; McNeely, Sam; Smith, Kathy; Holmes, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer geospatial analytical tools with great potential for applications in marketing decision making. However, for various reasons, the rate of adoption of these tools in academic marketing programs has lagged behind that of marketing practitioners. RacerGISOnline is an innovative approach to integrating these…

  18. Osseous Metaplasia in a Free-living Snake (Patagonian Green Racer; Philodryas patagoniensis) in Brazil, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Carlos H O; Jerdy, Hassan L; Silveira, Leonardo S

    2016-04-28

    We describe an osseous metaplasia in a wild Patagonian green racer (Philodryas patagoniensis). The 5.5×1.5-cm lesion of irregular contour on the right dorsolateral surface proximal to the snake's cloaca was raised, hard, ulcerated centrally, and radiopaque and interfered with mobility. Microscopy revealed osseous metaplasia on skin and muscle.

  19. Kennedy Space Center: Swamp Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Robert

    2013-01-01

    When I began my internship with the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations laboratory (GMRO), also known as Swamp Works, I was given the unique opportunity to shadow many teams working on various projects, and decide what projects I wanted to take part in. Before I go into details of my experiences at Swamp Works, I would like to take a moment to explain what I discovered Swamp Works to be. Swamp Works is a family of hardworking, dedicated, and driven people from various backgrounds and skill sets. These people all work to advance technologies and make science fiction science fact through means of rapid prototyping. They support and encourage failure as an option when learning new things, as long as lesson learned from said failure. In fact, their motto states "Fail, Fast, Forward." What this means is, not if but when one fails he or she must do so quickly and spring forward from the failure so that his or her progress is not delayed. With this acceptance, it provided me the confidence to dive into a multitude of projects working in various fields and with a wide range of skill sets. The first project I joined was Badger. My motivation for taking on this project was the opportunity I would have to obtain valuable experience working with 3D modeling and 3D printing technologies. Badger was a digging apparatus to be used in a highly dusty environment in a material known as Regolith. Regolith is a scientific term for the dirt or top soil found on planetary bodies. Regolith contains a large quantity of sediments less than lOppm and as a result poses a challenge of keeping it out of any cracks and crevices. Furthermore, regolith can create high levels of electrostatic energy, which can prove damaging to sensitive electrical hardware. With these characteristics in mind, I decided to take on the task of designing and manufacturing a dust proof cover for the sensitive electrical hardware. When I began this project, I did not have the slightest idea as to how to use 3D

  20. A Retrospective Analysis of Concurrent Pathology in ACL-Reconstructed Knees of Elite Alpine Ski Racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Doyle-Baker, Patricia; Heard, Mark; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is the most frequent injury in alpine ski racing, and there is a high prevalence of ACL reinjury. Limited data exist on the concurrent pathology with primary ACL tears in elite alpine ski racers and the magnitude of injury progression after primary ACL reconstruction (ACLR). To evaluate (1) the involvement of intra-articular and multiligament pathologies at the time of primary ACLR, (2) the subsequent progression in meniscal/chondral injuries, and (3) the occurrence of ACL reinjury in elite alpine ski racers. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Primary ACLR operative reports (n = 28) were obtained for 32 elite alpine ski racers along with the reports of 20 operative procedures that occurred subsequent to primary ACLR. Operative reports were evaluated to identify the presence/location of multiligament injury, meniscal tears, and chondral lesions. At the time of primary ACLR, a majority of knees (82%; 23/28) demonstrated concurrent injury compared with isolated ACL tears; 32% of knees sustained multiligament injuries (9/28), and 8 involved the ipsilateral medial collateral ligament (MCL). Of the ACL-injured knees, 54% had chondral lesions, of which 73% were sustained in the lateral knee compartment, and 82% of meniscal tears (14/17) were complex in nature. Bilateral ACL tears were seen in 22% of the participants, and 28% underwent ACL revision. In the case of ACL revision or future meniscal/chondral surgery, 60% of meniscal tears and 80% of chondral lesions had worsened since the time of primary ACLR. Concurrent injury was common in this group of elite ski racers. Primary ACL tears were typically accompanied by lateral compartment chondral lesions and complex meniscal tears that worsened over time. ACL/MCL tears were the most common multiligament injury pattern.

  1. Rapid hamstrings/quadriceps strength in ACL-reconstructed elite Alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Because of the importance of hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) strength for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention and the high incidence of ACL injury in ski racing, HAM and QUAD maximal and explosive strength were assessed in ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction (ACL-R). Uninjured (n = 13 males, n = 8 females) and ACL-R (n = 3 males, n = 5 females, 25.0 ± 11.3 months after operation) elite ski racers performed maximal voluntary isometric HAM and QUAD contractions to obtain maximal torque (MVC) and rate of torque development (RTD) at 0-50, 0-100, 0-150, and 0-200 ms. MVC and RTD (per kilogram body mass) were calculated for the uninjured group to compare between sexes and to compare the control group with the ACL-R limb and unaffected limb of the ACL-R skiers. HAM/QUAD MVC and RTD strength ratios (H/Q ratios) were also compared. The ACL-R limb demonstrated significant HAM and QUAD deficits compared with the contralateral limb for MVC and late-phase RTD (P ski racing, our results suggest the importance of including HAM and QUAD strength assessments in the physical evaluation of uninjured skiers. Furthermore, HAM and QUAD strength should be assessed over a long-term period after surgery to identify chronic strength deficits in ACL-R ski racers.

  2. Reproduction and genetic diversity of the swamp buffalo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yindee, M.

    2010-01-01

    The water buffalo is one of the most important domestic animals in Southeast Asia including Thailand. As the Thai swamp buffalo population declined during the last two decades, the swamp buffalo reproductive performance needs to be improved. Lack of knowledge on swamp buffalo reproduction, improper

  3. The role of Bahi swamp wetlands in enhancing household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the role of Bahi swamp resources in enhancing household food security and income of adjacent communities. Specifically, the study assessed the socioeconomic activities in the swamp with a potential contribution to local livelihoods, the contribution of the swamp in enhancing ...

  4. Studies on mangrove swamps of Goa 1. Heterotrophic bacterial flora from mangrove swamps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mathani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Heterotrophic bacterial flora from the mangrove swamps of Goa consisted of physiologically active organisms exhibiting cellulolytic, pectinolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and H2S forming activities, throughout the year. Coryneform and Bacillus were...

  5. Prevalence of Hypertension in Professional Drivers (from the RACER-ABPM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Anna E; Szymanski, Filip M; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Kotkowski, Marcin; Rys, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Adamkiewicz, Karolina

    2017-11-15

    Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Nonsystematic working hours, stress, low physical activity, and unhealthy dietary habits are common among professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of arterial hypertension in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for the classical and nonclassical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Of the RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Of this group 135 (95.7%) were male at mean age of 50.2 ± 9.3 years, with mean body mass index of 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 . In 21.3% of patients, family history of cardiovascular disease was noted, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Arterial hypertension was previously diagnosed in 39 patients (27.9%). In ABPM, the mean 24-hour blood pressure (BP) values were 130.3 ± 14.3 and 80.9 ± 9.9 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, and 46.1% of patients could be categorized as dippers. Based on the ABPM results, arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 104 of patients (73.8%). Patients with hypertension tend to be more often male and have a family history of cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, arterial hypertension is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Also abnormal day-to-night BP value patterns are often seen in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective long term adaptation and metabolic state regulation of ski-racers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Bakhareva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate effective mechanisms of organism’s bio-chemical adaptation of ski-racers in competition period with the help of lipid peroxidation indicators, oxidative modification of proteins and activity of hypothalamus pituitary adrenocortical system. Material: in the research 14 sportsmen of 18-25 years’ age (combined team of university with different level of sportsmanship participated. Assessment of free radical oxidation, anti-oxidant system, cortisol level was fulfilled with the help of indicators’ quantitative analysis by bio-chemical methods applied to blood serum samples. Results: it was found that in the basis of bio-chemical changes under intensive physical loads is increase of catabolic processes’ speed. Change of organism’s metabolic orientation of ski racers at optimal level results in working muscles’ energy supply improvement, increase of energy systems’ power and sports efficiency. Conclusions: Application of interval trainings at stages of preparation to special significant competitions results in expected adaptation and increase of sports efficiency. We also showed their effective role in ensuring long term reactions, conditioning high sports efficiency.

  7. The RACER (risk analysis, communication, evaluation, and reduction) stakeholder environmental data transparency project for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echohawk, John Chris; Dorries, Alison M.; Eberhart, Craig F.; Werdel, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    The RACER (Risk Analysis, Communication, Evaluation, and Reduction) project was created in 2003, as an effort to enhance the Los Alamos National Laboratory's ability to effectively communicate the data and processes used to evaluate environmental risks to the public and the environment. The RACER project staff consists of members of Risk Assessment Corporation, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). RACER staff worked closely with members of the community, tribal governments, and others within NMED and LANL to create innovative tools and a process that could provide information to regulators, LANL and the community about the sources of public health risk and ecological impact from LAN L operations. The RACER Data Analysis Tool (DA T) provides the public with webbased access to environmental measurement data collected in and around the LANL site. Its purpose is to provide a 'transparent' view to the public of all data collected by LANL and NMED regarding the LANL site. The DAT is available to the public at 'www.racernm.com'.

  8. Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of the joint damage in asymptomatic alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varoğlui, Erhan; Yildirim, Mustafa; Gürsoy, Recep; Seven, Bedri; Uslus, Hatice; Çoğalgil, Şirzat; Kiyici, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the role of 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) bone scintigraphy on the detection of joint damage in asymptomatic alpine ski racers. This study included 20 male asymptomatic alpine ski racers (age range: 18-21 years). None of the skiers had a history of ski crashes. Bone scan findings of the racers were examined with Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy during the active racing season and the inactive training season. Planar anterior and posterior images of hip, knee, and ankle joints were obtained 4 h after intravenous injection of 20 mCi Tc-99m MDP. All images were interpreted visually by 2 experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Free regions of interest were drawn on hip, knee, and ankle joints, as well as background regions. Joint-to-background ratios were calculated for each joint, and the uptake ratios of both right and left joints during active ski season were compared to those during the inactive training period. Uptake ratios of the right and left hip, knee, and ankle joints were significantly higher during the active racing period than those calculated during the inactive period (P alpine ski racers and can be used successfully when MRI is unavailable.

  9. Mutual mortality of great horned owl and southern black racer: a potential risk of raptors preying on snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Raymond E. Brown; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    We encountered a dead southern black racer snake (Coluber constrictor priapus) coiled around a dead Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). We suggest the owl was strangled by the snake before the snake did of wounds inflicted by the owl. There are previous reports of intense physical struggle between Great Horned Owls (and...

  10. Reproduction and genetic diversity of the swamp buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Yindee, M.

    2011-01-01

    The water buffalo is one of the most important domestic animals in Southeast Asia including Thailand. As the Thai swamp buffalo population declined during the last two decades, the swamp buffalo reproductive performance needs to be improved. Lack of knowledge on swamp buffalo reproduction, improper management and failure to use genetic superior males and females in breeding programs are the major factors to be considered. Artificial insemination was applied in Thailand but is inefficient due ...

  11. Integral handling of the swamps for indigenous communities - Caribbean of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paez, Heliodoro; Ulloa Delgado Giovanni, Andres; Tavera Escobar, Hector Arsenio

    2004-06-01

    The book includes topics like the ecosystems of swamps, zonification for its handling, growth of species of swamps, restoration and vegetation, integral plan of handling of swamps and its fauna among other topics

  12. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Swamps, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_swamp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) swamps data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  13. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economics of swamp rice production among peasant farmers in the Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State for 2001 cropping year. A total of 50 swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from 5 villages using multistage sampling technique. The data collected, with the aid of ...

  14. Analysis of Technical Efficiency among Swamp Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the Technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 159 swamp rice farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the stochastic frontier production function. The results showed ...

  15. Economic analysis of swamp rice production in Ebonyi Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the determinants and profitability of the output of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi southern Agricultural zone of Ebonyi State. Primary data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaires. A total of eighty (80) swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from the different blocks ...

  16. Gravity Racers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Roberts, Shannon; Wilcox, David

    2010-01-01

    With the 2010 Winter Olympic Games prominent in the media, children were exposed to images of athletes skiing down snow-covered slopes, coasting furiously on bobsleds, and skating gracefully across the ice. Therefore, the authors capitalized on their children's natural curiosity about the world around them by exploring the concept of motion in a…

  17. Case study of a female ocean racer: prerace preparation and nutritional intake during the Vendée Globe 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Deborah; Sutton, Louise; O'Hara, John; Brightmore, Amy; King, Roderick; Cooke, Carlton

    2012-06-01

    The Vendée Globe is a solo round-the-world sailing race without stopovers or assistance, a physically demanding challenge for which appropriate nutrition should maintain energy balance and ensure optimum performance. This is an account of prerace nutritional preparation with a professional and experienced female racer and assessment of daily nutritional intake (NI) during the race using a multimethod approach. A daily energy intake (EI) of 15.1 MJ/day was recommended for the race and negotiated down by the racer to 12.7 MJ/day, with carbohydrate and fluid intake goals of 480 g/day and 3,020 ml/day, respectively. Throughout the 99-day voyage, daily NI was recorded using electronic food diaries and inventories piloted during training races. NI was assessed and a postrace interview and questionnaire were used to evaluate the intervention. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed pre- (37 days) and postrace (11 days) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body mass was measured before the racer stepped on the yacht and immediately postrace. Mean EI was 9.2 MJ/day (2.4-14.3 MJ/day), representing a negative energy balance of 3.5 MJ/day under the negotiated EI goal, evidenced by a 7.9-kg loss of body mass (FM -7.5 kg, FFM -0.4 kg) during the voyage, with consequent underconsumption of carbohydrate by ~130 g/day. According to the postrace yacht food inventory, self-reported EI was underreported by 7%. This intervention demonstrates the practicality of the NI approach and assessment, but the racer's nutrition strategy can be further improved to facilitate meeting more optimal NI goals for performance and health. It also shows that evaluation of NI is possible in this environment over prolonged periods, which can provide important information for optimizing nutritional strategies for ocean racing.

  18. Lower limb asymmetry in mechanical muscle function: A comparison between ski racers with and without ACL reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, M J; Aagaard, P; Herzog, W

    2015-06-01

    Due to a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-injury in alpine ski racers, this study aims to assess functional asymmetry in the countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), and leg muscle mass in elite ski racers with and without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). Elite alpine skiers with ACL-R (n = 9; 26.2 ± 11.8 months post-op) and uninjured skiers (n = 9) participated in neuromuscular screening. Vertical ground reaction force during the CMJ and SJ was assessed using dual force plate methodology to obtain phase-specific bilateral asymmetry indices (AIs) for kinetic impulse (CMJ and SJ phase-specific kinetic impulse AI). Dual x-ray absorptiometry scanning was used to assess asymmetry in lower body muscle mass. Compared with controls, ACL-R skiers had increased AI in muscle mass (P ski racers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Physical Models and Statistical Procedures Used in the RACER Monte Carlo Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, T.M.; Brown, F.B.; Bischoff, F.G.; MacMillan, D.B.; Ellis, C.L.; Ward, J.T.; Ballinger, C.T.; Kelly, D.J.; Schindler, L.

    1999-07-01

    This report describes the MCV (Monte Carlo - Vectorized)Monte Carlo neutron transport code [Brown, 1982, 1983; Brown and Mendelson, 1984a]. MCV is a module in the RACER system of codes that is used for Monte Carlo reactor physics analysis. The MCV module contains all of the neutron transport and statistical analysis functions of the system, while other modules perform various input-related functions such as geometry description, material assignment, output edit specification, etc. MCV is very closely related to the 05R neutron Monte Carlo code [Irving et al., 1965] developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 05R evolved into the 05RR module of the STEMB system, which was the forerunner of the RACER system. Much of the overall logic and physics treatment of 05RR has been retained and, indeed, the original verification of MCV was achieved through comparison with STEMB results. MCV has been designed to be very computationally efficient [Brown, 1981, Brown and Martin, 1984b; Brown, 1986]. It was originally programmed to make use of vector-computing architectures such as those of the CDC Cyber- 205 and Cray X-MP. MCV was the first full-scale production Monte Carlo code to effectively utilize vector-processing capabilities. Subsequently, MCV was modified to utilize both distributed-memory [Sutton and Brown, 1994] and shared memory parallelism. The code has been compiled and run on platforms ranging from 32-bit UNIX workstations to clusters of 64-bit vector-parallel supercomputers. The computational efficiency of the code allows the analyst to perform calculations using many more neutron histories than is practical with most other Monte Carlo codes, thereby yielding results with smaller statistical uncertainties. MCV also utilizes variance reduction techniques such as survival biasing, splitting, and rouletting to permit additional reduction in uncertainties. While a general-purpose neutron Monte Carlo code, MCV is optimized for reactor physics calculations. It has the

  20. The scientific value and potential of New Zealand swamp kauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Boswijk, Gretel; Hogg, Alan; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Christian S. M.; Fowler, Anthony M.; Ogden, John; Woolley, John-Mark

    2018-03-01

    New Zealand swamp kauri (Agathis australis) are relic trees that have been buried and preserved in anoxic bog environments of northern New Zealand for centuries through to hundreds of millennia. Kauri are massive in proportion to other native New Zealand trees and they can attain ages greater than 1000 years. The export market for swamp (subfossil) kauri has recently been driven by demand for a high-value workable timber, but there are concerns about the sustainability of the remaining resource, a situation exacerbated in recent years by the rapid extraction of wood. Economic exploitation of swamp kauri presents several unique opportunities for Quaternary science, however the scientific value of this wood is not well understood by the wider research community and public. Here, we summarise the history of scientific research on swamp kauri, and explore the considerable potential of this unique resource. Swamp kauri tree-ring chronologies are temporally unique, and secondary analyses (such as radiocarbon and isotopic analyses) have value for improving our understanding of Earth's recent geologic history and pre-instrumental climate history. Swamp kauri deposits that span the last interglacial-glacial cycle show potential to yield "ultra-long" multi-millennia tree-ring chronologies, and composite records spanning large parts of MIS3 (and most of the Holocene) may be possible. High-precision radiocarbon dating of swamp kauri chronologies can improve the resolution of the global radiocarbon calibration curve, while testing age modelling and chronologic alignment of other independent long-term high-resolution proxy records. Swamp kauri also has the potential to facilitate absolute dating and verification of cosmogenic events found in long Northern Hemisphere tree-ring chronologies. Future efforts to conserve these identified values requires scientists to work closely with swamp kauri industry operators, resource consent authorities, and export regulators to mitigate

  1. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Li Ping

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Methods Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. Results A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years. Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77 years (range: 2 months to 12 years, with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%, followed by alcohol drinking (27.8% and recreational drug use (18.8%. Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Conclusion Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  2. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-06-08

    This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit". Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years). Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77) years (range: 2 months to 12 years), with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%), followed by alcohol drinking (27.8%) and recreational drug use (18.8%). Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

  3. The fungal flora of the mangrove swamps of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahtani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Mangrove swamps of Goa (India) showed the presence of fungi belonging to 14 different genera, predominant ones being Monilia, Mucor, Syncephalastrum, Aspergillus and Trichothecium. Most of the isolates were found to be physiologically active...

  4. Regeneration potential of Taxodium distichum swamps and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Seed bank densities respond to factors across local to landscape scales, and therefore, knowledge of these responses may be necessary in forecasting the effects of climate change on the regeneration of species. This study relates the seed bank densities of species of Taxodium distichum swamps to local water regime and regional climate factors at five latitudes across the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley from southern Illinois to Louisiana. In an outdoor nursery setting, the seed banks of twenty-five swamps were exposed to non-flooded (freely drained) or flooded treatments, and the number and species of seeds germinating were recorded from each swamp during one growing season. Based on ANOVA analysis, the majority of dominant species had a higher rate of germination in non-flooded versus flooded treatments. Similarly, an NMS comparison, which considered the local water regime and regional climate of the swamps, found that the species of seeds germinating, almost completely shifted under non-flooded versus flooded treatments. For example, in wetter northern swamps, seeds of Taxodium distichum germinated in non-flooded conditions, but did not germinate from the same seed banks in flooded conditions. In wetter southern swamps, seeds of Eleocharis cellulosa germinated in flooded conditions, but did not germinate in non-flooded conditions. The strong relationship of seed germination and density relationships with local water regime and regional climate variables suggests that the forecasting of climate change effects on swamps and other wetlands needs to consider a variety of interrelated variables to make adequate projections of the regeneration responses of species to climate change. Because regeneration is an important aspect of species maintenance and restoration, climate drying could influence the species distribution of these swamps in the future. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  5. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible

  6. The 2.5-minute loaded repeated jump test: evaluating anaerobic capacity in alpine ski racers with loaded countermovement jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Carson; Raschner, Christian; Platzer, Hans-Peter

    2014-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to test the reproducibility of the 2.5-minute loaded repeated jump test (LRJT) and to test the effectiveness of general preparation period (GPP) training on anaerobic fitness of elite alpine ski racers with the LRJT. Thirteen male volunteers completed 2 LRJTs to examine reliability. Nine male Austrian elite junior racers were tested in June and October 2009. The LRJT consisted of 60 loaded countermovement jumps (LCMJs) with a loaded barbell equivalent to 40% bodyweight. Before the LRJT, the power (P) of a single LCMJ was determined. Power was calculated from ground reaction forces. The mean P was calculated for the complete test and for each 30-second interval. The interclass correlation coefficients (between 0.88 and 0.99) for main variables of the LRJT demonstrated a high reliability. A repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that anaerobic capacity was significantly higher in October (p ≤ 0.05). The ski racers' single LCMJ P increased from 37.0 ± 1.2 W·kg to 39.0 ± 1.4 W·kg. The mean P of the total test improved from 33.6 ± 1.2 W·kg to 35.8 ± 1.3 W·kg, but relative effect of fatigue did not change. The GPP training improved the athletes' ability to produce and maintain muscular power. The LRJT is a reliable anaerobic test suitable for all alpine ski racing events because the 60 jumps simulate the approximate number of gates in slalom and giant slalom races and the 2.5 minutes is equivalent to the duration of the longest downhill race.

  7. Structure and phytogeographic relationships of swamp forests of Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Coutinho Kurtz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Swamp forests are associated with soils that are saturated or inundated because of a high water table. In Brazil, little is known about the plant ecology of such forests. In this paper, we aimed to describe the phytosociological structure of the tree layer of swamp forests in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, in the northern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro, and to evaluate the floristic similarities between these forests and some other possibly related types of vegetation formations in Brazil. The sampling included 84 species, within 62 genera and 34 families. The Shannon diversity index was 3.42, and the Shannon evenness index was 0.77. The forests studied showed an oligarchic structure; Tapirira guianensis, Calophyllum brasiliense and Protium icicariba were the most important species. Oligarchy, or monodominance, and relatively low species richness are the norm in the swamp forests of southeastern Brazil and result from the strong selective character of the saturated/inundated soils. In comparison with local areas of restinga (coastal woodland, Atlantic Forest sensu stricto, other swamp forests and flooded riparian forests, the similarity was low (Jaccard similarity coefficient < 0.25. In addition to the similar ecological conditions, geographic proximity was a key factor determining the patterns of similarity found. Our results indicate that the swamp forests of southeastern Brazil do not represent a distinguishable floristic unit, due to sources of local variation, notably migration and the establishment of adaptive species from neighboring vegetation formations (some 70% of the species surveyed.

  8. Benefits of Riverine Water Discharge into the Lorian Swamp, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipporah Musyimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. This paper reviews information on water use in the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment, Kenya, to evaluate the effects of upstream abstraction on the Lorian Swamp, a wetland used by pastoralists downstream. We first assess the abstractions and demands for water upstream and the river water supplies at the upper and the lower end of the Lorian Swamp. Further analysis of 12 years of monthly SPOT-VEGETATION satellite imagery reveals higher NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index values in the swamp than nearby rainfed areas, with the difference in NDVI between the two positively related to river water discharged into the swamp. The paper next reviews the benefits derived from water entering the swamp and the vulnerability to abstractions for three categories of water: (i the surface water used for drinking and sanitation; (ii the surface water that supports forage production; and (iii the water that recharges the Merti Aquifer. Our results suggest that benefits from surface water for domestic use and forage production are vulnerable to abstractions upstream whereas the benefits from the aquifer, with significant fossil water, are likely to be affected in the long run, but not the short term.

  9. Alternating myocardial sympathetic neural function of athlete's heart in professional cycle racers examined with iodine-123-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Keiko; Inoue, Tomio; Hasegawa, Akira; Oriuchi, Noboru; Okamoto, Eiichi; Tomaru, Yumi; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-08-01

    Myocardial sympathetic neural function in professional athletes who had the long-term tremendous cardiac load has not been fully investigated by myocardial iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in comparison with power spectral analysis (PSA) in electrocardiography. Eleven male professional cycle racers and age-matched 11 male healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The low frequency components in the power spectral density (LF), the high frequency components in the power spectral density (HF), the LF/HF ratio and mean R-R interval were derived from PSA and time-domain analysis of heart rate variability in electrocardiography. The mean heart-to-mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M ratio) of the MIBG uptake, in professional cycle racers was significantly lower than that in healthy volunteers (p<0.01) and HF power in professional cycle racers was significantly higher than that in healthy volunteers (p<0.05). In the group of professional cycle racers, the H/M ratio showed a significant correlation with the R-R interval, as indices of parasympathetic nerve activity (r=0.80, p<0.01), but not with the LF/HF ratio as an index of sympathetic nerve activity. These results may indicate that parasympathetic nerve activity has an effect on MIBG uptake in a cyclist's heart. (author)

  10. Swamp Buffalo in South Kalimantan : Problem, Disease and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have been carried out to evaluate and investigate the important diseases of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus carabanensis in Kalimantan . More attention has been focused on the case of acute infectious diseases and sudden death in the buffaloes . Fasciolosis black disease, acute enteritis, especially fatal enterotoxaemia haemorrhagic septicaemia . and trypanosomiasis (Surra, are some of the important diseases found in these animals . Black disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium novyi occurs in the presence of the organism in the liver and the degree of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation . In regions where black disease is enzootic, Cl. novvi can be isolated from livers of normal healthy animals . In Hulu Sungai Utara district, South Kalimantan, the prevalence of fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica in swamp buffalo was 77% in 1991 . A gross sudden change in diet due to seasonal changes could induce rumen and intestinal stasis, which provide a favourable environment for the rapid proliferation of commensal toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine . Subsequent absorption of the toxin produced through the gut wall and its generalized dissemination culminated in a fatal enterotoxaemia . Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS is an acute, fatal disease affecting swamp buffalo, and caused by Pasteurella multocida B : 2 . The swamp buffalo is particularly susceptible for HS, and the reported greatest losses of swamp buffalo in Kalimantan due to HS is recorded in 1980s. The clinical signs of Surra in swamp buffalo were also found in certain areas in Danau Panggang area . Hulu Sungai Utara district . Vaccination is the accepted method for controlling Black disease, enterotoxaemia and HS. Multi component vaccine, alum adjuvant containing at least 5 types of clostridial toxoids and P. multocida B2 bacterin have been used and provide good protection to the animals . Control and treatment of liver fluke infestation

  11. Outcomes after knee microfracture of chondral defects in alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, J Richard; Hanson, Chad M; Briggs, Karen K; Matheny, Lauren M; James, Evan W; Guillet, Alyson

    2014-10-01

    Articular cartilage defects of the knee have been shown to cause pain, swelling, decreased function, and suboptimal athletic performance. Treatment of elite-level athletes presenting with full-thickness chondral defects of the knee continues to be a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. The purpose of this study was to document outcomes in elite professional alpine ski racers after microfracture surgery. This study was approved by an institutional review board. All patients who competed in professional ski races recognized by International Ski Federation and had a full-thickness knee articular cartilage defect, treated with microfracture, by a single surgeon, were included in the study. All data were collected prospectively. At minimum 2 years following microfracture, all patients completed a questionnaire, including Lysholm score, Tegner activity scale, and patient satisfaction with outcome. Minimum 2-year follow-up was available for 18 of 20 skiers (90%) at an average follow-up of 77 months (range, 24-255 months). Size of knee articular cartilage defect was larger in males (195 mm(2)) compared with females (155 mm(2)); however, this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Median postoperative Tegner activity scale was 10 (range, 4-10). Mean postoperative Lysholm score was 86 (range, 41-100). Median postoperative patient satisfaction score was 10 (range, 9-10). Out of the 20 skiers, 19 (95%) returned to competitive skiing. The age of the skier who did not return was 28 years. The average time from surgery to return to competition was 13.4 months (range, 0.5-25.3 months). Average end-of-season overall World Cup ranking was calculated for the nine skiers before and after surgery. Of these nine skiers, six had an improved average overall World Cup ranking after microfracture. In this study, patient satisfaction with outcome and function were high following microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of the knee. Nearly all skiers returned to

  12. Characteristics of mangrove swamps managed for mosquito control in eastern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Devlin, D.; Proffitt, E.; McKee, K.; Cretini, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulations of the vegetation and hydrology of wetlands for mosquito control are common worldwide, but these modifications may affect vital ecosystem processes. To control mosquitoes in mangrove swamps in eastern Florida, managers have used rotational impoundment management (RIM) as an alternative to the worldwide practice of mosquito ditching. Levees surround RIM swamps, and water is pumped into the impoundment during the summer, a season when natural swamps have low water levels. In the New World, these mosquito-managed swamps resemble the mixed basin type of mangrove swamp (based on PCA analysis). An assessment was made of RIM, natural (control), and breached-RIM (restored) swamps in eastern Florida to compare their structural complexities, soil development, and resistance to invasion. Regarding structural complexity, dominant species composition differed between these swamps; the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle occurred at a higher relative density in RIM and breached-RIM swamps, and the black mangrove Avicennia germinans had a higher relative density in natural swamps. Tree density and canopy cover were higher and tree height lower in RIM swamps than in natural and breached-RIM swamps. Soil organic matter in RIM swamps was twice that in natural or breached-RIM swamps. RIM swamps had a lower resistance to invasion by the Brazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthifolius, which is likely attributable to the lower porewater salinity in RIM swamps. These characteristics may reflect differences in important ecosystem processes (primary production, trophic structure, nutrient cycling, decomposition). Comparative assessments of managed wetlands are vital for land managers, so that they can make informed decisions compatible with conservation objectives. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  13. Biology and control of swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewick, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model predicting swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd.) emergence was developed. The model states that 0.1% of the cranberry seedlings will emerge after 150 to 170 GDD have accumulated after the winter ice has melted on the cranberry beds, using 0 C as the low temperature threshold. Experiments in cranberry showed that pronamide [3,5-dichloro-(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide] was effective in controlling swamp dodder when applied preemergence. Rates below 2.4 kg ai/ha appeared to be safe for cranberry plants and fruit. Experiments with 14 C glyphosate showed that the herbicide moved out of carrot leaves to the physiological sinks in the plant. In carrots parasitized by swamp dodder the dodder acted as one of the strongest sinks for photosynthates from the host. In cranberry glyphosate moved out of the leaves, but most remained in the stem to which the treated leaves were attached. The only physiological sinks that accumulated significant amounts of label were the stem apices. The concentration of the herbicide in this sink decreased with time. Swamp dodder stems were able to absorb glyphosate directly from solution

  14. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  15. Production Efficiency of Swamp Rice Production in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares profit maximization, output optimization and resource use efficiency in production of two varieties of swamp rice by farmers in Cross River State of Nigeria. Data were collected from 224 rice farmers from twelve Local Government Areas in Cross River State were interviewed using three-stage stratified ...

  16. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  17. Invertebrate Encrustations On The Mangrove Swamp Oyster And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mangrove swamp oyster Crassostrea tulipa demonstrates a symbiotic relationship with the barnacle. Balnus sp and other encrusting invertebrates. It is inferred that the latter militate against predatory drilling on the oyster by Thais califera as well as prevent algal infestation and the consequent bioerosion by herbivorous ...

  18. The velocity-thickness characteristics of the mangrove swamp low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 14 upholes were shot in the Mangrove Swamp of the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The aim of the survey was to determine the thickness and velocity of the low velocity layer (LVL). The velocities and thickness of the layers were computed from the reciprocals of the slopes of the straight-line segments using the FACE ...

  19. SURVEY OF ECONOMIC TREES IN FRESH WATER SWAMP OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... availability because it determines the number of surviving individuals. This is true for all species of .... 2010). CRUTECH, Calabar forest is a pseudo forest having characteristics of rain and swamp forests. ... as reflected in the random and contiguous distribution. (clumped or aggregated population) of the ...

  20. Alpine skiing injuries in Finland - a two-year retrospective study based on a questionnaire among Ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, Antti J; Handolin, Lauri E

    2014-02-24

    Alpine skiing is one of the most popular winter sports in the world. Nevertheless, it has always been associated with a high risk of injury. There are however, only a few studies that have examined the risk of injury of competitive skiers, especially of the junior ski racers. The inclusion criterion was an injury in alpine skiing resulting in a pause in training longer than one week. Athletes of all ages were included. The study period was from the start of the season of 2008-2009 to end of the season of 2009-2010 (two years). The average annual number of ski racers in Finland was 661. There were 61 injuries (36 males with a median age of 14 years, 25 females with a median age of 14) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Ligamentous knee injury was the most frequent (17) and lower leg fracture the second common (16) injury, respectively. There was a female dominance in the ACL injuries. Only one major abdominal injury and no major head injuries were observed. The overall training pause was 26 weeks after the ACL injury and 17 weeks after the lower leg fracture, respectively. The most common and most disabling injuries affect the knee and the lower leg. The high number of lower leg and ACL injuries is alarming. A continuous and careful monitoring of injuries needs to be established to assess this trend. A systematic review of injuries is the appropriate way to monitor the effects of changes made in terms of safety. The present retrospective two-year pilot study forms a base for a continuous alpine ski injury survey in Finland.

  1. Alpine skiing injuries in Finland – a two-year retrospective study based on a questionnaire among Ski racers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpine skiing is one of the most popular winter sports in the world. Nevertheless, it has always been associated with a high risk of injury. There are however, only a few studies that have examined the risk of injury of competitive skiers, especially of the junior ski racers. Methods The inclusion criterion was an injury in alpine skiing resulting in a pause in training longer than one week. Athletes of all ages were included. The study period was from the start of the season of 2008–2009 to end of the season of 2009–2010 (two years). Results The average annual number of ski racers in Finland was 661. There were 61 injuries (36 males with a median age of 14 years, 25 females with a median age of 14) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Ligamentous knee injury was the most frequent (17) and lower leg fracture the second common (16) injury, respectively. There was a female dominance in the ACL injuries. Only one major abdominal injury and no major head injuries were observed. The overall training pause was 26 weeks after the ACL injury and 17 weeks after the lower leg fracture, respectively. Conclusion The most common and most disabling injuries affect the knee and the lower leg. The high number of lower leg and ACL injuries is alarming. A continuous and careful monitoring of injuries needs to be established to assess this trend. A systematic review of injuries is the appropriate way to monitor the effects of changes made in terms of safety. The present retrospective two-year pilot study forms a base for a continuous alpine ski injury survey in Finland. PMID:24565467

  2. Injuries and illnesses in a cohort of elite youth alpine ski racers and the influence of biological maturity and relative age: a two-season prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Müller, Erich; Oberhoffer, Renate; Raschner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Studies on injuries and illnesses involving youth ski racers younger than 15 years are lacking in the literature. The aim of this study was prospectively to assess the incidence, prevalence, and severity of traumatic and overuse injuries, as well as illnesses of elite youth ski racers with regard to sex, biological maturity status, and relative age. A prospective, longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor the anthropometrics, training characteristics, traumatic and overuse injuries, and illnesses of 82 elite youth ski racers (51 males, 31 females, age 9-14 years) over 2 consecutive years. The exact training exposure (skiing and athletic) was recorded. Relative age and estimated biological maturity status were assessed. Relatively low injury incidence or prevalence (traumatic, 0.86/1,000 hours of training; overuse, 0.28/1,000 hours) and comparably high illness prevalence (2.4/athlete) were reported. The knee was the most commonly affected body part (traumatic injuries 36.5%, overuse injuries 82%). A high number of bone fractures were revealed (46%), while no stress fractures occurred; 66% of the illnesses were respiratory tract infections. No differences were found between males and females, the differing maturity groups, or relative age quartiles. Early-maturing athletes had comparably low traumatic and overuse-injury rates. Relatively younger athletes had low traumatic injury rates. The injury-prevention measures implemented in the training process of youth ski racers seem to contribute to a low incidence of injury. Biological maturity status should be considered in the training process to prevent injuries in late-maturing athletes.

  3. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  4. Palynological analysis of a palm swamp in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-vicentini, K. R.; Salgado-Labouriau, M. L.

    1996-07-01

    A 281 cm core collected in a palm swamp in Central Brazil yielded ages from more than 32,400 radiocarbon years B.P. to about 3,500 B.P. The palynological analysis indicates changes and oscillations in the climate during this time. At more than 32,400 years B.P. a palm swamp ( Mauritia) and a gallery forest occupied the coring site and an arboreal cerrado (savannalike vegetation) occurred in the region around the studied area. This indicates a vegetation similar to the present, suggesting a warm semi-humid climate with four to five months dry season as at present. At the end of the Middle Pleniglacial (32,400 to ca. 28,300) trees and shrubs started to decline in the region. From ca. 27,000 to ca. 20,000 B.P. the palm swamp was replaced by a shallow lake and a grassland occupied the region. This phase was humid and probably colder than the preceding two phases and the present climate. The decrease of pollen, spores and algae concentration from ca. 18,500 to ca. 11,300 suggests a dry and perhaps cold phase at the end of the Pleistocene. The dryness (but not the cold) continued from ca. 10,500 until ca. 7,700 and the site was burned during this phase, suggesting the dry season was longer than at present. From 6,680 to ca. 3,500 B.P. the Mauritia swamp, the gallery forest and the arboreal cerrado started to return to the region indicating an increase in humidity. There is no record from there to the present because of present human disturbance. The occurrence of abundant charcoal particles in the older sediments suggest that natural fires burned the cerrado several times during the Pleniglacial time, although the palm swamp was not directly burned. The presence of charcoal particles in the beginning of the Holocene could be in part produced by human occupation of the land. Comparison is made with results of other palynological analyses from cerrados and savannas of northern South America.

  5. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data ...

  6. SplitRacer - a new Semi-Automatic Tool to Quantify And Interpret Teleseismic Shear-Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M. C.; Rumpker, G.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a semi-automatic, MATLAB-based GUI to combine standard seismological tasks such as the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting. Shear-wave splitting analysis is widely used to infer seismic anisotropy, which can be interpreted in terms of lattice-preferred orientation of mantle minerals, shape-preferred orientation caused by fluid-filled cracks or alternating layers. Seismic anisotropy provides a unique link between directly observable surface structures and the more elusive dynamic processes in the mantle below. Thus, resolving the seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere/asthenosphere is of particular importance for geodynamic modeling and interpretations. The increasing number of seismic stations from temporary experiments and permanent installations creates a new basis for comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. However, the increasingly large data sets pose new challenges for the rapid and reliably analysis of teleseismic waveforms and for the interpretation of the measurements. Well-established routines and programs are available but are often impractical for analyzing large data sets from hundreds of stations. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same well-defined quality criteria which may complicate comparison with results from different studies. SplitRacer has been designed to overcome these challenges by incorporation of the following processing steps: i) downloading of waveform data from multiple stations in mseed-format using FDSNWS tools; ii) automated initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold; iii) particle-motion analysis of selected phases at longer periods to detect and correct for sensor misalignment; iv) splitting analysis of selected phases based on transverse-energy minimization for multiple, randomly-selected, relevant time windows; v) one and two-layer joint-splitting analysis for all phases at one station by

  7. Autolysis at the disintegrin domain of patagonfibrase, a metalloproteinase from Philodryas patagoniensis (Patagonia Green Racer; Dipsadidae) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María E; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Pauletti, Bianca A; Batista, Isabel Correia; Mackessy, Stephen P; Acosta, Ofelia; Santoro, Marcelo L

    2010-09-01

    Patagonfibrase is a 57.5-kDa hemorrhagic metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of Philodryas patagoniensis (Patagonia Green Racer), a South American rear-fanged snake. Herein we demonstrate that patagonfibrase undergoes autolysis at its pH optimum (7.5) and at 37 degrees C, primarily producing a approximately 32.6 kDa fragment composed of disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, as identified by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. The autolysis site for production of this fragment is similar to that observed for metalloproteinases from front-fanged Viperidae snake venoms. In the presence of Ca(2+), patagonfibrase was only partially autolysed, giving rise mainly to one fragment of approximately 52.2 kDa. In addition, calcium markedly enhanced the azocaseinolytic activity of patagonfibrase. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the structural and mechanistic bases of this family of metalloenzymes that are widely distributed among snake venoms, demonstrating that important post-translational modifications such as proteolysis can also contribute to the diversity and complexity of proteins found in rear-fanged snake venoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of coachwhip presence on body size of North American racers suggests competition between these sympatric snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, David A.; McClure, Christopher J.W.; Smith, Lora L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Dodd, C. Kenneth; Sutton, William B.; Lee, James R.; Baxley, Danna L.; Humphries, W. Jeffrey; Guyer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    When sympatric species compete, character divergence may help maintain coexistence. Snakes are often found in species-rich assemblages while exploiting similar resources; because snake body size is a relatively plastic trait that determines the range of prey sizes an individual may consume, divergence in body size between sympatric species may arise as a result of interspecific interactions. The North American racer, Coluber constrictor, and the larger coachwhip, Coluber flagellum, have a close taxonomic relationship and similar foraging strategies. Therefore, we hypothesized that C. constrictor would be smaller where they co-occur with C. flagellum, as compared to where C. flagellum is absent, throughout the southeastern extent of their range. To evaluate this hypothesis, we obtained data on body size for 2321 adult C. constrictor and 526 adult C. flagellum, along with habitat data and other potentially important factors influencing body size. Coluber constrictor was smaller than elsewhere when in peninsular Florida, in pine forests, on hydric soils and in the presence of the larger and potentially competing C. flagellum. Body size of C. flagellum did not vary by any measured habitat variables. The trends we documented are consistent with the hypothesis that C. constrictor body size is influenced by several variables, including co-occurrence with C. flagellum.

  9. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to

  10. 75 FR 41879 - Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, NJ AGENCY: Fish and... (CCP) and associated environmental assessment (EA) for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). We... intentions to conduct detailed planning on refuges and obtain suggestions and information about the scope of...

  11. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  12. Epidemiology of dyslipidaemia in professional drivers: results of RACER-ABPM (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzowski, Bartosz; Płatek, Anna E; Szymański, Filip M; Ryś, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Kotkowski, Marcin; Filipiak, Krzysztof J

    2018-01-01

    Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Non-systematic working hours, prolonged stress, low physical activity, along with irregular, and in most cases, unhealthy meals are common aspects of the normal working schedule of most of the professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Out of the whole RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Out of this group 135 (95.7%) were male, and the mean age was 50.2 ± 9.3 years, and mean body mass index was 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m². A family history of CVD was noted in 21.3% of patients, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Out of those patients, 72.2% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level > 115 mg/dL, 85.5% had LDL-C > 100 mg/dL, and 96.7% had LDL-C > 70 mg/dL. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol 150 mg/dL were found in 28.9% of cases. In conclusion, dyslipidaemia is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Obesity is one of the major contributors to the cardiovascular risk, and dyslipidaemia along with other risk factors highly prevalent in this subgroup accounts for poorer prognosis.

  13. Injuries and illnesses in a cohort of elite youth alpine ski racers and the influence of biological maturity and relative age: a two-season prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lisa Müller,1 Carolin Hildebrandt,1,2 Erich Müller,3 Renate Oberhoffer,2 Christian Raschner1 1Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; 2Department of Sport and Health Science, Preventative Pediatrics, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria Background: Studies on injuries and illnesses involving youth ski racers younger than 15 years are lacking in the literature. The aim of this study was prospectively to assess the incidence, prevalence, and severity of traumatic and overuse injuries, as well as illnesses of elite youth ski racers with regard to sex, biological maturity status, and relative age.Subjects and methods: A prospective, longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor the anthropometrics, training characteristics, traumatic and overuse injuries, and illnesses of 82 elite youth ski racers (51 males, 31 females, age 9–14 years over 2 consecutive years. The exact training exposure (skiing and athletic was recorded. Relative age and estimated biological maturity status were assessed.Results: Relatively low injury incidence or prevalence (traumatic, 0.86/1,000 hours of training; overuse, 0.28/1,000 hours and comparably high illness prevalence (2.4/athlete were reported. The knee was the most commonly affected body part (traumatic injuries 36.5%, overuse injuries 82%. A high number of bone fractures were revealed (46%, while no stress fractures occurred; 66% of the illnesses were respiratory tract infections. No differences were found between males and females, the differing maturity groups, or relative age quartiles. Early-maturing athletes had comparably low traumatic and overuse-injury rates. Relatively younger athletes had low traumatic injury rates.Conclusion: The injury-prevention measures implemented in the training process of youth ski racers seem to contribute to a low incidence of injury. Biological

  14. Double origin of the racer goby (Babka gymnotrachelus in Poland revealed with mitochondrial marker. Possible implications for the species alien/native status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Grabowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In mid-1990s racer goby, Babka gymnotrachelus, penetrated to the Vistula and Western Bug rivers in Poland through the canal connecting the Baltic and the Black Sea basins, namely the Vistula and Dnieper drainages. In early 2000s, the species was reported from Polish section of the Strwiąż River that is an affluent of the Dniester River that drains to the Black Sea basin. According to the Polish legislation, the racer goby has been enlisted in as an alien invasive species that may pose threat to local biota. Our analysis of the mtDNA cytochrome b diversity revealed that the Vistula/Western Bug and Strwiąż populations are different genetic units. First one originated from the Dnieper River, while the second derives from the Dniester River. According to the results of mismatch analysis, both are in the stage of demographic and spatial expansion. The haplotype frequencies in population from the Vistula/Western Bug differ significantly from those in the source population in Dnieper, suggesting founder effect, possibly due to human-mediated introduction of low number of individuals. On the other side, the population in Strwiąż does not differ in structure from the one in Dniester, providing a hint towards spontaneous range expansion. Interpretation of our results in light of historical data lead to the conclusion that presence of racer goby in Strwiąż was probably overlooked in previous, spatially limited, studies. Thus, in Strwiąż the species should not be treated as alien, contrary to its status in the Vistula drainage. This double origin of racer goby populations in Poland creates a peculiar situation for national legislation procedures as one population is alien and invasive, while the other one is not. In light of our findings, the population from Strwiąż should be recognised as a special case. Steps should be undertaken to raise public awareness to prevent translocation of the gobies between the rivers to prevent deterioration of the

  15. SplitRacer - a semi-automatic tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg

    2017-04-01

    We present a semi-automatic, graphical user interface tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting in MATLAB. Shear wave splitting analysis is a standard tool to infer seismic anisotropy, which is often interpreted as due to lattice-preferred orientation of e.g. mantle minerals or shape-preferred orientation caused by cracks or alternating layers in the lithosphere and hence provides a direct link to the earth's kinematic processes. The increasing number of permanent stations and temporary experiments result in comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. Their successive comparison with a growing number of global models of mantle flow further advances our understanding the earth's interior. However, increasingly large data sets pose the inevitable question as to how to process them. Well-established routines and programs are accurate but often slow and impractical for analyzing a large amount of data. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same quality criteria which complicates a straight-forward comparison. SplitRacer consists of several processing steps: i) download of data per FDSNWS, ii) direct reading of miniSEED-files and an initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold. iii) an analysis of the particle motion of selected phases and successive correction of the sensor miss-alignment based on the long-axis of the particle motion. iv) splitting analysis of selected events: seismograms are first rotated into radial and transverse components, then the energy-minimization method is applied, which provides the polarization and delay time of the phase. To estimate errors, the analysis is done for different randomly-chosen time windows. v) joint-splitting analysis for all events for one station, where the energy content of all phases is inverted simultaneously. This allows to decrease the influence of noise and to increase robustness of the measurement

  16. Holocene mangrove swamps of West Africa sedimentology and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius, C.; Lucas, J.

    The mangrove swamps of West African Coast belong to the Atlantic type which is characterized by a small number of species. They colonize tidal environments which are dissected by numerous meandering tidal channels and are presently subject to a low rate of sediment accumulation. The mangrove vegetation exhibits a characteristic zonation pattern that basically reflects the adaptation of the various species to saline conditions. The typical zonation sequence is: Rhizophora racemosa (or Rh. mangle), Rh. mangle + Avicennia africana, Avicennia, flooded tanne, barren tanne, herbaceous tanne. The tannes are generated by aridic climatic conditions, heavy soil and water salt content, and are, in a way a peculiar feature of mangrove swamps in West Africa. The sediment colonized by the mangroves is relatively homogenous. Mineralogically, they are dominated by quartz and clay to which are associated halite, pyrite and jarosite. The clay suite is mainly composed of smectite and kaolinite. Smectite is predominant in the inlet areas and is replaced inland by kaolinite. Chemically, the sediments contain very low amounts of Ca, bases and trace elements. The mangrove swamp floodwaters have a chemical composition similar to that of seawater. It is dominated by sodium and chloride. Morphologically, the ripening of the soils appears with a chestnut mash colour horizon and buttery consistency in relation with the decomposition of fibrous roots of Rhizophora and also with pale yellow jarosite mottles in the top horizons of the tanne profiles due to the oxidation of pyrine. The two main properties of the mangrove soils of West Africa are acidity and salinity; the first is related to the high content of sulphur and the second to the sea influence. The acidity has to be connected mainly to the Rhizophora vegetation whose the root system is a real trap for catching the pyrites resulting from the reduction of the sulphates of sea water by the sulphate reducing bacteria, in a reduced

  17. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sleeter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting. Results We modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985–2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C coming from above-ground biomass and detritus. Conclusions Natural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha−1/year−1 for Atlantic white cedar, the total

  18. SWAMP+: multiple subsequence alignment using associative massive parallelism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfadt, Shannon Irene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Johnnie W [KENT STATE UNIV.

    2010-10-18

    A new parallel algorithm SWAMP+ incorporates the Smith-Waterman sequence alignment on an associative parallel model known as ASC. It is a highly sensitive parallel approach that expands traditional pairwise sequence alignment. This is the first parallel algorithm to provide multiple non-overlapping, non-intersecting subsequence alignments with the accuracy of Smith-Waterman. The efficient algorithm provides multiple alignments similar to BLAST while creating a better workflow for the end users. The parallel portions of the code run in O(m+n) time using m processors. When m = n, the algorithmic analysis becomes O(n) with a coefficient of two, yielding a linear speedup. Implementation of the algorithm on the SIMD ClearSpeed CSX620 confirms this theoretical linear speedup with real timings.

  19. Ornithological aspects on the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GACHE Carmen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This ornithological notice present information on the avifauna recorded in the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia beginning with the 1998’s summer. We identified 132 species of birds. The reedbeds cover about 35% of the swamp’s surface, offering good conditions for the breeding season (Ixobrychus minutus, Botaurus stellaris, Cygnus olor, Himantopus himantopus, Recurvirostra avosetta and Sterna hirundo but also for migration period. The breeding population is low due the high level of the human pressure. Due the presence of sulphurous sources and peat bed, the water is not freezing during the winter, transforming this territory in an important wintering site in the southeastern Dobroudja. Interesting is also the presence in this area during the winter of some summer visitors’ species for Romania like: Phalacrocorax pygmeus, Botaurus stellaris and Rallus aquaticus.

  20. Weeds optimally grow in peat swamp after burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Susanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After clearing land by burning the peat, then the weeds and undergrowth will flourish. Even sometimes, the weeds are eventually burned again. Weed is known as a destroyer plant that has to be controlled. Through proper treatment, the existing weeds in peatlands can be potentiallly exploited. The purpose of this study was to determine the calorific value of briquettes as one of peatland weeds utilization. The results showed that the calorific value ranged from 2,492 cal/g to 5,230 cal/g. The lowest calorific value was on ‘teki kecil’ grass (Scirpus grossus Lf, while the highest calorific value was observed for ‘bantalaki grass’ (Hymenachne amplexicaulis Nees. The high calorific value of the peat weeds are potential for biomass briquettes raw materials. The utilization and use of peat weed briquettes as a raw materials expected can reduce land degradation due to peat swamp burning

  1. Geomorphic controls on fluvial carbon exports and emissions from upland swamps in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten; Looman, Arun; Maher, Damien T; Fryirs, Kirstie

    2018-03-15

    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are upland wetlands, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage. To assess the effect of channelisation on carbon budgets in these ecosystems it is essential to identify and quantify differences in carbon export, emissions and stocks of carbon of intact swamps and those that have become channelised. We undertook seasonal sampling of the perched swamp aquifers and surface waters of two intact swamps and two channelised fills in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, to investigate differences in carbon exports and emissions between the two swamp types. We found that channelised fills' mean CO 2 emissions were almost four times higher than intact swamps with mean CH 4 emissions up to five times higher. Annual fluvial carbon exports for channelised fills were up to 18 times that of intact swamps. Channelised fill exports and emissions can represent up to 2% of the total swamp carbon stocks per annum which is 40 times higher than the intact swamps. This work clearly demonstrates that changes in geomorphic structure brought about by incision and channelisation results in profound changes to the carbon storage function of THPSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity. PMID:29135909

  3. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-11-14

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity ( p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality ( p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  4. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Cooksey-Stowers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision. Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16. Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05 and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01. Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  5. Conservation genetics of the eastern yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris) and bullsnake (Pituophis catenifer sayi): River valleys are critical features for snakes at northern range limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Christopher M; Graham, Carly F; Martino, Jessica A; Frasier, Timothy R; Lance, Stacey L; Gardiner, Laura E; Poulin, Ray G

    2017-01-01

    On the North American Great Plains, several snake species reach their northern range limit where they rely on sparsely distributed hibernacula located in major river valleys. Independent colonization histories for the river valleys and barriers to gene flow caused by the lack of suitable habitat between them may have produced genetically differentiated snake populations. To test this hypothesis, we used 10 microsatellite loci to examine the population structure of two species of conservation concern in Canada: the eastern yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris) and bullsnake (Pituophis catenifer sayi) in 3 major river valleys in southern Saskatchewan. Fixation indices (FST) showed that populations in river valleys were significantly differentiated for both species (racers, FST = 0.096, P = 0.001; bullsnakes FST = 0.045-0.157, P = 0.001). Bayesian assignment (STRUCTURE) and ordination (DAPC) strongly supported genetically differentiated groups in the geographically distinct river valleys. Finer-scale subdivision of populations within river valleys was not apparent based on our data, but is a topic that should be investigated further. Our findings highlight the importance of major river valleys for snakes at the northern extent of their ranges, and raise the possibility that populations in each river valley may warrant separate management strategies.

  6. Conservation genetics of the eastern yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris and bullsnake (Pituophis catenifer sayi: River valleys are critical features for snakes at northern range limits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Somers

    Full Text Available On the North American Great Plains, several snake species reach their northern range limit where they rely on sparsely distributed hibernacula located in major river valleys. Independent colonization histories for the river valleys and barriers to gene flow caused by the lack of suitable habitat between them may have produced genetically differentiated snake populations. To test this hypothesis, we used 10 microsatellite loci to examine the population structure of two species of conservation concern in Canada: the eastern yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris and bullsnake (Pituophis catenifer sayi in 3 major river valleys in southern Saskatchewan. Fixation indices (FST showed that populations in river valleys were significantly differentiated for both species (racers, FST = 0.096, P = 0.001; bullsnakes FST = 0.045-0.157, P = 0.001. Bayesian assignment (STRUCTURE and ordination (DAPC strongly supported genetically differentiated groups in the geographically distinct river valleys. Finer-scale subdivision of populations within river valleys was not apparent based on our data, but is a topic that should be investigated further. Our findings highlight the importance of major river valleys for snakes at the northern extent of their ranges, and raise the possibility that populations in each river valley may warrant separate management strategies.

  7. [Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Talus with Hindfoot Malalignment--Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis with Lateral Calcaneal Distraction Osteotomy in an Internationally Successful Young Female Ski Racer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotfiel, T; Engelhardt, M

    2015-06-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans of the talus (ODT) describes a special entity of osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT). In the case of an advanced stage or failure of conservative treatment, a wide variety of surgical treatment strategies for osteochondral defects of the ankle have been described. In most cases, the ODT leads to a loss in sports time and competition. In the following case report we describe a case dealing with a young alpine ski racer who competes in international races. An osteochondritis dissecans of the talus was observed and led to pain and loss of sports function. We decided for an operative treatment with an autologous matrix-associated chondrogenesis (AMIC). In addition to the AMIC we performed a lateral calcaneal distraction osteotomy, based on the findings of a flatfoot in order to correct the hindfoot malalignment. At an early time pain relief could be detected. Step by step, the presented ski racer could increase the intensity of training sessions. Based on the findings in the MRI at the follow-up, an integrated repair tissue could be detected. The following case report describes a positive course after an autologous matrix-associated chondrogenesis (AMIC) combined with a lateral calcaneal distraction osteotomy. At this time the athlete is reintegrated in elite sports and takes part in the normal training programmes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  9. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from mangrove swamps. 2. Their ecology and physiology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Oak, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    , D. acetoxidans, Desulfosarcina variabilis, Desulfococcus multivorans, and Desulfovibrio sapovorons. It is suggested that sulfate-reduction in these mangrove swamps may not only be mediated through hydrogen, lactate and acetate but also through...

  10. Report of mortmorilloniticas clay in the Medina swamp (Cerro Largo district)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.; Heinzen, W.; Theune, C.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the prospect ion work for the montmorillonitics clay in the region of Medina swamp in Cerro Largo district. The existence of new deposits was detected by cartography and geological study.

  11. Swamp land optimization in supporting food security and enhancing farmers welfare in South Sumatra Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwenita; Hutapea, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Swamp land in Indonesia spread in Sumatra, Kalimantan and West Papua. In Sumatra the largest swamp land area is located in South Sumatera Province. Unfortunately only few of the areas have been utilized due to its fragility, in which farmers could only cultivate rice on it once a year. The purpose of this paper is to develop a feasible farming pattern in swamp land to help farmers and practitioners in optimizing it by managing its water level. Shallow and mid swamp land can be cultivated using rotation model of crops (rice, corn, cassava), horticulture (cucumber, long beans, watermelon etc), fish farming (catfish, snake head fish, tilapia), and duck farming, whereas submergence tolerant rice varieties can be cultivated alternating with fish farming in deep swamp land. This study shows that such swamp land management is financially feasible showing by its positive NPV value, BCR value is above 1.00, and IRR value is greater than the interest rate. Therefore, implementation of this farming pattern is expected to increase farmers’ income and household food supply as well as village food supply.

  12. Intestinal parasitic infections and swamp development in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbakima, Aiah A.

    1994-11-01

    The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and other intestinal and urogenital parasites were assessed in five Inland Valley Swamp (IVS) development faming communities in the Moyamba District, South-central Sierra Leone. Stool and urine samples were submitted by 1106 individuals and examined by the iron-haematoxylin staining and the formalin-ether concentration techniques for faecal sample and centrifugation method for the urine samples. The overall parasitic infection rate was 61.7% while 5.9% of the population had multiple infections. E. histolytica infection rate was 12.3 % and most of the infected individuals were passing cysts. Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis infection rates were 10.0% and 0.4% respectively. Among the helminth infections, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly observed (13.7%), followed by hookworms (12.1 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.7%) and tapeworms (2.6%). The high parasitic infection rate (61.7%) and the frequency of multiple infections indicate an interrelationship of environmental factors which support transmission rather than a single factor.

  13. Mineral uptake by taro (colocasla esculenta) in swamp agroecosystem following gramoxone paraquat herbicide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Mazleha Maskin; Abdul Khalik Wood

    2006-01-01

    Mineral elemental uptake by Colocasia esculenta growing in swamp agroecosystem was studied following 14, 18 or 28 months of field spraying (MAT, months after treatment) with herbicide Gramoxone paraquat. In overall, Al (68226.67 ± 24066.56 μ/g dw) was the major element in riverine alluvial swamp soil, followed by micronutrient Fe (22280.00 ± 6328.87 μ/g dw). Concentration of macronutrient K (20733.33 ± 7371.82, μ/g dw) was the highest in swamp taro leaf followed by macronutrient Ca (7050.00 ± 3767.26 μ/g dw). In overall, the order of importance of the average mineral concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Na > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. However at 14 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Al > Na > Mn > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. At 18 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Fe > Na > Zn > Br > Co. At 28 AMT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Fe > Al > Zn > Na > Br > Co. In overall, the average order of importance of mineral elemental uptake or the soil plant transfer coefficient was Mn > K > Na > Zn > Co > Fe > Al; similar with the order at 28 MAT However, at 14 MAT the order of importance of the soil plant transfer coefficient was different at Mn > K > Na > Co > Zn > Al > Fe. (Author)

  14. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.

    2017-06-09

    The use of freshwater diversions (river reintroductions) from the Mississippi River as a restoration tool to rehabilitate Louisiana coastal wetlands has been promoted widely since the first such diversion at Caernarvon became operational in the early 1990s. To date, aside from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (which is designed and operated for flood control), there are only four operational Mississippi River freshwater diversions (two gated structures and two siphons) in coastal Louisiana, and they all target salinity intrusion, shellfish management, and (or) the enhancement of the integrity of marsh habitat. River reintroductions carry small sediment loads for various design reasons, but they can be effective in delivering fresh­water to combat saltwater intrusion and increase the delivery of nutrients and suspended fine-grained sediments to receiving wetlands. River reintroductions may be an ideal restoration tool for targeting coastal swamp forest habitat; much of the area of swamp forest habitat in coastal Louisiana is undergo­ing saltwater intrusion, high rates of submergence, and lack of riverine flow leading to reduced concentrations of important nutrients and suspended sediments, which sustain growth and regeneration, help to aerate swamp soils, and remove toxic compounds from the rhizosphere.The State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restora­tion Authority (CPRA) has made it a priority to establish a small freshwater river diversion into a coastal swamp forest located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, to reintroduce Mississippi River water to Maurepas Swamp. While a full understanding of how a coastal swamp forest will respond to new freshwater loading through a Mississippi River reintroduction is unknown, this report provides guidance based on the available literature for establishing performance measures that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

  15. Zoneamento ambiental em Pantanais (Banhados Environmental zoning in swamp regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. Kurtz

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O zoneamento ambiental em pantanais (Banhados permitiu avaliar a deterioração ambiental dos ecossistemas existentes na Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC/TAIM municípios de Rio Grande, RS, e Santa Vitória do Palmar, RS. Considerou-se dois tipos distintos de ecossistemas: o do Banhado (ECO1 = Ecossistema Límnico e o da Planície Marítima (ECO2 = Ecossistema Planície Marítima. A ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 apresentou 64% da classe APP (Área de Preservação Permanente, 27,6% de ACP (Área de Conservação Permanente, e 5,6% de AUO (Área de Uso e Ocupação, enquanto em menor porcentagem se encontra a classe AR (Área de Restauração com 2,8%. A deterioração ambiental da ESEC/TAIM (ECO TOTAL ficou em 13,65%. Com relação à análise fatorial, conclui-se que esta técnica permitiu conhecer a estrutura dos dados, mostrando as correlações entre cada variável (classes de exuberância e seu respectivo fator; entretanto, não foi possível separar grupos ou quantificar a influência de uma ou mais variáveis sobre outra de interesse (variável resposta. Recomenda-se que o zoneamento ambiental seja elaborado pelos órgãos públicos ambientais, nas demais estações ecológicas e nas unidades de conservação.The environmental zoning in swamp regions allowed the evaluation of the environmental deterioration of the ecosystems in the Ecological Station of Taim (ESEC/TAIM, in Rio Grande and Santa Vitória of Palmar (in the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil. Two different types of ecosystems were considered: swamp regions (ECO1 = Límnico Ecosystem and the Marine Plain (ECO2 = Ecosystem Marine Plain. The ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 presented 64% of the class APP (Permanent Preservation Area, 27.6% of ACP (Permanent Conservation Area, 5.6% of AUO (Occupation and Use Area, and in a smaller percentage the class AR (Restoration Area with 2.8%. The environmental deterioration of ESEC/TAIM (ECO TOTAL was 13.65%. The factorial analysis technique permitted

  16. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  17. Floristic and phytosociological analysis of palm swamps in the central part of the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Lucia de Morais Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the floristics and phytosociology of three palm swamps in the municipality of Bela Vista de Goiás, located in the state of Goiás, Brazil, in the central part of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. The floristic surveys were conducted monthly from May 2008 to April 2009, and 310 species were recorded (seven bryophytes, 15 ferns and 288 angiosperms. Bryophytes belonged to five genera and five families; ferns belonged to nine genera and nine families; and angiosperms belonged to 134 genera and 45 families. The angiosperm families with the highest species richness were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae and Fabaceae. The palm swamps were divided into three zones of increasing humidity: edge, middle and core. The number of species was higher in the middle than at the edge and the core. The families with the highest cover values were Cyperaceae, Melastomataceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae. Although the palm swamps had been disturbed to varying degrees, those disturbances did not affect the flora in the middle or the core. Floristic similarity was high between these two zones within a given palm swamp and low between the edges of different palm swamps.

  18. Influences of deforestation on radiation and heat balances in tropical peat swamp forest in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Ishida, T.; Nagano, T.; Matsukawa, S.

    1997-01-01

    The difference of radiation and heat balances between a natural peat swamp forest and a deforested secondary forest has been investigated in Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Micrometeorological measurements were conducted continuously on observation towers 38 m and 4 m in heights in the primary forest and the secondary forest respectively. Results show that the deforestation of peat swamp forest leads to an increase in the sensible heat flux in the secondary forest. The yearly average ratio of the sensible heat flux to the net radiation was 20.9% in the peat swamp forest, and 33.2% in the secondary forest from Aug. 1995 to Jul. 1996. A ratio more than 40% was observed only in the dry season in the secondary forest. The change in sensible heat flux seemed to be influenced by the change in ground water levels. (author)

  19. Project conservation and handling for the multiple uses and the development of the swamps of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Paez, Heliodoro

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia the swamps are distributed in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts; they are located in areas with conditions of pluvial precipitation that varies from annual 200 mm in the Guajira department; nine species of mangroves have registered for Colombia, which are related following a zonation starting from the tide line, still when this pattern not always stays and it depends on the influence of diverse factors and local conditions. The project conservation and handling for the multiple use and the development of the swamps of Colombia, had as objectives; to watch and to control the parameters of salinity, level of water and flow to laminate and of strengthening the generation of alternative productive social and environmentally appropriate for the sustainable use, guaranteeing their conservation and preservation of the swamps. The project was developed in two phases, one of diagnostic and planning and the other of dynamics of growth, phenology and natural regeneration

  20. The impact of the Suwannee River Sill on the surface hydrology of Okefenokee Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhi-Yong; Brook, George A.

    1992-08-01

    Okefenokee Swamp, located in southeastern Georgia and northeastern Florida, is one of the largest freshwater wetland complexes and a National Wildlife Refuge in the United States. A low earthen dam, the Suwannee River Sill, was built on the largest outlet stream of Okefenokee Swamp in the early 1960s. The purpose was to raise the water level and thus reduce fire frequency in this National Wildlife Refuge. In this study, hydrologic conditions in the swamp prior to (1937-1962) and after (1963-1986) sill construction were compared by statistical procedures. An average 9 cm increase in swamp water level at the Suwannee Canal Recreation Area was attributed to the sill. Increased precipitation and decreased evapotranspiration during the study period caused another 5 cm increase in water levels. Seasonal changes in climatic factors were also responsible for seasonal changes in water levels and streamflow in the pre- and post-sill periods. Although the effect of the sill on water level was more significant during dry periods, it is doubtful that the Suwannee River Sill actually prevented occurrence of severe fibres in the post-sill period, which was wetter than the period before sill construction. The sill diverted 2.6% of swamp outflow from the Suwannee River to the St. Mary's River. Diversion of flow was more marked during low flow periods. Therefore, the discharge of the St. Mary's River in the post-sill increased more than the discharge of the Suwannee River and its variability became lower that of the Suwannee River. The relationships between swamp water level, streamflow and precipitation were also changed due to construction of the sill.

  1. Long- and short-term flooding effects on survival and sink-source relationships of swamp-adapted tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.N. Angelov; Shi-Jean S. Sung; R.L. Doong; W.R. Harms; Paul P. Kormanik; C.C. Black

    1995-01-01

    About 95% of swamp tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora (Walt.) Sarg.) And sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seedlings survived continuous root flooding for more than two years, whereas none of the swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) And cherrybark oak (Q. falcata var. pagodifolia Ell.) Seedlings survived one year of flooding.Flooding caused increases in...

  2. Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lydia E S; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c . 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance. Evidence for episodes of climatic variability, predominantly linked to ENSO events, and wildfires is present throughout. However, in the last c . 500 years, burning and indicators of human disturbance have elevated beyond past levels at these sites, concurrent with a reduction in peat swamp forest pollen. 4. Two key insights have been gained through this palaeoecological analysis: (i) peat swamp forest vegetation has demonstrated resilience to disturbance caused by burning and climatic variability in Sarawak in the late Holocene, however (ii) coincident with increased fire combined with human impact c . 500 years ago, these communities started to decline. 5. Synthesis . Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggest that recent, anthropogenic disturbances are of a greater magnitude

  3. Utilization of Organic Fertilizer on Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt Crop at Shallow Swamp Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midranisiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow lowland swamp area has significant potential for cultivation of sweet corn crop. This lowland swamp has rich natural resources such as organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC that are not maximally utilized yet by farmers. These organic fertilizers can be utilized to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop. The research objective was to determine organic fertilizer types that capable to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop at shallow lowland swamp area. This research had been conducted from January to April 2015 in Pulau Semambu Village, North Indralaya Subdistrict, Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra Province. The design used in this research was non-factorial Randomized Block Design (RBD with four treatments of organic fertilizer types with six replications for each treatment. The treatments were consisted of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC. The results showed that treatment of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk could increase the growth and production of sweet corn at shallow lowland swamp area with yield level of 4.37 kg.plot −1.

  4. Composition and species diversity of pine-wiregrass savannas of the Green Swamp, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan Walker; Robert K. Peet

    1983-01-01

    Fire-maintained, species-rich pines wiregrass savannas in the Green Swamp, North Carolina were sampled over their natural range of environmental conditions and fire frequencies. Species composition, species richness, diversity (Exp H', I/ C), and aboveground production were documented and fertilization experiments conducted to assess possible mechanisms for the...

  5. Diversity and Antagonistic Activity of Actinomycete Strains From Myristica Swamp Soils Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Rlnoy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the present investigation Actinomycetes were isolated from the soils of Myristica swamps of southern Western Ghats and the antagonistic activity against different human bacterial pathogens was evaluated. Results of the present study revealed that Actinomycetes population in the soils of Myristica swamp was spatially and seasonally varied. Actinomycetes load was varied from 24×104 to 71×103, from 129×103 to 40×103 and from 31×104 to 84×103 in post monsoon, monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. A total of 23 Actinomycetes strains belonging to six genera were isolated from swamp soils. Identification of the isolates showed that most of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces (11, followed by Nocardia (6, Micromonospora (3, Pseudonocardia (1, Streptosporangium (1, and Nocardiopsis (1. Antagonistic studies revealed that 91.3% of Actinomycete isolates were active against one or more tested pathogens, of that 56.52% exhibited activity against Gram negative and 86.95% showed activity against Gram positive bacteria. 39.13% isolates were active against all the bacterial pathogens selected and its inhibition zone diameter was also high. 69.5% of Actinomycetes were exhibited antibacterial activity against Listeria followed by Bacillus cereus (65.21%, Staphylococcus (60.86%, Vibrio cholera (52.17%, Salmonella (52.17% and E. coli (39.13%. The results indicate that the Myristica swamp soils of Southern Western Ghats might be a remarkable reserve of Actinomycetes with potential antagonistic activity.

  6. The Fish and Fisheries of the Lower Volta Mangrove Swamps in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fish and fisheries of the Lower Volta mangrove swamps were studied to provide data for the formulation of management strategies to sustain utilisation of the fishery resources in the area. Thirty-eight finfishes and 14 shellfishes species were encountered during the study period. Gerres melanopterus, Clarias anguillaris, ...

  7. The Productivity and Natural Increase of Swamp Buffalo in District Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, A.; Ciptadi, G.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect the basic information needed to develop a sustainable breeding program, which includes the potential for production and reproduction of buffaloes. This research was conducted on swamp buffalo in Malang Regency East Java. The research method used was survey method. Primary data was obtained from direct observation on 323 tails owned by 98 breeders. Variables observed were population growth and reproductive performance. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the initial population study of swamp Buffaloes in Malang as many as 1155 with male and female ratio 1: 2. The ratios of male and female swamp Buffalo 20 percent male and 80 percent female. Overall, the buffalo reproduction performance was still low. Service per conception 2.06 ± 0.88; Anestrus Postpartum 7.46 ± 3.83 months; calving interval distance 17.82 ± 4.86 months; 20.43 % birth rate and 4.33% mortality rate of Natural Increase (NI) population was about 16,1%. In conclusion, the value of NI of swamp Buffalo in Malang Regency is still low. To increase buffalo productivity, buffalo breeding program is continuously based on reproduction control.

  8. Oil spill impact on the finfish of Azhiwari swamp, Joinkrama in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of an oil spill on surface water, sediment and finfish assemblage characteristics in a freshwater swamp forest was assessed by dividing the wetland into four zones on the basis of spilled oil cover on the water surface – High Impact Zone (HIZ >60%), Medium Impact Zone (MIZ 30 – 60%), Low Impact Zone - (LIZ 5 ...

  9. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Interagency Assistance Group : transportation observations, considerations and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In March 2014, U.S. FWS hosted a Transportation Assistance Group at the Great Dismal Swamp in Virginia. The purpose of the meeting was to identify transportation issues impacting the refuge, ways to improve access to and within the refuge, as well as...

  10. Skin disease affecting the conservation of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, J M; Kuchling, G; Burford, D; Boardman, W; Raidal, S R

    1998-11-01

    To review the present position of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) as an endangered species and significant health issues affecting efforts to save it from extinction. A retrospective analysis of the husbandry, hospital and pathology records of the western swamp tortoise captive breeding program at Perth Zoo. In 1987 a captive breeding project was developed to prevent the extinction of the western swamp tortoise but an outbreak of a necrotising dermatitis in 1989 threatened the survival of the captive bred hatchlings. Less severe outbreaks occurred in 1990 and 1993, with isolated cases in between. Of 283 tortoises that were born in captivity or came into captivity from the wild, 37 (13.1%) were affected, comprising 37% of all males, 26% of all females and 13% of animals of unknown gender. Of the affected animals, 70% were less than 2 years of age and 29% were older. Males were 1.6 times more likely to be infected than females but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.27). Culture of the lesions consistently yielded unidentified Pseudomonas sp. Improved husbandry, such as strict maintenance of water quality and temperature conditions similar to that of the animal's natural habitat, and monitoring the health of individual tortoises have successfully controlled skin disease in the captive breeding of the western swamp tortoise.

  11. Decline of the Maurepas Swamp, Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, and Approaches to Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P. Shaffer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maurepas swamp is the second largest contiguous coastal forest in Louisiana but it is highly degraded due to subsidence, near permanent flooding, nutrient starvation, nutria herbivory, and saltwater intrusion. Observed tree mortality rates at study sites in the Maurepas swamp are very high (up to 100% tree mortality in 11 years and basal area decreased with average salinities of <1 ppt. Habitat classification, vegetation productivity and mortality, and surface elevation changes show a clear trajectory from stagnant, nearly permanently flooded forests with broken canopy to degraded forests with sparse baldcypress and dominated by herbaceous species and open water to open water habitat for most of the Maurepas swamp without introduction of fresh water to combat saltwater intrusion and stimulate productivity and accretion. Healthy forests in the Maurepas are receiving fresh water containing nutrients and sediments from urban areas, high quality river water, or secondarily treated municipal effluent. Currently, two proposed diversions into the swamp are via Hope Canal (57 m3·s−1 and Blind River (142 m3·s−1. These diversions would greatly benefit their immediate area but they are too small to influence the entire Maurepas sub-basin, especially in terms of accretion. A large diversion (>1422 m3·s−1 is needed to deliver the adequate sediments to achieve high accretion rates and stimulate organic soil formation.

  12. Improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Kaiso” and “Supa” are the main local swamp-rice (Oryza Sativa) varieties currently grown in Uganda mainly by smallholder farmers on small gardens (0.5 – 2ha). Due to lack of mechanized drying equipment and owing to the low volumes of their harvests, these farmers use open-sun drying methods, where the paddy is ...

  13. Transforming Swamp Buffaloes to Producers of Milk and Meat Through Crossbreeding and Backcrossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Cruz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of water buffaloes in the world, the riverine type and the swamp type. The total number of Swamp buffalo is 37.6 M and represents 21.8% of the world’s buffalo population. The swamp buffaloes have played a major role in draft animal-dependent farming system. But intensified rice production became more pronounced in irrigated areas and this has led to increased utilization of small farm machineries, displacing significantly the draft buffaloes for land tillage. To some extent, the introduction of tractors for land preparation and transport for corn, sugarcane and other crops in production areas has similar effect. Utilization of the existing population of swamp buffaloes to meet the growing domestic demand for milk and meat, against the background of increasing farm mechanization, is a good reason to transform the huge number of draft animals into producers of milk and meat. According to the UNDP/FAO-assisted project in the Philippines carried from 1982 to 1998, that crossing swamp buffalo and riverine buffaloes, despite the differences in chromosome numbers, is producing crossbreds with high growth rate potentials and milk production abilities several folds over the swamp buffalo parents. The known fact that swamp and riverine buffaloes have different chromosome number, the diploid chromosome number of the swamp buffalo is 48 and that of the river buffalo is 50. When crossbreeding between the 2 buffalo types occur, males and females of the F1 generation are heterozygous for the fusion and are apparently fertile with chromosome 2n = 49. Three-way crossbred hybrids were obtained by (native buffalo x Murrah x Nili Ravi or (native buffalo x Nili Ravi x Murrah. They had two chromosome categories viz. 2n=49 and 2n=50, respectively. Crossbreeding Swamp with Riverine Breed is done for quality beef. Most of the NT produced TenderBuff is farm-bred or purchased from other suppliers as swamp buffalo yearlings and growth out for a

  14. κ-CASEIN GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN RIVERINE AND SWAMP BUFFALO IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Rini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kappa-casein (κ-casein gene is known as a gene that plays a role in controlling milk protein andalso play a crucial role in the coagulation and curdling of milk. This study was aimed to identifypolymorphisms of the κ-Casein gene of local buffaloes in Indonesia. A total number of 40 heads ofriverine buffalo and 250 heads of swamp buffalo. This study used PCR-RFLP method, whichamplification of the κ-Casein gene resulted an amplicon with length of 157 bp, located in exon 4. Theamplified fragment were digested with EcoRV restriction enzyme, which cut the κ-Casein gene in exon4 at nucleotides of GAT|ATC, revealed the presence of one polymorphism at the base position of 23 bpthat occurs with a substitution of Ile (ATC of the T genetic variant into Thr (ACC of the C geneticvariant. Genotyping κ-Casein gene in riverine buffalo produced two types of allele, namely C allele (157bp and T allele (136 and 21 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotypes, namely CC, CT,and TT. Frequency of the C allele was dominant to T allele. κ-Casein gene in swamp buffalo wasmonomorphic with one allele, namely C allele. Heterozygosity value of riverine and swamp buffaloeswere low. PIC value in riverine and swamp buffalo ranged 0.000-0.288. Fixation index of κ-Casein genein riverine buffalo was low (Siborong-borong SBBC = -0,0036; Deli Serdang = -0.025, but in swampbuffalo was in fixation. This study showed that κ-Casein|EcoRV were polymorphic in riverine buffaloand monomorphic in swamp buffalo.

  15. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  16. Logged peat swamp forest supports greater macrofungal biodiversity than large-scale oil palm plantations and smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-09-01

    Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.

  17. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  18. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  19. [Amphibians and reptiles in the swamps dominated by the palm Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Beneyto, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    The herpetofauna that inhabits Caribbean Costa Rica has received considerable attention in the last two decades. This assemblage includes a total of 141 species of reptiles and 95 amphibians mostly distributed in tropical wet and moist lowland forests. While most information available came from primary and secondary forest sites, little is known about the amphibians and reptiles that inhabit more open habitats, such as wetlands and swamps. For instances, swaps dominated by the yolillo palm Raphia taedigera extend through much of the northeastern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and eastern Nicaragua, but information about the herpetological community that uses such environments remains practically unknown. This situation reflects the little research conducted in such inhospitable environments. Here, we report the results of an intensive survey conducted to assess the herpetological community that inhabit R. taedigera palm-swamps. A total of 14 species of amphibians and 17 of reptiles have been recorded from these swamps. Amphibians and reptiles that inhabit yolillo swamps have wide distributions along much of Middle America and are considered common species throughout their range. In general, yolillo swamps are poor environments for herpetofauna: richness of reptiles and amphibians is almost two times higher in the adjacent forest than in the palm dominated swamps. Furthermore, most species observed in this swamps can be considered habitat generalists that are well adapted to the extreme conditions imposed by the changes in hydroperiods, reduce understory cover, low tree diversity and simple forest architecture of these environments. Despite similarities in the herpetofauna, it is clear that not all forest species use yolillo habitat, a characteristic that is discussed in terms of physical stress driven by the prolonged hydroperiod and reduced leaflitter in the ground, as these features drive habitat structure and herpetofaunal complexity. Our list of species using

  20. Isolation of vibrio spp. In oysters (crassostrea rhizophorea) caught in the ‘de la virgen’ swamp

    OpenAIRE

    López Gutiérrez, Lercy; Autor; Manjarrez Pava, Ganiveth; Autor; Herrera Rodríguez, Lilibeth; Autor; Montes Payares, Ana Elena; Autor; Olascuaga Ruíz, Yuranis Paola; Autor; Ortega Quiroz, Rolando José; Autor

    2015-01-01

    Objective:  To establish contamination by Vibrio in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) caught in De La Virgen Swamp, in order to alert entities in charge or protecting consumer health in Cartagena city. Methods: Between February and April 2006, 67 oysters from 5 strategic sites along De La Virgen Swamp, were analyzed. Insulation and identification of Vibrio was performed through a culture and biochemical tests.Results.  Predominant species were V. alginolyticus (23%),V fluvialis  (20%),V. para...

  1. Studies on algea of Da′erbin lake and its surrounding swamps in daxing anling mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiaofei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports 234 taxa of algae (excluding diatomas and desmids in Da′erbin Lake and its surrounding swamps in the Great Xing′an Mountains.They were identified belong to 6 phylums 79 generas 197 species 31 varieties and 6 forms.Among them Characium ornithocephalum var.pringsheimii (A.Br. Kom.,Characium pluricoccum Kor.,Quadrigula korsikovii Kom.,Crucigeniella rectangularis (Ng. Kom.are newly reported in China.

  2. Polyancora globosa gen. sp. nov., an aeroaquatic fungus from Malaysian peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Yule, Catherine M

    2006-10-01

    During an investigation of submerged leaves and twigs sampled from tropical peat swamp forests located in Peninsular Malaysia, an anamorphic fungus not attributable to a described genus was detected and isolated in pure culture. Conidial ontogeny was thoroughly studied and illustrated using both light and SEM, which revealed a unique conidial morphology. Analysis of partial nuLSU rDNA and ITS data revealed a phylogenetic position within the Xylariales (Ascomycota), but family affiliation remained unclear.

  3. Aquatic organisms as amber inclusions and examples from a modern swamp forest

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Alexander R.; Dilcher, David L.

    2007-01-01

    To find aquatic organisms in tree resin may seem to be highly unlikely, but the fossil record provides numerous amber-preserved limnetic arthropods (e.g., water beetles, water striders, and crustaceans) and microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, algae, ciliates, testate amoebae, and rotifers). Here we explain the frequently discussed process of embedding aquatic organisms in tree resin based on field studies in a Florida swamp forest. Different aquatic arthropods and all major groups of limnetic mic...

  4. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Sheng; Wei Zhao; Ying Song; Zhigang Li; Majing Luo; Quan Lei; Hanhua Cheng; Rongjia Zhou

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transf...

  5. Nariva Swamp Ramsar Site, Trinidad and Tobago (West Indies) Wetland Habitat Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat Carbonell; Nadra Nathai-Gyan

    2005-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago, a twin island nation, is the most southerly of the Caribbean islands and lies just 11 km off the coast of Venezuela, near the Orinoco delta. Trinidad, the larger of the two islands, is approximately 5,000 km² and the Nariva Swamp is located on its eastern coast (fig. 1). In 1993, this site was designated as a wetland of international...

  6. Spatial analysis of Carbon-14 dynamics in a wetland ecosystem (Duke Swamp, Chalk River Laboratories, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, T L; King-Sharp, K J; Carr, J; Robertson, E; Killey, R W D; Beresford, N A; Wood, M D

    2014-11-01

    A detailed survey was conducted to quantify the spatial distribution of (14)C in Sphagnum moss and underlying soil collected in Duke Swamp. This wetland environment receives (14)C via groundwater pathways from a historic radioactive Waste Management Area (WMA) on Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. Trends in (14)C specific activities were evaluated with distance from the sampling location with the maximum (14)C specific activity (DSS-35), which was situated adjacent to the WMA and close to an area of groundwater discharge. Based on a spatial evaluation of the data, an east-to-west (14)C gradient was found, due to the influence of the WMA on (14)C specific activities in the swamp. In addition, it was possible to identify two groups of sites, each showing significant exponential declines with distance from the groundwater source area. One of the groups showed relatively more elevated (14)C specific activities at a given distance from source, likely due to their proximity to the WMA, the location of the sub-surface plume originating from the WMA, the presence of marsh and swamp habitat types, which facilitated (14)C transport to the atmosphere, and possibly, (14)C air dispersion patterns along the eastern edge of the swamp. The other group, which had lower (14)C specific activities at a given distance from the groundwater source area, included locations that were more distant from the WMA and the sub-surface plume, and contained fen habitat, which is known to act as barrier to groundwater flow. The findings suggest that proximity to source, groundwater flow patterns and habitat physical characteristics can play an important role in the dynamics of (14)C being carried by discharging groundwater into terrestrial and wetland environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Latitudinal variation in carbon storage can help predict changes in swamps affected by global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Plants may offer our best hope of removing greenhouse gases (gases that contribute to global warming) emitted to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. At the same time, global warming could change environments so that natural plant communities will either need to shift into cooler climate zones, or become extirpated (Prasad and Iverson, 1999; Crumpacker and others, 2001; Davis and Shaw, 2001). It is impossible to know the future, but studies combining field observation of production and modeling can help us make predictions about what may happen to these wetland communities in the future. Widespread wetland types such as baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps in the southeastern portion of the United States could be especially good at carbon sequestration (amount of CO2 stored by forests) from the atmosphere. They have high levels of production and sometimes store undecomposed dead plant material in wet conditions with low oxygen, thus keeping gases stored that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere (fig. 1). To study the ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon, our project has taken two approaches. The first analysis looked at published data to develop an idea (hypothesis) of how production levels change across a temperature gradient in the baldcypress region (published data study). The second study tested this idea by comparing production levels across a latitudinal range by using swamps in similar field conditions (ongoing carbon storage study). These studies will help us make predictions about the future ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon in soil and plant biomass, as well as the ability of these forests to shift northward with global warming.

  8. Repeated drought alters resistance of seed bank regeneration in baldcypress swamps of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Middleton, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Recurring drying and wetting events are likely to increase in frequency and intensity in predicted future droughts in the central USA and alter the regeneration potential of species. We explored the resistance of seed banks to successive droughts in 53 sites across the nine locations in baldcypress swamps in the southeastern USA. Along the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley and northern Gulf of Mexico, we investigated the capacity of seed banks to retain viable seeds after successive periods of drying and wetting in a greenhouse study. Mean differences in species richness and seed density were compared to examine the interactions of successive droughts, geographical location and water regime. The results showed that both species richness and total density of germinating seedlings decreased over repeated drought trials. These responses were more pronounced in geographical areas with higher annual mean temperature. In seed banks across the southeastern swamp region, most species were exhausted after Trial 2 or 3, except for semiaquatic species in Illinois and Tennessee, and aquatic species in Texas. Distinct geographical trends in seed bank resistance to drought demonstrate that climate-induced drying of baldcypress swamps could influence the regeneration of species differently across their ranges. Despite the health of adult individuals, lack of regeneration may push ecosystems into a relict status. Seed bank depletion by germination without replenishment may be a major conservation threat in a future with recurring droughts far less severe than megadrought. Nevertheless, the protection of moist refugia might aid conservation.

  9. [The Raffia-swamps as sources or sinks of avifauna: a first approach to the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneyto, Davinia; Monrós, Juan S; Piculo, Rubén

    2013-09-01

    In the Tortuguero region, northeastern Costa Rica, tropical forests are home to over 300 species of birds. Within this ecosystem, wetlands dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera and the royal palm Manicaria saccifera extend in large monospecific swamps locally known as yolillales. These wetlands are characterized by low plant diversity, simple structure, waterlogged soils, and extended hydroperiod. There is hardly any information on the bird communities that inhabit or uses yolillales. We describe this omitofauna, comparing the species that inhabit the palm-swams and in the adjacent forest in terms of species richness and diversity. During October-November 2008, we used transects and hearing stations in both habitats in four locations in the region. We located a total of 11 bird species in the palm-swamps and 31 in the adjacent forests. Our observations suggest that palm-swamps have lower species richness than adjacent forests and that these environments also differ in species composition. Despite their low diversity, yolillales are employed by species with different degrees of vulnerability, so that they may be important for bird conservation in the region. Sampling in yolillales is very hard, so our data should be considered preliminary. Further efforts in these environments are needed to improve our knowledge on the bird community that uses them.

  10. BIOCONTROL FOR RHIZOCTONIA STEM ROT DISEASE BY USING COMBINATION OF SPECIFIC ENDOPHYTE IN PADDY TIDAL SWAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismed Setya Budi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of combination of specific endophytic in tidal swamps to control stem root disease as biological control agents has not been done. It is expected that this combination is able to continuously protect plants from pathogen interference. The research was carried out in type C tidal swamp in Banjar regency of South Kalimantan, from March to November 2011, temperature 29-32oC, and pH 4.0-5.5. The method used was Split Plot design. Biocontrol preparation for both types of endophytic was applied in seeds in 7 days after planting (DAP. Observation on high intensity and plant diseases of planting stage on tidal swamps (taradak, ampak and lacak was conducted. The results showed that there was a reduction of disease ranging from 58.70 to 87.29%. The application of combination of two biocontrol agents (T. viride PS-2.1 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8, (Fusarium non-pathogenic PS-1.5 + P. fluorescent PS-4.8 and (T. viride PS-2.1+ FNP PS-1.5 isolate gave the best inhibition result, reduced disease intensity, and increased plant height. The result of soil analysis before and after application of endophytic showed that there was an increase in soil fertility with the element addition of N, P, K and pH.

  11. Relationships between Vacant Homes and Food Swamps: A Longitudinal Study of an Urban Food Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeeli Mui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents’ health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models. Over the study period, the average food swamp index increased from 93.5 to 95.3 percentage points across all neighborhoods. Among non-African American neighborhoods, increases in the vacancy rate were associated with statistically significant decreases in the food swamp index (b = −0.38; 90% CI, −0.64 to −0.12; p-value: 0.015, after accounting for changes in neighborhood SES, racial diversity, and population size. A positive association was found among low-SES neighborhoods (b = 0.15; 90% CI, 0.037 to 0.27; p-value: 0.031. Vacant homes may influence the composition of food outlets in urban neighborhoods. Future research should further elucidate the mechanisms by which more distal, contextual factors, such as boarded-up vacant homes, may affect food choices and diet-related health outcomes.

  12. Producer farmer’s sovereignty in dry land and swamps areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaeti, RN; Wahyuni, S.

    2018-01-01

    Farmers could perform their farming if they have sovereignty on their farming production inputs and marketing. Suboptimal land, such as dry land and swamps areas have good prospect if applying appropriate technologies. A research in 2015, on status of farmers’ sovereignty, had been conducted in Piani and North Candi Laras Subdistricts, Tapin District, South Borneo Province, representing swamp land and dry land respectively. Data and information were obtained through interviewing related agencies at provincial and district levels and 30 units of farmer’s households. The primary and secondary data were analyzed descriptively. The research results showed that farmers in swamps and dry land were categorized as large farmers and had sovereignty over the land and production. Water shortage and excessive in both land types could be overcome by giving access on appropriate technology such as programs making farmers improve their farming techniques and providing levees. In addition, land certification program, farming expansion and constructing new irrigated lowland were also some efforts to improve farmers’ sovereignty. It was crucial to identify and improve farmer’s sovereignty indicators through research in larger sites and samples.

  13. Approaches for the environmental evaluation of two swamp complexes of the Momposina depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, Humberto; Durango, Consuelo

    1998-01-01

    The swamp complexes of the Momposina depression in the lower Magdalena River have been submitted to irrational exploitation, transformation and contamination mainly since the beginning of the century, process that has be en getting worse in the last decade. The most evident manifestation of the environmental deterioration is expressed by the drastic reduction of fishing, with important socio-economic effects to the population that lives from this source. The most notorious causes of the actual state of the ecosystem were detected, and some preliminary considerations for its management are presented. However, due to the modifications that the complexes have suffered (closure of the natural sewer, construction of jarillones, modifications of the internal water flows and sediments, over exploitation, of fish and herpetofauna), the deterioration of the limnologic conditions is moderated, which allows to begin recuperation plans. The major impacts were observed in the fauna of birds and reptiles associated to the swamps; the decrease of the ictics populations seems to be related to the strong impact generated by the fishing action used and the interruption of the natural cycles of fish. The possibility of rebuilding the communication swamp-river should be studied with care because it seems the system has arrived to new conditions. The re-opening of the sewers could mean a new unbalanced condition represented mainly by the contamination coming from the Magdalena River

  14. Lower food chain community study: thermal effects and post-thermal recovery in the streams and swamps of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratieff, P.; Kondratieff, B.C.

    1985-07-01

    The effects of thermal stress on lower food chain communities of streams and swamps of the Savannah River Plant. Both the autotroph assemblages and the macro invertebrate communities were studied in streams receiving heated reactor effluent. To document stream and swamp ecosystem recovery from thermal stress, the same communities of organisms were studied in a stream/swamp ecosystem which had received heated reactor effluent in the past. (ACR)

  15. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  16. Rich soil carbon and nitrogen but low atmospheric greenhouse gas fluxes from North Sulawesi mangrove swamps in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang C; Ulumuddin, Yaya I; Pramudji, Sastro; Chen, Shun Y; Chen, Bin; Ye, Yong; Ou, Dan Y; Ma, Zhi Y; Huang, Hao; Wang, Jing K

    2014-07-15

    The soil to atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases N2O, CH4 and CO2 and their relationships with soil characteristics were investigated in three tropical oceanic mangrove swamps (Teremaal, Likupang and Kema) in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Mangrove soils in North Sulawesi were rich in organic carbon and nitrogen, but the greenhouse gas fluxes were low in these mangroves. The fluxes ranged -6.05-13.14 μmol m(-2)h(-1), -0.35-0.61 μmol m(-2)h(-1) and -1.34-3.88 mmol m(-2)h(-1) for N2O, CH4 and CO2, respectively. The differences in both N2O and CH4 fluxes among different mangrove swamps and among tidal positions in each mangrove swamp were insignificant. CO2 flux was influenced only by mangrove swamps and the value was higher in Kema mangrove. None of the measured soil parameters could explain the variation of CH4 fluxes among the sampling plots. N2O flux was negatively related to porewater salinity, while CO2 flux was negatively correlated with water content and organic carbon. This study suggested that the low gas emissions due to slow metabolisms would lead to the accumulations of organic matters in North Sulawesi mangrove swamps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  18. Ovarian activity and sexual behavior in the postpartum Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Colenbrander

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Early postpartum follicular activity and sexual behavior was evaluated in the swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in a tropical climate. Sixteen multiparous postpartum swamp buffaloes, 4-12 years of age, (432 - 676 kg were studied starting between 5-29 days after parturition. Ovarian follicular activity was examined daily in the morning with a real-time B-mode linear array ultrasound scanner (Aloka SSD-500, Tokyo, Japan equipped with a 7.5 MHz transrectal transducer. Estrous detection was performed daily using a mature bull, via personal observation as well as via video registration. In addition, vaginal discharge around estrus was evaluated. Uterine involution took 28.74+1.21 days (mean +SEM, range 22-41 d, n=16. Follicular activity prior to the first ovulation was characterized by a wave like pattern. Follicular growth rates and maximum diameter of the follicle in the second, third and fourth cycle post partum did not differ while that of the first ovulation follicle was significantly lower (p<0.05. Short ovarian cycles were observed in 93.3% of the buffaloes in the first to second ovulation interval (10.14+40 d, and in 50.0% of the buffaloes in the second to third ovulation interval (12.00+1.53 d, while one buffalo cow then had a long estrus cycle (27 d. The behavioral characteristics of estrus around the first postpartum ovulation were not as obvious as around the second, third and fourth postpartum ovulation. It can be concluded that for optimal reproductive efficiency the swamp buffalo should be mated between 1- 2 months postpartum at the second ovulation.

  19. Greenhouse gas efflux from an impacted Malaysian tropical peat swamp (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, S.; Vihermaa, L. E.; Evers, S.; Garnett, M.; Newton, J.; Padfield, R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~11% of global peatland area and ~12% of the global peat C pool. Malaysia alone contains 10% of tropical peats. Due to rising global demands for food and biofuels, SE-Asia peat swamp forest ecosystems are threatened by increasing amounts of drainage, fire and conversion to plantation. These processes can change the GHG emissions and thus net ecosystem C balance. However, in comparison to temperate and boreal peatlands, there is a lack of data on terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric carbon transfer from tropical peatlands, both those that are little disturbed and those facing anthropogenic pressures. Lateral transport of soil-respired carbon, and fluvial respiration or UV-oxidation of terrestrial DOC primes atmospheric carbon dioxide efflux. We now know that DOC lost from disturbed tropical peat swamp forests can be centuries to millennia old and originates deep within the peat column - this carbon may fuel efflux of old carbon dioxide and so anthropogenic land-use change renders the older, slower carbon cycles shorter and faster. Currently we have no knowledge of how significant ';older-slower' terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric cycles are in disturbed tropical peatlands. Further, in some areas for commercial reasons, or by conservation bodies trying to minimise peat habitat loss, logged peats have been left to regenerate. Consequently, unpicking the legacy of multiple land uses on magnitude, age and source of GHG emissions is challenging but required to support land management decisions and projections of response to a changing climate. Here, we present the results of our first field campaign in July 2013 to the Raja Musa and Sungai Karang Peat Swamp Forest Reserves in North Selangor, Malaysia. This is one of Malaysia's largest oceanic peat swamps, and has been selectively logged and drained for 80 years, but is now subject to a 30 year logging ban to aid forest regeneration and build up wood stocks. From sites subject to different land use

  20. Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces Cerevisae + Candida Utilis) and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyuddin, P; Widiawati, Y

    2010-01-01

    A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation conta...

  1. Study, using stable isotopes, of flow distribution, surface-groundwater relations and evapotranspiration in the Okavango Swamp, Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, T.; Hutton, L.G.; Kupee, B.B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Stable isotope data collected in the Okavango Delta have confirmed that the central distributary system is more active at present than the peripheral systems. The data also show that there is no groundwater outflow at the western and southern margins of the delta. A salinity-isotope model of the deltaic swamp has been developed to study the relation between the salinity and isotopic composition of the swamp waters. An attempt has been made to separate the atmospheric losses from the swamp into its evapotranspiration components. The results indicate that in winter, when high water levels prevail, these losses are almost entirely due to evaporation whilst in summer, when the water levels are low, evaporation and transpiration contribute almost equally to the total atmospheric losses. (author)

  2. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-01-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb),...

  3. Aquatic organisms as amber inclusions and examples from a modern swamp forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander R.; Dilcher, David L.

    2007-01-01

    To find aquatic organisms in tree resin may seem to be highly unlikely, but the fossil record provides numerous amber-preserved limnetic arthropods (e.g., water beetles, water striders, and crustaceans) and microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, algae, ciliates, testate amoebae, and rotifers). Here we explain the frequently discussed process of embedding aquatic organisms in tree resin based on field studies in a Florida swamp forest. Different aquatic arthropods and all major groups of limnetic microorganisms were found embedded in resin that had contact with swamp water. The taphonomy of aquatic organisms differs from that of terrestrial plants and animals that get stuck on resin surfaces and are enclosed by successive resin outflows. Large and highly motile arthropods are predestined for embedding. The number of microbial inclusions is increased when tiny drops of water with aquatic organisms become enclosed in resin while it is flowing in an aquatic environment. Bacteria and fungi may grow inside the resin as long as it has not solidified and therefore become secondarily accumulated. In contact with air, even resin that had initially been flowing into water may solidify and potentially form amber. PMID:17940051

  4. STRUCTURE OF NATURAL REGENERATION IN RELATION TO SOIL PROPERTIES AND DISTURBANCE IN TWO SWAMP FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Antonielle Ávila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Veredas (palm swamps is a type of vegetation associated with watercourses, characterized by the presence of Mauritia flexuosa palm trees. These systems are not well understood and suffer from high anthropogenic pressure. The aims of this study were to describe the natural regeneration of two swamp forests in vereda systems with different anthropogenic impacts and investigate if the variation in these plant communities are associated to edaphic conditions. The study was performed in preserved and impacted sites located in the Environmental Protection Area of the Pandeiros River in northern Minas Gerais. At each site, one hundred 25 m2 plots were established for surveying regenerating shrubs and trees (≥1 cm diameter at the base of the stem and < 3 cm diameter at breast height. Vegetation structure was evaluated by phytosociological parameters, similarity index, and size distribution of individuals. Regenerating strata was correlated with chemical and physical soil analyses. The vegetation at the preserved site was characterized by a higher number of individuals and a lower diversity but contained species that were typical of flooded areas. The results also showed differences in soil nutrient availability between sites that influenced the distribution of species at the two study sites.

  5. How Latina mothers navigate a 'food swamp' to feed their children: a photovoice approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Cremm, Elena; Rivera, Ivonne M; Andrade, Elizabeth L; Edberg, Mark C

    2017-08-01

    To understand how mothers who recently migrated from Central America to the USA feed their children in a neighbourhood saturated with unhealthful food choices ('food swamp') and to formulate a mother-driven plan of action to facilitate their acquisition of foods. Design/Setting/Subjects We purposively sampled mothers with children (feeding their children. Mothers valued foods that they considered to be 'traditional' and 'healthful'. They navigated their food retail environment looking for these foods (of good quality and well-priced). Food values were reinforced by pre-migration food customs and culture, health professionals' advice and, in some cases, by the desire to avoid conflict with their children. The neighbourhood food environment could directly influence children's food preferences and often created conflict between what the child wanted to eat and the foods that mothers valued. Mothers in this 'food swamp' wanted to be engaged in addressing the selection of foods offered in schools and in neighbourhood food venues to reflect their own food values. These mothers' feeding choices were influenced directly by their food values, and indirectly by the neighbourhood and school food environments via their children's preferences.

  6. Effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and reproductive hormone of weaned Swamp buffalo and Murrah X Swamp buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamonpatana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and plasma Oestradiol 17- β (E2, Progesterone (P4 and Testosterone (T were studied in 16 male and female swamp (SS buffaloes and Murrah x Swamp buffalo crossbreeds (MS calves. The treatment group was fed with a concentrate supplemented with 30 g of dry powder of L. spinosa/head/d for 7 months. It was found that L .spinosa could have effect on male and female buffalo growth rate. The growth rate of male SS treated group were 130 g/d higher than control group. In female both SS and MS buffalo, the highest growth rate (830 to 840 g/d was found after the 2nd month of treatment while a reduction in growth rate (-1,030 to - 450 g/d was found in the 3rd month. After that the growth rate of SS and MS gradually increased until the last three months to 200 and 80 g/d in average, respectively. In female MS, plasma E2 in the treated group was lower than control group during Jan to Jul. Similar result was found in SS female, level of plasma E2 in treated group was lower than in control group in the first and last three month and there was no difference of plasma E2 in May. In MS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in Jan, Mar, Apr and Jul. In SS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in every month except in Jul. In female SS, L. spinosa could decreased plasma P4 through the experiment and could not have an effect on plasma P4 in female MS and plasma T in male buffalo calves. In conclusion, the addition to the concentrate of dry powder of L. spinosa 30 g/headl/d had an effect to increase growth rate in male SS and female MS buffalo calves, decrease plasma E2 in female both SS and MS and male SS and decrease plasma P4 in female SS.

  7. Swamp Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The fields of anthropology, evironmental science, and "planetary health" are all speaking about the need to properly assess the relationships between human health and anthropogenic environmental influences. Using ethnographic data gathered from an NSF-funded research project in the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina after Hurricane Matthew, I will present the importance of specific, culturally-centered, historically contextualized studies of the environment as we are increasingly placed in highly important (but too general) global environmental discussions. I will focus on the importance of the Lumbee Tribe (one of the largest Native American communities in the U.S.) as a key research site to help us understand how to engage in global environmental debates. I will illustrate how we must take account particular communities as they fade into and out of one another in the past and present. As such, I will argue that "planetary health" and other environemental health discourses must be accountable through interdisciplinary/interprofessional/interclass relationships that place the power of academic work in the environment safely in the hands of the most vulnerable populations.

  8. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  9. Variation in flood tolerance of container-grown seedlings of swamp white oak, bur oak, and white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall

    2008-01-01

    How much variation in flood tolerance exists among seedlings within oak species, given the flood frequency of sites from which acorns are collected, has been largely unexplored. Our studies examined initial growth and flood tolerance for seedlings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa L.), and white...

  10. Growth Response and Tolerance to Heavy Metals of two Swamp Species inoculated with a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Labra-Cardon, D.; Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the sensitivity and the sequestration ability of the microbial communities to heavy metals, microbes have been used for bioremediation. Recently the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the bioremediation of this kind of contaminants has been done. This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to heavy metals of two swamp species. (Author)

  11. Growth Response and Tolerance to Heavy Metals of two Swamp Species inoculated with a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Labra-Cardon, D.; Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the sensitivity and the sequestration ability of the microbial communities to heavy metals, microbes have been used for bioremediation. Recently the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the bioremediation of this kind of contaminants has been done. This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to heavy metals of two swamp species. (Author)

  12. On a new species of blackwater prawn, Macrobrachium oxyphilus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae), from peat swamps in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new species of freshwater palaemonid prawn, Macrobrachium oxyphilus spec, nov., is described from highly acidic blackwaters in a peat swamp forest in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. The species differs from its nearest congener, M. trompii (de Man, 1898), in having proportionately smaller eyes,

  13. Evaluation of six herbicides for control of swamp smartweed [Persicaria hydropiperoides (Michx.) Small] under flooded and moist soil conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six herbicides (2,4-D, diquat, glyphosate, imazamox, imazapyr, and triclopyr) were tested for efficacy on swamp smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) in two studies in Mississippi. In the first study in a pond, glyphosate (2.1 and 4.2 kg ai ha-1), imazapyr (0.3 and 0.5 kg ai ha-1), and tricl...

  14. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  15. Ecological studies on a population of the water snake Grayia smythii in a rainforest swamp of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akani, Godfrey C.; Luiselli, Luca

    2001-01-01

    The ecology of the water snake, Grayia smythii (Reptilia: Colubridae) occurring in a seasonal rainforest swamp of the Niger Delta (southern Nigeria) was investigated between December 1998 and March 2000. Females and males were similar in body sizes (SVL) and head sizes, but males had tails

  16. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  17. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Thao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis crude oils (EuO supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS without EuO (T1 and with EuO (T2 supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS without EuO (T3 and with EuO (T4 supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p0.05 affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01 by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas

  18. Mucilage chemical profile and antioxidant properties of giant swamp taro tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Nguimbou, Richard Marcel; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Himeda, Makhlouf; Scher, Joël; Mbofung, Carl M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The yellow (YP) and white (WP) sections of giant swamp taro (GST) contain 40.0 g/kg and 51.5 g/kg (dry wt) respectively of pure mucilage made up of D-glucose (44.95–78.85 %), D-galactose (8.70–25.35 %), D-mannose (3.20–10.45 %), D-arabinose (2.45–5.20 %) and small amounts of glucuronic acid and rhamnose. Arabinogalactan-proteins (5.30–8.83 g/kg) contain mainly arabinose and galactose (in a 1:1 proportion) and also significant amounts of rhamnose, xylose, glucuronic acid and mannose. Antioxida...

  19. Autonomic control of the heart in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Nina Kerting; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is an air-breathing teleost with very reduced gills that uses the buccal cavity for air-breathing. Here we characterise the cardiovascular changes associated with the intermittent breathing pattern in M. albus and we study the autonomic control of the heart.......3 cm H2O). The autonomic control of the heart during water- and air-breathing was revealed by infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and muscarinic antagonist atropine (3 mg kg− 1) in eels instrumented with an arterial catheter. Inhibition of the sympathetic and parasympathetic...... innervations of the heart revealed a strong vagal tone on the heart of water-breathing eels and that the tachycardia during air-breathing is primarily mediated by withdrawal of cholinergic tone....

  20. Modeling Flood Plain Hydrology and Forest Productivity of Congaree Swamp, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    An ecological field and modeling study was conducted to examine the flood relations of backswamp forests and park trails of the flood plain portion of Congaree National Park, S.C. Continuous water level gages were distributed across the length and width of the flood plain portion - referred to as 'Congaree Swamp' - to facilitate understanding of the lag and peak flood coupling with stage of the Congaree River. A severe and prolonged drought at study start in 2001 extended into late 2002 before backswamp zones circulated floodwaters. Water levels were monitored at 10 gaging stations over a 4-year period from 2002 to 2006. Historical water level stage and discharge data from the Congaree River were digitized from published sources and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) archives to obtain long-term daily averages for an upstream gage at Columbia, S.C., dating back to 1892. Elevation of ground surface was surveyed for all park trails, water level gages, and additional circuits of roads and boundaries. Rectified elevation data were interpolated into a digital elevation model of the park trail system. Regression models were applied to establish time lags and stage relations between gages at Columbia, S.C., and gages in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the river and backswamp within the park. Flood relations among backswamp gages exhibited different retention and recession behavior between flood plain reaches with greater hydroperiod in the lower reach than those in the upper and middle reaches of the Congaree Swamp. A flood plain inundation model was developed from gage relations to predict critical river stages and potential inundation of hiking trails on a real-time basis and to forecast the 24-hour flood In addition, tree-ring analysis was used to evaluate the effects of flood events and flooding history on forest resources at Congaree National Park. Tree cores were collected from populations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), water

  1. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-18

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.

  2. The inorganic chemistry of peat from the Maunachira channel-swamp system, Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.S.; McIver, J.R.; Cairncross, B.; Ellery, W.N.; Ellery, K.

    1989-05-01

    The Okavango Delta is a large (18000 km/sup 2/), low gradient (1:3600), alluvial fan situated in the semi-arid Kalahari basin of northern Botswana. Seasonal floodwaters from tropical Angola disperse on the fan creating both perennial (6000 km/sup 2/) and seasonal (7000 to 12000 km/sup 2/) swamps. Ninety-five percent of this water is lost annually by evapotranspiration. Organic rich sediment (peat) is a major sediment of the perennial swamps. Peat formation commences during senescence of the plants, when certain nutrients are recycled while others are lost by rainwater leaching. Further changes in chemistry occur during subaqueous decay of the plants which involve both gains and losses of constituents. Decaying plants trap detrital mineral matter which becomes an integral part of the peat. The main sources and forms of inorganic matter in the peat are: allochthonous kaolinite (40%) and quartz (20%) and both allochthonous and autochthonous phytolithic silica (30%). several inorganic components (Fe, K, P, Na, Ca and Mg) which make up the remaining 10% are associated with the organic fraction. Ion exchange plays only a minor part in their uptake and it seems that these metals are taken up during bacterial activity in the peat. The weight proportion of inorganic matter (ash) decreases downstream, mainly due to a decrease in allochthonous mineral matter. Volume percentage also decreases but is low throughout, generally less than five percent. This study has revealed that the low-quantity allochthonous mineral matter is the main reason for the long-term survival of this ecosystem. Uptake of soluble ions by the peat is important in off-setting evaporative concentration of metals. 36 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Improvement of the productivity of the swamp buffalo of S.E. Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.E.; Vercoe, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The needs of an expanding human population necessitate an increase in numbers and efficiency of output if the swamp buffalo is to remain as a significant component of S.E. Asian agriculture. Biological constraints to an increase in numbers are associated mainly with high calf mortality and low reproductive rate. A combination of vaccination and deworming markedly increases calf survival and provides the simplest means for increasing buffalo numbers. However, methods for improvement of the low inherent fertility of buffaloes remain to be devised. A first step towards a genetic solution is to obtain accurate comparative data for reproductive rates of different buffalo breeds and measures of the magnitude of heterosis for reproductive rate. However, facilities to do this in the near future do not exist. Milk yield or draft power could be most rapidly increased by crossing to river breeds with the optimum proportion of river breed in the cross determined by that level of milk yield and size commensurate with the locally available feed. This is the only method currently available that allows genetic improvement to initially equal or exceed the rate of human population growth. The lack of both large, well-documented herds and efficient AI schemes at present rules against within-breed selection as a method of improvement for any productive trait. It is unrealistic to expect large amounts of high-quality feeds to ever become available for rearing swamp buffaloes and there is a need to develop the facilities and expertise to allow comparative evaluation of buffalo breeds, the exploitation of heterosis in crosses and ultimately, within-breed selection for higher productivity, on straw-based diets. (author)

  4. Ground survey of red lechwe in the Linyanti swamps and Chobe floodplains, northern Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phemelo Gadimang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A ground survey of red lechwe was carried out in the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains of northern Botswana in the dry and wet seasons of 2012 and 2013, respectively. We documented numbers, sex ratio and age structure of red lechwe within the linear strips of 25 km × 300 m along the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains. Results indicated a significant difference in the numbers of red lechwe between sites and seasons. About 66 and 755 red lechwe were estimated for Chobe in the dry and wet season, respectively, with 343 and 261 of them estimated for Linyanti in the dry and wet season, respectively. In Chobe, the red lechwe densities varied widely between seasons (9 red lechwe/km2 – 101 red lechwe/km2 compared with Linyanti, where the densities did not vary much between seasons (35 red lechwe/km2 – 46 red lechwe/km2 . The lower densities of red lechwe in Chobe in the dry season when compared with the wet season suggest a possible seasonal shift in the distribution of red lechwe to the nearby Zambezi floodplains in Namibia. Conservation implications: The higher number of red lechwe in the Chobe floodplains in the wet season indicates the potential of the floodplains as a habitat for this species in that season. The dry season shift in the distribution of red lechwe in Chobe presents an opportunity for local communities in Namibia to engage in tourism, whereas the return of the red lechwe to the floodplains in the wet season ensures protection of the animals as well as boosts the tourism potential of the Chobe National Park.

  5. Population density of red langurs in Sabangau tropical peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers Smith, David A; Ehlers Smith, Yvette C

    2013-08-01

    Because of the large-scale destruction of Borneo's rainforests on mineral soils, tropical peat-swamp forests (TPSFs) are increasingly essential for conserving remnant biodiversity, particularly in the lowlands where the majority of habitat conversion has occurred. Consequently, effective strategies for biodiversity conservation are required, which rely on accurate population density and distribution estimates as a baseline. We sought to establish the first population density estimates of the endemic red langur (Presbytis rubicunda) in Sabangau TPSF, the largest remaining contiguous lowland forest-block on Borneo. Using Distance sampling principles, we conducted line transect surveys in two of Sabangau's three principle habitat sub-classes and calculated group density at 2.52 groups km⁻² (95% CI 1.56-4.08) in the mixed-swamp forest sub-class. Based on an average recorded group size of 6.95 individuals, population density was 17.51 ind km⁻², the second highest density recorded in this species. The accessible area of the tall-interior forest, however, was too disturbed to yield density estimates representative of the entire sub-class, and P. rubicunda was absent from the low-pole forest, likely as a result of the low availability of the species' preferred foods. This absence in 30% of Sabangau's total area indicates the importance of in situ population surveys at the habitat-specific level for accurately informing conservation strategies. We highlight the conservation value of TPSFs for P. rubicunda given the high population density and large areas remaining, and recommend 1) quantifying the response of P. rubicunda to the logging and burning of its habitats; 2) surveying degraded TPSFs for viable populations, and 3) effectively delineating TPSF sub-class boundaries from remote imagery to facilitate population estimates across the wider peat landscape, given the stark contrast in densities found across the habitat sub-classes of Sabangau. © 2013 Wiley

  6. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Backwaters of North America's Largest River Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueche, S. M.; Xu, Y. J.; Reiman, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Atchafalaya River (AR) is the largest distributary of the Mississippi River flowing through south-central Louisiana, creating North America's largest river swamp basin - the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB). Prior to human settlement, the AR's main channel was highly connected to this large wetland ecosystem. However, due to constructed levee systems and other human modifications, much of the ARB is now hydrologically disconnected from the AR's main channel except during high flow events. This lack of regular inputs of fresh, oxygenated water to these wetlands, paired with high levels of organic matter decomposition in wetlands, has caused low oxygen-deprived hypoxic conditions in the ARB's back waters. In addition, due to the incredibly nutrient-rich and warm nature of the ARB, microbial decomposition in backwater areas with limited flow often results in potentially stressful, if not lethal, levels of DO for organisms during and after flood pulses. This study aims to investigate dynamics of dissolved oxygen in backwaters of the Atchafalaya River Basin, intending to answer a crucial question about hydrological and water quality connectivity between the river's mainstem and its floodplain. Specifically, the study will 1) conduct field water quality measurements, 2) collect composite water samples for chemical analysis of nutrients and carbon, 3) investigate DO dynamics over different seasons for one year, and 4) determine the major factors that affect DO dynamics in this unique swamp ecosystem. The study is currently underway; therefore, in this presentation we will share the major findings gained in the past several months and discuss backwater effects on river chemistry.

  7. Effect of day or night grazing on behaviour of swamp buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somparn, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of day or night grazing on behaviour by swamp buffaloes. A grazing trial was conducted over 42 days in the late rainy season, during September to November2005 at Surin Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Surin province. The experimental period was divided into two 21-day periods. Twelve 2-year-old swamp buffalo heifers were allocated to four groups, eachcontaining three heifers, with the mean group weights being as similar as possible. Each group was allowed to graze either from 06:20 to 18:00 h (daytime treatment or from 18:20 to 06:00 h (nighttime treatment infour separate paddocks, each of 5 rai, using a cross-over design. When not at pasture the animals in each group were kept in the common corral with free access to fresh drinking water and mineral blocks. Individualanimal activity was recorded by visual observation at 1-min intervals during the period at pasture. Individual groups within each period were treated as replicates. Differences between group means weretested using MIXED procedure of SAS.The buffaloes on daytime treatment spent longer (P<0.05 grazing than those on nighttime treatment (423 vs 332 min. The number of meals differed (P<0.05 between treatments, but overall mean meal durationswere similar (73 min. Buffaloes allowed to graze during daylight had a tendency (P<0.10 toward a higher bite and step rates than those grazing during the night. With the reduction in grazing activity duringthe night on nighttime treatment, the animals ruminated for longer during the period at pasture (327 and 191 min, P<0.001. Live-weight change over periods of 20 days did not differ significantly. The difference intemporal behaviour patterns between treatments indicated that animals have to adapt foraging strategies appropriate for different situations in order to maintain feed intake and subsequently production.

  8. Hydrography - HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS: Lakes, Ponds, Reservoirs, Swamps, and Marshes in Watersheds of Indiana (U. S. Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains features of lakes, ponds, reservoirs, swamps and marshes in watersheds in and...

  9. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  10. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ANTHROPIC IMPACT IN THE AREA OF THE ORNITHOLOGIC RESERVATION “THE SWAMPS FROM SATCHINEZ” (TIMIŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Török-Oance

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of the anthropic impact within the Ornithologic Reservation Swamps from Satchinez is based on the field notes in the period 2003-2005, the air photos taken in 2004 and the reconstitution of past situations (1963-1973 using the photoplans from that period. Within the reservation and the buffer area a series of anthropic activities are taking place, allowed or not, which have a negative impact on the protected area: agricultural works (including agro-chemical treatments, grazing, mowing, hydrotechnical arrangements, illegal tree felling, cutting and burning the reed, poaching, hunting and fishing, collecting biological material, transport, tourism and petrol exploitation. All these lead to the deterioration of the habitat, affect the life of the birds, the water, the clogging of the swamp and cause the disappearance of the clean water spots thus endangering the reservation itself.

  11. The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Nijkamp

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation Since the 1980s, many initiatives have attempted to tackle the deprivation currently experienced in South Rotterdam. Efforts have been made to attract creative workers and, in a counter-reaction, other initiatives have aimed to encourage the creative talents of poorer residents to strengthen their economic position. One example of this is Freehouse, which has established projects in the Afrikaanderwijk, including a neighbourhood cooperative. Our article addresses two questions: 1 What are the effects of the Freehouse projects on the economic position of residents of the Afrikaanderwijk? and 2 Which insights do our results provide into the possible effects of local government policies that rely on citizens playing an active role? Although the economic effects of the projects were limited, our study reveals that citizens’ initiatives, such as the Afrikaander Cooperative, can help residents gain employment. In order to succeed, these initiatives should not be hindered by obstructive regulations, and they should include input from the residents who function as staff. However, in deprived neighbourhoods, many residents require support to be able to contribute to citizens’ initiatives, and cannot be expected to act like Baron Münchausen and pull themselves out of the swamp of deprivation by their own hair. Het Münchausen paradigma voor achterstandswijken: jezelf uit het moeras van achterstand trekken Sinds de jaren 80 hebben veel initiatieven geprobeerd het achterstandsniveau in Rotterdam Zuid te verminderen. Verschillende initiatieven waren gericht op het aantrekken van creatieve professionals. Als tegenreactie stimuleerden andere initiatieven de creatieve talenten van arme wijkbewoners teneinde hun economische positie te versterken. Een voorbeeld hiervan is Freehouse, dat projecten in de Afrikaanderwijk startte, waaronder de oprichting van

  12. Factors affecting oxidative peat decomposition due to land use in tropical peat swamp forests in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Masayuki; Okimoto, Yosuke; Hirano, Takashi; Kusin, Kitso

    2017-12-31

    The increasing frequency of fire due to drainage of tropical peatland has become a major environmental problem in Southeast Asia. To clarify the effects of changes in land use on carbon dioxide emissions, we measured oxidative peat decomposition (PD) at different stages of disturbance at three sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia: an undrained peat swamp forest (UF), a heavily drained peat swamp forest (DF), and a drained and burned ex-forest (DB). PD exhibited seasonality, being less in the wet season and greater in the dry season. From February 2014 to December 2015, mean PD (±SE) were 1.90±0.19, 2.30±0.33, and 1.97±0.25μmolm -2 s -1 at UF, DF, and DB, respectively. The groundwater level (GWL) was a major controlling factor of PD at all sites. At UF and DF, PD and GWL showed significant quadratic relationships. At DB, PD and GWL showed significant positive and negative relationships during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Using these relationships, we estimated annual PD from GWL data for 2014 and 2015 as 698 and 745gCm -2 yr -1 at UF (mean GWL: -0.23 and -0.39m), 775 and 825gCm -2 yr -1 at DF (-0.55 and -0.59m), and 646 and 748gCm -2 yr -1 at DB (-0.22 and -0.62m), respectively. The annual PD was significantly higher in DF than in UF or DB, in both years. Despite the very dry conditions, the annual PD values at these sites were much lower than those reported for tropical peat at plantations (e.g., oil palm, rubber, and acacia). The differences in the relationship between PD and GWL indicate that separate estimations are required for each type of land. Moreover, our results suggest that PD can be enhanced by drainage both in forests and at burned sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-fire fluxes and sources of carbon in previously burnt tropical swamp peatlands, Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupascu, M.; Akhtar, H.; Smith, T. E. L.; Sukmaria binti Hj Sukri, R.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical peatlands hold about 15-19% of the global organic carbon (C) pool of which 77% in Southeast Asia. Nonetheless Southeast Asian peatlands have been exploited for timber and land for agriculture leading to rapid deforestation, extensive drainage and frequent fires. Direct C-emissions through peat combustion must be quantified to examine the impact of peat fires on global and regional C-budgets, however it is also essential to evaluate oxidative decomposition of peat after fires for a complete understanding of ecosystem-scale fire impact. This kind of investigation is necessary also to understand the effect of peat burning on peat decomposition, because burning effects on the belowground environment are variable, depending on burnt frequency and fire severity. After a fire, ecosystems act as a C-source for months-to-years as ecosystem-respiration (Reco) exceeds photosynthesis. Furthermore during fires, the surface peat with a higher proportion of the more modern rapidly-cycled C burns preferentially. The loss of the surface peat possibly can reduce oxidative soil CO2 emissions, as the deeper, older peat, has more recalcitrant compounds. However, CO2emissions from this old C pool are a net flux to the atmosphere compared to the modern C. Within this context, we are quantifying the magnitudes and patterns of ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) through cavity-ring spectroscopy in different transects of an intact tropical peat swamp forest and in two degraded forest areas affected by two and six fires over the last 40 years in Brunei, on the island of Borneo. We are using natural tracers such as δ13C and 14C to investigate the age and sources (auto- and heterotrophic) of C contributing to Reco and we are continuously monitoring soil temperature and water table level. Preliminary data show a similar magnitude of CO2 efflux between the intact (5.3 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and burnt areas (6.4 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1), with higher soil

  14. Indigenous Knowledge of Dayaks Bakumpai in Barito Kuala District on the Management of Plant Diversity Growing at Streams and Swamps

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmono Dharmono; Ahmad Sofyan; Herita Warni

    2013-01-01

    Research aimed at describing profile of indigenous knowldge owned by the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district on managing the diversity of herbs growing at the river flow and swamp. Data on herb used by the tribe were grouped based on the etnobotanic study, covering study botany, etnofarmacology, etnoantrophology, etnolinguistik and etnoekologi. We also observed how the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district preserve the diversity of plant in around them, and how their efforts in bequeathing or tea...

  15. Structure of the tree stratum of three swamp forest communities in southern Brazil under different soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carla Mancino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga forests are commonly known to be plant communities rather poor in tree species. This study aimed to describe and explain the association between the floristic-structural similarities and the environmental conditions in three Swamp Restinga Forest communities in southern Brazil. In 13 plots of 100 m2 each, we sampled all individual trees (circumference at breast height >12 cm and height ≥3 m. We collected soil samples in each plot for chemical and textural analyses. Phytosociological parameters were calculated and different structural variables were compared between areas. The density of individuals did not differ between areas; however, the maximum height and abundance of species differed between the site with Histosols and the other two sites with Gleysols. Further, a canonical correspondence analysis based on a matrix of vegetation and that of environmental characteristics explained 31.5% of the total variation. The high floristic and environmental heterogeneity indicate that swamp-forests can shelter many species with low frequency. Most species were generalists that were not exclusive to this type of forest. Overall, our study showed that swamp-forests within the same region can show considerable differences in composition and structure and can include species-rich communities, mostly due to the presence of species with a broader distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest domain on sites with less stressful environmental conditions and without waterlogged conditions.

  16. Prevalence and intensity of third stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae in swamp eels sold in three large markets in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Nuchprayoon, Surang; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2002-01-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is a common human tissue parasite in Thailand. The swamp eel is the major intermediate or paratenic host for this parasite. The high prevalence of the infective third stage larvae (L3) of this parasite in the rainy season has been noted in previous studies. During June 1999 (rainy season), we performed a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence and the intensity of G. spinigerum L3s in the livers of swamp eels that were obtained from three large Bangkok markets (Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej). Of a total of 785 livers, G. spinigerum L3s were found in 97: an infection rate of 12%. The prevalence rates in Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej markets were 13%, 10% and 14% respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of infected eels between the markets (p > 0.05). The intensity of L3 burden in the livers ranged from 1-17 larvae, with an average of 2.60 +/- 0.24 larvae (mean +/- SE). In this study a high prevalence of G. spinigerum L3s was found; there was no significant difference in the intensity of larvae in swamp eels between markets. These findings emphasize the importance of public health education: people need to be aware of the dangers of consuming raw or undercooked food.

  17. Impacts of Land Cover Change on the Carbon Dynamics in Indonesian Tropical Forested Wetlands- Mangroves and Peat Swamp Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, J. B.; Arifanti, V. B.; Basuki, I.; Kurnianto, S.; Novita, N.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical wetland forests including mangroves and lowland peat swamp forests contain among the highest carbon stocks of any ecosystem on the planet. This is largely due to the accumulation of deep organic rich soils which have been sequestering carbon for millennia. Depth of organic layers (peats) can exceed 3 m in mangrove and 10 m in the peat swamp forests. The ecosystem carbon stocks may exceed 2000 Mg/ha in mangroves and 5000 Mg/ha in peat swamp forests. Ironically, rates of deforestation of these tropical forests are among the highest in the tropics. With land cover change comes dramatic shifts in carbon stocks, net ecosystem productivity, and greenhouse gas emissions. Land cover change results in carbon losses of practically all aboveground pools as well as losses arising from soil pools. Based upon studies where we have compared stock changes due to land use the carbon emissions arising from land cover change to shrimp ponds and oil palm have ranged from 800-3000 Mg CO2e/ha. The lowered carbon sequestration rates coupled with increased or similar emissions from decomposition results in an ecosystem shift from a carbon sink to a carbon source. Clearly the large carbon stocks, high rates of deforestation, and large emissions resulting from their degradation suggest that these ecosystems should receive great consideration in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  18. Nitrogen fate in a subtropical mangrove swamp: Potential association with seawater-groundwater exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kai; Wu, Jiapeng; Li, Hailong; Hong, Yiguo; Wilson, Alicia M; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Shananan, Meghan

    2018-04-18

    Coastal mangrove swamps play an important role in nutrient cycling at the land-ocean boundary. However, little is known about the role of periodic seawater-groundwater exchange in the nitrogen cycling processes. Seawater-groundwater exchange rates and inorganic nitrogen concentrations were investigated along a shore-perpendicular intertidal transect in Daya Bay, China. The intertidal transect comprises three hydrologic subzones (tidal creek, mangrove and bare mudflat zones), each with different physicochemical characteristics. Salinity and hydraulic head measurements taken along the transect were used to estimate the exchange rates between seawater and groundwater over a spring-neap tidal cycle. Results showed that the maximum seawater-groundwater exchange occurred within the tidal creek zone, which facilitated high-oxygen seawater infiltration and subsequent nitrification. In contrast, the lowest exchange rate found in the mangrove zone caused over-loading of organic matter and longer groundwater residence times. This created an anoxic environment conducive to nitrogen loss through the anammox and denitrification processes. Potential oxidation rates of ammonia and nitrite were measured by the rapid and high-throughput method and rates of denitrification and anammox were measured by the modified membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) with isotope pairing, respectively. In the whole transect, denitrification accounted for 90% of the total nitrogen loss, and anammox accounted for the remaining 10%. The average nitrogen removal rate was about 2.07g per day per cubic meter of mangrove sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of semen quality in Swamp Buffalo AI Bulls in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koonjaenak

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Thai swamp buffalo bulls semen used for artificial insemination (AI in Thailand, aspects relevance in freezing and thawing of semen are review. Semen and sperm characteristics were evaluated included sperm count, motility (assessed subjectively and by CASA, morphology (using phase-contrast light microscopy and SEM, plasma membrane integrity (PMI (using a hypo-osmotic swelling test [HOST] and SYBR- 14/propidium iodide [PI], plasma membrane stability (PMS (using Annexin-V/PI and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity (using SCSA and flow cytometry [FCM]. The average ejaculate volume was about 3.0–4.0 mL, with good viability (PMI measured by the HOST and motility (>65% and >70%, respectively. Sperm concentration ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 billion/mL, being also affected by bull age. Whereas semen quality (including sperm output, pH and initial sperm motility did not differ between the seasons. Few spermatozoa (<15%/ ejaculate had abnormal morphology with abnormalities resembling those in other bovidae. In FT semen, PMI (using SYBR-14/PI and PMS were highest in winter. Across seasons, ~50% of post-thaw spermatozoa depicted linear motility, a proportion that decreased to ~35% during incubation (38oC for 60 minutes, without marking any seasonal difference. The sperm DNA was hardly damaged (with <3% fragmentation, expressed as DNA fragmentation index [DFI], among seasons.

  20. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  1. A Review of the Relative Merits of Conserving, Using, or Draining Papyrus Swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Ilya M. D.; Boar, Rosalind R.; Lugo, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Wetlands are a vital resource, particularly in Africa where livelihoods are closely linked to natural capital. In recent years, extensive drainage has occurred to make way for agriculture. To gain insight into whether drainage is justified, we review the value of African wetlands dominated by Cyperus papyrus in relation to use, conservation and conversion. Evidence suggests that the value derived from low-intensity, multifunctional wetland use far exceeds the value derived from swamp reclamation and generally exceeds that of conservation. At a local level, the main driver of wetland misuse appear to be a breakdown in collaborative management regimes and the main constraint on wetland use, the value of labor and selling-times. Local drivers are linked to regional factors such as the lack of coordinated wetland policies and difficulties in ensuring that legislation is absorbed by all sectors of society. We highlight opportunities for ensuring more effective collaborative management and legislation communication, which capitalize on existing governance structures. In contrast to predictions by Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons model, we argue that effective wetland management is best achieved by preventing privatization and promoting common property management regimes. We also argue that poverty and income inequity are more important drivers of unsustainable resource use than environmental managers commonly acknowledge.

  2. ADVANCED LAND COVER MAPPING OF TROPICAL PEAT SWAMP ECOSYSTEM USING AIRBORNE DISCRETE RETURN LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solichin Manuri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to better understand tropical peat ecosystems for restoration and climate change mitigation is often hampered by the lack of availability accurate and detailed data on vegetation cover and hydrologys, which is typically only derived from detailed and high-resolution imaging or field-based measurements. The aims of this study were to explore the potential advantage of airborne discrete-return lidar for mapping of forest cover in peat swamp forests. We used 2.8 pulse.m-1 lidar and the associated 1-m DTM derived from an airborne platform. The lidar dataset fully covered a 120 thousand hectare protection forest in Central Kalimantan. We extracted maximum vegetation heights in 5-m grid resolution to allow detailed mapping of the forest. We followed forest definition from FAO for forest and non-forest classification. We found that lidar was able to capture detail variation of canopy height in high-resolution, thus provide more accurate classification. A comparison with existing maps suggested that the lidar-derived vegetation map was more consistent in defining canopy structure of the vegetation, with small standard deviations of the mean height of each class.

  3. Characterization of Population Genetic Structure of red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shaokui; Li, Yanhe; Shi, Linlin; Zhang, Long; Li, Qingbin; Chen, Jing

    2018-04-03

    The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) is one of the most economically important farmed aquatic species in China. However, it is also a famous invasive species in the world. This invasive species was dispersed most via human activities including intentional or unintentional carry in China. Thus, P. clarkii naturally distributed in China provides us a desirable mode to investigate the genetic structure of an invasive species dispersed mainly by human-mediated factors. To reveal the impact of human-mediated dispersal on genetic structure of P. clarkii in China, a total of 22,043 genome-wide SNPs were obtained from approximately 7.4 billion raw reads using 2b-RAD technique in this study. An evident pattern of population genetic structure and the asymmetrical migrational rates between different regions were observed with 22 populations based on these SNPs. This study provide a better understanding of the population genetic structure and demographic history of P. clarkii populations in China, inferring that anthropogenic factors (aquaculture or by accident) and ecological factors (e.g., complicated topography and climatic environment), as well as its special biological traits could account for the current population structure pattern and dispersal history of P. clarkii.

  4. Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in South Mexico: cost / benefit analysis

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    Cristian Tovilla Hernández

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day. A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2 555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD. Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented. After logging, temperatures increased 13 °C in the soil and 11°C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3 000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246: 1. There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR HOMING IN THE RED SWAMP CRAYFISH, PROCAMBARUS CLARKII

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    BARBARESI S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, is an efficient burrower, but its burrow fidelity has been recently questioned. In this study, we aimed at investigating whether individuals of this species are capable to learn the position of a goal (a wet burrow hidden to their sight in experimental tanks and to make more efficient with time their oriented movement towards it. We also analyzed crayfish behavior after having closed one of the two accesses to the goal. Indeed, in successive trials we recorded the crayfish tendency to reduce the distance covered to reach the goal and the time taken, except when they were already familiar to the experimental setting. Memory of the spatial configuration lasted for 16 hours at least and crayfish learned and maintained individual trajectories. The interruption of their usual path always caused a drastic increase of distance and time that however decreased in the successive trials. This study provided also some information of the sensory channels used by P. clarkii to orient. This crayfish, which can be active also during daytime, seemed to adopt a combination of tactile and visual information, together with the possible use of cues (i.e. humidity cues emitted by the goal. Future studies should clarify the paradox of a crayfish species whose individuals, although being physiologically capable to home, seem not to return to the previously occupied burrows at the end of their foraging excursions, notwithstanding the time and energy expended to excavate them.

  6. Is the herb-shrub composition of veredas (Brazilian palm swamps distinguishable?

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    Diogo Pereira da Silva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vereda (Brazilian palm swamp is a poorly known savannic phytophysiognomy that occurs on moist soils with high herb-shrub floristic richness. This study aimed to document the herb-shrub species of veredas of the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins - EESGTO, and compare this flora with other veredas in Brazil. Furthermore, we assessed the similarity of the herb-shrub flora of the studied veredas with that of inventories of other savannas and grasslands in order to evaluate whether veredas possess an exclusive flora. Ordination analysis was performed to understand the floristic relationship among these areas. We recorded 213 species, 105 genera and 49 families at EESGTO, including five new floral records for the Cerrado and 78 for the state of Tocantins. The floristic similarity among veredas at EESGTO and the other sites was low. For all sites, a total of 1,324 species were recorded, of which 342 were unique to veredas and 187 unique to moist grasslands (campos limpos úmidos. After reviewing databases, 14.3 % of these species remained exclusive to veredas and moist grasslands. The ordination analysis indicated a gradient in floristic composition from wet to dry phytophysiognomies. In conclusion, we recognize a flora that distinguishes veredas from other Cerrado phytophysiognomies.

  7. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature and Immature Oocytes of the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Qiang Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Proteins from 500 immature oocytes and 500 in vitro matured oocytes were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and more than 400 spots were detected. Image analysis indicated that 17 proteins were differentially expressed between the two groups. Eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In mature oocytes, three proteins were down-regulated: major vault protein (MVP, N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (GCNT-2, and gem-associated protein (GEMIN8, whereas five other proteins, heat shock protein (HSP60, Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71, hemoglobin subunit α (HBA, and BMP-2-inducible protein kinase (BMP-2K, were up-regulated. The expression profiles of HSP60 and GEMIN8 were further verified by Western blotting. The changes in HSP60 protein expression demonstrate the increasing need for mitochondrial protein importation to facilitate macromolecular assembly during oocyte maturation. The down-regulation of GEMIN8 production implies that RNA splicing is impaired in mature oocytes.

  8. Structure of natural regeneration in Anadenanthera colubrina altitude swamp fragment in Bananeiras, PB, Brazil

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    Robson Luis Silva de Medeiros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The habitats destruction linked to fragmentation causes serious consequences for vegetation in general, especially considering the Northeast Atlantic Forest. The Northeastern Swamps of Altitudes are areas with microclimates dissociating from extensions where they are inserted. Knowledge of the natural regeneration potential is the key to understanding the dynamics of vegetation. The study aimed to evaluate the recruitment and mortality of Anadenanthera colubrina regenerating occurring in Open Rain Forest fragments. In a population of A. colubrina, ten plots with 10 m x 10 m were established, near matrices plants. All specimens with 1 m height or lower were numbered and monitored for 9 months. The stem diameter of the taxon showed continuous growth. The monthly average increment in diameter was at first 1.8 mm and at the end 2.3 mm, and the average stem increment in height was 20 cm at the first month  and 25.9 cm at the last month evaluate. The mortality rate reached 50%. Environmental and anthropogenic factors and seed predation contribute to mortality of regenerating individuals.

  9. Draining the swamp while making America great: senior dissonance in the age of Trump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Robert B

    2018-04-13

    In his surprise election as President, Donald Trump enjoyed disproportionate electoral support from older voters, many of whom saw in Trump a person who would work to reverse demographic, economic, and cultural forces that had transformed American life as they had long seen it. Yet, Trump's campaign and incumbency has also been very much about gutting the Washington policy establishment of officials, bureaucrats, and lobbyists (aka, the Swamp) which, for over half a century, has been instrumental in enacting and expanding legislation that has benefitted older Americans, far more than any other social policy constituency in the country. This article contrasts the value-oriented electoral support Trump enjoyed from older Americans with their interest concerns centered on policies such as the Affordable Care Act, Medicaid, and a host of smaller grant-in-aid programs. It then reviews the strong institutional base seniors and their advocates have in Washington, posing whether interest-oriented concerns may outweigh ideological ones as policy options emerge from a Republican-controlled government prior to the 2018 elections.

  10. Determination of endocrine patterns and their applications in the swamp buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamonpatana, M.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of AI in swamp buffalo breeding has made hormonal measurement and treatment an important area of research. Hormonal regulation of buffalo reproduction is becoming an increasingly important tool for monitoring genetic progress and productivity. The development of immunoassay techniques for measuring progesterone was quickly identified as a suitable tool for monitoring the reproductive status of the water buffalo. Progesterone profiles during the oestrous cycle, pregnancy, parturition and post partum have been established. A knowledge of progesterone levels has helped to improve clinical skills in determining reproductive status. Attempts have been made to understand the role of gonadotrophins during these reproductive stages, to advance the onset of postpartum cyclicity, and to characterize the weak signs of oestrus. Peripartal changes of oestrone and prostaglandin have been monitored. Endocrinological methods for oestrus synchronization have been developed and applied and oestrone sulphate and progesterone have been used to assess pregnancy status and a rapid pregnancy test has been utilized to maximize reproductive efficiency in ranch-type breeding herds. In the male attempts have been made to clarify the testicular testosterone secretory capacity and the possible relationships between testosterone secretion, libido, semen characteristics and the influence of season. Within the context of long-term improvement, these studies should help to decrease calving intervals, improve heat and non-pregnancy detection, and allow for subfertility discrimination and sire selection with consequent increases in milk and meat production and draught power. (author)

  11. Measurements of wave attenuation due to a soft bottom: The SWAMP experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forristall, George Z.; Reece, Allan M.

    1985-03-01

    The Sea Wave Attenuation Measurement Program (SWAMP) was designed to provide measurements of the attenuation of waves as they travel from deep water to relatively shallow water off the Mississippi Delta. The soft bottom was suspected of causing strong attenuation in the area. This effect has now been measured. A wave staff and electromagnetic current meter were used to estimate directional wave spectra at the Cognac platform in 312 m (1025 feet) of water and at platform VV in South Pass Block 27 in 19 m (63 feet) of water. In addition, measurements of vertical bottom motion were made at platform VV. Seven storm periods from Sepember 1979 to February 1981 were studied. The directional spectral comparisons showed that the theoretically calculated refraction and shoaling can explain the changes in the spectra when the wave height is low. However, as the wave height increases, a nonlinear attenuation mechanism becomes increasingly strong. The attenuation is a strong function of deep-water wave height and a weak function of wave frequency. The bottom motion measurements showed that the bottom moved downward with small amplitude under wave crests.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii Reveals Genes Involved in Gonadal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hucheng; Xing, Zhijun; Lu, Wei; Qian, Zhaojun; Yu, Hongwei; Li, Jiale

    2014-01-01

    Background The red swamp crawfish, Procambarus clarkii, has become one of the most economically important cultured species in China. Currently, little is known about the gonadal development of this species. Isolation and characterization of genes are an initial step towards understanding gonadal development of P. clarkii. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we obtained a total of 1,134,993 high quality sequence reads from the crawfish testis and ovary libraries. We aimed to identify different genes with a potential role in gonad development. The assembly formed into 22,652 isotigs, distributed by GO analysis across 55 categories in the three ontologies, ‘molecular function’, ‘cellular component’, and ‘biological processes’. Comparative transcript analysis showed that 1,720 isotigs in the ovary were up-regulated and 2138 isotigs were down-regulated. Several gonad development related genes, such as vitellogenin, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinases 2, Dmc1 and ubiquitin were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the expression profiles of 14 differentially expressed genes, and confirmed the reliability of the 454 pyrosequencing. Conclusions Our findings provide an archive for future research on gonadal development at a molecular level in P. clarkii and other crustacean. This data will be helpful to develop new ideas for artificial regulation of the reproductive process in crawfish aquaculture. PMID:25118947

  13. A pilot village study to improve Philippine swamp buffalo production using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejandrino, A.L.; Alcantara, J.; Eduardo, S.

    1990-01-01

    An integrated Philippine village study on carabao (swamp buffalo) production was conducted in a pilot village. The quasi-experimental design was adopted in two areas designated 'with project' (W/P) and 'without project' (W/OP). The farmers' demographic and socio-economic characteristics, livestock management practices and carabao production were monitored during the baseline phase (18 months) and the intervention phase (24 months). The progesterone levels in milk and serum were measured by radioimmunoassay to assess the reproductive status of the carabaos. The improved management scheme for the intervention period consisted of urea + molasses in drinking water, a routine health programme of deworming and vaccination, and breeding by artificial insemination or natural mating. The level of parasitism was low and was mainly caused by infection with Fasciola sp. and amphistomes. Intermediate snail hosts infected with these parasites were found in the study area. Coccidial oocysts and eggs of Mecistocirrus digitatus were occasionally present in the faecal samples. Reproductive traits were improved in both areas during the intervention phase, with the animals in the W/OP area showing a higher increase in pregnancy rate (57.6%) than those in the W/P area (53.7%); however, the increase in the calving rate and calf survival were greater in the W/P area (45.5% and 100%, respectively) than those in the W/OP area (37% and 94.1%, respectively). (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  14. Substantial improvements not seen in health behaviors following corner store conversions in two Latino food swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of food retail interventions is largely undetermined, yet substantial investments have been made to improve access to healthy foods in food deserts and swamps via grocery and corner store interventions. This study evaluated the effects of corner store conversions in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, California on perceived accessibility of healthy foods, perceptions of corner stores, store patronage, food purchasing, and eating behaviors. Methods Household data (n = 1686 were collected at baseline and 12- to 24-months post-intervention among residents surrounding eight stores, three of which implemented a multi-faceted intervention and five of which were comparisons. Bivariate analyses and logistic and linear regressions were employed to assess differences in time, treatment, and the interaction between time and treatment to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. Results Improvements were found in perceived healthy food accessibility and perceptions of corner stores. No changes were found, however, in store patronage, purchasing, or consumption of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Results suggest limited effectiveness of food retail interventions on improving health behaviors. Future research should focus on other strategies to reduce community-level obesity.

  15. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

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    M. Koskinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  16. Firing Room Remote Application Software Development & Swamp Works Laboratory Robot Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Janette

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is creating a way to send humans beyond low Earth orbit, and later to Mars. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is working to make this possible by developing a Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) which will allow the launch of Space Launch System (SLS). This paper's focus is on the work performed by the author in her first and second part of the internship as a remote application software developer. During the first part of her internship, the author worked on the SCCS's software application layer by assisting multiple ground subsystems teams including Launch Accessories (LACC) and Environmental Control System (ECS) on the design, development, integration, and testing of remote control software applications. Then, on the second part of the internship, the author worked on the development of robot software at the Swamp Works Laboratory which is a research and technology development group which focuses on inventing new technology to help future In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) missions.

  17. Restoration and Management of a Degraded Baldcypress Swamp and Freshwater Marsh in Coastal Louisiana

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    Rachael G. Hunter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Central Wetlands Unit (CWU, covering 12,000 hectares in St. Bernard and Orleans Parishes, Louisiana, was once a healthy baldcypress–water tupelo swamp and fresh and low salinity marsh before construction of levees isolated the region from Mississippi River floodwaters. Construction of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO, which funneled saltwater inland from the Gulf of Mexico, resulted in a drastic ecosystem change and caused mortality of almost all trees and low salinity marsh, but closure of the MRGO has led to decreases in soil and surface water salinity. Currently, the area is open water, brackish marsh, and remnant baldcypress stands. We measured hydrology, soils, water and sediment chemistry, vegetation composition and productivity, accretion, and soil strength to determine relative health of the wetlands. Vegetation species richness is low and above- and belowground biomass is up to 50% lower than a healthy marsh. Soil strength and bulk density are low over much of the area. A baldcypress wetland remains near a stormwater pumping station that also has received treated municipal effluent for about four decades. Based on the current health of the CWU, three restoration approaches are recommended, including: (1 mineral sediment input to increase elevation and soil strength; (2 nutrient-rich fresh water to increase productivity and buffer salinity; and (3 planting of freshwater forests, along with fresh and low salinity herbaceous vegetation.

  18. Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisae + Candida utilis and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo

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    P Mahyuddin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation containing combined yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida utilis, and herbs. All animals were fed basal diet of ammoniated rice straw and commercial concentrate with a ratio of 10: 90. There was no effect of probiotics+herbs on live weight gain, percentage of carcass, dressing, meat and by products, back fat thickness and eye muscle area. Addition of probiotics+herbs increased proportion of bone, reduced meat : bone ratio, body fat and proportion of offal. Although body fat content was reduced by the treatment, the compositions of fat were similar between the control and treated animals. (Animal Production 12(2: 69-73 (2010Key Words: buffalo, feedlot, yeast, carcass

  19. Tower-Based Validation and Improvement of MODIS Gross Primary Production in an Alpine Swamp Meadow on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Niu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alpine swamp meadow on the Tibetan Plateau is among the most sensitive areas to climate change. Accurate quantification of the GPP in alpine swamp meadow can benefit our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The 8-day MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS gross primary production (GPP products (GPP_MOD provide a pathway to estimate GPP in this remote ecosystem. However, the accuracy of the GPP_MOD estimation in this representative alpine swamp meadow is still unknown. Here five years GPP_MOD was validated using GPP derived from the eddy covariance flux measurements (GPP_EC from 2009 to 2013. Our results indicated that the GPP_EC was strongly underestimated by GPP_MOD with a daily mean less than 40% of EC measurements. To reduce this error, the ground meteorological and vegetation leaf area index (LAIG measurements were used to revise the key inputs, the maximum light use efficiency (εmax and the fractional photosynthetically active radiation (FPARM in the MOD17 algorithm. Using two approaches to determine the site-specific εmax value, we suggested that the suitable εmax was about 1.61 g C MJ−1 for this alpine swamp meadow which was considerably larger than the default 0.68 g C MJ−1 for grassland. The FPARM underestimated 22.2% of the actual FPAR (FPARG simulated from the LAIG during the whole study period. Model comparisons showed that the large inaccuracies of GPP_MOD were mainly caused by the underestimation of the εmax and followed by that of the undervalued FPAR. However, the DAO meteorology data in the MOD17 algorithm did not exert a significant affection in the MODIS GPP underestimations. Therefore, site-specific optimized parameters inputs, especially the εmax and FPARG, are necessary to improve the performance of the MOD17 algorithm in GPP estimation, in which the calibrated MOD17A2 algorithm (GPP_MODR3 could explain 91.6% of GPP_EC variance for the alpine swamp meadow.

  20. TEMPORAL VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN PEAT SWAMP AREA USING MODIS TIME-SERIES IMAGERY: A MONITORING APPROACH OF HIGH-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEM IN REGIONAL SCALE

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    Yudi Setiawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp area is an essential ecosystem due to high vulnerability of functions and services. As the change of forest cover in peat swamp area has increased considerably, many studies on peat swamp have focused on forest conversion or forest degradation. Meanwhile, in the context of changes in the forestlands are the sum of several processes such as deforestation, reforestation/afforestation, regeneration of previously deforested areas, and the changing spatial location of the forest boundary. Remote sensing technology seems to be a powerful tool to provide information required following that concerns. A comparison imagery taken at the different dates over the same locations for assessing those changes tends to be limited by the vegetation phenology and land-management practices. Consequently, the simultaneous analysis seems to be a way to deal with the issues above, as a means for better understanding of the dynamics changes in peat swamp area. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using MODIS images during the last 14 years for detecting and monitoring the changes in peat swamp area. We identified several significant patterns that have been assigned as the specific peat swamp ecosystem. The results indicate that a different type of ecosystem and its response to the environmental changes can be portrayed well by the significant patterns. In understanding the complex situations of each pattern, several vegetation dynamics patterns were characterized by physical land characteristics, such as peat depth, land use, concessions and others. Characterizing the pathways of dynamics change in peat swamp area will allow further identification for the range of proximate and underlying factors of the forest cover change that can help to develop useful policy interventions in peatland management.

  1. Estimating methane gas generation from Devil's swamp landfill using greenhouse gas emission models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Ayodeji Thompson

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) has been a key issue in the study, design, and management of landfills. Landfill gas (LFG) is considered either as a significant source of renewable energy (if extracted and processed accordingly) or significant source of pollution and risk (if not mitigated or processed). A municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill emits a significant amount of methane, a potent GHG. Thus, quantification and mitigation of GHG emissions is an important area of study in engineering and other sciences related to landfill technology and management. The present study will focus on estimating methane generation from Devils swamp landfill (DSLF), a closed landfill in Baton Rouge, LA. The landfill operated for 53 years (1940-1993) and contains both industrial and municipal waste products. Since the Clean Air Act of 1963, landfills are now classified as New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) waste (i.e., waste that will decompose to generate LFG). Currently, the DSLF is being used as source of renewable energy through the "Waste to Energy" program. For this study, to estimate the methane potential in the DSLF, it is important to determine the characteristics and classification of the landfill's wastes. The study uses and compares different GHG modeling tools---LandGEM, a multiphase model, and a simple first-order model---to estimate methane gas emission and compare results with the actual emissions from the DSLF. The sensitivity of the methane generation rate was analyzed by the methane generation models to assess the effects of variables such as initial conditions, specific growth rate, and reaction rate constants. The study concludes that methane (L0) and initial organic concentration in waste (k) are the most important parameters when estimating methane generation using the models.

  2. Mucilage chemical profile and antioxidant properties of giant swamp taro tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguimbou, Richard Marcel; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Himeda, Makhlouf; Scher, Joël; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-12-01

    The yellow (YP) and white (WP) sections of giant swamp taro (GST) contain 40.0 g/kg and 51.5 g/kg (dry wt) respectively of pure mucilage made up of D-glucose (44.95-78.85 %), D-galactose (8.70-25.35 %), D-mannose (3.20-10.45 %), D-arabinose (2.45-5.20 %) and small amounts of glucuronic acid and rhamnose. Arabinogalactan-proteins (5.30-8.83 g/kg) contain mainly arabinose and galactose (in a 1:1 proportion) and also significant amounts of rhamnose, xylose, glucuronic acid and mannose. Antioxidant activity of YP was higher than those of WP while chelating ability and reducing power increased with mucilages content. Generally YP and WP showed better reducing power (1.06 ± 0.35 at 5 mg/mL) than ascorbic acid (0.89 ± 0.22). WP and YP chelated ferrous ions by 20.0-76.0 % and 16.4-71.0 % respectively. Effective concentrations (EC50) of mucilages (WP 1.28 ± 0.05 mg/mL; YP 1.42 ± 0.04 mg/mL) were lower than those of citric acid (1.58 ± 0.04 mg/mL). Generally mucilage from the WP and YP sections are excellent sources of chelating agents.

  3. How could a freshwater swamp produce a chemical signature characteristic of a saltmarsh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Terrence; Smith, Christopher G.; Liu, Kam-biu; Marot, Marci E.; Haller, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Reduction–oxidation (redox) reaction conditions, which are of great importance for the soil chemistry of coastal marshes, can be temporally dynamic. We present a transect of cores from northwest Florida wherein radical postdepositional changes in the redox regime has created atypical geochemical profiles at the bottom of the sedimentary column. The stratigraphy is consistent along the transect, consisting of, from the bottom upward, carbonate bedrock, a gray clay, an organic mud section, a dense clay layer, and an upper organic mud unit representing the current saltwater marsh. However, the geochemical signature of the lower organic mud unit suggests pervasive redox reactions, although the interval has been identified as representing a freshwater marsh, an unlikely environment for such conditions. Analyses indicate that this discrepancy results from postdepositional diagenesis driven by millennial-scale environmental parameters. Rising sea level that led to the deposition of the capping clay layer, created anaerobic conditions in the freshwater swamp interval, and isolated it hydrologically from the rest of the sediment column. The subsequent infiltration of marine water into this organic material led to sulfate reduction, the buildup of H2S and FeS, and anoxic conditions. Continued sulfidation eventually resulted in euxinic conditions, as evidenced by elevated levels of Fe, S, and especially Mo, the diagnostic marker of euxinia. Because this chemical transformation occurred long after the original deposition the geochemical signature does not reflect soil chemistry at the time of deposition and cannot be used to infer syn-depositional environmental conditions, emphasizing the importance of recognizing diagenetic processes in paleoenvironmental studies.

  4. Burrowing activity in channel levees: impact of the invasive red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, L.; Bendoni, M.; Consumi, L.; Haubrock, P.; Inghilesi, A.; Mazza, G.; Torrini, M.; Tricarico, E.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of animal burrowing, as an example of bioturbation on the stability of river levees has been recently raised to the scientific community as a consequence of the levee collapses of Secchia and Foenna rivers in Italy (Camici et al., 2010, 2014; Orlandini et al., 2015). Indeed, these authors showed that the presence of animal burrows is crucial in promoting the collapse of the bank. The American red swamp Crayfish Procambarus clarkii is an invasive species in Europe, mostly introduced for commercial purposes related to livestock. It is rapidly spreading throughout the Italian peninsula due to its plasticity, dispersal capability and high reproduction rate (Souty-Grosset et al., 2016). As well as the negative effects on local biodiversity, it damages the levees of the irrigation channel leading to disastrous collapses, relevant repairing and maintenance costs. In this work, we present an experimental activity where specimens of P. clarkii were monitored while burrowing into a small-scale physical model of an earthen levee, coupled with the mathematical modelling of the variations induced by the burrows on the seepage flow patterns through the levee.Preliminary results show the burrowing structure was quite irregular. Generally, crayfish start burrowing under the water level, developing tunnels (diameter ranging 4-7cm) both horizontally and heading upward, also above the water level. Some tunnels showed one or more circular chambers. The highest burrowing activity was observed during the experiments carried out in summer, when the species has a peak of maximum activity due to the higher temperature. Mathematical modelling shows that, for given boundary conditions and experimental duration, the presence of burrows in the levee raises the phreatic line. Critical conditions for levee integrity may be associated either to the internal erosion and stability of the system of tunnels and to the emergence of the phreatic line of the landside of the levee slope. These

  5. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  6. High blood oxygen affinity in the air-breathing swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Findorf, Inge; Helbo, Signe; Kocagoz, Yigit; Buchanan, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew 1793) is a facultative air-breathing fish with reduced gills. Previous studies have shown that gas exchange seems to occur across the epithelium of the buccopharyngeal cavity, the esophagus and the integument, resulting in substantial diffusion limitations that must be compensated by adaptations in others steps of the O₂ transport system to secure adequate O₂ delivery to the respiring tissues. We therefore investigated O₂ binding properties of whole blood, stripped hemoglobin (Hb), two major isoHb components and the myoglobin (Mb) from M. albus. Whole blood was sampled using indwelling catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of O₂ equilibrium curves. Hb was purified to assess the effects of endogenous allosteric effectors, and Mb was isolated from heart and skeletal muscle to determine its O₂ binding properties. The blood of M. albus has a high O₂ carrying capacity [hematocrit (Hct) of 42.4±4.5%] and binds O₂ with an unusually high affinity (P₅₀=2.8±0.4mmHg at 27°C and pH7.7), correlating with insensitivity of the Hb to the anionic allosteric effectors that normally decrease Hb-O₂ affinity. In addition, Mb is present at high concentrations in both heart and muscle (5.16±0.99 and 1.08±0.19mg ∙ g wet tissue⁻¹, respectively). We suggest that the high Hct and high blood O₂ affinity serve to overcome the low diffusion capacity in the relatively inefficient respiratory surfaces, while high Hct and Mb concentration aid in increasing the O₂ flux from the blood to the muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Deforestation projections for carbon-rich peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Douglas O; Hardiono, Martin; Meijaard, Erik

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated three spatially explicit land use and cover change (LUCC) models to project deforestation from 2005-2020 in the carbon-rich peat swamp forests (PSF) of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Such models are increasingly used to evaluate the impact of deforestation on carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. We considered both business-as-usual (BAU) and a forest protection scenario to evaluate each model's accuracy, sensitivity, and total projected deforestation and landscape-level fragmentation patterns. The three models, Dinamica EGO (DE), GEOMOD and the Land Change Modeler (LCM), projected similar total deforestation amounts by 2020 with a mean of 1.01 million ha (Mha) and standard deviation of 0.17 Mha. The inclusion of a 0.54 Mha strict protected area in the LCM simulations reduced projected loss to 0.77 Mha over 15 years. Calibrated parameterizations of the models using nearly identical input drivers produced very different landscape properties, as measured by the number of forest patches, mean patch area, contagion, and Euclidean nearest neighbor determined using Fragstats software. The average BAU outputs of the models suggests that Central Kalimantan may lose slightly less than half (45.1%) of its 2005 PSF by 2020 if measures are not taken to reduce deforestation there. The relatively small reduction of 0.24 Mha in deforestation found in the 0.54 Mha protection scenario suggests that these models can identify potential leakage effects in which deforestation is forced to occur elsewhere in response to a policy intervention.

  8. Identifying food deserts and swamps based on relative healthy food access: a spatio-temporal Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hui; Law, Jane; Quick, Matthew

    2015-12-30

    Obesity and other adverse health outcomes are influenced by individual- and neighbourhood-scale risk factors, including the food environment. At the small-area scale, past research has analysed spatial patterns of food environments for one time period, overlooking how food environments change over time. Further, past research has infrequently analysed relative healthy food access (RHFA), a measure that is more representative of food purchasing and consumption behaviours than absolute outlet density. This research applies a Bayesian hierarchical model to analyse the spatio-temporal patterns of RHFA in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, from 2011 to 2014 at the small-area level. RHFA is calculated as the proportion of healthy food outlets (healthy outlets/healthy + unhealthy outlets) within 4-km from each small-area. This model measures spatial autocorrelation of RHFA, temporal trend of RHFA for the study region, and spatio-temporal trends of RHFA for small-areas. For the study region, a significant decreasing trend in RHFA is observed (-0.024), suggesting that food swamps have become more prevalent during the study period. For small-areas, significant decreasing temporal trends in RHFA were observed for all small-areas. Specific small-areas located in south Waterloo, north Kitchener, and southeast Cambridge exhibited the steepest decreasing spatio-temporal trends and are classified as spatio-temporal food swamps. This research demonstrates a Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling approach to analyse RHFA at the small-area scale. Results suggest that food swamps are more prevalent than food deserts in the Region of Waterloo. Analysing spatio-temporal trends of RHFA improves understanding of local food environment, highlighting specific small-areas where policies should be targeted to increase RHFA and reduce risk factors of adverse health outcomes such as obesity.

  9. Nitrogen Dynamics Along a Headwater Stream Draining a Fen, Swamp, and Marsh in a Fractured Dolomite Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.; Waddington, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Stream-wetland interaction has been shown to have a significant effect on nutrient cycling and downstream water quality. Additionally, connection to regional groundwater systems can dilute or enrich stream water with a number of dissolved constituents. This study demonstrates the resultant downstream change in dissolved nitrogen species as a hardwater stream emerges from a calcareous aquifer and traverses a calcareous fen, a cedar swamp, and a cattail marsh over two growing seasons, a very dry 2006 and a very wet 2007. Upon emergence at a number of groundwater seeps, the water contained appreciable nitrate levels averaging 2.72±0.42 mg NO3-N L-1, minimal organic nitrogen, and ammonium below detectable levels. Through the gently sloping calcareous fen, with a stream residence time of ~ 5 hours, NO3-N concentration decreases of 0.35 mg L-1 were observed. Concomitantly, stream recharge into the dolomite bedrock depressed stream discharge values significantly, further removing nitrate from the stream system. This resulted in the fen-bedrock system acting as an estimated net sink of 432 kg of NO3-N in the early summer of 2007, for example. In contrast, the hydrological-biogeochemical systems became decoupled through the swamp during the same period, where concentrations increased from 2.58±0.34 mg L-1 entering the swamp to 2.65±0.58 mg L-1 exiting, but streamflow decreased in general by 5 L s- 1. This resulted in the swamp, with its large depression storage, acting as a small net sink of nitrate (75 kg through the early summer), which would not be detected simply from concentration changes. The concentration-discharge relation realigned through the marsh, where significant groundwater entered the wetland, increasing both concentration and discharge, yielding a small export of 93 kg over the same time period. A series of tracer injections in each wetland type will be presented to compare the streamflow- concentration patterns with the measured nutrient spiralling

  10. Food habitats of the Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Coswine Swamps (French Guiana, South America)

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegelberger, Thomas; Ganslosser, Udo

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyse the habitat of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758) in the Coswine Swamps of northwest French Guiana, South America. Water parameters were similar to those described in other studies: water depth varied from 2.5 m to more than 20 m; water temperature was between 24.5 °C and 30.3 °C and pH varied between 5.5 and 6.9. Salinity was low (0.0‰ to 1.3‰) with 86.9% of all samples taken in fresh water. No submerged aquatic vegetation was found in...

  11. Alsophinase, a new P-III metalloproteinase with α-fibrinogenolytic and hemorrhagic activity from the venom of the rear-fanged Puerto Rican Racer Alsophis portoricensis (Serpentes: Dipsadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Caroline L; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2012-05-01

    Metalloproteinases from snake venoms are often multi-domain enzymes involved in degradation of a variety of structural proteins. Hemorrhage and tissue necrosis are common manifestations of viperid envenomations in humans, largely due to the actions of prominent metalloproteinases, and envenomation by rear-fanged snakes may also cause hemorrhage. We purified the major metalloproteinase in Alsophis portoricensis (Puerto Rican Racer) venom through HPLC size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. Named alsophinase, it is the first protein purified and characterized from the venom of Alsophis. Alsophinase is a single polypeptide chain protein, and based on mass, activity and complete inhibition by 1,10-phenanthroline, it is a class P-III snake venom member of the M12 ADAM family of metalloproteinases. Alsophinase has a molecular mass of 56.003kDa and an N-terminal sequence of QDTYLNAKKYIEFYLVVDNGMFxKYSxxFTV, with 67% sequence identity to a metalloproteinase isolated from venom of Philodryas olfersii (another rear-fanged species). Alsophinase rapidly catalyzed cleavage of only the Ala14-Leu15 bond of oxidized insulin B chain, had potent hemorrhagic activity in mice, and degraded only the α-subunit of human fibrinogen in vitro. Alsophinase is responsible for hemorrhagic and fibrinogenolytic activity of crude venom, and it may contribute to localized edema and ecchymosis associated with human envenomations by A. portoricensis. It may be more specific in peptide bond recognition than many well-characterized viperid P-III metalloproteinases, and it could have utility as a new protein fragmentation enzyme for mass spectrometry studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The palynology and sedimentology of a coastal swamp at Awana, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, from c. 7000 yr B.P. to present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analysis of two Holocene cores from Awana, Great Barrier Island, shows that at 7000 calibrated yr B.P. the local swamp was an estuarine salt marsh dominated by Restionaceae. By c. 6000 yr B.P. the water table was lower, and a fresh water swamp (Gleichenia-Leptospermum) had replaced the salt marsh. Regional conifer-hardwood forest c. 7000 yr B.P. was initially co-dominated by Libocedrus and Dacrydium cupressinum. Libocedrus declined from c. 6000 yr B.P. During the period c. 6000-c. 2500 yr B.P., relatively stable environmental conditions ensued with little change in local or regional vegetation. Around 2500 yr B.P., the swamp surface became drier and was invaded by Dacrycarpus and Laurelia swamp forest. This forest was subsequently repeatedly disturbed (not by fire), indicating climatic change to drier and windier conditions. Ascarina lucida was periodically a major component of swamp forest. Disturbance is also recorded in the clastic (mineral) sediments, where beds of sand within finer-grained sediment and peat are interpreted as wind blown material derived from partly devegetated dunes to seaward. The presence of the Kaharoa Tephra allows the timing of major Polynesian deforestation at Awana to be reliably dated to c. 600 calibrated yr B.P. In contrast, we see no evidence in the clastic sediment record of disturbance at Awana since Kaharoa time. We attribute this to the maintenance of stable dunes by a herb/scrub cover despite nearby fires, or to the presence of scrub or forest buffering the swamp from ablating dunes. (author). 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Recent benthic foraminifera assemblages from mangrove swamp and channels of Abu Dhabi (UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Paul, Andreas; Song, Jianfeng; Freeman, Mark; Michel, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations from mangrove swamps and channels located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels). A 100 m transect across a natural channel in a mangal on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island was sampled in detail for sedimentological and foraminiferal analysis. Forty-seven samples were collected at 2 meter intervals along the transect in a number of different sedimentary facies including; fine sediment in areas exposed during low tide and close to mangrove trees (Avicennia marina), fine sediment rich in leaf material, coarse sediment in channels, and coarse sediments with a shell lag. At each sampling location environmental parameters were recorded, including water depth, salinity, temperature and pH. Samples collected for foraminiferal analysis were stained in rose Bengal in order to identify living specimens. Samples collected on the mud flat at the margin of the channel show a living foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Cribroelphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Sigmoilinita, Spiroloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicennia marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising small-sized opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Cribroelphidium along with rare Triloculina and

  14. Advanced three-dimensional imaging reveals the arterial vasculature in the head region of the air-breathing swamp eel, Monopterus albus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Pedersen, Michael; Huong, Do T

    Air-breathing fish exhibit many anatomical modifications that allow for oxygen uptake directly from air. This is certainly the case for the tropical swamp eels, Synbranchidae, where various structural adaptations of the vasculature within the buccopharyngeal region mediate an amphibious lifestyle....... In Synbranchus, the rigid gills allow for aerial gas exchange, while the Asian swamp eels rely on various air-breathing organs (ABO) within the buccopharyngeal cavity. The air-breathing organs of the commercially important Asian rice field eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793), is not well known...

  15. Epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain of southern Brazil: latitudinal effects on the plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fifty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into five ecological zones (strata, where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in floristic composition between ecological zones with richness differing significantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. These climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. The importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.

  16. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-12-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution.

  17. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  18. 'Leaves and eats shoots': direct terrestrial feeding can supplement invasive red swamp crayfish in times of need.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Grey

    Full Text Available We used stable isotope analyses to characterise the feeding dynamics of a population of red swamp crayfish in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, after the crash of submerged macrophytes and associated macroinvertebrates, and during a natural draw-down of the lake water level. We expected a heavy reliance upon a diet of detrital matter to sustain the population as a consequence, and indeed, for the majority of the crayfish population caught from the lake, we saw a concomitant shift in isotopic values reflecting a dietary change. However, we also caught individual crayfish that had occupied the footprints of hippopotamus and effectively extended their range beyond the lake up to 40 m into the riparian zone. Isotopic analysis confirmed limited nocturnal observations that these individuals were consuming living terrestrial plants in the vicinity of the footprints. These are the first empirical data to demonstrate direct use of terrestrial resources by an aquatic crayfish species and further highlight the traits that make red swamp crayfish such opportunistic and successful invaders.

  19. Chronological Reorganization of Microtubules, Actin Microfilaments, and Chromatin during the First Cell Cycle in Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibuntita Chankitisakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the dynamics of early embryonic development, in terms of redistribution of cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin microfilaments and chromatin configurations during the first cell cycle in swamp buffalo embryos. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro, and they were fixed at various time points after IVF. At 6 h after IVF, 44.4% matured oocytes were penetrated by spermatozoa. Partial ZP digestion, however, did not improve fertilization rate compared to control (P>.05. At 12 h after IVF, the fertilized oocytes progressed to the second meiotic division and formed the female pronucleus simultaneously with the paternal chromatin continued to decondense. A sperm aster was observed radiating from the base of the decondensing sperm head. At 18 h after IVF, most presumptive zygotes had reached the pronuclear stage. The sperm aster was concurrently enlarged to assist the migration and apposition of pronuclei. Cell cleavage was facilitated by microfilaments and firstly observed by 30 h after IVF. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton actively involves with the process of fertilization and cleavage in swamp buffalo oocytes. The centrosomal material is paternally inherited. Fertilization failure is predominantly caused by poor sperm penetration. However, partial digestion of ZP did not improve fertilization rate.

  20. Genetic variability and performance of Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793 from West Java cultured in saline water medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinar Tri Soelistyowati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793 is freshwater fish species which is prospective for domestic and export markets. The production is limited depend on the catches of natural population. The cultivation of eel has been carried out to increase the production for sustainability. This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic variability and performance of Asian swamp eel from West Java and its potential cultivation in water based media with salinity. Three populations from West Java were collected of different altitudes from Sukabumi (673 m asl, Cianjur (429 m asl, Karawang (51 m asl sized 19–26.5 cm and weighed 4.95–11.4 g. The cultivation was performed during 30 days in water media without substrate at salinity 6 ppt with density of 1 kg/m2 and maintenance at container 50×30×30 cm completed with shelter pipe of ¾ inches diameter and 20 cm length, height of water 10 cm and water exchange 100% every day, fed at satiation using Tubificidae once a day. Genetically, all of the populations showed low heterozygosity at 1.19–1.23% and genetic distance 0.01–0.04. Asian swamp eel adapted better at water salinity 6 ppt which indicated by low mesure of osmotic gradient and blood glucose. Asian swamp eel from Karawang showed superior at survival rate (90% and daily growth rate (1.42/day. Keywords: Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus, cultivation, genetic variability, salinity  ABSTRAK  Belut sawah Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793 merupakan komoditas ikan air tawar potensial di pasar domestik maupun ekspor, namun produksinya masih mengandalkan hasil tangkapan dari alam karena budidaya belum berkembang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi keragaman genetik dan keragaan belut sawah asal Jawa Barat dan potensinya untuk dikembangkan dengan teknik budidaya di air bersalinitas tanpa lumpur. Tiga populasi belut sawah dikoleksi dari lokasi di Jawa Barat dengan ketinggian berbeda yaitu Sukabumi (673 m dpl, Cianjur (429 m dpl

  1. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  2. Comparing Avocado, Swamp Bay, and Camphortree as Hosts of Raffaelea lauricola Using a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Labeled Strain of the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A S; Ploetz, R C; Rollins, J A

    2017-01-01

    Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, causes laurel wilt in members of the Lauraceae plant family. North American species in the family, such as avocado (Persea americana) and swamp bay (P. palustris), are particularly susceptible to laurel wilt, whereas the Asian camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora) is relatively tolerant. To determine whether susceptibility is related to pathogen colonization, a green fluorescent protein-labeled strain of R. lauricola was generated and used to inoculate avocado, swamp bay, and camphortree. Trees were harvested 3, 10, and 30 days after inoculation (DAI), and disease severity was rated on a 1-to-10 scale. By 30 DAI, avocado and swamp bay developed significantly more severe disease than camphortree (mean severities of 6.8 and 5.5 versus 1.6, P avocado than camphortree (0.9% versus 0.1%, P avocado (r = 0.74), swamp bay (r = 0.82), and camphortree (r = 0.87), even severely affected trees of all species were scarcely colonized by the pathogen.

  3. Lower food chain community study: thermal effects and post-thermal recovery in the streams and swamps of the Savannah River Plant, November 1983-May 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratieff, B.C.; Kondratieff, P.

    1985-04-01

    This report documents a study of lower food chain (autotroph and macroinvertebrate assemblage) response to, and recovery from, thermal stress in the streams and swamps of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Data for the report were collected between November 1983 and May 1984. Elevated water temperature regimes in the thermal streams and swamps resulted in generally simplified lower food chain community structure. Thermally tolerant forms of both autotrophs (blue-green algae) and macroinvertebrates (oligochaetes, nematodes, snails and midges) were able to maintain populations in thermally stressed areas. The thermally tolerant taxa found in the perturbed streams and swamps often had high densities and biomass. It would appear tht many of the macroinvertebrate species occurring in SRP streams and swamps evolved in habitats subject to great thermal variation, both diel and seasonal. Based on the results of this study, certain temperature ranges are associated with certain general effects on the lower food chain. In temperatures >40/sup 0/C most taxa are eliminated, from 30 to 40/sup 0/C a stressed community exists with a few tolerant taxa and from 25 to 30/sup 0/C an assemblage resembling a summer ambient community in structure and function exists, often with reduced species composition. 74 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs. (ACR)

  4. A study of the vegetation of the “Turfkoele” and of the Palynological character of the peat deposited in this swamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, K.

    1957-01-01

    On the frontier of the municipalities “Melick en Herkenbosch” and “Vlodrop” near the road from Herkenbosch to boundery-mark 376, in the site named “Koezoep”, in the province of Limburg, Netherlands, is a peat swamp, known as the “Turfkoele”. From the geological map (no. 58, fourth part sheet 4) it

  5. The Analysis of Management and Timber Trade System of Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi From Peat Swamp Forest in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Firmanul Ariffin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Until now the raw material of wood especially Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi available for supporting the construction of housing and other infrastructures is increasingly large in Indonesia. On the Island of Borneo that partly consists of swamps needs Gelam very large and continuous, particularly for residential development. However, areas of peat swamp forest habitat of this plant from year to year are degradation and shrinkage. This situation is a very big influence on the population of Gelam, while the management and timber trade systems are not well regulated. This study aims to analyze the management and timber trade systems of Gelam particularly in South Kalimantan to provide input to the policy holder in the preservation of Gelam. The method was used a field survey and interviews with traders and policy holders related regulations. The results showed in South Kalimantan the potency of Gelam is only 2,9-7,1 m3/ha and decreasing yearly. Normally Gelam with a diameter <4 cm have been cut down, as well as > 30 cm. These dimensions should not be cut because of <4 cm too young and > 30 cm can be used as seed sources. Gelam derived from peat swamp forest, which mostly comes from the Batola District and some came from Kapuas District of Central Kalimantan. Distributions of Gelam were starting gatherers logging in the forest then sold to small gatherers, next to the large gatherers and distributed to all districts/cities in South Kalimantan, wood processing industries, and some of them were sent to Java. The silviculture system of Gelam was using selective cutting. Classification of wood sizes traded by the diameter divided into 3-4cm, 5-6cm, 7-8cm, 9-10cm, 11-12cm, 13-14cm, 15-19cm and > 20cm to 4m long. Its use consists of a small diameter (3-10cm for foundry building and firewood, while the large diameter (10-20cm for the construction of houses in swampy areas, and waste as well as the stems are bent and deformed used for firewood. Until now Gelam

  6. Evolution of Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous) peat swamps of the Ruhr Basin, Germany: Comparison of palynological, coal petrographical and organic geochemical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, K. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Hartkopf-Froeder, C. [Geological Survey North Rhine-Westphalia, de-Greiff-Strasse 195, 47803 Krefeld (Germany); Flajs, G. [Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Littke, R. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the reconstruction of the environment during peat swamp development. Eight coal and sedimentary organic rock bearing seam successions were examined all belonging to the Duckmantian (Pennsylvanian, Late Carboniferous). 410 samples were analysed with coal petrographical methods, 155 of these also by palynological methods. In addition, on 55 samples organic geochemical investigations were carried out with respect to n-alkanes and iso-alkanes. The established coal petrographical parameters gelification index (GI), tissue preservation index (TPI), groundwater index (GWI) and vegetation index (VI) were used to characterize different periods of peat swamp development. Furthermore, the new index WCI (= Water Cover Index) was introduced to reflect water level conditions by using the ratio between hydrophilous/hygrophilous and mesophilous plants. In this study the index is based on palynological data but can be equally applied when quantitative macrofloral counts are available. GI versus TPI values show two general trends of peat swamp evolution: low GI and TPI values as indicator for drier swamp conditions like ombrogenous mires and high GI and TPI values which show a trend to water covered environments like topogenous mires. In addition, ash yields and GWI versus VI data also emphasize a general trend from topogenous to ombrogenous mires. A decrease in water level towards the top of the seams and thus resulting in the development of domed mires is reflected by the newly introduced WCI. Hence, these parameters show recurrent peat swamp successions, characterized by mineral- and vitrinite-rich coals, typical for topogenous swamps and an evolution towards inertinite/liptinite-rich coals with low ash yield, typical for ombrogenous swamps. n-alkane ratios like the carbon preference index (CPI), pristane/n-C{sub 17}, phytane/n-C{sub 18}, pristane/phytane and the n-C{sub 17}/n-C{sub 27} relationship indicate a strong correlation of these parameters with

  7. Water-use dynamics of a peat swamp forest and a dune forest in Maputaland, South Africa

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    A. D. Clulow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp forests are the second rarest forest type found in South Africa while dune forests have been under severe threat through mining and agriculture. Both forest types exist in the conservation area, and World Heritage site, known as the iSimangaliso Wetland Park on the East coast of South Africa. The area is prone to severe droughts (Taylor et al., 2006 and recent attempts to understand the local water balance revealed that there was insufficient information on the water use of the indigenous forests of the area. The peat swamp forest and dune forest sites studied in this research were located within close proximity to each other, yet, are characterised by different landscape positions in terms of water availability. The coastal dune forest soil profile was generally dry and sandy and the tree roots did not have access to the water table. In contrast the peat swamp forest is located in an interdunal wetland where the trees have permanent access to water. The climate at both sites is subtropical with a mean annual precipitation of 1200 mm yr−1. However, over 20 months of measurement, the first summer (October 2009 to March 2010 was drier (424 versus 735 mm than the second summer (October 2010 to March 2011 emphasising the variability of the rainfall in the area and providing a wide range of conditions measured. The sap flow of an evergreen, overstory Syzygium cordatum and a semi-deciduous, understory Shirakiopsis elliptica were measured in the peat swamp forest using the heat ratio method. The Syzygium cordatum water use was not highly seasonal and the daily maximum water use ranged from approximately 30 L d−1 in winter to 45 L d−1 in summer whereas the extit{Shirakiopsis elliptica} water use was more seasonal at 2 L d−1 in winter and 12 L d−1 in summer. The water use of the Syzygium cordatum was not influenced by seasonal rainfall variations and was actually higher in the drier summer (October 2009 to March 2010. Three trees of

  8. Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Kang, S.; Setyaningsih, K.; Setyawan, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC) replacement for cassava chip (CC) in concentrate at 0% (T1); GCC replacement at 33% (T2); GCC replacement at 67% (T3); and GCC replacement at 100% (T4), respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS). Purine derivatives (PD) concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC) index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination. PMID:25049671

  9. Insect emergence in relation to floods in wet meadows and swamps in the River Dalälven floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnersten, T Z Persson; Östman, Ö; Schäfer, M L; Lundström, J O

    2014-08-01

    Annual variation in flood frequency and hydroperiod during the vegetation season has ecological impacts on the floodplain biota. Although many insect groups may have a lower emergence during a flood event, it is poorly known how annual emergence of insects in temporary wetlands is related to the variation in hydrology. Between May and September, we studied the weekly emergence of 18 insect taxa over six consecutive years, 2002-2007, in six temporary flooded wetlands (four wet meadows and two forest swamps) in the River Dalälven floodplains, Central Sweden. We used emergence traps to collect emerging insects from terrestrial and aquatic parts of wet meadows and swamp forests. In all wetlands, the insect fauna was numerically dominated by the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Homoptera. On a weekly basis, 9 out of the 18 insect taxa had lower emergence in weeks with flood than in weeks with no flood, whereas no taxon had a higher emergence in weeks with flood. Over the seasons, we related insect emergence to seasonal flood frequency and length of hydroperiod. The emergence of most studied taxa decreased with increasing hydroperiod, which suggests that emergence after floods do not compensate for the reduced emergence during floods. Only Culicidae and the aquatic Chironomidae sub-families Tanypodinae and Chironominae showed an increase in emergence with increasing hydroperiod, whereas Staphylinidae peaked at intermediate hydroperiod. We conclude that a hydroperiod covering up to 40% of the vegetation season has a significant negative effect on the emergence of most taxa and that only a few taxa occurring in the temporary wetlands are actually favoured by a flood regime with recurrent and unpredictable floods.

  10. Laboratory Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon – Polluted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to carry-out laboratory–scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove swamps using cow dung as source of limiting of nutrients.Methodology and Results: In a 70 days study, the cow dung treated polluted soil had its total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacterial/fungi, heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts increased progressively from the 28th day to the 70th day. The control set- up showed very slight increment in its microbial growth. Alkaline pH was observed in all the treatments and control during the study period. The conductivity values of cow dung decreased progressively. In the cow dung treatment option, the nitrate concentration decreased from 35.44 mg/kg to 14.28 mg/kg. Phosphate concentration of cow dung option decreased from 25.41 mg/kg to 9.31mg/kg. The control had the nitrate decreased from 8.42 mg/kg to 6.98 mg/kg. Percentage total organic carbon (% TOC in the cow dung option decreased from 4.06% to 0.96%. Control experiment had the % TOC decreased from 3.32% to 2.99%. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that 0%, 49.88%, and 69.85% of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively in the cow dung option. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0%, 7.14% and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of organic nutrient sources such as cow dung has shown good promises in bioremediation of crude oil impacted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta. The next line of action is to transfer the technology to pilot scale study.

  11. On the relative roles of hydrology, salinity, temperature, and root productivity in controlling soil respiration from coastal swamps (freshwater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Whitbeck, Julie L.; Howard, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Soil CO2 emissions can dominate gaseous carbon losses from forested wetlands (swamps), especially those positioned in coastal environments. Understanding the varied roles of hydroperiod, salinity, temperature, and root productivity on soil respiration is important in discerning how carbon balances may shift as freshwater swamps retreat inland with sea-level rise and salinity incursion, and convert to mixed communities with marsh plants. Methods We exposed soil mesocosms to combinations of permanent flooding, tide, and salinity, and tracked soil respiration over 2 1/2 growing seasons. We also related these measurements to rates from field sites along the lower Savannah River, Georgia, USA. Soil temperature and root productivity were assessed simultaneously for both experiments. Results Soil respiration from mesocosms (22.7-1678.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) differed significantly among treatments during four of the seven sampling intervals, where permanently flooded treatments contributed to low rates of soil respiration and tidally flooded treatments sometimes contributed to higher rates. Permanent flooding reduced the overall capacity for soil respiration as soils warmed. Salinity did reduce soil respiration at times in tidal treatments, indicating that salinity may affect the amount of CO2 respired with tide more strongly than under permanent flooding. However, soil respiration related greatest to root biomass (mesocosm) and standing root length (field); any stress reducing root productivity (incl. salinity and permanent flooding) therefore reduces soil respiration. Conclusions Overall, we hypothesized a stronger, direct role for salinity on soil respiration, and found that salinity effects were being masked by varied capacities for increases in respiration with soil warming as dictated by hydrology, and the indirect influence that salinity can have on plant productivity.

  12. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Flux Related to Forest Type and Managed and Unmanaged Conditions in the Great Dismal Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenberg, L. W.; Krauss, K.; Qu, J. J.; Hogan, D. M.; Zhu, Z.; Xu, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Great Dismal Swamp in Virginia and North Carolina, USA, has been greatly impacted by human use and management for the last few hundred years through logging, ditching, and draining. Today, the once dominant cedar, cypress and pocosin forest types are fragmented due to logging and environmental change. Maple-gum forest has taken over more than half the remaining area of the swamp ecosystem, which is now a National Wildlife Refuge and State Park. The peat soils and biomass store a vast quantity of carbon compared with the size of the refuge, but this store is threatened by fire and drying. This study looks at three of the main forest types in the GDS— maple-sweet gum, tall pine pocosin, and Atlantic white cedar— in terms of their carbon dioxide and methane soil flux. Using static chambers to sample soil gas flux in locally representative sites, we found that cedar sites showed a higher carbon dioxide flux rate as the soil temperature increased than maple sites, and the rate of carbon dioxide flux decreased as soil moisture increased faster in cedar sites than in maple sites. Methane flux increased as temperature increased for pocosin, but decreased with temperature for cedar and maple. All of the methane fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. Cedar average carbon dioxide flux was statistically significantly different from both maple and pocosin. These results show that soil carbon gas flux depends on soil moisture and temperature, which are factors that are changing due to human actions, as well as on forest type, which is also the result of human activity. Some of these variables may be adjustable by the managers of the land. Variables other than forest type, temperature and soil moisture/inundation may also play a role in influencing soil flux, such as stand age, tree height, composition of the peat and nutrient availability, and source of moisture as some sites are more influenced by groundwater from ditches and some more by rainfall depending on the

  13. Effects of Hurricane Katrina on the forest structure of taxodium distichum swamps of the Gulf Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina pushed mixed Taxodium distichum forests toward a dominance of Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) because these species had lower levels of susceptibility to wind damage than other woody species. This study documents the volume of dead versus live material of woody trees and shrubs of T. distichum swamps following Hurricane Katrina along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and Louisiana. Pearl River Wildlife Management Area near Canton, Mississippi had the highest winds of the study areas, and these forests were located in the northeast quadrant of Hurricane Katrina (sustained wind 151 kph (94 mph)). Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve south of New Orleans had medium to high winds (sustained winds 111 kph (69 mph) at the New Orleans lakefront). Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge had a lower level of winds and was positioned on the western edge of the storm. The forests at Pearl River and to a lesser extent at Jean Lafitte had the highest amount of structural damage in the study. For Cat Island, Jean Lafitte, and Pearl River, the total volume of dead material (debris) was 50, 80, and 370 m3 ha-1, respectively. The ratio of dead to live volume was 0.010, 0.082, and 0.039, respectively. For both of the dominant species, T. distichum and N. aquatica, the percentage of dead to live volume was less than 1. Subdominant species including Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus lyrata, and Quercus nigra were more damaged by the storm at both Pearl River and Jean Lafitte. Only branches were damaged by Hurricane Katrina at Cat Island. Shrubs such as Morella cerifera, Euonymous sp., and Vaccinium sp. were often killed by the storm, while other species such as Cephalanthus occidentalis, Forestiera acuminata, and Cornus florida were not killed. Despite the fact that Hurricane Katrina was a Category 3 storm and struck Pearl River and Jean Lafitte fairly directly, dominant species of the T. distichum swamps were

  14. Effect of redox conditions on bacterial and fungal biomass and carbon dioxide production in Louisiana coastal swamp forest sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Dong Cheol; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal and bacterial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production/emission was determined under a range of redox conditions in sediment from a Louisiana swamp forest used for wastewater treatment. Sediment was incubated in microcosms at 6 Eh levels (-200, -100, 0, + 100, + 250 and + 400 mV) covering the anaerobic range found in wetland soil and sediment. Carbon dioxide production was determined by the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) inhibition method. Cycloheximide (C 15 H 23 NO 4 ) was used as the fungal inhibitor and streptomycin (C 21 H 39 N 7 O 12 ) as the bacterial inhibitor. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh > + 250 mV), fungi contributed more than bacteria to the CO 2 production. Under highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), bacteria contributed more than fungi to the total CO 2 production. The fungi/bacteria (F/B) ratios varied between 0.71-1.16 for microbial biomass C, and 0.54-0.94 for microbial biomass N. Under moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the F/B ratios for microbial biomass C and N were higher than that for highly reducing conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV). In moderately reducing conditions (Eh ≥ + 100 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 13.54-14.26) was slightly higher than for bacteria (C/N: 9.61-12.07). Under highly reducing redox conditions (Eh ≤ 0 mV), the C/N microbial biomass ratio for fungi (C/N: 10.79-12.41) was higher than for bacteria (C/N: 8.21-9.14). For bacteria and fungi, the C/N microbial biomass ratios under moderately reducing conditions were higher than that in highly reducing conditions. Fungal CO 2 production from swamp forest could be of greater ecological significance under moderately reducing sediment conditions contributing to the greenhouse effect (GHE) and the global warming potential (GWP). However, increases in coastal submergence associated with global sea level rise and resultant decrease in sediment redox potential from increased flooding would likely shift CO 2 production to bacteria

  15. Fertilitas Semen Kerbau Rawa (Bubalus bubalis carabanensis yang Diencerkan dengan Pengencer Nira Aren (FERTILITY OF SWAMP BUFFALO SEMEN (BUBALUS BUBALIS CARABANENSIS DILUTED WITH SUGAR PALM JUICE EXTENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar palm juice (Arenga pinnata Merr. can be used as semen extender because its various nutrientscontent which were needed for spermatozoa preservation. The objective of this research was to examineeffectivity of sugar palm juice as swamp buffalo semen extender in artificial insemination (AI program.Semen of swamp buffalo were collected by using an artificial vagina. Fresh semen were evaluated anddivided in equal volume into four tubes and diluted with lactose extender containing 20% egg yolk (lactoseor control, 85% sugar palm juice + 15% egg yolk (PJEY15, 80% sugar palm juice + 20% egg yolk (PJEY20,and 75% sugar palm juice + 25% egg yolk (PJEY25, respectively. Diluted-semen were preserved inrefrigerator at 5oC, and quality of spermatozoa including percentages of motile spermatozoa, livespermatozoa, and intact plasma membrane (IPM were evaluated every day for four days. A total of 13female swamp buffaloes were estrous synchronize with PGF2a, and six buffaloes were inseminated withlactose and seven buffaloes were inseminated with PJEY20. Results of this research showed that at dayfourpreservation, mean percentages of motile and live spermatozoa for lactose (36.67 and 51.83% andPJEY20 (35.83 and 51.5% were significantly (P<0.05 higher than PJEY15 (31.67 and 44% and PJEY25 (30 and 45.33%, but no difference significant between treatment for IPM parameter. Pregnancy rate forlactose was 66.67% and 71.43% for PJEY20. Percentage of birth for lactose and PJEY20 were 66.67% and71.43%, respectively. In conclusion, sugar palm juice could be used as an alternative extender in semenpreservation process and AI of swamp buffalo.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE TOXICITY OF SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS TO RED SWAMP CRAYFISH (PROCAMBARUS CLARKII, GIRARD 1852 AND COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO, L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOROLLI C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of three synthetic pyrethroids (Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin and Cyfluthrin to red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii and the mortality after long-term exposition of young common carp to Deltamethrin were determined in standardized laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of limiting the expansion of crayfish by the use of these compounds and the implications of their use on fish. Red swamp crayfish experienced high sensitivity to pyrethroids as expressed by the LC50-24h: 0.14 μg/l for Cypermethrin, 0.17 μg/l for Cyfluthrin and 0.22 μg/l for Deltamethrin. No mortality was observed in common carp during the long term (24 days exposure test at initial concentration of 22.0 μg/l of Deltamethrin. The concentrations of Deltamethrin in muscle of crayfish and common carp were under the limit of quantification of the gas-chromatographic method in all the tests. The results suggest that synthetic pyrethroids may be suitable to control or to eradicate nuisance populations of red swamp crayfish, in small and limited areas.

  17. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  18. A field study on artificial insemination of swamp and crossbred buffaloes with sexed semen from river buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yangqing; Liao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ming; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Lu, Shengsheng; Wu, Zhuyue; Xu, Huiyan; Liang, Yunbin; Lu, Kehuan

    2015-10-01

    Sex preselection by flow sorting of X- and Y-sperm has been proven to be an efficient and economically feasible strategy for use in Holstein dairy cow breeding, and previous reports have demonstrated the feasibility of altering the sex ratio in buffalo species by using sexed semen in either artificial insemination or IVF. However, because buffalo reproductive physiology and farm management are different from Holsteins, factors involved in artificial insemination by sexed semen need to be further addressed before being applied in buffalo breeding at village-level husbandry. In this study, a total of 4521 swamp or crossbred (F1 or F2) buffaloes with natural estrus were inseminated with X-sorted sperm from river buffaloes, resulting in a 48.5% (2194 of 4521) pregnancy rate and 87.6% (1895 of 2163) sex accuracy in the derived calves. The pregnancy rate obtained with sexed semen from Murrah bulls was higher than that of Nili-Ravi, 52.5% (895 of 1706) versus 46.1% (1299 of 2815; P inseminations performed in different seasons (P insemination with sexed semen. The findings in the present study under field conditions pave the way for application of sexing technology to buffalo breeding under village-level husbandry and diverse genetic backgrounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inferring Invasion History of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii in China from Mitochondrial Control Region and Nuclear Intron Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the dispersal pathways of an invasive species is useful for adopting the appropriate strategies to prevent and control its spread. However, these processes are exceedingly complex. So, it is necessary to apply new technology and collect representative samples for analysis. This study used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC in combination with traditional genetic tools to examine extensive sample data and historical records to infer the invasion history of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China. The sequences of the mitochondrial control region and the proPOx intron in the nuclear genome of samples from 37 sites (35 in China and one each in Japan and the USA were analyzed. The results of combined scenarios testing and historical records revealed a much more complex invasion history in China than previously believed. P. clarkii was most likely originally introduced into China from Japan from an unsampled source, and the species then expanded its range primarily into the middle and lower reaches and, to a lesser extent, into the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in China. No transfer was observed from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Human-mediated jump dispersal was an important dispersal pathway for P. clarkii. The results provide a better understanding of the evolutionary scenarios involved in the rapid invasion of P. clarkii in China.

  20. Antibacterial properties of extracts of Solidago canadensis and their potential use as dietary supplements in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii

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    Manhong YE,Lei ZHANG,Jiaqi GE,Haifeng SUN,Jingjing NI,Shengmei YANG,Wanhong WEI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis is one of the most destructive invasive weeds in South-eastern China. To evaluate its potential application as dietary supplement in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, the antibacterial properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts of this plant against three major pathogenic bacteria in crayfish aquaculture were examined. Inhibition zone tests and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration revealed that the extracts had lower antibacterial activity than extracts from two traditional medicinal plants that possess antibacterial properties, garlic (Allium sativum and cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense. However, they did exhibit greater antibacterial effects than extracts from another widely used medicinal plant, Sophora flavescens, and an aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides. Aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod gave greater inhibition than the ethanol extracts. Crayfish fed a diet with 2% these aqueous extracts exhibited significantly higher enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, catalase and phenoloxidase (P<0.05. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod are highly promising for the development of new dietary supplement for use in crayfish aquaculture.

  1. Reproductive status and synchronization of oestrus for predetermined insemination of Philippine carabaos (swamp buffalo) raised by smallholder farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momongan, V.G.; Palad, O.A.; Singh, M.; Sarabia, A.S.; Chiong, R.D.; Nava, Z.M.; Obsioma, A.R.; Del Barrio, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve size, and meat and milk productivity of the Philippine carabao, a swamp type of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), through crossbreeding with the riverine type. Studies were conducted to assess the reproductive status of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers, determine conception rates of buffaloes to artificial insemination (AI) through oestrus synchronization, and examine the patterns of plasma progesterone in cyclic and acyclic carabao heifers. Approximately 20% of carabaos raised by smallholder farmers were diagnosed pregnant by rectal palpation. This low pregnancy rate may be due to a combination of factors such as the failure to submit for examination carabaos exhibiting external signs of pregnancy, the deliberate postponement of breeding for working females, the inability of bulls to gain access to carabaos in oestrus which are tethered at night, or the high incidence of anoestrus or suboestrus. The reproductive problems in non-pregnant animals were cystic (19.5%), infantile (25.7%), and dormant ovaries (51.3%), and pathology of the uterus and cervix (3.5%). Both feeding and management practices in different locations influenced the nutritional status of female carabaos examined. Animals in good body condition were either cycling or pregnant. A 30-40% conception rate was achieved by synchronization of oestrus and insemination with frozen semen at 72 and 96 h later. Based on progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation of the ovaries, anoestrus in carabao heifers was due either to a failure of cycling animals to exhibit oestrus or those with inactive ovaries. (author)

  2. Vegetation change in the coastal-lowland rainforest at Avai'o'vuna Swamp, Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Patricia L.

    2005-11-01

    Avai'o'vuna Swamp, a small coastal wetland in Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga, produced a 4500-year pollen and sediment record. Results are: (1) a mid-Holocene sea level highstand is confirmed for Tonga between about 4500 and 2600 14C yr B.P.; marine clay contains pollen from mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle), coastal forest trees ( Barringtonia asiatica and Cocos nucifera), and rainforest trees ( Alphitonia, Rhus, Hedycarya and Calophyllum). (2) Microscopic charcoal first appeared at 2600 14C yr B.P., coincident with the arrival of Polynesians. (3) Cocos, Pandanus, Excoecaria, Macaranga, and Elaeocarpaceae pollen reflects the establishment of a mixed coastal-lowland rainforest in the last 2500 years. (4) The loss of Hedycarya, Elaeocarpus, Calophyllum, and Guettarda and the reduction of Terminalia and taxa in the Papilionaceae family by about 1000 years ago may be due to habitat destruction and the loss of dispersal capabilities of some species through the extinction of the two largest pigeons in Tonga.

  3. Trophic attributes of the mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus (Gobiidae: Oxudercinae) in the mangrove swamps of Imo River Estuary, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Mfon T

    2002-10-01

    Aspects of the trophic attributes of the mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus occurring in the mangrove swamps of Imo River Estuary, Nigeria, were investigated during a 12-month period (April, 1992-March, 1993). Feeding intensity increased with size, it was higher in the dry season(November-April) than in the wet season(May-October), monthly changes in the indices of feeding intensity were significantly correlated. Major food objects comprised detritus and benthic algae; crustaceans, insects, macrophyte matter and sand grains were minor food objects while fish, molluscs, Chilopoda, nematodes and fungi were unconsciously devoured objects. Diet varied seasonally; algae and sesarmid crabs were generally more in the dry season than during the rains whereas FPOM and fish increased in the wet over dry season. The mudskipper display a high degree of euryphagy and can be considered as a generalist and an omnivore. The lower trophic status of P. barbarus qualifies it as a good aquaculture candidate. Food richness was higher in big-sized class(BSC) than small-sized class(SSC). Size-based and seasonal variations were not apparent in food richness. Diet breadth was higher in the BSC than the SSC, there was dry season increase in diet breadth.

  4. Benefits of the fire mitigation ecosystem service in The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthum, Bryan; Pindilli, Emily; Hogan, Dianna

    2017-12-01

    The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the health of nearby human populations. We used a combination of high-frequency satellite data, ground sensors, and air quality indices to determine periods of public exposure to dense emissions from a wildfire within the GDS. We examined emergency department (ED) visitation in seven Virginia counties during these periods, applied measures of cumulative Relative Risk to derive the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on ED visitation rates, and estimated economic losses using regional Cost of Illness values established within the US Environmental Protection Agency BenMAP framework. Our results estimated the value of one avoided catastrophic wildfire in the refuge to be $3.69 million (2015 USD), or $306 per hectare of burn. Reducing the frequency or severity of extensive, deep burning peatland wildfire events has additional benefits not included in this estimate, including avoided costs related to fire suppression during a burn, carbon dioxide emissions, impacts to wildlife, and negative outcomes associated with recreation and regional tourism. We suggest the societal value of the public health benefits alone provides a significant incentive for refuge mangers to implement strategies that will reduce the severity of catastrophic wildfires. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Acid base status in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis fed rice straw and concentrate with addition of sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the addition of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 on acid-base status in swamp buffaloes, Three fistulated buffaloes were each introduced to dietary treatment control diett (50% rice straw + 50% concentrate, control + \\0% NaHCO3 and diet control + 10% Na2CO3 in two times Latin Square Design. The diets contained 9,7% crude protein and 53% TDN to achieve maintenance requirements of the animals. Parameters measured include (l Fed consumption, water consumption and urine volume. (2 pH in rumen fluid, saliva, bLood and urine, (3 natrium mineral content in rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine. The results of the experiment showed higher pH in the rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine of buffaloes due to supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, Water consumption and urine volume was significanly increased as the effect of Na supplement. The acid-base status of buffaloes was apparently normal in all animals.

  6. Preliminary report on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene diatoms of Swamp Lake, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, Scott W.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Swamp Lake, Yosemite National Park, is the only known lake in California containing long sequences of varved sediments and thus has the potential to provide a high-resolution record of climate variability. This preliminary analysis of the diatom assemblages from a 947-cm-long composite sediment core (freeze core FZ02–05; 0–67 cm, Livingstone core 02–05; 53–947 cm) shows that the lake has been freshwater, oligotrophic, and circumneutral to alkaline throughout its ~16,000-year-long history. The first sediments deposited in the lake show that the vegetation in the watershed was sparse, allowing organic matter-poor silt and clay to be deposited in the basin. The basin filled quickly to a depth of at least 5 m and remained at least that deep for most of the sediment record. Several short intervals provided evidence of large fluctuations in lake level during the Holocene. The upper 50 cm of the core contains evidence of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age.

  7. Benefits of the fire mitigation ecosystem service in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthum, Bryan M.; Pindilli, Emily J.; Hogan, Dianna

    2017-01-01

     The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the health of nearby human populations. We used a combination of high-frequency satellite data, ground sensors, and air quality indices to determine periods of public exposure to dense emissions from a wildfire within the GDS. We examined emergency department (ED) visitation in seven Virginia counties during these periods, applied measures of cumulative Relative Risk to derive the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on ED visitation rates, and estimated economic losses using regional Cost of Illness values established within the US Environmental Protection Agency BenMAP framework. Our results estimated the value of one avoided catastrophic wildfire in the refuge to be \\$3.69 million (2015 USD), or \\$306 per hectare of burn. Reducing the frequency or severity of extensive, deep burning peatland wildfire events has additional benefits not included in this estimate, including avoided costs related to fire suppression during a burn, carbon dioxide emissions, impacts to wildlife, and negative outcomes associated with recreation and regional tourism. We suggest the societal value of the public health benefits alone provides a significant incentive for refuge mangers to implement strategies that will reduce the severity of catastrophic wildfires.

  8. Effect of Lunar Phases, Tides, and Wind Speed on the Abundance of Diptera Calliphoridae in a Mangrove Swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-da-Silva, J A

    2014-02-01

    Abiotic factors, such as lunar phases and tides, have a significant effect on insect development. Reproduction and immature development are usually interlinked to these abiotic factors. The tide is at its highest levels at full moon or new moon, hindering the feeding of the immature or causing their drowning. The oviposition by adult females is also compromised on these days because much of the available food is submerged. Another important abiotic factor is the wind, which displaces odoriferous particles in the air. Wind speed and direction are important elements to indicate potential sources of food for insects. I report on the effects of lunar phases, tides, and wind speed on the Calliphoridae fauna in mangrove swamps. The different species collected were identified, and the predominant species in the area were quantified. A total of 1,710 flies were collected over a 1-year period. Six Calliphoridae flies, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) were collected. Data indicated that lunar phases have a significant effect on the abundance of C. albiceps (r = 0.39, p tides also affected the abundance of C. putoria (r = 0.40, p < 0.00), C. macellaria (r = 0.41, p < 0.00), and C. idioidea (r = 0.31, p < 0.04). The wind speed, however, did not affect these species.

  9. The Effect of Seed Soaking with Rhizobacteria Pseudomonas alcaligenes on the Growth of Swamp Cabbage (Ipomoea reptans Poir)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widnyana, I. K.; Ngga, M.; Sapanca, P. L. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The research was conducted to determine the effect of seed soaking with suspense of P. alcaligenes isolate KtSl, TrN2, and TmAl to the growth of swamp cabbage. The research has been initially developed on tomatoes. In this research, Randomized Block Design was chosen as its model while the data analysis was performed by using SPSS v.17 for Windows. Three types of treatment were administered towards P. alcaligenes, namely isolating, soaking, and growing the medium. Some observed parameters were germination and growth. The results showed that seed soaking treatments with suspense P. alcaligenes fostered the germination 25% faster, enhanced the crop up to 24.4%, increased the number of leaves up until 23.15%, lengthen stems to 25%, lengthen the roots up to 46.90%, and increase the fresh weight of stems up until 67.07% and oven-dry weight of stem up to 84.21% compared to the control treatment. The best response of treatment for germination speed was soaking seeds with P. alcaligenes TrN2 for 20 minutes on both NB (Natrium Broth) and PDB (Potato Dextrose Broth) media.

  10. Injuries in Handicapped Alpine Ski Racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, David P.

    1985-01-01

    A study of 68 handicapped skiers showed a rate of two injuries per 1,000-skier days. Disabled skiers, while risking the same injuries as nondisabled skiers, also have problems related to their disabilities. A particular hazard for amputee skiers is the outrigger injury. Recommendations to reduce the injury rate are presented. (MT)

  11. Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on NPK Uptake and Production of Sweet Corn in Inceptisol Soil of Lowland Swamp Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Neni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study objective was to determine the dose of organic and inorganic fertilizers which can increase N, P and K nutrients uptake as well as the growth and yield of sweet corn on inceptisol soil of lowland swamp. Inceptisol soil has low soil fertility and relatively low to moderate levels of organic matter content. Application of organic fertilizer on inceptisol soil of lowland swampis expected capable to increase N, P and K nutrients as well as yield of sweet corn. This research was conducted from April to July 2014 at Experimental Farm Area of Pulau Semambu Village, Indralaya Utara Subdistrict, Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra Province. The method used in this research was randomized block design consisting treatments as follows: 75% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer, 50% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer, 25% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1 organic fertilizer, 0% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer with six replications. The recommended dose of inorganic fertilizerswas 200 kg.ha−1 urea, 100 kg.ha−1 SP-36 and 100 kg. ha−1 KCl. The results showed that treatment of 75% of inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer had produced N, P and K nutrients uptake with magnitude of 1.850, 0.418 and 2.374 g.plant−1 respectively as well as good growth and yield of sweet corn with magnitude of 356.36 g. plant−1or 15.21 ton ha−1.

  12. Indigenous Knowledge of Dayaks Bakumpai in Barito Kuala District on the Management of Plant Diversity Growing at Streams and Swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmono Dharmono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at describing profile of indigenous knowldge owned by the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district on managing the diversity of herbs growing at the river flow and swamp. Data on herb used by the tribe were grouped based on the etnobotanic study, covering study botany, etnofarmacology, etnoantrophology, etnolinguistik and etnoekologi. We also observed how the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district preserve the diversity of plant in around them, and how their efforts in bequeathing or teaching the traditional knowledge of an old breed generation to his young daam in managing diversity of herbs around them. The study was carried out at three vellages, namely Simpang Arja, Pengulu and Ulu Benteng. The results showed that 52 plant species living along the river and 67 species that live in the marsh. Based on the interview we found that (1 the profile of indigenous knowldge dayaks bakumpai district batola in making use of the diversity of plant in surrounding shown through etno-linguistic, etno-economy, etno-anthropology, etno-farmacology and etno-ecology against 44 tufted herbs of 67 of herbs found, (2 Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district, to preserve the diversity of plant surrounding them, have done without planting, but by making use of herbs without a certain rule, making use of herbs by a certain rule, making use of herbs let plant grown in nature, and destroy plants that exist or cultivated, and (3 efforts for the inheriting the indigenous knowldge to its young generation have been done by women and quite alarming that many young ages of Dayaks Bakumpai do not know the name of herbs around them.

  13. Gene cloning and induced expression pattern of IRF4 and IRF10 in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Qiao-Qing; YANG, Dai-Qin; TUO, Rui; WAN, Jing; CHANG, Ming-Xian; NIE, Pin

    2014-01-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish in East Asia, but data on the immune genes of M. albus are scarce compared to other commercially important fish. A better understanding of the eel’s immune responses may help in developing strategies for disease management, potentially improving yields and mitigating losses. In mammals, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) play a vital role in both the innate and adaptive immune system; though among teleosts IRF4 and IRF10 have seldom been studied. In this study, we characterized IRF4 and IRF10 from M. albus (maIRF4 and maIRF10) and found that maIRF4 cDNA consists of 1 716 nucleotides encoding a 451 amino acid (aa) protein, while maIRF10 consists of 1 744 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 236 nt encoding 411 aa. The maIRF10 gene was constitutively expressed at high levels in a variety of tissues, while maIRF4 showed a very limited expression pattern. Expression of maIRF4 and maIRF10 in head kidney, and spleen tissues was significantly up-regulated from 12 h to 48 h post-stimulation with polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a common pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. These results suggest that IRF4 and IRF10 play roles in immune responses to both viral and bacterial infections in M. albus. PMID:25297077

  14. Food deserts or food swamps?: A mixed-methods study of local food environments in a Mexican city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridle-Fitzpatrick, Susan

    2015-10-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in eating behaviors and health outcomes. While food deserts have been researched extensively in developed Anglophone countries, evidence from low- and middle-income countries is still scarce. In Mexico, prevalence of obesity is among the highest worldwide. As obesity has increased nationally and become a widespread public health issue, it is becoming concentrated in the low-income population. This mixed-methods study uses a multidimensional approach to analyze food environments in a low-, middle-, and high-income community in a Mexican city. The study advances understanding of the role that food environments may play in shaping eating patterns by analyzing the density and proximity of food outlet types as well as the variety, quantity, quality, pricing, and promotion of different foods. These measures are combined with in-depth qualitative research with families in the communities, including photo elicitation, to assess perceptions of food access. The central aims of the research were to evaluate physical and economic access and exposure to healthy and unhealthy foods in communities of differing socioeconomic status as well as participants' subjective perceptions of such access and exposure. The findings suggest a need to reach beyond a narrow focus on food store types and the distance from residence to grocery stores when analyzing food access. Results show that excessive access and exposure to unhealthy foods and drinks, or "food swamps," may be a greater concern than food deserts for obesity-prevention policy in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus ( Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

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    N. T. Thao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis leaf meal (ELM supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05 while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05. Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05 with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05 while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency.

  16. Capture efficiency and size selectivity of sampling gears targeting red-swamp crayfish in several freshwater habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paillisson J.-M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ecological importance of the red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii in the functioning of freshwater aquatic ecosystems is becoming more evident. It is important to know the limitations of sampling methods targeting this species, because accurate determination of population characteristics is required for predicting the ecological success of P. clarkii and its potential impacts on invaded ecosystems. In the current study, we addressed the question of trap efficiency by comparing population structure provided by eight trap devices (varying in number and position of entrances, mesh size, trap size and construction materials in three habitats (a pond, a reed bed and a grassland in a French marsh in spring 2010. Based on a large collection of P. clarkii (n = 2091, 272 and 213 respectively in the pond, reed bed and grassland habitats, we found that semi-cylindrical traps made from 5.5 mm mesh galvanized steel wire (SCG were the most efficient in terms of catch probability (96.7–100% compared to 15.7–82.8% depending on trap types and habitats and catch-per-unit effort (CPUE: 15.3, 6.0 and 5.1 crayfish·trap-1·24 h-1 compared to 0.2–4.4, 2.9 and 1.7 crayfish·trap-1·24 h-1 by the other types of fishing gear in the pond, reed bed and grassland respectively. The SCG trap was also the most effective for sampling all size classes, especially small individuals (carapace length \\hbox{$\\leqslant 30$} ⩽ 30 mm. Sex ratio was balanced in all cases. SCG could be considered as appropriate trapping gear to likely give more realistic information about P. clarkii population characteristics than many other trap types. Further investigation is needed to assess the catching effort required for ultimately proposing a standardised sampling method in a large range of habitats.

  17. How does conversion from peat swamp forest to oil palm plantation affect emissions of nitrous oxide from the soil? A case study in Jambi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Jodie; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Comeau, Louis-Pierre; Jo, Smith; Lou, Verchot

    2017-04-01

    Half of the peatlands across Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra are 'managed'. Conversion of peat swamp forest to workable oil palm plantation requires a drastic, potentially irreversible, change to the landscape, to which fertilizers are then routinely applied. A combination of these factors is now widely thought to increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, although there is high uncertainty due to gaps in the knowledge, both regionally and nationally. Despite the widespread use of fertilizers in plantations on peats, studies observing their effects remain very limited. Therefore, there is a need for in situ studies to evaluate how environmental parameters (edaphic properties, climate, soil moisture and N availability indicators) influence soil emissions. This 18 month study was located in plots local to each other, representing the start, intermediate and end of the land conversion process; namely mixed peat swamp forest, drained and logged forest and industrial oil palm plantation. Spatial variability was taken into account by differentiating the hollows and hummocks in the mixed peat swamp forest, and the fertilized zone and the zone without fertilizer addition in the oil palm plantation. Gas samples were collected each month from static chambers at the same time as key environmental parameters were measured. Intensive sampling was performed during a 35 day period following two fertilizer applications, in which urea was applied to palms at rates of 0.5 and 1 kg urea palm-1. Soil N2O emissions (kg N ha-1 y-1 ± SE) were low overall, but they were greater in the oil palm plantation (0.8 ± 0.1) than in the mixed peat swamp forest (0.3 ± 0.0) and the drained/logged forest (0.2 ± 0.0). In the mixed peat swamp forest, monthly average fluxes of N2O (g N ha-1 d-1 ± SE) were similar in the hollows (0.6 ± 0.2) and the hummocks (0.3 ± 0.1), whereas in the oil palm plantation they were consistently higher in the zone without fertilizer (2.5 ± 0.4) than in

  18. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION ON EARLY GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF TWO PEAT­ SWAMP FOREST TREE SPECIES SEEDLINGS, Calophyllum hosei AND Ploiarium alternifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Turjaman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat-swamp forests are one of  the largest near-surface reserves of terrestrial organic carbon,  but rnany peat-swamp forest tree species decreased due over-exploitation, forest fire and conversion of natural forests into agricultural lands. Among those species are slow-growing Calophyllum  hoseiand Ploiarium  alternifolium, two species are good for construction of boats, furniture, house building and considerable attention from pharmacological viewpoint for human healthly. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi on early growth of  C. hosei and P.alternifoliumunder greenhouse condition. Seedlings of C. hosei and P.alternifoliumwere inoculated with AM fungi: Glomus clarum and Glomus aggregatum ,or uninoculated under greenhouse condition during 6 months. AM colonization,   plant growth,  survival rate and  nutrient  content  (P, Zn  and B were measured. The percentage of C. hoseiand P.alternifolium ranged from 27-32% and 18-19%,  respectively. Both inoculated seedling species had greater plant  height, diameter, leaf number, shoot and root dry weight than control  seedlings.   Nutrient  content  of  inoculated  plants  were increased with AM colonization- Survival rates of  inoculated plants were higher (100%  than those of  control plants (67%. The results suggested that inoculation of AM fungi could improve the early growth of C. hoseiand P.alternifolium grown in tropical peat-swamp forest therefore  this finding has greater potential impact if this innovative technology applied in field scales which are socially acceptable, commercially profitable and environmentally friendly.

  19. Reconnaissance of the ground-water, surface-water system in the Zekiah Swamp Run basin, Charles and Prince Georges Counties, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, H.T.; Fisher, G.T.; McGreevy, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The water table in the alluvium of the Zekiah Swamp Run valley in southern Maryland is above stream level during most of the year and the alluvial aquifer contributes water to the stream. During the summer, however, high evapotranspiration sometimes lowers the water table below the stream level. Water then moves from the stream to the alluvium and, at times, reaches of the stream become dry. Pumping from the confined aquifers has caused water levels to decline several tens of ft, which has increased the downward gradient between the water-table aquifer and the underlying confined aquifers. Three synoptic surveys of base flow show areal and temporal variations in stream discharge, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and temperature. April 1984 base flows were high (141 cu ft/sec, at the Route 6 gage) because of high precipitation during March. July 1983 base flows were low (2.35 cu ft/sec at the Route 6 gage) and showed significant loss of streamflow because of high antecedent evapotranspiration. Estimates of inflow and outflow of the Zekiah Swamp Run basin above Route 6 during the 1984 water year include: Precipitation, 50.21 in; stream outflow, 20.10 in; shallow groundwater underflow, 0.1 in; stream outflow, 20.10 in; shallow groundwater underflow, 0.1 in; and evapotranspiration, 33 in. A streamflow budget of a 5.1 mi area of the valley of Zekiah Swamp Run between Routes 5 and 6, during the April 1984 survey and a loss of almost 5 cu ft during the July 1983 survey. (Author 's abstract)

  20. An overview on the use of urinary purine derivatives excretion as a method for estimation of rumen microbial protein production in swamp buffaloes and zebu cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.B.; Pimpa, O.; Elan, Z.A.; Balcells, J.; Abdullah, N.

    2004-01-01

    Respond models based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) as an index to predict rumen microbial protein production have been developed for European cattle and sheep. However, there is evidence to suggest that those equations may not be applicable directly to tropical swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and zebu Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle (Bos indicus). To establish similar equations for the above two species of ruminants, three studies were conducted. The first study examined the relationship between daily urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol) and duodenal purine bases (PB) (X, mmol). The relationships obtained were Y = 0.12 X + 12.78 (r 2 =0.45) for buffaloes and Y 0.85 X + 7.15 (r 2 =0.62) for KK cattle, suggesting that 12 and 85% of the supplied exogenous purines were excreted in the urine of buffaloes and zebu cattle, respectively. In the second study, 8-[ 14 C]-uric acid was used to test the hypothesis that the lower recovery of urinary PD in swamp buffaloes was due to their higher recycling of plasma PD as compared to KK cattle. Averaged non-renal loss of plasma [ 14 C]-uric acid for swamp buffaloes and KK cattle did not differ significantly. A third study was conducted to examine whether the lower urinary PD excretion for buffaloes could be due to lower absorption in the small intestine as compared to cattle. The results indicated that apparent purine absorption rate for buffaloes as a percentage of disappearance in the first segment of small intestine was not significantly different from that of zebu cattle, even though a significantly larger quantity of digesta and PB was noted in the last 4 segments of the small intestine of buffaloes. The equation obtained in this study for zebu cattle is similar to those published for European cattle. Due to the extremely low recovery rate (12%), the proposed equation for buffaloes should be used with great caution. (author)

  1. DNA-based hair sampling to identify road crossings and estimate population size of black bears in Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Wills, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    The planned widening of U.S. Highway 17 along the east boundary of Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GDSNWR) and a lack of knowledge about the refugeâ s bear population created the need to identify potential sites for wildlife crossings and estimate the size of the refugeâ s bear population. I collected black bear hair in order to collect DNA samples to estimate population size, density, and sex ratio, and determine road crossing locations for black bears (Ursus americanus) in G...

  2. POTENCY OF RAMIN (Gonystylus bancanus Kurtz. AND OTHER COMMERCIAL SPECIES IN PEAT SWAMP FOREST MANAGED WITH TPTI SILVICULTURAL SYSTEM IN BAGAN, RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendromono Hendromono

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Ramin  (Gonystylus bancanus Kurtz.  is one  of  the  tree  species in  peat-swamp  forest  that  is endangered due to excessive exploitation. The objective of this research was to assess the potency of rarnin and other commercial tree species in primary and logged over peat-swamp forests at Bagan, Riau. The tree stands were inventoried in primary forest of the 2004 and 2006 Annual Work Plan (RKTs and in  the  1997  and  2001  RKTs  managed  with  Indonesian  Selective Cutting  and  Planting  (TPTI silvicultural system.  The  result  showed  that  rarnin in  Bagan peat-swamp  forest  was not  evenly distributed. The total number of ramin  in tree stage in primary forests was fewer than that in  logged over forests.  The total number of ramin species at tree stage in primary forest was between 4.5  and 5 trees ha·' with the important value index (IVI of 10.3  to 12.0%,  whereas the one at logged over forest were between 2.5 and 15  trees ha·' with theM    indices of 7.9 to 20.4%.  Commercial species of swamp meranti (Shorea uliginosaand S. teysmaniana and balam/ suntai or (Palaqqiumspp. were dominant at tree stage both in the primary and the logged over forests. Enrichment in logged over forests is not needed since the total number of seedlings and saplings  is enough. The total number of potential core trees in logged over forests was enough for the next cutting cycle. The effort that must be done in logged over forests is to protect them from illegal logging.

  3. Impact of predation on early stages of the armoured catfish Hoplosternum thoracatum (Siluriformes-Callichthyidae) and implications for the syntopic occurrence with other related catfishes in a neotropical multi-predator swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jan H

    1996-08-01

    This study investigated the role of predators in preventing competitive exclusion among three closely related armoured catfishes (Callichthys callichthys, Hoplosternum littorale and H. thoracatum) that occur synthopically in multi-predator freshwater swamps of Suriname, South America. The potential impact of predation on armoured catfish was determined by combining laboratory measurements of predation rates on five early developmental stages of the armoured catfish H. thoracatum for 24 aquatic predators with field studies of the density of the predators in the swamps. The contribution of a particular predator to the total predation pressure on its prey was determined to a large extent by the density of the predator in the swamp. Seemingly innocuous predators with low or moderate predation rates in the laboratory may be extremely important in the swamps due to their high abundance. Small-sized omnivorous fishes and aquatic invertebrates were major predators of early developmental stages of armoured catfish. Both qualitative and quantitative ontogenetic changes in the predation pressure on armoured catfish were observed. Major predation on eggs, larvae and juveniles of H. thoracatum resulted from a different set of predators in each developmental stage of the prey. In all developmental stages of H. thoracatum the predation pressure involved several predator species and not a single, dominant predator. The potential predation pressure of the 24 predators taken together and the number of predators that were able to prey on H. thoracatum decreased sharply with increasing age (size) of the prey. Even if egg (nest) predation is prevented by the guarding male, the potential impact of the 24 predators on the populations of armoured catfish is large. Predation may account for the high mortality of H. thoracatum observed in the swamps. The high predation pressure on callichthyid catfishes may help to explain the coexistence of three closely related and morphologically quite

  4. Recent benthic foraminifera and sedimentary facies from mangrove swamps and channels of Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Lokier, Stephen W.; Paul, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations in several coastline environments (mangrove swamps and channels) located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of living and dead benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding area comprising natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels) and areas modified by anthropogenic activities (dredged channels). The fine-grain sediments collected near mangrove (Avicenna marina) roots presented a high abundance of living and dead foraminifera tests. The assemblages in these samples show very low diversity and are almost entirely constituted of small-sized opportunistic species belonging to the genera Ammonia and Elphidium. In particular: • Samples collected on the mud flat and in ponds at the margin of the channel show a foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. • Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicenna marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Elphidium along with rare miliolidae. • Samples from the upper intertidal area (dry) close to Avicenna marina roots, produced an assemblage exclusively composed of small-sized opportunistic Ammonia and Elphidium, together with abundant specimens belonging to the genera Trochammina. Throchammina specimens have not been previously recorded from Recent sedimentary samples of

  5. A note on the correlation between rainfall and the prevalence of Gnathostoma spp. infective stage larvae in swamp eels in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit V.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gnathostoma spinigerum is the major causative agent of human gnathostomiasis, a parasitic zoonosis with a great variety of clinical manifestations. Generally, humans are infected by consumption of third-stage larvae (L3 of G. spinigerum in infected hosts in the form of partially cooked or uncooked food. Surveys of the contamination of Gnathostoma spp. L3 in swamp eels are useful for prevention and control of diseases and have been continuously performed in Thailand. The author performed a retrospective study on 33 previous cross-sectional surveys with geographical data and the prevalence of Gnathostoma spp. L3 that covered 12 provinces in Thailand. The relation between rainfall (derived from the geographical data and the prevalence of Gnathostoma spp. L3 in swamp eels (derived from the overall infection rate of Gnathostoma spp. L3 was investigated. The least- square equation plot rainfall (y versus prevalence (x is y = 9.68x + 1,035.1 2 (r = 0.83; p < 0.01. A significant correlation was discerned between rainfall and the prevalence of eel infection but not for the season of the survey. Similar to the previous study, the prevalence of eel infection may depend on rainfall rather than season. However, this study focused on only 33 cross-sectional surveys in Thailand; further similar study in other countries to assess the correlation between rainfall and the prevalence of infection is required to substantiate this conclusion.

  6. A palynological study of Polynesian and European effects on vegetation in Coromandel, New Zealand, showing the variability between four records from a single swamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrami, M.; Ogden, J.; Horrocks, M.; Deng, Y.; Shane, P.; Palmer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Seven cores were extracted from a river terrace swamp in the forested Kauaeranga valley, Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. High-resolution (c. 36-73 yr interval) pollen records were obtained from four of the cores and aged by radiocarbon dating and with stratigraphic reference to the 665 ± 15 14 C yr BP Kaharoa Tephra. The records span the last c. 1800 yr and show that the vegetation consisted of lowland podocarp-hardwood forest before deforestation by burning occurred. The pattern of deforestation at Kauaeranga, indicated by the abrupt dominance of Pteridium with concurrent increased charcoal, is typical of pollen records associated with early Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Peaks of Pteridium and charcoal were also found in sediments deposited after European settlement. Different cores show marked palynological and stratigraphic differences relative to the Kaharoa Tephra, most importantly with regard to the timing of deforestation. Deforestation occurred close to the Kaharoa, at a calculated age of c. 750 BP in one core but well above the Kaharoa (c. 480 BP) in another. The stratigraphic unconformities between cores are attributed to variable fluvial processes causing an uneven deposition of sediments within the swamp. (author). 32 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  7. The Racer?s Brain ? How Domain Expertise is Reflected in the Neural Substrates of Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Lappi, Otto

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in human brain plasticity is how sensory, motor, and cognitive functions adapt in the process of skill acquisition extended over a period of many years. Recently, there has emerged a growing interest in cognitive neuroscience on studying the functional and structural differences in the brains of elite athletes. Elite performance in sports, music, or the arts, allows us to observe sensorimotor and cognitive performance at the limits of human capability. In this mini-revi...

  8. From one marsh to another, changing swamps - Exercise of reflexivity within the water and territories system: wetland renaturation / restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Alain; Chauvelon, Philippe; Boutron, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    In relation to the"Plan National en faveur des Zones Humides", the project aims to provide food for thought, from the interdisciplinary articulation , for the development, organizational arrangements and the level of water governance. The methods that will permit to better understand how work studied ecosystems and to measure the anthropogenic and natural part of the functioning of these territories. The methods will be based on a landscape approach and facilitated by the techniques used in landscape ecology making wide use of the techniques from geomatic (GIS, digital photogrammetry, satellite remote sensing...). Additional studies from data collected in the field will also be made in particular to improve our understanding of hydrology, water quality... . The two sites selected by this proposal covers two wetlands of national and international interests. Both are located in natural regional parks (NRP): Alpilles and Camargue, the NRP of Camargue is furthermore included in the "Man and Biosphere Reserve" of the Rhone delta. The first concerns the "Vallée des marais des Baux", the second, the "Salins de Giraud". The complexity of natural and human issues make such territories privileged study sites. Located both in the west of the "Bouches du Rhône" department, these territories have very different human and physical characteristics. We develop in this presentation only the first, the "Vallée des marais des Baux". Under the initiative of several private owners, voluntary marshes restoration experiments are conducted. This area covering about 1300 hectares was originally swamp. Since the Romans, many attempts have succeeded in drying up the area but it's not until 1950-1960 that the technical development allowed to realize so - exception of small areas of relict marsh - implementing development centred on agriculture. Following to major floods in 2003, the sector is defined (Rhône river master plan) as an flood expansion area. Moreover, there is some decline of

  9. NILAI EKONOMI KARBON HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT MERANG KEPAYANG, PROVINSI SUMATERA SELATAN (Economic Value of Carbon of Merang Kepayang Peat Swamp Forest, South Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arifatul Ulya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Hutan rawa gambut menyimpan cadangan karbon baik di tanah maupun di atas tanah. Hutan Rawa Gambut Merang Kepayang (HRGMK merupakan kawasan hutan yang berada di kubah gambut terbesar di Sumatera Selatan, yaitu Kubah Gambut Merang (KGM, yang didalamnya terdapat gambut dengan ketebalan lebih dari 3 meter. Meskipun menurut aturan KGM seharusnya dikonservasi, pada kenyataannya kawasan HRGMK dihadapkan pada konversi. Konversi HRGMK diduga akan mengakibatkan terganggunya fungsi hutan rawa gambut sebagai cadangan karbon dunia sehingga akan menyebabkan terjadinya emisi karbon ke atmosfer dalam jumlah besar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai ekonomi kawasan HRGMK sebagai penyimpan cadangan karbon. Hasil penelitian diharapkan menjadi acuan pelestarian HRGMK sebagai stabilisator iklim dunia. Nilai ekonomi karbon HRGMK ditaksir dengan menggunakan harga bayangan. Harga karbon yang digunakan untuk menaksir nilai ekonomi karbon diperoleh dengan metode benefit transfer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai total karbon HRGMK adalah US$ 1.591.878.378,00 atau Rp. 14.002.162.211.645,00. Nilai tersebut sebagian besar berasal dari cadangan karbon di bawah tanah. ABSTRACT Peat swamp forests store aboveground and belowground carbon. Merang Kepayang Peat Swamp Forest (MKPSF is a forest area which is located in Merang Peat Dome (MPD, the largest peat dome in South Sumatra, with peat thickness more than 3 meters. Although the order should be conserved MPD, in fact MKPSF area exposed to the conversion. MKPSF conversion would presumably result in impaired function of peat swamp forest as world's carbon storage that will be caused carbon emissions into the atmosphere in large quantities. This study aimed to determine the economic value of the HRGMK as carbon storage. The results are expected to be justifications for conservation of MKPSF as climate stabilizers. The economic value of carbon HRGMK assessed using shadow pricing method. The carbon price

  10. Swamp Works: A New Approach to Develop Space Mining and Resource Extraction Technologies at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Sibille, L.; Leucht, K.; Smith, J. D.; Townsend, I. I.; Nick, A. J.; Schuler, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The first steps for In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on target bodies such as the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), and even comets, involve the same sequence of steps as in the terrestrial mining of resources. First exploration including prospecting must occur, and then the resource must be acquired through excavation methods if it is of value. Subsequently a load, haul and dump sequence of events occurs, followed by processing of the resource in an ISRU plant, to produce useful commodities. While these technologies and related supporting operations are mature in terrestrial applications, they will be different in space since the environment and indigenous materials are different than on Earth. In addition, the equipment must be highly automated, since for the majority of the production cycle time, there will be no humans present to assist or intervene. This space mining equipment must withstand a harsh environment which includes vacuum, radical temperature swing cycles, highly abrasive lofted dust, electrostatic effects, van der Waals forces effects, galactic cosmic radiation, solar particle events, high thermal gradients when spanning sunlight terminators, steep slopes into craters / lava tubes and cryogenic temperatures as low as 40 K in permanently shadowed regions. In addition the equipment must be tele-operated from Earth or a local base where the crew is sheltered. If the tele-operation occurs from Earth then significant communications latency effects mandate the use of autonomous control systems in the mining equipment. While this is an extremely challenging engineering design scenario, it is also an opportunity, since the technologies developed in this endeavor could be used in the next generations of terrestrial mining equipment, in order to mine deeper, safer, more economical and with a higher degree of flexibility. New space technologies could precipitate new mining solutions here on Earth. The NASA KSC Swamp Works is an innovation

  11. Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III), antimony(III), indium(III), cadmium(II), and copper(II) on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen-Lee

    2014-04-01

    Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper) to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0 ± 0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals.

  12. Bullfrog tadpole (Rana catesbeiana) and red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) predation on early life stages of endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, G.A.; Carpenter, J.; Thornbrugh, D.

    2006-01-01

    Bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) and red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) are widespread introduced taxa that are problematic throughout the western United States. Their impact on native amphibians and crustaceans is well documented, but less is known regarding their influence on native fishes. Predator-prey tank tests showed both species consumed eggs and larvae of the endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) in a laboratory setting. Tadpoles consumed 2.2 razorback sucker eggs/d and 1.4 razorback sucker larvae/d, while crayfish ate 6.0 eggs/d and 3.5 larvae/d. Relatively high densities of bullfrog tadpoles and crayfish in razorback sucker spawning areas suggest that these nonnative taxa might pose a threat to the recruitment success of this and other imperiled native fish.

  13. Contribution to the systemic study of energetic systems including electrochemical devices: Bond Graph formalism applied to modelling fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries and sun-racer; Contribution a l'etude systemique de dispositifs energetiques a composants electrochimiques. Formalisme Bond Graph applique aux piles a combustible, accumulateurs lithium-ion, vehicule solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saisset, R.

    2004-04-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the study of electric power conversion systems including electrochemical devices. A systemic approach draws advantage of the unified Bond Graph formalism in order to model every component as well as the whole system. A state of the art of electrochemical devices for decentralized electric energy generation and storage put emphasis on common phenomena with the aim of developing 'system oriented' generic models. Solid Oxide and Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (SOFC, PEMFC), as well as Lithium Ion batteries, have been modelled through an efficient work with electrochemistry specialists. These models involve an explicit representation, at a macroscopic level, of conversion and irreversible phenomena linked to the chemical reaction and coupled together both in the hydraulic, chemical, thermodynamic, electric and thermal fields. These models are used to study the modularity of the components, particularly the electric and thermal imbalances in the series and parallel fuel cells associations. The systemic approach is also applied to the study of architectures and energy management of electric power generating units involving PEMFC and battery or super-capacitors storage. Different working conditions for the fuel cells are defined and studied, consisting in either voltage or current or power imposed by means of the storage and static converters environment. Identification of parameters and working tests are performed on specially developed test benches so as to validate theoretical results. At last, the method is applied to study a 'sun-racer', an original complex system with embedded photovoltaic generator, electrochemical storage and brush-less wheel motor, wholly modelled in order to compare various energy management onboard the solar vehicle 'Solelhada'. (author)

  14. Fitossociologia de dois trechos inundáveis de Matas de Galeria no Distrito Federal, Brasil Phytosociology of two swamped portions of gallery forests in Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestino de Souza Gomes Guarino

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As Matas de Galeria do bioma Cerrado possuem peculiaridades fisionômicas e florísticas que permitem separá-las em dois subtipos: "não-inundável", quando em solos bem drenados; e "inundável", o subtipo menos estudado, em solos mal drenados. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar estrutural e floristicamente dois trechos inundáveis das matas dos córregos Acampamento (15°35'S; 48°10'W e Riacho Fundo (15°55'S; 48°02'W no Distrito Federal (DF. Para isso foi alocada em cada Mata uma grade de 160×50 m (0,8 ha, composta por 40 parcelas de 10×20 m (200 m². Todos os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m da altura do solo (DAP > 3,0 cm foram amostrados, incluindo aqueles mortos ainda em pé. Foram amostrados 6.078 indivíduos, sendo 3.030 no trecho do Acampamento (33 famílias, 49 gêneros e 60 espécies e 3.048 no Riacho Fundo (30 famílias, 41 gêneros, 53 espécies. A área basal e a diversidade (H' calculada para os trechos foram de 47,96 m²/ha e 2,99 nats/ind. (Acampamento, e 41,28 m²/ha e 2,84 nats/ind. (Riacho Fundo, respectivamente. Se comparados com matas anteriormente estudadas no DF os valores de diversidade são baixos, estando na mesma magnitude indicada para as Matas de Brejo (Higrófilas do sudeste brasileiro. Os índices de similaridade indicaram alta semelhança qualitativa (Sørensen 58,0% e quantitativa (Morisita 70,6% entre os trechos estudados, embora uma classificação por TWINSPAN tenha gerado dois grupos distintos, cada qual vinculado a um dos trechos. Os resultados reforçam indicações anteriores de que as Matas de Galeria do DF, ou trechos similares destas, inundáveis ou não, possuem comunidades arbóreas particulares, as quais estão relacionadas à bacia hidrográfica na qual a Mata esta inserida e ao padrão determinante da drenagem do solo.Gallery forests in the Cerrado biome possess physiognomic and floristic peculiarities that allow its division in two subtypes: "non-swamp" located in well drained

  15. Assessing the influence of return density on estimation of lidar-based aboveground biomass in tropical peat swamp forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuri, Solichin; Andersen, Hans-Erik; McGaughey, Robert J.; Brack, Cris

    2017-04-01

    The airborne lidar system (ALS) provides a means to efficiently monitor the status of remote tropical forests and continues to be the subject of intense evaluation. However, the cost of ALS acquisition can vary significantly depending on the acquisition parameters, particularly the return density (i.e., spatial resolution) of the lidar point cloud. This study assessed the effect of lidar return density on the accuracy of lidar metrics and regression models for estimating aboveground biomass (AGB) and basal area (BA) in tropical peat swamp forests (PSF) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. A large dataset of ALS covering an area of 123,000 ha was used in this study. This study found that cumulative return proportion (CRP) variables represent a better accumulation of AGB over tree heights than height-related variables. The CRP variables in power models explained 80.9% and 90.9% of the BA and AGB variations, respectively. Further, it was found that low-density (and low-cost) lidar should be considered as a feasible option for assessing AGB and BA in vast areas of flat, lowland PSF. The performance of the models generated using reduced return densities as low as 1/9 returns per m2 also yielded strong agreement with the original high-density data. The use model-based statistical inferences enabled relatively precise estimates of the mean AGB at the landscape scale to be obtained with a fairly low-density of 1/4 returns per m2, with less than 10% standard error (SE). Further, even when very low-density lidar data was used (i.e., 1/49 returns per m2) the bias of the mean AGB estimates were still less than 10% with a SE of approximately 15%. This study also investigated the influence of different DTM resolutions for normalizing the elevation during the generation of forest-related lidar metrics using various return densities point cloud. We found that the high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) had little effect on the accuracy of lidar metrics calculation in PSF. The accuracy of

  16. ANALISIS SISTEM USAHATANI TERPADU DI LAHAN PASANG SURUT UNTUK MENDUKUNG PENGEMBANGAN AGROINDUSTRI WILAYAH (An Analysis Integrated Farming System in Tidal Swamp Land to Support Regional Agroindustrial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustan Massinai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated farming system was directed to the efforts to lengthen biological cycle by optimizing the use of agriculture and livestock by-products. Each chain of cycle resulted a new product that has high economic value, so this system was expected to optimize the empowerment and use of marginal land in all regions. The objective of this research was to analyze integrated farming system in tidal swamp land to support agroindustry development in Pulang Pisau Regency of Central Kalimantan Province. This research was done with survey and interview method in Pulang Pisau Regency of Central Kalimantan Province. Primary data was collected from May 2011 to December 2011. The results showed that the management of agro-based enterprises integrated farming (rice, coffee and cattle obtained by the BC Ratio = 1.09, (greater than 1, IRR = 16,7% greater than the rate bank interest rate (12% and NPV values obtained for Rp 37,349,080 is positive (+, then the utilization of integrated agro-based farming in tidal land eligible to be developed. Agro-industry development opportunities based integrated farming in tidal land in the future have a chance to be applied in other areas, it can anticipate the growing number of people who have added each year. Keywords: Integrated farming system analysis, tidal swamp land, agroindustry   ABSTRAK Sistem pertanian terpadu diarahkan pada upaya memperpanjang siklus biologis dengan mengoptimalkan pemanfaatan hasil samping pertanian dan peternakan. Setiap mata rantai siklus menghasilkan produk baru yang memiliki nilai ekonomis tinggi, sehingga dengan sistem ini diharapkan pemberdayaan dan pemanfaatan lahan marginal di seluruh daerah dapat lebih dioptimalkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis sistem usahatani terpadu (Integrated Farming System di lahan pasang surut untuk mendukung pengembangan agroindustri di Kabupaten Pulang Pisau Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan metode survei dan wawancara

  17. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evan; Nolan, Edward J.; Dillard, Zachary W.; Dague, Ryan D.; Semple, Amanda L.; Wentzell, Wendi L.

    2015-01-01

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography. PMID:27682082

  18. Present distribution and future spread of louisiana red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacida, Cambaridae in Britain : Implications for conservation of native species and habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Louisiana red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is highly invasive. It is now common in Europe where it is causing problems to native wildlife and structural damage to habitats. Procambarus clarkii was first recorded in Britain in 1991 and is currently found in the Hampstead Heath ponds and Regents Canal in London, as well as a small lake 15 km outside of Greater London. This paper considers how conditions in Britain affect the life cycle, breeding habits and potential range expansion of P. clarkii. Results of trapping surveys are presented in an effort to map the current distribution of P. clarkii and predict which areas it could colonise in the future. The ecological impact of potential colonisation is discussed by considering the impact P. clarkii has in mainland Europe. It is concluded that P. clarkii is likely to spread from Regents Canal into the nearby Brent, Crane, Colne, Lee and Thames catchments within 50 years. This time would be reduced significantly if further deliberate or accidental introductions by humans occur since this is deemed a far greater risk than natural expansion. P. clarkii is expected to have a negative impact on aquatic ecosystems in Britain and therefore tighter enforcement is needed to slow the spread of this species.

  19. Comparative acute toxicity of gallium(III, antimony(III, indium(III, cadmium(II, and copper(II on freshwater swamp shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense

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    Jen-Lee Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute toxicity testing were carried out the freshwater swamp shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, as the model animal for the semiconductor applied metals (gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper to evaluate if the species is an suitable experimental animal of pollution in aquatic ecosystem. RESULTS: The static renewal test method of acute lethal concentrations determination was used, and water temperature was maintained at 24.0 ± 0.5°C. Data of individual metal obtained from acute toxicity tests were determined using probit analysis method. The median lethal concentration (96-h LC50 of gallium, antimony, indium, cadmium, and copper for M. nipponense were estimated as 2.7742, 1.9626, 6.8938, 0.0539, and 0.0313 mg/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the toxicity tolerance of M. nipponense with other species which exposed to these metals, it is obviously that the M. nipponense is more sensitive than that of various other aquatic animals.

  20. RICE CULTIVATION ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT TIDAL SWAMPS AGRICULTURE SUPPORTED TO FOOD SECURITY (Case study of Danda Besar Unit, Barito Kuala district

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    Agus Supriyo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available k of reclamation. Research was carried out in July 2012. Method: "participatory rural appraisal" and interviews. Secondary data were obtained from "desk study". Data were analyzed using SWOT. Results: aspects of rice cultivating in land development tidal marsh consisting problem: (a land management (land arrangement lowland system start area upstream to downstream, low soil fertility, ground is not yet mature, (b arrangements water (macro and micro, (c participation of farmers (labor and skills are limited, and (d external support (KUD is not functioning optimally, number of extension limited to one PPL serves 659 farmers and "cover" area of land covering an area of 1,546 ha. Scenario development of tidal marsh Danda Besar can be divided into (a arrangement of land, (b setting micro water management by creating a channel quarter and channel worms and sanitation channel tertiary (c mechanization of agriculture by means of pre-harvest and post-harvest systems business services, training, technological innovation swamp land for farmer groups, and (d revitalizing function of cooperatives, increasing number of personnel PPLn and labor observers water associated with task forces village

  1. Isolation of a gene encoding a cellulolytic enzyme from swamp buffalo rumen metagenomes and its cloning and expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Tanzeem Akbar; Jirajaroenrat, Kanya; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Rakshit, Sudip K

    2012-01-01

    Ruminants are capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to absorbable sugars by virtue of the microbial communities residing in their rumen. However, large sections of such microbial communities are not yet culturable using conventional laboratory techniques. Therefore in the present study, the metagenomic DNA of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) rumen contents was explored using culture-independent techniques. The consensus regions of glycosyl hydrolase 5 (GH5) family of cellulases were used as primers for PCR amplification. A full-length metagenomic cellulase gene, Umcel5B29, with a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1611 bp was identified. The similarity search analysis revealed that Umcel5B29 is closely related to the cellulases (73% to 98% similarity) of ruminal unculturable microorganisms, indicating its phylogenetic origin. Further analysis indicated that Umcel5B29 does not contain a carbohydrate binding module (CBM). Subsequently, Umcel5B29 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme worked optimally at pH 5.5 and 45°C, a condition similar to the buffalo's rumen. However, the enzyme retained more than 70% of its maximal activity after incubation at pH 4-7 and more than 50% maximal activity after incubation at 30-60°C for 30 min. These characteristics render Umcel5B29 as a potential candidate for the bio-stoning process of denim.

  2. Traffic-emitted metal status and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in roadside turfy swamp in the Changbai Mountain area, China.

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    Wang, Hong; Nie, Lei; Xu, Yan; Li, Miao; Lv, Yan

    2018-04-26

    Six traffic-emitted metals (Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni) were determined in soil and plants for below- and aboveground parts along different distances from highway to evaluate their behavior and uptake by Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald growing in turfy swamps. The results indicated that the different plant tissues showed significantly different levels of metal content. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that metal contents leveled off at constant values before they decreased as the distance from the roadside increased. The high R 2 values of the regression model indicated good fit of the exponential function applied to depict the distribution pattern of the metal elements. It was deduced that Cr, Cu, and Cd in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly derived from the soil; Carex meyeriana Kunth and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald absorbed Pb mainly through the stomata from atmospheric depositions; Cr, Cu, and Cd in Carex meyeriana Kunth and Zn in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were mainly affected by soil and atmospheric depositions. After excluding the effects of traffic, only the bioaccumulation factor of Cd (1.34) in Carex meyeriana Kunth and the translocation factor of Zn (1.13) in Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald were greater than 1, suggesting that Carex meyeriana Kunth could be a good candidate for assimilating Cd from soils and Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens Fernald could be suitable for the phytoextraction of Zn.

  3. Importance of body-water circulation for body-heat dissipation in hot-humid climates: a distinctive body-water circulation in swamp buffaloes

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    S. Chanpongsang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-regulation in swamp buffaloes has been investigated as an adaptive system to hot-humid climates, and several distinctive physiological responses were noted. When rectal temperature increased in hot conditions, blood volume, blood flow to the skin surface and skin temperature markedly increased in buffaloes relatively to cattle. On the other hand, the correlation between blood volume and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP was compared between buffaloes and cattle under dehydration. Although plasma AVP in cattle increased immediately for reducing urine volume against a decrease in blood volume as well as the response observed in most animal species, the increase in plasma AVP was delayed in buffaloes, even after a large decrease in blood volume. In buffaloes, a marked increase in blood volume facilitated the dissipation of excess heat from the skin surface during wallowing. In addition, the change in plasma AVP observed in buffaloes was consistent with that of other animals living in habitats with the high availability of water. These results suggest that the thermo-regulatory system in buffaloes accelerates body-water circulation internally and externally. This system may be adaptive for heat dissipation in hot-humid climates, where an abundance of water is common.

  4. Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin

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    Y. Jun Xu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004 river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2, total phosphorous (TP, and total organic carbon (TOC through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%, TP (41%, and TOC (12%, but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%. On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise.

  5. Microsatellite evidence of dispersal mechanism of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in the Pearl River basin and implications for its management.

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    Huang, Jinlong; Tang, Shaoqing; Cai, Fengjin; Lin, Yanfang; Wu, Zhengjun

    2017-08-15

    Discerning the dispersal patterns of invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting the spatial expansion of introduced populations. Post-introduction dispersal may occur naturally or via human transport, but for many organisms, assessing the relative contribution of each of these factors is difficult using traditional methods. Here, we explored the genetic patterns associated with the spread of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) among 21 populations in the Pearl River basin and 2 peripheral populations in the Yangtze River basin. We found the genetic diversity of P. clarkii in the Pearl River basin was somewhat lower than in the Yangtze River basin. We also found (1) there was significant genetic differentiation between populations, (2) genetic differentiation was not related to geographic distance (i.e., isolation by distance), and (3) a Bayesian assignment analysis revealed three distinct genetic clusters and genetic admixture. Our results therefore provide evidence that human-mediated multiple introductions occurred in the Pearl River basin. Anthropogenic activities such as commercial transportation were likely responsible for the long-distance dispersal of P. clarkii. This study provides useful information for developing management strategies.

  6. PENGEMBANGAN KONSEP AGROINDUSTRI BERBASIS SISTEM USAHATANI TERPADU DI WILAYAH PASANG SURUT BAGIAN I: (KONSEP PEMIKIRAN The Concept Development of Agroindustry Based on Integrated Farming System at Tidal Swamp Land Areas Chapter I: Conceptual Thinkin

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    Rustan Massinai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrated farming system was directed in efforts to lengthen biological cycle by optimizing use of agriculture and livestock products. Each chain of cycle resulted new product that have high economic value, so this system was expected to optimize empowerment and use of marginal land in all regions. The problems encountered in agricultural systems in tidal swamp land in general, i.e; (a limitations in the form of land, human resources, technology, and capital owned by farmers, then the potential of local resources need to be managed optimally, directed, integrated and sustainable with a view to improve land productivity and living standards of farmers by way of application of integrated farming systems by integrating crop and livestock based on the potential of local areas, and (b socio-economic problems and constraints in the development of food crops was due to a swamp area. The objective of this research was to produce integrated farming system concept to support agroindustry development in tidal swamp land in Pulang Pisau regency of Central Kalimantan province. This research was conducted with a book study method, which identifies a system consisting of integrated farming and agroindustry systems. In the both identification is performed by the system includes four aspects, i,e; economic aspects, technical aspects, social aspects of cultural and environmental. Integrated farming systems concept in tidal swamp land was generated from the production of integrated farming systems should first be processed through the processing system (agroindustry in the form of home industry, or using a mechanical device. After that, it was carried out the marketing of products, systems concepts was expected to increase the added value of agricultural production (rice, coffee and cow. With the application of agroindustry systems in tidal swamp land Pulang Pisau regency of Central Kalimantan Province is expected to increase the economic income of farmers in

  7. Properties and expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms in the brain of the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, which has unusually high brain ammonia tolerance.

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    Xiu L Chen

    Full Text Available The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l(-1 and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (4.5 µmol g(-1. Na(+/K(+-ATPase (Nka is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4(+ can substitute for K(+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka α-subunits, some of which might have high K(+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka α-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4(+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na(+/K(+-ATPase and Na(+/NH4(+-ATPase activities over a range of K(+/NH4(+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nkaα (nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nkaα2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l(-1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na(+/NH4(+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na(+/K(+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4(+/K(+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4(+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1 lack of nkaα2 expression, (2 high K(+ specificity of K(+ binding sites of Nkaα1, Nkaα3a and Nkaα3b, and (3 down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nkaα isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus.

  8. The socio-cultural importance of Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps (aguajales) and implications for multi-use management in two Maijuna communities of the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Michael P; Endress, Bryan A; Horn, Christa M

    2013-04-22

    Fruit from the palm Mauritia flexuosa (aguaje) is harvested throughout the Peruvian Amazon for subsistence and commercial purposes. Recent estimates suggest that residents of Iquitos, the largest city in the region, consume approximately 148.8 metric tons of aguaje fruit per month, the vast majority of which is harvested by felling and killing adult female trees. In this study, we sought to better understand and document the importance of M. flexuosa palm swamps (aguajales) in two Maijuna indigenous communities to inform the sustainable management of this habitat and species. Semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and household surveys were carried out to assess the significance of aguajales and their associated plant and animal resources as well as to determine how the relationship that the Maijuna have with aguajales has changed over time. Aguajales and their associated resources are culturally significant and useful to the Maijuna in a wide variety of ways. In addition to M. flexuosa, the Maijuna use over 60 different species of plants from aguajales. When M. flexuosa is in fruit, aguajales are important hunting areas with a total of 20 different animal species hunted. The Maijuna also have traditional beliefs about aguajales, believing that malevolent supernatural beings reside in them. Notably, the relationship that the Maijuna have with aguajales has changed considerably over the years as aguaje fruit went from a subsistence item collected opportunistically from the ground to a market good destructively harvested beginning in the early 1990s. The Maijuna are concerned not only about how this has affected the future commercial harvest of aguaje but also about its effects on game animals given the importance of hunting to Maijuna cultural identity, subsistence, and income generation. In order to meet the multiple socio-cultural and economic needs of the Maijuna, sustainable management efforts must be expanded to not only focus on the commercial harvest of

  9. Competitive and seasonal oxidative stress in elite alpine ski racers.

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    Schippinger, G; Fankhauser, F; Abuja, P M; Winklhofer-Roob, B M; Nadlinger, K; Halwachs-Baumann, G; Wonisch, W

    2009-04-01

    We investigated competitive- and long-term oxidative stress during a competition season in eight top-ranked members of the Austrian Men's Alpine Ski Team. Serum total peroxides, antibody titers against oxidized LDL (oLAb) and lag time of the degradation of the fluorophore 1-palmitoyl-2-((2-(4-(6-phenyl-trans-1,3,5-hexatrienyl)phenyl)ethyl)-carbonyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were measured, along with plasma concentrations of ascorbate, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid and the lipid status. Competitive stress was indicated through an increased post-race uric acid level (286 +/- 50 microM pre-race vs 456 +/- 77 microM post-race, P<0.001) in December. Long-term effects were already apparent in November, with the highest concentrations of total peroxides (680 +/- 458 microM H(2)O(2) equivalents vs December 47 +/- 58 microM H(2)O(2) equivalents and January 15 +/- 28 microM H(2)O(2) equivalents, P<0.001) and a concomitant decrease in oLAb titers with an antibody trough in December (439 +/- 150 mU/mL vs baseline 1036 +/- 328 mU/mL; P=0.003). In January, after recovery, they attained nearly pre-season levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. This study indicates midseason oxidative stress in top-level skiers, which was associated with the performance in these athletes.

  10. Footpaths in the Stuff Swamp.

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    Dron, Jon; Boyne, Chris; Mitchell, Richard

    This paper discusses stigmergy (i.e., the effect of communication through the environment) in relation to the Internet, especially with regard to World Wide Web-based learning. The paper begins by examining ways in which stigmergy occurs on the Web and then goes on to describe its use in the construction of a continually evolving system, CoFIND…

  11. Reflorestamento de manguezais e o valor de resgate para o seqüestro de carbono atmosférico The reforestation of mangrove swamps and its value in atmospheric carbon sequestration

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    Sérgio de Mattos Fonseca

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores afirmam a relevância do reflorestamento de manguezais para projetos de seqüestro de carbono atmosférico, dentro dos princípios do chamado mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo (MDL,definidos em diversas arenas técnicas e políticas internacionais, dentro da Convenção de Mudanças Climáticas. Descrevem um projeto de pesquisa em andamento, que inclui estudo de caso focalizado em manguezais da laguna de Itaipu (Niterói, RJ, cujo objetivo é selecionar e fazer medições preliminares de parâmetros ecológicos e socioambientais relevantes para a valoração econômica e financeira dos benefícios do reflorestamento. A seleção e as medições servirão como estudo de viabilidade para que projetos semelhantes se qualifiquem para obter apoio financeiro e alcançar sucesso técnico, gerando benefícios ambientais e sociais.The article argues that the reforestation of mangrove swamps is of relevance to projects for sequestering atmospheric carbon, within the principles of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM currently being defined in different technical and political arenas as part of the Convention on Climate Change. The text describes a research project currently under way that includes a case study of mangrove swamps in the Itaipu Lagoon in Niterói, RJ. The project's goal is to select and take preliminary measurements of the ecological and socio-environmental parameters pertinent to the economic and financial valuation of the benefits of reforestation. These parameters will serve as part of feasibility studies that determine whether similar projects up for financing by the CDM qualify for financial support and whether they will achieve technical success that brings environmental and social benefits to the various social actors involved.

  12. The application of multi-temporal, multiple-satellite SAR data for the analysis of backscattering variations, InSAR-derived water-level changes over swamp forests, and subsidence over Southeastern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwoun, O.; Lu, Z.

    2007-12-01

    We use multi-temporal European Remote Sensing Satellite 1 and 2 (ERS-1/2), Environment Satellite (ENVISAT), Canadian RADARSAT-1, and Japanese ALOS Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images for ecological, hydrological, and geological studies over Southeastern Louisiana. First, we investigate the seasonal changes in SAR backscatter and interferometric coherence, and their associations with land covers; temporal variation of radar backscattering signal during leaf-off season shows high correlation with the normalized difference vegetation index. Second, we demonstrate the use of both C-band and L-band SAR images to measure changes in water-level beneath swamp forests composed of moderately dense trees, at a vertical accuracy and spatial resolution that is not possible with the current gauge-based measurements. Third, we apply the conventional InSAR and the Persistent Scatterer InSAR techniques to map land surface subsidence over New Orleans and its surrounding area. The comparison of measured subsidence patterns shows certain discrepancies probably due to atmospheric delays in this humid area. Our study demonstrates the importance of SAR data for understanding this coastal flood zone and the associated ecological, hydrological and geological processes.

  13. Karyological characterization and identification of four repetitive element groups (the 18S – 28S rRNA gene, telomeric sequences, microsatellite repeat motifs, Rex retroelements) of the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntronpong, Aorarat; Thapana, Watcharaporn; Twilprawat, Panupon; Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Somyong, Suthasinee; Muangmai, Narongrit; Surin Peyachoknagul; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Among teleost fishes, Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew, 1793) possesses the lowest chromosome number, 2n = 24. To characterize the chromosome constitution and investigate the genome organization of repetitive sequences in M. albus, karyotyping and chromosome mapping were performed with the 18S – 28S rRNA gene, telomeric repeats, microsatellite repeat motifs, and Rex retroelements. The 18S – 28S rRNA genes were observed to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4 at the same position with large propidium iodide and C-positive bands, suggesting that the molecular structure of the pericentromeric regions of chromosome 4 has evolved in a concerted manner with amplification of the 18S – 28S rRNA genes. (TTAGGG)n sequences were found at the telomeric ends of all chromosomes. Eight of 19 microsatellite repeat motifs were dispersedly mapped on different chromosomes suggesting the independent amplification of microsatellite repeat motifs in M. albus. Monopterus albus Rex1 (MALRex1) was observed at interstitial sites of all chromosomes and in the pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes whereas MALRex3 was scattered and localized to all chromosomes and MALRex6 to several chromosomes. This suggests that these retroelements were independently amplified or lost in M. albus. Among MALRexs (MALRex1, MALRex3, and MALRex6), MALRex6 showed higher interspecific sequence divergences from other teleost species in comparison. This suggests that the divergence of Rex6 sequences of M. albus might have occurred a relatively long time ago. PMID:29093797

  14. FLUCTUACIÓN DE LOS ENSAMBLES PLANCTÓNICOS EN LA CIÉNAGA DE AYAPEL (CÓRDOBA-COLOMBIA DURANTE UN CICLO SEMANAL FLUCTUATION OF PLANKTON ASSEMBLAGES AT AYAPEL SWAMP IN CÓRDOBA (COLOMBIA DURING A WEEKLY CYCLE

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    Juan Carlos Jaramillo-Londoño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se evaluó la variación espacial y temporal de los ensamblajes fitoplanctónicos y zooplanctónicos, diariamente y durante un ciclo semanal, en seis estaciones de muestreo en la ciénaga de Ayapel (Córdoba, Colombia, tomando muestras integradas de la columna de agua. Ambos ensamblajes presentaron diferencias espaciales y una alta homogeneidad temporal. El fitoplancton estuvo dominado por cianobacterias principalmente Cylindropermopsis raciborskii y Planktolyngbya limnetica, y el zooplancton por rotíferos del género Brachionus.This research was intended to spatially and temporally evaluate phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages on a daily basis during a weekly cycle, in six sampling stations at Ayapel swamp in Córdoba (Colombia, taking integrated samples of the water column. Both assemblages showed spatial differences and a high temporal homogeneity. Phytoplankton was dominated by cyanobacteria, specifically Cylindropermopsis raciborskii and Planktolyngbya limnetica; and zooplankton was dominated by Brachionus-genus rotifers..

  15. High Brain Ammonia Tolerance and Down-Regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl- Cotransporter 1b mRNA and Protein Expression in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Exposed to Environmental Ammonia or Terrestrial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Yuen K.; Hou, Zhisheng; Chen, Xiu L.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C.; Chew, Shit F.

    2013-01-01

    Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterus albus . Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g-1 and 2.7 µmol g-1 after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l-1 NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance. PMID:24069137

  16. Performans Kerbau Lumpur dan Strategi Pengembangannya pada Daerah dengan Ketinggian Berbeda di Kabupaten Cianjur (PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SWAMP BUFFALO AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDES IN CIANJUR DISTRICT AND ITS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

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    Komariah .

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives were to analyze reproduction performance and productivity of swamp buffalofrom different altitudes in Cianjur and draw up a hierarchy of productivity strategy development usinganalysis of SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threats and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHPwith four criteria: technology, costs, impact, and the response of farmers. Survey was conducted in Cianjurduring January-March 2014 by interview prepared questionnaires and direct observation of 63 buffalo farmers. Secondary data were also obtained from relevant agencies. Primary data were collected usingdirect observation of 139 reproductive female buffaloes then were further analyzed. A total of 58 buffaloesat their productive period were sampled and taken their morphometric data. Whilst 37 buffaloes weremeasured their frame size using Body Condition Score (BCS. The results showed that the reproductionperformance of buffaloes in the lowlands are not significantly different from those in the highland. The ageat first oestrus, first mating, first calving, gestation period were 25.6 months, 26.6 months, 38.7 months,11.8 months, respectively.. The oestrus period was 5.3 days, and post-partum mating interval was 54.6days. Differences in altitude and sex significantly affected (P <0.05 the morphometry assessment. Thebody weight of male buffaloes were found lower than the females both in highlands and lowlands (P<0.05.The body conditioning score of buffalo performance at highland was better compared to those in thelowland. Based on the SWOT analysis and AHP: (1 The main strategy is to improve the technology basedon the criteria of internal weakness by increasing scale holdings to seize opportunities buffalo meat selfsufficiency;(2 based on the criteria of cost and impact, the strategy was to cover threats over the professionout of the region by empowering farmers (facilitate increased productivity buffalo; (3 based on the responsecriteria, the primary

  17. Zoneamento ambiental dos banhados da Estação Ecológica do Taim, RS Environmental zoning of swamps in the Ecological Station of Taim, RS, Brazil

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    Fabio Charão Kurtz

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O "Zoneamento Ambiental dos Banhados da Estação Ecológica do Taim" permitiu avaliar a deterioração ambiental dos ecossistemas existentes na Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC/TAIM, municípios de Rio Grande e Santa Vitória do Palmar (RS. Consideraram-se dois tipos distintos de ecossistemas: o do Banhado (ECO1 = Ecossistema Límnico e o da Planície Marítima (ECO2 = Ecossistema Planície Marítima. A ECO TOTAL (ECO1 + ECO2 apresentou 64% de classe APP (Área de Preservação Permanente, 27,6% de ACP (Área de Conservação Permanente, 5,6% de AUO (Uso e Ocupação; em menor porcentagem encontrou-se a classe AR (Área de Restauração com 2,8%. A deterioração ambiental média para o ECO1 foi de 10,32%, sendo menor que a ECO2 (23,94%. A deterioração ambiental da ESEC/TAIM (ECO ficou em 13,65%. Com relação à análise de regressão para ECO1, concluiu-se que com 06 parâmetros ambientais se obteve a precisão de 95%, enquanto que, com 04 parâmetros ambientais obteve-se a mesma precisão para a ECO2. Com relação à análise fatorial concluiu-se que essa técnica permitiu conhecer a estrutura dos dados, mostrando as correlações entre cada variável (classes de exuberância e seu respectivo fator, entretanto não foi possível separar grupos ou quantificar a influência de uma ou mais variáveis sobre outra de interesse (variável resposta, como por exemplo: quantos parâmetros são necessários para elaborar um zoneamento ambiental, sendo esta pergunta respondida pela análise de regressão. Recomenda-se que o zoneamento ambiental seja elaborado pelos órgãos públicos ambientais nas demais estações ecológicas e nas unidades de conservação.The "Environmental Zoning of swamps in the Ecological Station of Taim (RS" allowed to evaluate an environmental deterioration of the existent ecosystems in the Ecological Station of Taim (ESEC/TAIM; municipal districts of Rio Grande and Santa Vitória do Palmar (RS. Two types of different

  18. Significance of mangrove swamps for aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, S.; Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name I.O_21_Century_Linkage_Networking_1998_249.pdf.txt stream_source_info I.O_21_Century_Linkage_Networking_1998_249.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  19. Propagação da corticeira do banhado (Erythrina crista-galli L. (FABACEAE pelo processo de estaquia Propagation of swamp corticeira (Erythrina crista-galli L. (Fabacae by the cutting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Gratieri-Sossella

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A corticeira-do-banhado é uma árvore nativa com uso ornamental no paisagismo urbano e possui potencial de utilização em áreas desprotegidas e degradadas, devido a sua rusticidade. Entretanto, tendo em vista a dificuldade de obtenção de sementes, pela baixa produção e qualidade destas com a conseqüente desuniformidade da germinação, torna-se necessário aprofundar o estudo de outras formas de propagação dessa espécie. Desse modo, conduziu-se este trabalho na Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de Passo Fundo, com o objetivo de estudar a formação de mudas de Erythrina crista-galli L. pela técnica da estaquia. Em quatro experimentos foram testadas doses do fitorregulador ácido indolbutírico (AIB, em diferentes tipos de estacas (lenhosas, semilenhosas, herbáceas e foliares e substratos. Os resultados indicaram que mini-estacas herbáceas, coletadas de plantas jovens, com menos de 1 ano de idade, são as mais indicadas (75% a 100% de enraizamento, e o uso do AIB diminuiu a mortalidade, ao favorecer o processo do enraizamento. Em razão do ataque de insetos (brocas às plantas no seu hábitat, recomenda-se a técnica de jardim clonal, com a formação de matrizeiros no viveiro, fornecendo material juvenil e sadio em maior escala para a propagação dessa espécie por miniestacas.Swamp corticeira is a native tree with ornamental use in urban landscape gardening with the potential to be used in unprotected and degraded areas due to its rustic feature. However, the difficulty of obtaining seeds due to its low productivity and quality, and consequent lack of uniformity in its germination makes it necessary to search for other forms of propagation of this species. Thus, this study was carried out at the Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine College of Passo Fundo University, aiming to study the formation of Erythrina crista-galli L. cuttings by applying the cutting technique. Doses of phytoregulator Indol Butyric

  20. Aspectos produtivos do capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Roxo no brejo paraibano Productive aspects of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. var. Roxo in Paraíba swamp region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estácio Alves dos Santos

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes alturas de corte sobre a produtividade do capim-elefante cv. Roxo em épocas de seca e chuva no Brejo paraibano. O esquema experimental foi um fatorial 4 x 2, sendo quatro alturas de corte (0, 15, 30 e 45 cm, duas épocas (períodos seco e chuvoso e quatro blocos. Foram avaliadas as produções por hectare de massa verde (MV, matéria seca total (MS, de folhas (MSF e colmos (MSC e proteína bruta (PB. Após o corte de uniformização, efetuaram-se dois cortes no período seco em intervalos de 90 dias e três no período chuvoso em intervalos de 60 dias. Não houve interação entre altura de corte e a época. Entretanto, à medida que se elevou a altura do corte, reduziram-se as produções de MV, MS e MSC. As produções de PB e MSF não diferiram. Quando elevadas as alturas dos cortes de 0 para 45 cm, houve redução de aproximadamente 33% na produção para MV, 24,83% para MSF e 60% para MSC. Os cortes no período seco foram mais produtivos em relação aos da época chuvosa. As médias das produções de MS, MV, MSF, MSC e PB foram, respectivamente, 4,12; 21,19; 2,65; 1,47 e 0,32 t/ha no período seco e 12,44; 2,45; 1,81; 0,54 e 0,17 t/ha no período chuvoso.This work was carried to evaluate the effect of different cutting heights on the productivity of elephant grass var. Roxo in dry and rainy season in the Paraíba swamp region. A randomized complete block design in a 4 X 2 factorial, arrangement, with four cutting heights (0, 15, 30 and 45 cm, two periods (dry and rainy seasons and 4 blocks were used. It was evaluated the production/ha of fresh matter (FM, dry matter (DM, leaves (DML, stems (DMS and crude protein (CP. After the uniformity cut, two cuts in dry season with 90 days interval and three cuts in the rainy season with 60 days interval were made. There was no interaction between seasons and cutting heights. However, as cutting height increased, the values

  1. EMISI CO2 TANAH AKIBAT ALIH FUNGSI LAHAN HUTAN RAWA GAMBUT DI KALIMANTAN BARAT (Soil Emissions of CO2 Due to Land Use Change of Peat Swamp Forest at West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossie Wiedya Nusantara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis alih fungsi lahan gambut yang menyebabkan perubahan emisi CO2 tanah pada hutan rawa gambut primer (HP, hutan gambut sekunder (HS, semak belukar (SB, kebun sawit (KS, dan kebun jagung (KJ dan menganalisis pengaruh suhu dan jeluk muka air tanah (water-table depth terhadap emisi CO2 tanah. Sampel dari tiap tipe lahan diambil sebanyak lima ulangan, total sampel 25. Saat pengukuran respirasi CO2 tanah gambut dilakukan pengukuran suhu tanah dan muka air tanah. Pengukuran di lapangan dilaksanakan dua kali yaitu awal musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa emisi CO2 tanah tertinggi dan terendah pada dua waktu pengukuran tersebut adalah pada tipe lahan KJ (6,512 ton ha-1 th-1 dan SB (1,698  ton ha-1 th-1 serta pada tipe lahan KS (6,701 ton ha-1 th-1 dan SB (3,169 ton ha-1 th-1 berturut-turut. Suhu tanah gambut tertinggi dan terendah pada dua waktu pengukuran tersebut berturut-turut adalah pada tipe lahan SB (27,78 oC dan HP (22,78 oC, dan pada tipe lahan KS (29,08 oC dan HP (26,56 oC serta jeluk muka air tanah gambut berturut-turut pada tipe lahan KJ (56,2 cm dan  SB (32,1 cm. Faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan perubahan emisi CO2 tanah gambut adalah suhu tanah, jeluk muka air tanah dan pengelolaan lahan yang menyebabkan perubahan sifat tanah gambut, seperti ketersediaan C-organik (jumlah dan kualitas bahan organik, pH tanah dan kematangan gambut. ABSTRACT This study aims to analyze peatland use change that caused changes soil emissions of CO2 at primary peat swamp forest (HP, secondary peat forest (HS, shrub (SB, oil palm plantations (KS and corn field (KJ, and to analyze the influence of temperature and water-table depth to soil emission of CO2. Soil samples were taken from each five replications that accunt for 25 samples. Simultaneously with measurement of soil respiration measuremnts soil temperature. Field measurement is carried out twice at the beginning of dry season and

  2. Skadelig mutation nedsætter frughtbarheden hos de røde racer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl

    2014-01-01

    Igennem flere årtier er mælkeydelsen steget støt hos de danske malkekvægracer, og det er én af årsagerne til, at frugtbarheden fortsat er lav, idet der er en ugunstig sammenhæng mellem mælkeydelse og frugtbarhed (fig. 1). Hidtil har man ment, at den ugunstige sammenhæng skyldtes en negativ energi...

  3. Sex Differences in Balance Among Alpine Ski Racers: Cross-Sectional Age Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschner, Christian; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Mohr, Johanna; Müller, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    Although balance is a key ability in the strength demands of alpine ski racing, affecting both performance and injury prevention, few studies have examined balance or related sex differences among still-maturing athletes. In this 10-year study, we investigated cross-sectional balance performances at different age periods of a representative sample of over 500 11-18-year-old elite skiers of both genders. Participants performed balance tests using the MFT S3-Check. Left-right and forward-backward movements were used to calculate sensory and symmetry balance scores, which were both incorporated into a stability score. Mann-Whitney U tests assessed gender-specific differences by age-group with a significance level set at p < .05. Results showed gender differences only on forward-backward measurements for 14-16-year-olds, with females showing better stability and sensory (but not symmetry) scores than males. Thus, gender interacted with age and maturation to influence balance ability in these participants. Additionally, these rare 10-year data support coaches in their training and talent development of maturing athletes by providing important sport-, age-, and gender-specific normative comparison data for individual trainees.

  4. The Racer's Brain - How Domain Expertise is Reflected in the Neural Substrates of Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Otto

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in human brain plasticity is how sensory, motor, and cognitive functions adapt in the process of skill acquisition extended over a period of many years. Recently, there has emerged a growing interest in cognitive neuroscience on studying the functional and structural differences in the brains of elite athletes. Elite performance in sports, music, or the arts, allows us to observe sensorimotor and cognitive performance at the limits of human capability. In this mini-review, we look at driving expertise. The emerging brain imaging literature on the neural substrates of real and simulated driving is reviewed (for the first time), and used as the context for interpreting recent findings on the differences between racing drivers and non-athlete controls. Also the cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience of expertise are discussed.

  5. Does heterozygosity at the DMRT3 gene make French trotters better racers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Anne

    2015-02-26

    Recently, a mutation was discovered in the DMRT3 gene that controls pacing in horses. The mutant allele A is fixed in the American Standardbred trotter breed, while in the French trotter breed, the frequency of the wild-type allele C is still 24%. This study aimed at measuring the effect of DMRT3 genotypes on the performance of French trotters and explaining why the polymorphism still occurs in this breed. Using a mixed animal model, genetic parameters and environmental effects on performance traits were estimated from data on 173 176 French trotter races. The effect of the DMRT3 gene was then estimated by the effect of genotype at the highly linked SNP BIEC2-620109 (C-C, A-T) for 630 horses. A selection scheme that included qualification and racing performances was modeled to (1) verify if the observed superiority of heterozygous CT horses at this SNP could be explained only by selection and (2) understand why allele C has not disappeared in French trotters. Heritability of racing performance traits was high for qualification test (0.56), moderate for annual earnings per finished race (0.26 to 0.31) and low for proportion of disqualified races (0.06 to 0.09). Genotype CC was always unfavorable compared to genotype TT for qualification: the probability to be qualified was 20% for CC vs. 48% for TT and earnings were -0.96 σy lower for CC than for TT. Genotype CT was also unfavorable for qualification (40%) and earnings at 3 years (-0.21 σy), but favorable for earnings at ages greater than 5 years: +0.41 σy (P = 7.10(-4)). Selection on qualification could not explain more than 19% of the difference between genotypes CC and CT in earnings at ages greater than 5 years. Only a scenario for which genotype CT has a favorable effect on the performance of horses older than 5 years could explain that the polymorphism at the DMRT3 gene still exists in the French trotter breed. The use of mature horses in the French racing circuit can explain that the CA genotype is still present in the French trotter horses.

  6. AXXE® (Pelargonic acid) and Racer® (Ammonium Nonanoate): Weed control comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although corn gluten meal has shown promise as an early-season pre-emergent organic herbicide in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) production, any uncontrolled weeds can inflict serious yield reductions by the end of the growing season. Organic vegetable producers need additional organic herbicides that c...

  7. Inflammatory effects of patagonfibrase, a metalloproteinase from Philodryas patagoniensis (Patagonia Green Racer; Dipsadidae) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, María Elisa; Zychar, Bianca Cestari; Tavares, Flávio Luiz; de Camargo Gonçalves, Luis Roberto; Acosta, Ofelia; Santoro, Marcelo Larami

    2011-10-01

    Patagonfibrase is a P-III class metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of Philodryas patagoniensis, a South-American, rear-fanged 'colubrid' snake responsible for accidents with clinical significance. Since local inflammatory reactions are conspicuous signs of snakebites inflicted by this species and taking into consideration that most snake venom metalloproteinases exhibit inflammatory activity, this study deals with the proinflammatory effects evoked by patagonfibrase. Herein, we demonstrate that patagonfibrase causes a time- and dose-dependent hemorrhagic edema when injected into mouse hind paws. The peak of edema occurred at 30 min after injection, and the minimum edematogenic dose was 0.021 μg. By histological analysis, the presence of moderate to marked edema and hemorrhage, and a mild inflammatory infiltrate was observed. When injected subcutaneously into the scrotal bag of mice, patagonfibrase induced cell recruitment with a significant alteration in physiological parameters of leukocyte-endothelium interaction. The presence of 1 mmol/L o-phenanthroline, which chelates metal ions, significantly inhibited the proinflammatory effects induced by patagonfibrase. Taken together, these results imply that patagonfibrase is an important contributor to local inflammation elicited by P. patagoniensis envenomation, which may pave the way for novel therapeutic strategies to treat this snakebite. Moreover, our findings demonstrate for the first time that a venom metalloproteinase from a rear-fanged snake elicits proinflammatory effects mainly mediated by its catalytic activity.

  8. Application of Newtonian Physics to Predict the Speed of a Gravity Racer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, H. F.; Bullas, A. M.; King, C. E.; Senior, T.; Haake, S. J.; Hart, J.

    2016-01-01

    Gravity racing can be studied using numerical solutions to the equations of motion derived from Newton's second law. This allows students to explore the physics of gravity racing and to understand how design and course selection influences vehicle speed. Using Euler's method, we have developed a spreadsheet application that can be used to predict…

  9. Richness, composition and detectability of Psittacidae (Aves in three palm swamps of the Cerrado sensu lato in central Brazil Riqueza, composición y detectabilidad de los Psittacidae (Aves en tres pantanos del Cerrado sensu lato en el Brasil central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRÍSIA O RODRIGUES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: (1 to investigate the richness and composition of the Psittacidae in palm swamps; (2 to determine if the sizes of flocks vary seasonally; (3 to compare detectability rates according to species. Psittacid communities were observed from November 2006 to November 2007 in semimonthly visits to the area using fixed-point observation. A total of 1616 individuals from eight species were registered in 199 contacts. The palm swamps were highly similar (H > 0.62, and their diversity was above 1.56. The Yellow-chevroned Parakeet was considered resident in the three palm swamps (Fr > 60 %. The White-eyed Parakeet and Red-bellied Macaw were the most abundant species in the three areas. Most of the species (n = 5 were more abundant in one of the seasons. The most abundant species in the rainy season were the White-eyed Parakeet and Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (42.16 ± 30.77 individuals, whereas in the dry season the most prevalent was the Red-bellied Macaw (68.50 ± 39.35 individuals. The highest detectability rate was for the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet, which demonstrates the inter-species differences and the need to adapt the methods of research, unclear for this family.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: (1 investigar la riqueza y la composición de pstácidos en pantanos, (2 determinar si el tamano de los grupos varía estacionalmente, (3 comparar las especies de acuerdo con sus tasas de detectabilidad. Ensambles de psitácidos han sido observados entre noviembre de 2006 y noviembre de 2007 con visitas quincenales en cada área a través de observación de punto fijo. Un total de 1616 individuos de ocho especies fueron registrados en 199 contactos. Los pantanos fueron muy similares (H > 0.62, y su diversidad de Psittacidae fue 1.56. Brotogeris chiriri ha sido considerada residente en los tres pantanos estudiados (Fr > 60 %. Aratinga leucophthalma y Orthopsittaca manilata fueron las especies más abundantes en las tres

  10. Florística e estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de uma floresta higrófila da bacia do rio Jacaré-Pepira, SP, Brasil Floristics and structure of the shrub and the tree-layer of a swamp forest in Jacaré-Pepira river, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia C. M. Marques

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As florestas higrófilas são formações ribeirinhas caracterizadas por ocorrerem em solo permanentemente encharcado e restritas a pequenos fragmentos junto a outros tipos vegetacionais. Neste trabalho caracterizaram-se a florística e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo (plantas com DAP>5cm de uma área de 0,36ha de floresta higrófila localizada em Brotas (48º06'W 22º16'S, 470m.s.m., Estado de São Paulo, usando-se método de parcelas (total de 24 parcelas. No total foram amostrados 735 indivíduos, distribuídos em 32 famílias e 51 espécies. As espécies que se destacaram na comunidade devido aos elevados valores de importância foram Calophyllum brasiliense Camb., Protium almecega L. Marchand, Podocarpus sellowii Klotzch., Tapirira guianensis Aubl. e Dendropanax cuneatum DC. Decne. & Planch. O índice de diversidade de Shannon foi igual a 2,81, valor pouco superior aos descritos para florestas semelhantes. Na comunidade, as espécies generalistas com relação ao encharcamento do solo e as de solo drenado contribuíram na riqueza total (juntas 62% do total de espécies amostradas, enquanto as espécies de solo encharcado tiveram maior contribuição na composição da dominância (66% da dominância total e densidade (67% da densidade total relativas. A diversidade de situações topográficas e a entrada de espécies da vegetação do cerrado adjacente permitiram que espécies com diferentes exigências hídricas se estabelecessem na área relativamente pequena da floresta e influenciaram fortemente a florística e estrutura da comunidade.Swamp forests occur in permanently flooded small forest fragments in southeastern Brazil. We studied the floristic composition and community structure (plants with DBH>5cm of a swamp forest in Brotas municipality (48º06'W 22º16'S, 470m high, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 735 individuals, 32 families, and 51 woody species were recorded in the area. The most important species were

  11. Propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção de água do amido de rizomas do lírio-do-brejo (Hedychium coronarium Thermodynamic properties of water adsortion of the starch of rhizome of swamp lily (Hedychium coronarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se as propriedades termodinâmicas (entalpia diferencial, entropia diferencial, entalpia integral e entropia integral do amido de rizomas do lírio-do-brejo (Hedychium coronarium por meio de isotermas de adsorção de água. As isotermas foram determinadas em atividades de água no intervalo de 0,11 a 0,84, sob temperaturas que variaram de 30 a 50 °C. A Equação de GAB, que se ajustou bem às isotermas experimentais, foi utilizada para estimar as propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção. As isotermas apresentaram ligeira inversão, indicando a precença de amido danificado. A entalpia diferencial e a entropia diferencial aumentaram com a diminuição da umidade de equilíbrio e correlacionaram entre si confirmando a compensação química linear. Um modelo exponencial do tipo Y = b.e(a/Xe descreveu adequadamente a dependência destas propriedades diferenciais ao teor de umidade de equilíbrio. A entalpia integral e a entropia integral aumentaram continuamente com o teor de umidade de equil��brio, porém com valores negativos para a entropia integral. Estas propriedades termodinâmicas de adsorção de água demonstraram que o amido extraído dos rizomas do lírio-do-brejo possui baixa higrocopicidade apesar da ocorrência de grânulos de amido danificados.Thermodynamic properties where determined (differential enthalpy, of differential entropy, integral enthalpy, and integral entropy of the starch of rhizomes of swamp lily through water adsorption isotherms. The isotherms were determined in water activities in the range of 0.11 to 0.84, in temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C. The GAB equation which fits well to the experimental isotherms was used to estimate the properties of thermodynamic adsorption. The slight reversal of the isotherms indicates damaged starch. The enthalpy and entropy differential gap increased with the decrease in moisture and correlated to each other confirming the chemical linear compensation. An

  12. Markets and institutional swamps : tensions confronting entrepreneurs in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthaar, Matthias; Dolfsma, Wilfred; Lutz, Clemens; Noseleit, Florian

    Unrealized potential of entrepreneurial activities in developing countries has often been attributed to missing formal market-based institutions. In new institutional economics, the concept of 'voids' is suggested to describe the absence of market-based institutions. In reality, however,

  13. mathematical model for scheduling irrigation for swamp rice in port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Kc – Crop factor. Mc – Soil moisture content (mm). PwP – Permanent wilting point (mm). INTRODUCTION. Rice is a food crop universally accepted and eaten all over the world. It is the most important staple food for about half of the human .... and Federal Ministry of Aviation, all in Port. Harcourt, Rivers State ...

  14. Studies of the vegetation of the Suriname savannahs and swamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, J.

    1936-01-01

    1. The following definition is proposed for the term Savannah. Savannahs are plains in the West Indian Islands and Northern South America covered with more or less xeromorph herbs and small shrubs and with few trees or larger shrubs. 2. It is suggested that the Suriname Savannahs have originated

  15. Sequence Stratigraphic Appraisal: Coastal Swamp Depobelt In The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... paralic, and fluvial environments. The thick sequences of highly microfossiliferous are the probable petroleum source rocks. The massive sand formation of the basin floor fan, the sand-rich prograding wedge and the highstand sands as well as the transgressive sands constitute good reservoirs. The distal shale toes of the ...

  16. Variation in pollinator effectiveness in swamp milkweed, Asclepias incarnata (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Christopher T; Martinez, Pocholo; Wyatt, Robert

    2003-02-01

    The contribution of a pollinator toward plant fitness (i.e., its "effectiveness") can determine its importance for the plant's evolutionary ecology. We compared pollinators in a population of Asclepias incarnata (Apocynaceae) for several components of pollinator effectiveness over two flowering seasons to evaluate their importance to plant reproduction. Insects of the order Hymenoptera predominate in A. incarnata pollination, but there appears to be no specialization for pollination within this order. Pollinators varied significantly in nearly every component of effectiveness that we measured, including pollen load, removal and deposition of pollen, pollination efficiency (deposition/removal), flower-handling time, and potential for geitonogamy (fractional pollen deposition). The visitation rate of pollinators also varied significantly between years and through time within years. Pollination success and percentage fruit-set of unmanipulated plants in the population also varied significantly between years, and pollination success varied among sample times within years. Most components of effectiveness were weakly correlated, suggesting that the contributions of visitor species toward pollination varied among effectiveness components. Mean flower-handling time, however, was strongly correlated with several components, including pollen removal and deposition, pollination efficiency, and fractional pollen deposition. These findings highlight the significance of pollination variability for plant reproduction and suggest that time-dependent foraging behaviors may play an important role in determining pollinator effectiveness.

  17. Seasonal variations in the microflora from mangrove swamps in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mathani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Seasonal variations in bacterial and fungal counts from the water and sediment samples of mangrove ecosystem of Goa (India) show that this ecosystem supports a very high population of fungi and bacteria...

  18. mathematical model for scheduling irrigation for swamp rice in port

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... The thirst for increased food production and management of our natural resources (water) is increasing on daily basis and there is a great need for proper utilization of such important resource. Nigerian farmers today still rely on rainfall for cultivation of food crops, this is simply because they do not have.

  19. Red swamp crayfish: biology, ecology and invasion - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainã Gonçalves Loureiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAlien species have been transported and traded by humans for many centuries. However, with the era of globalization, biological invasions have reached notable magnitudes. Currently, introduction of alien species is one of the major threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The North American crayfish Procambarus clarkii is one of the most widely introduced freshwater species in the world, especially due to its high economic importance. It is responsible for great modifications in invaded environments causing irreparable ecological and economic damages. Its impressive ability to successfully colonize a wide range of environments is a consequence of its behavioural and biological characteristics that can adapt to features of the invaded location, conferring to this species a notable ecological plasticity. This review summarizes the available information regarding P. clarkii's biology and invasive dynamics around the world in order to contribute to the understanding of the threats posed by its establishment, as well as to support management and impact mitigation efforts.

  20. Massive gene swamping among cheese-making Penicillium fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Ropars

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfers (HGT, i.e., the transmission of genetic material between species not directly attributable to meiotic gene exchange, have long been acknowledged as a major driver of prokaryotic evolution and is increasingly recognized as an important source of adaptation in eukaryotes. In fungi in particular, many convincing examples of HGT have been reported to confer selective advantages on the recipient fungal host, either promoting fungal pathogenicity on plants or increasing their toxicity by the acquisition of secondary metabolic clusters, resulting in adaptation to new niches and in some cases eventually even in speciation. These horizontal gene transfers involve single genes, complete metabolic pathways or even entire chromosomes. A recent study has uncovered multiple recent horizontal transfers of a 575 kb genomic island in cheese Penicillium fungi, representing ca. 2% of the Penicillium roqueforti’s genome, that may confer selective advantage in the competing cheese environment where bacteria and fungi occur. Novel phylogenomic methods are being developed, revealing massive HGT among fungi. Altogether, these recent studies indicate that HGT is a crucial mechanism of rapid adaptation, even among eukaryotes.

  1. The semi-aquatic pondweed bugs of a Cretaceous swamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Sánchez-García

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pondweed bugs (Hemiptera: Mesoveliidae, considered a sister group to all other Gerromorpha, are exceedingly rare as fossils. Therefore, each new discovery of a fossil mesoveliid is of high interest, giving new insight into their early evolutionary history and diversity and enabling the testing of their proposed relationships. Here, we report the discovery of new mesoveliid material from Spanish Lower Cretaceous (Albian amber, which is the first such find in Spanish amber. To date, fossil records of this family only include one species from French Kimmeridgian as compression fossils, two species in French amber (Albian-Cenomanian boundary, and one in Dominican amber (Miocene. The discovery of two males and one female described and figured as Glaesivelia pulcherrima Sánchez-García & Solórzano Kraemer gen. et sp. n., and a single female described and figured as Iberovelia quisquilia Sánchez-García & Nel, gen. et sp. n., reveals novel combinations of traits related to some genera currently in the subfamily Mesoveliinae. Brief comments about challenges facing the study of fossil mesoveliids are provided, showing the necessity for a revision of the existing phylogenetic hypotheses. Some of the specimens were studied using infrared microscopy, a promising alternative to the systematic study of organisms preserved in amber that cannot be clearly visualised. The new taxa significantly expand the fossil record of the family and shed new light on its palaeoecology. The fossils indicate that Mesoveliidae were certainly diverse by the Cretaceous and that numerous tiny cryptic species living in humid terrestrial to marginal aquatic habitats remain to be discovered. Furthermore, the finding of several specimens as syninclusions suggests aggregative behaviour, thereby representing the earliest documented evidence of such ethology.

  2. Mathematical model for scheduling irrigation for swamp rice in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thirst for increased food production and management of our natural resources (water) is increasing on daily basis and there is a great need for proper utilization of such important resource. Nigerian farmers today still rely on rainfall for cultivation of food crops, this is simply because they do not have the knowledge of ...

  3. Role of mangrove swamps in brackishwater fish culture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, S.; Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Aquaculture_Prod_1992_235.pdf.txt stream_source_info Aquaculture_Prod_1992_235.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Power variables and bilateral force differences during unloaded and loaded squat jumps in high performance alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Carson; Raschner, Christian; Platzer, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the power-load relationship and to compare power variables and bilateral force imbalances between sexes with squat jumps. Twenty men and 17 women, all members of the Austrian alpine ski team (junior and European Cup), performed unloaded and loaded (barbell loads equal to 25, 50, 75, and 100% body weight [BW]) squat jumps with free weights using a specially designed spotting system. Ground reaction force records from 2 force platforms were used to calculate relative average power (P), relative average power in the first 100 ms of the jump (P01), relative average power in the first 200 ms of the jump (P02), jump height, percentage of best jump height (%Jump), and maximal force difference between dominant and nondominant leg (Fmaxdiff). The men displayed significantly higher values at all loads for P and jump height (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in P01. The men had significantly higher P02 at all loads except 75% BW). Maximum P was reached at light loads (men at 25% BW and women at 0% BW), and P decreased uniformly thereafter. Individual power-load curves show a deflection point. It is proposed that the load where the power-load deflection point occurs be used as the power training load and not the load at which maximum P is reached. It is also proposed that loads not be described in %1-repetition maximum (RM), but as %BW. This system can be used to safely assess and train power with loaded jumps and free weights.

  5. Relação entre heterogeneidade ambiental e distribuição de espécies em uma floresta paludosa no Município de Cristais Paulista, SP, Brasil Floristic composition and relationship between environmental heterogeneity and species distribution in a swamp forest from Cristais Paulista, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysio de Pádua Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi caracterizada a composição florística e fitossociológica de uma floresta paludosa no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, onde variações no padrão de drenagem ocorrem principalmente no sentido perpendicular ao curso d'água, em função da topografia. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a distribuição das espécies em relação ao substrato e a entrada de luz na comunidade. Foram alocadas 60 parcelas de 10×10 m, distribuídas em seis grupos de 10 parcelas cada. Em cada parcela foram medidos e identificados os indivíduos com PAP > 10 cm, avaliadas as propriedades químicas e granulometria do solo, o desnível topográfico, a drenagem e a abertura do dossel. Foram registradas 88 espécies, das quais 61 foram observadas nas parcelas. Uma análise de correspondência canônica (CCA indicou correlações entre a distribuição das 29 espécies mais abundantes e drenagem, desnível topográfico e Fe no eixo 1 e abertura do dossel no eixo 2. O coeficiente de Spearman indicou correlações significativas entre 66% das 29 espécies e profundidade do lençol freático ou abertura do dossel. Como exemplo, Calophyllum brasiliense e Xylopia emarginata prevaleceram em solos mal drenados; Siphoneugena densiflora e Virola sebifera em solos bem drenados; Myrcia laruotteana e Xylopia sericea em parcelas com maior abertura de dossel. A heterogeneidade ambiental foi um importante fator na determinação da distribuição e a coexistência de espécies, resultando em um incremento na diversidade local.In the present study, we characterized the floristic composition and tree structure of a swamp forest in northeast of São Paulo State, Brazil, where the drainage pattern changes mainly across the watercourse due to the topography. We aimed to investigate the species distribution in relation to substrate and light entrance in the community. Sixty quadrats (10×10 m were divided into six groups of 10 plots. In each quadrat, individuals with PBH > 10

  6. Contribution to Early Holocene vegetation and climate history of Eastern Orinoco Llanos, Venezuela, from a paleoecological record of a Mauritia L.f. swamp Contribuição para a história da vegetação e clima durante o Holoceno Temprano do Llanos Orientais do Orinoco, Venezuela, a partir de um registro paleoecológico de um pântano Mauritia L.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Leal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A palynological analysis of an organic paleosol found at 150-125 cm depth in a Mauritia swamp from the Eastern Orinoco Llanos is presented. The 25 cm pollen record summarizes the vegetation history during the Early Holocene, from 10,225 to 7,800 calendar yr BP. The vegetation was characterized by a Poaceae marsh, where Asteraceae, Melastomataceae, Schefflera-type and Phyllanthus were the most abundant shrubs and trees. Pollen-types richness was lower than that recorded today in similar environments, and Mauritia pollen was absent. Results suggest that climate was as humid as present during the beginning of the Holocene, with a decreasing trend in humidity from around 8,000-7,000 yr BP, in coincidence with the beginning of the "Early-Mid-Holocene Dryness" that affected deeply the Amazon Basin and neighboring areas. Dry climatic conditions could have existed in the study site until the Mid-Late Holocene when a Mauritia swamp developed, and humid conditions similar to present established. Main climate phases inferred in our study site fit well with regional trends recorded in other places located north Amazon Basin. However, conclusions are still limited by the lack of additional Quaternary records in the Orinoco Llanos area, avoiding regional correlations.Realizou-se uma análise de pólen amostrada em paleossolos orgânicos, entre 150-125 cm de profundidade, em um pântano Mauritia os lhanos do Orinoco. O registro de pólen dessa amostra resumiu a história da vegetação durante o Holoceno Temprano, entre 10,225-7,800 cal. anos AP. A vegetação durante esse período foi caracterizada por um pântano de Poaceae, com maior abundância de arbustos e árvores de Asteraceae, Melastomataceae, tipo-Schefflera e Phyllanthus. Encontrou-se que a riqueza de tipos polínicos no Holoceno Temprano foi menor do que a riqueza atualmente encontrada em ambientes similares; o pólen de Mauritia esteve ausente de todas as amostras. Os resultados deste estudo

  7. The effect of on-hill active recovery performed between runs on blood lactate concentration and fatigue in alpine ski racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gillian E; Wells, Greg D

    2015-03-01

    Alpine skiing is a high-intensity intermittent sport that results in lactate accumulation and muscle acidosis, which has been shown to contribute to peripheral neuromuscular fatigue. Active recovery influences the removal of lactate from the muscle and blood by maintaining blood flow to fatigued muscles and enhancing aerobic utilization of lactate by nonfatigued tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of on-hill active recovery on blood lactate concentration in alpine skiers. Fourteen highly trained alpine skiers (7 women, 7 men) completed 8 training runs in a 45-gate slalom or a 25-gate giant slalom corridor at 2,600 m above sea level. Skiers were randomized to active (ACT) or static recovery (CON) performed at the top of each run. Blood lactate concentration and perceived fatigue were recorded at the top and bottom of each run. Performance was measured by time to complete each training run and rate of incomplete runs. A significant time (p alpine skiers and is associated with delayed fatigue as indicated by faster training runs and fewer incomplete runs.

  8. Conservation genetics of the eastern yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris) and bullsnake (Pituophis catenifer sayi): River valleys are critical features for snakes at northern range limits

    OpenAIRE

    Somers, Christopher M.; Graham, Carly F.; Martino, Jessica A.; Frasier, Timothy R.; Lance, Stacey L.; Gardiner, Laura E.; Poulin, Ray G.

    2017-01-01

    On the North American Great Plains, several snake species reach their northern range limit where they rely on sparsely distributed hibernacula located in major river valleys. Independent colonization histories for the river valleys and barriers to gene flow caused by the lack of suitable habitat between them may have produced genetically differentiated snake populations. To test this hypothesis, we used 10 microsatellite loci to examine the population structure of two species of conservation ...

  9. A climatic and taxonomic comparison between leaf litter and standing vegetation from a Florida swamp woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Dilcher; Elizabeth A. Kowalski; Michael C. Wiemann; Luis Felipe Hinojosa; Terry A. Lott

    2009-01-01

    One method to determine past climate has been the use of leaf morphological characteristics of fossil leaves quantified using modern climate and canopy leaf characteristics. Fossil assemblages are composed of abscised leaves, and climate may be more accurately determined by using leaves from leaf litter instead of the canopy. To better understand whether taphonomic...

  10. Carbon Sequestration and Sedimentation in Mangrove Swamps Influenced by Hydrogeomorphic Conditions and Urbanization in Southwest Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Marchio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares carbon sequestration rates along two independent tidal mangrove creeks near Naples Bay in Southwest Florida, USA. One tidal creek is hydrologically disturbed due to upstream land use changes; the other is an undisturbed reference creek. Soil cores were collected in basin, fringe, and riverine hydrogeomorphic settings along each of the two tidal creeks and analyzed for bulk density, total organic carbon profiles, and sediment accretion. Radionuclides 137Cs and 210Pb were used to estimate recent sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates. Carbon sequestration rates (mean ± standard error for seven sites in the two tidal creeks on the Naples Bay (98 ± 12 g-C m−2·year−1 (n = 18 are lower than published global means for mangrove wetlands, but consistent with other estimates from the same region. Mean carbon sequestration rates in the reference riverine setting were highest (162 ± 5 g-C m−2·year−1, followed by rates in the reference fringe and disturbed riverine settings (127 ± 6 and 125 ± 5 g-C m−2·year−1, respectively. The disturbed fringe sequestered 73 ± 10 g-C m−2·year−1, while rates within the basin settings were 50 ± 4 g-C m−2·year−1 and 47 ± 4 g-C m−2·year−1 for the reference and disturbed creeks, respectively. These data support our hypothesis that mangroves along a hydrologically disturbed tidal creek sequestered less carbon than did mangroves along an adjacent undisturbed reference creek.

  11. Winding out of the Swamp: Evading the weak gravity conjecture with F-term winding inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Hebecker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model of large field inflation along a winding trajectory in the field space of two axionic fields, where the “axions” originate from the complex structure moduli sector of a Calabi–Yau 3-fold at large complex structure. The winding trajectory arises from fixing one combination of axions by bulk fluxes and allows for a transplanckian effective field range. The inflaton potential arises from small “instantonic” corrections to the geometry and realises natural inflation. By working in a regime of large complex structure for two complex structure moduli the inflaton potential can be made subdominant without severe tuning. We also discuss the impact of the recent ‘no-go theorems’ for transplanckian axion periodicities on our work. Interestingly, our setup seems to realise a loophole pointed out in arXiv:1503.00795 and arXiv:1503.04783: our construction is a candidate for a string theory model of large field inflation which is consistent with the mild form of the weak gravity conjecture for axions.

  12. Hydromophic soils of two inland valley swamps in the rain forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ithologic discontinues in only two (pedons AB-2 and AB-5) of the nine pedons studied. Clay minera/Ogy was predominantly kaolinitic except in pedons BD-1 and BD-2 which contained some degraded mica minerals. Ferro/ysis was well demonstrated ...

  13. Investigating Issues in the Laboratory: The Behavior of Red Swamp Crayfish as an Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Krissi M.; Kayes, Lori J.; Hubert, David; Chouinard, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Recent reform initiatives in undergraduate biology call for curricula that prepare students for dealing with real-world issues and making important links between science and society. In response to this call, we have developed an issues-based laboratory module that uses guided inquiry to integrate the concepts of animal behavior and population…

  14. Ecology meets cancer biology: The cancer swamp promotes the lethal cancer phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Sarah R.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    As they grow, tumors fundamentally alter their microenvironment, disrupting the homeostasis of the host organ and eventually the patient as a whole. Lethality is the ultimate result of deregulated cell signaling and regulatory mechanisms as well as inappropriate host cell recruitment and activity that lead to the death of the patient. These processes have striking parallels to the framework of ecological biology: multiple interacting ecosystems (organ systems) within a larger biosphere (body), alterations in species stoichiometry (host cell types), resource cycling (cellular metabolism and cell-cell signaling), and ecosystem collapse (organ failure and death). In particular, as cancer cells generate their own niche within the tumor ecosystem, ecological engineering and autoeutrophication displace normal cell function and result in the creation of a hypoxic, acidic, and nutrient-poor environment. This “cancer swamp” has genetic and epigenetic effects at the local ecosystem level to promote metastasis and at the systemic host level to induce cytokine-mediated lethal syndromes, a major cause of death of cancer patients. PMID:25895024

  15. Response to different rates of nitrogen by five varieties of swamp rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria; mainly to determine the optimum nitrogen fertilizer rate for the area as well as select the rice varieties that responded optimally. A split plot design was used with five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150and 200kg/ha) as the ...

  16. Water level observations in mangrove swamps during two hurricanes in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Doyle, T.W.; Doyle, T.J.; Swarzenski, C.M.; From, A.S.; Day, Richard H.; Conner, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of mangroves in suppressing water level heights during landfall of tropical storms and hurricanes. Recent hurricane strikes along the Gulf Coast of the United States have impacted wetland integrity in some areas and hastened the need to understand how and to what degree coastal forested wetlands confer protection by reducing the height of peak water level. In recent years, U.S. Geological Survey Gulf Coast research projects in Florida have instrumented mangrove sites with continuous water level recorders. Our ad hoc network of water level recorders documented the rise, peak, and fall of water levels (?? 0.5 hr) from two hurricane events in 2004 and 2005. Reduction of peak water level heights from relatively in-line gages associated with one storm surge event indicated that mangrove wetlands can reduce water level height by as much as 9.4 cm/km inland over intact, relatively unchannelized expanses. During the other event, reductions were slightly less for mangroves along a river corridor. Estimates of water level attenuation were within the range reported in the literature but erred on the conservative side. These synoptic data from single storm events indicate that intact mangroves may support a protective role in reducing maximum water level height associated with surge.

  17. Clay is everything: archaeological analyses of colonial period inland swamp rice embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Agha

    2016-01-01

    Rice became the market export crop in the early eighteenth century that made South Carolina become an economic and agricultural powerhouse after many exotic tropical cultivars failed (Carney and Porcher 1993, Carney 1996, 2001, Littlefield 1981, Fields-Black 2008).

  18. Ambient iron concentration regulates the sulfate reducing activity in the mangrove swamps of Diwar, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Attria, K.; Kerkar,S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    was controlled by SO sub(4) sup(-2) (r = 0.498, p < 0.001, n = 60) more than organic carbon (r = 0.316 p < 0.05, n = 60). At Diwar, the SRR was governed by the iron concentrations at an r-value of -0.761 (p < 0.001, n = 60), suggesting that ca.58...

  19. Penaeid prawn population and fry resource in a mangrove swamp of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    are between 10 and 20 mm in size. Growth rate and period of stay in this environment vary with species. About 46.5% of the population is comprised of juveniles ranging in size from 10 to 30 mm. These could be collected in large numbers between December...

  20. Traumatic Natures of the Swamp: Concepts of Nature in the Romanian Danube Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assche, van K.; Bell, S.; Teampau, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on local constructions of 'nature' in governance processes, and the importance of historical and institutional contexts for their genesis and functioning. Through extensive field study in the Romanian Danube Delta, it is demonstrated that the origin and distribution of certain

  1. Survey of economic trees in fresh water swamp of Calabar | Okon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Values of mean count and variance for Elaeis guineensis were 8.8/2.2; 6.0/2.0; 6.2/3.7; 6.0/2.0 and 6.6/2.3 for the plots respectively. Colocasia esculenta had mean count and variance of 127.2/74.7;194.4/180.8; 215.6/426.7; 158.0/69.5 and 169.8/19.2 respectively. The mean values were observed to be greater than ...

  2. Water quality of a coastal Louisiana swamp and how dredging is undermining restoration efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert R.; Huang, Haosheng; Day, John W.; Justic, Dubravko; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    The Bayou Boeuf Basin (BBB), a sub-basin of the Barataria Basin estuary in coastal Louisiana, consists of forested and floating wetlands receiving drainage from surrounding agricultural fields and urban watersheds. We characterized surface water quality in the BBB, and determined through hydrologic modeling if a series of levee breaks along major drainage channels would significantly improve water quality by allowing flow into surrounding wetlands. Surface water monitoring found surrounding sugarcane farm fields to be major sources of nutrient and sediment loading. Hydrological modeling indicated that levee breaks would increase N reduction from the current 21.4% to only 29.2%, which is much lower than the anticipated 90-100% removal rate. This was due to several factors, one them being dredging of main drainage channels to such a degree that water levels do not rise much above the surrounding wetland elevation even during severe storms, so only a very small fraction of the stormwater carried in the channel is exposed to wetlands. These unexpected results provide insight into an undoubtedly pervasive problem in human dominated wetland systems; that of decreased flooding during storm events due to channel deepening by dredging activities. Additional water quality management practices should be implemented at the farm field level, prior to water entering major drainage canals.

  3. MMed cohort supervision: A path out of the swamp? | Rout | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors present the case for collaborative cohort supervision (CCM), including both master's students and novice supervisors, as a possible way to rapidly increase the number of supervisors needed to address the recent implementation of a compulsory research component to specialist registration with the Health ...

  4. Improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    consumers is on the rise in Uganda and prefer good quality .... An electronic hand moisture meter (model Riceter m 401 made by Kett-electric Company in Tokyo,. Japan) was used to determine moisture content of the paddy, daily and at hourly intervals during ... rice mill types and polished to consumer taste. The study ...

  5. Tropical Peat Swamp Management Options: A Case Study Using System Dynamic in Southern Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat forest ecosystems have multiple benefits as regulating hydrological system, carbon storage, timber and non-timber products, and protecting the biodiversity. Lack of understanding of these functions, short-term economic benefits is more preferable despite reducing its ecological benefits. This study proposed a system dynamics model of tropical peat forest ecosystem in determining its optimum management for extractive utilizations (timber and non-timber forest products, environmental services, and biodiversity. A dynamics model was used to describe changes in peatland and forest cover, biomass accumulation and carbon storage, and total economic value of tropical peat forest ecosystem in Trumon and Singkil, Southern Aceh. The projection showed that peat forest ecosystem benefits would decline in the long term if degradations continue at the same rate over last decade. Efforts to change the primary peat forest to plantation would reduce the total economic value of ecosystem and biodiversity values at level -19.63% and -26.28% from current conditions. Carbon emissions were increased at 117.32 ton CO2 eq ha-1 year-1, higher than average of carbon losses from peatland oxidation. Preserving 50% of forest vegetation on moderate depth and protection very deep peatlands would reduce emission -6.96% to -35.06% and increase forest carbon storage at significant rate +15.06% to +63.32%, respectively. These mitigation schemes would improve the biodiversity and hydrological function. Forest rehabilitation with agroforestry practices will enhance carbon uptake, especially on degraded lands.

  6. Mangrove swamps as fry source for shrimp culture - a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    .02%) and P. merguiensis (22.32%). Premonsoon season (February-May) sustained their maximum abundance in this mangrove. Juveniles (10-30 mm) constituted the largest portion of the penaeid population. M. dobsoni grows to 50-60 mm length within 5-6 months and M...

  7. The temperature characteristics of biological active period of the peat soils of Bakchar swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, M. V.; Dyukarev, E. A.; Voropay, N. N.

    2018-01-01

    The results of the study of the peculiarities of the temperature regime in the five basic ecosystems of oligotrophic bogs in the south taiga zone of Western Siberia in 2011-2016 are presented. The soil temperature regime was studied using the atmospheric-soil measuring complex at different depths from surface to 240 cm. All sites were divided into two groups according the bog water level: flooded sites (hollow and open fen) and drained sites (ridge, tall and low ryam). Waterlogged sites are better warmed in the summer period, and slowly freeze in the winter period. The analysis of the annual cycle of temperature showed that the maximum surface temperature is observed in July. The minimum temperature on the surface observed in February or January. The greatest temperature gradient was recorded in the upper 2 cm layer. The gradient at the open fen was -2 °C·cm-1 in February and 1.1 °C·cm-1 in October. The peak of formation of the seasonally frozen layer occurs at the end of autumn, beginning of winter. The degradation of the seasonally frozen layer was observed both from top and bottom, but degradation from the top is faster.

  8. Two late-Glacial avifaunas from eastern North Island, New Zealand : Te Aute Swamp and Wheturau Quarry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthy, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    Late-Glacial faunas from Wheturau Quarry near Gisborne and Te Aute, near Napier, North Island, New Zealand, are described and radiocarbon dates presented. These faunas suggest that the eastern North Island was covered in open shrubland until 10,500 years BP. There were significant changes in the fauna of the eastern North Island during the Early Holocene, when the dominant moa species was replaced; the key species Cnemiornis gracilis disappeared from the fauna; and others, such as Euryanas finschi became scarce. The Wheturau fauna includes the largest collection of Cnemiornis gracilis bones yet found, and a storm petrel that may be Oceanites maorianus, named from three skins collected last century off Banks Peninsula. The Te Aute site is notable for the large number of moa bones preserved, especially Euryapteryx curtus and Dinonnis giganteus. It is also the type locality for Diornis gazella Oliver, Cnermiornis gracilis Forbes, Circus teauteensis Forbes, Circus hamiltoni Forbes, and Phalacrocorax novaezealandiae var. major Forbes. The record of Harpagornis moorei from Te Aute is shown to have been an error in identification by Hamilton, and Harpagornis is therefore unknown in the North Island. (author). 41 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Methane emissions and production potentials of forest swamp wetlands in the Eastern Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Stott, Philip; Yu, Hongxian; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of methane flux at a few inundated sites in China have been extrapolated to obtain estimates on a national scale. To enable those national estimates to be refined and to compare flux from geographically separated sites comprising the same wetland types, we used a closed chamber method to measure methane flux in uninundated Betula platyphylla-and Larix gmelinii-dominated peatlands in the Northeast China. Our measurements were taken from both vegetated and bare soil surfaces, and we compared flux with environmental measures including vegetation biomass, soil temperature and soil characteristics. We found that methane flux was low, and that there were no significant differences between wetland types, indicating that environmental influences were dominant. We found that flux was positively correlated to temperature in the surface layers of the soil, the above-ground biomass of the shrub and herb layers, total soil carbon and total soil nitrogen; and we suggest that emissions may be due to anaerobic microcosms in the surface layers. The methane production potentials of the soils were low and similar between both sites but inconsistent with the differences between fluxes, and inconsistent with production potentials and fluxes reported from the same wetland types elsewhere, indicating that there were subtle environmental differences between wetlands classed as being of the same type. Differences between fluxes in vegetated chambers with bare soil chambers were insignificant, indicating that no methane emission through aerenchyma occurred at our sites. We concluded that wetland type was not an accurate predictor of methane flux.

  10. Photosynthetic traits of Sphagnum and feather moss species in undrained, drained and rewetted boreal spruce swamp forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kangas, L.; Maanavilja, L.; Hájek, Tomáš; Juurola, E.; Chimner, R. A.; Mehtätalo, L.; Tuittila, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2014), s. 381-396 ISSN 2045-7758 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bryophyte * ecophysiology * peatland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2014

  11. Incidence Factors of Negative Environmental Behavior towards the Swamps of Bañó and Los Negros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Villadiego-Lorduy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that are influencing the environmentally negative behavior of the inhabitants of Bañó and Los Negros towards these wetlands. For this, a questionnaire was designed, validated by a panel of experts, and implemented. Based on a population of 645 households, we used two types of sample designs –systematic and random– to implement the research instrument. In addition to their respective statistical analysis, a content analysis was carried out with the secondary information collected using index cards. Factors such as low education, scarce employment opportunities, and low income per household have a direct impact on the deterioration of these wetlands. Almost 50% of the population living in the wetlands has not completed basic education. Thus, the possibilities to reflect on the actions done by people against the water mirrors are poor, especially when family incomes are very low (53% of the families receive incomes of less than COL$ 10,000 a day. The scarce organization of the communities has prejudiced the development of joint activities between the neighboring communities of the wetlands, as well as the achievement of common goals. Furthermore, the ineffectiveness of local and national environmental authorities has contributed to the degradation of ecosystems due to an inefficient environmental management over the years. Wetlands are the main source of natural resources for these people and the permanence of such communities in the territory is directly related to the wetlands’ conservation. The synergy of the above factors has unleashed environmental problems that have resulted in the reduction of the ecological capacity of these wetlands and the deterioration of environmental conditions in the area of study.

  12. Soil properties and growth of swamp white oak and pin oak on bedded soils in the lower Missouri River floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; J. W. Van Sambeek; Michael Wallendorf; Michael A. Gold

    2005-01-01

    Restoring bottomland hardwood ecosystems is of great interest along the lower Missouri River and within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. However, bottomland hardwood plantings commonly have a high failure rate. Among reasons cited for failures are frequent flooding and poorly drained site conditions. Soil bedding is a commonly used site preparation method shown to...

  13. Biomass and Nutrient Distribution in 3-Year Old Green Ash and Swamp Chestnut Oak Grown in a Minor Stream Bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey E. Kennedy; Bryce E. Schlaegel

    1985-01-01

    After three growing seasons, green ash had produced 7,342 pounds per acre of above-ground dry matter compared to 3,572 for oak. Of the total biomass, ash had 53% in the bole (wood plus bark), 22% in old branches, 21% in leaves and 4% in new growth; oak had 50%, 21%, 24%, and 5% in the same components. These proportions changed after leaf fall. Concentrations of N, P, K...

  14. Soil-acquired cutaneous nocardiosis on the forearm of a healthy male contracted in a swamp in rural eastern Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri JR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available James R Palmieri,1 Arben Santo,2 Shawn E Johnson1 1Department of Microbiology, Infectious and Emerging Diseases, 2Department of Pathology, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Virginia Campus, Blacksburg, VA, USA Abstract: A 45-year-old man complained of pain and swelling on his right wrist after receiving a scratch while playing paintball in a swampy area of eastern Virginia. Two weeks later, he noticed a pimple-like lesion developing, which quickly grew in size and then ulcerated. Because of the severity of his condition, the patient was taken to the emergency room where surgical drainage of the abscess was carried out and the pus was sent for culture and sensitivity testing. Enlarged and tender lymph nodes were palpable going up the arm and surrounding the right axillary area. Three days following culture of pus from his lesion, colonies of Nocardia brasiliensis were isolated. He was successfully treated with an extended regimen of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Because of its low incidence, nocardiosis is usually not considered in the initial diagnosis. The rapidity with which his infection developed from a pimple-like lesion into an extensive ulcerated area, the involvement of his lymphatic system, the extended time needed to successfully treat his infection, and the potential for infection to rapidly disseminate, reinforces the necessity for laboratory identification and immediate treatment of severe pyogenic cutaneous lesions. Keywords: actinomycetes, cutaneous nocardiosis, immunocompromised, mycetoma, Nocardia brasiliensis, nocardiosis, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

  15. Novel Insights into Antiviral Gene Regulation of Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, Infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, one of the major pathogens of Procambarus clarkii, has caused severe disruption to the aquaculture industry of P. clarkii in China. To reveal the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying WSSV infection, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed among WSSV-infected susceptible individuals (GS, viral resistant individuals (GR, and a non-infected control group (GC. A total of 61,349 unigenes were assembled from nine libraries. Subsequently, 515 and 1033 unigenes exhibited significant differential expression in sensitive and resistant crayfish individuals compared to the control group (GC. Many differentially expressed genes (e.g., C-type lectin 4, Peroxinectin, Prophenoloxidase, and Serine/threonine-protein kinase observed in GR and GS play critical roles in pathogen recognition and viral defense reactions after WSSV infection. Importantly, the glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate pathway was identified to play critical roles in defense to WSSV infection for resistant crayfish individuals by upregulating the chondroitin sulfate related genes for the synthesis of WSSV-sensitive, functional chondroitin sulfate chains containing E units. Numerous genes and the key pathways identified between resistant and susceptible P. clarkii individuals provide valuable insights regarding antiviral response mechanisms of decapoda species and may help to improve the selective breeding of P. clarkii WSSV-resistance.

  16. Estimation of pathways of the production of greenhouse gases in the tropical swamp forest in Thailand by stable isotope investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boontanon, Narin; Ueda, Shingo; Wada, Eitaro

    2008-09-01

    Dynamics of greenhouse gases (N(2)O and CH(4)) with the dry-wet cycle along with the variation of oxidation-reduction boundaries were investigated in the tropical wetland in monsoon Asia. It was clarified that the production of N(2)O and CH(4) was closely related to the development of a redox boundary in the Bang Nara River systems. An intermittent increase in N(2)O was observed at the beginning of the rainy season, when a large amount of easily decomposable organic matter was introduced into the river. After 10 days, when dissolved oxygen was consumed completely at the middle reaches, the emission of CH(4) became maximal due to the possible occurrence of denitrification. The distribution of stable isotope ratios in N(2)O clearly demonstrated that nitrification is the major process for its production. Furthermore, the production of N(2)O in this study area was found to vary in time and space with changes in the redox boundary along the water flow.

  17. Adapting a rapid assessment protocol to environmentally assess palm swamp (Veredas) springs in the Cerrado biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ariane; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-10-30

    The exploitation and degradation of natural environments exert intense pressure on important ecosystems worldwide. Thus, it is necessary developing or adapting assessment methods to monitor environmental changes and to generate results to be applied to environmental management programs. The Brazilian Veredas (phytophysiognomies typical to the Cerrado biome) are threatened by several human activities; thus, the aim of the present study is to adapt a rapid assessment protocol (RAP) to be applied to Veredas springs, by using the upper course of the Vai-e-Vem stream watershed (Ipameri County, Goiás State, Brazil). Therefore, several springs in the study site were visited and 11 of them were considered Veredas springs. After the RAP was adapted, the instrument was validated and used to environmentally assess the springs in order to demonstrate its applicability. The present study has provided an instrument of option to monitor Veredas springs.

  18. Flood Plain Information, Toms River, Union Branch Ridgeway Branch, and Long Swamp Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-06-01

    Station lie between these branches. The undeveloped flood plains of Toms River and its tributaries have limited agricultural use, but blueberries and...March 6, a violent storm - perhaps coast were not spared completely from the the worst within memory - smashed the New storm ravages. Snow clogged county

  19. Use of milk progesterone for determining the reproductive status of cross-bred swamp buffaloes and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuong Le Xuan; Tan Luu Van; Trieu Cao Van; Dung Chung Anh; Canh Tran Tich; Quynh Vuong Dac

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen cross-bred buffaloes (F 1 , local breed x Murrah) and 19 cross-bred cows (F 1 , local breed x Holstein Friesian), 4-6 years of age, were used in the study to determine the potential of milk progesterone measurement as an aid in characterizing the onset of postpartum ovarian activity and for early pregnancy diagnosis. The first oestrous cycle, based on milk progesterone, commenced between days 40-50 postpartum in 17% of the buffaloes but between days 25-35 postpartum in 21% of the cows. At days 61-100 postpartum, 33% of the buffaloes had cycling ovaries with progesterone concentrations of 3.23-4.02 ng/mL, while 53% of the cows had cycling ovaries during the same period with progesterone concentrations of 3.52-4.16 ng/mL. During the oestrous cycle, the progesterone level showed peak elevations on day 15 in buffaloes and on day 9 in cows. The milk progesterone profiles of the buffalo took longer to reach peak levels, but declined faster than those in the cow. The accuracy of positive pregnancy diagnosis was 78% in buffaloes and 83.3% in cows, but the accuracy of diagnosing non-pregnancy was 100% in both species. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. Big Cypress fox squirrel (Sciurus niger avicennia) ecology and habitat use in a cypress dome swamp-pine forest mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellam, John O; Jansen, Deborah K; Johnson, Annette T; Arwood, Ralph W; Merrick, Melissa J; Koprowski, John L

    2016-01-20

    Forested wetlands are in decline, as are many species that are obligate residents. Big Cypress fox squirrels (BCFS; Sciurus niger avicennia ) are a threatened endemic to wet pine and cypress forests in southwestern Florida. The region is characterized by development resulting in habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, and hydrological change that influence the quality of these wet forests. Through radiotelemetry and field observations, we examined the ecology and habitat use of BCFS in a natural cypress dome-pine forest mosaic. BCFS selected cypress domes for food and nests throughout the year. Cypress dome habitats were the only habitat type to be used more than available; however, the availability of nearby pine forest was also important. Home ranges were large relative to other tree squirrels, with male home ranges exceeding female ranges. Males overlapped more females than males, while sharing similar food preferences and use patterns with females, suggesting that the sexual dimorphism in home range size is related to mate searching. Roads and oil extraction pads were used less frequently than expected and were incorporated into home ranges less than randomly generated features. The importance of cypress domes within the wet forests and grasslands of Big Cypress National Preserve demonstrates the value of maintaining this delicate mosaic.

  1. Organic carbon and iron modulate nitrification rates in mangrove swamps of Goa, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnan, K.P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    this process are vital to eutrophication as well as to health concerns related to enhanced nitrate levels in aquatic ecosystems. Nitrification also serves as a significant link between nitrogen mineralization and potential nitrogen loss from the benthic.... 2.4. Microbial analyses Sub samples of approximately 5 g wet weight sediment were sampled using sterile syringe cores. The sub samples were transferred to 45 ml full strength sterile seawater (10 -1 dilution). Tween80 (50 μL) was added...

  2. Using Flow-Ecology Relationships to Evaluate Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs and Complementarities in the Nation's Largest River Swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Justin P; Bennett, Micah G; Hayden-Lesmeister, Anne; Fritz, Kelley A; Nickolotsky, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    Large river systems are inextricably linked with social systems; consequently, management decisions must be made within a given ecological, social, and political framework that often defies objective, technical resolution. Understanding flow-ecology relationships in rivers is necessary to assess potential impacts of management decisions, but translating complex flow-ecology relationships into stakeholder-relevant information remains a struggle. The concept of ecosystem services provides a bridge between flow-ecology relationships and stakeholder-relevant data. Flow-ecology relationships were used to explore complementary and trade-off relationships among 12 ecosystem services and related variables in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results from Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration were reduced to four management-relevant hydrologic variables using principal components analysis. Multiple regression was used to determine flow-ecology relationships and Pearson correlation coefficients, along with regression results, were used to determine complementary and trade-off relationships among ecosystem services and related variables that were induced by flow. Seven ecosystem service variables had significant flow-ecology relationships for at least one hydrologic variable (R (2) = 0.19-0.64). River transportation and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) landings exhibited a complementary relationship mediated by flow; whereas transportation and crawfish landings, crawfish landings and crappie (Pomoxis spp.) abundance, and blue crab landings and blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) abundance exhibited trade-off relationships. Other trade-off and complementary relationships among ecosystem services and related variables, however, were not related to flow. These results give insight into potential conflicts among stakeholders, can reduce the dimensions of management decisions, and provide initial hypotheses for experimental flow modifications.

  3. Water table depth fluctuations during ENSO phenomenon on different tropical peat swamp forest land covers in Katingan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossita, A.; Witono, A.; Darusman, T.; Lestari, D. P.; Risdiyanto, I.

    2018-03-01

    As it is the main role to maintain hydrological function, peatland has been a limelight since drainage construction for agriculture evolved. Drainage construction will decrease water table depth (WTD) and result in CO2 emission release to the atmosphere. Regardless of human intervention, WTD fluctuations can be affected by seasonal climate and climate variability, foremost El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study aims to determine the correlation between rainfall in Katingan and ENSO index, analyze the pattern of WTD fluctuation of open area and forest area in 2015 (during very strong El Niño) and 2016 (during weak La Niña), calculate the WTD trendline slope during the dry season, and rainfall and WTD correlation. The result showed that open area has a sharper slope of decreasing or increasing WTD when entering the dry, compared to the forest area. Also, it is found that very strong El Niño in 2015 generated a pattern of more extreme decreasing WTD during the dry season than weak La Niña in 2016.

  4. Social Perception and Encounters with Snakes in Costa Rica: An Analysis through the Social Network Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Sánchez-Paniagua

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Snakes are among the animals most affected by the ignorance of humans towards wildlife In Costa Rica, little effort has been made to know how snakes are affected by human actions. In the present study, we used information supplied to the Serpientes de Costa Rica page of the social network Facebook to find out: which species are reported most frequently? Which of these suffer the greatest number of deaths? and what ability to recognize them have those who send the reports? A total of 484 reports were obtained, 389 of which were non —venomous snakes and 95 were venomous, with 66 species being identified. The most frequent species were Ninia maculata, Senticolis triaspis, Leptodeira rhombifera, Boa imperator, Bothrops asper, Bothriechis schlegelii and Mastigodryas melanolomus. The genera with higher mortality were Mastigodryas, Bothrops, Senticolis, Geophis and Leptodeira. People killed one in four snakes, regardless of whether it was venomous or not. Species of the genera Mastigodryas, Geophis, Senticolis, Ninia and Leptodeira were among the least identified. The best identified species were B. imperator, B. asper and B. schlegelii. Only one in five people could correctly recognize whether a snake was poisonous or not. The reports were given with a small group of species, which seem to be the ones that are in closest contact with the studied population; education for the conservation of these animals can start with those species that seem to be more frequent and so people will gradually recognize and protect the wild life that surrounds them.

  5. Residue Analysis of 60 Pesticides in Red Swamp Crayfish Using QuEChERS with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuangyu; Zhu, Kechen; Han, Lijun; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Zhang, Zihao; Yao, Wei

    2018-02-05

    In this study, a multi-residue analytical method using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), was investigated for rapid determination of 60 pesticide residues in whole crayfish and crayfish meat. The final method used 10 mL of acetonitrile for extraction, 3 g of NaCl for partitioning, and 50 mg of primary secondary amine for d-SPE cleanup. The method was validated at three spiking levels (10, 50, and 100 ng/g) using triphenyl phosphate as an internal standard and both gradient and isocratic HPLC elution. Under gradient conditions, satisfactory recoveries (70-120%) and relative standard deviations of ≤20% were achieved for 83 and 88% of pesticides in whole crayfish and crayfish meat, respectively. Matrix effects were estimated using both gradient and isocratic HPLC elution. To our knowledge, this is the first study involving multi-residue analysis of HPLC-amenable pesticides in crayfish and mantis shrimp. The final method was successfully applied for analysis of 11 crayfish and mantis shrimp samples from markets in China, and propamocarb (shrimps.

  6. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Silencing two main isoforms of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) induces compensatory expression of two CHH-like transcripts in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    OpenAIRE

    Manfrin, C; Peruzza, L; Bonzi, Lc; Pallavicini, A; Giulianini, Pg

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference has frequently been applied to modulate gene function in organisms. With the aim of creating new autocidal methods based on neuro-endocrine disruptors for invasive populations of Procambarus clarkii, we silenced the Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) by injecting the corresponding dsRNA. CHH is a pleiotropic hormone that primarily regulates the mobilization of energy reserves and plays a pivotal role in stress responses. Here, we describe two experiments aimed at testing ...

  8. Identifying the best season for mapping evergreen swamp and mangrove species using leaf-level spectra in an estuarine system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Heidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available and changes in the extent or quality of these habitats can therefore not be effectively monitored. Compared to traditional surveying methods, remote sensing can be used to map these inaccessible areas over regional extents. This study investigated which season...

  9. Growth and Production of Some Variety Corn (Zea mays L.). Planted under the Canopy of Palm Oil 12 Years Old in Swamp Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafrullah; Marlina, N.; Rahim, S. E.; Aminah, R. I. S.; Midranisiah; Rosmiah; Sakalena, F.

    2017-06-01

    This research was conducted in wetlands Semambu Village, District of North Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia, which lasted from July 2015 to February 2016. The observation of a microclimate indicate that the average intensity of light outside the auspices of the plot 1968.9 m2s mol1, under waranet 1502.40 mol1 m2s, below paranet 721.99 mol1 m2s-1 and under waranet 439.25 μmol m2s-1 - equivalent to the light interception 1 or 100%, 76%, 37% and 22%. Results of soil chemical analysis that the soil has a low fertility study (H2O pH of 3.32, organic C 4.47%, total N 0.35%, Bray P 13.30 ppm, K-ea 0.26 me / 100g, CEC 19.6 rne / 100g and Al-ea 3.28 me / 100g). Tests on 22 genotypes of maize grown with light interception 100%, 76%. 37% and 22%, by calculating tolerance index based on the weight of dry seed cob-1 was found four genotypes of maize tend to be tolerant to low-intensity light that were genotype B 41, Pioneer 27, Sukmaraga and Sugihan. The test results of corn planted in beds shade with light interception 100%, 76%, 37% and 22% for groups of maize tolerant and sensitive, followed by application of urea 0 kg ha1, 100 kg ha-1 200 kg ha-1, 300 kg ha-1 and 400 kg ha-1 indicate that maize and 41 and Pioneer 27 by Urea 300 kg ha-1 gives better results than other varieties at different intensities of light oil palm age of 12 years with applications Urea fertilizer 300 kg ha-1, indicating that the B 41 and Pioneer 27 tends to give better results compared with other varieties. The application of a polyculture system palm-maize can produce 1000 kg of dry grain of corn in a 1 ha of oil palm cultivation.

  10. Mixing rules for and effects of other hydrogen isotopes and of isotopic swamping on tritium recovery and loss to biosphere from fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Efficient recovery of bred and unburnt tritium from fusion reactors, and control of its migration within reactors and of its escape into the biosphere are essential for self-sufficient fuel cycles and for public, plant personnel, and environmental protection. Tritium in fusion reactors will be mixed with unburnt deuterium and protium introduced by (n,p) reactions and diffusion into coolant loops from steam cycles. Rational design for tritium recovery and escape prevention must acknowledge this fact. Consequences of isotopic admixture are explored, mixing rules for projected fusion reactor dilute-solution conditions are developed, and a rule of thumb regarding their effects on tritium recovery methods is formulated

  11. Resolution of the enigmatic phylogenetic relationship of the critically endangered Western Swamp Tortoise Pseudemydura umbrina (Pleurodira: Chelidae) using a complete mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuwen; Unmack, Peter J; Kuchling, Gerald; Wang, Yinan; Georges, Arthur

    2017-10-01

    Pseudemydura umbrina is one of the most endangered turtle species in the world, and the imperative for its conservation is its distinctive morphology and relict status among the Chelidae. We use Illumina sequencing to obtain the complete mitogenome for resolving its uncertain phylogenetic position. A novel nuclear paralogue confounded the assembly, and resolution of the authentic mitogenome required further Sanger sequencing. The P. umbrina mitogenome is 16,414bp comprising 37 genes organized in a conserved pattern for other vertebrates. The nuclear paralogue is 547bp, 97.8% identity to the corresponding mitochondrial sequence. Particular features of the mitogenome include an nd3 174+1A frameshift, loss of DHC loop in tRNA Ser (AGN), and a light-strand replication initiation site in Wancy region that extends into an adjacent tRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that P. umbrina is the monotypic sister lineage to the remaining Australasian Chelidae, a lineage probably dating back to the Cretaceous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An invaded invader: high prevalence of entocytherid ostracods on the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aguilar-Alberola, J. A.; Mesquita-Joanes, F.; López, S.; Mestre, A.; Casanova, J. C.; Rueda, J.; Ribas, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 688, č. 1 (2012), s. 63-73 ISSN 0018-8158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Ostracoda * Commensalism * Alien species * Biological invasion Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.985, year: 2012

  13. Assessing the influence of return density on estimation of lidar-based aboveground biomass in tropical peat swamp forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solichin Manuri; Hans-Erik Andersen; Robert J. McGaughey; Cris Brack

    2017-01-01

    The airborne lidar system (ALS) provides a means to efficiently monitor the status of remote tropical forests and continues to be the subject of intense evaluation. However, the cost of ALS acquisition canvary significantly depending on the acquisition parameters, particularly the return density (i.e., spatial resolution) of the lidar point cloud. This study assessed...

  14. Stevens Pond: A postglacial pollen diagram from a small Typha Swamp in Northwestern Minnesota, interpreted from pollen indicators and surface samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1967-01-01

    The pollen assemblages of a core in the coniferhardwood formation in northwestern Minnesota are compared with the floristics of the recent vegetation in the region. Percentage levels of the main tree components have been compared first with those from recent surface samples taken at the same short

  15. The Effect of Herbivory by White-Tailed Deer and Additionally Swamp Rabbits in an Old-Growth Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol; Winston P. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forest openings create internal patchiness and offer different habitat qualities that attract wildlife, especially herbivores, that flourish along forest edges. But intense herbivory in these openings can reduce or eliminate herbaceous and woody species and thus influence local species composition and structure of the forest. This study in an old-growth bottomland...

  16. A new genus of proteocephalid tapeworm (Cestoda) from the marbled swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae) in the River Parana basin, Argentina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arredondo, N.J.; Alves, Philippe Vieira; Gil de Pertierra, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, MAY 5 (2017), č. článku 015. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Proteocephalidae * Monticelliinae * taxonomy * morphology * phylogenetic analysis * freshwater * Neotropical Region Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016

  17. Frugivory and seed dispersal of Miconia theaezans (Bonpl.) Cogniaux (Melastomataceae) by birds in a transition palm swamp: gallery forest in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, M R; Melo, C

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate potential avian dispersers of Miconia theaezans by dietary habits in the Cerrado of Central Brazil. Forty-two hours and 40 minutes of focal tree observation were conducted between 7:00 AM and 5:00 PM. For each bird species that consumed the fruit, we registered: the time they remained on the plant, the total amount of fruit they consumed, foraging tactics and strategies to consume the fruit. Five-hundred and fifty-nine units of fruit were consumed in 47 visits by seven bird species. Thraupidae was the most frequent and representative family and Tangara cayana was the main consumer. The Tachyphonus rufus had the highest rate of intake of the entire fruit, however the rates were not significantly different among the visitors. The most-used foraging tactic by all species was to consume the fruit while "perched" (95.74% of the visits). The most commonly-used consumption strategy was to mandibulate the fruit and swallow all the contents (65.12%). Omnivores were the predominant visitors (71.43%) and made most of the visits (89.36%). All visiting species could act as potential dispersers of M. theaezans, which demonstrates the low selectiveness of this pioneer plant towards its frugivorous.

  18. Happy crisis tests hospitals' PR plan. Septuplets' arrival swamps Iowa hospitals with national, international media. Blank Children's Hospital, Iowa Methodist Medical Center, Des Moines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The public relations staff believed the birth of healthy septuplets would become a human interest story for local media. But the staff was stunned at the outpouring of international and national media knocking at their front doors. The staff of both Iowa Methodist Medical Center and Blank Children's Hospital in Des Moines, Iowa, organized a communications plan for 14 official press conferences, constant updates to the media and a website to handle ongoing inquiries from the public. As a result, the story of the McCaughey septuplets was shown in more than 10,000 television stories around the world. The hospitals received more than 36,000 magazine and newspaper articles. The public relations staff not only fielded more than 2,000 phone calls in the days following the Nov. 19 birth, but more than 15 major networks parked their vehicles and satellite dishes in front of the hospital.

  19. Wood Storks of the Birdsville Colony and swamps of the Savannah River Site: General overview of research findings, 1983--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, M.C.

    1993-02-01

    The population of Wood Storks (Mycteria americana) that breeds in the United States has decreased from an estimated 20,000 breeding pairs in 1930 to just under 5,000 pairs in 1980. Since 1980, the number has remained relatively stable, fluctuating between 3,500 and 5,500 breeding pairs. The decline prompted the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to list the United States population of Wood Storks as endangered in 1984. When the US Department of Energy (USDOE) decided to restart L-Reactor on the Savannah River Site (SRS), there was concern that when the reactor was restarted, cooling water flowing into the Steel Creek Delta would raise the water level and the area would become too deep for foraging storks. The potential loss of this area to storks was important because storks had been observed foraging in the Steel Creek Delta. The USDOE began consultation with the USFWS in April, 1984, and the USDOE subsequently agreed to develop and maintain alternative foraging habitat to replace the potential loss. In order to design and manage the alternate foraging ponds as effectively as possible, it was necessary to understand aspects of the biology of the storks, the characteristics of their foraging sites and the patterns of their use of the SRSS. Results are described

  20. Two new nematodes, Paraseuratoides ophisterni gen. et sp. n. (Quimperiidae) and Philometra ophisterni sp. n. (Philometridae), from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum in Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Salgado-Maldonado, G.; Aguilar-Aguilar, R.

    Roč. 49, č. 2 ( 2002 ), s. 109-117 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : nematodes * parasites of fish Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.515, year: 2002

  1. Reproductive endocrine profiles and follicular growth after estrus induction in the riverine water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n=50 and riverine-swamp hybrid buffalo (2n = 49

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. BonDurant

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten adult female water buffalo were used in the present study (5 x [2n = 50] and 5 x [2n= 49] hybrids. Ovarian activity was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography between two consecutive ovulations. Observed follicular wave numbers were: 1 (n=1, 2 (n=4, and 3 (n=5. The interovulatory interval ranged 17 to 23 days. Differences in mean follicular diameter between follicles of the normal karyotype (2n=50 and buffalo hybrids (2n=49 were found on the second subordinate group of follicles (P0.05, whereas inhibin profiles were significantly higher in the hybrid group (P<0.05. Understanding the biological meaning of the difference in inhibin concentrations in B. bubalis female reproductive performance will require further investigation.

  2. Costa Rica's Presentation to the 1st Workshop on Problems of Leakage in Dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero Calderon, C.F.

    1994-03-01

    This paper includes information about the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE); the project T racer Application to Leakage in Dams; the description of the Cachi's Dam and the description of the Arenal's Dam. (S. Grainger)

  3. The Influence of Glove Type on Simulated Wheelchair Racing Propulsion: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, I; Dysterheft, J; Bleakney, A W; Cooper, R A

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine the influence of glove type on kinetic and spatiotemporal parameters at the handrim in elite wheelchair racers. Elite wheelchair racers (n=9) propelled on a dynamometer in their own racing chairs with a force and moment sensing wheel attached. Racers propelled at 3 steady state speeds (5.36, 6.26 & 7.60 m/s) and performed one maximal effort sprint with 2 different glove types (soft & solid). Peak resultant force, peak torque, impulse, contact angle, braking torque, push time, velocity, and stroke frequency were recorded for steady state and sprint conditions. Multiple nonparametric Wilcoxon matched pair's tests were used to detect differences between glove types, while effect sizes were calculated based on Cohen's d. During steady state trials, racers propelled faster, using more strokes and larger contact angle, while applying less impulse with solid gloves compared to soft gloves. During the sprint condition, racers achieved greater top end velocities, applying larger peak force, with less braking torque with solid gloves compared to soft gloves. Use of solid gloves may provide some performance benefits to wheelchair racers during steady state and top end velocity conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Late Holocene sedimentology and palaeoenvironment of Kiluli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kiluli Swamp is an extensive valley swamp near the lower limit of the montane forest on the eastern slopes of Mount Kenya, East Africa. The swamp is fed by a small spring on the northeastern margin, and the water table lies a few centimetres below the surface. The swamp's sediments modify water chemistry: the ...

  5. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    ABSTRACT:- Kiluli Swamp is an extensive valley swamp near the lower limit of the montane forest on the eastern slopes of Mount Kenya, East Africa. The swamp is fed by a small spring on the northeastern margin, and the water table lies a few centimetres below the surface. The swamp's sediments modify water chemistry: ...

  6. Influential Factors on the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE, which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group of the same age (10-13 years and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics.

  7. Influential Factors on the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10-13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics.

  8. A simple mechanical system for studying adaptive oscillatory neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Guillaume; Jouffroy, Jerome

    model, etc.) might be too complex to study. In this paper, we use a comparatively simple mechanical system, the nonholonomic vehicle referred to as the Roller-Racer, as a means towards testing different learning strategies for an Recurrent Neural Network-based (RNN) controller/guidance system. After...... a brief description of the Roller-Racer, we present as a preliminary study an RNN-based feed-forward controller whose parameters are obtained through the well-known teacher forcing learning algorithm, extended to learn signals with a continuous component....

  9. Noteworthy records of reptiles from natural open vegetation areas in plateau and coastal areas of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition and geographic distribution of reptiles in Santa Catarina are little known, particularly in the open areas of its plateau (covered with ombrophylous steppe and Atlantic littoral (coastal dunes with thin, low, and predominant herbaceous vegetation known as restinga. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge of reptiles that inhabit these areas, this paper presents sixteen records of previously unknown or uncommon species in Santa Catarina: Acanthochelys spixii, Anops kingii, Cnemidophorus lacertoides, C. vacariensis, Leptotyphlops munoai, Mastigodryas b. bifossatus, Tantilla aff. melanocephala, Atractus reticulatus, Gomesophis brasiliensis, Lygophis flavifrenatus, Oxyrhopus r. rhombifer, Phalotris reticulatus, Philodryas agassizii, Xenodon dorbignyi, Micrurus altirostris and Bothrops pubescens. Aspects of the distribution and conservation of these species are discussed briefly.

  10. [Reptiles from Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, Cumana, Sucre State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, O; Prieto, A; Comejo, P

    2000-01-01

    An inventory of the reptiles that inhabit in Cerro Colorado and its surroundings, was performed from March, 1994 to March, 1995. There were reported 8 species of snakes and 7 of lizards enclosed in 4 and 5 families repectively. Aspects observed were ecolology as habitat, activity, reproduction and relative abundance. The more abundant species of lizards were: Cnemidophorus femniscatus, Ameiva bifrontata, (Teiidae), Tropidurus hispidus (Tropiduridae), Gonatodes vittatus and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae) and the ophidians: Leptodeira annulata and Mastigodryas amarali (Colubridae). It is believed that the changes occurred in the zone influenced the increase of the relative abundance of the species Leptotyphlops goudotii (Leptotyphlopidae) arid Gymnophthalmus speciosus(Gymnophthalmidae) and perhaps in the disappearance of others that have been reported at the xerophitic or semixerophitic zones of the Sucre State of Venezuela.

  11. Indicadores biológicos de qualidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de uso no brejo paraibano Biological indicators of soil quality in different land use systems in paraiban swamp region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lima Pôrto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da qualidade do solo é uma ferramenta importante para monitorar a sua degradação, bem como planejar a implantação de práticas sustentáveis de manejo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar indicadores biológicos de qualidade do solo em um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico, submetido a diferentes sistemas de uso em Areia-PB. Foram utilizadas amostras de solo coletadas na camada arável (0-20 cm em áreas de mata nativa, fruticultura, cana-de-açúcar, sucessão de cultivos, pastagem e consórcio de culturas. Foram avaliados o carbono orgânico total (COT, carbono da biomassa microbiana (CBM, quociente microbiano (qMic, respiração basal (RB e quociente metabólico (qCO2. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as áreas sob gramíneas apresentaram uma tendência de manutenção do COT e menores reduções no CBM, entretanto, apresentaram elevados valores de qCO2, indicando a ocorrência de um processo degradativo. A área sob fruticultura apresentou leves reduções no COT e CBM e baixos valores de qCO2, indicando que esse sistema pode estar se ajustando a um novo estado de equilíbrio. As áreas sob sucessão de cultivos e consórcio de culturas apresentaram as maiores reduções no COT e CBM e elevados valores de qCO2, demonstrando um elevado estágio de degradação desses sistemas. Pode-se concluir que todos os sistemas agrícolas estudados promoveram perda de qualidade do solo, sendo esse fato mais pronunciado nas áreas sob manejo mais intensivo. O CBM e qCO2 mostraram-se bastantes sensíveis às alterações decorrentes do uso agrícola do solo, apresentando grande potencial para estudos de sua qualidade.Soil quality evaluation is an important tool for the monitoring of soil degradation as well as for planning the adoption of sustainable agricultural management practices. The objective of this study was to evaluate some biological indicators of the soil quality of a dystrophic Yellow Latosol (Oxisol under different land use systems in Areia, Paraíba, Brazil. Soil samples were taken form the plow layer (0-20 cm at six sites: native vegetation (moist Atlantic forest, fruit culture (cashew crop, sugarcane, crop succession (sorghum/common bean/castor bean, pasture (Brachiaria decumbens, and a combined cropping system (castor bean + sorghum. Total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, microbial quotient (qMic, basal respiration (BR and metabolic quotient (qCO2 were evaluated. The results indicated that treatments under grasses, such as sugarcane and pasture, showed a tendency to maintain the TOC contents with lower reductions in MBC. However, higher qCO2 values were found under these treatments, which may indicate the occurrence of degradation processes. Slight reductions in TOC and MBC values and low qCO2 values were verified in the cashew crop, suggesting that the soil under this system could be adjusting to a new equilibrium state. Crop succession and combined cropping system treatments had the largest reductions in TOC and MBC with the highest qCO2 values, which suggests a stage of advanced degradation. It can be concluded that all the agroecosystems evaluated in this study resulted in loss of soil quality, which was pronounced in the most intensively managed treatments. The MBC and qCO2 were highly sensitive to land use changes and show great potential for soil quality evaluations.

  12. Swamp future. Energy for Western Pomerania Grid formation and potentials for the thermal utilization of biomass from paludi culture; MoorZukunft. Energie fuer Vorpommern. Netzwerkbildung und Potentiale fuer die thermische Verwertung von Biomasse aus Paludikultur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordt, Anke; Schroeder, Christian [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Botanik und Landschaftsoekologie; Schroeder, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    MoorZukunft aims to initiate pilot projects for utilisation biomass from ''wet'' peatland for energy purposes. Also alternative concepts of funding regional cooperations are to be developed. The implementation of paludiculture, the sustainable cultivation of rewetted peatland, needs innovative unions between farmers who produce primary material for paludi-products and biomass consumers for energy or material utilisation. Areas for implementing paludiculture are identified and potential partners for regional use and consumption are cross-linked. Business models will be developed with the parties of possible cooperations, i.g. between farmer and municipal energy supplier and functional attended until realisation. The procedure to initiate pilot projects will be explained. This expands from requests of areas and partners until possible forms of organisation locally shared utilisation partnerships. (orig.)

  13. Effects of Long-Term Exposure of the Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii to a Mixture of Two Herbicides, 2,4-Dichloro-phenoxyacetic Acid and Monosodium Methanearsonate, and Associated Human Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf A. Abdelghani

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and monosodium methanearsonate are often sold in commercial mixtures. Bioconcentration studies have been performed for each of these herbicides individually, but little information exists concerning long-term exposure to a mixture of these herbicides. The following study examined the uptake of arsenic in crawfish after long-term exposure to this mixture, and the health risks associated with consumption of these crawfish. Bioconcentration and depuration experiments using a 50:50 by concentration mixture of the two herbicides, with and without surfactant, were performed to quantify how much arsenic is concentrated in the edible tissue of the crawfish. Of the three tissues (muscle, gill, and hepatopancreas sampled hepatopancreas bioconcentrated the highest amount of arsenic. Surfactant significantly reduced this uptake but did not affect bioconcentration of arsenic into other tissues. Surfactant had no effect on depuration of arsenic from any of the tissues. Cooking lowered hepatopancreatic arsenic content, possibly as a result of structural changes in the hepatopancreas. Assessment of the human health risk associated with consuming these crawfish showed an exposure dose at the high end of consumption that was approximately twice the reference dose for arsenic. Cancer risks were averaged at approximately 7 extra tumors in a population of 10,000 and 6 extra tumors in a population of 10,000 resulting from a lifetime consumption of crawfish exposed to the herbicide mixture without and with surfactant, respectively.

  14. Environmental Impact Study of the Elm Fork Region of the Trinity River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-04-14

    Carnivora Ordrlvr Sqaania Vl’JpeIns fr (lDesmarest). red fox C.,Iner (inslrjrtr (liesitia). racer Captis lagrans Pip. cf. C.I. /tflriscrooki Slaughter...are today, perhaps even warmer. 70 TABLE 2 KINGOOME PLANTAE Puods albr is Phylum CHLOROPHYTA Family STROBILOPSIDAE Hanna Class CHAROPHYCEAE Strobilops

  15. Genome Sequence of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, an Emerging Fungal Pathogen of Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Mana; Fitak, Robert R; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; DeBlasio, Dan; Niazi, Faheem; Egholm, Michael; Rounsley, Steven D; Kodira, Chinnappa D; Orbach, Marc J

    2017-07-27

    Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola , which belongs to the order Onygenales , is an emerging fungal pathogen of snakes in the United States. This study reports the 21.9-Mb genome sequence of an isolate of this reptilian pathogen obtained from a black racer snake in Pennsylvania. Copyright © 2017 Ohkura et al.

  16. Vilgub, välgub ja kihutab / Alar Niineväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineväli, Alar

    2008-01-01

    Seiklusfilm "Speed Racer" : stsenaristid-režissöörid Andy ja Larry Wachowski : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008. Teose aluseks on tatsuo Yoshida manga põhjal loodud 52-osaline animaseriaal "Mahha GoGoGo" (1967-1968). Lisatud: M.L. "Lihtsalt Wachowsid?" režissööride eraelust

  17. Patterns of phenotypic variation reveal substantial differentiation in sexual dimorphism of three Psammodromus (Squamata, Lacertidae) species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San-Jose, L.M.; Gonzalez-Jimena, V.; Fitze, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    The Spanish sand racer (Psammodromus hispanicus) has been recently split into three distinct species: P. hispanicus, P. edwardsianus, and P. occidentalis. Some morphological differences have been reported but there is as yet no description allowing unambiguous identification of the three species.

  18. A Componential Approach to Training Reading Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-17

    list roll emptied maintained shot cream 8 felt bees sanded cables strand bridle 9 went both wicked giant classic blue 10 tell pail backing taping snap...Table 3.3 Cumulative Summary of Performance: Subject KG Criterion Speed Racer Ski- Jumo Measure Pretest Posttest/Pretest Posttest/Pretest Posttest Unit

  19. Long-Term Athletic Development in Youth Alpine Ski Racing: The Effect of Physical Fitness, Ski Racing Technique, Anthropometrics and Biological Maturity Status on Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Müller, Erich; Fink, Christian; Raschner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Alpine ski racing is known to be a sport with a high risk of injuries. Because most studies have focused mainly on top-level athletes and on traumatic injuries, limited research exists about injury risk factors among youth ski racers. The aim of this study was to determine the intrinsic risk factors (anthropometrics, biological maturity, physical fitness, racing technique) for injury among youth alpine ski racers. Study participants were 81 youth ski racers attending a ski boarding school (50 males, 31 females; 9-14 years). A prospective longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor sports-related risk factors over two seasons and traumatic (TI) and overuse injuries (OI). At the beginning of the study, anthropometric characteristics (body height, body weight, sitting height, body mass index); biological maturity [status age at peak height velocity (APHV)]; physical performance parameters related to jump coordination, maximal leg and core strength, explosive and reactive strength, balance and endurance; and ski racing technique were assessed. Z score transformations normalized the age groups. Multivariate binary logistic regression (dependent variable: injury yes/no) and multivariate linear regression analyses (dependent variable: injury severity in total days of absence from training) were calculated. T -tests and multivariate analyses of variance were used to reveal differences between injured and non-injured athletes and between injury severity groups. The level of significance was set to p ski racing. The present findings suggest that neuromuscular training should be incorporated into the training regimen of youth ski racers to prevent injuries.

  20. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Pectoral Sandpiper Red-breasted Merganser White-rumped Sandpiper Turkey Vulture Baird’s Sandpiper Swallow-tailed Kite Least Sandpiper Coshawk Red-backed...Lined Race Runner Common Water Snake Ring-Necked Snake Eastern Hognosed Snake Smooth Green Snake Blue Racer Fox Snake Bull Snake Milk Snake DeKays

  1. Pop / Lauri Tikerpe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikerpe, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Pastacas "Snatsit Some Si-Si", Metro Luminal "Sassis", Nitrous "Outlaw Racer", The Sun "Unisex", Laur ja Sadam "Kirjad maale", Pilvikud "Päikesepatarei", Katrin Mandel "Peegeldus", Kukerpillid & Metsatöll "Suured koerad, väiksed koerad", Ultramelanhool "Materjal"

  2. Some Personality Characteristics of Elite Orienteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsheliaskova-Koynova, Zshivka

    1991-01-01

    Administered questionnaires to 80 Bulgarian orienteers (cross-country racers who navigate a course) measuring extroversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, social desirability, trait anxiety, need for achievement, and locus of control. Examined the effects of sex, age, sport experience, level of sport qualification, and kind of sport specialization on…

  3. Effect of diet and physiological state on recycling of urea in Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recycling of urea to the rumen was studied in Merino ewes during differentp hysiologicals tates using radioactivet racers. The results showed that although the proportion of urea recycled differed, similar amounts were recycled in dry and pregnant sheep over a wide range of N intake. Urea recycling increased ...

  4. Some observations on the development of the mangrove on the Equador and Peru continental coast

    OpenAIRE

    Cintron, G M; Horna, R R; Paredes, R S; Solis, I C; Bonifaz, C B

    1982-01-01

    The mangrove swamps of Ecuador and Peru are described and the principal species of the Rhizophora family are identified, as well as the principal factors, physical structure, climate, temperature, weather conditions, rain fall and tidal changes, for the purpose of establishing a pattern of forests and zones of mangrove swamps. It is concluded that the theory of West concerning the latitudinal distribution of the mangrove swamps (1977), is the best for that coastal area. In conclusion it is re...

  5. 9 CFR 355.41 - Antemortem and postmortem inspection for mules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp fever), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders, farcy, or...

  6. Sommeil et course au large en solitaire : comportements des coureurs et étude de faisabilité d’un « agenda interactif de sommeil » Sleep and solo sailing racing : behaviour of racers and feasibility study of an “interactive sleep diary” Sueño y regata a vela en solitario : comportamientos de los corredores y Estudio de factibilidad de una “agenda interactiva de sueño”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Theunynck

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available La course au large en solitaire associe un effort physique et cognitif intense et prolongé durant 10 à 100 jours dans des conditions extrêmes. Elle implique le recours à un sommeil fractionné et des périodes de repos courtes réparties sur l’ensemble du nycthémère. Ces difficultés sont évoquées pour expliquer les incidents, accidents et altérations des performances.Cette étude recense les stratégies mises en œuvre par neuf des meilleurs skippers de la spécialité pour préparer puis gérer ces contraintes au cours d’une course, puis suit un skipper durant une course autour du monde en solitaire et sans escale d’une durée de cent jours.A partir de ces observations, il a été proposé à un skipper expérimenté de tester un agenda interactif de « sommeil » afin d’apprendre à gérer de façon optimale ses périodes de repos durant une course.Ce travail met en évidence que les sujets sont conscients de l’importance de gérer leurs périodes de repos, mais mettent en œuvre peu de stratégies de préparation et de gestion du sommeil avant et durant leur course. Ils présentent une période d’adaptation à ces conditions extrêmes allant de 24 à 72 heures et rencontrent ensuite des périodes de fatigue extrême avec hallucinations. Cette fatigue a des conséquences sur la performance, mais aussi sur l’accidentologie qui apparaît nettement majorée avec un possible délai allant jusqu’à 72h après l’installation d’une dette de sommeil trop importante. Les outils de laboratoire, qui ne pourraient donner des informations intéressantes que sur la base d’une utilisation continue, sont très difficiles à mettre en œuvre ici.Dans ces circonstances, le recours à un agenda de sommeil « interactif », utilisé par le sujet pour comptabiliser et gérer la répartition et la durée de ses périodes de sommeil, semble être une solution individuelle de gestion des alternances veille sommeil. Il pourrait exister un seuil critique de dette de sommeil en dessous duquel on observerait une fréquence plus élevée d’incidents et d’accidents. Cette étude préliminaire sera poursuivie par une observation à plus grande échelle afin de pouvoir valider l’ « agenda interactif de sommeil » comme outil de routine tant descriptif que d’apprentissage.Solo sailing racing associates intense and prolonged (10 to 100 days physical and cognitive effort under extreme conditions. It involves split sleep and short rest periods distributed throughout the day and night. These difficulties are mentioned to explain incidents, accidents and changes in performance.This study identifies the strategies used by nine of the best solo skippers to prepare and then manage these constraints during a race. It then follows one of the skippers for a one-hundred-day non-stop solo race around the world.Based on these observations, it was proposed to one skipper that he test an interactive “sleep” diary so that he could learn how to manage his periods of sleep in an optimal way during a race.This study shows that the subjects are aware of the importance of managing their periods of rest, but use few sleep preparation and management strategies before and during their race. They undergo an adaptation period to these extreme conditions for 24 to 72 hours and then experience periods of extreme fatigue with hallucinations. This fatigue has consequences on their performance, but also on accidentology, which seems much greater with a possible time lag of up to 72 hours after an excessive sleep debt. Laboratory tools, which could provide interesting information only with continuous use, are very difficult to use under these extreme conditions.Under these circumstances, an interactive sleep diary, used by the subject to record and manage the distribution and duration of his periods of sleep, seems to be an individual solution for managing the wake and sleep cycle. A critical sleep-debt threshold may exist, below which a higher frequency of incidents and accidents would be observed. This preliminary study will be followed by larger scale observations in order to validate the “interactive sleep diary” as a routine descriptive and learning tool.La regata a vela en solitario se asocia a un esfuerzo físico y cognitivo intenso y prolongado durante 10 a 100 días en condiciones extremas. Esto implica el recurrir a un sueño fraccionado y a periodos de reposo cortos distribuidos en el conjunto del día y la noche. Estas dificultades son evocadas para explicar los incidentes, accidentes y deterioro en el rendimiento.Este estudio reúne las estrategias adoptadas por nueve de los mejores skippers de la especialidad para prepararse y manejar las dificultades a lo largo de una carrera, después se incluye el seguimiento a un capitán durante una carrera alrededor del mundo en solitario y sin escalas, con una duración de 100 días.A partir de estas observaciones, se propuso a un capitán con experiencia probar una “agenda interactiva de sueño”, con el fin de aprender a administrar de forma óptima sus periodos de reposo durante una carrera.Este trabajo pone en evidencia que los sujetos son conscientes de la importancia de administrar sus periodos de sueño, pero ponen en marcha pocas estrategias de preparación y de manejo del sueño antes y durante sus carreras. Los resultados muestran un periodo de adaptación a estas condiciones extremas de 24 a 72 horas seguidos de periodos de fatiga extrema con alucinaciones. Esta fatiga tiene consecuencias sobre el rendimiento, pero también sobre la accidentalidad, que aparece claramente aumentada en un posible plazo hasta de 72 horas, después del establecimiento de una deuda de sueño muy importante. Las herramientas de laboratorio, que no podrían dar informaciones interesantes sino sobre la base de una utilización continua, son muy difíciles de aplicar en este caso.En estas circunstancias, el recurrir a una “agenda de sueño interactivo", utilizada por el sujeto para contabilizar y administrar la distribución y la duración de sus periodos de sueño, parece ser una solución individual para manejar la alternancia entre el sueño y la vigilia. Puede existir un límite crítico de deuda de sueño debajo del cual se puede observar una frecuencia más elevada de incidentes y accidentes. Este estudio preliminar será proseguido por una observación a mayor escala con el fin de poder validar la “agenda interactiva de sueño” como una herramienta tanto descriptiva como de aprendizaje.

  7. Asymmetry and Thigh Muscle Coactivity in Fatigued Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Elite Skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The acute effects of fatigue on functional interlimb asymmetry and quadriceps/hamstring muscle activity levels, including preparatory coactivation during squat jump takeoff and landing, were evaluated in elite alpine ski racers with/without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR......). METHODS: Twenty-two elite ski racers (ACLR, n = 11; control, n = 11) performed an 80-s repeated squat jump test (jump test) on a dual force plate system with simultaneous EMG recordings in vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris. Asymmetry index (AI) and jump height of body...... center of mass (HBCM) were calculated from the ground reaction force. The normalized EMG amplitudes were obtained at takeoff, at the 25-ms interval prelanding, and at postlanding for the ACLR limb (affected limb), contralateral limb, and limbs of the control subjects (control limb). RESULTS: Jump height...

  8. [Influence of ski boots on balance performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildner, E; Lembert, S; Raschner, C

    2010-03-01

    Modern ski carving technique demands that skiers have a strong sense of balance and edge their skis with precision and feeling. Stiff ski boots facilitate the transfer of power to the ski but increase the difficulty of balancing. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of ski boots on balance performance of alpine skiers. 76 experienced skiers (female 33/male 43) and 76 ski racers of the Skigymnasium Stams (female 31/male 45) were tested on the MFT S 3 Check with and without ski boots. Ski boots significantly influenced balance. There were also significant differences between experienced skiers and ski racers, but gender differences were minimal. In addition to general conditioning, skiers should utilise general and ski-specific balance and sensomotor training which could help in ski injury prevention, especially knee injuries. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  9. Development of a Car Racing Simulator Game Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin T. Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a car racing simulator game called Racer, in which the human player races a car against three game-controlled cars in a three-dimensional environment. The objective of the game is not to defeat the human player, but to provide the player with a challenging and enjoyable experience. To ensure that this objective can be accomplished, the game incorporates artificial intelligence (AI techniques, which enable the cars to be controlled in a manner that mimics natural driving. The paper provides a brief history of AI techniques in games, presents the use of AI techniques in contemporary video games, and discusses the AI techniques that were implemented in the development of Racer. A comparison of the AI techniques implemented in the Unity platform with traditional AI search techniques is also included in the discussion.

  10. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup. Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition. Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  11. Long-Term Athletic Development in Youth Alpine Ski Racing: The Effect of Physical Fitness, Ski Racing Technique, Anthropometrics and Biological Maturity Status on Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Müller, Erich; Fink, Christian; Raschner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Alpine ski racing is known to be a sport with a high risk of injuries. Because most studies have focused mainly on top-level athletes and on traumatic injuries, limited research exists about injury risk factors among youth ski racers. The aim of this study was to determine the intrinsic risk factors (anthropometrics, biological maturity, physical fitness, racing technique) for injury among youth alpine ski racers. Study participants were 81 youth ski racers attending a ski boarding school (50 males, 31 females; 9–14 years). A prospective longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor sports-related risk factors over two seasons and traumatic (TI) and overuse injuries (OI). At the beginning of the study, anthropometric characteristics (body height, body weight, sitting height, body mass index); biological maturity [status age at peak height velocity (APHV)]; physical performance parameters related to jump coordination, maximal leg and core strength, explosive and reactive strength, balance and endurance; and ski racing technique were assessed. Z score transformations normalized the age groups. Multivariate binary logistic regression (dependent variable: injury yes/no) and multivariate linear regression analyses (dependent variable: injury severity in total days of absence from training) were calculated. T-tests and multivariate analyses of variance were used to reveal differences between injured and non-injured athletes and between injury severity groups. The level of significance was set to p jump contact time; and higher drop jump reactive strength index were at a lower injury risk or more vulnerable for fewer days of absence from training. However, significant differences between injured and non-injured athletes were only observed with respect to the drop jump reactive strength index. Regular documentation of anthropometric characteristics, biological maturity and physical fitness parameters is crucial to help to prevent injury in youth ski racing. The present

  12. Does invader like invader? Feeding preferences of an alien Ponto-Caspian goby towards indigenous and non-indigenous amphipod prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Błońska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When non-native species appear in a new ecosystem, it may sufficiently affect native communities i.a. through interactions with native as well as other alien species. The „invasional meltdown“ hypothesis states that the presence of non-indigenous species facilitates the introduction and establishment of the other non-native species. A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to test the occurence of the invasional meltdown phenomenon within the invasive Ponto-Caspian community. Preferences of an alien Ponto-Caspian racer goby, Babka gymnotrachelus, towards amphipod preys of the same origin (Dikerogammarus villosus, Pontogammarus robustoides or a prey species native to the resident community (Gammarus fossarum were verified. Additionally, we tested the profitability of native and invasive prey for fish in a growth experiment. Accordingly with the invasional meltdown hypothesis, we hypothesized that the racer goby would prefer Ponto-Caspian amphipods and that prey would be more beneficial than native ones, which should result in higher growth rate. We found that the racer goby always selected the native G. fossarum, regardless of the prey mobility, presence of shelters and waterborne chemical cues. Thus, the fish choice was based on the assessment of prey quality during a direct contact with amphipods. The growth experiment indicated that the racer goby grew better on the native gammarid compared to the Ponto-Caspian species. The outcome of our study does not support the invasional meltdown hypothesis within the goby – gammarids predator prey system, as the non-native prey species were neither prefered nor more profitable food for the alien predator. Thus, we found no evidence for facilitation of establishement between the studied taxa.

  13. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF A CARBOHYDRATE-PROTEIN GEL SUPPLEMENT ON ALPINE SLALOM SKI PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    John G. Seifert; Ronald W. Kipp; David W. Bacharach

    2012-01-01

    Alpine slalom ski racing is a high intensity, complex sport in which racers execute turns every second. Acute fatigue can make the difference in not finishing a run (DNF) or finishing out of contention. The quantity and quality of training often dictates racing success. It is not known if nutritional supplementation can improve performance in this high intensity, short duration activity. The objective of this study was to determine if ingesting a carbohydrate-protein energy gel (GEL) improves...

  15. Environmental Assessment for the Installation of a Reclaimed Water Irrigation System Improvement Project at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    and may be found in shrubs and small trees . Black Racers eat a variety of prey items including frogs , lizards, mice, rats, small snakes and even...the various pipeline installation options are discussed in Section 4 of the EA. To eliminate the spread of Japanese climbing fern, it is...alternatives 1a and 1b would traverse an area of recently planted pine trees . This is an area of upland habitat and has a low potential for the

  16. Sleep architecture, insulin resistance and the nasal cycle: Implications for positive airway pressure therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A.P. Crofts

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global pandemic of metabolic disease is worsening. The metabolic theory of obesity proposes that hormonal changes, especially hyperinsulinaemia, precede metabolic disease development. Although quality sleep is recognised as a key factor for good health, less is known about disrupted sleep as a risk factor for hyperinsulinaemia.   Aim: To explore the relationship between sleep, especially sleep architecture and the nasal cycle, on insulin secretion in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA with comorbid metabolic disease. This review includes a discussion of the potential role of Rest-Activity-Cycler positive airway pressure (RACer-PAP, a novel non-pharmacological OSA treatment strategy.   Methods: A narrative review of all the relevant papers known to the authors was conducted. This review also included results from a polysomnographic sleep clinic pilot study (n = 3 comparing sleep efficiency of RACer-PAP to nasal continuous positive airways pressure (n-CPAP in OSA patients.   Results: Metabolic disease is strongly associated with disturbed sleep. Sleep architecture influences cerebral hormonal secretion, lateral shifts in the autonomic nervous system and nasal airflow dominance. Disturbed sleep shortens short-wave sleep periods, decreasing insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Improvements to metabolic function during n-CPAP treatment are inconsistent. If RACer-PAP demonstrates superior effects on sleep architecture and autonomic function, it may offer advantages in OSA patients with comorbid metabolic disease.   Conclusion: Improving sleep architecture by maintaining the nasal cycle proposes a novel non-pharmacological treatment paradigm for treating OSA with comorbid metabolic disease. Research is required to demonstrate if RACer-PAP therapy influences whole night sleep architecture, sympathovagal balance and markers of metabolic disease.

  17. Mario Kart Is Hard

    OpenAIRE

    Waingarten, Erik; Bosboom, Jeffrey William; Demaine, Erik D; Hesterberg, Adam Classen; Lynch, Jayson R.

    2016-01-01

    Nintendo’s Mario Kart is perhaps the most popular racing video game franchise. Players race alone or against opponents to finish in the fastest time possible. Players can also use items to attack and defend from other racers. We prove two hardness results for generalized Mario Kart: deciding whether a driver can finish a course alone in some given time is NP-hard, and deciding whether a player can beat an opponent in a race is PSPACE-hard.

  18. 1991 report to the aerospace profession; SETP Symposium, 35th, Beverly Hills, CA, Sept. 26-28, 1991, Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Topics presented include an evaluation of F-14 dual hydraulic failure flying qualities, the Pond Racer preliminary flight test report, piloted simulator studies of the HL-20 lifting body, and the X-31 flight test update. Also presented are the single engine testing of the F-14A(Plus) airplane in the power aprroach configuration, demonstration/validation of the YF-22A prototype advanced tactical fighter, MD-11 status report, and the Hummingbird experience at Lockheed, Georgia.

  19. Design of Ski Boots for Alpine Ski Racing Based on Leg Frame of the Skier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Soichiro; Hayashi, Sueyoshi

    A ski boot is important to make progress in ski turning technique as an interface between a skier and a ski. Especially in alpine ski races, suitability of design of the boots for racers becomes more important to achieve accurate and quick lean of the leg in ski turns. This study is aimed at building a new design concept of a ski boot that can improve the results of alpine ski races. In this paper, new design of an upper shell of a ski boot that was adjusted to the features of the frame of alpine ski racers was experimentally examined. As a result, it was demonstrated that a front and a rear part of the upper shell of a ski boot should be separately adjusted to the length of a shank of each player for well-balanced quick lean of the leg in the ski turn. Finally, the effect of new design of an upper shell was examined in giant slalom and slalom tests by Japanese alpine ski racers of the first rank. Consequently, the results showed that lean angle during turns was increased and finish time was shortened when the skiers wore the newly designed boots.

  20. Range Environmental Assessment Overland Air Operations, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-12

    FLORIDA on the primary soil types that occur on Eglin AFB. The soils on Eglin AFB originated from the Citronelle Formation as well as from alluvium...hammock, blackwater stream, alluvial stream, spring run stream, seepage stream, marsh lake, slough, dome swamp, strand swamp, basin marsh

  1. A survey of Echuya Central Forest Reserve, Uganda, for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    swamp warblers Bradypterus graueri within Echuya Central Forest Reserve. Thirty-one breeding territories ... aligned ridges, with its eastern and western borders lying essentially on the ridge tops and falling down ... an important population of the globally-threatened Grauer's Swamp Warbler. Bradypterus graueri which ...

  2. Atlantic white-cedar being eliminated by excessive animal damage in south Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; H. A. Somes

    1965-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar, which grows in the swamps of the New Jersey Pine Region, is a prized timber species. Most areas now growing white-cedar have been clearcut 4 or 5 times since 1700. In contrast, the associated swamp hardwoods-red maple, blackgum, and sweetbay-rarely produce wood that is valuable enough to harvest.

  3. Shading by Napier grass reduces malaria vector larvae in natural habitats in western Kenya highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamae, P.M.; Githeko, A.K.; Menya, D.M.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Increased human population in the Western Kenya highlands has led to reclamation of natural swamps resulting in the creation of habitats suitable for the breeding of Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in the region. Here we report on a study to restore the reclaimed swamp and reverse its

  4. Palynology of the Lost Branch Formation of Kansas - new insights on the major floral transition at the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppers, R.A. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Palynological assemblages from two outcrops of the upper part of the Memorial Formation, the Lost Branch Formation and the overlying Hepler unit in Kansas, were examined to discover which stratigraphic interval marks the change from the lycopod-dominated coal swamp floras of Middle Pennylsvanian (Westphalian D) age to the fern-dominated coal swamp floras of Late Pennsylvanian (Stephanian) age.

  5. Cyathea nilgirensis Holttum (Cyatheaceae: Pteridophyta: a threatened tree fern from central Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Dudani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While studying some of the exclusive and threatened swamps overgrown with wild nutmeg trees (Myristica swamps, in the Kathalekan forest of Uttara Kannada in central Western Ghats, Cyathea nilgirensis Holttum, a southern Indian endemic tree fern was seen growing in the deep shade of the swampy forest. This is a new report of its distribution anywhere from north of Western Ghats.

  6. Peat subsidence and its practical implications: a case study in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wösten, J.H.M.; Ismail, A.B.; Wijk, van A.L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Due to pressure for land, substantial areas of peat swamps in South-East Asia have been and presently are being reclaimed for agriculture or for other land use. As soon as peat swamps are drained, the irreversible process of subsidence starts, which can only be stopped by waterlogging the peat

  7. Biodiversity studies in three Coastal Wetlands in Ghana, West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biodiversity studies of three coastal wetlands in Ghana were made. The wetlands are the Sakumo, Muni-Pomadze and Densu Delta Ramsar sites. Each wetland is made up of a flood plain which consists of salt marsh (about 20%), mangrove swamps (between 15 and 30%), fresh water swamp (about 40 - 45%), and in ...

  8. Equilibrium Sorption Studies of Hg (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of swamp arum (Lasimorpha senegalensis) seeds as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Hg (II) ions from aqueous solution was investigated in this study. The influence of initial metal concentration on the percent adsorption of Hg (II) ions onto powdered swamp arum seeds was studied in a batch system ...

  9. Irrigatie uit een moeras : een hydrologische studie van de Nannizwamp in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevenhuijsen, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Tropical Swamp areas are sometimes suitable for agricultural expansion. In Suriname reclamation of relatively small parts of the coastal swamp has been carried out for centuries. Many of these polders are abandoned or have been made suitable for (wet) rice cultivation. For further development of

  10. Journal 02

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and ecological conditions in the production of rice, local production has not been able to meet the growing demand. ... inland valley swamps (rain-fed lowland), irrigated lowland and mangrove or tidal swamp ecology. (Imolehin and Wada, 2005). ..... Impact of technology innovation on rice yield gap in Asia and West Africa: ...

  11. POLA PENGELOLAAN RAWA LEBAK BERBASIS KETERPADUAN EKOLOGI EKONOMI- SOSIAL-BUDAYA UNTUK PEMANFAATAN BERKELANJUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Muthmainah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rawa lebak merupakan ekosistem yang dinamis, mengalami perubahan dua arah dari sistem akuatik ke sistem terestrial, dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor hidrologi, mutu air, vegetasi, fauna, kepemilikan dan pemanfaatan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di rawa lebak Kecamatan Pampangan Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ilir Provinsi Sumatera Selatan, bertujuan untuk merumuskan pola pengelolaan rawa berbasis keterpaduan (integrated system antara ekologi, ekonomi dan sosial budaya. Pengamatan karakteristik hidrologi, ekologi, pola pemanfaatan, sosial dan budaya menunjukkan bahwa tipologi rawa lebak di lokasi penelitian dapat dibagi tiga yaitu rawa banjiran, rawa tadah hujan dan rawa campuran. Dari hasil analisis keterkaitan faktor internal dan eksternal, penilaian untuk rawa tadah hujan adalah 104 sedangkan rawa banjiran dan rawa campuran masingmasing 68 dan 45. Pola pengelolaan yang dapat disarankan untuk rawa tadah hujan diarahkan pada mempertahankan kekhasan ekosistem dengan pemanfaatan bagi sektor perikanan dengan kegiatan tambahannya adalah pertanian dan peternakan. Pada rawa banjiran diarahkan pada kegiatan pertanian dengan kegiatan lainnya adalah perikanan dan pertanian tergantung pada musim dan ketersediaan air, dan pada rawa campuran diarahkan pada peningkatan efisiensi pemanfaatan air dengan menyediakan lebung dan penyerasian pola tanam dengan daur banjir. Lebak swamp is a dynamic ecosystem, seasonally changed from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystem vice versa. Swamp functions were influenced by charateristic of hydrobiology, water quality, vegetation, wild animal, property right and utilization. The research conducted in lebak swamp of Pampangan Subdistrict, Ogan Komering Ilir District, South Sumatra Province to know environmental characteristic as components to builtd management scheme of those swamp dealing with integrated system between ecology, economy and socio cultural. The characteristics of hydrobiology, ecology, utilization, sociocultural show that

  12. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN KAWASAN PETERNAKAN KERBAU RAWA DI KABUPATEN HULU SUNGAI SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpianor Alpianor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to: 1 analyze the management of swamp buffalo husbandry in Hulu Sungai Selatan, and 2 formulate the strategies for developing swamp-buffalo husbandry in Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Selatan Regency. The research was conducted in four villages, namely: Desa Bajayau Tengah in Kecamatan of Western Daha, Desa Pandak Daun, Desa Hakurung and Desa Hamayung in Kecamatan Daha Utara, Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Selatan, South Kalimantan province from April to July 2016. To investigate the management of swamp-buffalo husbandry in Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Selatan, a descriptive analysis is used by interviewing the farmers and the government concerning the capacity of farmers, the capacity of facilities, and the capacity of management. To find out the strategies needed in developing swamp-buffalo husbandry in Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Selatan, the combination of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT analysis with analytical hierarchy process (AHP was applied. The management of swamp buffalo husbandry in Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Selatan in relation to the existing management capacity has not been implemented properly. The management capacity could be developed through non-formal education, such as training and counseling to farmers through the group of farmers because they were supported by a the capacity of farmers. such as age, experience and business scale which were quite good as well as the improvement of education and the farmer responsibilities; and b the capacity of facilities such as the buffalo grass feed, marketing, pretty good institutions as well as the improved buffalo seeds and the swamp- buffalo stall/latch. The strategies for swamp-buffalo husbandry in Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Selatan recommended the strategy of strengths - opportunities (SO. The strategies that can be done are to increase the population of swamp buffaloes supported by technologies for breeding, feeding, management and marketing and agro-tourism development by empowering

  13. Present and potential contamination of the river system at Mayak PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, I.; Strand, P.; Malyshev, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of mobility of radionuclides in environmental samples at Mayak show that strontium-90 is the most mobile of the relevant radionuclides and hence can be transported by river water. Cesium-137, although less mobile, can also be transported over large distances. The main source of river contamination today is the remobilization of strontium-90 from the boggy area at the upper reaches of Techa River (Asanov Swamp). Regular Russian monitoring programmes show that levels of strontium-90 leaving the swamp are three times higher than levels entering the swamp. The net outflow from the Swamp is now estimated to 2-3% of the 37 TBq of strontium-90 located in the swamp, 1992 levels

  14. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  15. Registros notáveis de répteis de áreas abertas naturais do planalto e litoral do Estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p129 A composição e a distribuição dos répteis em Santa Catarina são pouco conhecidas, particularmente em suas áreas abertas naturais do planalto (estepe ombrófila e do litoral (faixa litorânea de restingas com dunas. Visando contribuir com o conhecimento dos répteis nestas áreas, são apresentados registros de dezesseis espécies anteriormente desconhecidas ou com poucos registros para Santa Catarina: Acanthochelys spixii, Anops kingii, Cnemidophorus lacertoides, C. vacariensis, Leptotyphlops munoai, Mastigodryas b. bifossatus, Tantilla aff. melanocephala, Atractus reticulatus, Gomesophis brasiliensis, Lygophis flavifrenatus, Oxyrhopus r. rhombifer, Phalotris reticulatus, Philodryas agassizii, Xenodon dorbignyi, Micrurus altirostris e Bothrops pubescens. São discutidos brevemente aspectos sobre a distribuição e a conservação destas espécies.

  16. The repair of ground cover of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline near Paraguay River crossing, in a swamp soft soil region, using geo synthetics reinforced backfilling; Reparo da cobertura do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil junto ao Rio Paraguai, em trecho com solo mole, utilizando aterro reforcado com geosinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cesar Augusto; Jorge, Kemal Vieira; Bechuate Filho, Pedro [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Gerencia Regional Centro Oeste (CRGO); Teixeira, Sidnei H.C. [Geohydrotech Engenharia S.C. Ltda., Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    TBG - Transportadora Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A, executes routine maintenance works at the Gas Pipeline Right of Way, seeking its integrity. In the wetlands of Pantanal, near the Paraguay river crossing, the organic-alluvial soil was submitted to the process of subsidence. This process, associated with the river water flow erosion, shrank the soil volume and diminished or extinguished the pipeline land cover. The pipeline was exposed to the environment, and submitted to tension stresses and the risk of low cycle fatigue during the floods. The cathodic protection system also had to be evaluated, specially in the drought. To mitigate the problem, the embankment technique was adopted using sandy soil, reinforced with polyester geo-webs and with woven polipropene geo-textiles. The solution also used geo-webs with soil-cement as protection elements against the degradation of the geo-textiles blankets. Some monitoring works are associated with those interventions: monitoring of cathodic protection; topographical verification of horizontal and vertical displacements of the pipeline; levels of land covering, and rainfalls and flood measurement. The base of the embankment was built with hydraulic transported soil, and at the end consistently supported the gas pipeline. (author)

  17. NACP Peatland Landcover Type and Wildfire Burn Severity Maps, Alberta, Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides landcover maps of (1) peatland type (bog, fen, marsh, swamp) with levels of biomass (open, forested) and (2) Burn Severity Index (BSI)...

  18. 9 CFR 311.10 - Anaplasmosis, anthrax, babesiosis, bacillary hemoglobinuria in cattle, blackleg, bluetongue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage poisoning), infectious anemia (swamp fever), dourine, acute influenza, generalized osteoporosis, glanders (farcy), acute..., purpura hemorrhagica, azoturia, infectious equine encephalomyelitis, toxic encephalomyelitis (forage...

  19. MONITORAMENTO DO USO E OCUPAÇÃO DO SOLO EM ÁREA DE INFLUÊNCIA DO MUNICÍPIO DE FAZENDA RIO GRANDE – REGIÃO METROPOLITANA DE CURITIBA-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Antonio Becegato

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use and occupation of soil in the municipality of FazendaRio Grande, in the Curitiba-PR Metropolitan Area, were evaluatedby photo interpretation and satellite image interpretation.Aerial photographs of 1952, 1962, 1980, 1996, orthophotochartof 1980 and TM-Landsat/5 satellite images of 2001, bands 3,4, and 5 were used. A vast drain network occupies the region,where soils such as Oxisols are in the plains and Ultisols are inthe more inclined areas. The following thematic classes wereidentified: forest, swamp forest, field, swamp mining, swamp,swamp agriculture, urban area, and reforestation. Along 49years, there was a large alteration of the urban occupation,which did not exist in 1952, practically did not exist in 1962, withsignificant occupation during the period from 1980 to 2001.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cichlidae) in a rainforest fish pond in south eastern Nigeria, Abstract .... Vol 15, No 1 (2000), The Length-Weight Relationships of Snake-Head (Channa channa) from the Freshwater Swamps of Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

  1. determination of vectorial potential of mansonia species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-10

    swamps, dams and the Tana River) provide ideal habitant for mosquito breeding. .... detect Wuehereria banerofti in pools of wild-caught. Anopheles punctulatus in a filariasis control area in. Papua New Guinea. Am. J. Trop.

  2. 30 CFR Appendix to Part 253 - List of U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Myers Beach; Fort Myers SW; Fort Walton Beach; Freeport; Gandy Bridge; Garcon Point; Gator Hook Swamp...; Empire; English Lookout; False Mouth Bayou; Fearman Lake; Floating Turf Bayou; Fourleague Bay; Franklin...

  3. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  4. Water and salt balances of two shallow groundwater cropping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , groundwater table depth, artificial drainage volumes, and electrical conductivity of irrigation water, groundwater and drainage water. Simulations of evaporation and transpiration were done with the SWAMP model. Based on soil water and ...

  5. 78 FR 62560 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Agave eggersiana and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... sufficient information with your submission (such as scientific journal articles or other publications) to... Eucalyptus robusta (swamp mahogany) (O. Monsegur, UPRM, unpubl. report, 2006, p. 1). The ausubo forest is...

  6. 78 FR 48901 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ...., Shrewsbury, 13000622 Foster, Jedediah, Homesite, Foster Hill Rd., West Brookfield, 13000623 MONTANA Cascade... Hill Cemetery, W. German St., Herkimer, 13000627 Onondaga County Trinity Episcopal Church, (Historic... Rural Historic District, Roughly bounded by Nottoway R., Assamoosick Swamp & Old Hickory Rd., Sebrell...

  7. Slope grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (1 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard the Survey Vessel Swamp Fox. Cell values reflect the maximum rate of change (in...

  8. Rugosity grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Apra Harbor, Guam U.S. Territory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (1 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard the Survey Vessel Swamp Fox using the Terrain Modeler with rugosity methods...

  9. 77 FR 43529 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Rancocas Creek. A swamp that drains into Budd's Run is located to the west of Pipeline Road. The area..., Hornerstown, and Navesink Formations form a confining layer that limits downward vertical groundwater flow...

  10. Environmental Assessment Building 5745, Historical Building Demolition, Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Thryothorus ludovicianus MAMMALS White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus Gray Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Fox Squirrel... Sciurus niger Cottontail Rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus Swamp Rabbit Sylvilagus aquaticus Beaver Castor canadensis Nutria

  11. The use of cone penetration testing to investigate sand fill subsidence at cross-drain locations: final report : Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    During construction of Interstate I-10 between Baton Rouge and LaPlace, Louisiana, highly organic swamp deposits were excavated and replaced with hydraulically pumped river sand. Recently, excessive settlement was encountered at numerous cross-drain ...

  12. Data base development for coastal ecosystems: A model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tapaswi, M.P.

    halophytic shrubs and trees (upto 30 m high) belonging to several unrelated families, genera, complete community or association of plants which fringe sheltered tropical shores. Such swamps are inhabitEd. by a variety of terrestrial animals including insects...

  13. A Project to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forests in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Sader, Steven; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    Cypress swamp forests of Louisiana offer many important ecological and economic benefits: wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, water quality, and recreation. Such forests are also threatened by multiple factors: subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, hurricanes, insect and nutria damage, timber harvesting, and land use conversion. Unfortunately, there are many information gaps regarding the type, location, extent, and condition of these forests. Better more up to date swamp forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration work (e.g., through the Coastal Forest Conservation Initiative or CFCI). In response, a collaborative project was initiated to develop, test and demonstrate cypress swamp forest mapping products, using NASA supported Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data. Research Objectives are: Develop, test, and demonstrate use of Landsat and ASTER data for computing new cypress forest classification products and Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data for detecting and monitoring swamp forest change

  14. The Effects of Intermittent Flooding on Seedlings of Three Forest Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Anderson; S.R. Pezeshki

    1999-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, seedlings of three forest species, baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii), and swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii) were subjected to an intermittent flooding and subsequent physiological and growth responses to such conditions were evaluated....

  15. Trunk Strength Characteristics of Elite Alpine Skiers - a Comparison with Physically Active Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Carolin; Müller, Lisa; Heisse, Christian; Raschner, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Core muscle imbalances and weak trunk strength are relevant for injury prevention and performance. Information regarding core strength requirements and ideal flexion/extension ratios in alpine skiing is limited. We aimed to compare trunk strength capacities in elite alpine skiers with those of a matched control group. The concentric maximal trunk flexion and extension of 109 elite skiers and 47 active controls were measured at 150°/s in a ballistic mode using the CON-TREX® TP 1000 test system. The relative flexion peak torque was higher in male ski racers ( p = 0.003; 2.44 ± 0.30 Nm/kg) than in the controls (2.32 ± 0.42 Nm/kg). The relative peak torque for extension was 4.53 ± 0.65 Nm/kg in ski racers and 4.11 ± 0.52 Nm/kg in the controls ( p = 0.001). Female athletes were significantly stronger in both, relative flexion force ( p = 0.006; skiers 2.05 ± 0.22 Nm/kg; controls 1.74 ± 0.28 Nm/kg) and relative extension force ( p = 0.001; skiers 3.55 ± 0.53 Nm/kg; controls 3.14 ± 0.48 Nm/kg). No significant differences were found in the ratios of flexion to extension forces in females and males. Ski racers are engaged in extensive strength training for both leg and trunk muscles, which explains the higher peak values. Both groups indicated a low ratio from 0.54-0.59, which represents high trunk extensor muscles strength relative to flexor muscles.

  16. Trunk Strength Characteristics of Elite Alpine Skiers - A Comparison with Physically Active Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrandt Carolin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Core muscle imbalances and weak trunk strength are relevant for injury prevention and performance. Information regarding core strength requirements and ideal flexion/extension ratios in alpine skiing is limited. We aimed to compare trunk strength capacities in elite alpine skiers with those of a matched control group. The concentric maximal trunk flexion and extension of 109 elite skiers and 47 active controls were measured at 150°/s in a ballistic mode using the CON-TREX® TP 1000 test system. The relative flexion peak torque was higher in male ski racers (p = 0.003; 2.44 ± 0.30 Nm/kg than in the controls (2.32 ± 0.42 Nm/kg. The relative peak torque for extension was 4.53 ± 0.65 Nm/kg in ski racers and 4.11 ± 0.52 Nm/kg in the controls (p = 0.001. Female athletes were significantly stronger in both, relative flexion force (p = 0.006; skiers 2.05 ± 0.22 Nm/kg; controls 1.74 ± 0.28 Nm/kg and relative extension force (p = 0.001; skiers 3.55 ± 0.53 Nm/kg; controls 3.14 ± 0.48 Nm/kg. No significant differences were found in the ratios of flexion to extension forces in females and males. Ski racers are engaged in extensive strength training for both leg and trunk muscles, which explains the higher peak values. Both groups indicated a low ratio from 0.54-0.59, which represents high trunk extensor muscles strength relative to flexor muscles.

  17. General Plan Environmental Assessment, Hurlburt Field, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Hurlburt Field. 4.1 GROUNDWATER Hurlburt Field is underlain by a surficial Sand- and-Gravel aquifer, which includes the Citronelle Formation and...East Bay Swamp. The most common wetland types within the installation include cypress-gum swamps/ cypress domes , shrub wetlands, and herbaceous...communities within the installation include sandhill, cypress domes , sand pine scrub, maritime hammock, and some disturbed plant associations. As off

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for Long-Term Vegetation Control for Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-14

    consists of the Citronelle formation and marine terrace deposits. Although the aquifer is composed of clean, fine-to-coarse sand and gravel, locally it...Contains or Adjacent to Known Breeding Ponds .. Contains or Adjacent to Dome Swamp/Depression Marsh Flatwoods Salamander Potential Habitat...marshes, floodplain marshes, wet flatwoods, and dome swamps. 8 9 In open water and seagrass bed habitats, fish species are abundant and include

  19. Paleobotany and palynology of the Bristol Hill Coal Member (Bond Formation) and Friendsville Coal Member (Mattoon Formation) of the Illinois Basin (Upper Pennsylvanian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.A.; Phillips, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Late Pennsylvanian coal swamps of the Illinois Basin were dominated by Psarnius tree ferns with a spatially heterogeneous distribution of medullosan pteridosperms (subdominant), calamites, sigillarian lycopsids, and cordaites. Miospore and coal-ball plant assemblages from the Missourian-age Bristol Hill Coal Member (Mattoon Formation) of southeastern Illinois were quantified to analyze vegetational patterns in Late Pennsylvanian peat swamps and to compare vegetational composition of the coals. -from Authors

  20. A simple mechanical system for studying adaptive oscillatory neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Guillaume; Jouffroy, Jerome

    that the network oscillates in a suitable way, this tuning being a non trivial task. It also appears that the link with the physical body that these oscillatory entities control has a fundamental importance, and it seems that most bodies used for experimental validation in the literature (walking robots, lamprey...... model, etc.) might be too complex to study. In this paper, we use a comparatively simple mechanical system, the nonholonomic vehicle referred to as the Roller-Racer, as a means towards testing different learning strategies for an Recurrent Neural Network-based (RNN) controller/guidance system. After...

  1. A Proposition Of Knowledge Management Methodology For The Purpose Of Reasoning With The Use Of An Upper-Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szymański

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a proposition of knowledge organization for the purpose of reasoningusing an upper-ontology. It presents a model of integrated ontologies architecture whichconsists of a domain ontologies layer with instances, a shared upper-ontology layer withadditional rules and a layer of ontologies mapping concrete domain ontologies with the upperontology.Thanks to the upper-ontology, new facts were concluded from domain ontologiesduring the reasoning process. A practical realization proposition is given as well. It is basedon some popular SemanticWeb technologies and tools, such as OWL, SWRL, nRQL, Prot´eg´eand Racer.

  2. IBM’s PIQUANT in TREC2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    La Bomba ,’’ ( the bomb ) for his explosive skiing style DSA P11 work: La Bomba LQA P12 most successful and popular Italian skier ever DSA P11...personal coach SQA star SQA the most famous ski racer of all time DSA P11 vaulting him from seventh to fourth with 1:41.48 DSA P11 born...Alberto Tomba , Italy LQA P2 lawyer SQA job: champion LQA P6 work: Slalom for Peace LQA P12 born: Italy LQA P2 work: the Bomba LQA P12 some World Cup

  3. Presidential leadership in the development of the US space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Mccurdy, Howard E. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Papers presented at a historical symposium on Presidential leadership in the space program include the following: 'The Imperial Presidency in the History of Space Exploration'; 'The Reluctant Racer: Dwight D. Eisenhower and United States Space Policy'; 'Kennedy and the Decision to Go to the Moon'; 'Johnson, Project Apollo, and the Politics of Space Program Planning'; 'The Presidency, Congress, and the Deceleration of the U.S. Space Program in the 1970s'; 'Politics not Science: The U.S. Space Program in the Reagan and Bush Years'; 'Presidential Leadership and International Aspects of the Space Program'; 'National Leadership and Presidential Power'; and 'Epilogue: Beyond NASA Exceptionalism'.

  4. Monte Carlo cross section testing for thermal and intermediate 235U/238U critical assemblies, ENDF/B-V vs ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinman, J.P.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the eigenvalue sensitivity to changes in ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI cross section data sets by comparing RACER vectorized Monte Carlo calculations for several thermal and intermediate spectrum critical experiments. Nineteen Oak Ridge and Rocky Flats thermal solution benchmark critical assemblies that span a range of hydrogen-to- 235 U (H/U) concentrations (2052 to 27.1) and above-thermal neutron leakage fractions (0.555 to 0.011) were analyzed. In addition, three intermediate spectrum critical assemblies (UH3-UR, UH3-NI, and HISS-HUG) were studied

  5. Racisme - et psykologisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Busch-Jensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Racisme forstås traditionelt som diskrimination og eksklusion af grupper eller individer ud fra forestillinger om, at mennesker tilhører forskellige racer, der kan rangordnes. I denne betydning indebærer racisme altså en ide om, at mennesket findes i forskellige racemæssige udgaver, karakteriseret...... ved forskellige egenskaber lige fra hudfarve og ansigtsform til evner, talenter, intelligens og moral. Arvelighedseksperter har dog aldrig kunne påvise sådanne forskelle som nogen objektiv biologisk forekomst. Den har kort sagt vist sig temmelig uvidenskabelig. Idag forstås begrebet racisme typisk...

  6. Experience in reasoning with the foundational model of anatomy in OWL DL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songmao; Bodenreider, Olivier; Golbreich, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare description logics (DLs) and frames for representing large-scale biomedical ontologies and reasoning with them. The ontology under investigation is the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). We converted it from its frame-based representation in Protégé into OWL DL. The OWL reasoner Racer helped identify unsatisfiable classes in the FMA. Support for consistency checking is clearly an advantage of using DLs rather than frames. The interest of reclassification was limited, due to the difficulty of defining necessary and sufficient conditions for anatomical entities. The sheer size and complexity of the FMA was also an issue.

  7. Estimation of rumen microbial protein production from urinary purine derivatives in zebu cattle and water buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.B.; Pimpa, O.; Abdullah, N.; Jelan, Z.A.; Nolan, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to develop equations for predicting rumen microbial protein production for indigenous Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle and swamp buffaloes in Malaysia, using urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion rates. Endogenous PD excretion rates determined by a fasting procedure for KK cattle and swamp buffalo were 275 and 370 μmol/kg W 0.75 /day, respectively. Urinary PD excretion rate per kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) for KK cattle was higher than that for swamp buffalo, reconfirming the earlier findings. Glomerular filtration rate, allantoin and uric acid tubular load and PD re-absorption rate for swamp buffalo were generally higher than those for KK cattle. However, due to the large variations among animals within species, these parameters were not significantly different between species. Nevertheless, the higher PD reabsorption in swamp buffalo provides support for the earlier postulation that the lower urinary PD excretion rate of swamp buffalo was due to their higher recycling of plasma PD as compared to KK cattle. Labelled 8- 14 C uric acid was used to estimate the ratio of renal to non-renal PD excretion. The recovery rates of the radioactive tracer via the renal route for both species were much lower than values reported previously for unlabelled PD for European cattle. (author)

  8. Processes influencing cooling of reactor effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoulas, V.E.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge of heated reactor cooling water from SRP reactors to the Savannah River is through sections of stream channels into the Savannah River Swamp and from the swamp into the river. Significant cooling of the reactor effluents takes place in both the streams and swamp. The majority of the cooling is through processes taking place at the surface of the water. The major means of heat dissipation are convective transfer of heat to the air, latent heat transfer through evaporation and radiative transfer of infrared radiation. A model was developed which incorporates the effects of these processes on stream and swamp cooling of reactor effluents. The model was used to simulate the effect of modifications in the stream environment on the temperature of water flowing into the river. Environmental effects simulated were the effect of changing radiant heat load, the effect of changes in tree canopy density in the swamp, the effect of total removal of trees from the swamp, and the effect of diverting the heated water from L reactor from Steel Creek to Pen Branch. 6 references, 7 figures

  9. Impact of ecological and social factors on ranging in western gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran-Sheehy, Diane M; Greer, David; Mongo, Patrice; Schwindt, Dylan

    2004-10-01

    We examined the influence of ecological (diet, swamp use, and rainfall) and social (intergroup interaction rate) factors on ranging behavior in one group of western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) during a 16-month study. Relative to mountain gorillas, western gorillas live in habitats with reduced herb densities, more readily available fruit (from seasonal and rare fruit trees), and, at some sites, localized large open clearings (swamps and "bais"). Ranging behavior reflects these ecological differences. The daily path length (DPL) of western gorillas was longer (mean=2,014 m) than that of mountain gorillas, and was largely related to fruit acquisition. Swamp use occurred frequently (27% of days) and incurred a 50% increase in DPL, and 77% of the variation in monthly frequency of swamp use was explained by ripe fruit availability within the swamp, and not by the absence of resources outside the swamp. The annual home-range size was 15.4 km2. The western gorilla group foraged in larger areas each month, and reused them more frequently and consistently through time compared to mountain gorillas. In contrast to mountain gorillas, intergroup encounters occurred at least four times more frequently, were usually calm rather than aggressive, and had no consistent effect on DPL or monthly range size for one group of western gorillas. High genetic relatedness among at least some neighboring males [Bradley et al., Current Biology, in press] may help to explain these results, and raises intriguing questions about western gorilla social relationships.

  10. SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN COASTAL FRESHWATER WETLANDS OF VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Marín-Muñiz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands play an important role in the global carbon (C cycle because they act as sinks of this element. Vegetation in the wetlands is a factor that influences C storage in these ecosystems. We investigated C storage in freshwater wetland soils with different types of vegetation (swamps and marshes in the coastal plain of Veracruz, Mexico. The study sites were: Estero Dulce (ED, Tecolutla and Laguna Chica (LCH, Vega de Alatorre. Bulk densities observed ranged from 0.1 to 1.15 g cm3. Average C stored in LCH was higher in swamp (13.30±0.11 % than in marsh soils (4.52±0.02 %. However, in ED the C content was similar in swamp (5.88±0.03 % and marsh soils (5.28±0.02 %. In LCH marshes, there was approximately 50 % less total C in the soil compared to the C content in the swamps. In ED, the C stored in the marshes was only 7.15 % lower than the C stored in the swamps. When the total C storage of freshwater swamps (35.04±4.0 kg cm-2 and marshes (24.8±4.0 kg cm-2 was compared, there was no effect caused by the type of vegetation (P = 0.213.

  11. Experimental study and analysis of lubricants dispersed with nano Cu and TiO2 in a four-stroke two wheeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Vedula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present investigation summarizes detailed experimental studies with standard lubricants of commercial quality known as Racer-4 of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (India dispersed with different mass concentrations of nanoparticles of Cu and TiO2. The test bench is fabricated with a four-stroke Hero-Honda motorbike hydraulically loaded at the rear wheel with proper instrumentation to record the fuel consumption, the load on the rear wheel, and the linear velocity. The whole range of data obtained on a stationery bike is subjected to regression analysis to arrive at various relationships between fuel consumption as a function of brake power, linear velocity, and percentage mass concentration of nanoparticles in the lubricant. The empirical relation correlates with the observed data with reasonable accuracy. Further, extension of the analysis by developing a mathematical model has revealed a definite improvement in brake thermal efficiency which ultimately affects the fuel economy by diminishing frictional power in the system with the introduction of nanoparticles into the lubricant. The performance of the engine seems to be better with nano Cu-Racer-4 combination than the one with nano TiO2.

  12. Intermediate and long-term anaerobic performance of elite Alpine skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, D W; von Duvillard, S P

    1995-03-01

    Physiological requirements of Alpine skiing, demanding power from both aerobic and anaerobic sources, were first reported in 1965 by Bengt Saltin and coworkers. An update on the physiology of Alpine skiing was presented by Karlsson and colleagues in 1978, and their work remains a benchmark for most current research dealing with Alpine skiers. These works have identified muscular strength and complex motor skill abilities as essential to the competitive ski racer. The energy demands of Alpine ski racing dominate the range between 45 and 2 min. Since the late 1970s, many researchers have reported a variety of tests that associate test scores to skiing performance. Traditionally, short tests of anaerobic power such as the 30-s Wingate test have been used to reflect anaerobic capacity. Only recently have researchers and coaches begun to question whether a test that is shorter in duration than most skiing performances can estimate anaerobic power as it relates to Alpine ski racing. This study reviews current literature relative to physiological requirements for Alpine skiing as well as relating 18 nationally ranked male (N = 10) and female (N = 8) Alpine ski racers' USSA national points lists for slalom and giant slalom to power measures from 30-s and 90-s Wingate cycle ergometer tests. Further directions of physiological research in Alpine skiing are also offered.

  13. Experimental study and analysis of lubricants dispersed with nano Cu and TiO2 in a four-stroke two wheeler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Pullela K.; Srinivas, Vadapalli; Rao, Vedula Dharma; Kumar, Ayyagari Kiran

    2011-12-01

    The present investigation summarizes detailed experimental studies with standard lubricants of commercial quality known as Racer-4 of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (India) dispersed with different mass concentrations of nanoparticles of Cu and TiO2. The test bench is fabricated with a four-stroke Hero-Honda motorbike hydraulically loaded at the rear wheel with proper instrumentation to record the fuel consumption, the load on the rear wheel, and the linear velocity. The whole range of data obtained on a stationery bike is subjected to regression analysis to arrive at various relationships between fuel consumption as a function of brake power, linear velocity, and percentage mass concentration of nanoparticles in the lubricant. The empirical relation correlates with the observed data with reasonable accuracy. Further, extension of the analysis by developing a mathematical model has revealed a definite improvement in brake thermal efficiency which ultimately affects the fuel economy by diminishing frictional power in the system with the introduction of nanoparticles into the lubricant. The performance of the engine seems to be better with nano Cu-Racer-4 combination than the one with nano TiO2.

  14. Cardiorespiratory, metabolic and hormonal responses during open-wheel indoor kart racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, B; Osman-Reinkens, S; Zinner, C; Krueger, M; Holmberg, H C

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the cardiorespiratory, metabolic and hormonal responses of elite open-wheel indoor kart racers. Ten male racers (age: 21±3 yrs; height: 1.92±0.06 m, body mass: 76.0±5.9 kg) participated in a racing tournament. Their peak oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by a ramp test (100 W, increase 30 W·min-1) in the laboratory. During the racing itself, the cardio-respiratory and accelerometer values were recorded and pre- and post-race levels of blood lactate and salivary cortisol were determined. The average peak values for all of the drivers with respect to oxygen uptake and heart rate were 4.5±0.8 L·min-1 (56.7±7.9 mL·min-1·kg-1) and 193±5 beats·min-1, respectively. Overall, 28.3±3.3 laps were completed during 30-min of racing. Acceleration forces for the entire test averaged 1.20±0.51 G (maximum: 3.30 G), declining from the first 10 min until the end of racing (Prace than before but remained at race (Prace, the drivers rated their perceived exertion on Borg's scale as 11.1±1.3. The present data revealed that the psycho-physical exertion associated with a 30-min open-wheel indoor kart race is moderate.

  15. Computational geometry for reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.B.; Bischoff, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Monte Carlo codes for simulating particle transport involve three basic computational sections: a geometry package for locating particles and computing distances to regional boundaries, a physics package for analyzing interactions between particles and problem materials, and an editing package for determining event statistics and overall results. This paper describes the computational geometry methods in RACER, a vectorized Monte Carlo code used for reactor physics analysis, so that comparisons may be made with techniques used in other codes. The principal applications for RACER are eigenvalue calculations and power distributions associated with reactor core physics analysis. Successive batches of neutrons are run until convergence and acceptable confidence intervals are obtained, with typical problems involving >10 6 histories. As such, the development of computational geometry methods has emphasized two basic needs: a flexible but compact geometric representation that permits accurate modeling of reactor core details and efficient geometric computation to permit very large numbers of histories to be run. The current geometric capabilities meet these needs effectively, supporting a variety of very large and demanding applications

  16. Parasites of non-native gobies in the Włocławek Reservoir on the lower Vistula River, first comprehensive study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mierzejewska K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological study of Ponto-Caspian gobies, including the monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, racer goby Babka gymnotrachelus and tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris, carried out over four years in the lower Vistula River is described. These fish species represent one of the most impressive invasions of European inland waters, connected with the spontaneous, east-to-west intracontinental movement observed in the last two decades. The parasite community consisted of 24 taxa. Typical for racer goby were: Trichodina domerguei, Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Gyrodactylus proterorhini and glochidia of unionids. The list of parasites typical for monkey goby is supplemented with: Tylodelphys clavata (met. and Eimeria sp., while the glochidia were rarely detected in this fish host. Holostephanus spp., Apatemon gracilis, Diplostomum gobiorum and glochidia predominated in parasite fauna of tubenose goby. Unlike the other species tested, P. semilunaris was poorly infected with T. domerguei and G. proterorhini. Parasites commonly distributed through native fishes in the observed area prevailed in gobies. Species rare in natives were also numerously represented. In this way, alien fish reinforce populations of those parasites in invaded waters. Parasites dragged to the colonized area (G. proterorhini, Holostephanus spp., A. gracilis and D. gobiorum complement the community. Larval stages were typical for parasite fauna of all studied gobies.

  17. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hassan, S.W.; Abid, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  18. Kajian Optimalisasi Sistem Irigasi Rawa (Studi Kasus Daerah Rawa Semangga Kabupaten Merauke Propinsi Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Pakpahan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Population growth is increasing, but it is not accompanied by an increase in food needs impartial. Indonesian swamp land potential of about 33.4 million ha, consisting of tidal swamp 20.1 million ha and 13.3 million ha of lowland swamp. The Government has made the development of swamps into agricultural land, including the Semangga swamp area (4,000 ha The cropping pattern of rice (100% - crops (40% – “bero”. The problem faced are; the length is 7-month of dry season and low agricultural production, are therefore likely to swamp irrigation system optimalization. The method used to carry out water balance analysis and performance assessment of irrigation system include; the physical condition of irrigation, the application of the system of planting and water delivery techniques to the use of land for a year, then performed according to the potential land development plan and water resources available. Results of water balance analysis on Semangga Swamp Area existing condition indicate that water deficit occurred during the second growing season crops (May-July and in December. So do the appropriate development plan defined cropping pattern III, namely rice (100% - crops (60% - crops (45% with the addition of a total area of 1,000 ha through the use Kumbe River and Maro River and other water reservoirs to overcome deficits in the availability of water in the dry season that is equal to 2.5m³/s (April to August and October to December, while 6.5m³/s in September, 72.40% irrigation system performance with good category.

  19. Characterizing peat palm forest degradation in the Peruvian Amazon from space and on the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor Hugo; van Lent, Jeffrey; Verchot, Louis Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Peru has the second largest area of peatlands in the Tropics however little is known on how the biogeochemical cycle of its peat forests can be affected through anthropogenic intervention. The most representative land cover on peat is a Mauritia flexuosa-dominated palm swamp forest which has been under human pressure over decades due the high demand for the M. flexuosa fruit often collected by cutting down the entire palm. Degradation of these carbon-dense forests can severely affect emissions of greenhouse gases and contribute to climate change. The objectives of this research were to assess the impacts on soil trace gas fluxes and biomass carbon stocks of peat palm swamp forest degradation and to explore the potential of remote sensing methods combined with field measurements to map the distribution of peat palm swamp forest according degradation levels. Results suggest a shift in forest composition from palm- to woody-tree dominated forest following degradation. We also found that human intervention in peat palm swamp forest can translate into substantial reductions in tree carbon stocks with a decrease in initial biomass (above and below-ground) stocks (118.3 ± 1.1 Mg C ha-1) by 26 and 44% following medium and high degradation. Preliminary results suggest high and low soil CH4 and CO2 emission rates on average, as compared to Southeast Asian peat swamp forests whereas N2O emissions are of the same magnitude. Degradation seems to disrupt soil respiration mainly through micro-climatic changes induced by reduced canopy cover. The analysis indicates a good potential to discriminate areas of peat palm swamp forest with different levels of degradation from other land covers, suggesting the feasibility of monitoring peat palm swamp forest degradation using remote sensing analyses.

  20. Environmental change and fire in the Owen Stanley Ranges, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Geoffrey

    2009-11-01

    Kosipe, an upland valley at 2000 m altitude in the Owen Stanley Ranges of southeastern New Guinea, is known for the discovery of large stone waisted blades dated to 31 400 cal a BP. The purpose of these tools and the nature of occupation are unknown. The altitude is too high for most food crops today and may have stood close to the treeline during the last glaciation. Three pollen and charcoal diagrams from a large swamp in the Kosipe Valley provide a record of swamp and dryland changes for more than 50 000 years. There have been considerable fluctuations in vegetation on the slopes and on the swamp which reflect both environmental change and anthropogenic influences. A gymnosperm-rich forest at the base is replaced by mountain forest dominated by Nothofagus about 42 000 years ago. Fire first becomes apparent across the swamp around 40 000 years ago but is not common during the time when subalpine herbs reach their best representation. Tree fern-rich grasslands form a mosaic with montane forest in a near-treeline environment. The Pleistocene-Holocene boundary is marked by a decline in Nothofagus and increase in lower montane mixed forest taxa. Charcoal increases before this time and the swamp vegetation becomes more grass-rich. Charcoal is at its maximum through the last 3000 years possibly reflecting climate variability as well as sedentary occupation and agriculture on the swamp margin. Supplementary pollen diagrams from two higher altitude sites support the evidence from the Kosipe Swamp cores. Charcoal, local catchment erosion and increases in disturbance taxa become more widespread in the last 5000 years at these sites, suggesting that local settlement at Kosipe may have lagged behind general landscape use by populations from lower altitudes.

  1. Effect of clonal reproduction on genetic structure in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith D. Gaddis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of monodominant forests on well-drained soils in tropical regions has been widely reported. Such forests most likely result from a combination of both ecological and evolutionary factors. Under conditions of high seed and seedling mortality, vegetative reproduction could create a reproductive advantage leading to forest dominance, and profoundly affect the distribution of genetic variation in a clonal species. We investigated these effects in a low diversity forest site in Northeastern Costa Rica dominated by the species Pentaclethra macroloba, which sprouts from the root mass of fallen trees and from snapped trunks. We examined the population structure of juvenile P. macroloba growing in different soil types and across an elevational gradient. Using seven molecular markers, we genotyped 173 juvenile P. macroloba from 18 plots (six plots in seasonally inundated swamps, and 12 plots in upland non-swamp spanning 50-300m in elevation at La Selva Biological Station and the adjacent Reserva Ecológica Bijagual in Northeastern Costa Rica. We answered two specific questions: (1 How extensive is clonal reproduction? and (2 what is the distribution of genetic diversity and structure?. We found that clonal reproduction occurred exclusively within inundated swamp areas. However, there was no significant difference between genetic diversity measures in swamp and non-swamp plots, which were both generally low when compared with other tropical forest species. Genetic structure was significant across all plots (F ST=0.109. However, genetic structure among swamp plots (F ST=0.128 was higher than among non-swamp upland plots (F ST=0.093. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation among individuals within non-swamp upland plots was significant from the 25 to 100m spatial scale, but not within swamp plots. The degree of overall genetic structure we found in P. macroloba is high for a tropical forest tree. The incidence of clonal reproduction is a

  2. Do site-specific radiocarbon measurements reflect localized distributions of 14C in biota inhabiting a wetland with point contamination sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, T; King-Sharp, K J; Benz, M L; Carr, J; Killey, R W D; Beresford, N A; Wood, M D

    2013-12-01

    Duke Swamp is a wetland ecosystem that receives (14)C via a groundwater pathway originating from a waste management area on Atomic Energy Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories site. This groundwater reaches the surface of the swamp, resulting in relatively high (14)C levels over an area of 146 m(2). The objective of this study was to quantify (14)C concentrations in flora and fauna inhabiting areas of Duke Swamp over the gradient of (14)C activity concentrations in moss to determine whether (14)C specific activities in receptor biota reflect the localized nature of the groundwater source in the swamp. Representative receptor plants and animals, and corresponding air and soil samples were collected at six sites in Duke Swamp with (14)C specific activities in air that ranged from 1140 to 45,900 Bq/kg C. In general, it was found that specific activities of (14)C in biota tissues reflected those measured in environmental media collected from the same sampling site. The findings demonstrate that mosses could be used in monitoring programs to ensure protection of biota in areas with elevated (14)C, negating the need to capture and euthanize higher organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Forested wetland mitigation resulting from discharges of cooling water into streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020-ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Historically, the swamp consisted of ∼50% bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40% mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10% shrub, marsh, and open water. The hydrology was controlled by flooding the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950s. Water, often in excess of 40 to 50 degrees C was discharged into one of the small streams from 1954 to 1988, at various levels, ranging from 20 to 40 times the prior flow rate of the stream. This had a major impact on the adjacent swamp land, with erosion, silting, and vegetation destruction. The Final Environmental Impact Statement, Continued Operation of K, L, and P Reactors, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, and the subsequent record of decision directed that these areas be restored to functional forested wetland status to the extent possible. This paper describes work begun to reach that objective

  4. Distribution and accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Hong Kong mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haowen; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiaowei; Luan, Tiangang; Tam, Nora F Y

    2014-01-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively as brominated flame retardants in various polymers, and have become serious environmental contaminants, particularly in coastal sediments. Mangrove wetlands are important coastal ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, and mangrove sediments are often the pollutant sinks due to their close proximity with human activities. In Hong Kong, sediment samples collected from five mangrove swamps were found to be contaminated with PBDEs and the eight measured BDE congeners, including BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183 and -209 were detected in all mangrove sediments, indicating that these pollutants were widespread in Hong Kong mangrove wetlands. Among the five swamps, relatively high concentrations of PBDEs were recorded in Mai Po mangrove swamp in the northwestern Hong Kong, which is part of the RAMSAR site but is severely influenced by the pollution from the Pearl River Delta. The depth profile of PBDEs in sediment cores collected from Mai Po also showed the inputs of PBDEs in this mangrove swamp increased year by year. In all sediments, the concentrations of BDE-209 were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the other congeners in the same sediment. The concentrations of BDE-209 and ∑PBDEs (defined as the sum of seven targeted BDE congeners except BDE-209) ranged from 1.53 to 75.9 ng g(-1) and from 0.57 to 14.4 ng g(-1), respectively. Among the targeted BDE congeners except BDE-209, slightly different composition was recorded among samples collected from different locations, with BDE-153 and -183 being the pre-dominated congeners. In all mangrove swamps, except Tai O in the southwest of Hong Kong, ∑PBDEs concentrations showed a common trend of landward>seaward>mudflat. The concentrations of ∑PBDEs were significantly correlated with total organic matter (TOM) content in sediments but not with the sediment particle sizes in each mangrove swamp. © 2013.

  5. The effects of a carbohydrate-protein gel supplement on alpine slalom ski performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, John G; Kipp, Ronald W; Bacharach, David W

    2012-01-01

    Alpine slalom ski racing is a high intensity, complex sport in which racers execute turns every second. Acute fatigue can make the difference in not finishing a run (DNF) or finishing out of contention. The quantity and quality of training often dictates racing success. It is not known if nutritional supplementation can improve performance in this high intensity, short duration activity. The objective of this study was to determine if ingesting a carbohydrate-protein energy gel (GEL) improves finishing success and number of gates completed during 2 hr slalom sessions on two consecutive days of training. Twenty-four racers were matched; one group ingested the GEL, the second group received a liquid placebo (PLA). Total carbohy-drate, protein, and water ingested by the GEL group were 60g, 15g, and 450 mL, while the PLA group ingested 450 mL of PLA. The GEL group had significantly fewer DNF's (7/48 vs. 18/48; p = 0.02) on both days, completed a greater number of training gates on Day 2 (260.3 ± 20.1 vs. 246.3 ± 17.5 gates; p = 0.03), and had a lower RPE (3.9 ± 1.2 vs. 5.3 ± 1.2 on Day 2 (p = 0.004) vs. PLA. The statistical analysis of combined finishing times was not possible due to the high number of DNF's in the PLA group. High intensity slalom performance can be im-proved by the ingestion of an energy gel. The GEL allowed the athletes to improve training quantity and quality and their per-ception of effort was less than skiers who ingested a placebo. Key pointsNutritional supplementation with a carbohydrate/protein sports gel during high intensity ski training improved training volume as measured by the number gates completed.Supplementation also reduced the number of DNF's during training.Racers' perception of effort was significantly lower with the supplement ingestion compared to a non-caloric placebo.This applied study was conducted under real life field conditions and training environments.

  6. The hydraulic geometry of narrow and deep channels; evidence for flow optimisation and controlled peatland growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanson, Rachel A.; Nanson, Gerald C.; Huang, He Qing

    2010-04-01

    At-a-station and bankfull hydraulic geometry analyses of peatland channels at Barrington Tops, New South Wales, Australia, reveal adjustments in self-forming channels in the absence of sediment load. Using Rhodes ternary diagram, comparisons are made with hydraulic geometry data from self-forming channels carrying bedload in alluvial settings elsewhere. Despite constraints on channel depths caused at some locations by the restricted thickness of peat, most stations have cohesive, near-vertical, well-vegetated banks, and width/depth (w/d) ratios of ∼ 2 that are optimal for sediment-free flow. Because banks are strong, resist erosion and can stand nearly vertical, and depth is sometimes constrained, adjustments to discharge are accommodated largely by changes in velocity. These findings are consistent with the model of maximum flow efficiency and the overarching least action principle in open channels. The bankfull depth of freely adjusting laterally active channels in clastic alluvium is well known to be related to the thickness of floodplain alluvium and a similar condition appears to apply to these swamps that grow in situ and are formed almost entirely of organic matter. The thickness of peat in these swamps rarely exceeds that required to form a bankfull channel of optimum w/d ratio for the transport of sediment-free water. Swamp vegetation is highly dependent on proximity to the water table. To maintain a swamp-channel and associated floodplain system, the channels must flow with sufficient water much of the time; they not only offer an efficient morphology for flow but do so in a way that enables bankfull conditions to occur many times a year. They also prevent the swamp from growing above a level linked to the depth of the channel. Once the channel attains the most efficient cross section, further growth of the swamp vertically is restricted by enhanced flow velocities and limited flow depths. This means that the volume of peat in such swamps is determined

  7. Appraisal of Selected Corps Preauthorization Reports for Environmental Quality Planning and Evaluation. Part I. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    changes Gammarus f. with temperature. (fresh macrozoo) flow, salinity , Nemysis amer. water qual. {macrozoop) Chironomus (benthic arth.) Sturgeon...importance gv(n Tidal Influences Salinity nt €blOtr ity on James River of waters (discussr 1, report (I) Diismal Swamp Soils Dismal Swamp is a Vegetative...Council constru(Iion) Ohio S.H.P.O.) 5PtY> ratre Ecological Hydrology --- I HARi 2 0 Inflow c.f.s (Flushing Tides ft I Salinity --- Present life forms

  8. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL HOLDER RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN EBONYI STATE SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwaobiala C.U.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of Upland and Swamp rice production in Ebonyi State, South east Nigeria was studied and analyzed in 2011 farming season. Purposive and multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural blocks, circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 240 rice farmers (120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Upland rice contact farmers and 120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Swamp contact rice farmers. Data for the analysis were collected from a structured questionnaire. The result indicates that mean ages of upland rice farmers was 37.3 years while swamp rice farmers had 39.2 years. The mean farming experience for both farmers were 8.5 years (upland rice farmers and 8.8 years (swamp rice farmers with farm sizes of 1.2 and 1.1 hectares for upland rice farmers and swamp rice farmers respectively. Upland rice farmers had an annual farm income of 189,410.00 NGN (1,222USD as against 201,166.00 NGN (1,297.85USD for Swamp rice farmers. The multiple regression (Cobb Douglas estimates of the determinants of output of upland rice showed that coefficients age, farming experience, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed at given levels of probability while capital inputs was negative. The Cobb Douglas regression estimates of the determinants of output of Swamp rice showed that the coefficients of education, labour cost, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed and significant at given levels of probability as well as capital inputs which was negative. The result indicates that net profit from Upland rice cultivation was 92,800.00 NGN (598.71USD with a Benefit Cost Ratio of N1.55 (1.56USD. The net profit from Swamp rice cultivation was 132,090.00 NGN (852.19USD and a Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.75 NGN (1.75USD. Access to credit to rice farmers, subsidy on farm inputs, dissemination of improved rice technologies by extension agents and formation of farmer groups were advocated

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury...... and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases...... were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers) were found to be at high risk for knee injuries...

  10. Involvement of eccentric muscle actions in giant slalom racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, H E; Eiken, O; Tesch, P A

    1995-12-01

    Joint angular movements and muscle activation (EMG), were determined in male elite racers while performing the giant slalom. Movement cycles averaged 3.5 +/- 0.6 s (left plus right turn), and knee angle ranged 66-114 degrees (180 degrees = straight leg). Knee extensor muscle use was dominated (rectified EMG; P ski during the turn. Time spent while decreasing knee angle (eccentric muscle action) of outside leg averaged 1.0 +/- 0.2 s. This phase was longer (P slalom skiing is dominated by slow eccentric muscle actions performed at near maximum voluntary force. Because of their greater ability to generate force, eccentric muscle actions may be warranted or even required to resist the G-forces induced during the turn phase.

  11. Impact of the steepness of the slope on the biomechanics of World Cup slalom skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supej, Matej; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-04-01

    Numerous environmental factors can affect alpine-ski-racing performance, including the steepness of the slope. However, little research has focused on this factor. Accordingly, the authors' aim was to determine the impact of the steepness of the slope on the biomechanics of World Cup slalom ski racers. The authors collected 3-dimensional kinematic data during a World Cup race from 10 male slalom skiers throughout turns performed on a relatively flat (19.8°) and steep (25.2°) slope under otherwise similar course conditions. Kinematic data revealed differences between the 2 slopes regarding the turn radii of the skis and center of gravity, velocity, acceleration, and differential specific mechanical energy (all P skiing variables. The findings suggest that specific considerations during training and preparation would benefit the race performance of slalom skiers on courses involving sections of varying steepness.

  12. Towards Automated Reasoning on ORM Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrar, Mustafa

    The goal of this article is to formalize Object Role Modeling (ORM) using the {DLR} description logic. This would enable automated reasoning on the formal properties of ORM diagrams, such as detecting constraint contradictions and implications. In addition, the expressive, methodological, and graphical capabilities of ORM make it a good candidate for use as a graphical notation for most description logic languages. In this way, industrial experts who are not IT savvy will still be able to build and view axiomatized theories (such as ontologies, business rules, etc.) without needing to know the logic or reasoning foundations underpinning them. Our formalization in this paper is structured as 29 formalization rules, that map all ORM primitives and constraints into {DLR}, and 2 exceptions of complex cases. To this end, we illustrate the implementation of our formalization as an extension to DogmaModeler, which automatically maps ORM into DIG and uses Racer as a background reasoning engine to reason about ORM diagrams.

  13. Strubelammelse hos hund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James; Eriksen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Strubelammelse (larynxparese) er en dysfunktion af strubehovedet, der medfører en stærkt nedsat eller som oftest helt fraværende evne til at åbne stemmeridsen (rima glottidis) ved inspiration. De lammede stemmebånd står immobile i paramedian stilling, hvilket medfører begrænset og besværet...... og hoste. Strubelammelse er enten medfødt eller erhvervet. Den medfødte form udgør 20-30 procent af patienter, hvor symptomerne debuterer hos unge dyr med kraftig ophobning i racer som Bouvier de Flandre, Siberian husky, Dalmatiner og Bull terrier. Den erhvervede lammelse er den hyppigste form og ses...

  14. Review of the Distribution of the Family Gobiidae (Pisces in the Bulgarian Danube Tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velislav Y. Zarev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to give in detailed information on the actual distribution of the species from family Gobiidae in the Bulgarian Danube tributaries. All known literature has been revised and with the new data collected is given complete and actual information on their distribution. In the period 2010-2012 were sampled a total of 41 sites alongside each one of the Bulgarian Danube tributaries. The sampling started from the river mouths to upstream in order to discover what is the southern (upstream distribution of each one goby species. Four goby species were recorded from the tributaries – the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1814, the monkey goby (Neogobius fluviatilis, the racer goby (Neogobius gymnotrachelus and the tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus. Further analysis showed preference of mixed substrates and silt in addition of homogenous ones. The occurrence of gobies in the studied tributaries decreased inversely proportional to distance from Danube.

  15. Simulation of realization of ski-racers’ functional potentials in passing ski trails of different complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Khmelnytska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate model characteristics of functional fitness components of elite ski-racers, depending on competitions’ conditions. Material: We tested 20 sportsmen of combined team of Ukraine. Results: it was found that climbing hills of different length and steepness is accompanied by certain functional tension of organism and changes in cardio-respiratory system. It influences on effectiveness of further descent and moving on plain. It was also determined that correlation of aerobic and anaerobic efficiency changes according to trail relief. Conclusions: we worked out model characteristics of skiers’ fitness most important parameters, usage of which can facilitate maintaining high special workability on all segments of competition distance. In particular it concerns climbing hills of different steepness.

  16. Daredevils and early birds: Belgian pioneers in automobile racing and aerial sports during the belle époque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameye, Thomas; Gils, Bieke; Delheye, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    During the belle époque, Belgium was a trend-setting nation in many domains, including motorised sports. Belgian automobile racers and pilots shattered world records and became international stars. Striking was the shift in sports. Indeed, around 1896, sporting members of the leisure class stepped from the bicycle into the automobile and, around 1908, from the automobile into the airplane. Although these motorised sports were extremely expensive, this article shows that sportsmen and sportswomen from the working class could achieve upward social mobility through their performances. The achievements of these motorised pioneers had a major impact and wide-ranging significance. They laid the foundations for the expansion of the automobile industry and the emergence of civilian and military aviation.

  17. 239Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of 239 Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for 239 Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of 239 Pu

  18. /sup 239/Pu contamination in snakes inhabiting the Rocky Flats Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, R.A.; Winsor, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    For approximately four years studies have been under way at the Rocky Flats plant to determine contamination patterns and concentrations of Pu in the biota. Contamination of the Rocky Flats environs has resulted from at least three incidents, a September 1957 fire, a May 1969 fire, and leaking barrels containing plutonium-laden cutting oil. The latter incident was considered by far the major source of the plutonium contamination. Results are reported from a study conducted to determine whether snake tissues of the area contained detectable amounts of /sup 239/Pu and, if so, at what concentrations. Eastern yellow-bellied racers (Coluber constrictor flaviventris, bullsnakes (Pituophis melanoleucus sayi, and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis, were collected for /sup 239/Pu bioassay of lung, liver, and bone tissues. Snakes were captured using drift fences terminating in funnel traps and by opportunistic sampling. Results led to the conclusion that snakes are not an important organism in the redistribution of /sup 239/Pu. (CH)

  19. Comparison of Fission Product Yields and Their Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Harrison

    2006-02-01

    This memorandum describes the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) Space Nuclear Power Program (SNPP) interest in determining the expected fission product yields from a Prometheus-type reactor and assessing the impact of these species on materials found in the fuel element and balance of plant. Theoretical yield calculations using ORIGEN-S and RACER computer models are included in graphical and tabular form in Attachment, with focus on the desired fast neutron spectrum data. The known fission product interaction concerns are the corrosive attack of iron- and nickel-based alloys by volatile fission products, such as cesium, tellurium, and iodine, and the radiological transmutation of krypton-85 in the coolant to rubidium-85, a potentially corrosive agent to the coolant system metal piping.

  20. Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguera, J A; Boccanfuso, J; Rintoul, J L; Al-Hashimi, O; Faraji, F; Janowich, J; Kong, E; Larraburo, Y; Rolle, C; Johnston, E; Gazzaley, A

    2013-09-05

    Cognitive control is defined by a set of neural processes that allow us to interact with our complex environment in a goal-directed manner. Humans regularly challenge these control processes when attempting to simultaneously accomplish multiple goals (multitasking), generating interference as the result of fundamental information processing limitations. It is clear that multitasking behaviour has become ubiquitous in today's technologically dense world, and substantial evidence has accrued regarding multitasking difficulties and cognitive control deficits in our ageing population. Here we show that multitasking performance, as assessed with a custom-designed three-dimensional video game (NeuroRacer), exhibits a linear age-related decline from 20 to 79 years of age. By playing an adaptive version of NeuroRacer in multitasking training mode, older adults (60 to 85 years old) reduced multitasking costs compared to both an active control group and a no-contact control group, attaining levels beyond those achieved by untrained 20-year-old participants, with gains persisting for 6 months. Furthermore, age-related deficits in neural signatures of cognitive control, as measured with electroencephalography, were remediated by multitasking training (enhanced midline frontal theta power and frontal-posterior theta coherence). Critically, this training resulted in performance benefits that extended to untrained cognitive control abilities (enhanced sustained attention and working memory), with an increase in midline frontal theta power predicting the training-induced boost in sustained attention and preservation of multitasking improvement 6 months later. These findings highlight the robust plasticity of the prefrontal cognitive control system in the ageing brain, and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of how a custom-designed video game can be used to assess cognitive abilities across the lifespan, evaluate underlying neural mechanisms, and serve as a powerful tool