WorldWideScience

Sample records for swamp hydrology occurred

  1. Hydrology Study at Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study evaluates the effects of changing land use on the water environment of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Past, present and future land use maps...

  2. Hydrologic remediation for the Deepwater Horizon incident drove ancillary primary production increase in coastal swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; Johnson, Darren; Roberts, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    As coastal wetlands subside worldwide, there is an urgency to understand the hydrologic drivers and dynamics of plant production and peat accretion. One incidental test of the effects of high rates of discharge on forested wetland production occurred in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident, in which all diversions in Louisiana were operated at or near their maximum discharge level for an extended period to keep offshore oil from threatened coastal wetlands. Davis Pond Diversion was operated at six times the normal discharge levels for almost 4 months, so that Taxodium distichum swamps downstream of the diversion experienced greater inundation and lower salinity. After this remediation event in 2010, above-ground litter production increased by 2.7 times of production levels in 2007–2011. Biomass of the leaf and reproductive tissues of several species increased; wood litter was minimal and did not change during this period. Root production decreased in 2010 but subsequently returned to pre-remediation values in 2011. Both litter and root production remained high in the second growing season after hydrologic remediation. Annual tree growth (circumference increment) was not significantly altered by the remediation. The potential of freshwater pulses for regulating tidal swamp production is further supported by observations of higher T. distichum growth in lower salinity and/or pulsed environments across the U.S. Gulf Coast. Usage of freshwater pulses to manage altered estuaries deserves further consideration, particularly because the timing and duration of such pulses could influence both primary production and peat accretion.

  3. Using a dynamic hydrology model to predict mosquito abundances in flood and swamp water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Stieglitz, Marc; Stark, Colin; Le Blancq, Sylvie; Cane, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We modeled surface wetness at high resolution, using a dynamic hydrology model, to predict flood and swamp water mosquito abundances. Historical meteorologic data, as well as topographic, soil, and vegetation data, were used to model surface wetness and identify potential fresh and swamp water breeding habitats in two northern New Jersey watersheds. Surface wetness was positively associated with the subsequent abundance of the dominant floodwater mosquito species, Aedes vexans, and the swamp water species, Anopheles walkeri. The subsequent abundance of Culex pipiens, a species that breeds in polluted, eutrophic waters, was negatively correlated with local modeled surface wetness. These associations permit real-time monitoring and forecasting of these floodwater and nonfloodwater species at high spatial and temporal resolution. These predictions will enable public health agencies to institute control measures before the mosquitoes emerge as adults, when their role as transmitters of disease comes into play.

  4. Characteristics of mangrove swamps managed for mosquito control in eastern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Devlin, D.; Proffitt, E.; McKee, K.; Cretini, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulations of the vegetation and hydrology of wetlands for mosquito control are common worldwide, but these modifications may affect vital ecosystem processes. To control mosquitoes in mangrove swamps in eastern Florida, managers have used rotational impoundment management (RIM) as an alternative to the worldwide practice of mosquito ditching. Levees surround RIM swamps, and water is pumped into the impoundment during the summer, a season when natural swamps have low water levels. In the New World, these mosquito-managed swamps resemble the mixed basin type of mangrove swamp (based on PCA analysis). An assessment was made of RIM, natural (control), and breached-RIM (restored) swamps in eastern Florida to compare their structural complexities, soil development, and resistance to invasion. Regarding structural complexity, dominant species composition differed between these swamps; the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle occurred at a higher relative density in RIM and breached-RIM swamps, and the black mangrove Avicennia germinans had a higher relative density in natural swamps. Tree density and canopy cover were higher and tree height lower in RIM swamps than in natural and breached-RIM swamps. Soil organic matter in RIM swamps was twice that in natural or breached-RIM swamps. RIM swamps had a lower resistance to invasion by the Brazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthifolius, which is likely attributable to the lower porewater salinity in RIM swamps. These characteristics may reflect differences in important ecosystem processes (primary production, trophic structure, nutrient cycling, decomposition). Comparative assessments of managed wetlands are vital for land managers, so that they can make informed decisions compatible with conservation objectives. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  5. Satellite radar observation of tropical peat swamp forest as a tool for hydrological modelling and environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    1. Tropical peat swamp forests may contain as much as 20% of the global soil carbon stock. They are threatened by large-scale deforestation and canal drainage. Oxidation and forest fire cause enormous carbon emissions. Most remaining areas are located in Indonesia. These are becoming increasingly

  6. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.

    2017-06-09

    (project PO-29 of the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act) and aid in adaptive management of the project. PO-29 is a small river reintroduction in scope, and through its operation, it will provide information about the feasibility and reasonable expectations for future river reintroduction projects targeting coastal swamp forests in Louisiana.Located near Garyville, Louisiana, the Mississippi River reintroduction into Maurepas Swamp project is being designed to deliver a maximum flow of 57 cubic meters per second (m3/s) (or about 2,000 cubic feet per second [ft3/s]) directly from the river, but with a maximum flow through the outflow channel of 42 m3/s (or 1,500 ft3/s) available for at least half of the year. The river reintroduction will divert Mississippi River water through channelized flow and surface water to impact approximately 16,583 hectares (ha) of wetland habitat, much of which is swamp forest and swamp forest transitioning into marsh habitat. The Mississippi River reintroduction into Maurepas Swamp and associated outfall management features collectively should facilitate connectivity of water between the Mississippi River and the entire project area.At any given location, hydrologic connectivity should occur at intervals between twice yearly and once per decade, and hydrologic management must allow the potential for water drawdowns to foster tree regeneration every 3–13 years. The river reintroduction is also anticipated to maintain salinity in swamp forests dominated by Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) to less than 1.3 practical salinity units (psu) and maintain salinity in mixed baldcypress and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) swamp forests to less than 0.8 psu. The river reintroduction should promote soil surface elevation gains of 8–9 millimeters per year (mm/yr) (range, 4.9–12.1 mm/yr) to offset relative sea-level rise and keep total river water nitrate (NO3-) loading into Maurepas Swamp to about 11.25 grams (g) of nitrogen (N) per

  7. The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This introduction to the natural history of the Great Dismal Swamp is presented at a time when 50,000 acres of the Swamp are being converted from private holdings to...

  8. Penaeid prawn population and fry resource in a mangrove swamp of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    Penaeid prawns abundantly occur in the mangrove swamp during the premonsoon season. They are constituted by the commercial species, Penaeus merguiensis, Metapenaeus dobsoni and M. monoceros. Recruitment of the swamp takes place when the individuals...

  9. Southern deepwater swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Conner; Marilyn A. Buford

    1998-01-01

    The authors define, classify, and analyze the economic significance of southern deepwater swamps. They discuss the physical environment, vegetational communities, animal communities, management issues, and research needs for this complex resource.

  10. Dismal Swamp Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Conceived and constructed by nature the Great Swamp is the most gigantic filtration plant ever built; and more. To protect the health of the wildlife, for which-...

  11. Dismal Swamp Staff Gages

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Well design - Dismal Swamp Shallow observation wells - these are the early wells put in during 1975, 1976. They are black ABS plastic, 2-inch diameter, open at the...

  12. Use of a 15N tracer to determine linkages between a mangrove and an upland freshwater swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, R. A.; Cormier, N.

    2005-05-01

    Mangrove forests and adjacent upland freshwater swamps are important components of subsistence-based economies of Pacific islands. Mangroves provide valuable firewood (Rhizophora apiculata) and mangrove crabs (Scylla serrata); intact freshwater swamps are often used for agroforestry (e.g., taro cultivation). While these two systems are connected hydrologically via groundwater and surface flows, little information is available on how they may be biogeochemically or ecologically linked. For example, mangrove leaf litter was once thought to be an important food source for resident and transient nekton and invertebrates, but this value may have been overestimated. Instead, nutrients or allochthonous material (e.g., phytoplankton, detritus) delivered via groundwater or surface water from upland freshwater swamps may play a larger role in mangrove food webs. Understanding the linkages between these two ecologically and culturally important ecosystems will help us to understand the potential impacts of hydrological alterations that occur when roads or bridges are constructed through them. We conducted a 15N tracer study in the Yela watershed on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. K15NO3 was continually added at trace levels for 4 weeks to the Yela River in an upland freshwater swamp adjacent to a mangrove forest. Nitrate and ammonium pools, major primary producers, macroinvertebrates, and fish were sampled from stations 5 m upstream (freshwater swamp) and 138, 188, 213, and 313 m downstream (mangrove) from the tracer addition. Samples were collected once a week prior to, during, and after the 15N addition for a total of 6 weeks. Preliminary results revealed no significant enrichment (mudskipper fish (Periophthalmus sp.). However, the 15N signature of ammonium pools was enriched 10-60 ‰ by the end of the third week. These results suggest that the tracer was present in the mangrove but was either unavailable to higher organisms or was incorporated into

  13. Annual Water Management Program Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management objectives discussed in this report are: 1) To improve and better interpret the hydrologic and vegetative databases for the Great Dismal swamp, 2) To...

  14. Annual Water Management Program Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management objectives discussed in this report are: 1) To improve and better interpret the hydrologic and vegetative databases for the Great Dismal swamp, 2) To...

  15. Hydrologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    Hydro1ogi er den videnskab, der omhand1er jordens vand, dets forekomst, cirku1ation og forde1ing, dets kemiske og fysiske egenskaber samt indvirkning på omgivelserne, herunder dets relation ti1 alt liv på jorden. Således lyder en b1andt mange definitioner på begrebet hydrologi, og som man kan se...

  16. COMPLEX STUDY OF THE LACUSTRIAN ECOSYSTEMS OF MOHOŞ SWAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Constantin DIACONU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohoş Swamp is an oligotroph swamp, formed in a volcanic crater on the site of a former lake, which permanently changes. Using a series of modern methods such as ultrasound bathymetry, we want to set up a reference base so that in the future one can be able to determine the rhythm and direction of the development of this complex ecosystem, both in terms of morph metrics and chemical hydrology parameters point of view. Bathymetry and geomorfological study represents the most important stage because it makes it possible to establish the concrete characteristics of the investigated lakes as well as their placement.

  17. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  18. The Evolution of a Freshwater Wetland in a Semi-arid Environment, Loboi Swamp, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, G. M.; Driese, S. G.; Mworia, J. M.; Muasya, A. M.; Hover, V. C.; Owen, R. B.; Goman, M. F.

    2002-12-01

    Loboi Swamp is situated near the equator on the western fault-bounded margin of an asymmetric half-graben within the East African Rift valley. The freshwater wetland is ~ 3km2 and developed during mid to late Holocene on the low relief floodplain of the axial Loboi River. The swamp is groundwater-fed by several springs and seeps associated with the border fault system. Spring waters are ~35°C, with pH ~6.4-6.9 and the water compositions suggest that the sources are shallow, and dominated by meteoric water with little contributed by deep re-circulating fluids. The climate is semi-arid. P is ~700 mm/yr on the valley bottom and 1200mm/yr in the adjacent highlands; ET is estimated to be ~2500 mm/yr. Variation in precipitation occurs on a range of time scales: semi-annual monsoonal rains in Nov. and April; El Nino and La Nina periods every 5-7 years; and long term variations in climate are also likely, such as, orbitally-forced Precession cycles (~20ka). The modern swamp is dominated by Typha domingensis Pers. (~80%) and Cyperus papyrus L. (20%), a crocodile habitat. The stratigraphy revealed in a soil pit and 8 piston cores (1.5-4 m long) records the formation, evolution and maybe the beginning of the demise of the wetland. Basal sediments are floodplain (sandy silts) that fine upward to f. silt and clay and are capped with organic-rich sediment (peat). Subparallel siderite concretion horizons in the silts indicate that Fe-reducing conditions developed as the basal sediments were flooded by the developing wetland. The peat is thickest (1.5 m) in the spring-proximal area near the fault and thins to 0.30m in the spring-distal areas. The appearance and expansion of peat indicates moister climate, however preliminary pollen analyses reveals that Cyperaceae and Tpyha are less abundant now than earlier suggesting a change from moister to drier conditions after the development of the swamp. Surface and porewater compositions in the swamp are modified by processes of

  19. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-05

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are

  20. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little

  1. 75 FR 41879 - Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... refuge, contact William Koch, Refuge Manager, at Great Swamp NWR, 241 Pleasant Plains Road, Basking Ridge... listed endangered Indiana bats are known to occur on the refuge. Reptile and amphibian species of...

  2. Remote Sensing of Wetland Types: Peat Swamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, D.H.

    2017-01-01

    Deposits of peat underneath peat swamp forests are among the world’s largest reservoirs of carbon. Although tropical peatlands occupy only about 0.3 % of the global land surface, they could contain as much as 20 % of the global soil carbon stock, representing 63–148 Gt of carbon.

    Peat swamp

  3. Primary production in an impounded baldcypress swamp (Taxodium distichum) at the northern limit of the range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)swamps to maintain themselves near the northern limit of their range depends on their levels of production, which is not only are response to climate but also to local environmental factors(e.g., impoundment). We asked if primary production was reduced under impounded conditions and if species' responses to impoundment were individualistic or more generalized. To examine long-term production trends in a permanently impounded baldcypress swamp, a 6-year study of leaf litterfall was conducted in Buttonland Swamp, Illinois, which had been impounded for 10 years before the beginning of the study. Buttonland Swamp is at the northern boundary of the baldcypress swamp region along the Cache River, Illinois, in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley of the United States. When the litter production of impounded sites was compared to those with natural hydrology in the same region, impounded sites had about half of the total litterfall of natural sites. Overall, leaf litterfall rates declined during the study(201 vs. 113 gm-2 yr-1), but the pattern was negatively correlated with water depth, which explained 97% of the variation in the data. Along the transect with the lowest mean minimum water depth(<0.5 cm), leaf litterfall decreased linearly over 6 years from 377 to 154gm-2 yr-1. Total leaf litterfall rates were lower at the other three depths(5, 43, and 49 cm mean minimum water depths)and remained below 200 gm-2 yr -1 throughout the study. Acer saccharinum, Nyssa aquatica, and Salix nigra were most responsible for the decline in total leaf litterfall. Amounts of leaf litterfall of T. distichum and Liquidambar styraciflua also generally decreased, while that of Cephalanthus occidentalis increased overtime. Because species' responses to environmental factors such as impoundment are individualistic, models should be based on the responses of individual species, rather than on communities. Our study further suggests that the

  4. The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A brief review of the aquatic habitats and an annotated list of the aquatic Cleoptera of the Dismal Swamp is presented. Six families with a total of 53 species are...

  5. The Great Dismal Swamp A Brief Interpretation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — All through man's experience with the Dismal swamp, People old as well as young, women as well as men have been drawn to it, repelled by it and completely fascinated...

  6. Phytomass Budgets for the Dismal Swamp Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp is a heterogeneous ecosystem as a result of various human disturbances. We studied the phytomass distribution in four community types in the...

  7. Kennedy Space Center: Swamp Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Robert

    2013-01-01

    When I began my internship with the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations laboratory (GMRO), also known as Swamp Works, I was given the unique opportunity to shadow many teams working on various projects, and decide what projects I wanted to take part in. Before I go into details of my experiences at Swamp Works, I would like to take a moment to explain what I discovered Swamp Works to be. Swamp Works is a family of hardworking, dedicated, and driven people from various backgrounds and skill sets. These people all work to advance technologies and make science fiction science fact through means of rapid prototyping. They support and encourage failure as an option when learning new things, as long as lesson learned from said failure. In fact, their motto states "Fail, Fast, Forward." What this means is, not if but when one fails he or she must do so quickly and spring forward from the failure so that his or her progress is not delayed. With this acceptance, it provided me the confidence to dive into a multitude of projects working in various fields and with a wide range of skill sets. The first project I joined was Badger. My motivation for taking on this project was the opportunity I would have to obtain valuable experience working with 3D modeling and 3D printing technologies. Badger was a digging apparatus to be used in a highly dusty environment in a material known as Regolith. Regolith is a scientific term for the dirt or top soil found on planetary bodies. Regolith contains a large quantity of sediments less than lOppm and as a result poses a challenge of keeping it out of any cracks and crevices. Furthermore, regolith can create high levels of electrostatic energy, which can prove damaging to sensitive electrical hardware. With these characteristics in mind, I decided to take on the task of designing and manufacturing a dust proof cover for the sensitive electrical hardware. When I began this project, I did not have the slightest idea as to how to use 3D

  8. Mating system and the critical migration rate for swamping selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin-Sheng

    2011-06-01

    Crow et al. (1990) and Barton (1992) have examined the critical migration rate for swamping selection in the nuclear system. Here, I use the same methodology to examine the critical migration rate in the cytonuclear system for hermaphrodite plants with a mixed mating system. Two selection schemes for a nuclear gene (heterozygote disadvantage and directional selection) and the directional selection scheme for organelle genes are considered. Results show that under random mating, the previous results are applicable to plant species by appropriate re-parameterization of the migration rate for nuclear and paternal organelle genes. A simple complementary relationship exists between seed and pollen flow in contributing to the critical migration rate. Under the mixed mating system, the critical migration rate of seeds and pollen for nuclear and paternal organelle genes can be changed due to the effects of selection and the cytonuclear linkage disequilibrium generated by migration and inbreeding. A negative but not complementary relationship exists between seed and pollen flow in contributing to the critical migration rate, varying with the mating system. Partial selfing can also adjust the critical seed flow for the maternal organelle gene, with a small critical migration rate for species of a high selfing rate. Both concordance and discordance among cytonuclear genes can occur under certain conditions during the process of swamping selection. This theory predicts the presence of various contributions of seed versus pollen flow to genetic swamping for plants with diverse mating systems.

  9. Developmental And Environmental History Of The Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Pollen analysis of several cores from the Dismal Swamp in southeastern Virginia have indicated that the swamp is a relatively young feature, having begun to develop...

  10. Automatic categorization of land-water cover types of the Green Swamp, Florida, using Skylab multispectral scanner (S-192) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, A. E.; Higer, A. L.; Rogers, R. H.; Shah, N. J.; Reed, L. E.; Walker, S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques used and the results achieved in the successful application of Skylab Multispectral Scanner (EREP S-192) high-density digital tape data for the automatic categorizing and mapping of land-water cover types in the Green Swamp of Florida were summarized. Data was provided from Skylab pass number 10 on 13 June 1973. Significant results achieved included the automatic mapping of a nine-category and a three-category land-water cover map of the Green Swamp. The land-water cover map was used to make interpretations of a hydrologic condition in the Green Swamp. This type of use marks a significant breakthrough in the processing and utilization of EREP S-192 data.

  11. The role of Bahi swamp wetlands in enhancing household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the role of Bahi swamp resources in enhancing household food security and income of adjacent communities. Specifically, the study assessed the socioeconomic activities in the swamp with a potential contribution to local livelihoods, the contribution of the swamp in enhancing ...

  12. Insect emergence in relation to floods in wet meadows and swamps in the River Dalälven floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnersten, T Z Persson; Östman, Ö; Schäfer, M L; Lundström, J O

    2014-08-01

    Annual variation in flood frequency and hydroperiod during the vegetation season has ecological impacts on the floodplain biota. Although many insect groups may have a lower emergence during a flood event, it is poorly known how annual emergence of insects in temporary wetlands is related to the variation in hydrology. Between May and September, we studied the weekly emergence of 18 insect taxa over six consecutive years, 2002-2007, in six temporary flooded wetlands (four wet meadows and two forest swamps) in the River Dalälven floodplains, Central Sweden. We used emergence traps to collect emerging insects from terrestrial and aquatic parts of wet meadows and swamp forests. In all wetlands, the insect fauna was numerically dominated by the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Homoptera. On a weekly basis, 9 out of the 18 insect taxa had lower emergence in weeks with flood than in weeks with no flood, whereas no taxon had a higher emergence in weeks with flood. Over the seasons, we related insect emergence to seasonal flood frequency and length of hydroperiod. The emergence of most studied taxa decreased with increasing hydroperiod, which suggests that emergence after floods do not compensate for the reduced emergence during floods. Only Culicidae and the aquatic Chironomidae sub-families Tanypodinae and Chironominae showed an increase in emergence with increasing hydroperiod, whereas Staphylinidae peaked at intermediate hydroperiod. We conclude that a hydroperiod covering up to 40% of the vegetation season has a significant negative effect on the emergence of most taxa and that only a few taxa occurring in the temporary wetlands are actually favoured by a flood regime with recurrent and unpredictable floods.

  13. Studies on mangrove swamps of Goa 1. Heterotrophic bacterial flora from mangrove swamps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mathani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Heterotrophic bacterial flora from the mangrove swamps of Goa consisted of physiologically active organisms exhibiting cellulolytic, pectinolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and H2S forming activities, throughout the year. Coryneform and Bacillus were...

  14. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel; Sleeter, Benjamin M; Williams, Brianna; Hogan, Dianna; Hawbaker, Todd; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-12-01

    Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting. We modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985-2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C) coming from above-ground biomass and detritus. Natural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha -1 /year -1 for Atlantic white cedar), the total soil carbon loss from the South One and Lateral West fires

  15. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sleeter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting. Results We modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985–2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C coming from above-ground biomass and detritus. Conclusions Natural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha−1/year−1 for Atlantic white cedar, the total

  16. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Williams, Brianna; Hogan, Dianna; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundCarbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting.ResultsWe modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985–2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C) coming from above-ground biomass and detritus.ConclusionsNatural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha−1/year−1 for Atlantic white cedar), the total soil carbon loss from the

  17. How could a freshwater swamp produce a chemical signature characteristic of a saltmarsh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Terrence; Smith, Christopher G.; Liu, Kam-biu; Marot, Marci E.; Haller, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Reduction–oxidation (redox) reaction conditions, which are of great importance for the soil chemistry of coastal marshes, can be temporally dynamic. We present a transect of cores from northwest Florida wherein radical postdepositional changes in the redox regime has created atypical geochemical profiles at the bottom of the sedimentary column. The stratigraphy is consistent along the transect, consisting of, from the bottom upward, carbonate bedrock, a gray clay, an organic mud section, a dense clay layer, and an upper organic mud unit representing the current saltwater marsh. However, the geochemical signature of the lower organic mud unit suggests pervasive redox reactions, although the interval has been identified as representing a freshwater marsh, an unlikely environment for such conditions. Analyses indicate that this discrepancy results from postdepositional diagenesis driven by millennial-scale environmental parameters. Rising sea level that led to the deposition of the capping clay layer, created anaerobic conditions in the freshwater swamp interval, and isolated it hydrologically from the rest of the sediment column. The subsequent infiltration of marine water into this organic material led to sulfate reduction, the buildup of H2S and FeS, and anoxic conditions. Continued sulfidation eventually resulted in euxinic conditions, as evidenced by elevated levels of Fe, S, and especially Mo, the diagnostic marker of euxinia. Because this chemical transformation occurred long after the original deposition the geochemical signature does not reflect soil chemistry at the time of deposition and cannot be used to infer syn-depositional environmental conditions, emphasizing the importance of recognizing diagenetic processes in paleoenvironmental studies.

  18. Skin disease affecting the conservation of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, J M; Kuchling, G; Burford, D; Boardman, W; Raidal, S R

    1998-11-01

    To review the present position of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) as an endangered species and significant health issues affecting efforts to save it from extinction. A retrospective analysis of the husbandry, hospital and pathology records of the western swamp tortoise captive breeding program at Perth Zoo. In 1987 a captive breeding project was developed to prevent the extinction of the western swamp tortoise but an outbreak of a necrotising dermatitis in 1989 threatened the survival of the captive bred hatchlings. Less severe outbreaks occurred in 1990 and 1993, with isolated cases in between. Of 283 tortoises that were born in captivity or came into captivity from the wild, 37 (13.1%) were affected, comprising 37% of all males, 26% of all females and 13% of animals of unknown gender. Of the affected animals, 70% were less than 2 years of age and 29% were older. Males were 1.6 times more likely to be infected than females but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.27). Culture of the lesions consistently yielded unidentified Pseudomonas sp. Improved husbandry, such as strict maintenance of water quality and temperature conditions similar to that of the animal's natural habitat, and monitoring the health of individual tortoises have successfully controlled skin disease in the captive breeding of the western swamp tortoise.

  19. Toxicity of 5% rotenone to nonindigenous Asian swamp eels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, P.J.; Nico, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    Our primary goal was to determine whether rotenone would be a useful control against introduced populations of Asian swamp eels (family Synbranchidae, genus Monopterus). We report the results of a laboratory experiment comparing the efficacy of various rotenone concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 mg of 5% liquid rotenone/L of water) in killing nonindigenous swamp eels of various sizes (1-350 g) from the three known Florida populations. Although most small swamp eels were killed at concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L. 100% mortality of adult swamp eels was achieved only at 8 mg/L. We conclude that the effective use of rotenone to control established Florida swamp eel populations would be difficult, based on the relatively high concentration of rotenone needed to kill swamp eels; the complexity of the swamp eel's habitat; and our observations of the species' habitat use and behavior, including its widespread distribution and life history characteristics (e.g., burrowing and overland movement) that enhance its invasion and survival in multiple environments. Nevertheless, control of swamp eels may be achieved in certain situations. A combination of rotenone and electroshocking may be an effective way to eradicate swamp eels from small water bodies and to control populations in larger habitats. However, we are cautious in this recommendation and provide details related to the technical aspects of this type of strategy and caveats related to the toxicity of the chemical.

  20. Marsh and Water Management Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many people perceive swamps as having standing water year-round. However, this is not the case in the Dismal Swamp, and, in fact, most swamp vegetation could not...

  1. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Swamps, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_swamp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) swamps data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  2. Analysis of Technical Efficiency among Swamp Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the Technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 159 swamp rice farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the stochastic frontier production function. The results showed ...

  3. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, efficiency and output in swamp rice production in the area can be increased by reducing the amount of labour used but increasing the quantity of seeds planted and adopting improved technologies such as improved seeds, agrochemicals, and fertilizer. Keywords: Agrochemical; fertilizers; swamp ric

  4. Microhabitat Characteristics of sites used by swamp rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick A. Zollner; Winston P. Smith; Leonard A. Brennan

    2000-01-01

    The swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus) is one of the least studied North American lagomorphs; a better understanding of the habitat types it uses will improve management of this species. We studied microhabitat characteristics of sites associated with specific behaviors of the swamp rabbit. During spring-summer (15 April-1 October) and fall-winter (...

  5. Economic analysis of swamp rice production in Ebonyi Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the determinants and profitability of the output of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi southern Agricultural zone of Ebonyi State. Primary data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaires. A total of eighty (80) swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from the different blocks ...

  6. Transforming Swamp Buffaloes to Producers of Milk and Meat Through Crossbreeding and Backcrossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Cruz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of water buffaloes in the world, the riverine type and the swamp type. The total number of Swamp buffalo is 37.6 M and represents 21.8% of the world’s buffalo population. The swamp buffaloes have played a major role in draft animal-dependent farming system. But intensified rice production became more pronounced in irrigated areas and this has led to increased utilization of small farm machineries, displacing significantly the draft buffaloes for land tillage. To some extent, the introduction of tractors for land preparation and transport for corn, sugarcane and other crops in production areas has similar effect. Utilization of the existing population of swamp buffaloes to meet the growing domestic demand for milk and meat, against the background of increasing farm mechanization, is a good reason to transform the huge number of draft animals into producers of milk and meat. According to the UNDP/FAO-assisted project in the Philippines carried from 1982 to 1998, that crossing swamp buffalo and riverine buffaloes, despite the differences in chromosome numbers, is producing crossbreds with high growth rate potentials and milk production abilities several folds over the swamp buffalo parents. The known fact that swamp and riverine buffaloes have different chromosome number, the diploid chromosome number of the swamp buffalo is 48 and that of the river buffalo is 50. When crossbreeding between the 2 buffalo types occur, males and females of the F1 generation are heterozygous for the fusion and are apparently fertile with chromosome 2n = 49. Three-way crossbred hybrids were obtained by (native buffalo x Murrah x Nili Ravi or (native buffalo x Nili Ravi x Murrah. They had two chromosome categories viz. 2n=49 and 2n=50, respectively. Crossbreeding Swamp with Riverine Breed is done for quality beef. Most of the NT produced TenderBuff is farm-bred or purchased from other suppliers as swamp buffalo yearlings and growth out for a

  7. Ecological studies on a population of the water snake Grayia smythii in a rainforest swamp of the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akani, Godfrey C.; Luiselli, Luca

    2001-01-01

    The ecology of the water snake, Grayia smythii (Reptilia: Colubridae) occurring in a seasonal rainforest swamp of the Niger Delta (southern Nigeria) was investigated between December 1998 and March 2000. Females and males were similar in body sizes (SVL) and head sizes, but males had tails

  8. The scientific value and potential of New Zealand swamp kauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Boswijk, Gretel; Hogg, Alan; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Christian S. M.; Fowler, Anthony M.; Ogden, John; Woolley, John-Mark

    2018-03-01

    New Zealand swamp kauri (Agathis australis) are relic trees that have been buried and preserved in anoxic bog environments of northern New Zealand for centuries through to hundreds of millennia. Kauri are massive in proportion to other native New Zealand trees and they can attain ages greater than 1000 years. The export market for swamp (subfossil) kauri has recently been driven by demand for a high-value workable timber, but there are concerns about the sustainability of the remaining resource, a situation exacerbated in recent years by the rapid extraction of wood. Economic exploitation of swamp kauri presents several unique opportunities for Quaternary science, however the scientific value of this wood is not well understood by the wider research community and public. Here, we summarise the history of scientific research on swamp kauri, and explore the considerable potential of this unique resource. Swamp kauri tree-ring chronologies are temporally unique, and secondary analyses (such as radiocarbon and isotopic analyses) have value for improving our understanding of Earth's recent geologic history and pre-instrumental climate history. Swamp kauri deposits that span the last interglacial-glacial cycle show potential to yield "ultra-long" multi-millennia tree-ring chronologies, and composite records spanning large parts of MIS3 (and most of the Holocene) may be possible. High-precision radiocarbon dating of swamp kauri chronologies can improve the resolution of the global radiocarbon calibration curve, while testing age modelling and chronologic alignment of other independent long-term high-resolution proxy records. Swamp kauri also has the potential to facilitate absolute dating and verification of cosmogenic events found in long Northern Hemisphere tree-ring chronologies. Future efforts to conserve these identified values requires scientists to work closely with swamp kauri industry operators, resource consent authorities, and export regulators to mitigate

  9. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina Bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  10. The fungal flora of the mangrove swamps of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahtani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Mangrove swamps of Goa (India) showed the presence of fungi belonging to 14 different genera, predominant ones being Monilia, Mucor, Syncephalastrum, Aspergillus and Trichothecium. Most of the isolates were found to be physiologically active...

  11. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Contaminants Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alternatives for an environmental contaminants monitoring plan have been developed for the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). This study...

  12. Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Hunting Plan and Controversy.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collections covers Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge's hunting plan and memos (specifically Mike Espy) between the refuge on the local community. The local...

  13. Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Bond Swamp NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  14. Forest Management Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the timber management program at Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge are: 1) protecting and preserving the unique and outstanding ecosystem...

  15. Ecotone Dynamics And Boundary Determination In The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data on hydrogeology, soils, and vegetation collected on four transects across the 48-km wetland-to-upland transition zone of the Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia/...

  16. The Natural And Cultural History Of The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp is a forested wetland located on the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain in Southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina. Estimates of the...

  17. Spiders of the Great Dismal Swamp: Lake Drummond 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the results of a study of spiders that was conducted along the shores of Lake Drummond, in the Great Dismal Swamp. The purpose of the study was...

  18. Field Research on the Great Dismal Swamp Shrew 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a progress report outlining the results of a study done on the evaluation of the distribution of the Dismal Swamp southeastern shrew in the refuge and areas...

  19. Animal Control Plan Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl production objectives for the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge are to create habitat supporting the production of 16,000 ducks and 500 geese annually....

  20. Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Public Use Development Plan - 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for Panther Swamp NWR involves setting station public use goals, project a positive attitude, welcome and orient visitors, develop key resources awareness,...

  1. Late Pleistocene and Holocene History at Mubwindi Swamp, Southwest Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Robert; Taylor, David; Hamilton, Alan

    1997-05-01

    Deposits beneath Mubwindi Swamp provide a partial record of vegetation history since at least 43,000 yr ago. We studied pollen from two cores and obtained nine radiocarbon ages from one of these cores and three radiocarbon ages from the other. Pollen deposited before and soon after the last glacial maximum represents vegetation very different from the modern vegetation of the Mubwindi Swamp catchment. Although species now associated with higher altitudes were dominant some elements of moist lower montane forest persisted, possibly because of favorable soils or topography. The pollen data provides evidence for a late glacial montane forest refuge near Mubwindi Swamp. Moist lower montane forest became much more widespread soon after the glacial maximum. The only irrefutably Holocene sediments from Mubwindi Swamp date to the past 2500 yr. During this time a combination of climatic and human-induced changes in vegetation can be seen in the pollen records.

  2. Narrative Report : Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuges : January - December 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. Great Swamp Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Great Swamp Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  4. Safety Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Suffolk, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to...

  5. Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Management Study Transmittal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study will investigate temporal and spatial variations in the concentrations of methane, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds in the Dismal Swamp....

  6. Mammals Of The Dismal Swamp: A Historical Account

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For the first time, individual species of mammals of the Dismal Swamp area were considered in detail when K. A. Wilson studied the role of mink, otter, and raccoon...

  7. Annual Narrative 1967 Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  8. Phosphate relationships in acid-sulphate soils of Mbiabet swamp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatments consisted of potassium dihydrogen phosphate added to the swamp mud, cat-clay, and mud-clay in equal doses of 122 kg/ha P205, fitted into Latin square of 36 x 5 m swamp, except for the control plots. Limestone (CaC03) was applied to both fertilized and unfertilized plots at the rate of 50 kg/ha to reduce

  9. Regeneration potential of Taxodium distichum swamps and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Seed bank densities respond to factors across local to landscape scales, and therefore, knowledge of these responses may be necessary in forecasting the effects of climate change on the regeneration of species. This study relates the seed bank densities of species of Taxodium distichum swamps to local water regime and regional climate factors at five latitudes across the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley from southern Illinois to Louisiana. In an outdoor nursery setting, the seed banks of twenty-five swamps were exposed to non-flooded (freely drained) or flooded treatments, and the number and species of seeds germinating were recorded from each swamp during one growing season. Based on ANOVA analysis, the majority of dominant species had a higher rate of germination in non-flooded versus flooded treatments. Similarly, an NMS comparison, which considered the local water regime and regional climate of the swamps, found that the species of seeds germinating, almost completely shifted under non-flooded versus flooded treatments. For example, in wetter northern swamps, seeds of Taxodium distichum germinated in non-flooded conditions, but did not germinate from the same seed banks in flooded conditions. In wetter southern swamps, seeds of Eleocharis cellulosa germinated in flooded conditions, but did not germinate in non-flooded conditions. The strong relationship of seed germination and density relationships with local water regime and regional climate variables suggests that the forecasting of climate change effects on swamps and other wetlands needs to consider a variety of interrelated variables to make adequate projections of the regeneration responses of species to climate change. Because regeneration is an important aspect of species maintenance and restoration, climate drying could influence the species distribution of these swamps in the future. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  11. Conservative and reactive tracers of floodplain hydrology and ecosystem processes in the floodplain of the Atchafalaya River, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, R.; Scott, D.; Edwards, B.; Jones, N.; Kaller, M. D.; Kelso, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    Coupled hydrological and biogeochemical processing of floodwaters in large floodplains is not well understood despite importance for ecosystem structure and ecosystem services such as regulation of water quality. We conducted synoptic sampling of stable isotopes, nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Atchafalaya River Floodway, Louisiana, to test hypotheses about water flow paths developed after a decade of monitoring water quality and fish use. Sampling was conducted during the rising limb, flood peak, and falling limb of the large flood of 2011, at more than 20 sites in both one hydrologically connected swamp and one relatively disconnected swamp. Isotopic signatures of river water were distinct from swamp water, allowing us to infer proportion of recent river water in samples. As expected, nutrients were higher in river water and DOC concentrations were higher in swamp water. Flowpaths within swamps from known connection points to the river were apparent in the disconnected swamp, but less so in the connected swamp. The tracer data suggest that hypotheses about flowpaths inferred from long-term dissolved oxygen monitoring are largely accurate but that connections to river water may be stronger than previously thought because of rapid biogeochemical processing of river water.

  12. First record of epizootic ulcerative syndrome from the Upper Congo catchment: An outbreak in the Bangweulu swamps, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, C F; Huchzermeyer, K D A; Christison, K W; Macey, B M; Colly, P A; Hang'ombe, B M; Songe, M M

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first outbreak of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) amongst wild fish populations in the Bangweulu swamps, an inland delta, in the north of Zambia during 2014. The area supports a large and diverse fish fauna related to, but distinct from, that of the Zambezi River system where EUS outbreaks have occurred since 2006. A sizeable artisanal fishery, based on extensive fish weirs, is sustained by the annual flooding of the swamps, and observations of the disease outbreak by fishermen were recorded. Signs typical of infection with Aphanomyces invadans were observed in a number of species. Clinical observations, histology and molecular diagnostic methods were used to confirm infection with A. invadans in two of the most commonly and severely affected species. Several features of the wetland may have contributed to the outbreak and the annual recurrence of the disease. Modes by which the disease may have been introduced into the swamps are discussed. The outbreak is of great significance as the Bangweulu swamps drain into the Congo River in neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo, Africa's largest drainage system with an extensive and diverse fish fauna previously unaffected by EUS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hydrological cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water.

  14. Benefits of Riverine Water Discharge into the Lorian Swamp, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipporah Musyimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. This paper reviews information on water use in the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment, Kenya, to evaluate the effects of upstream abstraction on the Lorian Swamp, a wetland used by pastoralists downstream. We first assess the abstractions and demands for water upstream and the river water supplies at the upper and the lower end of the Lorian Swamp. Further analysis of 12 years of monthly SPOT-VEGETATION satellite imagery reveals higher NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index values in the swamp than nearby rainfed areas, with the difference in NDVI between the two positively related to river water discharged into the swamp. The paper next reviews the benefits derived from water entering the swamp and the vulnerability to abstractions for three categories of water: (i the surface water used for drinking and sanitation; (ii the surface water that supports forage production; and (iii the water that recharges the Merti Aquifer. Our results suggest that benefits from surface water for domestic use and forage production are vulnerable to abstractions upstream whereas the benefits from the aquifer, with significant fossil water, are likely to be affected in the long run, but not the short term.

  15. Status Survey for the Dismal Swamp- Green Stink Bug (Chlorochroa dismalia) in Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Dismal Swamp green stink bug (Chlorochroa dismalia), also known as the Dismal Swamp chlorochroan bug, is one of 52 members of the Family Pentatomidae (Order...

  16. The White Cedar of the Dismal Swamp 1923

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report that discusses the various uses, yields and properties of the White Cedar in the Great Dismal Swamp area in the early 1920s. It also discusses the...

  17. Invertebrate Encrustations On The Mangrove Swamp Oyster And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mangrove swamp oyster Crassostrea tulipa demonstrates a symbiotic relationship with the barnacle. Balnus sp and other encrusting invertebrates. It is inferred that the latter militate against predatory drilling on the oyster by Thais califera as well as prevent algal infestation and the consequent bioerosion by herbivorous ...

  18. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the variable inputs were inefficiently utilized and about 85% of the variations in rice output could be explained by factors included in the regression model. In conclusion, efficiency and output in swamp rice production in the area can be increased by reducing the amount of labour used but increasing the quantity of seeds ...

  19. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments.

  20. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  1. Swamp tours in Louisiana post Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn J. Schaffer; Craig A. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in southern Louisiana during August and September 2005. Prior to these storms, swamp tours were a growing sector of nature-based tourism that entertained visitors while teaching about local flora, fauna, and culture. This study determined post-hurricane operating status of tours, damage sustained, and repairs made. Differences...

  2. Production Efficiency of Swamp Rice Production in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    397.00k with N9.80K made on every naira invested in improved variety of swamp rice produced in the study area. Rice farming business is a profitable business, with attractive net return on investment. Therefore, unemployed youths in Cross River ...

  3. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  4. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  5. Drier Forest Composition Associated with Hydrologic Change in the Apalachicola River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darst, Melanie R.; Light, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    Forests of the Apalachicola River floodplain had shorter flood durations, were drier in composition, and had 17 percent fewer trees in 2004 than in 1976. The change to drier forest composition is expected to continue for at least 80 more years. Floodplain drying was caused by large declines in river levels resulting from erosion of the river channel after 1954 and from decreased flows in spring and summer months since the 1970s. Water-level declines have been greatest at low and medium flows, which are the most common flows (occurring about 80 percent of the time). Water levels have remained relatively unchanged during large floods which continue to occur about three times per decade. A study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey compared temporal changes in hydrologic conditions, forest composition, forest characteristics, and individual species of trees, as well as estimated the potential for change in composition of floodplain forests in the nontidal reach of the Apalachicola River. The study was conducted with the cooperation of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the Northwest Florida Water Management District. Forest composition and field observations from studies conducted in 1976-1984 (termed '1976 data') were used as baseline data for comparison with data from plots sampled in 2004-2006 ('2004 data'). Flood durations were shorter in all periods subsequent to 1923-1976. The periods of record used to calculate flood durations for forest data were subsets of the complete record available (1923-2004). At sampled plots in all forest types and reaches combined, flood durations changed an average of more than 70 percent toward the baseline flood duration of the next drier forest type. For all forest types, changes in flood durations toward the next drier type were greatest in the upper reach (95.9 percent) and least in the lower reach (42.0 percent). All forests are expected to be 38.2 percent drier in species composition by 2085, the year

  6. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  7. Forest Dynamics of Peat Swamp Forest in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDI MIRMANTO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Forest dynamics were studied from 1999 to 2001 for individuals > 15 cm in girth of 24 most common species in six 0.25-ha plots. The plots were set up in natural peat swamp forest in the upper catchments of Sebangau, Central Kalimantan. Aim of the study is to understand the dynamics and vegetation changes of forest studied during period of study. The peat swamp forest in the study site might be categorized as moderately forest dynamic in term of rate of growth, mortality and recruitment. Annual relative growth rate and mortality rate was comparable to previous study but recruitment rate relatively higher. There was significant effect of diameter class on annual growth rate, but not to mortality rate. Even not too strong two environment factors (peat depth and distance to river were significant correlated with rate of mortality and recruitment. During two-year period study there was no significant changes in vegetation structure.

  8. Nitrogen Dynamics Along a Headwater Stream Draining a Fen, Swamp, and Marsh in a Fractured Dolomite Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.; Waddington, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Stream-wetland interaction has been shown to have a significant effect on nutrient cycling and downstream water quality. Additionally, connection to regional groundwater systems can dilute or enrich stream water with a number of dissolved constituents. This study demonstrates the resultant downstream change in dissolved nitrogen species as a hardwater stream emerges from a calcareous aquifer and traverses a calcareous fen, a cedar swamp, and a cattail marsh over two growing seasons, a very dry 2006 and a very wet 2007. Upon emergence at a number of groundwater seeps, the water contained appreciable nitrate levels averaging 2.72±0.42 mg NO3-N L-1, minimal organic nitrogen, and ammonium below detectable levels. Through the gently sloping calcareous fen, with a stream residence time of ~ 5 hours, NO3-N concentration decreases of 0.35 mg L-1 were observed. Concomitantly, stream recharge into the dolomite bedrock depressed stream discharge values significantly, further removing nitrate from the stream system. This resulted in the fen-bedrock system acting as an estimated net sink of 432 kg of NO3-N in the early summer of 2007, for example. In contrast, the hydrological-biogeochemical systems became decoupled through the swamp during the same period, where concentrations increased from 2.58±0.34 mg L-1 entering the swamp to 2.65±0.58 mg L-1 exiting, but streamflow decreased in general by 5 L s- 1. This resulted in the swamp, with its large depression storage, acting as a small net sink of nitrate (75 kg through the early summer), which would not be detected simply from concentration changes. The concentration-discharge relation realigned through the marsh, where significant groundwater entered the wetland, increasing both concentration and discharge, yielding a small export of 93 kg over the same time period. A series of tracer injections in each wetland type will be presented to compare the streamflow- concentration patterns with the measured nutrient spiralling

  9. Restoration and Management of a Degraded Baldcypress Swamp and Freshwater Marsh in Coastal Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael G. Hunter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Central Wetlands Unit (CWU, covering 12,000 hectares in St. Bernard and Orleans Parishes, Louisiana, was once a healthy baldcypress–water tupelo swamp and fresh and low salinity marsh before construction of levees isolated the region from Mississippi River floodwaters. Construction of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO, which funneled saltwater inland from the Gulf of Mexico, resulted in a drastic ecosystem change and caused mortality of almost all trees and low salinity marsh, but closure of the MRGO has led to decreases in soil and surface water salinity. Currently, the area is open water, brackish marsh, and remnant baldcypress stands. We measured hydrology, soils, water and sediment chemistry, vegetation composition and productivity, accretion, and soil strength to determine relative health of the wetlands. Vegetation species richness is low and above- and belowground biomass is up to 50% lower than a healthy marsh. Soil strength and bulk density are low over much of the area. A baldcypress wetland remains near a stormwater pumping station that also has received treated municipal effluent for about four decades. Based on the current health of the CWU, three restoration approaches are recommended, including: (1 mineral sediment input to increase elevation and soil strength; (2 nutrient-rich fresh water to increase productivity and buffer salinity; and (3 planting of freshwater forests, along with fresh and low salinity herbaceous vegetation.

  10. ADVANCED LAND COVER MAPPING OF TROPICAL PEAT SWAMP ECOSYSTEM USING AIRBORNE DISCRETE RETURN LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solichin Manuri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to better understand tropical peat ecosystems for restoration and climate change mitigation is often hampered by the lack of availability accurate and detailed data on vegetation cover and hydrologys, which is typically only derived from detailed and high-resolution imaging or field-based measurements. The aims of this study were to explore the potential advantage of airborne discrete-return lidar for mapping of forest cover in peat swamp forests. We used 2.8 pulse.m-1 lidar and the associated 1-m DTM derived from an airborne platform. The lidar dataset fully covered a 120 thousand hectare protection forest in Central Kalimantan. We extracted maximum vegetation heights in 5-m grid resolution to allow detailed mapping of the forest. We followed forest definition from FAO for forest and non-forest classification. We found that lidar was able to capture detail variation of canopy height in high-resolution, thus provide more accurate classification. A comparison with existing maps suggested that the lidar-derived vegetation map was more consistent in defining canopy structure of the vegetation, with small standard deviations of the mean height of each class.

  11. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  12. Groundwater hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The international conference on Advances in Ground-Water Hydrology was held November 16-19, 1988, in Tampa, Fla. More than 320 scientists and engineers attended the conference, which was dedicated to the memory of the late C. V. Theis, formerly with the U.S. Geological Survey, an AGU Fellow, holder of the Robert E. Horton Medal, and member of the AGU Hydrology Section since 1934. The 3-day meeting had presentations by more than 100 speakers from Canada, Europe, and the U.S. The conference was organized to review advances in hydrology in the past 10 years. Discussions were held on the need for research and practical applications in groundwater hydrology for the 1990s. The conference was sponsored by the American Institute of Hydrology, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Universities Council on Water Resources, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, American Geological Institute, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, American Water Resources Association, Geological Society of America, and International Association of Hydrogeologists.

  13. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo Swamp Uganda: processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Nakivubo swamp is located in Uganda, near its capital Kampala, and has been receiving wastewater from Kampala for over 30 years. This swamp consists of a floating root mat co-dominated by the sedges Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum. Tbe partially treated wastewater mostly flows

  14. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Nelson; Neil C. Dulohery; Randall K. Kolka; William H. McKee

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River swamp, a 3020 ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River, USA is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically, the swamp consisted of approximately 50% bald cypress-water tupelo (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica) stands, 40% mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and...

  15. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  16. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to

  17. Population density of red langurs in Sabangau tropical peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers Smith, David A; Ehlers Smith, Yvette C

    2013-08-01

    Because of the large-scale destruction of Borneo's rainforests on mineral soils, tropical peat-swamp forests (TPSFs) are increasingly essential for conserving remnant biodiversity, particularly in the lowlands where the majority of habitat conversion has occurred. Consequently, effective strategies for biodiversity conservation are required, which rely on accurate population density and distribution estimates as a baseline. We sought to establish the first population density estimates of the endemic red langur (Presbytis rubicunda) in Sabangau TPSF, the largest remaining contiguous lowland forest-block on Borneo. Using Distance sampling principles, we conducted line transect surveys in two of Sabangau's three principle habitat sub-classes and calculated group density at 2.52 groups km⁻² (95% CI 1.56-4.08) in the mixed-swamp forest sub-class. Based on an average recorded group size of 6.95 individuals, population density was 17.51 ind km⁻², the second highest density recorded in this species. The accessible area of the tall-interior forest, however, was too disturbed to yield density estimates representative of the entire sub-class, and P. rubicunda was absent from the low-pole forest, likely as a result of the low availability of the species' preferred foods. This absence in 30% of Sabangau's total area indicates the importance of in situ population surveys at the habitat-specific level for accurately informing conservation strategies. We highlight the conservation value of TPSFs for P. rubicunda given the high population density and large areas remaining, and recommend 1) quantifying the response of P. rubicunda to the logging and burning of its habitats; 2) surveying degraded TPSFs for viable populations, and 3) effectively delineating TPSF sub-class boundaries from remote imagery to facilitate population estimates across the wider peat landscape, given the stark contrast in densities found across the habitat sub-classes of Sabangau. © 2013 Wiley

  18. The inorganic chemistry of peat from the Maunachira channel-swamp system, Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.S.; McIver, J.R.; Cairncross, B.; Ellery, W.N.; Ellery, K.

    1989-05-01

    The Okavango Delta is a large (18000 km/sup 2/), low gradient (1:3600), alluvial fan situated in the semi-arid Kalahari basin of northern Botswana. Seasonal floodwaters from tropical Angola disperse on the fan creating both perennial (6000 km/sup 2/) and seasonal (7000 to 12000 km/sup 2/) swamps. Ninety-five percent of this water is lost annually by evapotranspiration. Organic rich sediment (peat) is a major sediment of the perennial swamps. Peat formation commences during senescence of the plants, when certain nutrients are recycled while others are lost by rainwater leaching. Further changes in chemistry occur during subaqueous decay of the plants which involve both gains and losses of constituents. Decaying plants trap detrital mineral matter which becomes an integral part of the peat. The main sources and forms of inorganic matter in the peat are: allochthonous kaolinite (40%) and quartz (20%) and both allochthonous and autochthonous phytolithic silica (30%). several inorganic components (Fe, K, P, Na, Ca and Mg) which make up the remaining 10% are associated with the organic fraction. Ion exchange plays only a minor part in their uptake and it seems that these metals are taken up during bacterial activity in the peat. The weight proportion of inorganic matter (ash) decreases downstream, mainly due to a decrease in allochthonous mineral matter. Volume percentage also decreases but is low throughout, generally less than five percent. This study has revealed that the low-quantity allochthonous mineral matter is the main reason for the long-term survival of this ecosystem. Uptake of soluble ions by the peat is important in off-setting evaporative concentration of metals. 36 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Vegetation analyses of Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDI MIRMANTO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirmanto E (2010 Vegetation analyses of Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. Biodiversitas 11: 82-88. The vegetation analysis study has been made in Sebangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. Eight permanent plots of 50-m x 50-m were set-up distribute from close to the river with shallow peat-layer up to the inland with relatively deep peat-layer. Enumeration of trees (GBH > 15 cm was conducted in all of 8 plots. Overall there are 133 species (taxa were recorded within 8 plots belong to 34 families where Dipterocarpaceae, Clusiaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae were the most dominant family. Out of all species recorded, Combretocarpus rotundatus, Palaquium leiocarpum, Stemonurus scorpioides and Tristania whittiana were the most dominant species. Two community’s types namely Combretocarpus rotundatus-Shorea balangeran community and Palaquium leiocarpum-Eugenia densinervium community were recognized and they distributed in slightly different habitat condition. The sequence of these two communities’ shows significantly related to both distances to river and peat-depth. In addition there was indication the presence of habitat preference among tree species.

  20. Relationships among plants, soils and microbial communities along a hydrological gradient in the New Jersey Pinelands, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shen; Ehrenfeld, Joan G

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the role of different components of hydrology in structuring wetland communities is not well developed. A sequence of adjacent wetlands located on a catenary sequence of soils and receiving the same sources and qualities of water is used to examine specifically the role of water-table median position and variability in affecting plant and microbial community composition and soil properties. Two replicates of three types of wetland found adjacent to each other along a hydrological gradient in the New Jersey Pinelands (USA) were studied. Plant-community and water-table data were obtained within a 100-m(2) plot in each community (pine swamp, maple swamp and Atlantic-white-cedar swamp). Monthly soil samples from each plot were analysed for soil moisture, organic matter, extractable nitrogen fractions, N mineralization rate and microbial community composition. Multivariate ordination methods were used to compare patterns among sites within and between data sets. The maple and pine wetlands were more similar to each other in plant community composition, soil properties and microbial community composition than either was to the cedar swamps. However, maple and pine wetlands differed from each other in water-table descriptors as much as they differed from the cedar swamps. All microbial communities were dominated by Gram-positive bacteria despite hydrologic differences among the sites. Water-table variability was as important as water-table level in affecting microbial communities. Water tables affect wetland communities through both median level and variability. Differentiation of both plant and microbial communities are not simple transforms of differences in water-table position, even when other hydrologic factors are kept constant. Rather, soil genesis, a result of both water-table position and geologic history, appears to be the main factor affecting plant and microbial community similarities.

  1. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  2. THE DISTRIBUTION AND BIODIVERSITY OF FISHES IN LEBAK PAMPANGAN SWAMP SOUTH SUMATRA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Muthmainah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the fish distribution and biodiversity within three types of swamp ecosystem with different water sources in Pampangan Sub-district during July to December 2011. The field observation were conducted in three different types of swamp. Ecological data and samples were collected from three sampling points in each swamp type. Parameters including local distribution, diversity index, similarity index, evenness and species richness, were analyzed. The results show a number of 9,723 fishes corresponding to 46 species were collected, the fish categorized into 16 families belonging to five orders. Eight species were found in all type of swamps i.e. Mystus nemurus, Channa striata, Cyclocheilchthys apogon, Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Pristolepis fasciata, Puntius lineatus, Osteochillus hasselti, and Trichogaster pectoralis. A diversity index of fishes in Pampangan Swamp ranged from 2.31 to 2.85, indicating moderate values. The evenness index was high more than 50%. The highest similarity was found between type 1 and type 3 of (0.43. The highest diversity index (2.85 found in type 2 of swamp indicates the swamp in more stable condition.

  3. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-11-14

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  4. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Cooksey-Stowers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision. Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16. Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05 and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01. Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  5. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity. PMID:29135909

  6. SWAMP+: multiple subsequence alignment using associative massive parallelism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfadt, Shannon Irene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Johnnie W [KENT STATE UNIV.

    2010-10-18

    A new parallel algorithm SWAMP+ incorporates the Smith-Waterman sequence alignment on an associative parallel model known as ASC. It is a highly sensitive parallel approach that expands traditional pairwise sequence alignment. This is the first parallel algorithm to provide multiple non-overlapping, non-intersecting subsequence alignments with the accuracy of Smith-Waterman. The efficient algorithm provides multiple alignments similar to BLAST while creating a better workflow for the end users. The parallel portions of the code run in O(m+n) time using m processors. When m = n, the algorithmic analysis becomes O(n) with a coefficient of two, yielding a linear speedup. Implementation of the algorithm on the SIMD ClearSpeed CSX620 confirms this theoretical linear speedup with real timings.

  7. Weeds optimally grow in peat swamp after burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Susanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After clearing land by burning the peat, then the weeds and undergrowth will flourish. Even sometimes, the weeds are eventually burned again. Weed is known as a destroyer plant that has to be controlled. Through proper treatment, the existing weeds in peatlands can be potentiallly exploited. The purpose of this study was to determine the calorific value of briquettes as one of peatland weeds utilization. The results showed that the calorific value ranged from 2,492 cal/g to 5,230 cal/g. The lowest calorific value was on ‘teki kecil’ grass (Scirpus grossus Lf, while the highest calorific value was observed for ‘bantalaki grass’ (Hymenachne amplexicaulis Nees. The high calorific value of the peat weeds are potential for biomass briquettes raw materials. The utilization and use of peat weed briquettes as a raw materials expected can reduce land degradation due to peat swamp burning

  8. A Contribution towards a Vascular Flora of the Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This flora is an enumeration of the vascular plants growing without cultivation in the Great Dismal Swamp. It is hoped that this work will be of value to the rapidly...

  9. Final Environmental Impact Statement For The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp Refuge Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies,...

  10. Swainson’s Warbler And the Cowbird In The Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii , is a fairly common breeding bird in the Dismal Swamp of Virginia and North Carolina where it is near the northern limit...

  11. A Report Concerning the Soils of a Portion of the Okefenokee Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains description of vegetation and organic and mineral soil of the Okefenokee Swamp. This report covers the investigations made on a tract of the...

  12. Environmental Impact Statement Master Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following report describes the proposed master plan for long range management and development of Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge and compares the...

  13. Water Control System In The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reference is made to your letter of 21 September 1977, requesting a description of the water control system in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge....

  14. Developmental History and Ecology of the Dismal Swamp with Recommendations for Public Ownership and Management 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report discusses the development and history of the Dismal Swamp and proposes the designation of a Research Natural Area. Management and research needs are...

  15. Peat deposits Of Dismal Swamp Pocosins, Camdem, Currituck, Gates, Pasquotank, And Perquimans Counties, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Peat is present in the Dismal Swamp of northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia. In North Carolina the peat is in 4 separate deposits located west,...

  16. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Notes On The Amphibians And Reptiles Of The Great Dismal Swamp Of Virginia And North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp encompasses approximately 200,000 acres in southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina. As with this paper, most of the published...

  19. Aerial Orthophotography, Interpretation and Forest Type Mapping on Great Dismal Swamp NWR.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sewall forest typing services for the Northern portion of Great Dismal Swamp NWR in northeastern North Carolina. This includes complete new aerial photography and...

  20. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  1. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge FY 1994 Prescribed Fire Proposal Plan Remnant Marsh

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses...

  2. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  3. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  4. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  5. Assessment of mercury contamination in bats at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — While bats at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GDSNWR) have relatively low mean blood and fur Hg concentrations compared to point source...

  6. A survey of contaminants in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A contaminant survey was conducted in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge to determine the extent of contamination entering the Refuge from sources near...

  7. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  8. Synopsis Of Planning Needs And Issues Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan January, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies,...

  9. 75 FR 8107 - Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Bibb and Twiggs Counties, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation/photography, environmental education/interpretation... opportunities for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation, wildlife photography, and environmental education and... impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment for Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). In the...

  10. Influence Of Species, Season, And Soil On Foliar Macronutrients In The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Leaf macronutrient variation was studied in four plant communities in the Dismal Swamp of Virginia. Soils and species composition differed markedly between sites....

  11. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  12. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  13. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  14. Public Use Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge October 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp Refuge Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies,...

  15. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  16. A Water Budget and Water Quality Study of the Dismal Swamp Thesis Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main objective of this project is to determine the change in water quality throughout a section of the Dismal Swamp and to calculate the water budget for the...

  17. What does the study of swamp ecological transition(s) tell us about past climatic conditions in East Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinet, Sarah; Huguet, Arnaud; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Anquetil, Christelle; Kolaczek, Piotr; Kolaczek, Monika; Galka, Marius; Williamson, David; Bergonzini, Laurent; Majule, Amos; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Wagner, Thomas; Derenne, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands represent only 3-5% of the total world land cover (Gorham, 1991) but approximately 20-30% of the total carbon storage of the world. However, they have so far been scarcely used as paleoclimate archives. The aim of this work was to reconstruct past climate and ecological changes through a high-resolution multi-proxy study of a 4 m peat core collected in the Kyambangunguru swamp (SW Tanzania). This core covers the last 4,000 years based on 14C dating of bulk organic matter and macro-remains. Microscopic observations ‒ macro-remains, micro-fossils, palynofacies and pollen ‒ and geochemical analyses ‒ organic carbon and nitrogen contents, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (br GDGTs), n-alkanes and their H isotopic composition ‒ were combined to track potential ecological changes in the swamp and to relate them to climate forcings. This approach revealed an abrupt ecological transition ca. 2,300 yrs BP ago, when the ecosystem likely changed from a lake to a marsh. In addition, climate variations were investigated through the analysis of specific organic compounds, i.e. long chain n-alkanes and br GDGTs. On the one hand, the change in ecosystem functioning seems associated with an increase in mean annual air temperature of ca. 1 °C according to br GDGT-derived temperature estimates. On the other hand, the hydrogen isotopic composition of plant derived n-alkanes (δ²Hwax), which is related to the isotopic signature of precipitations and with hydrological regimes, did not show any abrupt shift at this period. In conclusion, high coherence between vegetation changes and climate modifications recorded by different proxies was observed along the core. They all indicate the transition from a lake to an acidic marsh ca. 2300 years ago. The onset of marsh formation may have been driven by hydroseral succession processes, i.e. the lake overgrowth by macrophytes, and may have been favoured by a warming climate and a long-term progressive trend

  18. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to remove nutrients and pathogens from wastewater in a sustainable way, with emphasis on describing and quantifying their pathways, transformations and budgets.

    From field studies, water balan...

  19. The Ecology of Rawa Aopa, a Peat-swamp in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Zwahlen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Rawa Aopa is a large swamp in South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia — the only major peat-swamp in this mainly mountainous island. Its vegetation and fauna are still quite poorly known. The existing information is summarized here. With the creation of new villages as part of Indonesia's transmigration programme, the human population in this area has increased very rapidly. Pressure on natural resources — especially soils and forests — is increasing, and primary forests are dwindling rapidly. This in...

  20. Hydrology team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, R.

    1982-01-01

    General problems faced by hydrologists when using historical records, real time data, statistical analysis, and system simulation in providing quantitative information on the temporal and spatial distribution of water are related to the limitations of these data. Major problem areas requiring multispectral imaging-based research to improve hydrology models involve: evapotranspiration rates and soil moisture dynamics for large areas; the three dimensional characteristics of bodies of water; flooding in wetlands; snow water equivalents; runoff and sediment yield from ungaged watersheds; storm rainfall; fluorescence and polarization of water and its contained substances; discriminating between sediment and chlorophyll in water; role of barrier island dynamics in coastal zone processes; the relationship between remotely measured surface roughness and hydraulic roughness of land surfaces and stream networks; and modeling the runoff process.

  1. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  2. Hypothesis tests for hydrologic alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Charles N.; Croteau, Kelly E.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrologic systems can be altered by anthropogenic and climatic influences. While there are a number of statistical frameworks for describing and evaluating the extent of hydrologic alteration, here we present a new framework for assessing whether statistically significant hydrologic alteration has occurred, or whether the shift in the hydrologic regime is consistent with the natural variability of the system. Four hypothesis tests based on shifts of flow duration curves (FDCs) are developed and tested using three different experimental designs based on different strategies for resampling of annual FDCs. The four hypothesis tests examined are the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS), Kuiper (K), confidence interval (CI), and ecosurplus and ecodeficit (Eco). Here 117 streamflow sites that have potentially undergone hydrologic alteration due to reservoir construction are examined. 20 years of pre-reservoir record is used to develop the critical value of the test statistic for type I errors of 5% and 10%, while 10 years of post-alteration record is used to examine the power of each test. The best experimental design, based on calculating the mean annual FDC from an exhaustive jackknife resampling regime, provided a larger number of unique values of each test statistic and properly reproduced type I errors. Of the four tests, the CI test consistently had the highest power, while the K test had the second highest power; KS and Eco always had the lowest power. The power of the CI test appeared related to the storage ratio of the reservoir, a rough measure of the hydrologic alteration of the system.

  3. Holocene Climate Variability in the Central North Pacific: An Organic Geochemical Record from Ka'au Crater Swamp, O'ahu, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J. H.; Beilman, D.; Timmermann, A.; Gaidos, E.; Paytan, A.

    2010-12-01

    North Pacific climate is known to have varied during the Holocene, with significant “downstream” effects on the regional climate and hydrology of western North America. Evidence from paleoclimatic studies along the northeast Pacific margin hints at several broad-scale regime shifts since the early Holocene, with spatial expressions analogous to those observed during phase shifts of the modern ENSO and PDO, though occurring on much longer (centennial to millennial) timescales. Nonetheless, the timing, magnitude and spatial patterns of Holocene rearrangements in oceanic and atmospheric circulation in the North Pacific remain incompletely defined. The main Hawaiian Islands (19 - 22 °N, 155 - 160 °W) are uniquely situated to “sample” climate variability in the subtropical, central North Pacific. Precipitation in Hawai’i is strongly influenced by the seasonal migration of the Pacific Anticyclone and the associated trade winds, and, during the winter, the frequency and intensity of westerly moisture-bearing storms. On interannual to decadal timescales, basin-wide circulation changes related to ENSO and PDO modulate trade wind strength and the occurrence of winter storm patterns, leading to local variations in precipitation. Terrestrial paleoclimatic records from Hawai’i are rare, but of great potential value to reconstruct aspects of central North Pacific atmospheric circulation during the Holocene, including the influence of the tropical ENSO system. In this study we present initial results from a 4.5 m, ~14 kyr sedimentary sequence recovered from Ka’au Crater Swamp, located near the leeward crest of the Ko’olau range of southeastern O’ahu, in a zone of high precipitation (>330 cm/yr). We utilize carbon and nitrogen elemental abundances (TOC, TN, C/N) and isotopic compositions (δ13C, δ15N) of bulk organic matter and ratios of biomarker compounds to reconstruct changes in vegetation, organic matter sources, and biogeochemical cycling in relation to

  4. A Review of the Relative Merits of Conserving, Using, or Draining Papyrus Swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Ilya M. D.; Boar, Rosalind R.; Lugo, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Wetlands are a vital resource, particularly in Africa where livelihoods are closely linked to natural capital. In recent years, extensive drainage has occurred to make way for agriculture. To gain insight into whether drainage is justified, we review the value of African wetlands dominated by Cyperus papyrus in relation to use, conservation and conversion. Evidence suggests that the value derived from low-intensity, multifunctional wetland use far exceeds the value derived from swamp reclamation and generally exceeds that of conservation. At a local level, the main driver of wetland misuse appear to be a breakdown in collaborative management regimes and the main constraint on wetland use, the value of labor and selling-times. Local drivers are linked to regional factors such as the lack of coordinated wetland policies and difficulties in ensuring that legislation is absorbed by all sectors of society. We highlight opportunities for ensuring more effective collaborative management and legislation communication, which capitalize on existing governance structures. In contrast to predictions by Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons model, we argue that effective wetland management is best achieved by preventing privatization and promoting common property management regimes. We also argue that poverty and income inequity are more important drivers of unsustainable resource use than environmental managers commonly acknowledge.

  5. Wetlands as a Record of Climate Change and Hydrological Response in Arid Rift Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, G. M.

    2004-12-01

    Of all the terrestrial depositional settings, rift basins typically provide the greatest accommodation space, and consequently have some of the longest records of continental sedimentation. Lake deposits were the only rift component studied for records of long-term climatic change and for testing hypotheses of orbital forcing. Recently, the continuing quest for the paleontological and cultural records of human origins entombed in the sedimentary rocks of the East African Rift System raised questions concerning hydrologic and biologic response to climatic change. Additional issues are the impact of climate on paleolandscapes and the environmental stresses that might have affected human evolution. Other important indicators of rift hydrology, such as springs and wetlands are now emerging as viable records of climate change. Rift valley basins are shallow, hydrologically closed systems that are responsive to shifts in climate, and specifically sensitive to changes in the hydrologic budget (P-ET). Long term wet-dry cycles in the low latitudes are thought to be astronomically controlled, i.e. Milankovitch precession cycles (19-23 ka). In the tropics, precipitation (P) varies with changes in solar insolation which fluctuates plant remains (e.g. roots, stems) pollen, phytoliths, diatoms, root casts, charcoal, carbonate and manganese-rich nodules, as well as copious evidence of bioturbation (plants and invertebrates to large vertebrate trampling). Older (Pleistocene) deposits that retain little original organic matter and plant remains are generally silicified, but otherwise the record is similar to modern wetlands. Records from Olduvai Gorge (1.85-1.75 Ma) contain springs and wetlands associated with stone tools. On shorter time-frames, a drought occurred during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and higher rainfall in East Africa during the Little Ice Age (700 BP) led to higher lake levels of Lake Naivasha and Lake Turkana (Mohamed et al. 1995; Verschuren et al. 2000) and

  6. Hydrological self-regulation of domed peatlands in south-east Asia and consequences for conservation and restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dommain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the hydrological constraints on the existence of forested peat domes (peat swamp forests in the humid tropics, the self-regulation mechanisms that enable them to persist and the implications for restoration of damaged domes. The most important requirement for the preservation of peat is permanent saturation by water. The variable input of precipitation must be translated into a constant water supply to the peat mound. In intact tropical peat swamp domes, water is stored above the peat surface in depressions between hummocks that surround tree trunks and between spreading buttress roots. This above-ground water store is analogous to the water stored in the loose upper layer of peat and vegetation in Sphagnum bogs. The horizontal differentiation of the peat swamp forest floor into hummocks with limited hydraulic conductivity and depressions with high storage capacity resembles the hummock-hollow patterning of these Sphagnum bogs. Hummocks and other surface elements functionally resemble V-notch weirs that regulate water availability. Buttressed trees play a key role in providing the structural elements for hydrological self-regulation. An additional level of regulation is found in the concentric zonation of forest types with increased presence of buttressed trees on steeper margins. Conservation and restoration efforts should take into account the inter-relationships between trees, water and peat and the hydrological feedbacks that operate as a consequence.

  7. Nonomuraea rhodomycinica sp. nov., isolated from peat swamp forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Supong, Khomsan; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2017-06-01

    The taxonomic position of an actinomycete, strain NR4-ASC07T, isolated from a soil sample collected from Sirindhorn peat swamp forest, Narathiwat Province, Thailand, was clarified using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it was classified among the members of the genus Nonomuraea. It produced tightly closed spiral spore chains on aerial mycelium as well as forming a pseudosporangium. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, ribose, madurose and mannose. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, unknown ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipids and unknown glycolipid. Menaquiones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H0), MK-9(H2), MK-10(H4) and MK-9(H6). Predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 0 10-methyl, C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c, C16 : 0 2-OH and iso-C15 : 0. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain fell within the clade containing Nonomuraea muscovyensis FMN03T, Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. roseoviolaceaNBRC 14098T and Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. carminataNBRC 15903T. The DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data supported that strain NR4-ASC07T was clearly distinguished from the closely related species and represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea for which the name Nonomuraea rhodomycinica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NR4-ASC07T (=NBRC 112327T=TISTR 2465T).

  8. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  9. The Effects of Corrosive Chemicals on Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement Bars: I. Swamp Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyoweni Widanarko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of infrastructures using steel concrete to reinforce the strength of concrete. Steel concrete is so vulnerable to chemical compounds that can cause corrosion. It can happen due to the presence of chemical compounds in acid environment in low pH level. These chemical compounds are SO42-, Cl-, NO3-. There are many swamp area in Indonesia. The acid contents and the concentration of ion sulphate, chlorides, and nitrate are higher in the swamp water than in the ground water .The objective of this research was to find out the influence of corrosive chemicals in the swamp water to the steel concrete corrosion rate. There were two treatment used: (1 emerging ST 37 and ST 60 within 60 days in the 'polluted' swamp water, (2 moving the ST 37 up and down periodically in the ' polluted' swamp water. Three variation of 'polluted' swamp water were made by increasing the concentration of corrosive chemical up to 1X, 5X and 10X respectively. The corrosion rate was measured by using an Immersion Method. The result of Immersion test showed that chloride had the greatest influence to corrosion rate of ST 37 and ST 60 and followed by sulphate and Nitrate. Corrosion rate value for ST 37 is 24.29 mpy and for ST 60 is 22.76 mpy. By moving the sample up and down, the corrosion rate of ST 37 increase up to 37.59 mpy, and chloride still having the greatest influence, followed by sulphate and nitrate.

  10. HYDROLOGY, SANDUSKY COUNTY, OHIO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGY, TALLAHATCHIE COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. Hydrology, MECKLENBURG COUNTY, NC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, LAFAYETTE COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, LEE COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, GREENE County, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, CUSTER COUNTY, SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, WARREN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGY, Lawrence County, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, HOUSTON COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating ALood discharges for a ALood Insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, CITRUS COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, JEFFERSON COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, Cass COUNTY, IN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, CLAY COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, NEWTON COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, CHISAGO COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, GLADES COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  7. HYDROLOGY, Allegheny County, PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, SCOTT COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, Butler COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, MUSKINGUM COUNTY, OHIO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. Hydrology, ANDROSCOGGIN COUNTY, MAINE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGY, SUMNER COUNTY, TN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, HARVEYCOUNTY, KS USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, JACKSON COUNTY, OHIO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, QUITMAN COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, SUNFLOWER COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, STEARNS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGY, POWESHIEK COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. Nutrition and feeding of swamp buffalo: feed resources and rumen approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rowlins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal feed resources are of prime importance for swamp buffaloes to support the efficient production under the prevailing small-holder farming systems. Manipulations of rumen microorganisms, fermentation and subsequent absorption by the animals are essential. Current research work on locally available feed resources such as urea-treated rice straw, cassava hay etc. revealed significant improvement in rumen ecology with higher cellulolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores and subsequent fermentation endproducts. However, investigation of rumen microorganisms diversity of swamp buffalo and their roles in fermentation using molecular technique especially the use of PCR – DGGE/ Real Time- PCR warrant future research undertakings.

  20. Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lydia E S; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c. 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance. Evidence for episodes of climatic variability, predominantly linked to ENSO events, and wildfires is present throughout. However, in the last c. 500 years, burning and indicators of human disturbance have elevated beyond past levels at these sites, concurrent with a reduction in peat swamp forest pollen. 4. Two key insights have been gained through this palaeoecological analysis: (i) peat swamp forest vegetation has demonstrated resilience to disturbance caused by burning and climatic variability in Sarawak in the late Holocene, however (ii) coincident with increased fire combined with human impact c. 500 years ago, these communities started to decline. 5.Synthesis. Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggest that recent, anthropogenic disturbances are of a greater magnitude, causing

  1. Naturally occurring hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The study of naturally occurring hazardous materials (NOHMs) was conceived as a proactive response to assure that the Oregon : Department of Transportation (ODOT) maintenance and construction activities take the presence of NOHMs into account. The la...

  2. Deforestation projections for carbon-rich peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Douglas O; Hardiono, Martin; Meijaard, Erik

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated three spatially explicit land use and cover change (LUCC) models to project deforestation from 2005-2020 in the carbon-rich peat swamp forests (PSF) of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Such models are increasingly used to evaluate the impact of deforestation on carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. We considered both business-as-usual (BAU) and a forest protection scenario to evaluate each model's accuracy, sensitivity, and total projected deforestation and landscape-level fragmentation patterns. The three models, Dinamica EGO (DE), GEOMOD and the Land Change Modeler (LCM), projected similar total deforestation amounts by 2020 with a mean of 1.01 million ha (Mha) and standard deviation of 0.17 Mha. The inclusion of a 0.54 Mha strict protected area in the LCM simulations reduced projected loss to 0.77 Mha over 15 years. Calibrated parameterizations of the models using nearly identical input drivers produced very different landscape properties, as measured by the number of forest patches, mean patch area, contagion, and Euclidean nearest neighbor determined using Fragstats software. The average BAU outputs of the models suggests that Central Kalimantan may lose slightly less than half (45.1%) of its 2005 PSF by 2020 if measures are not taken to reduce deforestation there. The relatively small reduction of 0.24 Mha in deforestation found in the 0.54 Mha protection scenario suggests that these models can identify potential leakage effects in which deforestation is forced to occur elsewhere in response to a policy intervention.

  3. Supporting world hydrology: Activities of International Hydrological Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, John C.

    When George Bernard Shaw, through the exertions of professor Higgins, caused Eliza Doolittle to recite “The rain in Spain stays mainly on the plain,” he was most probably completely unaware of the hydrological consequences of the event. Not so the several agencies that together make up the Spanish hydrological service and are listed in the INFOHYDRO Manual [World Meteorological Organization, 1987]. They and their counterparts in the 159 other member countries of the World Meteorological Organization are intimately involved in routinely observing, recording, analyzing and forecasting the procession of hydrological phenomena that occur within their territories (Figure 1). These phenomena include floods and droughts, soil erosion, pollution incidents, landslides, avalanches, river ice formation and its break up in the spring. These agencies are also involved in water-resource assessment—just how much of the precipitation is available for man to use, primarily from the water draining out of a basin as river flows, and also from the water stored within it. When these responsibilities that link water issues with a variety of environmental matters are added to assessments of water usage in the different sectors, then the wide ranging and important responsibilities of hydrological services become very apparent. Perhaps Shaw was prudent in restricting Eliza's utterances, rather than lacking in perspective—“prolonged precipitation in Peru provokes problems for operational hydrology” would not have exercised her vowels to the same extent.

  4. Oil spill impact on the finfish of Azhiwari swamp, Joinkrama in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of an oil spill on surface water, sediment and finfish assemblage characteristics in a freshwater swamp forest was assessed by dividing the wetland into four zones on the basis of spilled oil cover on the water surface – High Impact Zone (HIZ >60%), Medium Impact Zone (MIZ 30 – 60%), Low Impact Zone - (LIZ 5 ...

  5. Effect of gas flaring on plants in a tropical fresh water swamp forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An oil field in a fresh water swamp forest was visited during the wet and dry seasons to assess the impact of gas flaring on vegetation in the area. Gas flaring attracts yam beetles (Heteroligus spp.) and grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates) to the area, and these attack crops. Generally, the nearer plantain (Musa sp.) and oil ...

  6. Floristic composition and diversity of three swamp forests in northwest Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, T.R. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the floristic composition, vegetation structure, and diversity of three types of swamp forest that cover a considerable part of Guyana’s North-West District. Trees, shrubs, lianas, herbs, and hemi-epiphytes were inventoried in three hectare plots: one in Mora forest, one in

  7. Management of Bottomland Hardwoods and Deepwater Swamps for Threatened and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Zone Species II III IV V VI Acer negundo (boxelder) X X X X Acer rubrum (red maple) X X X X Alnus serrulata (common alder) X X X Amorpha...virginiana (persimmon) X X X X Euonymus americanus (strawberry bush) X X Fagus grandifolia (American beech) X X Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet) X

  8. Diversity and Antagonistic Activity of Actinomycete Strains From Myristica Swamp Soils Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Rlnoy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the present investigation Actinomycetes were isolated from the soils of Myristica swamps of southern Western Ghats and the antagonistic activity against different human bacterial pathogens was evaluated. Results of the present study revealed that Actinomycetes population in the soils of Myristica swamp was spatially and seasonally varied. Actinomycetes load was varied from 24×104 to 71×103, from 129×103 to 40×103 and from 31×104 to 84×103 in post monsoon, monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. A total of 23 Actinomycetes strains belonging to six genera were isolated from swamp soils. Identification of the isolates showed that most of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces (11, followed by Nocardia (6, Micromonospora (3, Pseudonocardia (1, Streptosporangium (1, and Nocardiopsis (1. Antagonistic studies revealed that 91.3% of Actinomycete isolates were active against one or more tested pathogens, of that 56.52% exhibited activity against Gram negative and 86.95% showed activity against Gram positive bacteria. 39.13% isolates were active against all the bacterial pathogens selected and its inhibition zone diameter was also high. 69.5% of Actinomycetes were exhibited antibacterial activity against Listeria followed by Bacillus cereus (65.21%, Staphylococcus (60.86%, Vibrio cholera (52.17%, Salmonella (52.17% and E. coli (39.13%. The results indicate that the Myristica swamp soils of Southern Western Ghats might be a remarkable reserve of Actinomycetes with potential antagonistic activity.

  9. Potential roles of fish, birds, and water in swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata) seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan B. Adams; Paul B. Hamel; Kristina Connor; Bryce Burke; Emile S. Gardiner; David Wise

    2007-01-01

    Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet) is a common wetland shrub/small tree native to the southeastern United States. We examined several possible dispersal avenues for the plant. We tested germination of seeds exposed to various treatments, including passage through Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh) guts, and conducted other...

  10. Decline of the Maurepas Swamp, Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, and Approaches to Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P. Shaffer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maurepas swamp is the second largest contiguous coastal forest in Louisiana but it is highly degraded due to subsidence, near permanent flooding, nutrient starvation, nutria herbivory, and saltwater intrusion. Observed tree mortality rates at study sites in the Maurepas swamp are very high (up to 100% tree mortality in 11 years and basal area decreased with average salinities of <1 ppt. Habitat classification, vegetation productivity and mortality, and surface elevation changes show a clear trajectory from stagnant, nearly permanently flooded forests with broken canopy to degraded forests with sparse baldcypress and dominated by herbaceous species and open water to open water habitat for most of the Maurepas swamp without introduction of fresh water to combat saltwater intrusion and stimulate productivity and accretion. Healthy forests in the Maurepas are receiving fresh water containing nutrients and sediments from urban areas, high quality river water, or secondarily treated municipal effluent. Currently, two proposed diversions into the swamp are via Hope Canal (57 m3·s−1 and Blind River (142 m3·s−1. These diversions would greatly benefit their immediate area but they are too small to influence the entire Maurepas sub-basin, especially in terms of accretion. A large diversion (>1422 m3·s−1 is needed to deliver the adequate sediments to achieve high accretion rates and stimulate organic soil formation.

  11. Survey of economic trees in fresh water swamp of Calabar | Okon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of economic trees namely Elaeis guineensis (oil-palm) and Colocasia esculenta (taro) in fresh water swamp, Calabar was conducted. The survey area located in the vicinity of Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH), Calabar premises covered an area of 0.5km x 0.2km was divided into five plots (A – E).

  12. Logged peat swamp forest supports greater macrofungal biodiversity than large-scale oil palm plantations and smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-09-01

    Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.

  13. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  14. Seasonal and interannual changes of hydrological regime of the Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Elena; Kouraev, Alexei; Kolmakova, Maria; Bazanov, Vladimir; Skugarev, Andrei; Berezin, Alexander; Kirpotin, Sergei; Zemtsov, Valeriy; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Mognard, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Western Siberia is a large region with mostly flat relief, that lead to the formation of a multitude of interconnected natural objects - large and small rivers streams, large floodplains, lakes, bogs etc. . Flooded areas and bogs also act as a buffer zone, providing a dampening "sponge" effect on the water redistribution within the river system. Large area covered by rivers and wetlands results in high rate of evaporation compared to any other large boreal watershed. Two contrasting processes are actually occurring in the Southern and Northern parts of the region. In the south, there is a progressive swamping which leads to forest death. In the north, there is a thermokarst activity or thawing permafrost in palsas of sub-arctic zone of Western Siberia. We present the results of systematization and classification of landscape patterns, as well as study of variability of hydrological processes in the study region at different temporal (from multi-year to seasonal) and spatial (from local to regional) scales through a multidisciplinary approach based on in situ and remote sensing data. Radar altimetry (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, GFO, ENVISAT), radiometry (SMMR, SSM/I) and optical data (Landsat) are used in combination with the in situ observations and the recent field studies done in 2008 and 2009. We present the variability of water level (from radar altimetry) and surface properties (from altimeter waveforms parameters) for the 21 mid-size watersheds of the Ob' river system and Nadym, Pur and Taz rivers. Seasonal and interannual variability of water abundance is studied using radar altimetry and radiometry. We analyse the role of the snow cover in the formation and seasonal distribution of runoff in the region of Poluy, Nadym, Pur and Taz rivers by using in situ and satellite estimates of the snow water equivalent. This research has been done in the framework of the Russian-French cooperation GDRI "CAR-WET-SIB", French ANR "IMPACT-Boreal" project and FP7 MONARCH

  15. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  16. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge FY 1994 Prescribed Fire Proposal Plan Fringe Marsh-Highway 158

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses...

  17. Effects of historical and active nursery operations on the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents preliminary reconnaissance data on sediment and fish samples collected within the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GSNWR) Tract 141A - the...

  18. Dismal Swamp In Legend And History: George Washington Owned Large Tracts in Region Which He Described as a "Glorious Paradise"

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ever since it was first explored, Dismal Swamp has remained a mystery place. Its last Indian disappeared around the 179o's, but in its depths it is almost as wild...

  19. A Compositional Study Of The Phytoplankton Of Lake Drummond And The Rivers And Canals That Drain The Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A six-week study of the phytoplankton in Lake Drummond and the canals and river which drain the Dismal Swamp resulted in the identification of 110 species. These...

  20. Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, D J; Gillies, A D; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P

    1986-05-12

    Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Nerium oleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning.

  1. [Amphibians and reptiles in the swamps dominated by the palm Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Beneyto, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    The herpetofauna that inhabits Caribbean Costa Rica has received considerable attention in the last two decades. This assemblage includes a total of 141 species of reptiles and 95 amphibians mostly distributed in tropical wet and moist lowland forests. While most information available came from primary and secondary forest sites, little is known about the amphibians and reptiles that inhabit more open habitats, such as wetlands and swamps. For instances, swaps dominated by the yolillo palm Raphia taedigera extend through much of the northeastern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and eastern Nicaragua, but information about the herpetological community that uses such environments remains practically unknown. This situation reflects the little research conducted in such inhospitable environments. Here, we report the results of an intensive survey conducted to assess the herpetological community that inhabit R. taedigera palm-swamps. A total of 14 species of amphibians and 17 of reptiles have been recorded from these swamps. Amphibians and reptiles that inhabit yolillo swamps have wide distributions along much of Middle America and are considered common species throughout their range. In general, yolillo swamps are poor environments for herpetofauna: richness of reptiles and amphibians is almost two times higher in the adjacent forest than in the palm dominated swamps. Furthermore, most species observed in this swamps can be considered habitat generalists that are well adapted to the extreme conditions imposed by the changes in hydroperiods, reduce understory cover, low tree diversity and simple forest architecture of these environments. Despite similarities in the herpetofauna, it is clear that not all forest species use yolillo habitat, a characteristic that is discussed in terms of physical stress driven by the prolonged hydroperiod and reduced leaflitter in the ground, as these features drive habitat structure and herpetofaunal complexity. Our list of species using

  2. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  3. Hydrological modelling in forested systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief overview of forest hydrology modelling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. Many hundreds of hydrological models have been applied globally across multiple decades to represent and predict forest hydrological p...

  4. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  5. Hands-On Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  6. Hydrologic Services Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    A course to develop an understanding of the scope of water resource activities, of the need for forecasting, of the National Weather Service's role in hydrology, and of the proper procedures to follow in fulfilling this role is presented. The course is one of self-help, guided by correspondence. Nine lessons are included: (1) Hydrology in the…

  7. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  8. AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M

    2006-10-09

    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.

  9. AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M

    2007-04-04

    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.

  10. Restoration and Management of a Degraded Baldcypress Swamp and Freshwater Marsh in Coastal Louisiana

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael G. Hunter; John W. Day; Gary P. Shaffer; Robert R. Lane; Andrew J. Englande; Robert Reimers; Demetra Kandalepas; William B. Wood; Jason N. Day; Eva Hillmann

    2016-01-01

    The Central Wetlands Unit (CWU), covering 12,000 hectares in St. Bernard and Orleans Parishes, Louisiana, was once a healthy baldcypress–water tupelo swamp and fresh and low salinity marsh before construction of levees isolated the region from Mississippi River floodwaters. Construction of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO), which funneled saltwater inland from the Gulf of Mexico, resulted in a drastic ecosystem change and caused mortality of almost all trees and low salinity marsh, but...

  11. Aquatic organisms as amber inclusions and examples from a modern swamp forest

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Alexander R.; Dilcher, David L.

    2007-01-01

    To find aquatic organisms in tree resin may seem to be highly unlikely, but the fossil record provides numerous amber-preserved limnetic arthropods (e.g., water beetles, water striders, and crustaceans) and microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, algae, ciliates, testate amoebae, and rotifers). Here we explain the frequently discussed process of embedding aquatic organisms in tree resin based on field studies in a Florida swamp forest. Different aquatic arthropods and all major groups of limnetic mic...

  12. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Sheng; Wei Zhao; Ying Song; Zhigang Li; Majing Luo; Quan Lei; Hanhua Cheng; Rongjia Zhou

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transf...

  13. Latitudinal variation in carbon storage can help predict changes in swamps affected by global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Plants may offer our best hope of removing greenhouse gases (gases that contribute to global warming) emitted to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. At the same time, global warming could change environments so that natural plant communities will either need to shift into cooler climate zones, or become extirpated (Prasad and Iverson, 1999; Crumpacker and others, 2001; Davis and Shaw, 2001). It is impossible to know the future, but studies combining field observation of production and modeling can help us make predictions about what may happen to these wetland communities in the future. Widespread wetland types such as baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps in the southeastern portion of the United States could be especially good at carbon sequestration (amount of CO2 stored by forests) from the atmosphere. They have high levels of production and sometimes store undecomposed dead plant material in wet conditions with low oxygen, thus keeping gases stored that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere (fig. 1). To study the ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon, our project has taken two approaches. The first analysis looked at published data to develop an idea (hypothesis) of how production levels change across a temperature gradient in the baldcypress region (published data study). The second study tested this idea by comparing production levels across a latitudinal range by using swamps in similar field conditions (ongoing carbon storage study). These studies will help us make predictions about the future ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon in soil and plant biomass, as well as the ability of these forests to shift northward with global warming.

  14. Nariva Swamp Ramsar Site, Trinidad and Tobago (West Indies) Wetland Habitat Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat Carbonell; Nadra Nathai-Gyan

    2005-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago, a twin island nation, is the most southerly of the Caribbean islands and lies just 11 km off the coast of Venezuela, near the Orinoco delta. Trinidad, the larger of the two islands, is approximately 5,000 km² and the Nariva Swamp is located on its eastern coast (fig. 1). In 1993, this site was designated as a wetland of international...

  15. Soil as indicator of hillslope hydrological behaviour in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an interactive relationship between soil and hydrology. Identifying and interpreting soil properties active in this relationship can enhance our understanding of the hydrological behaviour of soils and the hillslopes in which they occur. This study was conducted in the Weatherley research catchment, South Africa, ...

  16. Analysis of hydrological triggered clayey landslides by small scale Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spickermann, A.; Malet, J.P.; Asch, Th.W.J. van; Schanz, T.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrological processes, such as slope saturation by water, are a primary cause of landslides. This effect can occur in the form of e.g. intense rainfall, snowmelt or changes in ground-water levels. Hydrological processes can trigger a landslide and control subsequent movement. In order to forecast

  17. Repeated drought alters resistance of seed bank regeneration in baldcypress swamps of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Middleton, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Recurring drying and wetting events are likely to increase in frequency and intensity in predicted future droughts in the central USA and alter the regeneration potential of species. We explored the resistance of seed banks to successive droughts in 53 sites across the nine locations in baldcypress swamps in the southeastern USA. Along the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley and northern Gulf of Mexico, we investigated the capacity of seed banks to retain viable seeds after successive periods of drying and wetting in a greenhouse study. Mean differences in species richness and seed density were compared to examine the interactions of successive droughts, geographical location and water regime. The results showed that both species richness and total density of germinating seedlings decreased over repeated drought trials. These responses were more pronounced in geographical areas with higher annual mean temperature. In seed banks across the southeastern swamp region, most species were exhausted after Trial 2 or 3, except for semiaquatic species in Illinois and Tennessee, and aquatic species in Texas. Distinct geographical trends in seed bank resistance to drought demonstrate that climate-induced drying of baldcypress swamps could influence the regeneration of species differently across their ranges. Despite the health of adult individuals, lack of regeneration may push ecosystems into a relict status. Seed bank depletion by germination without replenishment may be a major conservation threat in a future with recurring droughts far less severe than megadrought. Nevertheless, the protection of moist refugia might aid conservation.

  18. Swamp Works: A New Approach to Develop Space Mining and Resource Extraction Technologies at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Sibille, L.; Leucht, K.; Smith, J. D.; Townsend, I. I.; Nick, A. J.; Schuler, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The first steps for In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on target bodies such as the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), and even comets, involve the same sequence of steps as in the terrestrial mining of resources. First exploration including prospecting must occur, and then the resource must be acquired through excavation methods if it is of value. Subsequently a load, haul and dump sequence of events occurs, followed by processing of the resource in an ISRU plant, to produce useful commodities. While these technologies and related supporting operations are mature in terrestrial applications, they will be different in space since the environment and indigenous materials are different than on Earth. In addition, the equipment must be highly automated, since for the majority of the production cycle time, there will be no humans present to assist or intervene. This space mining equipment must withstand a harsh environment which includes vacuum, radical temperature swing cycles, highly abrasive lofted dust, electrostatic effects, van der Waals forces effects, galactic cosmic radiation, solar particle events, high thermal gradients when spanning sunlight terminators, steep slopes into craters / lava tubes and cryogenic temperatures as low as 40 K in permanently shadowed regions. In addition the equipment must be tele-operated from Earth or a local base where the crew is sheltered. If the tele-operation occurs from Earth then significant communications latency effects mandate the use of autonomous control systems in the mining equipment. While this is an extremely challenging engineering design scenario, it is also an opportunity, since the technologies developed in this endeavor could be used in the next generations of terrestrial mining equipment, in order to mine deeper, safer, more economical and with a higher degree of flexibility. New space technologies could precipitate new mining solutions here on Earth. The NASA KSC Swamp Works is an innovation

  19. HESS Opinions "The art of hydrology"*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. G. Savenije

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological modelling is the same as developing and encoding a hydrological theory. A hydrological model is not a tool but a hypothesis. The whole discussion about the inadequacy of hydrological models we have witnessed of late, is related to the wrong concept of what a model is. Good models don't exist. Instead of looking for the "best" model, we should aim at developing better models. The process of modelling should be top-down, learning from the data while at the same time connection should be established with underlying physical theory (bottom-up. As a result of heterogeneity occurring at all scales in hydrology, there always remains a need for calibration of models. This implies that we need tailor-made and site-specific models. Only flexible models are fit for this modelling process, as opposed to most of the established software or "one-size-fits-all" models. The process of modelling requires imagination, inspiration, creativity, ingenuity, experience and skill. These are qualities that belong to the field of art. Hydrology is an art as much as it is science and engineering.

  20. Sedimentary signature of Hurricane Isaac in a Taxodium swamp on the western margin of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-B. Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Compositional and geochemical profiles were established for a 59-cm sediment core extracted from a small pothole pond in a Taxodium (bald cypress swamp 830 m inland from Lake Pontchartrain in south-eastern Louisiana, USA. The core consists of a top organic unit (peat to clayey peat from 0–29 cm above a bottom clay unit at 30–59 cm depth. Four distinct zones, marked by gradual changes in organic content and elemental concentrations, occur in the clay unit. These changes probably reflect two cycles of slowly changing water depths. Hurricane Isaac’s signature, a brown clay band at 3–5 cm, is identified based on the stratigraphic and compositional correspondence with the storm’s event layer, documented from nearby sites. Sedimentary and geochemical similarities between this material and clastic bands at 15–19 and 23–25 cm identify those two intervals as potentially representing earlier floods. The Cl/Br ratio presents a potentially useful method for distinguishing fluvial and marine flooding.

  1. The influence of fissures on landslide hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeminska, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Preferential flow occurs in many soils and it is recognized to influence soil moisture distribution and hydrological fluxes at different scales. Preferential flow paths are formed for example by soil fauna, by plant roots or soil erosion. Water plays an important role in mass movement processes:

  2. Hydrological Characteristics of Kaligarang Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soewarno Soewarno

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a result of research concerning hydrological characteristic in the Garang Catchment Area. At present tha catchment area is often facing the problem of flooding in the dense populated area with cause a lot of loos in Semarang City. This research is aimed at studying hydrological harateristic in the Garang Catchment Area. Hydrological data are obtain from direct measurement at the stream gauging stations in the Garang Catchment Area and collected from Balai Hidrologi Office at Pusat Litbang Teknologi Sumber Daya Air in Bandung and from Hydrological Unit of Central Java Province. From this research were known the rainfall depth, their distribution and their return period; runoff coefficient; streamflow volume; dependable flow; flood discharge characteristi; and minimum discharge. From the some occuring flood indicates of the runoff coefficient is about 0.70. The water volume wasted to the sea is about 195 million m3/year. Yearly average of the dependable flow at stream gaunging stations: Garang – Pajangan  is about 2.28 m3/sec; Garang – Patemon is about 0.92 m3/sec and Kreo – Pancur is about 1.26 m3/sec. Yearly mean of annual flood discharge at Garang – Pajangan is about 435 m3/sec. The maximum capacity of river channel is about 485 m3/sec. The flood discharge characteristic are as follows: time of travel of flood is generally one km/hour approximately, rising time is about 3 hours and time of recession is about 6 – 11 hours. The floods, they are generally occur at the night. Flush flood of 1022 m3/sec occured on January 26, 1990 is estimated on 50 year return period, with 15 year return period of rainfall. The range of minimum discharge is about 0.43 – 3.15 m3/sec. The maximum discharge is about 47.2 – 1118 times of the minimum discharge. Design of the dam in Kreo River at Jatibarang and Kripik River at Mundingan, also increasing of the reforestation area in the upstream catchment are an alternative to reduce the

  3. Facets of Hydrology II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Frank J.

    The editor states that this book should have a wide appeal to the research hydrologist, to operational hydrologists, and to those who have only a limited knowledge or are beginners in the study of hydrology. I agree with the editor that this publication should appeal to a large cross section of people whose interests lie in the various facets of hydrology.This publication takes a look at the newest interpretational tools available to hydrologists, such as environmental satellites. It considers a diverse menu of topics, such as sediment load of rivers, water resource systems, water quality monitoring, and the physical aspects of lakes. The volume also presents a look at international organizations that are concerned with worldwide water problems. The quality, quantity, and distribution of water over the globe is covered unde the topic headings “Large Scale Water Transfers,” “Technology Transfer in Hydrology,” and “The Organization of Hydrologic Services.”

  4. Allegheny County Hydrology Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  5. Global Hydrology Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GHRC is the data management and user services arm of the Global Hydrology and Climate Center. It encompasses the data and information management, supporting...

  6. Hydrologic Engineering Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), an organization within the Institute for Water Resources, is the designated Center of Expertise for the U.S. Army Corps of...

  7. Hydrological or economical obligation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorucci E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A short comment is made about the obligation of the forest management plan in Italy, that was established as an economical (not hydrological obligation according to the Luzzatti law of 1910.

  8. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  9. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  10. Allegheny County Hydrology Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Hydrology Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled water drainage features and structures including rivers, streams, drainage canals, locks, dams,...

  11. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  12. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  13. The photosynthetic characteristics of papyrus in a tropical swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M B

    1987-02-01

    Photosynthesis and transpiration was measured in the large emergent C4 sedge Cyperus papyrus (papyrus) which occupies wide areas of wetland on the African continent. The maximum observed value of net assimilation was 35 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 at full sunlight but light saturation of photosynthesis did not occur. The quantum yield of photosynthesis obtained from the initial slope of the light response curves (0.06 mol mol-1 incident light) was relatively high and close to previously recorded values for some C4 grasses. Measurements made over two days showed that stomatal conductance was sensitive to the ambient air vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and was consistently lower on the day when VPD's were higher. There was, however, no marked midday closure of the stomata. Photosynthesis was also reduced on the day when VPD's were higher. The relationship between net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was close to linear over the range of measurement conditions, with the result that intercellular CO2 concentrations (C i ) did not vary markedly. There was some evidence that C i decreased at high VPD's. The regulation of stomatal movement in papyrus appears to minimise excessive water loss while not severely limiting photosynthesis. The significance of this strategy for a wetland species with plentiful supplies of water is discussed.

  14. Massive gene swamping among cheese-making Penicillium fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Ropars

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfers (HGT, i.e., the transmission of genetic material between species not directly attributable to meiotic gene exchange, have long been acknowledged as a major driver of prokaryotic evolution and is increasingly recognized as an important source of adaptation in eukaryotes. In fungi in particular, many convincing examples of HGT have been reported to confer selective advantages on the recipient fungal host, either promoting fungal pathogenicity on plants or increasing their toxicity by the acquisition of secondary metabolic clusters, resulting in adaptation to new niches and in some cases eventually even in speciation. These horizontal gene transfers involve single genes, complete metabolic pathways or even entire chromosomes. A recent study has uncovered multiple recent horizontal transfers of a 575 kb genomic island in cheese Penicillium fungi, representing ca. 2% of the Penicillium roqueforti’s genome, that may confer selective advantage in the competing cheese environment where bacteria and fungi occur. Novel phylogenomic methods are being developed, revealing massive HGT among fungi. Altogether, these recent studies indicate that HGT is a crucial mechanism of rapid adaptation, even among eukaryotes.

  15. Research on Integrated Mapping——A Case Study of Integrated Land Use with Swamp Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Yan, F.; Chang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Unified real estate registration system shows the attention, determination and effort to of CPC Central Committee and State Council on real estate registration in China. However, under current situation, China's real estate registration work made less progress. One of the reasons is that it's hard to express the property right of real estate on one map under the multi-sector management system. Under current multi-sector management system in China, different departments usually just survey and mapping the land type under its jurisdiction. For example, wetland investigation only mapping all kinds of wetland resources but not mapping other resource types. As a result, it cause he problem of coincidence or leak in integration of different results from different departments. As resources of the earth's surface, the total area of forest, grassland, wetland and so on should be equal to the total area of the earth's surface area. However, under the current system, the area of all kinds of resources is not equal to the sum of the earth's surface. Therefore, it is of great importance to express all the resources on one map. On one hand, this is conducive to find out the real area and distribution of resources and avoid the problem of coincidence or leak in integration; On the other hand, it is helpful to study the dynamic change of different resources. Therefore, we first proposed the "integrated mapping" as a solution, and take integrated land use with swamp mapping in Northeast China as an example to investigate the feasibility and difficulty. Study showed that: integrated land use with swamp mapping can be achieved through combining land use survey standards with swamps survey standards and "second mapping" program. Based on the experience of integrated land use with swamp mapping, we point out its reference function on integrated mapping and unified real estate registration system. We concluded that: (1) Comprehending and integrating different survey standard of

  16. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of the Chinese Swamp Buffalo by RNA Sequencing and SSR Marker Discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingxian Deng

    Full Text Available The Chinese swamp buffalo (Bubalis bubalis is vital to the lives of small farmers and has tremendous economic importance. However, a lack of genomic information has hampered research on augmenting marker assisted breeding programs in this species. Thus, a high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing of B. bubalis was conducted to generate transcriptomic sequence dataset for gene discovery and molecular marker development. Illumina paired-end sequencing generated a total of 54,109,173 raw reads. After trimming, de novo assembly was performed, which yielded 86,017 unigenes, with an average length of 972.41 bp, an N50 of 1,505 bp, and an average GC content of 49.92%. A total of 62,337 unigenes were successfully annotated. Among the annotated unigenes, 27,025 (43.35% and 23,232 (37.27% unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases (E-value < 1.0E-5, respectively. Of these annotated unigenes, 14,439 and 15,813 unigenes were assigned to the Gene Ontology (GO categories and EuKaryotic Ortholog Group (KOG cluster, respectively. In addition, a total of 14,167 unigenes were assigned to 331 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. Furthermore, 17,401 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. One hundred and fifteen primer pairs were randomly selected for amplification to detect polymorphisms. The results revealed that 110 primer pairs (95.65% yielded PCR amplicons and 69 primer pairs (60.00% presented polymorphisms in 35 individual buffaloes. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the five swamp buffalo populations were clustered together, whereas two river buffalo breeds clustered separately. In the present study, the Illumina RNA-seq technology was utilized to perform transcriptome analysis and SSR marker discovery in the swamp buffalo without using a reference genome. Our findings will enrich the current SSR markers resources and help spearhead

  17. Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces Cerevisae + Candida Utilis) and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyuddin, P; Widiawati, Y

    2010-01-01

    A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation conta...

  18. Historic simulation of net ecosystem carbon balance for the Great Dismal Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Estimating ecosystem carbon (C) balance relative to natural disturbances and land management strengthens our understanding of the benefits and tradeoffs of carbon sequestration. We conducted a historic model simulation of net ecosystem C balance in the Great Dismal Swamp, VA. for the 30-year time period of 1985-2015. The historic simulation of annual carbon flux was calculated with the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model. The LUCAS model utilizes a state-and-transition simulation model coupled with a carbon stock-flow accounting model to estimate net ecosystem C balance, and long term sequestration rates under various ecological conditions and management strategies. The historic model simulation uses age-structured forest growth curves for four forest species, C stock and flow rates for 8 pools and 14 fluxes, and known data for disturbance and management. The annualized results of C biomass are provided in this data release in the following categories: Growth, Heterotrophic Respiration (Rh), Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), Net Biome Production (NBP), Below-ground Biomass (BGB) Stock, Above-ground Biomass (AGB) Stock, AGB Carbon Loss from Fire, BGB Carbon Loss from Fire, Deadwood Carbon Loss from Management, and Total Carbon Loss. The table also includes the area (annually) of each forest type in hectares: Atlantic white cedar Area (hectares); Cypress-gum Area (hectares); Maple-gum Area (hectares); Pond pine Area (hectares). Net ecosystem production for the Great Dismal Swamp (~ 54,000 ha), from 1985 to 2015 was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When the hurricane and six historic fire events were modeled, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and belowground C loss estimated from the South One in 2008 and Lateral West fire in 2011 totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The C loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C

  19. Hydrological extremes and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. Kundzewicz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes − floods and droughts − are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state’s task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  20. Genetic Variation of mtDNA Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI in Local Swamp Buffaloes in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saputra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify genetic variation of mitochondria DNA especially in cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI among population of Indonesian buffaloes. Samples of swamp buffaloes were collected from Aceh (n= 3, North Sumatra (n= 3, Riau (n= 3, Banten (n= 3, Central Java (n= 3, West Nusa Tenggara (n= 3 and South Sulawesi (n= 3, and riverine buffalo from North Sumatra (n= 1 out of group for comparison. Sequence of COI was analyzed using MEGA 5.10 software with neighbor-joining method kimura 2-parameter model to reconstruct phylogeny tree. The result showed that three haplotypes for swamp buffalo and one haplotype for riverine buffalo in Indonesia resulted from 41 polymorphic sites. This finding showed that the COI gene could be considered as a marker to distinguish among swamp buffaloes in Indonesia.

  1. APPLICATION OF THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE TO TRACING THE CAPILLARY FRINGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

  2. Residu Gula Glikokonjugat pada Lambung Depan Kerbau Rawa (Bubalus bubalis Kalimantan Selatan (SUGAR RESIDU OF GLYCOCONJUGATES IN FORESTOMACH OF SOUTH KALIMANTAN SWAMP BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Nurliani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of swamp buffaloes to adapt with swamp environment was suggested to be supported bytheir digestive system efficiency. The research was done to obtain scientific explanation about digestiveefficiency of swamp buffalo by identification on kinds and distribution of glycoconjugates in swamp buffaloforestomach. Six male swamp buffaloes aged more than 2.5 year old and had body weight between 300-400kg were used in this study. Samples were obtained from Regency of Banjar slaughter house, SouthKalimantan. Every parts of the forestomach included rumen, reticulum, and omasum was taken andprocessed for microscopic observation with hematoxyline eosin (HE and alcian blue-periodic acid schiff(AB-PAS stainings. Sugar residues of glycoconjugates were localized with lectin histochemistry wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA, ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA, ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, concanavalinagglutinin (Con A, and soybean agglutinin (SBA. Every part of swamp buffalo forestomach had kinds ofspecific glycoconjugates with special distribution pattern which were different with other ruminant, andwere suitable for their functions in that part. The existence of D mannose/D glucose glycoconjugates thatwas dominant in forestomach estimated that had important role in supporting fermentative digestionfunction in swamp buffalo, through its function as receptor bacteria attachment. This is suggested as aspecial characteristic in digestive system of swamp buffalo which causes high digestive efficiency inswamp buffalo.

  3. Peat swamp forest types and their regeneration in Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve, Riau, East Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gunawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the ecology of tropical peat swamp forests is only now becoming understood, they are already under severe threat of conversion and degradation. Based on studies of the peat swamp forest of the Giam Siak Kecil–Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve carried out between 2009 and 2010, this paper discusses forest types and regeneration processes in terms of promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of the remaining peat swamp forest. Permanent plots covering a total area of three hectares were established in natural and disturbed forest areas. Within these plots, 135 tree species belonging to 34 families were identified. Mixed peat swamp forest and bintangur forest, which have different dominant species, were identified as the main forest types. The greatest species richness was in logged-over forest, with 82 species and a density of 2,492 stems ha-1. The success of regeneration varied between typical main species in the logged-over forest and in forest disturbed by wind and fire. All of the forest stands had high densities of trees with diameters at breast height (DBH of 3–10 cm, which are a potential source of recruitment to ensure the sustained regeneration of the forest remaining in the Biosphere Reserve. Regeneration is very important for improving the condition of disturbed peat swamp forest areas in the reserve, but natural regeneration will not be sufficient to restore the forest vegetation and conserve the associated biodiversity. Some form of human-assisted accelerated regeneration will be needed, such as enrichment planting of typical canopy species that have problems with establishment. It is important for the remaining natural peat swamp forests to be conserved because of their unique forest-type formations which have distinct dominant species, floristic composition, diversity and local environment characteristics. Improved management of secondary forest must be achieved through rehabilitation, halted forest

  4. Hillslope hydrology and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Landslides are caused by a failure of the mechanical balance within hillslopes. This balance is governed by two coupled physical processes: hydrological or subsurface flow and stress. The stabilizing strength of hillslope materials depends on effective stress, which is diminished by rainfall. This book presents a cutting-edge quantitative approach to understanding hydro-mechanical processes across variably saturated hillslope environments and to the study and prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. Topics covered include historic synthesis of hillslope geomorphology and hydrology, total and effective stress distributions, critical reviews of shear strength of hillslope materials and different bases for stability analysis. Exercises and homework problems are provided for students to engage with the theory in practice. This is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in hydrology, geomorphology, engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and geomechanics and for professionals in the fields of civil and environmental engineering and natural hazard analysis.

  5. Snow and Glacier Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Kaye

    The study of snow and ice is rich in both fundamental science and practical applications. Snow and Glacier Hydrology offers something for everyone, from resource practitioners in regions where water supply depends on seasonal snow pack or glaciers, to research scientists seeking to understand the role of the solid phase in the water cycle and climate. The book is aimed at the advanced undergraduate or graduate-level student. A perusal of online documentation for snow hydrology classes suggests that there is currently no single text or reference book on this topic in general use. Instructors rely on chapters from general hydrology texts or operational manuals, collections of journal papers, or their own notes. This variety reflects the fact that snow and ice regions differ in climate, topography, language, water law, hazards, and resource use (hydropower, irrigation, recreation). Given this diversity, producing a universally applicable book is a challenge.

  6. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  7. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    Recent advances in integrated hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modelling have led to improved water resource management practices, greater crop production, and better flood forecasting systems. However, uncertainty is inherent in all numerical models ultimately leading...... and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...... hydrological and tested by assimilating synthetic hydraulic head observations in a catchment in Denmark. Assimilation led to a substantial reduction of model prediction error, and better model forecasts. Also, a new assimilation scheme is developed to downscale and bias-correct coarse satellite derived soil...

  8. Computation and comparison of Pd-based membrane reactor performances for water gas shift reaction and isotope swamping in view of highly tritiated water decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santucci, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.santucci@enea.it [Associazione ENEA-Euratom sulla Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, RM (Italy); Rizzello, Claudio [Tesi Sas, Via Bolzano 28, Roma (Italy); Tosti, Silvano [Associazione ENEA-Euratom sulla Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, RM (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A dedicated detritiation process for highly tritiated water (HTW) has to be identified. • Water gas shift and isotopic swamping via Pd–Ag membrane reactor are possible processes. • A parametric analysis through two simulation codes is performed. • A comparison in terms of the decontamination factor is provided. -- Abstract: In a D–T fusion machine, due to the possible reaction between tritium and oxygen, some potential sources of highly tritiated water (HTW) can be identified. Therefore, a dedicated detritiation process has to be assessed either for economic and safety reasons. In this view, the use of a Pd-based membrane reactor performing isotopic exchange reactions can be considered since hydrogen isotopes exclusively permeate the Pd–Ag membrane and their exchange over the catalyst realizes the water detritiation. In this activity, the treatment of highly tritiated water, generated by an ITER-like machine (i.e. 2 kg of stoichiometric HTO containing up to 300 g of tritium), via a Pd-membrane reactor is studied in terms of decontamination capability. Especially, a parametric analysis of two processes (water gas shift and isotopic swamping) performed in a Pd-based membrane reactor is carried out by using two mathematical models previously developed and experimentally verified. Particularly, the effect of the reactor temperature, the membrane thickness, the reaction pressure and the protium sweep flow-rate is investigated. Moreover, a comparison in terms of the decontamination factor and the number of reactors necessary to detritiate the HTW are provided. Generally, the results reveal a higher decontamination capability of the WGS reaction respect with the IS (maximum DF values of about 120 and 1.6 in the case of WGS and IS, respectively). However some drawbacks, mainly related with the formation of tritiated species, can occur by performing the WGS.

  9. Aquatic organisms as amber inclusions and examples from a modern swamp forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander R.; Dilcher, David L.

    2007-01-01

    To find aquatic organisms in tree resin may seem to be highly unlikely, but the fossil record provides numerous amber-preserved limnetic arthropods (e.g., water beetles, water striders, and crustaceans) and microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, algae, ciliates, testate amoebae, and rotifers). Here we explain the frequently discussed process of embedding aquatic organisms in tree resin based on field studies in a Florida swamp forest. Different aquatic arthropods and all major groups of limnetic microorganisms were found embedded in resin that had contact with swamp water. The taphonomy of aquatic organisms differs from that of terrestrial plants and animals that get stuck on resin surfaces and are enclosed by successive resin outflows. Large and highly motile arthropods are predestined for embedding. The number of microbial inclusions is increased when tiny drops of water with aquatic organisms become enclosed in resin while it is flowing in an aquatic environment. Bacteria and fungi may grow inside the resin as long as it has not solidified and therefore become secondarily accumulated. In contact with air, even resin that had initially been flowing into water may solidify and potentially form amber. PMID:17940051

  10. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in Thai swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruennarong, N; Wongpanit, K; Sakulthaew, C; Giorgi, M; Klangkaew, N; Poapolathep, A; Poapolathep, S

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin (AMX) in Thai swamp buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, following single intramuscular administration at two dosages of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected at assigned times up to 48 h. The plasma concentrations of AMX were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The concentrations of AMX in the plasma were determined up to 24 h after i.m. administration at both dosages. The Cmax values of AMX were 3.39 ± 0.18 μg/mL and 6.16 ± 0.18 μg/mL at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. The AUClast values increased in a dose-dependent fashion. The half-life values were 5.56 ± 0.40 h and 4.37 ± 0.23 h at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w, respectively. Based on the pharmacokinetic data and PK-PD index (T > MIC), i.m. administration of AMX at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w might be appropriate for the treatment of susceptible Mannheimia haemolytica infection in Thai swamp buffaloes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Food swamps by area socioeconomic deprivation in New Zealand: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushil, Zaynel; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Exeter, Daniel J; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-11-01

    A nationwide spatial analysis of community retail food environments in relation to area socioeconomic deprivation was conducted in New Zealand. Addresses from about 20,000 registered food outlets were retrieved from all 66 Councils. Outlets were classified, geocoded and (spatially) validated. The analysis included 4087 convenience, 4316 fast food/takeaway and 1271 supermarket and fruit/vegetable outlets and excluded outlets not considered 'healthy' or 'unhealthy'. The population-weighted density of different outlet types in Census areas and the proximity to different outlet types from Meshblock centres were calculated and associations with area socioeconomic deprivation assessed. Spatial scan statistics was used to identify food swamp areas with a significantly higher relative density of unhealthy outlets than other areas. A significantly positive association was observed between area deprivation and density of all retailers. A significantly negative association was observed between area deprivation and proximity to all retailers. Nationwide, 722 Census areas were identified as food swamps. Access to food retailers is significantly higher in more deprived areas than in less deprived areas. Restricting unhealthy outlets in areas with a high relative density of those outlets is recommended.

  12. STRUCTURE OF NATURAL REGENERATION IN RELATION TO SOIL PROPERTIES AND DISTURBANCE IN TWO SWAMP FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Antonielle Ávila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Veredas (palm swamps is a type of vegetation associated with watercourses, characterized by the presence of Mauritia flexuosa palm trees. These systems are not well understood and suffer from high anthropogenic pressure. The aims of this study were to describe the natural regeneration of two swamp forests in vereda systems with different anthropogenic impacts and investigate if the variation in these plant communities are associated to edaphic conditions. The study was performed in preserved and impacted sites located in the Environmental Protection Area of the Pandeiros River in northern Minas Gerais. At each site, one hundred 25 m2 plots were established for surveying regenerating shrubs and trees (≥1 cm diameter at the base of the stem and < 3 cm diameter at breast height. Vegetation structure was evaluated by phytosociological parameters, similarity index, and size distribution of individuals. Regenerating strata was correlated with chemical and physical soil analyses. The vegetation at the preserved site was characterized by a higher number of individuals and a lower diversity but contained species that were typical of flooded areas. The results also showed differences in soil nutrient availability between sites that influenced the distribution of species at the two study sites.

  13. gis-based hydrological model based hydrological model upstream

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    er river catchments in Nigeria graphical data [2]. A spatial hydrology which simulates the water flow and pecified region of the earth using GIS. In view of this, the use of modeling with GIS provides the platform to processes tailored towards hydrologic dely applied hydrological models for in recent time is the Soil and Water.

  14. HYDROLOGY, LEVY COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, DANE COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, Madison County, Missouri, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, HONOLULU COUNTY, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGIC ANALYSIS, MONO COUNTY, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, TUSCALOOSA COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, MACON COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, WARREN COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, JEFFERSON COUNTY, WI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, MADISON COUNTY, FL, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, ISABELLA COUNTY, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. HYDROLOGY, DALLAS COUNTY, MISSOURI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, DEKALB COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, WOODBURY COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, SHELBY COUNTY, TN, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. HYDROLOGY, MASON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. HYDROLOGY, OUACHITA PARISH, LA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. HYDROLOGY, STORY COUNTY, IOWA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, HAMPDEN COUNTY, MA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for the flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, WOODFORD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDROLOGY, HALE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDROLOGY, HOWELL COUNTY, MISSOURI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. HYDROLOGY, CRISP COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. HYDROLOGY, GEORGETOWN COUNTY, SC, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDROLOGY, PIKE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDROLOGY, MAGOFFIN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, LIMESTONE COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. HYDROLOGY, MITCHELL COUNTY, GEORGIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, HURON COUNTY, OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. DCS Hydrology, Sevier County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDROLOGY, CALLOWAY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. HYDROLOGY, BRACKEN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. HYDROLOGY, FLEMING COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDROLOGY, MCCREARY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. HYDROLOGY, Choctaw COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. Effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and reproductive hormone of weaned Swamp buffalo and Murrah X Swamp buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamonpatana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and plasma Oestradiol 17- β (E2, Progesterone (P4 and Testosterone (T were studied in 16 male and female swamp (SS buffaloes and Murrah x Swamp buffalo crossbreeds (MS calves. The treatment group was fed with a concentrate supplemented with 30 g of dry powder of L. spinosa/head/d for 7 months. It was found that L .spinosa could have effect on male and female buffalo growth rate. The growth rate of male SS treated group were 130 g/d higher than control group. In female both SS and MS buffalo, the highest growth rate (830 to 840 g/d was found after the 2nd month of treatment while a reduction in growth rate (-1,030 to - 450 g/d was found in the 3rd month. After that the growth rate of SS and MS gradually increased until the last three months to 200 and 80 g/d in average, respectively. In female MS, plasma E2 in the treated group was lower than control group during Jan to Jul. Similar result was found in SS female, level of plasma E2 in treated group was lower than in control group in the first and last three month and there was no difference of plasma E2 in May. In MS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in Jan, Mar, Apr and Jul. In SS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in every month except in Jul. In female SS, L. spinosa could decreased plasma P4 through the experiment and could not have an effect on plasma P4 in female MS and plasma T in male buffalo calves. In conclusion, the addition to the concentrate of dry powder of L. spinosa 30 g/headl/d had an effect to increase growth rate in male SS and female MS buffalo calves, decrease plasma E2 in female both SS and MS and male SS and decrease plasma P4 in female SS.

  12. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  13. Hydrologic provinces of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheaume, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division, to describe the statewide hydrologic variations in Michigan's water resources. Twelve hydrologic provinces, which are based on similarities in aquifer lithology, yield, recharge, and ground-water- and surface-water-quality data, are described. The definition of statewide hydrologic characteristics and the delineation of hydrologic provinces improves the understanding of Michigan's water resources and provides a firm basis for realistic water-manangement decisions. The 12 provinces identified areas where bedrock aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (five provinces), where glacial-deposit aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (three provinces), and where problems with water quantity and (or) quality have limited the use of ground water as a water supply (four provinces). Subprovinces are defined on the basis of regional surface-water flow directions toward each of the Great Lakes.

  14. Hydrological land surface modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridler, Marc-Etienne Francois

    and disaster management. The objective of this study is to develop and investigate methods to reduce hydrological model uncertainty by using supplementary data sources. The data is used either for model calibration or for model updating using data assimilation. Satellite estimates of soil moisture and surface...

  15. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  16. Curricula and Syllabi in Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This collection of papers is intended to provide a means for the exchange of information on hydrological techniques and for the coordination of research and data collection. The objectives and trends in hydrological education are presented. The International Hydrological Decade (IHD) Working Group on Education recommends a series of topics that…

  17. On a new species of blackwater prawn, Macrobrachium oxyphilus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae), from peat swamps in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new species of freshwater palaemonid prawn, Macrobrachium oxyphilus spec, nov., is described from highly acidic blackwaters in a peat swamp forest in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. The species differs from its nearest congener, M. trompii (de Man, 1898), in having proportionately smaller eyes,

  18. Variation in flood tolerance of container-grown seedlings of swamp white oak, bur oak, and white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall

    2008-01-01

    How much variation in flood tolerance exists among seedlings within oak species, given the flood frequency of sites from which acorns are collected, has been largely unexplored. Our studies examined initial growth and flood tolerance for seedlings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa L.), and white...

  19. Soil warming alters seed-bank responses across the geographic range of freshwater Taxodium distichum (Cupressaceae) swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Premise of the Study: Climate warming is predicted to have far-reaching effects on the distribution of species, but those effects may depend on the flexibility of regenerating species in responding to climate gradients. We conducted a study to determine whether the variation in the response of seed banks to temperature varied across the latitudinal range of Taxodium distichum swamps in North America.

  20. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  1. [Socio-hydrology: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing-yi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Fang, Xue-ning

    2015-04-01

    Socio-hydrology is an interdiscipline of hydrology, nature, society and humanity. It mainly explores the two-way feedbacks of coupled human-water system and its dynamic mechanism of co-evolution, and makes efforts to solve the issues that human faces today such as sustainable utilization of water resources. Starting from the background, formation process, and fundamental concept of socio-hydrology, this paper summarized the features of socio-hydrology. The main research content of socio-hydrology was reduced to three aspects: The tradeoff in coupled human-water system, interests in water resources management and virtual water research in coupled human-water system. And its differences as well as relations with traditional hydrology, eco-hydrology and hydro-sociology were dwelled on. Finally, with hope to promote the development of socio-hydrology researches in China, the paper made prospects for the development of the subject from following aspects: Completing academic content and deepening quantitative research, focusing on scale studies of socio-hydrology, fusing socio-hydrology and eco-hydrology.

  2. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971–2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five global circulation models (GCMs and four emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, RCPs, from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971–2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40–52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow-dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%, compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%. The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime has a

  3. Effect of supplementary lighting on eating behaviour by corralled swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis heifers in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanvit Vajrabukka

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen 14-month-old swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis heifers were used to study the effect of supplementary lighting on eating time, number of meals and meal duration and growth performance. Eightheifers were allocated to a natural photoperiod regime, receiving approximately 12 h of daylight, (control treatment and eight heifers were allocated to a supplementary lighting regime, receiving an additional 6 h of artificial light during the night, (light supplemented treatment using a cross-over design. Rice straw wasoffered ad libitum and commercial concentrate was also offered approximately 1.5 kg/animal/day. Supplementary lighting was provided by eight 60 W white fluorescent tubes placed approximately 2.5 m above theground under the roof. Supplementary lighting did not significantly effect eating behaviour, daily intake or live weight gain. It is concluded that the performance of corralled buffalo heifers cannot be improved by the provision of supplementary lighting.

  4. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-18

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.

  5. Clonal growth strategy, diversity and structure: A spatiotemporal response to sedimentation in tropical Cyperus papyrus swamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Addisie; Stiers, Iris; Sierens, Tim; Kefalew, Alemayehu; Triest, Ludwig

    2018-01-01

    Land degradation and soil erosion in the upper catchments of tropical lakes fringed by papyrus vegetation can result in a sediment load gradient from land to lakeward. Understanding the dynamics of clonal modules (ramets and genets) and growth strategies of plants on such a gradient in both space and time is critical for exploring a species adaptation and processes regulating population structure and differentiation. We assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics in clonal growth, diversity, and structure of an emergent macrophyte, Cyperus papyrus (papyrus), in response to two contrasting sedimentation regimes by combining morphological traits and genotype data using 20 microsatellite markers. A total of 636 ramets from six permanent plots (18 x 30 m) in three Ethiopian papyrus swamps, each with discrete sedimentation regimes (high vs. low) were sampled for two years. We found that ramets under the high sedimentation regime (HSR) were significantly clumped and denser than the sparse and spreading ramets under the low sedimentation regime (LSR). The HSR resulted in significantly different ramets with short culm height and girth diameter as compared to the LSR. These results indicated that C. papyrus ameliorates the effect of sedimentation by shifting clonal growth strategy from guerrilla (in LSR) to phalanx (in HSR). Clonal richness, size, dominance, and clonal subrange differed significantly between sediment regimes and studied time periods. Each swamp under HSR revealed a significantly high clonal richness (R = 0.80) as compared to the LSR (R = 0.48). Such discrepancy in clonal richness reflected the occurrence of initial and repeated seedling recruitment strategies as a response to different sedimentation regimes. Overall, our spatial and short-term temporal observations highlighted that HSR enhances clonal richness and decreases clonal subrange owing to repeated seedling recruitment and genets turnover.

  6. Effect of day or night grazing on behaviour of swamp buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somparn, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of day or night grazing on behaviour by swamp buffaloes. A grazing trial was conducted over 42 days in the late rainy season, during September to November2005 at Surin Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Surin province. The experimental period was divided into two 21-day periods. Twelve 2-year-old swamp buffalo heifers were allocated to four groups, eachcontaining three heifers, with the mean group weights being as similar as possible. Each group was allowed to graze either from 06:20 to 18:00 h (daytime treatment or from 18:20 to 06:00 h (nighttime treatment infour separate paddocks, each of 5 rai, using a cross-over design. When not at pasture the animals in each group were kept in the common corral with free access to fresh drinking water and mineral blocks. Individualanimal activity was recorded by visual observation at 1-min intervals during the period at pasture. Individual groups within each period were treated as replicates. Differences between group means weretested using MIXED procedure of SAS.The buffaloes on daytime treatment spent longer (P<0.05 grazing than those on nighttime treatment (423 vs 332 min. The number of meals differed (P<0.05 between treatments, but overall mean meal durationswere similar (73 min. Buffaloes allowed to graze during daylight had a tendency (P<0.10 toward a higher bite and step rates than those grazing during the night. With the reduction in grazing activity duringthe night on nighttime treatment, the animals ruminated for longer during the period at pasture (327 and 191 min, P<0.001. Live-weight change over periods of 20 days did not differ significantly. The difference intemporal behaviour patterns between treatments indicated that animals have to adapt foraging strategies appropriate for different situations in order to maintain feed intake and subsequently production.

  7. Clonal growth strategy, diversity and structure: A spatiotemporal response to sedimentation in tropical Cyperus papyrus swamps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addisie Geremew

    Full Text Available Land degradation and soil erosion in the upper catchments of tropical lakes fringed by papyrus vegetation can result in a sediment load gradient from land to lakeward. Understanding the dynamics of clonal modules (ramets and genets and growth strategies of plants on such a gradient in both space and time is critical for exploring a species adaptation and processes regulating population structure and differentiation. We assessed the spatial and temporal dynamics in clonal growth, diversity, and structure of an emergent macrophyte, Cyperus papyrus (papyrus, in response to two contrasting sedimentation regimes by combining morphological traits and genotype data using 20 microsatellite markers. A total of 636 ramets from six permanent plots (18 x 30 m in three Ethiopian papyrus swamps, each with discrete sedimentation regimes (high vs. low were sampled for two years. We found that ramets under the high sedimentation regime (HSR were significantly clumped and denser than the sparse and spreading ramets under the low sedimentation regime (LSR. The HSR resulted in significantly different ramets with short culm height and girth diameter as compared to the LSR. These results indicated that C. papyrus ameliorates the effect of sedimentation by shifting clonal growth strategy from guerrilla (in LSR to phalanx (in HSR. Clonal richness, size, dominance, and clonal subrange differed significantly between sediment regimes and studied time periods. Each swamp under HSR revealed a significantly high clonal richness (R = 0.80 as compared to the LSR (R = 0.48. Such discrepancy in clonal richness reflected the occurrence of initial and repeated seedling recruitment strategies as a response to different sedimentation regimes. Overall, our spatial and short-term temporal observations highlighted that HSR enhances clonal richness and decreases clonal subrange owing to repeated seedling recruitment and genets turnover.

  8. Damage suffered by swamp morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) exposed to vanadium (V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Li, Ting-Qiang; Yang, Jin-Yan

    2016-03-01

    To elucidate the physiological and morphological responses generated by vanadium (V) in plants, hydroponic culture experiments were performed with swamp morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) exposed to 0 mg L(-1) to 2.50 mg L(-1) pentavalent V [V(V)] in Hoagland nutrient solutions. The concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene peaked at a V(V) concentration of 0.05 mg L(-1) and gradually decreased at higher V(V) concentrations. Similarly, the plant biomass was stimulated at low levels of V(V) and was inhibited when V(V) concentrations exceeded 0.1 mg L(-1). Pentavalent V had negative effects on the uptake of phosphorus (P) by roots, shoots, and leaves. The biological absorption coefficients of V of the roots were higher than those of the aerial parts. Under low concentrations of V(V) exposure, the predominant species of V in the aerial parts was tetravalent V [V(IV)], whereas V(V) became more prevalent when concentrations of V(V) in the solution was higher than 0.50 mg L(-1). In the roots, however, the concentrations of V(V) were always higher than those of the V(IV), except in the control group. Organelles in the V(V)-treated leaves were distorted, and the periplasmic space became wider. These results indicate V(V) has concentration-dependent effects on the physiological properties of swamp morning glory, whereas the plant has the ability to develop self-protective function to adapt to the toxicity of V(V). © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Ground survey of red lechwe in the Linyanti swamps and Chobe floodplains, northern Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phemelo Gadimang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A ground survey of red lechwe was carried out in the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains of northern Botswana in the dry and wet seasons of 2012 and 2013, respectively. We documented numbers, sex ratio and age structure of red lechwe within the linear strips of 25 km × 300 m along the Linyanti swamps and the Chobe floodplains. Results indicated a significant difference in the numbers of red lechwe between sites and seasons. About 66 and 755 red lechwe were estimated for Chobe in the dry and wet season, respectively, with 343 and 261 of them estimated for Linyanti in the dry and wet season, respectively. In Chobe, the red lechwe densities varied widely between seasons (9 red lechwe/km2 – 101 red lechwe/km2 compared with Linyanti, where the densities did not vary much between seasons (35 red lechwe/km2 – 46 red lechwe/km2 . The lower densities of red lechwe in Chobe in the dry season when compared with the wet season suggest a possible seasonal shift in the distribution of red lechwe to the nearby Zambezi floodplains in Namibia.Conservation implications: The higher number of red lechwe in the Chobe floodplains in the wet season indicates the potential of the floodplains as a habitat for this species in that season. The dry season shift in the distribution of red lechwe in Chobe presents an opportunity for local communities in Namibia to engage in tourism, whereas the return of the red lechwe to the floodplains in the wet season ensures protection of the animals as well as boosts the tourism potential of the Chobe National Park.

  10. Hydrological AnthropoScenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The Anthropocene concept encapsulates the planetary-scale changes resulting from accelerating socio-ecological transformations, beyond the stratigraphic definition actually in debate. The emergence of multi-scale and proteiform complexity requires inter-discipline and system approaches. Yet, to reduce the cognitive challenge of tackling this complexity, the global Anthropocene syndrome must now be studied from various topical points of view, and grounded at regional and local levels. A system approach should allow to identify AnthropoScenes, i.e. settings where a socio-ecological transformation subsystem is clearly coherent within boundaries and displays explicit relationships with neighbouring/remote scenes and within a nesting architecture. Hydrology is a key topical point of view to be explored, as it is important in many aspects of the Anthropocene, either with water itself being a resource, hazard or transport force; or through the network, connectivity, interface, teleconnection, emergence and scaling issues it determines. We will schematically exemplify these aspects with three contrasted hydrological AnthropoScenes in Tunisia, France and Iceland; and reframe therein concepts of the hydrological change debate. Bai X., van der Leeuw S., O'Brien K., Berkhout F., Biermann F., Brondizio E., Cudennec C., Dearing J., Duraiappah A., Glaser M., Revkin A., Steffen W., Syvitski J., 2016. Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda. Global Environmental Change, in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.09.017 Brondizio E., O'Brien K., Bai X., Biermann F., Steffen W., Berkhout F., Cudennec C., Lemos M.C., Wolfe A., Palma-Oliveira J., Chen A. C-T. Re-conceptualizing the Anthropocene: A call for collaboration. Global Environmental Change, in review. Montanari A., Young G., Savenije H., Hughes D., Wagener T., Ren L., Koutsoyiannis D., Cudennec C., Grimaldi S., Blöschl G., Sivapalan M., Beven K., Gupta H., Arheimer B., Huang Y

  11. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  12. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Lau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i organic horizon of forest soil; (ii surface peat; and (iii submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units, 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute <2% of microbiota in these environments, with the Methylocystaceae one to two orders of magnitude more abundant than the Methylococcaceae in all environments sampled. The Methylococcaceae are also less diverse in forest soil compared to the other two habitats. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses indicated that the majority of methanotrophs from the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae tend to occur in one habitat only (peat or Sphagnum moss or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography.

  13. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Davis

    Full Text Available The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year (ii interrupted peristence (iii delayed recruitment (iv facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological

  14. Summary Report for 2003-2004 Phase 1 Archaeological Survey of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service's Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In February 2004, the United States National Park Service (USNPS) recognized the significance of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service's Great Dismal Swamp...

  15. Ecology and Physiology of a Black Bear Population in Great Dismal Swamp and Reproductive Physiology in the Captive Female Black Bear

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was designed to provide information on demographics and ecology of the black bear population in Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge for the...

  16. Contaminants in white-tailed deer tissue from the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Morris and Somerset Counties, New Jersey: Results of 1988 sampling and analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) tissues were sampled during the December, 1988, public deer hunt at the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GSNWR) to...

  17. Contaminants in fish and sediments of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, New Jersey: A 10-year follow-up investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Located in Morris County, New Jersey about 25 miles west of New York City's Time Square, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's (Service) Great Swamp National...

  18. Hydrography - HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS: Lakes, Ponds, Reservoirs, Swamps, and Marshes in Watersheds of Indiana (U. S. Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HYDROGRAPHY_HIGHRES_WATERBODYDISCRETE_NHD_USGS.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains features of lakes, ponds, reservoirs, swamps and marshes in watersheds in and...

  19. Salinity tolerance of non-native Asian swamp eels (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) in Florida, USA: Comparison of three populations and implications for dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, P.J.; Nico, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Three populations of non-native Asian swamp eels are established in peninsular Florida (USA), and comprise two different genetic lineages. To assess potential for these fish to penetrate estuarine habitats or use coastal waters as dispersal routes, we determined their salinity tolerances. Swamp eels from the three Florida populations were tested by gradual (chronic) salinity increases; additionally, individuals from the Miami population were tested by abrupt (acute) salinity increases. Results showed significant tolerance by all populations to mesohaline waters: Mean survival time at 14 ppt was 63 days. The Homestead population, a genetically distinct lineage, exhibited greater tolerance to higher salinity than Tampa and Miami populations. Acute experiments indicated that swamp eels were capable of tolerating abrupt shifts from 0 to 16 ppt, with little mortality over 10 days. The broad salinity tolerance demonstrated by these experiments provides evidence that swamp eels are physiologically capable of infiltrating estuarine environments and using coastal waters to invade new freshwater systems. ?? 2009 US Government.

  20. Outdoor learning in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Jan

    2015-04-01

    For understanding important concepts in hydrology often the most efficient way of learning are field experiments with student involvement. In this contribution, I look back on my personal experiences as a student, an assistant and a teacher and ask myself, with a long-term perspective, what worked and what didn't. Some of the experiments, which I find most useful, are described in more detail such as the estimation of hydraulic conductivities based on groundwater salt dilution and an experiment to demonstrate the difference between flood-wave velocity and water particle velocity. Furthermore, some general thoughts on challenges to generate a good learning environment out in the field are given.

  1. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  2. Angiodysplasia Occurring in Jejunal Diverticulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Edward A Jones; Hugh Chaun; Phillip Switzer; David J Clow; Ronald J Hancock

    1990-01-01

    The first case of angiodysplasia occurring in acquired jejunal diverticulosis is reported. The patient presented with occult gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic anemia, and was created successfully by resection of a 25 cm long segment of jejunum. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms for both angiodysplasia and jejunal diverticulosis are discussed.

  3. Rain or snow: hydrologic processes, observations, prediction, and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, Adrian A.; Kaplan, Michael L.; Zion Klos, P.; Link, Timothy; McNamara, James P.; Rajagopal, Seshadri; Schumer, Rina; Steele, Caitriana M.

    2017-01-01

    The phase of precipitation when it reaches the ground is a first-order driver of hydrologic processes in a watershed. The presence of snow, rain, or mixed-phase precipitation affects the initial and boundary conditions that drive hydrological models. Despite their foundational importance to terrestrial hydrology, typical phase partitioning methods (PPMs) specify the phase based on near-surface air temperature only. Our review conveys the diversity of tools available for PPMs in hydrological modeling and the advancements needed to improve predictions in complex terrain with large spatiotemporal variations in precipitation phase. Initially, we review the processes and physics that control precipitation phase as relevant to hydrologists, focusing on the importance of processes occurring aloft. There is a wide range of options for field observations of precipitation phase, but there is a lack of a robust observation networks in complex terrain. New remote sensing observations have the potential to increase PPM fidelity, but generally require assumptions typical of other PPMs and field validation before they are operational. We review common PPMs and find that accuracy is generally increased at finer measurement intervals and by including humidity information. One important tool for PPM development is atmospheric modeling, which includes microphysical schemes that have not been effectively linked to hydrological models or validated against near-surface precipitation-phase observations. The review concludes by describing key research gaps and recommendations to improve PPMs, including better incorporation of atmospheric information, improved validation datasets, and regional-scale gridded data products. Two key points emerge from this synthesis for the hydrologic community: (1) current PPMs are too simple to capture important processes and are not well validated for most locations, (2) lack of sophisticated PPMs increases the uncertainty in estimation of hydrological

  4. Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Estimate Bristol Bay Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of hydrologic landscapes has proven to be a useful tool for broad scale assessment and classification of landscapes across the United States. These classification systems help organize larger geographical areas into areas of similar hydrologic characteristics based on cl...

  5. gis-based hydrological model based hydrological model upstream

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrological. Hydrological modeling tools have been increasingl modeling tools have been increasingl watershed watershed level. The application of these tools hav. The application of these tools hav sensing and G sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) eographical Information System (GIS) based models ...

  6. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  7. LOWEST POSSIBLE FELLING TECHNIQUE FOR INCREASING UTILIZATION OF RENGHAS (Gluta renghas L. WOOD AT A PEAT SWAMP FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Suhartana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in 2005 at a peat swamp forest company in Jambi. The aim of this study was to find out a technique to increase the utilization of renghas wood in a peat swamp forest by implementing the lowest possible felling technique (LPFT and  the conventional felling technique (CFT. Data collected in this study were: working time, log volume, waste volume, productivity, efficiency, stump height and felling cost. Two data categories were analyzed with respect to their possible differences by using a t-test. The study showed that the implementation of LPFT produced better results compared to that of CFT which was indicated by: (1 Felling productivity increased to 5.220 m3/hour, (2 Felling cost decreased Rp 341/m3, (3 Felling efficiency increased 3.2%, and (4 The average stump heights were 41.2 cm for LPFT and 67.5 cm for CFT.

  8. Water, sanitation and hygiene in wetlands. A case study from the Ewaso Narok Swamp, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonj, Carmen; Rechenburg, Andrea; Kistemann, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands can be both a blessing and a curse. They are beneficial sources of safe water and nutrition and places from which humans derive their livelihoods. At the same time, wetlands are known to be sources of disease-causing microorganisms and invertebrates that can threaten human health. Safe water, sanitation and personal hygiene (WASH) are crucial preconditions for the prevention of disease transmission. And of special importance for people living in wetlands, depending on and being exposed to them. WASH should be prioritized especially in those wetlands that are subject to intensive use, that have a poor sanitation infrastructure, and which at the same time only provide limited water resources. However, despite this critical importance, WASH in wetlands is not well characterized in literature. This study therefore aimed at providing insights into the water, sanitation and hygiene conditions and behavioural determinants of households in wetlands by presenting the case of a rural wetland in East Africa. The mixed method approach included a broad set of empirical data collected during a household survey (n=400), an observational WASH assessment (n=397) and in-depth interviews (n=20) conducted from January to March 2015 in Ewaso Narok Swamp in Kenya. Different user groups of the wetland were targeted. The study in Ewaso Narok Swamp showed that wetland users' water supply and storage, sanitation and personal hygiene conditions were inadequate for large parts of the community and significantly differed between groups. Whereas the WASH conditions of people working in the service sector were rather positive, for pastoralists, they were correspondingly negative. The WASH behaviour was also perceived to be inadequate influenced by a variety of determining factors. The observational index as applied in this study indicated to be a valuable, rapid and efficient tool for assessing domestic WASH and for detecting differences between different groups in wetlands. Combined

  9. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  10. Factors affecting oxidative peat decomposition due to land use in tropical peat swamp forests in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Masayuki; Okimoto, Yosuke; Hirano, Takashi; Kusin, Kitso

    2017-12-31

    The increasing frequency of fire due to drainage of tropical peatland has become a major environmental problem in Southeast Asia. To clarify the effects of changes in land use on carbon dioxide emissions, we measured oxidative peat decomposition (PD) at different stages of disturbance at three sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia: an undrained peat swamp forest (UF), a heavily drained peat swamp forest (DF), and a drained and burned ex-forest (DB). PD exhibited seasonality, being less in the wet season and greater in the dry season. From February 2014 to December 2015, mean PD (±SE) were 1.90±0.19, 2.30±0.33, and 1.97±0.25μmolm(-2)s(-1) at UF, DF, and DB, respectively. The groundwater level (GWL) was a major controlling factor of PD at all sites. At UF and DF, PD and GWL showed significant quadratic relationships. At DB, PD and GWL showed significant positive and negative relationships during the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Using these relationships, we estimated annual PD from GWL data for 2014 and 2015 as 698 and 745gCm(-2)yr(-1) at UF (mean GWL: -0.23 and -0.39m), 775 and 825gCm(-2)yr(-1) at DF (-0.55 and -0.59m), and 646 and 748gCm(-2)yr(-1) at DB (-0.22 and -0.62m), respectively. The annual PD was significantly higher in DF than in UF or DB, in both years. Despite the very dry conditions, the annual PD values at these sites were much lower than those reported for tropical peat at plantations (e.g., oil palm, rubber, and acacia). The differences in the relationship between PD and GWL indicate that separate estimations are required for each type of land. Moreover, our results suggest that PD can be enhanced by drainage both in forests and at burned sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  12. The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Nijkamp

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Munchausen paradigm for deprived neighbourhoods: pulling yourself out of the swamp of deprivation Since the 1980s, many initiatives have attempted to tackle the deprivation currently experienced in South Rotterdam. Efforts have been made to attract creative workers and, in a counter-reaction, other initiatives have aimed to encourage the creative talents of poorer residents to strengthen their economic position. One example of this is Freehouse, which has established projects in the Afrikaanderwijk, including a neighbourhood cooperative. Our article addresses two questions: 1 What are the effects of the Freehouse projects on the economic position of residents of the Afrikaanderwijk? and 2 Which insights do our results provide into the possible effects of local government policies that rely on citizens playing an active role? Although the economic effects of the projects were limited, our study reveals that citizens’ initiatives, such as the Afrikaander Cooperative, can help residents gain employment. In order to succeed, these initiatives should not be hindered by obstructive regulations, and they should include input from the residents who function as staff. However, in deprived neighbourhoods, many residents require support to be able to contribute to citizens’ initiatives, and cannot be expected to act like Baron Münchausen and pull themselves out of the swamp of deprivation by their own hair. Het Münchausen paradigma voor achterstandswijken: jezelf uit het moeras van achterstand trekken Sinds de jaren 80 hebben veel initiatieven geprobeerd het achterstandsniveau in Rotterdam Zuid te verminderen. Verschillende initiatieven waren gericht op het aantrekken van creatieve professionals. Als tegenreactie stimuleerden andere initiatieven de creatieve talenten van arme wijkbewoners teneinde hun economische positie te versterken. Een voorbeeld hiervan is Freehouse, dat projecten in de Afrikaanderwijk startte, waaronder de oprichting van

  13. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of riverine and tidal floodplain forests of the lower Suwannee River, Florida, and potential impacts of flow reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Helen M.; Darst, Melanie R.; Lewis, Lori J.; Howell, David A.

    2002-01-01

    swamps. Surface soils in upper and lower tidal reaches are predominantly organic, saturated mucks. In the downstream part of the lower tidal reach, conductivities of surface soils are high enough (greater than 4 milli-mhos per centimeter) to exclude many tree species that are intolerant of salinity. Species richness of canopy and subcanopy plants in wetland forests in the lower Suwannee River is high compared to other river floodplains in North America. A total of 77 tree, shrub, and woody vine species were identified in the canopy and subcanopy of floodplain wetland forests (n = 8,376). Fourteen specific forest types were mapped using digitized aerial photographs, defined from vegetative sampling, and described in terms of plant species composition. For discussion purposes, some specific wetland types were combined, resulting in three general wetland forest types for each reach. Riverine high bottomland hardwoods have higher canopy species richness than all other forest types (40-42 species), with Quercus virginiana the most important canopy tree by basal area. The canopy composition of riverine low bottomland hardwoods is dominated by five species with Quercus laurifolia the most important by basal area. Riverine swamps occur in the lowest and wettest areas with Taxodium distichum the most important canopy species by basal area. Upper tidal bottomland hardwoods are differentiated from riverine forests by the presence of Sabal palmetto in the canopy. Upper tidal mixed forests and swamps are differentiated from riverine forests, in part, by the presence of Fraxinus profunda in the canopy. Nyssa aquatica, the most important canopy species by basal area in upper tidal swamps, is absent from most forests in the lower tidal reach where its distribution is probably restricted by salinity. Hydric hammocks, a wetland type that is rare outside of Florida, are found in the lower tidal reach and are flooded every 1-2 years by either storm surge or river floods. Lowe

  14. Hydrological modeling in forested systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Golden; G.R. Evenson; S. Tian; Devendra Amatya; Ge Sun

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and quantifying interactions among components of the forest hydrological cycle is complex and usually requires a combination of field monitoring and modelling approaches (Weiler and McDonnell, 2004; National Research Council, 2008). Models are important tools for testing hypotheses, understanding hydrological processes and synthesizing experimental data...

  15. Uncertainty in hydrological change modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seaby, Lauren Paige

    Hydrological change modelling methodologies generally use climate models outputs to force hydrological simulations under changed conditions. There are nested sources of uncertainty throughout this methodology, including choice of climate model and subsequent bias correction methods. This Ph.......D. study evaluates the uncertainty of the impact of climate change in hydrological simulations given multiple climate models and bias correction methods of varying complexity. Three distribution based scaling methods (DBS) were developed and benchmarked against a more simplistic and commonly used delta...... change (DC) approach. These climate model projections were then used to force hydrological simulations under climate change for the island Sjælland in Denmark to analyse the contribution of different climate models and bias correction methods to overall uncertainty in the hydrological change modelling...

  16. Present distribution and future spread of louisiana red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacida, Cambaridae in Britain : Implications for conservation of native species and habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Louisiana red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is highly invasive. It is now common in Europe where it is causing problems to native wildlife and structural damage to habitats. Procambarus clarkii was first recorded in Britain in 1991 and is currently found in the Hampstead Heath ponds and Regents Canal in London, as well as a small lake 15 km outside of Greater London. This paper considers how conditions in Britain affect the life cycle, breeding habits and potential range expansion of P. clarkii. Results of trapping surveys are presented in an effort to map the current distribution of P. clarkii and predict which areas it could colonise in the future. The ecological impact of potential colonisation is discussed by considering the impact P. clarkii has in mainland Europe. It is concluded that P. clarkii is likely to spread from Regents Canal into the nearby Brent, Crane, Colne, Lee and Thames catchments within 50 years. This time would be reduced significantly if further deliberate or accidental introductions by humans occur since this is deemed a far greater risk than natural expansion. P. clarkii is expected to have a negative impact on aquatic ecosystems in Britain and therefore tighter enforcement is needed to slow the spread of this species.

  17. Transport and Retention of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon in North America’s Largest River Swamp Basin, the Atchafalaya River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jun Xu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Floodplains and river corridor wetlands may be effectively managed for reducing nutrients and carbon. However, our understanding is limited to the reduction potential of these natural riverine systems. This study utilized the long-term (1978–2004 river discharge and water quality records from an upriver and a downriver location of the Atchafalaya River to quantify the inflow, outflow, and inflow–outflow mass balance of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN = organic nitrogen + ammonia nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen (NO3 + NO2, total phosphorous (TP, and total organic carbon (TOC through the largest river swamp basin in North America. The study found that, over the past 27 years, the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB acted as a significant sink for TKN (annual retention: 24%, TP (41%, and TOC (12%, but a source for NO3 + NO2 nitrogen (6%. On an annual basis, ARB retained 48,500 t TKN, 16,900 t TP, and 167,100 t TOC from the river water. The retention rates were closely and positively related to the river discharge with highs during the winter and spring and lows in the late summer. The higher NO3 + NO2 mass outflow occurred throughout spring and summer, indicating an active role of biological processes on nitrogen as water and air temperatures in the basin rise.

  18. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evan; Nolan, Edward J.; Dillard, Zachary W.; Dague, Ryan D.; Semple, Amanda L.; Wentzell, Wendi L.

    2015-01-01

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography. PMID:27682082

  19. Population genetic structure and molecular diversity of the red swamp crayfish in China based on mtDNA COI gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi

    2017-11-01

    Population genetic structure and molecular diversity are closely related to adaptability, potential and evolutionary of a species, which also reflects its population history. We analyzed the molecular variability and genetic structure among 24 populations of the red swamp crayfish in China based on the COI region. The COI of 687 bp aligned across 44 haplotypes, the average AT content (68.1%) was slightly higher than the AT content (31.9%). AMOVA indicated that a high proportion of the total genetic variance was attributable to variations within populations (87.57%), whereas only 12.43% occurred among populations. The Fst values were between 0.016 and 0.585, and the Nm values were between 0.178 and 15.182 in each population. All of the AMOVA, Fst statistics and Nm values suggested low genetic differentiation, but a high level genetic diversity existed in Chinese populations of Procambarus clarkii. The phylogenetic trees showed that some geographical populations were irregularly distributed according to the river systems while others were matched well, suggesting that genetic differentiation is created largely by geographic isolation.

  20. Editorial for Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick; Batelaan, Okke; Hughes, Denis A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological regimes and processes show strong regional differences. While some regions are affected by extreme drought and desertification, others are under threat of increased fluvial and/or pluvial floods. Changes to hydrological systems as a consequence of natural variations and human activities are region-specific. Many of these changes have significant interactions with and implications for human life and ecosystems. Amongst others, population growth, improvements in living standards and other demographic and socio-economic trends, related changes in water and energy demands, change in land use, water abstractions and returns to the hydrological system (UNEP, 2008), introduce temporal and spatial changes to the system and cause contamination of surface and ground waters. Hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are also undergoing spatial and temporal changes. Climate change has been shown to increase temporal and spatial variations of rainfall, increase temperature and cause changes to evapotranspiration and other hydro-meteorological variables (IPCC, 2013). However, these changes are also region specific. In addition to these climate trends, (multi)-decadal oscillatory changes in climatic conditions and large variations in meteorological conditions will continue to occur.

  1. Connecticut River Hydrologic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestero, T. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Connecticut River basin possesses some characteristics that make it unique for studying hydrologic issues that transcend scale. The watershed was first dramatically altered through natural processes (glaciation) and then heavily impacted by human stresses (dams, deforestation, acid precipitation/deposition), only to exhibit recent decades of return to a more natural state (reforestation, land conservation, stream restoration, pollution abatement, and dam removal). The watershed is sufficiently north to be classified as a cold region. More specifically to hydrology, the watershed exhibits the spectrum of flooding problems: ice dams, convective storms, hurricanes, rain on melting snow, and low pressure systems. The 28,000 square kilometer Connecticut River Watershed covers one third of the states of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The >640-km long rivers' headwaters start on the Canadian border at the Fourth Connecticut Lake, and flows southward to discharge in Long Island sound. The lower 100 km of river are tidally influenced. The Connecticut River is responsible for 70 % of the freshwater inflow to Long Island Sound. The Connecticut River is a sixth order stream that exhibits a dendritic pattern in an elongated scheme. This setting therefore affords many first and second order streams in almost parallel fashion, flowing west or east towards the central Connecticut River spine. There are 38 major tributaries to the mainstem Connecticut River, and 26 of these tributaries drain greater than 250 square kilometers. There is in excess of 30,000 km of perennially flowing stream length in the watershed. For more information, see: http://www.unh.edu/erg/connho/

  2. CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and its role in hydrologic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, D.; Helly, J. J.; Graham, W.; Kruger, A.; Kumar, P.; Lakshmi, V.; Lettenmaier, D.; Zheng, C.; Lall, U.; Piasecki, M.; Duffy, C.

    2003-12-01

    The Hydrologic Information System component of CUAHSI focuses on building a hydrologic information system to support the advancement of hydrologic science. This system is intended to help with rapidly acquiring diverse geospatial and temporal hydrologic datasets, integrating them into a hydrologic data model or framework describing a region, and supporting analysis, modeling and visualization of the movement of water and the transport of constituents through that region. In addition, the system will feature interfaces for advanced technologies like knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) and also provide a comprehensive metadata description including a hydrologic ontology (HOW) for integration with the Semantic Web. The prototype region is the Neuse river basin in North Carolina. A "digital watershed" is to be built for this basin to help formulate and test the hydrologic data model at a range of spatial scales, from the scale of the whole basin down to the scale of individual experimental sites. This data model will be further developed and refined as additional hydrologic observatories are selected by CUAHSI. This will result in a consistent means for the characterization and comparison of processes in different geographic regions of the nation using a common data framework. The HIS will also provide a generalized digital library capability to manage collections of thematically-organized data from primary sources as well as derived analytical results in the form of data publications. The HIS will be designed from the beginning as an open federation of observatory-based collections that are interoperable with other data and digital library systems. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System project involves collaboration among several CUAHSI member institutions, with the San Diego Supercomputer Center serving as the technology partner to facilitate the development of a prototype system.

  3. Assessment of semen quality in Swamp Buffalo AI Bulls in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koonjaenak

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Thai swamp buffalo bulls semen used for artificial insemination (AI in Thailand, aspects relevance in freezing and thawing of semen are review. Semen and sperm characteristics were evaluated included sperm count, motility (assessed subjectively and by CASA, morphology (using phase-contrast light microscopy and SEM, plasma membrane integrity (PMI (using a hypo-osmotic swelling test [HOST] and SYBR- 14/propidium iodide [PI], plasma membrane stability (PMS (using Annexin-V/PI and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity (using SCSA and flow cytometry [FCM]. The average ejaculate volume was about 3.0–4.0 mL, with good viability (PMI measured by the HOST and motility (>65% and >70%, respectively. Sperm concentration ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 billion/mL, being also affected by bull age. Whereas semen quality (including sperm output, pH and initial sperm motility did not differ between the seasons. Few spermatozoa (<15%/ ejaculate had abnormal morphology with abnormalities resembling those in other bovidae. In FT semen, PMI (using SYBR-14/PI and PMS were highest in winter. Across seasons, ~50% of post-thaw spermatozoa depicted linear motility, a proportion that decreased to ~35% during incubation (38oC for 60 minutes, without marking any seasonal difference. The sperm DNA was hardly damaged (with <3% fragmentation, expressed as DNA fragmentation index [DFI], among seasons.

  4. Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. (Cestoda: Monticelliidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Synbranchiformes) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; de Chambrier, A; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2001-12-01

    Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. is described from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen and Greenwood (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae) from Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is placed into Monticellia because of the cortical position of the testes, ovary, and uterus. It differs from other Monticellia species (with the exception of Monticellia magna (Rego, Santos and Silva, 1974)) in the position of longitudinal musculature that crosses the vitelline follicles, making them paramuscular. The new species can be distinguished from M. magna--which possesses a similar number of testes (107-139), paramuscular vitelline follicles, and numerous gland cells distributed between the apex of the scolex and suckers--in the position of the genital pore (8-21% vs. 19-27%), in the presence of a weak internal longitudinal musculature, in the arrangement of the testes in the median field, and in the absence of a vaginal sphincter. This is the first proteocephalidean tapeworm reported from a synbranchid fish and the first species of Monticellia found in North America.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Reference Genes for Normalizing Expression Data from Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hucheng Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available qRT-PCR is a widely used technique for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression data. The use of reference genes for normalization of the expression levels is crucial for accuracy. Several studies have shown that there is no perfect reference gene that is appropriate for use in all experimental conditions, and research on suitable reference genes in red swamp crawfish (Procambarus clarkii is particularly scarce. In this study, eight commonly used crustacean reference genes were chosen from P. clarkii transcriptome data and investigated as potential candidates for normalization of qRT-PCR data. Expression of these genes under different experimental conditions was examined by qRT-PCR, and the stability of their expression was evaluated using three commonly used statistical algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. A final comprehensive ranking determined that EIF and 18S were the optimal reference genes for expression data from different tissues, while TBP and EIF were optimal for expression data from different ovarian developmental stages. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data in P. clarkii. These results will facilitate more accurate and reliable expression studies of this and other crustacean species.

  6. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A. [Benin Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology

    1995-12-31

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  7. Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisae + Candida utilis and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyuddin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation containing combined yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida utilis, and herbs. All animals were fed basal diet of ammoniated rice straw and commercial concentrate with a ratio of 10: 90. There was no effect of probiotics+herbs on live weight gain, percentage of carcass, dressing, meat and by products, back fat thickness and eye muscle area. Addition of probiotics+herbs increased proportion of bone, reduced meat : bone ratio, body fat and proportion of offal. Although body fat content was reduced by the treatment, the compositions of fat were similar between the control and treated animals. (Animal Production 12(2: 69-73 (2010Key Words: buffalo, feedlot, yeast, carcass

  8. Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in South Mexico: cost / benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tovilla Hernández

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day. A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2 555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD. Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented. After logging, temperatures increased 13 °C in the soil and 11°C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3 000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246: 1. There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years.

  9. [Egg size variation in egrets and herons (Aves: Ardeidae) nesting in Birama's swamp, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis Avila, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    Intraclutch egg size variation in birds depends on many ecological factors and on the evolutive history of each species. In wading birds, a trend to smaller eggs with laying order has been described, but comparative reports are scarce. In this study, egg size variation patterns were described for nine Egrets and Heron species nesting in Birama' Swamp, Cuba. The patterns were described using external dimensions of 3142 eggs from 1875 nests of Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea and four Egretta species, taken in the field between 1998 and 2006. Results showed that eggs were 4.9-10% of adult weight and had volume variation coefficients between 6-9%. There were no general and consistent interspecies relationship between clutch size and egg sizes. Average volumes tend to get smaller with laying order, but it is not statistically detectable in Butorides and Bubulcus. Last egg was between 0.2% and 15% smaller than the first, showing an inverse relationship with it. Intraclutch asymmetry is light in E. thula and fluctuating around null in Bubulcus. Size only predicted laying or hatching order for the last egg, in nests with more than two eggs, with 72.4% of confidence.

  10. Swamp cancer: a case of human pythiosis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, R E; Tepedino, K; Glenn, C J; Merkel, K L

    2016-08-01

    Pythiosis is an infection caused by the aquatic oomycete Pythium insidiosum. Commonly known as 'swamp cancer' in veterinary pathology, pythiosis is now considered an emerging human disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, because clinical information is limited, many healthcare providers, including dermatologists, are unfamiliar with this diagnosis. To increase awareness of this life-threatening infection, a case of cutaneous pythiosis is presented. We describe a middle-aged man with acute myeloid leukaemia who presented with necrotizing haemorrhagic plaques on his thighs after a weekend of freshwater boating. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen showed invasive fungal hyphae associated with dense perivascular inflammation and vessel damage. Diagnostic testing on tissue culture revealed growth of P. insidiosum. Despite multiple debridements and antifungal therapy, the patient died within 2 weeks of presentation. There are four clinical presentations reported in human pythiosis. Pythium insidiosum infection should be considered in any patient with a suggestive exposure history and fungal elements found on histological examination or in culture. Identification of the organism can be difficult, so polymerase chain reaction and serological assays can be useful in making a diagnosis. To improve clinical outcomes, early combination therapy with antifungals and surgery is needed. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Firing Room Remote Application Software Development & Swamp Works Laboratory Robot Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Janette

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is creating a way to send humans beyond low Earth orbit, and later to Mars. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is working to make this possible by developing a Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) which will allow the launch of Space Launch System (SLS). This paper's focus is on the work performed by the author in her first and second part of the internship as a remote application software developer. During the first part of her internship, the author worked on the SCCS's software application layer by assisting multiple ground subsystems teams including Launch Accessories (LACC) and Environmental Control System (ECS) on the design, development, integration, and testing of remote control software applications. Then, on the second part of the internship, the author worked on the development of robot software at the Swamp Works Laboratory which is a research and technology development group which focuses on inventing new technology to help future In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) missions.

  12. Hydrological extremes : Improving simulations of flood and drought in large river basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrological extremes regularly occur in all regions of the world and as such have large impacts on society. Floods and drought are the most severe hydrological extremes, in terms of their societal impact and potential economic damage. These events are amongst the most costly natural disasters, due

  13. Linking freshwater tidal hydrology to carbon cycling in bottomland hardwood wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Brooke J. Czwartacki; Craig J. Allan; Devendra M. Amatya

    2016-01-01

    Hydrology is recognized as one of the principal factors regulating soil biogeochemical processes in forested wetlands. However, the consequences of tidally mediated hydrology are seldom considered within forested wetlands that occur along tidal water bodies. These tidal water bodies may be either fresh or brackish, and the tidal streams function as a reservoir to...

  14. Tower-Based Validation and Improvement of MODIS Gross Primary Production in an Alpine Swamp Meadow on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Niu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alpine swamp meadow on the Tibetan Plateau is among the most sensitive areas to climate change. Accurate quantification of the GPP in alpine swamp meadow can benefit our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The 8-day MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS gross primary production (GPP products (GPP_MOD provide a pathway to estimate GPP in this remote ecosystem. However, the accuracy of the GPP_MOD estimation in this representative alpine swamp meadow is still unknown. Here five years GPP_MOD was validated using GPP derived from the eddy covariance flux measurements (GPP_EC from 2009 to 2013. Our results indicated that the GPP_EC was strongly underestimated by GPP_MOD with a daily mean less than 40% of EC measurements. To reduce this error, the ground meteorological and vegetation leaf area index (LAIG measurements were used to revise the key inputs, the maximum light use efficiency (εmax and the fractional photosynthetically active radiation (FPARM in the MOD17 algorithm. Using two approaches to determine the site-specific εmax value, we suggested that the suitable εmax was about 1.61 g C MJ−1 for this alpine swamp meadow which was considerably larger than the default 0.68 g C MJ−1 for grassland. The FPARM underestimated 22.2% of the actual FPAR (FPARG simulated from the LAIG during the whole study period. Model comparisons showed that the large inaccuracies of GPP_MOD were mainly caused by the underestimation of the εmax and followed by that of the undervalued FPAR. However, the DAO meteorology data in the MOD17 algorithm did not exert a significant affection in the MODIS GPP underestimations. Therefore, site-specific optimized parameters inputs, especially the εmax and FPARG, are necessary to improve the performance of the MOD17 algorithm in GPP estimation, in which the calibrated MOD17A2 algorithm (GPP_MODR3 could explain 91.6% of GPP_EC variance for the alpine swamp meadow.

  15. Landscape hydrology. The hydrological legacy of deforestation on global wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C; Shulmeister, J; Larsen, J; Jacobsen, G E; Zawadzki, A

    2014-11-14

    Increased catchment erosion and nutrient loading are commonly recognized impacts of deforestation on global wetlands. In contrast, an increase in water availability in deforested catchments is well known in modern studies but is rarely considered when evaluating past human impacts. We used a Budyko water balance approach, a meta-analysis of global wetland response to deforestation, and paleoecological studies from Australasia to explore this issue. After complete deforestation, we demonstrated that water available to wetlands increases by up to 15% of annual precipitation. This can convert ephemeral swamps to permanent lakes or even create new wetlands. This effect is globally significant, with 9 to 12% of wetlands affected, including 20 to 40% of Ramsar wetlands, but is widely unrecognized because human impact studies rarely test for it. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P.; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  17. TEMPORAL VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN PEAT SWAMP AREA USING MODIS TIME-SERIES IMAGERY: A MONITORING APPROACH OF HIGH-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEM IN REGIONAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Setiawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp area is an essential ecosystem due to high vulnerability of functions and services. As the change of forest cover in peat swamp area has increased considerably, many studies on peat swamp have focused on forest conversion or forest degradation. Meanwhile, in the context of changes in the forestlands are the sum of several processes such as deforestation, reforestation/afforestation, regeneration of previously deforested areas, and the changing spatial location of the forest boundary. Remote sensing technology seems to be a powerful tool to provide information required following that concerns. A comparison imagery taken at the different dates over the same locations for assessing those changes tends to be limited by the vegetation phenology and land-management practices. Consequently, the simultaneous analysis seems to be a way to deal with the issues above, as a means for better understanding of the dynamics changes in peat swamp area. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using MODIS images during the last 14 years for detecting and monitoring the changes in peat swamp area. We identified several significant patterns that have been assigned as the specific peat swamp ecosystem. The results indicate that a different type of ecosystem and its response to the environmental changes can be portrayed well by the significant patterns. In understanding the complex situations of each pattern, several vegetation dynamics patterns were characterized by physical land characteristics, such as peat depth, land use, concessions and others. Characterizing the pathways of dynamics change in peat swamp area will allow further identification for the range of proximate and underlying factors of the forest cover change that can help to develop useful policy interventions in peatland management.

  18. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  19. Data assimilation in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, Jean-Philippe

    Data assimilation is an invaluable tool in hydrological modelling as it allows to efficiently combine scarce data with a numerical model to obtain improved model predictions. In addition, data assimilation also provides an uncertainty analysis of the predictions made by the hydrological model...... with model non-linearities and biased errors. A literature review analyzes the most popular techniques and their application in hydrological modelling. Since bias is an important problem in groundwater modelling, two bias aware Kalman filters have been implemented and compared using an artificial test case...

  20. Geochemical response to hydrologic change along land-sea interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H. A.; Yu, X.; LeMonte, J. J.; Sparks, D. L.; Kim, K. H.; Heiss, J.; Ullman, W. J.; Guimond, J. A.; Seyfferth, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal groundwater-surface water interfaces are hotspots of geochemical activity, where reactants contributed by different sources come in contact. Reactions that occur along these land-sea boundaries have important effects on fluxes and cycling of carbon, nutrients, and contaminants. Hydrologic perturbations can alter interactions by promoting mixing, changing redox state, and altering subsurface residence times during which reactions may occur. We present examples from field and modeling investigations along the Delaware coastline that illustrate the impacts of hydrologic fluctuations on geochemical conditions and fluxes in different coastal environments. Along the highly populated Wilmington coastline, soils are contaminated with heavy metals from legacy industrial practices. We show with continuous redox monitoring and sampling over tidal to seasonal timescales that arsenic is mobilized and immobilized in response to hydrologic change. Along a beach, modeling and long-term monitoring show the influence of tidal to seasonal changes in the mixing zone between discharging fresh groundwater and seawater in the intertidal beach aquifer and associated impacts on biogeochemical reactivity and denitrification. In a saltmarsh, hydrologic changes alter carbon dynamics, with implications for the discharge of dissolved organic carbon to the ocean and export of carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Understanding the impacts of hydrologic changes on both long and short timescales is essential for improving our ability to predict the global biogeochemical impacts of a changing climate.

  1. Differential soil respiration responses to changing hydrologic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent J. Pacific; Brian L. McGlynn; Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Howard E. Epstein; Daniel L. Welsch

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration is tightly coupled to the hydrologic cycle (i.e., snowmelt and precipitation timing and magnitude). We examined riparian and hillslope soil respiration across a wet (2005) and a dry (2006) growing season in a subalpine catchment. When comparing the riparian zones, cumulative CO2 efflux was 33% higher, and peak efflux occurred 17 days earlier during the...

  2. Hydrology of southwestern encinal oak ecosystems: A review and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Daniel G. Neary

    2007-01-01

    Information about the hydrology of oak ecosystems of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico is lacking (Lopes and Ffolliott 1992, Baker et al. 1995) even though the woodlands and savannas cover more than 31,000 square miles. These ecosystems generally are found between 4,000 and 7,300 feet in elevation. Precipitation occurs in the winter and summer and...

  3. Attribution of hydrologic trends using integrated hydrologic and economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Brugger, D. R.; Silverman, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic change has been detected in many regions of the world in the form of trends in annual streamflows, varying depths to the regional water table, or other alterations of the hydrologic balance. Most models used to investigate these changes implement sophisticated descriptions of the physical system but use simplified descriptions of the socioeconomic system. These simplifications come in the form of prescribed water diversions and land use change scenarios, which provide little insight into coupled natural-human systems and have limited predictive capabilities. We present an integrated model that adds realism to the description of the hydrologic system in agricultural regions by incorporating a component that updates the allocation of land and water to crops in response to hydroclimatic (water available) and economic conditions (prices of commodities and agricultural inputs). This component assumes that farmers allocate resources to maximize their net revenues, thus justifying the use of optimality conditions to constrain the parameters of an empirical production function that captures the economic behavior of farmers. Because the model internalizes the feedback between climate, agricultural markets, and farming activity into the hydrologic system, it can be used to understand to what extent human economic activity can exacerbate or buffer the regional hydrologic impacts of climate change in agricultural regions. It can also help in the attribution of causes of hydrologic change. These are important issues because local policy and management cannot solve climate change, but they can address land use and agricultural water use. We demonstrate the model in a case study.

  4. Geospatial technology applications in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Panda; E. Masson; S. Sen; H.W. Kim; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    Two separate disciplines, hydrology and forestry, together constitute forest hydrology. It is obvious that forestry and forest hydrology disciplines are spatial entities. Forestry is the science that seeks to understand the nature of forests throygh their life cycle and interactions with the surrounding environment. Forest hydrology includes forest soil water, streams...

  5. Integrated climate and hydrology modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl

    global warming and increased frequency of extreme events. The skill in developing projections of both the present and future climate depends essentially on the ability to numerically simulate the processes of atmospheric circulation, hydrology, energy and ecology. Previous modelling efforts of climate...... and hydrology have used each model component in an offline mode where the models are run in sequential steps and one model serves as a boundary condition or data input source to the other. Within recent years a new field of research has emerged where efforts have been made to dynamically couple existing climate....... The modelling tool consists of a fully dynamic two-way coupling of the HIRHAM regional climate model and the MIKE SHE hydrological model. The expected gain is twofold. Firstly, HIRHAM utilizes the land surface component of the combined MIKE SHE/SWET hydrology and land surface model (LSM), which is superior...

  6. Extreme hydrological events and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. Kundzewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise, worldwide. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and cause serious threats to human life and welfare and societal livelihood. Floods and droughts can undermine societies' security, understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state, responsible to sustain economic development, societal and environmental security – the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. It is shown that reduction of risk of hydrological disasters improves human security.

  7. Hydrologic landscape regions of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions group areas according to their similarity in landscape and climate characteristics. These characteristics represent variables assumed to...

  8. Fall Meeting Hydrology Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Roger

    The AGU 1992 Fall Meeting in San Francisco offered the full range of subjects represented by the Hydrology Section's technical committees. The total number of papers was double the number of just 4 years ago. Sessions were well attended. The following highlights were prepared from material written by session organizers.There were 3 full days of papers on snow, ice, and permafrost. One highlight was the special session on new developments in glacier mass-balance studies, which was organized to compare existing methods and examine new techniques for assessing changes in ice mass of the polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Current methods for assessing mass change of the ice sheets include satellite laser altimetry to detect surface-elevation changes, surface-based control volume methods to determine net ice flux in a region, and ice-shelf melting and iceberg calving to determine mass loss from the ice sheet. Using these techniques, it is difficult to tell whether the ice sheet is gaining or losing mass. Methods that use drainage basin inputs/outputs indicate a net mass increase, whereas methods that emphasize oceanographic estimates of ice-shelf melting suggest a net mass decrease and estimates based on satellite altimetry are equivocal.

  9. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  10. The effect of peat swamp forest degradation on greenhouse gas fluxes in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lent, Jeffrey; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Verchot, Louis; van Groeningen, Jan Willem; Oenema, Oene

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-dense peat swamp forests in Peru are recurrently harvested for M. flexuosa fruits, which is typically performed by cutting down entire palms. This research aimed to evaluate how biogeochemical cycles are affected by this type of forest degradation. Total soil respiration (Rs), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), CH4 and N2O fluxes, litterfall and environmental parameters were monitored monthly for two years in an undisturbed (UD), a moderately disturbed (MD), and a highly degraded site (HD). The experimental setup entailed measurements in hollows and hummocks with standing live or dead palms. Rh rates were higher in hummocks than in hollows (UD: 25.9±0.5 and 17.5±0.3, MD: 14.1±1.3 and 12.4±1.2, HD: 26.8±4.7 and 18.8±3.0 kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1, respectively). Unexpectedly, CH4 fluxes did not vary significantly between hummocks and hollows, whereas N2O fluxes followed the same trend as Rh. GHG fluxes from hummocks with a standing live or a standing dead palm were similar. However, degradation did reduce the relative hummock area (relative areas: 18, 10 and 4% for UD, MD, and HD, respectively). As a result, the overall weighted average Rh in the MD site (12.4±1.6 kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1) was lower than the UD one (18.4±1.0 kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1), while litter input was higher (12.2±0.3 and 9.3±0.4 kg d.w. ha-1 d-1in the MD and UD, respectively). The HD site exhibited Rh (17.5±1.2 kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1) and litter input (9.4±0.2 kg d.w. ha-1 d-1) rates similar to those of the UD site. CH4 fluxes were 0.75±0.10, 0.62±0.08, 0.89±0.05 kg C-CH4 ha-1 d-1 and N2O fluxes 1.7±0.2, 1.2±0.1, 2.0±0.3 g N-N2O ha-1 d-1 in the UD, MD and HD site, respectively. These findings suggest that differentiating hummocks and hollows in GHG flux assessments and accounting for changes in relative hummock areas are essential for evaluating degradation impacts on peat C and N cycling in Amazonian peat swamp forests. These results contribute to building knowledge on emission factors for

  11. Burrowing activity in channel levees: impact of the invasive red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, L.; Bendoni, M.; Consumi, L.; Haubrock, P.; Inghilesi, A.; Mazza, G.; Torrini, M.; Tricarico, E.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of animal burrowing, as an example of bioturbation on the stability of river levees has been recently raised to the scientific community as a consequence of the levee collapses of Secchia and Foenna rivers in Italy (Camici et al., 2010, 2014; Orlandini et al., 2015). Indeed, these authors showed that the presence of animal burrows is crucial in promoting the collapse of the bank. The American red swamp Crayfish Procambarus clarkii is an invasive species in Europe, mostly introduced for commercial purposes related to livestock. It is rapidly spreading throughout the Italian peninsula due to its plasticity, dispersal capability and high reproduction rate (Souty-Grosset et al., 2016). As well as the negative effects on local biodiversity, it damages the levees of the irrigation channel leading to disastrous collapses, relevant repairing and maintenance costs. In this work, we present an experimental activity where specimens of P. clarkii were monitored while burrowing into a small-scale physical model of an earthen levee, coupled with the mathematical modelling of the variations induced by the burrows on the seepage flow patterns through the levee.Preliminary results show the burrowing structure was quite irregular. Generally, crayfish start burrowing under the water level, developing tunnels (diameter ranging 4-7cm) both horizontally and heading upward, also above the water level. Some tunnels showed one or more circular chambers. The highest burrowing activity was observed during the experiments carried out in summer, when the species has a peak of maximum activity due to the higher temperature. Mathematical modelling shows that, for given boundary conditions and experimental duration, the presence of burrows in the levee raises the phreatic line. Critical conditions for levee integrity may be associated either to the internal erosion and stability of the system of tunnels and to the emergence of the phreatic line of the landside of the levee slope. These

  12. In-depth transcriptome analysis of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaishun Shen

    Full Text Available The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is a highly adaptable, tolerant, and fecund freshwater crayfish that inhabits a wide range of aquatic environments. It is an important crustacean model organism that is used in many research fields, including animal behavior, environmental stress and toxicity, and studies of viral infection. Despite its widespread use, knowledge of the crayfish genome is very limited and insufficient for meaningful research. This is the use of next-generation sequencing techniques to analyze the crayfish transcriptome. A total of 324.97 million raw reads of 100 base pairs were generated, and a total of 88,463 transcripts were assembled de novo using Trinity software, producing 55,278 non-redundant transcripts. Comparison of digital gene expression between four different tissues revealed differentially expressed genes, in which more overexpressed genes were found in the hepatopancreas than in other tissues, and more underexpressed genes were found in the testis and the ovary than in other tissues. Gene ontology (GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that metabolite- and immune-related pathway genes were enriched in the hepatopancreas, and DNA replication-related pathway genes were enriched in the ovary and the testis, which is consistent with the important role of the hepatopancreas in metabolism, immunity, and the stress response, and with that of the ovary and the testis in reproduction. It was also found that 14 vitellogenin transcripts were highly expressed specifically in the hepatopancreas, and 6 transcripts were highly expressed specifically in the ovary, but no vitellogenin transcripts were highly expressed in both the hepatopancreas and the ovary. These results provide new insight into the role of vitellogenin in crustaceans. In addition, 243,764 SNP sites and 43,205 microsatellite sequences were identified in the sequencing data. We believe that our results provide an

  13. Identification and characterization of two arasin-like peptides in red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lian-Qin; Li, Wan-Wan; Wang, Xian-Wei

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small effectors in host defense by directly targeting microorganisms or by indirectly modulating immune responses. In the present study, two arasin like AMPs, named as Pc-arasin1 and Pc-arasin2, were identified in red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii with sequence similarity to the arasins found in Hyas araneus. Both Pc-arasins consisted of signal peptide, N-terminal proline-rich region and C-terminal region containing four conserved cysteine residues. The similarity of two Pc-arasins was 44.44%, and Pc-arasin2 contained several additional residues in the N-terminus. Multiple alignment of arasin family suggested the conservation of the C-terminus and the variation of the N-terminus of Pc-arasins. Both AMPs were found hemocytes-specific, and the expression could be induced the challenge of bacteria, espeacially by the pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. Knockdown of each Pc-arasin expression by double strand RNA would suppress the host immunity against A. hydrophila, and the commercially synthetic Pc-arasins could rescue the knockdown consequence. Both synthetic peptide showed broad antimicrobial activity towards 3 Gram-positive bacterium and 3 Gram-negative bacterium, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations varied from 6.25 μM to 50 μM. These results presented new data about the sequence, expression and function of arasin family, and emphasized the role of this family in host immune response against bacterial pathogens. The characterization of Pc-arasins also provided potential of therapeutic agent development for disease control in aquaculture based on these two newly identified AMPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov., isolated from Thai peat swamp forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji

    2016-05-01

    An actinomycete strain, RY45-3T, isolated from a peat swamp forest soil in Rayong Province, Thailand, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain belonged to the genus Nocardia on the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties. Cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The N-acyl group of muramic acid in the cell wall was glycolyl type. The diagnostic sugars in whole-cell hydrolysates were galactose and arabinose. MK-8 (H4ω-cycl) was the major menaquinone. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The genomic DNA G+C content was 71 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, strain RY45-3T was closely related to Nocardia jiangxiensis JCM 12861T (98.9 %), Nocardia nova JCM 6044T (98.8 %) and Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (98.6 %). The strain showed low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with N. jiangxiensis JCM 12861T, N. nova JCM 6044T and N. pseudobrasiliensis JCM 9894T (range from 3.6 to 55.3 %). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and the results mentioned, this strain could be differentiated from closely related type strains and represents a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia rayongensis sp. nov. (type strain RY45-3T = JCM 19832T = TISTR 2213T = PCU 334T) is proposed.

  15. HOBE – a hydrological observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Illangasekare, Tissa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a short introducO on is given to the Danish hydrological observatory—HOBE. We describe characteristics of the catchment, which is subject to experimental and modeling investigations. An overview is given of the research reported in this special section of the journal, which includes...... 11 papers of original research covering precipitation, evapotranspiration, emission of greenhouse gasses, unsaturated flow, groundwater–surface water interaction, and climate change impacts on hydrology....

  16. Future directions in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Williams; Devendra Amatya; L. Bren; C. deJong; J.E. Nettles

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology is a separate and unique branch of hydrology due to the special conditions caused by trees, and the understorey beneath them, comprising a forest. Understanding the forest, with trees that can grow over 100 m tall, may have crowns up to 20-30 m in diameter with roots 5-10 m deep and spread as widely as the crowns, and have lifespans from 50 to 5000...

  17. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K; Harvey, Judson W

    2012-12-01

    subtle differences in the physical-biological feedbacks driving pattern formation. Case-study application of the DCI to the Everglades in south Florida revealed that loss of directional hydrologic connectivity occurs more rapidly and is a more sensitive indicator of declining ecosystem function than other metrics (e.g., habitat area) used previously. Here and elsewhere, directional connectivity can provide insight into landscape drivers and processes, act as an early-warning indicator of environmental degradation, and serve as a planning tool or performance measure for conservation and restoration efforts.

  18. Directional connectivity in hydrology and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Choi, Jungyill; Nungesser, Martha K.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2012-01-01

    subtle differences in the physical-biological feedbacks driving pattern formation. Case-study application of the DCI to the Everglades in south Florida revealed that loss of directional hydrologic connectivity occurs more rapidly and is a more sensitive indicator of declining ecosystem function than other metrics (e.g., habitat area) used previously. Here and elsewhere, directional connectivity can provide insight into landscape drivers and processes, act as an early-warning indicator of environmental degradation, and serve as a planning tool or performance measure for conservation and restoration efforts.

  19. Pseudocapillaria (Ichthyocapillaria) ophisterni sp. n. (Nematoda : Capillariidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Pisces) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G; Jiménez-García, I

    2000-04-01

    A new nematode species, Pseudocapillaria ophisterni sp. n., is described from the intestine and rarely from the stomach of the swamp-eel, Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen et Greenwood, from Catemaco Lake, Veracruz, Mexico. In having both caudal lobes in the male interconnected by a distinct dorsal membrane, it belongs to the subgenus Ichthyocapillaria. It differs from the three species in this subgenus mainly in possessing either a distinctly longer spicule or a smaller length of oesophagus relative to body length. It also differs in host type and geographical distribution. P. ophisterni is the first capillariid species reported from synbranchiform fishes.

  20. Wetland and aquatic macrophytes as indicators of anthropogenic hydrologic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrologic disturbance can affect wetland and aquatic macrophyte communities by creating temporal changes in soil moisture or water depth. Such disturbances are natural and help maintain wetland diversity; however, anthropogenic changes in wetland hydrology may have negative effects on wetlands. Since plant communities respond to habitat alterations, observations of plant-community changes may be used to recognize effects of hydrologic disturbances that are otherwise not well understood. A number of plants, including Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail) and Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife), are recognized as disturbance species; they are often found in roadside ditches, in wetlands that have been partially drained, or in low areas that have been flooded. Other species commonly occur on mudflats exposed by lowering of water levels. In addition, wetland shrubs and trees invade or die as a result of draining or flooding. In more subtle terms, the relative composition of plant communities can change without the addition or loss of species, and zonation patterns may develop or change as a result of altered hydrology. Remote sensing (photointerpretation) and field vegetation studies, coupled with monitoring of water levels, are recommended for gaining an understanding of hydrologic disturbances in wetlands.

  1. How the Young Hydrologic Society can rejuvenate hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, T. H.; Berghuijs, W. R.; Smoorenburg, M.; Harrigan, S.; Muller, H.; Dugge, J.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrologic community aims to understand the complex movement, distribution and quality of water around the world. Especially with climate change, suppressed food security and environmental degradation, hydrologists play an important role in sustainable water resources management. To achieve this, worldwide collaboration between researchers is a crucial necessity. For example, IAHS' "Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB)" and "Panta Rei" initiatives have shown that working together leads to fruitful results. However, hydrology struggles to unify, with its different research perspectives, myriad of organizations and diverse array of focus areas. Furthermore, within the active hydrologic community, young scientists are underrepresented and often not well connected. Active involvement of those who will deal with tomorrow's water issues is the key to building bridges between generations and the variety of hydrologic research fields. Therefore, the Young Hydrologic Society (YHS) was founded with the following goal: 'Bringing young scientists from around the world together to contribute to the scientific and organizational unification of the global hydrologic community' To realize this, YHS has set itself 4 main objectives: - Function as the link between existing and future student initiatives within the major organizations (e.g. EGU, AGU, IAHS, etc.), - Connect early career scientists (e.g. MSc, PhD, Post-Doc) at an early stage in their career, - Stimulate bottom-up research initiatives, - Create a voice of the young hydrologists in the global scientific debate. YHS is already supported by some of the world's most prominent hydrologists and organizations. But, to make YHS a real success, we need you to spread the word and get involved in the YHS initiative. Get connected, get inspired and get involved!

  2. Linking river, floodplain, and vadose zone hydrology to improve restoration of a coastal river affected by saltwater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D; Muñoz-Carpena, R; Wan, Y; Hedgepeth, M; Zheng, F; Roberts, R; Rossmanith, R

    2010-01-01

    Floodplain forests provide unique ecological structure and function, which are often degraded or lost when watershed hydrology is modified. Restoration of damaged ecosystems requires an understanding of surface water, groundwater, and vadose (unsaturated) zone hydrology in the floodplain. Soil moisture and porewater salinity are of particular importance for seed germination and seedling survival in systems affected by saltwater intrusion but are difficult to monitor and often overlooked. This study contributes to the understanding of floodplain hydrology in one of the last bald cypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.] floodplain swamps in southeast Florida. We investigated soil moisture and porewater salinity dynamics in the floodplain of the Loxahatchee River, where reduced freshwater flow has led to saltwater intrusion and a transition to salt-tolerant, mangrove-dominated communities. Twenty-four dielectric probes measuring soil moisture and porewater salinity every 30 min were installed along two transects-one in an upstream, freshwater location and one in a downstream tidal area. Complemented by surface water, groundwater, and meteorological data, these unique 4-yr datasets quantified the spatial variability and temporal dynamics of vadose zone hydrology. Results showed that soil moisture can be closely predicted based on river stage and topographic elevation (overall Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency = 0.83). Porewater salinity rarely exceeded tolerance thresholds (0.3125 S m(-1)) for bald cypress upstream but did so in some downstream areas. This provided an explanation for observed vegetation changes that both surface water and groundwater salinity failed to explain. The results offer a methodological and analytical framework for floodplain monitoring in locations where restoration success depends on vadose zone hydrology and provide relationships for evaluating proposed restoration and management scenarios for the Loxahatchee River.

  3. Stochastic Modelling of Hydrologic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa

    2007-01-01

    In this PhD project several stochastic modelling methods are studied and applied on various subjects in hydrology. The research was prepared at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part contains an introduct......In this PhD project several stochastic modelling methods are studied and applied on various subjects in hydrology. The research was prepared at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part contains...... an introduction and an overview of the papers published. Then an introduction to basic concepts in hydrology along with a description of hydrological data is given. Finally an introduction to stochastic modelling is given. The second part contains the research papers. In the research papers the stochastic methods...... are described, as at the time of publication these methods represent new contribution to hydrology. The second part also contains additional description of software used and a brief introduction to stiff systems. The system in one of the papers is stiff....

  4. Hydrologic applications of weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Habib, Emad; Andrieu, Hervé; Morin, Efrat

    2015-12-01

    By providing high-resolution quantitative precipitation information (QPI), weather radars have revolutionized hydrology in the last two decades. With the aid of GIS technology, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) have enabled routine high-resolution hydrologic modeling in many parts of the world. Given the ever-increasing need for higher-resolution hydrologic and water resources information for a wide range of applications, one may expect that the use of weather radar will only grow. Despite the tremendous progress, a number of significant scientific, technological and engineering challenges remain to realize its potential. New challenges are also emerging as new areas of applications are discovered, explored and pursued. The purpose of this special issue is to provide the readership with some of the latest advances, lessons learned, experiences gained, and science issues and challenges related to hydrologic applications of weather radar. The special issue features 20 contributions on various topics which reflect the increasing diversity as well as the areas of focus in radar hydrology today. The contributions may be grouped as follows:

  5. Nonstationary Approaches to Hydrologic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard; Hecht, Jory; Read, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a generalized framework for evaluating the risk, reliability and return period of hydrologic events in a nonstationary world. A heteroscedastic regression model is introduced as an elegant and general framework for modeling trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records using ordinary least squares regression methods. A regression approach to modeling trends has numerous advantages over other methods including: (1) ease of application, (2) considers linear or nonlinear trends, (3) graphical display of trends, (4) analytical estimate of the power of the trend test and prediction intervals associated with trend extrapolation. Traditional statements of risk, reliability and return periods which assume that the annual probability of a flood event remains constant throughout the project horizon are revised to include the impacts of trends in the mean and/or variance of hydrologic records. Our analyses reveal that in a nonstationary world, meaningful expressions of the likelihood of future hydrologic events are unlikely to result from knowledge of return periods whereas knowledge of system reliability over future planning horizons can effectively communicate the likelihood of future hydrologic events of interest.

  6. Recent benthic foraminifera assemblages from mangrove swamp and channels of Abu Dhabi (UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Paul, Andreas; Song, Jianfeng; Freeman, Mark; Michel, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations from mangrove swamps and channels located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels). A 100 m transect across a natural channel in a mangal on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island was sampled in detail for sedimentological and foraminiferal analysis. Forty-seven samples were collected at 2 meter intervals along the transect in a number of different sedimentary facies including; fine sediment in areas exposed during low tide and close to mangrove trees (Avicennia marina), fine sediment rich in leaf material, coarse sediment in channels, and coarse sediments with a shell lag. At each sampling location environmental parameters were recorded, including water depth, salinity, temperature and pH. Samples collected for foraminiferal analysis were stained in rose Bengal in order to identify living specimens. Samples collected on the mud flat at the margin of the channel show a living foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Cribroelphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Sigmoilinita, Spiroloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicennia marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising small-sized opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Cribroelphidium along with rare Triloculina and

  7. Governance and decision making in complex socio-hydrological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia; Hassanzadeh, Elmira

    2017-04-01

    The transboundary Saskatchewan River, originating in the Canadian Rockies in Alberta, flows through Saskatchewan and Manitoba and discharges its water into Lake Winnipeg. It supports irrigated agriculture, hydropower generation, flood protection, municipal water supplies, mining, recreation, and environmental services across a large area and in multiple administrative jurisdictions. Managing the region's water-based economic activities and environmental services, requires decisions at a variety of scales to incorporate competing values and priorities about water use. Current inter-provincial allocations are based on the 1969 Master Agreement of Water Apportionment whereby upstream Alberta must release one-half of the annual natural flows of the Saskatchewan River to Saskatchewan, which in turn must pass one-half of the residual natural flow to the Province of Manitoba. This analysis uses a hydro-economic simulation model, SWAMP, to examine risk-based tradeoffs in Saskatchewan for various types of water use including, agriculture, energy, and flood protection under various scenarios of water availability. The eco-hydrological effects of the scenarios on the largest inland delta in North America - the Saskatchewan River Delta - are also shown. Results enable decision makers to weigh the costs and benefits of implementing particular sector-based future development strategies. Assuming net provincial benefit as a single monetary indicator of economic value, the effects of various scenarios of environmental and policy changes are quantified Results show that improving irrigation technology and expanding irrigated lands in Alberta will positively affect the province's economic development and have compound effects downstream on hydropower generation, environmental flows and the economies of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The implementation of similar policies in Saskatchewan will have different downstream impacts because of the large hydro-power capacity downstream in

  8. POTENCY OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS ISOLATED FROM COMPOST AND PEAT SOIL OF TROPICAL PEAT SWAMP FOREST IN KALAMPANGAN ZONE, CENTRAL KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliar Yuliar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani is a soil pathogen that causes diseases in wide range of hosts of agricultural, horticultural and flower crops. Biological control is the most promising way for the diseases management and it is environment friendly too. The objective of this study was to isolate and screen the potency of soil bacteria as biological control from various local compost and peat soil of tropical peat swamp forest in Kalampangan Zone, Central Kalimantan. Forty seven isolates from peat soil and compost were screened for biocontrol agent of Rhizoctonia solani . R. Solani Seven out of thirteen peat soil isolates, and six out of thirty three compost isolates showed antagonistic activity against in Potato Dextrose Agar. The cultivation of the antagonistic isolates in Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB was extracted and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC column. The HPLC analyzes indicated that the antagonistic isolates produce an antifungal iturin A. Macroscopic observation of isolates colonies showed that form of their colonies were amuboid, myceloid, curled, circular, rhizoid, irregular and filamentous. These achievement indicate peat swamp forest not only offer a potential biocontrol agents of damping off but also provide a new source for production of antibiotics.

  9. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  10. Epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain of southern Brazil: latitudinal effects on the plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fifty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into five ecological zones (strata, where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in floristic composition between ecological zones with richness differing significantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. These climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. The importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.

  11. 'Leaves and eats shoots': direct terrestrial feeding can supplement invasive red swamp crayfish in times of need.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Grey

    Full Text Available We used stable isotope analyses to characterise the feeding dynamics of a population of red swamp crayfish in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, after the crash of submerged macrophytes and associated macroinvertebrates, and during a natural draw-down of the lake water level. We expected a heavy reliance upon a diet of detrital matter to sustain the population as a consequence, and indeed, for the majority of the crayfish population caught from the lake, we saw a concomitant shift in isotopic values reflecting a dietary change. However, we also caught individual crayfish that had occupied the footprints of hippopotamus and effectively extended their range beyond the lake up to 40 m into the riparian zone. Isotopic analysis confirmed limited nocturnal observations that these individuals were consuming living terrestrial plants in the vicinity of the footprints. These are the first empirical data to demonstrate direct use of terrestrial resources by an aquatic crayfish species and further highlight the traits that make red swamp crayfish such opportunistic and successful invaders.

  12. Swamp buffalo keeping – an out-dated farming activity? A case study in smallholder farming systems in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of rubber tree plantations and agricultural mechanization caused a decline of swamp buffalo numbers in the Naban River National Nature Reserve (NRNNR, Yunnan Province, China. We analysed current use of buffaloes for field work and the recent development of the regional buffalo population, based on interviews with 184 farmers in 2007/2008 and discussions with 62 buffalo keepers in 2009. Three types of NRNNR farms were distinguished, differing mainly in altitude, area under rubber, and involvement in livestock husbandry. While pig based farms (PB; n=37 have abandoned buffalo keeping, 11% of the rubber based farms (RB; n=71 and 100% of the livestock-corn based farms (LB; n=76 kept buffaloes in 2008. Herd size was 2.5 +/-1.80 (n=84 buffaloes in early 2008 and 2.2 +/-1.69 (n=62 in 2009. Field work on own land was the main reason for keeping buffaloes (87.3 %, but lending work buffaloes to neighbours (79.0% was also important. Other purposes were transport of goods (16.1%, buffalo trade (11.3% and meat consumption (6.4%. Buffalo care required 6.2 +/-3.00 working hours daily, while annual working time of a buffalo was 294 +/-216.6 hours. The area ploughed with buffaloes remained constant during the past 10 years despite an expansion of land cropped per farm. Although further replacement of buffaloes by tractors occurs rapidly, buffaloes still provide cheap work force and buffer risks on poor NRNNR farms. Appropriate advice is needed for improved breeding management to increase the efficiency of buffalo husbandry and provide better opportunities for buffalo meat sale in the region.

  13. USDA-ARS Hydrology Laboratory MISWG Hydrology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Current research being conducted in remote sensing techniques for measuring hydrologic parameters and variables deals with runoff curve numbers (CN), evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture. The CN and ET research utilizes visible and infrared measurements. Soil moisture investigations focus on the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  14. Tropical Peat Swamp Management Options: A Case Study Using System Dynamic in Southern Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat forest ecosystems have multiple benefits as regulating hydrological system, carbon storage, timber and non-timber products, and protecting the biodiversity. Lack of understanding of these functions, short-term economic benefits is more preferable despite reducing its ecological benefits. This study proposed a system dynamics model of tropical peat forest ecosystem in determining its optimum management for extractive utilizations (timber and non-timber forest products, environmental services, and biodiversity. A dynamics model was used to describe changes in peatland and forest cover, biomass accumulation and carbon storage, and total economic value of tropical peat forest ecosystem in Trumon and Singkil, Southern Aceh. The projection showed that peat forest ecosystem benefits would decline in the long term if degradations continue at the same rate over last decade. Efforts to change the primary peat forest to plantation would reduce the total economic value of ecosystem and biodiversity values at level -19.63% and -26.28% from current conditions. Carbon emissions were increased at 117.32 ton CO2 eq ha-1 year-1, higher than average of carbon losses from peatland oxidation. Preserving 50% of forest vegetation on moderate depth and protection very deep peatlands would reduce emission -6.96% to -35.06% and increase forest carbon storage at significant rate +15.06% to +63.32%, respectively. These mitigation schemes would improve the biodiversity and hydrological function. Forest rehabilitation with agroforestry practices will enhance carbon uptake, especially on degraded lands.

  15. Water quality of a coastal Louisiana swamp and how dredging is undermining restoration efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert R.; Huang, Haosheng; Day, John W.; Justic, Dubravko; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    The Bayou Boeuf Basin (BBB), a sub-basin of the Barataria Basin estuary in coastal Louisiana, consists of forested and floating wetlands receiving drainage from surrounding agricultural fields and urban watersheds. We characterized surface water quality in the BBB, and determined through hydrologic modeling if a series of levee breaks along major drainage channels would significantly improve water quality by allowing flow into surrounding wetlands. Surface water monitoring found surrounding sugarcane farm fields to be major sources of nutrient and sediment loading. Hydrological modeling indicated that levee breaks would increase N reduction from the current 21.4% to only 29.2%, which is much lower than the anticipated 90-100% removal rate. This was due to several factors, one them being dredging of main drainage channels to such a degree that water levels do not rise much above the surrounding wetland elevation even during severe storms, so only a very small fraction of the stormwater carried in the channel is exposed to wetlands. These unexpected results provide insight into an undoubtedly pervasive problem in human dominated wetland systems; that of decreased flooding during storm events due to channel deepening by dredging activities. Additional water quality management practices should be implemented at the farm field level, prior to water entering major drainage canals.

  16. Análise comparativa da anatomia foliar de Melastomataceae em ambiente de vereda e cerrado sensu stricto Comparative analysis of Melastomataceae leaf anatomy in palm swamp and cerrado sensu stricto environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Sílvia Somavilla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a anatomia das lâminas foliares de três espécies de Melastomataceae, Lavoisiera bergii Cogn., Macairea radula (Bonpl. DC. e Trembleya parviflora (D. Don Cogn. que estão colonizando a zona alagável e aberta de fundo de vereda e de M. radula e T. parviflora que ocorrem no cerrado sensu stricto da Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, Planaltina/DF. Os dados estruturais mostrados pelas três espécies indicam escleromorfia com características particulares a cada uma delas, como projeções nas células epidérmicas de L. bergii, diferentes tipos e localização de emergências formadas por esclereídes em L. bergii e M. radula, e evaginações na epiderme de T. parviflora. A caracterização anatômica das folhas de M. radula e T. parviflora não difere entre os ambientes. No entanto, as lâminas foliares dos indivíduos encontrados na vereda apresentaram plasticidade com valores significativamente (PThis study describes the anatomy of the leaf blade of three species of Melastomataceae, Lavoisiera bergii Cogn., Macairea radula (Bonpl. DC. and Trembleya parviflora (D. Don Cogn., which colonize the flooded and open areas of a lower zone of palm swamp, and the M. radula and T. parviflora, which occur in cerrado sensu stricto, of the Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, Planaltina, DF. Structural data of the three species indicate sclerophylly with particular characteristics to each of them, such as projections on epidermal cells of L. bergii, different types and position of emergencies in L. bergii and M. radula and the protrusion in the epidermis of T. parviflora. Anatomical characterization of the leaves of M. radula and T. parviflora did not differ between environments. However, the leaf blades of individuals of M. radula and T. parviflora found in the palm swamp showed plasticity in relation to individuals from the cerrado sensu stricto. Significantly higher values (P < 0.05 for the thickness of the mesophyll

  17. Filling, storing and draining. Three key aspects of landslide hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are among the most widespread hazards in the world. The hydrology in and around a landslide area is key to pore pressure build-up in the soil skeleton which reduces shear strength due to the buoyancy force exerted by water in a saturated soil and to soil suction in an unsaturated soil. Extraordinary precipitation events trigger most of the landslides, but, at the same time, the vast majority of slopes do not fail. The intriguing question is: 'When and where exactly can a slope become triggered to slide and flow downwards?' The objective of this article is to present and discuss landslide hydrology at three scales - pore, hillslope, and catchment - which, taken together, give an overview of this interdisciplinary science. In fact, for rainfall-triggered landslides to occur, an unfavourable hydrological interplay should exist between fast and/or prolonged infiltration, and a relatively 'slow' drainage. The competition of water storage, pressure build-up and the subsequently induced drainage contains the importance of the timing, which is indisputably one of the more delicate but relevant aspects of landslide modelling, the overlay of hydrological processes with different time scales. As slopes generally remain stable, we can argue that effective drainage mechanisms spontaneously develop, as the best for a slope to stay stable is getting rid of the overload of water (above field capacity), either vertically or laterally. So, landslide hydrology could be framed as 'Filling-Storing-Draining'. Obviously, 'Storing' is added to stress the importance of dynamic pressure build-up for slope stability. 'Draining' includes all removal of water from the system (vertical and lateral flow, evaporation and transpiration) and thus pore water pressure release. Furthermore, by addressing landslide hydrology from both earth sciences and soil mechanics perspectives, we aim to manifest the hydrological processes in hillslopes and their influence on behaviour

  18. Hydrological anomalies connected to earthquakes in southern Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Esposito

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of hydrological variations in the watersheds of seismic areas can be useful in order to acquire a new knowledge of the mechanisms by which earthquakes can produce hydrological anomalies. Italy has the availability of many long historical series both of hydrological parameters and of seismological data, and is an ideal laboratory to verify the validity of theoretical models proposed by various authors. In this work we analyse the hydrological anomalies associated with some of the big earthquakes that occurred in the last century in the southern Apennines: 1930, 1980 and 1984. For these earthquakes we analysed hydrometric and pluviometric data looking for significant anomalies in springs, water wells and mountain streams. The influence of rainfalls on the normal flows of rivers, springs and wells has been ascertained. Also, the earthquake of 1805, for which a lot of hydrological perturbations have been reported, is considered in order to point out effects imputable to this earthquake that can be similar to the effects of the other big earthquakes. The considered seismic events exhibit different modes of energy release, different focal mechanisms and different propagation of effects on the invested areas. Furthermore, even if their epicentres were not localised in contiguous seismogenetic areas, it seems that the hydrological effects imputable to them took place in the same areas. Such phenomena have been compared with macroseismic fields and transformed in parameters, in order to derive empirical relationships between the dimensions of the event and the characteristics of the hydrological variations. The results of this work point to a close dependence among hydrological anomalies, regional structures and fault mechanisms, and indicate that many clear anomalies have been forerunners of earthquakes. In 1993, the Naples Bureau of the Hydrographic National Service started the continuous monitoring of hydrologic parameters by a network of

  19. Land classification based on hydrological landscape units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharari, S.; Fenicia, F.; Hrachowitz, M.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of hydrological landscape classification based on dominant runoff mechanisms. Three landscape classes are distinguished: wetland, hillslope and plateau, corresponding to three dominant hydrological regimes: saturation excess overland flow, storage excess sub-surface

  20. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, CLARK COUNTY,OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. DCS Hydrology Submission for Cortland County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. DCS Hydrology Submission for Monroe County, MI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. DCS Hydrology Submission for Putnam County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. DCS Hydrology Submission for Meigs County OH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. DCS Hydrology Submission for Jackson County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. DCS Hydrology Submission for Yankton County, SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  8. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  9. DCS Hydrology Submission for Duval County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. DCS Hydrology Submission for Albany County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. DCS HYDROLOGY,SULLIVAN COUNTY, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. DCS Hydrology Submission for Cass County, MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. DCS Hydrology Submittal, Washita County, Oklahoma, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. DCS Hydrology Submission for Denton TX

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. HYDROLOGY, ST. CLAIR COUNTY, ALABAMA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. DCS Hydrology Submittal, Harmon County, Oklahoma, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, CHAMPAIGN COUNTY,OH USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  18. DCS Hydrology Submission for Dutchess County NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  19. Hydrological modelling in forested systems | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief overview of forest hydrology modelling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. Many hundreds of hydrological models have been applied globally across multiple decades to represent and predict forest hydrological processes. The focus of this chapter is on process-based models and approaches, specifically 'forest hydrology models'; that is, physically based simulation tools that quantify compartments of the forest hydrological cycle. Physically based models can be considered those that describe the conservation of mass, momentum and/or energy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of forest hydrology modeling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. The focus of this chapter is on process-based models and approaches, specifically “forest hydrology models”, i.e., physically-based simulation tools that quantify compartments of the forest hydrological cycle.

  20. DCS Hydrology, Santa Clara County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, FREMONT COUNTY,IA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. DCS Hydrology Submittal for Socorro County NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  3. DCS Hydrology Submission for Clay County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. DCS Hydrology Submission for Shelby County OH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. DCS Hydrology Submission for Medina County, Ohio

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. DCS Hydrology Submission for Colfax County, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  7. DCS Hydrology Submission for Oglethorpe County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  8. DCS Hydrology Submission for RUSK COUNTY, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. DCS Hydrology Submission for Murray County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. DCS Hydrology Submission for Heard County, GA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  11. APPROXIMATE HYDROLOGY, CLARE COUNTY, MI USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  12. DCS Hydrology Submission for Orleans LA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  13. DCS Hydrology Submission for GRATIOT COUNTY, MI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  14. HYDROLOGY, BOX ELDER COUNTY, UTAH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  15. DCS Hydrology Submission for Wyoming County PA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic processes for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  17. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  18. Hydrology of inland tropical lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, Hidayat; Teuling, Ryan; Vermeulen, Bart; Muh, Taufik; Kastner, Karl; Geertsema, Tjitske J.; Bol, Dinja C.C.; Hoekman, Dirk H.; Sri Haryani, Gadis; Lanen, van Henny A.J.; Delinom, Robert M.; Dijksma, Roel; Anshari, Gusti Z.; Ningsih, Nining S.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Hoitink, Ton

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are important reservoirs of water, carbon and biodiversity. They are typical landscapes of lowland regions that have high potential for water retention. However, the hydrology of these wetlands in tropical regions is often studied in isolation from the processes taking place at the

  19. Identifying the best season for mapping evergreen swamp and mangrove species using leaf-level spectra in an estuarine system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Heidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Swamp and mangrove forests are some of the most threatened forest types in the world. In Africa, these forests are essential in providing food, construction material and medicine to people. These forest types have not sufficiently been mapped...

  20. Integrating local ecological knowledge and management practices of an isolated semi-arid papyrus swamp (Loboi, Kenya) into a wider conservation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terer, Taita; Muasya, A Muthama; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Ndiritu, George G; Triest, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    The current study documented local utilization of Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus), harvesting patterns, threats, and local management practices among the Endorois community living around Loboi swamp (Kenya). Papyrus is a highly productive freshwater macrophyte that is widely utilized throughout tropical Africa. However, increased human population and poverty, has led to over exploitation and conversion of papyrus wetlands to agricultural fields. Nonetheless, users of papyrus hold important local ecological knowledge (LEK) and practices. We show that Endorois practices on papyrus uses are compatible with the management priorities of the swamp and a wider conservation framework using data obtained from three focus group discussions (FGD), interviews of 34 households and 15 key informants. The study revealed that papyrus support local livelihood notably as a source of income (papyrus mats are sold), cattle fodder, roofing materials (shelter), and cooking fuel. The study further revealed important LEK relating to harvesting patterns, recovery after harvesting and traditional management practices. Correlation and principal component analyses showed that experienced old harvesters (EXPERT) avoided harvesting repeatedly at the same location (REVISIT), thereby allowing recovery of papyrus when compared to younger harvesters (r = 0.63, p papyrus coverage in the future due to the current diversion of water from the swamp, and frequent droughts, despite the instituted traditional management strategies (e.g. rotational harvesting) to curb overharvesting. The study concluded that the documentation of site-scale papyrus users' profile, LEK, and traditional practices are vital for the conservation and management of Loboi swamp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Antimicrobial-Producing Burkholderia sp. Strains, MSh1 and MSh2, Isolated from Malaysian Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Yoong Kit; Gan, Han Ming; Yule, Catherine M.; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of two antimicrobial-producing isolates, Burkholderia sp. strains MSh1 and MSh2, which were isolated from tropical peat swamp forest soil. Putative genes related to different antimicrobial production have been annotated in both genome sequences. PMID:25301661

  3. Comparing Avocado, Swamp Bay, and Camphortree as Hosts of Raffaelea lauricola Using a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Labeled Strain of the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A S; Ploetz, R C; Rollins, J A

    2017-01-01

    Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, causes laurel wilt in members of the Lauraceae plant family. North American species in the family, such as avocado (Persea americana) and swamp bay (P. palustris), are particularly susceptible to laurel wilt, whereas the Asian camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora) is relatively tolerant. To determine whether susceptibility is related to pathogen colonization, a green fluorescent protein-labeled strain of R. lauricola was generated and used to inoculate avocado, swamp bay, and camphortree. Trees were harvested 3, 10, and 30 days after inoculation (DAI), and disease severity was rated on a 1-to-10 scale. By 30 DAI, avocado and swamp bay developed significantly more severe disease than camphortree (mean severities of 6.8 and 5.5 versus 1.6, P avocado than camphortree (0.9% versus 0.1%, P avocado (r = 0.74), swamp bay (r = 0.82), and camphortree (r = 0.87), even severely affected trees of all species were scarcely colonized by the pathogen.

  4. Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yongfang; Yindee, Marnoch; Li, Kuan-Yi; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yu-Ten; Ye, Shaohui; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yachun; Cuong, Vu Chi; Pham, Lan Doan; Bouahom, Bounthong; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Cai, Zhihua; Vankan, Dianne; Manatchaiworakul, Wallaya; Kowlim, Nonglid; Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Colenbrander, Ben; Zhang, Yuan; Beerli, Peter; Lenstra, Johannes A; Barker, J Stuart F

    The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal

  5. Hydrological balance and water transport processes of partially sealed soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Anne; Wessolek, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    With increased urbanisation, soil sealing and its drastic effects on hydrological processes have received a lot of attention. Based on safety concerns, there has been a clear focus on urban drainage and prevention of urban floods caused by storm water events. For this reason, any kind of sealing is often seen as impermeable runoff generator that prevents infiltration and evaporation. While many hydrological models, especially storm water models, have been developed, there are only a handful of empirical studies actually measuring the hydrological balance of (partially) sealed surfaces. These challenge the general assumption of negligible infiltration and evaporation and show that these processes take place even for severe sealing such as asphalt. Depending on the material, infiltration from partially sealed surfaces can be equal to that of vegetated ones. Therefore, more detailed knowledge is needed to improve our understanding and models. In Berlin, two partially sealed weighable lysimeters were equipped with multiple temperature and soil moisture sensors in order to study their hydrological balance, as well as water and heat transport processes within the soil profile. This combination of methods affirms previous observations and offers new insights into altered hydrological processes of partially sealed surfaces at a small temporal scale. It could be verified that not all precipitation is transformed into runoff. Even for a relatively high sealing degree of concrete slabs with narrow seams, evaporation and infiltration may exceed runoff. Due to the lack of plant roots, the hydrological balance is mostly governed by precipitation events and evaporation generally occurs directly after rainfall. However, both surfaces allow for upward water transport from the upper underlying soil layers, sometimes resulting in relatively low evaporation rates on days without precipitation. The individual response of the surfaces differs considerably, which illustrates how

  6. Hydrological drought types in cold climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Van A.F.; Ploum, S.W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A.K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Lanen, Van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the

  7. Hydrologic processes influencing meadow ecosystems [chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Lord; David G. Jewett; Jerry R. Miller; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    The hydrologic regime exerts primary control on riparian meadow complexes and is strongly influenced by past and present geomorphic processes; biotic processes; and, in some cases, anthropogenic activities. Thus, it is essential to understand not only the hydrologic processes that operate within meadow complexes but also the interactions of meadow hydrology with other...

  8. Holocene Millennial Time Scale Hydrological Changes In Central-east Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, D.; Bonnefille, R.; Beaufort, L.

    The Holocene hydrological changes of a tropical swamp is reconstructed using a high resolution pollen record (ca 50 yrs) from the Kuruyange valley (Burundi, Africa, 3°35'S, 29°41'E), at 2000 m elevation. The sequence was dated by 10 radiocarbon dates, allowing reconstruction between ca 12 500 and 1000 cal yr B.P. In the Kuruyange swamp, peat accumulated rapidly at a sedimentation rate varying from 0.73 (prior to 6200 cal yr B.P.) to 1.51 mm/yr (during the late Holocene). A pollen index of water table, based on a ratio of aquatic versus non-aquatic plants has been used in order to test the hypothesis of hydrological constraints on the swampy ecosystem. Eight arid phases are evidenced by the index minima at 12 200, 11 200, 9900, 8600, 6500, 5000, 3400, 1600 cal yr B.P. The good agreement existing between this index and independent data such as (i) low-resolution East-African lake level reconstruct ions (Gillespie et al., 1983) and (ii) ?18O analyses from Arabian Sea (Sirocko et al., 1993) suggests the water table level responds to the monsoon dynamic. The Index varies periodically with a combination of 1/1515, 1/880 and 1/431 years-1 frequencies, revealed by time series analyses (Blackman-Tukey and Maximum Entropy). The extrapolation of the composite curve based on these 3 periodicities show that two major climatic events defined in the high latitudes between 1000 and 660 cal yr B.P. (Medieval Warm Period) and between 500 and 100 cal yr B.P. (Little Ice Age) are recorded in our data and show respectively high and low stands of the water table. Our results support some previous pollen-derived climate estimates in Ethiopia done by Bonnefille and Umer (1994). Moreover, the "1500 year" cycle registered in our data from the tropics, already evidenced in higher latitudes (Wijmstra et al., 1984; Bondet al., 1997; Schulz et al., 1999; Bond et al., 2001) support the hypothesis of strong teleconnections between tropical/subtropical and polar climates during the deglaciation

  9. Evolution of Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous) peat swamps of the Ruhr Basin, Germany: Comparison of palynological, coal petrographical and organic geochemical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, K. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Hartkopf-Froeder, C. [Geological Survey North Rhine-Westphalia, de-Greiff-Strasse 195, 47803 Krefeld (Germany); Flajs, G. [Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Littke, R. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Lochnerstr. 4-20, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the reconstruction of the environment during peat swamp development. Eight coal and sedimentary organic rock bearing seam successions were examined all belonging to the Duckmantian (Pennsylvanian, Late Carboniferous). 410 samples were analysed with coal petrographical methods, 155 of these also by palynological methods. In addition, on 55 samples organic geochemical investigations were carried out with respect to n-alkanes and iso-alkanes. The established coal petrographical parameters gelification index (GI), tissue preservation index (TPI), groundwater index (GWI) and vegetation index (VI) were used to characterize different periods of peat swamp development. Furthermore, the new index WCI (= Water Cover Index) was introduced to reflect water level conditions by using the ratio between hydrophilous/hygrophilous and mesophilous plants. In this study the index is based on palynological data but can be equally applied when quantitative macrofloral counts are available. GI versus TPI values show two general trends of peat swamp evolution: low GI and TPI values as indicator for drier swamp conditions like ombrogenous mires and high GI and TPI values which show a trend to water covered environments like topogenous mires. In addition, ash yields and GWI versus VI data also emphasize a general trend from topogenous to ombrogenous mires. A decrease in water level towards the top of the seams and thus resulting in the development of domed mires is reflected by the newly introduced WCI. Hence, these parameters show recurrent peat swamp successions, characterized by mineral- and vitrinite-rich coals, typical for topogenous swamps and an evolution towards inertinite/liptinite-rich coals with low ash yield, typical for ombrogenous swamps. n-alkane ratios like the carbon preference index (CPI), pristane/n-C{sub 17}, phytane/n-C{sub 18}, pristane/phytane and the n-C{sub 17}/n-C{sub 27} relationship indicate a strong correlation of these parameters with

  10. Forecasting the behaviour of complex landslides with a spatially distributed hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Malet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between rainfall, hydrology and landslide movement are often difficult to establish. In this context, ground-water flow analyses and dynamic modelling can help to clarify these complex relations, simulate the landslide hydrological behaviour in real or hypothetical situations, and help to forecast future scenarios based on environmental change. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of including more temporal and spatial information in landslide hydrology forecasting, by using a physically based spatially distributed model. Results of the hydrological and geomorphological investigation of the Super-Sauze earthflow, one of the persistently active landslide occurring in clay-rich material of the French Alps, are presented. Field surveys, continuous monitoring and interpretation of the data have shown that, in such material, the groundwater level fluctuates on a seasonal time scale, with a strong influence of the unsaturated zone. Therefore a coupled unsaturated/saturated model, incorporating Darcian saturated flow, fissure flow and meltwater flow is needed to adequately represent the landslide hydrology. The conceptual model is implemented in a 2.5-D spatially distributed hydrological model. The model is calibrated and validated on a multi-parameters database acquired on the site since 1997. The complex time-dependent and three-dimensional groundwater regime is well described, in both the short- and long-term. The hydrological model is used to forecast the future hydrological behaviour of the earthflow in response to potential environmental changes.

  11. The Analysis of Management and Timber Trade System of Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi From Peat Swamp Forest in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Firmanul Ariffin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Until now the raw material of wood especially Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi available for supporting the construction of housing and other infrastructures is increasingly large in Indonesia. On the Island of Borneo that partly consists of swamps needs Gelam very large and continuous, particularly for residential development. However, areas of peat swamp forest habitat of this plant from year to year are degradation and shrinkage. This situation is a very big influence on the population of Gelam, while the management and timber trade systems are not well regulated. This study aims to analyze the management and timber trade systems of Gelam particularly in South Kalimantan to provide input to the policy holder in the preservation of Gelam. The method was used a field survey and interviews with traders and policy holders related regulations. The results showed in South Kalimantan the potency of Gelam is only 2,9-7,1 m3/ha and decreasing yearly. Normally Gelam with a diameter <4 cm have been cut down, as well as > 30 cm. These dimensions should not be cut because of <4 cm too young and > 30 cm can be used as seed sources. Gelam derived from peat swamp forest, which mostly comes from the Batola District and some came from Kapuas District of Central Kalimantan. Distributions of Gelam were starting gatherers logging in the forest then sold to small gatherers, next to the large gatherers and distributed to all districts/cities in South Kalimantan, wood processing industries, and some of them were sent to Java. The silviculture system of Gelam was using selective cutting. Classification of wood sizes traded by the diameter divided into 3-4cm, 5-6cm, 7-8cm, 9-10cm, 11-12cm, 13-14cm, 15-19cm and > 20cm to 4m long. Its use consists of a small diameter (3-10cm for foundry building and firewood, while the large diameter (10-20cm for the construction of houses in swampy areas, and waste as well as the stems are bent and deformed used for firewood. Until now Gelam

  12. Carbon Sequestration and Sedimentation in Mangrove Swamps Influenced by Hydrogeomorphic Conditions and Urbanization in Southwest Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Marchio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares carbon sequestration rates along two independent tidal mangrove creeks near Naples Bay in Southwest Florida, USA. One tidal creek is hydrologically disturbed due to upstream land use changes; the other is an undisturbed reference creek. Soil cores were collected in basin, fringe, and riverine hydrogeomorphic settings along each of the two tidal creeks and analyzed for bulk density, total organic carbon profiles, and sediment accretion. Radionuclides 137Cs and 210Pb were used to estimate recent sediment accretion and carbon sequestration rates. Carbon sequestration rates (mean ± standard error for seven sites in the two tidal creeks on the Naples Bay (98 ± 12 g-C m−2·year−1 (n = 18 are lower than published global means for mangrove wetlands, but consistent with other estimates from the same region. Mean carbon sequestration rates in the reference riverine setting were highest (162 ± 5 g-C m−2·year−1, followed by rates in the reference fringe and disturbed riverine settings (127 ± 6 and 125 ± 5 g-C m−2·year−1, respectively. The disturbed fringe sequestered 73 ± 10 g-C m−2·year−1, while rates within the basin settings were 50 ± 4 g-C m−2·year−1 and 47 ± 4 g-C m−2·year−1 for the reference and disturbed creeks, respectively. These data support our hypothesis that mangroves along a hydrologically disturbed tidal creek sequestered less carbon than did mangroves along an adjacent undisturbed reference creek.

  13. Hydrology for everyone: Share your knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogulu, Nilay; Dogulu, Canay

    2015-04-01

    Hydrology, the science of water, plays a central role in understanding the function and behaviour of water on the earth. Given the increasingly complex, uncertain, and dynamic nature of this system, the study of hydrology presents challenges in solving water-related problems in societies. While researchers in hydrologic science and engineering embrace these challenges, it is important that we also realize our critical role in promoting the basic understanding of hydrology concepts among the general public. Hydrology is everywhere, yet, the general public often lacks the basic understanding of the hydrologic environment surrounding them. Essentially, we believe that a basic level of knowledge on hydrology is a must for everyone and that this knowledge might facilitate resilience of communities to hydrological extremes. For instance, in case of flood and drought conditions, which are the most frequent and widespread hydrological phenomena that societies live with, a key aspect of facilitating community resilience would be to create awareness on the hydrological, meteorological, and climatological processes behind floods and droughts, and also on their potential implications on water resources management. Such knowledge awareness can lead to an increase in individuals' awareness on their role in water-related problems which in turn can potentially motivate them to adopt preparedness behaviours. For these reasons, embracing an approach that will increase hydrologic literacy of the general public should be a common objective for the hydrologic community. This talk, hopefully, will motivate researchers in hydrologic science and engineering to share their knowledge with the general public. We, as early career hydrologists, should take this responsibility more than anybody else. Start teaching hydrology now and share your knowledge with people around you - friends, family, relatives, neighbours, and others. There is hydrology for everyone!

  14. Restoration Hydrology: Synthesis of Hydrologic Data for Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Agarwal, D.; van Ingen, C.

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of hydrologic data from various sources into a common cyber-infrastructure is essential for hydrologic synthesis in support of aquatic habitat restoration. With a compilation of all USGS watershed stream gauging records and all NOAA precipitation records for California, long-term as well as short-term watershed data can be made available for habitat restoration plans. This data synthesis would be tedious based on prior technology and thus was not frequently undertaken in the past. A few examples illustrate the essential role of cyber-infrastructure in restoration hydrology. When annual precipitation and runoff are examined for Coastal California watersheds, there is a near constancy in actual annual evapotranspiration that is watershed scale invariant over drainage areas from 1 to 3000 square kilometers. Another example examines stream baseflow recession in multiple streams where agricultural practices have changed over the last 40 years. These analyses are quantifying the magnitude of the human-induced change. Maintaining stream baseflows in summer months in central California coastal streams is essential for migratory fish habitat restoration, and the availability of an appropriate cyber-infrastructure significantly eases that assessment. The final example where data management was essential in habitat assessment was an examination of early spring river flows that had daily fluctuations caused by agricultural needs for frost protection in grape vineyards. Farmers anticipated frost conditions by night-time water extractions which in combination with low river flows negatively impacted the stream habitat for salmonids. These applications of cyber-infrastructure are being handed off to resource agency personnel to have them directly engage in restoration hydrology.

  15. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Cherdthong, A.

    2015-01-01

    Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (pefficiency. PMID:26104399

  16. Water-use dynamics of a peat swamp forest and a dune forest in Maputaland, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, A. D.; Everson, C. S.; Price, J. S.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Scott-Shaw, B. C.

    2013-05-01

    Peat swamp forests are the second rarest forest type found in South Africa while dune forests have been under severe threat through mining and agriculture. Both forest types exist in the conservation area, and World Heritage site, known as the iSimangaliso Wetland Park on the East coast of South Africa. The area is prone to severe droughts (Taylor et al., 2006) and recent attempts to understand the local water balance revealed that there was insufficient information on the water use of the indigenous forests of the area. The peat swamp forest and dune forest sites studied in this research were located within close proximity to each other, yet, are characterised by different landscape positions in terms of water availability. The coastal dune forest soil profile was generally dry and sandy and the tree roots did not have access to the water table. In contrast the peat swamp forest is located in an interdunal wetland where the trees have permanent access to water. The climate at both sites is subtropical with a mean annual precipitation of 1200 mm yr-1. However, over 20 months of measurement, the first summer (October 2009 to March 2010) was drier (424 versus 735 mm) than the second summer (October 2010 to March 2011) emphasising the variability of the rainfall in the area and providing a wide range of conditions measured. The sap flow of an evergreen, overstory Syzygium cordatum and a semi-deciduous, understory Shirakiopsis elliptica were measured in the peat swamp forest using the heat ratio method. The Syzygium cordatum water use was not highly seasonal and the daily maximum water use ranged from approximately 30 L d-1 in winter to 45 L d-1 in summer whereas the Shirakiopsis elliptica water use was more seasonal at 2 L d-1 in winter and 12 L d-1 in summer. The water use of the Syzygium cordatum was not influenced by seasonal rainfall variations and was actually higher in the drier summer (October 2009 to March 2010). Three trees of different heights were monitored

  17. Water-use dynamics of a peat swamp forest and a dune forest in Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Clulow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp forests are the second rarest forest type found in South Africa while dune forests have been under severe threat through mining and agriculture. Both forest types exist in the conservation area, and World Heritage site, known as the iSimangaliso Wetland Park on the East coast of South Africa. The area is prone to severe droughts (Taylor et al., 2006 and recent attempts to understand the local water balance revealed that there was insufficient information on the water use of the indigenous forests of the area. The peat swamp forest and dune forest sites studied in this research were located within close proximity to each other, yet, are characterised by different landscape positions in terms of water availability. The coastal dune forest soil profile was generally dry and sandy and the tree roots did not have access to the water table. In contrast the peat swamp forest is located in an interdunal wetland where the trees have permanent access to water. The climate at both sites is subtropical with a mean annual precipitation of 1200 mm yr−1. However, over 20 months of measurement, the first summer (October 2009 to March 2010 was drier (424 versus 735 mm than the second summer (October 2010 to March 2011 emphasising the variability of the rainfall in the area and providing a wide range of conditions measured. The sap flow of an evergreen, overstory Syzygium cordatum and a semi-deciduous, understory Shirakiopsis elliptica were measured in the peat swamp forest using the heat ratio method. The Syzygium cordatum water use was not highly seasonal and the daily maximum water use ranged from approximately 30 L d−1 in winter to 45 L d−1 in summer whereas the extit{Shirakiopsis elliptica} water use was more seasonal at 2 L d−1 in winter and 12 L d−1 in summer. The water use of the Syzygium cordatum was not influenced by seasonal rainfall variations and was actually higher in the drier summer (October 2009 to March 2010. Three trees of

  18. Estimating population size of the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii in fish-ponds (Brenne, Central France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coignet A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, was discovered in 2007 in the “Parc naturel régional (PNR de la Brenne” (France. Ten colonized sites have been identified in the park to date, including two new sites discovered in 2011. The present study aims at establishing a protocol suitable for estimating the population size of P. clarkii by the use of a Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR technique in a chain of five connected fish-ponds. Results show different cohorts of individuals among seasons and fish-ponds. However, trapping effort was not efficient enough to obtain an accurate estimate of the population size of this species in a fish-pond larger than 2 − 3 ha. On the other hand, the adopted protocol appeared useful to assess, in smaller fish-ponds, the effect of intensive trapping and other control methods on P. clarkii populations.

  19. Towards Reproducibility in Computational Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei; Duffy, Chris; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    Reproducibility is a foundational principle in scientific research. The ability to independently re-run an experiment helps to verify the legitimacy of individual findings, and evolve (or reject) hypotheses and models of how environmental systems function, and move them from specific circumstances to more general theory. Yet in computational hydrology (and in environmental science more widely) the code and data that produces published results are not regularly made available, and even if they are made available, there remains a multitude of generally unreported choices that an individual scientist may have made that impact the study result. This situation strongly inhibits the ability of our community to reproduce and verify previous findings, as all the information and boundary conditions required to set up a computational experiment simply cannot be reported in an article's text alone. In Hutton et al 2016 [1], we argue that a cultural change is required in the computational hydrological community, in order to advance and make more robust the process of knowledge creation and hypothesis testing. We need to adopt common standards and infrastructures to: (1) make code readable and re-useable; (2) create well-documented workflows that combine re-useable code together with data to enable published scientific findings to be reproduced; (3) make code and workflows available, easy to find, and easy to interpret, using code and code metadata repositories. To create change we argue for improved graduate training in these areas. In this talk we reflect on our progress in achieving reproducible, open science in computational hydrology, which are relevant to the broader computational geoscience community. In particular, we draw on our experience in the Switch-On (EU funded) virtual water science laboratory (http://www.switch-on-vwsl.eu/participate/), which is an open platform for collaboration in hydrological experiments (e.g. [2]). While we use computational hydrology as

  20. Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC replacement for cassava chip (CC in concentrate at 0% (T1; GCC replacement at 33% (T2; GCC replacement at 67% (T3; and GCC replacement at 100% (T4, respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS. Purine derivatives (PD concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination.

  1. Locomotor behavior of wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) in disturbed peat swamp forest, Sabangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduell, Kirsten L; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; Thorpe, Susannah K S

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the locomotor behavior of wild Bornean orangutans (P. p. wurmbii) in an area of disturbed peat swamp forest (Sabangau Catchment, Indonesia) in relation to the height in the canopy, age-sex class, behavior (feeding or traveling), and the number of supports used to bear body mass. Backward elimination log-linear modeling was employed to expose the main influences on orangutan locomotion. Our results showed that the most important distinctions with regard to locomotion were between suspensory and compressive, or, orthograde (vertical trunk) and pronograde (horizontal trunk) behavior. Whether orangutans were traveling or feeding had the most important influence on locomotion whereby compressive locomotion had a strong association with feeding, suspensory locomotion had a strong association with travel in the peripheral strata using multiple supports, whereas vertical climb/descent and oscillation showed a strong association with travel on single supports in the core stratum. In contrast to theoretical predictions on positional behavior and body size, age-sex category had a limited influence on locomotion. The study revealed that torso orthograde suspension dominates orangutan locomotion, concurring with previous studies in dipterocarp forest. But, orangutans in the Sabangau exhibited substantially higher frequencies of oscillatory locomotion than observed at other sites, suggesting this behavior confers particular benefits for traversing the highly compliant arboreal environment typical of disturbed peat swamp forest. In addition, torso pronograde suspensory locomotion was observed at much lower levels than in the Sumatran species. Together these results highlight the necessity for further examination of differences between species, which control for habitat. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Calculation method for determination of carbon in the peatand moss litter of forest swamps by ash content of plant substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in the lowmountain part of the Kuznetsk Alatau. The spruce stands were studied in the peaty valley of river Tunguzhul and swamp near Agaskyr Lake (valley of river Pechische, basin of river Black Iyus. The objects belong to the group of high ash content flood plain peat lands of cryogenicseries. We have done the evaluation of organic carbon response to physical-chemical properties – decomposition degree, ash content, and bulk density, connected together (r – 0.5–0.7, that in contrast to carbon, is easy determined analytically. Received results according to stepwise regression analysis characterize the strong conditionality predictors of carbon: multiple determination index R2 – 0.86. The highest partial correlation coefficient with the response belongs to the ash content in range (5–68 %. Partial correlation coefficient values of bulk density and decomposition degree is not significant. The determination index (R2 – 0.93, constant and negative coefficient of pair regression analysis are highly significant and evidence of the strong bond of carbon and organic substrate ash content. The relative error of approximation is in the range of 2–8 % and characterizes the high accuracy of prognosis. Including only one indicator (ash content in the calculation formula makes it convenient and simple in practical application for the carbon content prediction on the forest litter, modern peat soils, buried peat and peat-mineral formations with ash content of 5–68 %. We are the first to present the geochemical characteristics of forest swamps peat mine for the KuznetskAlatau intermountain basins.

  3. Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.H. Liu; C.F. Ahlers

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to describe the methods used to determine hydrologic properties based on the available field data from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is in accordance with the AMR Development Plan (DP) for U0090 Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data (CRWMS M and O 1999c). Fracture and matrix properties are developed by compiling and analyzing available survey data from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Cross Drift of Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB), and/or boreholes; air injection testing data from surface boreholes and from boreholes in ESF; in-situ measurements of water potential; and data from laboratory testing of core samples.

  4. Integrated climate and hydrology modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl

    To ensure optimal management and sustainable strategies for water resources, infrastructures, food production and ecosystems there is a need for an improved understanding of feedback and interaction mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface. This is especially true in light of expected...... global warming and increased frequency of extreme events. The skill in developing projections of both the present and future climate depends essentially on the ability to numerically simulate the processes of atmospheric circulation, hydrology, energy and ecology. Previous modelling efforts of climate...... and hydrology models to more directly include the interaction between the atmosphere and the land surface. The present PhD study is motivated by an ambition of developing and applying a modelling tool capable of including the interaction and feedback mechanisms between the atmosphere and the land surface...

  5. Terminology gap in hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Water is central to life on Earth. People have been trying to understand how water moves in the hydrosphere throughout the human history. In the 9th century BC, the famous Greek poet Homer described the hydrological cycle in Iliad as "okeanos whose stream bends back in a circle" with a belief that rivers are ocean-fed from subterranean seas. Later, Aristotle (4th century BC) claimed that most of the water came from underground caverns in which air was transformed into water. It was only until 1674, French scientist Perrault developed the correct concept of the water cycle. In modern times, scientists are interested in understanding the individual processes of the hydrological cycle with a keen focus on runoff which supplies water to rivers, lakes, and oceans. Currently, the prevailing concepts on runoff processes include 'infiltration excess runoff' and 'saturation excess runoff'. However, there is no term to describe another major runoff due to the excess beyond the soil water holding capacity (i.e., the field capacity). We argue that a new term should be introduced to fill this gap, and it could be called 'holding excess runoff' which is compatible with the convention. This new term is significant in correcting a half-century misnomer where 'holding excess runoff' has been incorrectly named as 'saturation excess runoff', which was introduced by the Xinanjiang model in China in 1960s. Similar concept has been adopted in many well-known hydrological models such as PDM and HBV in which the saturation refers to the field capacity. The term 'holding excess runoff' resolves such a common confusion in the hydrological community.

  6. Network analysis applications in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katie

    2017-04-01

    Applied network theory has seen pronounced expansion in recent years, in fields such as epidemiology, computer science, and sociology. Concurrent development of analytical methods and frameworks has increased possibilities and tools available to researchers seeking to apply network theory to a variety of problems. While water and nutrient fluxes through stream systems clearly demonstrate a directional network structure, the hydrological applications of network theory remain under­explored. This presentation covers a review of network applications in hydrology, followed by an overview of promising network analytical tools that potentially offer new insights into conceptual modeling of hydrologic systems, identifying behavioral transition zones in stream networks and thresholds of dynamical system response. Network applications were tested along an urbanization gradient in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Peachtree Creek and Proctor Creek. Peachtree Creek contains a nest of five long­term USGS streamflow and water quality gages, allowing network application of long­term flow statistics. The watershed spans a range of suburban and heavily urbanized conditions. Summary flow statistics and water quality metrics were analyzed using a suite of network analysis techniques, to test the conceptual modeling and predictive potential of the methodologies. Storm events and low flow dynamics during Summer 2016 were analyzed using multiple network approaches, with an emphasis on tomogravity methods. Results indicate that network theory approaches offer novel perspectives for understanding long­ term and event­based hydrological data. Key future directions for network applications include 1) optimizing data collection, 2) identifying "hotspots" of contaminant and overland flow influx to stream systems, 3) defining process domains, and 4) analyzing dynamic connectivity of various system components, including groundwater­surface water interactions.

  7. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Brázdil, R.; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    In recent decades, the quantification of flood hydrological characteristics (peak discharge, hydrograph shape, and runoff volume) from documentary evidence has gained scientific recognition as a method to lengthen flood records of rare and extreme events. This paper describes the methodological evolution of quantitative historical hydrology under the influence of developments in hydraulics and statistics. In the 19th century, discharge calculations based on flood marks were the only source of hydrological data for engineering design, but were later left aside in favour of systematic gauge records and conventional hydrological procedures. In the last two decades, there has been growing scientific and public interest in understanding long-term patterns of rare floods, in maintaining the flood heritage and memory of extremes, and developing methods for deterministic and statistical application to different scientific and engineering problems. A compilation of 46 case studies across Europe with reconstructed discharges demonstrates that (1) in most cases present flood magnitudes are not unusual within the context of the last millennium, although recent floods may exceed past floods in some temperate European rivers (e.g. the Vltava and Po rivers); (2) the frequency of extreme floods has decreased since the 1950s, although some rivers (e.g. the Gardon and Ouse rivers) show a reactivation of rare events over the last two decades. There is a great potential for gaining understanding of individual extreme events based on a combined multiproxy approach (palaeoflood and documentary records) providing high-resolution time flood series and their environmental and climatic changes; and for developing non-systematic and non-stationary statistical models based on relations of past floods with external and internal covariates under natural low-frequency climate variability.

  8. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benito, J.; Brázdil, Rudolf; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 8 (2015), s. 3517-3539 ISSN 1027-5606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : flood frequency-analysis * ne iberian peninsula * reconstructing peak discharges * extreme floods * climate-change * ardeche river * catastrophic floods * documentary sources * paleoflood record * spanish rivers Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.990, year: 2015

  9. Socio-hydrological flood models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendrecht, Marlies; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Long-term feedbacks between humans and floods may lead to complex phenomena such as coping strategies, levee effects, call effects, adaptation effects, and poverty traps. Such phenomena cannot be represented by traditional flood risk approaches that are based on scenarios. Instead, dynamic models of the coupled human-flood interactions are needed. These types of models should include both social and hydrological variables as well as other relevant variables, such as economic, environmental, political or technical, in order to adequately represent the feedbacks and processes that are of importance in human-flood systems. These socio-hydrological models may play an important role in integrated flood risk management by exploring a wider range of possible futures, including unexpected phenomena, than is possible by creating and studying scenarios. New insights might come to light about the long term effects of certain measures on society and the natural system. Here we discuss a dynamic framework for flood risk and review the models that are presented in literature. We propose a way forward for socio-hydrological modelling of the human-flood system.

  10. Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Mark; Pierson, Fred; Hernandez, Mariano; Al-Hamdan, Osama; Weltz, Mark; Spaeth, Ken; Wei, Haiyan; Stone, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    Soil loss rates on rangelands are considered one of the few quantitative indicators for assessing rangeland health and conservation practice effectiveness. An erosion model to predict soil loss specific for rangeland applications has been needed for many years. Most erosion models were developed from croplands where the hydrologic and erosion processes are different, largely due to much higher levels of heterogeneity in soil and plant properties at the plot scale and the consolidated nature of the soils. The Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) was designed to fill that need. RHEM is an event-based model that estimates runoff, erosion, and sediment delivery rates and volumes at the spatial scale of the hillslope and the temporal scale of a single rainfall event. It represents erosion processes under normal and fire-impacted rangeland conditions, it adopts a new splash erosion and thin sheet-flow transport equation developed from rangeland data, and it links the model hydrologic and erosion parameters with rangeland plant communities by providing a new system of parameter estimation equations based on 204 plots at 49 rangeland sites distributed across 15 western U.S. states. Recent work on the model is focused on representing intra-storm dynamics, using stream-power as the driver for detachment by flow, and deriving parameters for after-fire conditions.

  11. Linear infrastructure impacts on landscape hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiter, Keren G; Prober, Suzanne M; Possingham, Hugh P; Westcott, Fiona; Hobbs, Richard J

    2018-01-15

    The extent of roads and other forms of linear infrastructure is burgeoning worldwide, but their impacts are inadequately understood and thus poorly mitigated. Previous studies have identified many potential impacts, including alterations to the hydrological functions and soil processes upon which ecosystems depend. However, these impacts have seldom been quantified at a regional level, particularly in arid and semi-arid systems where the gap in knowledge is the greatest, and impacts potentially the most severe. To explore the effects of extensive track, road, and rail networks on surface hydrology at a regional level we assessed over 1000 km of linear infrastructure, including approx. 300 locations where ephemeral streams crossed linear infrastructure, in the largely intact landscapes of Australia's Great Western Woodlands. We found a high level of association between linear infrastructure and altered surface hydrology, with erosion and pooling 5 and 6 times as likely to occur on-road than off-road on average (1.06 erosional and 0.69 pooling features km -1 on vehicle tracks, compared with 0.22 and 0.12 km -1 , off-road, respectively). Erosion severity was greater in the presence of tracks, and 98% of crossings of ephemeral streamlines showed some evidence of impact on water movement (flow impedance (62%); diversion of flows (73%); flow concentration (76%); and/or channel initiation (31%)). Infrastructure type, pastoral land use, culvert presence, soil clay content and erodibility, mean annual rainfall, rainfall erosivity, topography and bare soil cover influenced the frequency and severity of these impacts. We conclude that linear infrastructure frequently affects ephemeral stream flows and intercepts natural overland and near-surface flows, artificially changing site-scale moisture regimes, with some parts of the landscape becoming abnormally wet and other parts becoming water-starved. In addition, linear infrastructure frequently triggers or exacerbates erosion

  12. SWOT Hydrology in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M. M.; Destaerke, D.; Butler, D. M.; Pavelsky, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission Education Program will participate in the multinational, multiagency program, Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE). GLOBE is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based science and education community of over 24,000 schools in more than 100 countries. Over 1.5 million students have contributed more than 23 million measurements to the GLOBE database for use in inquiry-based science projects. The objectives of the program are to promote the teaching and learning of science; enhance environmental awareness, literacy and stewardship; and contribute to science research and environmental monitoring.SWOT will measure sea surface height and the heights, slopes, and inundated areas of rivers, lakes, and wetlands. This new SWOT-GLOBE partnership will focus on the limnology aspects of SWOT. These measurements will be useful in monitoring the hydrologic cycle, flooding, and climate impacts of a changing environment.GLOBE's cadre of teachers are trained in five core areas of Earth system science, including hydrology. The SWOT Education teams at NASA and CNES are working with the GLOBE Program implementers to develop and promote a new protocol under the Hydrology topic area for students to measure attributes of surface water bodies that will support mission science objectives. This protocol will outline and describe a methodology to measure width and height of rivers and lakes.This new GLOBE protocol will be included in training to provide teachers with expertise and confidence in engaging students in this new scientific investigation. Performing this additional measurement will enhance GLOBE students experience in scientific investigation, and will provide useful measurements to SWOT researchers that can support the SWOT mission research goals.SWOT public engagement will involve communicating the value of its river and lake height measurements, lake water storage, and river

  13. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  14. Climate Change And Hydrologic Instability In Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. P.; Funk, C. C.; McNally, A.; Shukla, S.

    2015-12-01

    Yemen is one of the most food insecure nations in the world. Its agriculture is strongly dependent on soil moisture that is heavily influenced by surface temperature and annual precipitation. We examine observations of rainfall and surface temperature and find that the rainfall, which exhibits strong interannual variability, has seen a moderate downward trend over the last 35 years while surface temperature has seen a very significant rise over the same period. Yemen has high vulnerability and low resilience to these climate changes stemming from many geopolitical and socioeconomic factors. The threshold of resilience has been crossed as Yemen is embroiled in chaos and conflict. We examine the relationship between climate change and agricultural and water insecurity using observed data and the Noah land surface model. We further used atmospheric reanalyses to explore the atmospheric teleconnections that affect the anomalous regional circulation. According to these investigations the robust surface temperature increase over recent decades, expected to continue under climate change, has strongly depleted the soil moisture. This drying of the soil exacerbated the acute hydrologic insecurity in Yemen, stemming predominantly from unsustainable groundwater use, and was likely a contributing factor to the ongoing conflict. We show that during naturally occurring dry years and under climate change this region experiences anomalous dry air advection from the northeast and that these regional circulation changes appear to be linked to tropical sea-surface temperature forcing and to the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude circulation. These results are an important example of the emerging influence of climate change in hydrologically insecure regions.

  15. Communicating uncertainty in hydrological forecasts: mission impossible?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, M. H.; T. Mathevet; J. Thielen; Pappenberger, F.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Cascading uncertainty in meteo-hydrological modelling chains for forecasting and integrated flood risk assessment is an essential step to improve the quality of hydrological forecasts. Although the best methodology to quantify the total predictive uncertainty in hydrology is still debated, there is a common agreement that one must avoid uncertainty misrepresentation and miscommunication, as well as misinterpretation of information by users. Several recent studies point...

  16. Low flow hydrology: a review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smakhtin, VU

    2001-01-10

    Full Text Available seasonal low-flow event does not necessarily constitute a drought, although some researchers refer to a continuous low-flow period in one year as an annual drought (e.g. Zelenhasic and Salvai, 1987; Clausen and Pearson, 1995; Tallaksen et al., 1997...., 1984; Bingham, 1986; Aucott et al., 1987; Rogers and Armbruster, 1990). In some of these studies, V.U. Smakhtin / Journal of Hydrology 240 (2001) 147–186 149 streams flowing through different types of unconsoli- dated sedimentary rocks, were found...

  17. Integrating local ecological knowledge and management practices of an isolated semi-arid papyrus swamp (Loboi, Kenya) into a wider conservation framework

    OpenAIRE

    Terer, T.; Muasya, A.M.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Ndiritu, G.G.; Triest, L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study documented local utilization of Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus), harvesting patterns, threats, and local management practices among the Endorois community living around Loboi swamp (Kenya). Papyrus is a highly productive freshwater macrophyte that is widely utilized throughout tropical Africa. However, increased human population and poverty, has led to over exploitation and conversion of papyrus wetlands to agricultural fields. Nonetheless, users of papyrus hold important local...

  18. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from mangrove swamps. 2. Their ecology and physiology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Oak, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    oxidizing SRB were widespread and occurred in numbers up to 6.62 x 103/g dry sediment. The next highest in number were lactate utilizing SRB. On an average there were more propionate and butyrate utilizers than acetate utilizers. While Agasaim at the mouth...

  19. Effects of Hurricane Katrina on the forest structure of taxodium distichum swamps of the Gulf Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina pushed mixed Taxodium distichum forests toward a dominance of Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) because these species had lower levels of susceptibility to wind damage than other woody species. This study documents the volume of dead versus live material of woody trees and shrubs of T. distichum swamps following Hurricane Katrina along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and Louisiana. Pearl River Wildlife Management Area near Canton, Mississippi had the highest winds of the study areas, and these forests were located in the northeast quadrant of Hurricane Katrina (sustained wind 151 kph (94 mph)). Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve south of New Orleans had medium to high winds (sustained winds 111 kph (69 mph) at the New Orleans lakefront). Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge had a lower level of winds and was positioned on the western edge of the storm. The forests at Pearl River and to a lesser extent at Jean Lafitte had the highest amount of structural damage in the study. For Cat Island, Jean Lafitte, and Pearl River, the total volume of dead material (debris) was 50, 80, and 370 m3 ha-1, respectively. The ratio of dead to live volume was 0.010, 0.082, and 0.039, respectively. For both of the dominant species, T. distichum and N. aquatica, the percentage of dead to live volume was less than 1. Subdominant species including Acer rubrum, Liquidambar styraciflua, Quercus lyrata, and Quercus nigra were more damaged by the storm at both Pearl River and Jean Lafitte. Only branches were damaged by Hurricane Katrina at Cat Island. Shrubs such as Morella cerifera, Euonymous sp., and Vaccinium sp. were often killed by the storm, while other species such as Cephalanthus occidentalis, Forestiera acuminata, and Cornus florida were not killed. Despite the fact that Hurricane Katrina was a Category 3 storm and struck Pearl River and Jean Lafitte fairly directly, dominant species of the T. distichum swamps were

  20. Regional frameworks applied to hydrology: can landscape-based frameworks capture the hydrologic variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McManamay; D. Orth; C. Dolloff; E. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Regional frameworks have been used extensively in recent years to aid in broad-scale management. Widely used landscape-based regional frameworks, such as hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) and physiographic provinces, may provide predictive tools of hydrologic variability. However, hydrologic-based regional frameworks, created using only streamflow data, are also...

  1. Bacterial diversity in the rumen of Gayals (Bos frontalis), Swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Holstein cow as revealed by cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuli; Ma, Songcheng; Chen, Jing; Mao, Huaming; He, Yiduo; Xi, Dongmei; Yang, Liangyu; He, Tianbao; Deng, Weidong

    2010-04-01

    Libraries of rumen bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences of Gayals (Bos frontalis) and Swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were cloned and sequenced in the present work to compare the bacterial diversity with the third published library of Holstein cow. Sequence similarity of 97% was used as the definition of operational taxonomic unit (OTU). The majority of the 470 sequences retrieved fell into the phyla of low G + C subdivision (329 sequences) and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB, 123 sequences) with the percentages of 70 and 26.2, respectively. The remaining clones belonged to the phyla of Proteobacter, high G + C gram positive bacteria (HGCGPB) and Spirochaetes, accounting for 3.8% totally. Only 73 clones (25 OTUs, 15.5%) could be closely related to cultured representatives. However, a larger fraction was related to uncultured representatives. Holstein cow may have more representatives of cultural bacteria and there were more uncultured clones for Gayals. The percentage of cultural representatives was 24, 13.3 and 9.5 for Holstein cow, Swamp buffaloes and Gayals, respectively. Twenty-three OTUs of the 236 ones appeared in more than one library, five of which were cultural. Selenomonas ruminantium, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens were found in two different libraries, while Succiniclasticum ruminis and Pseudobutyrivibrio ruminis were found in all three libraries. Some of the animal-specific bacteria that had not been described previously in the ruminal ecosystem, e.g. Allisonella histaminiformans for Gayals and Staphylococcus sciuri for Swamp buffaloes were also recovered.

  2. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  3. Hydrologic Forecasting and Hydropower Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmosta, M. S.; Voisin, N.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Coleman, A.; Mishra, V.; Schaner, N. A.

    2011-12-01

    Hydroelectric power production is one of many competing demands for available water along with other priority uses such as irrigation, thermoelectric cooling, municipal, recreation, and environmental performance. Increasingly, hydroelectric generation is being used to offset the intermittent nature of some renewable energy sources such as wind-generated power. An accurate forecast of the magnitude and timing of water supply assists managers in integrated planning and operations to balance competing water uses against current and future supply while protecting against the possibility of water or energy shortages and excesses with real-time actions. We present a medium-range to seasonal ensemble streamflow forecasting system where uncertainty in forecasts is addressed explicitly. The integrated forecast system makes use of remotely-sensed data and automated spatial and temporal data assimilation. Remotely-sensed snow cover, observed snow water equivalent, and observed streamflow data are used to update the hydrologic model state prior to the forecast. In forecast mode, the hydrology model is forced by calibrated ensemble weather/climate forecasts. This system will be fully integrated into a water optimization toolset to inform reservoir and power operations, and guide environmental performance decision making. This flow forecast system development is carried out in agreement with the National Weather Service so that the system can later be incorporated into the NOAA eXperimental Ensemble Forecast Service (XEFS).

  4. Towards a hydrologically motivated soil texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge

    2010-05-01

    Soil texture classification is not designed for hydrological purposes, e.g. for hydrological modelling. Hydrological model applications based on classified soil textures have revealed that different soil texture classes within the same classification system induce different uncertainties with respect to simulated water balances. As a consequence, there is a need to think about required similarity in texture classifications. In different regions of the world, different soil texture classification systems have been developed. These different classification systems divide the soil texture triangle in different numbers of differently shaped soil texture classes. These texture classifications are based on pedological background and practical reasons with respect to soil mapping and analyses. In comparison, a possible soil texture classification motivated by soil hydrology should be based on similarity in hydrological fluxes or in the soil water regime. Therefore, this presentation proposes a procedure how to evaluate the appropriateness of currently used texture classifications and how to derive a new soil texture classification based on a similar behaviour of soils with respect to hydrological processes. Long-term hydrological modelling of water balance terms using the 1-D SVAT scheme SIMULAT serve as the basis of a similarity analysis of 5050 possible realisations of the soil texture triangle (1% grid). Cluster analysis is used for analysing similar hydrological behaviour of theoretical soil columns. Spatial patterns of similar realisations (=clusters) in the soil texture triangle based on annual water balance terms are compared to those based on soil hydraulic parameters and current soil texture classes. The results show that clusters based on soil hydraulic parameterisation are relatively similar to current soil texture classification schemes while hydrological model simulations suggest differing spatial patterns of similar behaviour over the soil texture triangle

  5. Sharing Hydrologic Data with the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T.; Piasecki, M.; Goodall, J. L.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.

    2009-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is an internet based system to support the sharing of hydrologic data consisting of databases connected using the internet through web services as well as software for data discovery, access and publication. The HIS is founded upon an information model for observations at stationary points that supports its data services. A data model, the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM), provides community defined semantics needed to allow sharing information from diverse data sources. A defined set of CUAHSI HIS web services allows for the development of data services, which scale from centralized data services which support access to National Datasets such as the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and EPA Storage and Retrieval System (STORET), in a standard way; to distributed data services which allow users to establish their own server and publish their data. User data services are registered to a central HIS website, and they become searchable and accessible through the centralized discovery and data access tools. HIS utilizes both an XML and relational database schema for transmission and storage of data respectively. WaterML is the XML schema used for data transmission that underlies the machine to machine communications, while the ODM is implemented as relational database model for persistent data storage. Web services support access to hydrologic data stored in ODM and communicate using WaterML directly from applications software such as Excel, MATLAB and ArcGIS that have Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. A significant value of web services derives from the capability to use them from within a user’s preferred analysis environment, using community defined semantics, rather than requiring a user to learn new software. This allows a user to work with data from national and academic sources, almost as though it was on their local disk. Users wishing to share or publish their data through CUAHSI

  6. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and ... tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited ..... Seretis C, Seretis F, Liakos N. Multidisciplinary approach to.

  7. Inferring Invasion History of Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii in China from Mitochondrial Control Region and Nuclear Intron Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the dispersal pathways of an invasive species is useful for adopting the appropriate strategies to prevent and control its spread. However, these processes are exceedingly complex. So, it is necessary to apply new technology and collect representative samples for analysis. This study used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC in combination with traditional genetic tools to examine extensive sample data and historical records to infer the invasion history of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, in China. The sequences of the mitochondrial control region and the proPOx intron in the nuclear genome of samples from 37 sites (35 in China and one each in Japan and the USA were analyzed. The results of combined scenarios testing and historical records revealed a much more complex invasion history in China than previously believed. P. clarkii was most likely originally introduced into China from Japan from an unsampled source, and the species then expanded its range primarily into the middle and lower reaches and, to a lesser extent, into the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in China. No transfer was observed from the upper reaches to the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River. Human-mediated jump dispersal was an important dispersal pathway for P. clarkii. The results provide a better understanding of the evolutionary scenarios involved in the rapid invasion of P. clarkii in China.

  8. Effect of Chronic Exposure to Prometryne on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Response in Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžběta Stará

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine herbicide prometryne on red swamp crayfish on the basis of oxidative stress, antioxidant indices in hepatopancreas and muscle, and histopathology of hepatopancreas. Crayfish were exposed to prometryne concentrations of 0.51 μg L−1, 0.144 mg L−1, and 1.144 mg L−1 for 11 and 25 days. Indices of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and antioxidant parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione reductase (GR in crayfish muscle and hepatopancreas were measured. Chronic exposure to prometryne did not showed the impact of oxidative damage to cells. Changes activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GR were observed in all tested concentrations to prometryne for 11 and 25 days (P<0.01 as compared with the control group. We did not see any differences in histopatological examination to hepatopancreas. Prolonged exposure of prometryne did not result in oxidative damage to cell lipids and proteins, but it led to changes in antioxidant activity in crayfish tissues. Changes in antioxidant systems were also observed in the environmental prometryne concentration of 0.51 μg L−1. The results suggest that antioxidant responses may have potential as biomarkers for monitoring residual triazine herbicides in aquatic environments.

  9. Benefits of the fire mitigation ecosystem service in The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthum, Bryan; Pindilli, Emily; Hogan, Dianna

    2017-12-01

    The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the health of nearby human populations. We used a combination of high-frequency satellite data, ground sensors, and air quality indices to determine periods of public exposure to dense emissions from a wildfire within the GDS. We examined emergency department (ED) visitation in seven Virginia counties during these periods, applied measures of cumulative Relative Risk to derive the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on ED visitation rates, and estimated economic losses using regional Cost of Illness values established within the US Environmental Protection Agency BenMAP framework. Our results estimated the value of one avoided catastrophic wildfire in the refuge to be $3.69 million (2015 USD), or $306 per hectare of burn. Reducing the frequency or severity of extensive, deep burning peatland wildfire events has additional benefits not included in this estimate, including avoided costs related to fire suppression during a burn, carbon dioxide emissions, impacts to wildlife, and negative outcomes associated with recreation and regional tourism. We suggest the societal value of the public health benefits alone provides a significant incentive for refuge mangers to implement strategies that will reduce the severity of catastrophic wildfires. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Cadmium and lead residues in field-collected red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and uptake by alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxiroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S.M.; Howell, R.D.; Sholas, M. (Southern Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences and Health Research Center)

    1993-01-01

    The whole-body residues of Cd and Pb in the tissues of Louisiana swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) were determined by flame AAS technique. Test animals were collected from roadside ditches alongside major highways. The water and soil samples were also collected from the same sites. The mean Cd and Pb concentrations in crayfish tissues were 0.46 and 0.07, respectively. The levels of Cd and Pb in the water were 0.09 and 0.04; and in soil were 2.85 and 0.87 mg/1, respectively. The concentration of cadmium was 32 and Pb 12 times more than in the water. The bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Cd and Pb in crayfish tissues were 5.1 and 1.7, respectively. Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxiroides) plants were exposed to 0.5 mg/1 Cd-chloride or Pb-nitrate solutions for 3 wk period, thrice. The mean Pb accumulation in roots was 1.31 mg/1, followed by stem (0.078 mg/1), but Cd only accumulated in root (0.83 mg/1). The BF for Pb and Cd in plant tissues were 14.8 and 16.6, respectively. The uptake of metals was time-dependent. These data suggest that although there is no biomagnification of Cd and Pb from alligator weed to crayfish, both metals readily accumulate in field-collected crayfish and laboratory-exposed alligator weed.

  11. Nakazawaea todaengensis f.a., sp. nov., a yeast isolated from a peat swamp forest in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polburee, Pirapan; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Limtong, Pitayakon; Groenewald, Marizeth; Limtong, Savitree

    2017-07-01

    Strain DMKU-PS11(1)T was isolated from peat in a swamp forest in Thailand. DNA sequence analysis showed that it belonged to a novel species that was most closely related to Nakazawaea laoshanensis. However, it differed from the type strain of N. laoshanensis (NRRL Y-63634T) by 2.3 % nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, 1.0 % nucleotide substitutions in the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and 8.0 % nucleotide substitutions in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The phylogenetic analyses based on the combined sequences of the SSU and the D1/D2 region and that of the SSU sequences alone confirmed the placement of the novel species in the Nakazawaea clade and its close affinity with N. laoshanensis. Hence, the species Nakazawaea todaengensis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DMKU-PS11(1)T (=CBS 14555T=TBRC 6559T). The MycoBank number for Nakazawaea todaengensis f.a., sp. nov. is MB 819513.

  12. Effect of Lunar Phases, Tides, and Wind Speed on the Abundance of Diptera Calliphoridae in a Mangrove Swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-da-Silva, J A

    2014-02-01

    Abiotic factors, such as lunar phases and tides, have a significant effect on insect development. Reproduction and immature development are usually interlinked to these abiotic factors. The tide is at its highest levels at full moon or new moon, hindering the feeding of the immature or causing their drowning. The oviposition by adult females is also compromised on these days because much of the available food is submerged. Another important abiotic factor is the wind, which displaces odoriferous particles in the air. Wind speed and direction are important elements to indicate potential sources of food for insects. I report on the effects of lunar phases, tides, and wind speed on the Calliphoridae fauna in mangrove swamps. The different species collected were identified, and the predominant species in the area were quantified. A total of 1,710 flies were collected over a 1-year period. Six Calliphoridae flies, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) were collected. Data indicated that lunar phases have a significant effect on the abundance of C. albiceps (r = 0.39, p macellaria (r = 0.41, p < 0.00), and C. idioidea (r = 0.31, p < 0.04). The wind speed, however, did not affect these species.

  13. Antibacterial properties of extracts of Solidago canadensis and their potential use as dietary supplements in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhong YE,Lei ZHANG,Jiaqi GE,Haifeng SUN,Jingjing NI,Shengmei YANG,Wanhong WEI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis is one of the most destructive invasive weeds in South-eastern China. To evaluate its potential application as dietary supplement in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, the antibacterial properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts of this plant against three major pathogenic bacteria in crayfish aquaculture were examined. Inhibition zone tests and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration revealed that the extracts had lower antibacterial activity than extracts from two traditional medicinal plants that possess antibacterial properties, garlic (Allium sativum and cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense. However, they did exhibit greater antibacterial effects than extracts from another widely used medicinal plant, Sophora flavescens, and an aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides. Aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod gave greater inhibition than the ethanol extracts. Crayfish fed a diet with 2% these aqueous extracts exhibited significantly higher enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, catalase and phenoloxidase (P<0.05. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod are highly promising for the development of new dietary supplement for use in crayfish aquaculture.

  14. Benefits of the fire mitigation ecosystem service in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthum, Bryan M.; Pindilli, Emily; Hogan, Dianna

    2017-01-01

     The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the health of nearby human populations. We used a combination of high-frequency satellite data, ground sensors, and air quality indices to determine periods of public exposure to dense emissions from a wildfire within the GDS. We examined emergency department (ED) visitation in seven Virginia counties during these periods, applied measures of cumulative Relative Risk to derive the effects of wildfire smoke exposure on ED visitation rates, and estimated economic losses using regional Cost of Illness values established within the US Environmental Protection Agency BenMAP framework. Our results estimated the value of one avoided catastrophic wildfire in the refuge to be \\$3.69 million (2015 USD), or \\$306 per hectare of burn. Reducing the frequency or severity of extensive, deep burning peatland wildfire events has additional benefits not included in this estimate, including avoided costs related to fire suppression during a burn, carbon dioxide emissions, impacts to wildlife, and negative outcomes associated with recreation and regional tourism. We suggest the societal value of the public health benefits alone provides a significant incentive for refuge mangers to implement strategies that will reduce the severity of catastrophic wildfires.

  15. Acid base status in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis fed rice straw and concentrate with addition of sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the addition of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 on acid-base status in swamp buffaloes, Three fistulated buffaloes were each introduced to dietary treatment control diett (50% rice straw + 50% concentrate, control + \\0% NaHCO3 and diet control + 10% Na2CO3 in two times Latin Square Design. The diets contained 9,7% crude protein and 53% TDN to achieve maintenance requirements of the animals. Parameters measured include (l Fed consumption, water consumption and urine volume. (2 pH in rumen fluid, saliva, bLood and urine, (3 natrium mineral content in rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine. The results of the experiment showed higher pH in the rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine of buffaloes due to supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, Water consumption and urine volume was significanly increased as the effect of Na supplement. The acid-base status of buffaloes was apparently normal in all animals.

  16. Hydrology of Southeast Florida and Associated Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsour, William, Comp.; Moyer, Maureen, Comp.

    This booklet deals with the hydrology of southeastern Florida. It is designed to provide the citizen, teacher, or student with hydrological information, to promote an understanding of water resources, and to initiate conservation practices within Florida communities. The collection of articles within the booklet deal with Florida water resources…

  17. Hydrological processes at the urban residential scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Xiao; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; S.L. Ustin

    2007-01-01

    In the face of increasing urbanization, there is growing interest in application of microscale hydrologic solutions to minimize storm runoff and conserve water at the source. In this study, a physically based numerical model was developed to understand hydrologic processes better at the urban residential scale and the interaction of these processes among different...

  18. Hydrological and geomorphological controls of malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. W.; Macklin, M. G.; Thomas, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria risk is linked inextricably to the hydrological and geomorphological processes that form vector breeding sites. Yet environmental controls of malaria transmission are often represented by temperature and rainfall amounts, ignoring hydrological and geomorphological influences altogether. Continental-scale studies incorporate hydrology implicitly through simple minimum rainfall thresholds, while community-scale coupled hydrological and entomological models do not represent the actual diversity of the mosquito vector breeding sites. The greatest range of malaria transmission responses to environmental factors is observed at the catchment scale where seemingly contradictory associations between rainfall and malaria risk can be explained by hydrological and geomorphological processes that govern surface water body formation and persistence. This paper extends recent efforts to incorporate ecological factors into malaria-risk models, proposing that the same detailed representation be afforded to hydrological and, at longer timescales relevant for predictions of climate change impacts, geomorphological processes. We review existing representations of environmental controls of malaria and identify a range of hydrologically distinct vector breeding sites from existing literature. We illustrate the potential complexity of interactions among hydrology, geomorphology and vector breeding sites by classifying a range of water bodies observed in a catchment in East Africa. Crucially, the mechanisms driving surface water body formation and destruction must be considered explicitly if we are to produce dynamic spatial models of malaria risk at catchment scales.

  19. Weather radar rainfall data in urban hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Einfalt, Thomas; Willems, Patrick; Ellerbæk Nielsen, Jesper; ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Molnar, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Application of weather radar data in urban hydrological applications has evolved significantly during the past decade as an alternative to traditional rainfall observations with rain gauges. Advances in radar hardware, data processing, numerical models, and emerging fields within urban hydrology

  20. Steponas Kolupaila's contribution to hydrological science development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiuškevičius, Gintaras

    2017-08-01

    Steponas Kolupaila (1892-1964) was an important figure in 20th century hydrology and one of the pioneers of scientific water gauging in Europe. His research on the reliability of hydrological data and measurement methods was particularly important and contributed to the development of empirical hydrological calculation methods. Kolupaila was one of the first who standardised water-gauging methods internationally. He created several original hydrological and hydraulic calculation methods (his discharge assessment method for winter period was particularly significant). His innate abilities and frequent travel made Kolupaila a universal specialist in various fields and an active public figure. He revealed his multilayered scientific and cultural experiences in his most famous book, Bibliography of Hydrometry. This book introduced the unique European hydrological-measurement and computation methods to the community of world hydrologists at that time and allowed the development and adaptation of these methods across the world.