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Sample records for swamp buffalo bubalus

  1. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  2. Effect of supplementary lighting on eating behaviour by corralled swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis heifers in Thailand

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    Chanvit Vajrabukka

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen 14-month-old swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis heifers were used to study the effect of supplementary lighting on eating time, number of meals and meal duration and growth performance. Eightheifers were allocated to a natural photoperiod regime, receiving approximately 12 h of daylight, (control treatment and eight heifers were allocated to a supplementary lighting regime, receiving an additional 6 h of artificial light during the night, (light supplemented treatment using a cross-over design. Rice straw wasoffered ad libitum and commercial concentrate was also offered approximately 1.5 kg/animal/day. Supplementary lighting was provided by eight 60 W white fluorescent tubes placed approximately 2.5 m above theground under the roof. Supplementary lighting did not significantly effect eating behaviour, daily intake or live weight gain. It is concluded that the performance of corralled buffalo heifers cannot be improved by the provision of supplementary lighting.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in Thai swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): a pilot study.

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    Ruennarong, N; Wongpanit, K; Sakulthaew, C; Giorgi, M; Klangkaew, N; Poapolathep, A; Poapolathep, S

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin (AMX) in Thai swamp buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, following single intramuscular administration at two dosages of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected at assigned times up to 48 h. The plasma concentrations of AMX were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The concentrations of AMX in the plasma were determined up to 24 h after i.m. administration at both dosages. The Cmax values of AMX were 3.39 ± 0.18 μg/mL and 6.16 ± 0.18 μg/mL at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. The AUClast values increased in a dose-dependent fashion. The half-life values were 5.56 ± 0.40 h and 4.37 ± 0.23 h at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w, respectively. Based on the pharmacokinetic data and PK-PD index (T > MIC), i.m. administration of AMX at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w might be appropriate for the treatment of susceptible Mannheimia haemolytica infection in Thai swamp buffaloes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Residu Gula Glikokonjugat pada Lambung Depan Kerbau Rawa (Bubalus bubalis Kalimantan Selatan (SUGAR RESIDU OF GLYCOCONJUGATES IN FORESTOMACH OF SOUTH KALIMANTAN SWAMP BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS

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    Anni Nurliani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of swamp buffaloes to adapt with swamp environment was suggested to be supported bytheir digestive system efficiency. The research was done to obtain scientific explanation about digestiveefficiency of swamp buffalo by identification on kinds and distribution of glycoconjugates in swamp buffaloforestomach. Six male swamp buffaloes aged more than 2.5 year old and had body weight between 300-400kg were used in this study. Samples were obtained from Regency of Banjar slaughter house, SouthKalimantan. Every parts of the forestomach included rumen, reticulum, and omasum was taken andprocessed for microscopic observation with hematoxyline eosin (HE and alcian blue-periodic acid schiff(AB-PAS stainings. Sugar residues of glycoconjugates were localized with lectin histochemistry wheatgerm agglutinin (WGA, ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA, ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, concanavalinagglutinin (Con A, and soybean agglutinin (SBA. Every part of swamp buffalo forestomach had kinds ofspecific glycoconjugates with special distribution pattern which were different with other ruminant, andwere suitable for their functions in that part. The existence of D mannose/D glucose glycoconjugates thatwas dominant in forestomach estimated that had important role in supporting fermentative digestionfunction in swamp buffalo, through its function as receptor bacteria attachment. This is suggested as aspecial characteristic in digestive system of swamp buffalo which causes high digestive efficiency inswamp buffalo.

  5. Bacterial diversity in the rumen of Gayals (Bos frontalis), Swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Holstein cow as revealed by cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences.

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    Yang, Shuli; Ma, Songcheng; Chen, Jing; Mao, Huaming; He, Yiduo; Xi, Dongmei; Yang, Liangyu; He, Tianbao; Deng, Weidong

    2010-04-01

    Libraries of rumen bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences of Gayals (Bos frontalis) and Swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were cloned and sequenced in the present work to compare the bacterial diversity with the third published library of Holstein cow. Sequence similarity of 97% was used as the definition of operational taxonomic unit (OTU). The majority of the 470 sequences retrieved fell into the phyla of low G + C subdivision (329 sequences) and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB, 123 sequences) with the percentages of 70 and 26.2, respectively. The remaining clones belonged to the phyla of Proteobacter, high G + C gram positive bacteria (HGCGPB) and Spirochaetes, accounting for 3.8% totally. Only 73 clones (25 OTUs, 15.5%) could be closely related to cultured representatives. However, a larger fraction was related to uncultured representatives. Holstein cow may have more representatives of cultural bacteria and there were more uncultured clones for Gayals. The percentage of cultural representatives was 24, 13.3 and 9.5 for Holstein cow, Swamp buffaloes and Gayals, respectively. Twenty-three OTUs of the 236 ones appeared in more than one library, five of which were cultural. Selenomonas ruminantium, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens were found in two different libraries, while Succiniclasticum ruminis and Pseudobutyrivibrio ruminis were found in all three libraries. Some of the animal-specific bacteria that had not been described previously in the ruminal ecosystem, e.g. Allisonella histaminiformans for Gayals and Staphylococcus sciuri for Swamp buffaloes were also recovered.

  6. Acid base status in swamp buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis fed rice straw and concentrate with addition of sodium

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    G Joseph

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the addition of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 on acid-base status in swamp buffaloes, Three fistulated buffaloes were each introduced to dietary treatment control diett (50% rice straw + 50% concentrate, control + \\0% NaHCO3 and diet control + 10% Na2CO3 in two times Latin Square Design. The diets contained 9,7% crude protein and 53% TDN to achieve maintenance requirements of the animals. Parameters measured include (l Fed consumption, water consumption and urine volume. (2 pH in rumen fluid, saliva, bLood and urine, (3 natrium mineral content in rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine. The results of the experiment showed higher pH in the rumen fluid, saliva, blood and urine of buffaloes due to supplementation of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, Water consumption and urine volume was significanly increased as the effect of Na supplement. The acid-base status of buffaloes was apparently normal in all animals.

  7. The effects of high temperature and roof modification on physiological responses of swamp buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) in the tropics

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    Khongdee, Titaporn; Sripoon, S.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the experiments reported here was to measure the effects of cooling techniques (Modified roof vs Normal roof) on the performance and physiology of 12 young male buffaloes with a similar live weight of 160 kg. The study was conducted at Chainat Agriculture and Technology College, Chainat Province, Thailand. The animals were divided randomly into two groups, each group comprising six buffaloes, and the two groups were studied to evaluate the effects of modified roofing (normal roof fitted with woven polypropylene shade cloth) on the subjects' physiological responses to heat stress under hot humid conditions. The modified roof resulted in lowered heat stress in buffaloes compared to those under a standard roof. The difference was shown by the buffaloes having a significantly lower mean rectal temperature (39.14 ± 0.07 vs 40.00 ± 0.10°C) and plasma cortisol (2.14 ± 0.24 vs 3.38 ± 0.37 ng/ml). The average daily water consumption was significantly lower in the MR group (MR, 29.71 ± 0.86 vs NR, 34.14 ± 1.06 L head -1 day-1), while there was a tendency for the roughage intake to be higher in the MR group compared to that of the NR group (MR, 5.88 ± 0.18 vs NR, 6.44 ± 0.19 kg head-1 -1 day-1; P = 0.0508). It was concluded that roof modification facilitated a reduction in heat load from roof re-radiation, and was an effective means of alleviating thermal stress in young buffaloes.

  8. Congenital Malformations in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Sara Albarella

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival. This review depicts, in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis world population, the present status of the congenital malformations, due to genetic causes, to identify their frequency and distribution in order to develop genetic breeding plans able to improve the productive and reproductive performance, and avoid the spreading of detrimental gene variants. Congenital malformations most frequently reported in literature or signaled by breeders to the Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production of the University Federico II (Naples, Italy in river buffalo are: musculoskeletal defects (transverse hemimelia, arthrogryposis, umbilical hernia and disorders of sexual development. In conclusion this review put in evidence that river buffalo have a great variety of malformations due to genetic causes, and TH and omphalocele are the most frequent and that several cases are still not reported, leading to an underestimation of the real weight of genetic diseases in this species.

  9. Congenital Malformations in River Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

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    Albarella, Sara; Ciotola, Francesca; D’Anza, Emanuele; Coletta, Angelo; Zicarelli, Luigi; Peretti, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Congenital malformations (due to genetic causes) represent a hidden danger for animal production, above all when genetic selection is undertaken for production improvements. These malformations are responsible for economic losses either because they reduce the productivity of the farm, or because their spread in the population would decrease the total productivity of that species/breed. River buffalo is a species of increasing interest all over the world for its production abilities, as proved by the buffalo genome project and the genetic selection plans that are currently performed in different countries. The aim of this review is to provide a general view of different models of congenital malformations in buffalo and their world distribution. This would be useful either for those who performed buffalo genetic selection or for researchers in genetic diseases, which would be an advantage to their studies with respect to the knowledge of gene mutations and interactions in this species. Abstract The world buffalo population is about 168 million, and it is still growing, in India, China, Brazil, and Italy. In these countries, buffalo genetic breeding programs have been performed for many decades. The occurrence of congenital malformations has caused a slowing of the genetic progress and economic loss for the breeders, due to the death of animals, or damage to their reproductive ability or failing of milk production. Moreover, they cause animal welfare reduction because they can imply foetal dystocia and because the affected animals have a reduced fitness with little chances of survival. This review depicts, in the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) world population, the present status of the congenital malformations, due to genetic causes, to identify their frequency and distribution in order to develop genetic breeding plans able to improve the productive and reproductive performance, and avoid the spreading of detrimental gene variants. Congenital

  10. Schistosoma mansoni: on the possibility of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) being experimentally infected

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho; Walter S. Lima; Raimundo H. G. Nogueira

    1989-01-01

    Male Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves were submitted to Schistosoma mansoni infection by percutaneous, oral and subcutaneous routes. No worms or eggs were found in four of the animals tested. Bubalus bubalis appears to be refractory for S. mansoni.

  11. Frequency of Toxoplasmosis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in Trinidad

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    Anil Persad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis across farms in Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8% were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P0.05; χ2. This is the first documentation of toxoplasmosis in water buffalo in Trinidad.

  12. water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in tropical Asia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research group (Fujita, Imai & Ogimoto, 1979;Imai, 1981). Table 2 shows the number of ciliate species in the pro- tozoal families found in the rumen of the water buffalo in tropical Asia, in the African water buffalo (Syncerus caf- fer) in Africa, of the zebu (Bos indicus) in India and Sri. Lanka, and of cattle (Bos taurus) in Japan.

  13. Schistosoma mansoni: on the possibility of Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis being experimentally infected

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    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Male Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis calves were submitted to Schistosoma mansoni infection by percutaneous, oral and subcutaneous routes. No worms or eggs were found in four of the animals tested. Bubalus bubalis appears to be refractory for S. mansoni.

  14. Microsatellite markers of water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis - development, characterisation and linkage disequilibrium studies

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    Vaidhegi R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and widely used in genome mapping and population genetic studies in livestock species. River buffalo, Bubalus bubalis is an economically important livestock species, though only a limited number of microsatellite markers have been reported thus far in this species. Results In the present study, using two different approaches 571 microsatellite markers have been characterized for water buffalo. Of the 571 microsatellite markers, 498 were polymorphic with average heterozygosity of 0.51 on a panel of 24 unrelated buffalo. Fisher exact test was used to detect LD between the marker pairs. Among the 137550 pairs of marker combination, 14.58% pairs showed significant LD (P Conclusion The high conservation of cattle microsatellite loci in water buffalo promises the usefulness of the cattle microsatellites markers on buffalo. The polymorphic markers characterised in this study will contribute to genetic linkage and radiation hybrid mapping of water buffalo and population genetic studies.

  15. Characterization of PRLR and PPARGC1A genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Ruheena Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 40 million households in India depend at least partially on livestock production. Buffaloes are one of the major milk producers in India. The prolactin receptor (PRLR gene and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A gene are reportedly associated with milk protein and milk fat yields in Bos taurus. In this study, we sequenced the PRLR and PPARGC1A genes in the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The PRLR and PPARGC1A genes coded for 581 and 819 amino acids, respectively. The B. bubalis PRLR gene differed from the corresponding Bos taurus at 21 positions and four differences with an additional arginine at position 620 in the PPARGC1A gene were found in the amino acid sequence. All of the changes were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Twelve buffalo-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified in both genes, with five of them being non-synonymous.

  16. Ultrasonographic appearance of early embryonic mortality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Giuseppe Catone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic mortality is one of the main causes responsible of the decline in fertility that occurs in buffaloes during periods of increasing daylight length (out sexual breeding season. Transrectal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis offers some advantages over palpation per rectum: earlier diagnosis of pregnancy/non-pregnancy, determination of embryo/fetus viability, reduction of misdiagnosis, and reduction of .potential. iatrogenic embryo/fetal attrition. Non pregnant buffaloes on Day 25 after AI showed higher Resistive Index (RI (P<0.05 and Pulsatility Index (P=0.07 values, registered on CL on Days 10 after AI, compared to pregnant buffaloes. RI values were significantly higher (P=0.02 in non pregnant buffaloes also on Day 45 after AI. Colour Doppler sonography could be used to gain specific information relating to the ovarian blood flow in predicting early embryonic loss and to describe the ultrasonographic features of early embryonic death in buffaloes.

  17. Mekong schistosomiasis. III: a parasitological survey of domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) on Khong Island, Laos.

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    Schneider, C R; Kitikoon, V; Sornmani, S; Thirachantra, S

    1975-06-01

    Of 103 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) examined on Khong Island by means of the M.I.F.C. and hatching techniques, none were passing eggs resimbling those of the Mekong schistosome. One buffalo calf was infected with Orientobilharzia harinasutai and another with Schistosoma spindale; this is the first time these parasites have been reported from Laos. Since the buffalo that were examined had constant and year-round access to a part of the Mekong River that has been shown to be a site of heavy transmission of schistosomiasis to humans and dogs, it was considered that the buffalo would have acquired the infection with the human Mekong schistosome if this were possible. In the absence of buffalo necropsies, and since no eggs of the Mekong schistosome were detected in the stools of these animals, we assumed that they had either not become infected with this parasite or, if they had, that the infections did not produce eggs in the faeces which were detectable by the methods employed. On the basis of our examinations, it would not seem that domestic water buffalo are involved as reservoirs in the epidemiology of human schistosomiasis on Khong Island.

  18. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina.

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    Maidana, Silvina S; Lomonaco, Patricia M; Combessies, Gustavo; Craig, María I; Diodati, Julian; Rodriguez, Daniela; Parreño, Viviana; Zabal, Osvaldo; Konrad, José L; Crudelli, Gustavo; Mauroy, Axel; Thiry, Etienne; Romera, Sonia A

    2012-06-20

    Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b) while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a) and C (BPIV3c). This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo.According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle.

  19. Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Argentina

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    Maidana Silvina S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3 was isolated from dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis naturally affected with respiratory and reproductive clinical conditions. Results Examination of nasal and vaginal swabs collected from 12 diseased buffaloes led to the isolation of three paramyxovirus isolates from two animals. Antigenic, morphological and biological characteristics of these three isolates were essentially similar to those of members of the Paramyxoviridae family. Antigenic analysis by direct immunofluorescence and cross neutralization test placed these isolates together with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3. Nucleotide and amino acid phylogenetic analysis of partial matrix gene sequences of the buffalo isolates and six field BPIV3 isolates from bovines in Argentina were studied. Buffalo isolates were similar to genotype B (BPIV3b while the six BPIV3 isolates were similar to genotypes A (BPIV3a and C (BPIV3c. Conclusions This is the first characterization of BPIV3 in water buffalo. According to the samples analyzed, in Argentina, the genotype B was found in buffalo and the genotypes A and C were found in cattle.

  20. Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis: Clinical Findings and the Associated Inflammatory Response

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    Maged El-Ashker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to describe the clinical picture of traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis and to evaluate the inflammatory and immunologic responses for this clinical condition. Twenty-two buffalo with acute local TRP were monitored in our study. Additionally, 10 clinically healthy buffalo were randomly selected and served as controls. Acute local TRP was initially diagnosed by clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic (USG examination and/or necropsy findings. Blood samples were collected from all examined buffalo to measure the respective levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and interferon gamma (INF-γ, serum amyloid A (SAA, C-reactive protein (CRP, haptoglobin (Hp, fibrinogen (Fb, and serum sialic acid (SSA. It was found that TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, SAA, CRP, Hp, Fb, and SSA were significantly higher in buffalo with TRP than the controls. Our findings suggest that the examined immunologic variables were helpful in documenting the inflammatory response in buffalo with TRP. However, their diagnostic usefulness only becomes apparent when considered in tandem with the clinical findings for any given animal, its anamnesis, and a subsequent USG assessment. Due to the frequent complications of TRP, more accurate indicators of its occurrence and severity would be useful.

  1. Natural Babesia bovis infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle under field conditions in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a little or no data available on the natural Babesia bovis (B. bovis) infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) comparing to the available one for cattle. This study was conducted to investigate the natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes in comparison to crossbred....... Conclusion: This paper documents the first description of natural B. bovis infection in water buffaloes which were found to be more likely to be tolerant than cattle to the natural clinical infection with B. bovis and its subsequent haematological changes. Our finding may lead to a better understanding...... of the disease pattern of B. bovis infection under field conditions in buffaloes....

  2. Transforming Swamp Buffaloes to Producers of Milk and Meat Through Crossbreeding and Backcrossing

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    L C Cruz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of water buffaloes in the world, the riverine type and the swamp type. The total number of Swamp buffalo is 37.6 M and represents 21.8% of the world’s buffalo population. The swamp buffaloes have played a major role in draft animal-dependent farming system. But intensified rice production became more pronounced in irrigated areas and this has led to increased utilization of small farm machineries, displacing significantly the draft buffaloes for land tillage. To some extent, the introduction of tractors for land preparation and transport for corn, sugarcane and other crops in production areas has similar effect. Utilization of the existing population of swamp buffaloes to meet the growing domestic demand for milk and meat, against the background of increasing farm mechanization, is a good reason to transform the huge number of draft animals into producers of milk and meat. According to the UNDP/FAO-assisted project in the Philippines carried from 1982 to 1998, that crossing swamp buffalo and riverine buffaloes, despite the differences in chromosome numbers, is producing crossbreds with high growth rate potentials and milk production abilities several folds over the swamp buffalo parents. The known fact that swamp and riverine buffaloes have different chromosome number, the diploid chromosome number of the swamp buffalo is 48 and that of the river buffalo is 50. When crossbreeding between the 2 buffalo types occur, males and females of the F1 generation are heterozygous for the fusion and are apparently fertile with chromosome 2n = 49. Three-way crossbred hybrids were obtained by (native buffalo x Murrah x Nili Ravi or (native buffalo x Nili Ravi x Murrah. They had two chromosome categories viz. 2n=49 and 2n=50, respectively. Crossbreeding Swamp with Riverine Breed is done for quality beef. Most of the NT produced TenderBuff is farm-bred or purchased from other suppliers as swamp buffalo yearlings and growth out for a

  3. HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE FOLLOWING IMMUNOMODULATION DURING LATE GESTATION IN BUFFALOES (BUBALIS BUBALUS

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    Z.I, Qureshi, L.A. Lodhi, H.A. Samad, N.A. Naz1 and M. Nawaz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two adult riverine buffaloes (Buhalis bubalus in their last trimester of pregnancy were selected and randomly divided into four groups. The buffaloes of group I served as control. Animals in group II, III and IV were treated twice (7 days apart with levamisole hydrochloride (0.5mg/kg b. w. orally, Etosol (Vit E+Se, 10ml, I/m and Bacilli Calmette Guerine (BCG (0.5 ml/animal, s/c, respectively. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals starting day 0 untill parturition. Total erythrocytic count and packed cell volume values were higher (P<0.05 in levamisole and vit E+Se treated group of buffaloes. Haemoglobin concentration was higher (P<0.05 inVit E+Se treated group. MCV, MCH and MCHC remained unchanged among all the experimental groups. Total leukocyte count was higher (P<0.05 in levamisole treated group of buffaloes. Differential leukocyte counts (relative revealed moderate lymphocytosis in all immunomodulated groups with significantly higher counts in Vit E+Se treated buffaloes. It was inferred that levamisole and vit E-se altered some haematological values, whereas BCG did not affect the haematological parameters.

  4. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

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    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  5. Immunolocalization of progesterone receptors in binucleate trophoblast cells of the buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis

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    Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The binucleate trophoblast cells (CTBs of the water buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis were studied with emphasis on the presence of progesterone receptor. Placentomal tissues from 27 buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy were processed and embedded in paraplast (Paraplast Embedding Media – Paraplast Plus to locate the progesterone receptors using the immunohistochemistry technique. The immunohistochemical reaction for progesterone receptor through monoclonal antibody PgR Ab2 showed staining of CTBs, caruncular epithelial and estromal cells and blood vessel estromal pericitos present in the placentome throughout the entire gestational period analyzed. These results indicate the production of progesterone with autocrine and paracrine action in the placentome growth, differentiation and functional regulation.

  6. Characterization of cathelicidin gene from buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as template for synthesis of novel antimicrobial agents. Total RNA was isolated from epithelial layer of buffalo uterus and reverse transcribed using designed primers. The amplified PCR product was purified and cloned. Positive clone was sequenced and result was analysed using laser gene software (DNA Star, USA).

  7. Effect of Ground Corn Cob Replacement for Cassava Chip on Feed Intake, Rumen Fermentation and Urinary Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes

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    M. Wanapat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, about four years old with 400±20 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive dietary treatments. The treatments were: ground corn cob (GCC replacement for cassava chip (CC in concentrate at 0% (T1; GCC replacement at 33% (T2; GCC replacement at 67% (T3; and GCC replacement at 100% (T4, respectively. During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% BW while 5% urea-treated rice straw was given at ad libitum. The result revealed that there was no effect of GCC replacement on DMI among treatments. In addition, digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were not different while aNDF linearly increased with an increasing level of GCC replacement. However, GCC replacement did not affect rumen fermentation such as ruminal pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration; except C3 proportion which was the highest at 33% replacement while the lowest was at 100% replacement. All replacements of GCC resulted in similar protozoal and bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis (MPS. Purine derivatives (PD concentration in urine and PD to creatinine (PDC index were varied with time of urination and among treatments at 0 to 8 and 8 to 16 h post feeding and higher values were shown among the GCC replacement groups. However at 16 to 24 h-post feeding, it was untraceable. In addition, creatinine concentration was similar among all treatments at every sampling time. Based on the above results, GCC can be used as an energy source for swamp buffalo fed with rice straw. Spot sampling of urine can be used for purine derivatives determination.

  8. Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis with caecal and colonic dilatation

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    Arafat Khalphallah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to describe the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings of caecal and colonic dilatation in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. A total number of forty buffaloes were included in the study and divided into two groups: control group (n = 20 and diseased group (n = 20. Diseased buffalo were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University-Egypt. Each of the diseased animals was subjected to clinical, rectal, laboratory and ultrasonographic examinations. Clinically, buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed reduced appetite, distended right abdomen, abdominal pain and tensed abdomen. Rectal examination indicated empty rectum with the presence of mucus and dilated loop of caecum and/or colon. Buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed significant (P < 0.05 hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia with significant (P < 0.05 increase in blood serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALK. Ultrasonographically, the dilated caecum and proximal loop of colon occupied the last right three intercostal space (ICSs particularly their ventral part, intertangled with the liver dorsally in these ICSs. Dilated colon did not hinder the visibility of the liver. The dilated caecum/colon also filled the whole right flank region, with hiding of right kidney, loops and peristaltic movement of the small intestines. The closest wall of the dilated caecum and proximal loop of the colon was imaged as thick semi-circular echogenic line. The furthest wall and contents of dilated caecum/colon were not imaged. In conclusion, buffalo with caecal and/or colonic dilatation have non-specific clinical and laboratory findings; however the affected animals show characteristic ultrasonographic findings.

  9. Nutrition and feeding of swamp buffalo: feed resources and rumen approach

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    P. Rowlins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal feed resources are of prime importance for swamp buffaloes to support the efficient production under the prevailing small-holder farming systems. Manipulations of rumen microorganisms, fermentation and subsequent absorption by the animals are essential. Current research work on locally available feed resources such as urea-treated rice straw, cassava hay etc. revealed significant improvement in rumen ecology with higher cellulolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores and subsequent fermentation endproducts. However, investigation of rumen microorganisms diversity of swamp buffalo and their roles in fermentation using molecular technique especially the use of PCR – DGGE/ Real Time- PCR warrant future research undertakings.

  10. Prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis among buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) in Namakkal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P; Jagadeswaran, D; Manoharan, R; Giri, T; Balasubramaniam, G A; Balachandran, P

    2013-12-01

    Milk samples from 206 apparently healthy buffaloes of marginal farmers maintained under the prevailing field conditions were screened for Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) to determine its prevalence and etiology by White Side Test (WST), California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and Bacteriological examination. 26.20% of animals were positive for SCM in SCC and bacteriological examination. Prevalence in graded Murrah buffaloes were found to be higher compared to graded Surti and Non-descript breeds. The prevalence of SCM was highest in above 6th stage of lactation. Single quarter infection (51.85%) was more common compared to multiple quarter infection. Hind (83.34%) and left side (57.41%) quarters were more prone to SCM. The indirect tests such as WST and CMT were found to be closely agreement with SCC and bacteriological examination. Due to their efficacious, easy to perform and interpret, these tests can effectively be employed to detect SCM under field conditions. Somatic cell count of = 3,00,000/mL of milk was regarded as the upper limit for normal buffaloes. The SCC of = 3,00,000/mL of milk with positive bacterial growth were used to diagnose SCM in the present study. Staphylococcus sp. 25 (46.30%) was the most common pathogens isolated from SCM followed by Streptococcus sp. 11 (20.37%) and E. coli 06 (11.11%) of the 54 bacterial isolates. Monobacterial and mixed bacterial infections were observed in 47 (87.04%) and 7 (12.96%) cases respectively.

  11. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV in serologically negative animals

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    María I Craig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.. Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5′ UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b, and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2.

  12. Polymorphisms in the DGAT1 gene in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C S; Silva Filho, E; Matos, A S; Schierholt, A S; Costa, M R; Marques, L C; Costa, J S; Sales, R L; Figueiró, M R; Marques, J R F

    2016-09-16

    Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are quite well adapted to climatic conditions in the Amazon, and in this biome, they are noted for the considerable amount of meat and milk they produce and how hard they are able to work. Because of a lack of research dedicated to improving the rearing of buffaloes in the Amazon, the objective of this study was to genetically characterize the Murrah and Mediterranean breeds, as well as a mixed-breed population, based on polymorphisms in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), and associate the genotypes with milk production. By using the polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism technique, the alleles A (0.79), B (0.20), and D (0.01) were found in the Murrah breed. In the Mediterranean and mixed-breed buffaloes, we found alleles A (0.69) and (0.77) and B (0.31) and (0.23), respectively. The Murrah breed had the genotypes AA (0.63), AB (0.29), BB (0.05), and AD (0.03), and the Mediterranean and mixed-breed buffaloes had the genotypes AA (0.44) and (0.61), AB (0.50) and (0.31), and BB (0.06) and (0.08), respectively. For the Murrah, Mediterranean, and mixed-breed buffaloes, respectively, the expected heterozygosity values were 0.34, 0.43, and 0.35, the inbreeding coefficients were 0.78, -0.15, and 0.17, and the Hardy-Weinberg probabilities were 0.70, 0.67, and 0.52. The genotypes evaluated did not have an effect on milk production; however, the single nucleotide polymorphisms can be used in studies on genetic variability.

  13. Immunodetection of coproantigens for the diagnosis of amphistomosis in naturally infected Indian Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Mohammad K; Ahmad, Gul; Abidi, Syed M A

    2013-01-16

    The infection of gastrointestinal helminths in livestock is routinely diagnosed by microscopical examination of faecal samples for the presence of ova/eggs but this approach becomes ineffective for the seasonally egg producing trematodes. Therefore, an alternative approach to detect the coproantigens of liver and rumen amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum and Gastrothylax crumenifer respectively, infecting Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, was undertaken using ELISA, immunodot and countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIEP). The hyperimmune polyclonal antisera were separately raised in rabbits against excretory/secretory (ES) antigens of both the flukes under study. An overall 70% buffalo faecal samples were tested positive for G. crumenifer and 75% for G. explanatum in Aligarh region. The ELISA results reflected higher infection intensity among individual buffaloes that was also observed at necropsy. Using the respective homologous hyperimmune antiserum, 55% buffaloes tested positive for G. crumenifer and 65% positive for G. explanatum in immunodot assay. Further, the faecal samples with high absorbance values in ELISA and strong immunodot reaction tested positive in CCIEP. The analysis of CCIEP result revealed two and one precipitin bands in G. crumenifer and G. explanatum respectively, indicating prominent antigenic differences in the coproantigens of these two parasites. Taken together, it is suggested that polyclonal antibodies could be conveniently used for the detection of coproantigens by ELISA and immunodot methods, particularly during the non-egg producing phase of the seasonally regulated reproductive cycle of the rumen amphistome G. crumenifer. It is concluded that the coproantigen detection is a good alternative over conventional method for the diagnosis of amphistomosis in livestock; however, further studies are required on a larger sample size of field buffaloes to augment the reproducibility of the present results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico and its association with climatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Romero-Salas, Dora; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Cruz-Romero, Anabel; Peniche-Cardeña, Alvaro; Ibarra-Priego, Nelly; Aguilar-Domínguez, Mariel; Pérez-de-León, Adalberto A; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-09-30

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is of epidemiological importance because of the risk for transmission to humans. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 339 water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Seroprevalence association with general characteristics of buffaloes and their environment was also investigated. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 165 (48.7%) of the 339 buffaloes with MAT titers of 1:25 in 104, 1:50 in 52, and 1:100 in 9. Bivariate analysis showed that seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was similar in buffaloes regardless of their general characteristics i.e., age, sex, and breed. In contrast, the seroprevalence in buffaloes varied significantly with environmental characteristics including altitude, mean annual temperature, and mean annual rainfall of the municipalities studied. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in buffaloes was associated with a mean annual rainfall between 1266-1650 mm (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.15-2.94; P = 0.01). Results indicate that environmental characteristics may influence the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in buffaloes. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in buffaloes in Mexico. Further research is needed to assess the risk for infection in humans associated with the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat from buffaloes infected with T. gondii.

  15. Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal: status, population and conservation importance

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    T.B. Khatri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Asiatic Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee is an endangered species restricted to South and Southeast Asia. Nepal’s only population survives in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve which is located on the floodplain of the Koshi River, a tributary of Ganga. This species is under threat due to high anthropogenic pressure ranging from habitat deterioration to hybridization with domestic buffalo. Yet, the population has grown from 63 in 1976 to 219 in 2009, despite the decline in the calf/cow ratio. The present study conducted in 2009 used the block count method. The count showed the presence of a backcrossed population of 74 in addition to the total of 219 individuals. At present, a number of conservation and livelihood interventions have been undertaken to safeguard the biodiversity, particularly the wild buffalo population in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve. The community-based sustainable management approach benefiting both conservation and livelihood of local people is necessary to ensure the long term conservation of the species

  16. Phylogenetic relationship among all living species of the genus Bubalus based on DNA sequences of the cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Solis, C D; Masangkay, J S; Maeda, K; Kawamoto, Y; Namikawa, T

    1996-12-01

    The cytochrome b genes of all living species of Bubalus, including the river type and the swamp type of domestic buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), were sequenced to clarify their phylogenetic relationships. These sequences were compared together with the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and banteng (Bos javanicus) sequences as an outgroup. Phylogenetic trees of Bubalus species based on the DNA sequences of the cytochrome b gene demonstrated that the tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis), endemic to the Philippines, could be classified into the subgenus Bubalus, not the subgenus Anoa. The divergence time between the lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) and the mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) was estimated at approximately 2.0 million years (Myr), which is almost the same as the coalescence time for the Bubalus sequences. This large genetic distance supports the idea that the lowland anoa and the mountain anoa are different species. An unexpectedly large genetic distance between the river and the swamp type of domestic buffaloes suggests a divergence time of about 1.7 Myr, while the swamp type was noticed to have the closest relationship with the tamaraw (1.5 Myr). This result implies that the two types of domestic buffaloes have differentiated at the full species level.

  17. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Amit Challana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2 cm (34 days to 108 cm CVRL (curved crown rump length (317 days were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days, mammary hillock at 1.7 cm (37 days, and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7 cm CVRL (58 days whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4 cm CVRL (62 days and 15 cm CVRL (96 days, respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1 cm CVRL (129 days. Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days, rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days, and keratin plug at 45.5 cm CVRL (176 days foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2 cm CVRL (122 days of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69 cm (229 days in group III foetuses.

  18. Carcass quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis finished in silvopastoral system in the Eastern Amazon, Brazil

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    M.R.S. Peixoto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the diet on the quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis carcasses of crossbred Murrah and Mediterranean, concentrate fed on traditional (corn/soybean or on agro-industrial residues (palm oil and coconut cakes was studied. The animals were sacrificed in a slaughterhouse, and physical and physical-chemical analyses in the carcasses were carried out after 24 hours, and instrumental color and texture analyses of the Longissimus dorsi were carried out 48 hours after cooling. The animals supplemented with palm oil cake had better carcass conformation and fat trim, and differences (P<0.05 in the percentage of fat in the carcass fat thickness and coverage were observed.

  19. Seroepidemiology of infection with Neospora caninum, Leptospira, and bovine herpesvirus type 1 in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of infection with N. caninum, Leptospira, and bovine herpesvirus type 1 and risk factors associated with these infections in water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study, 144 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) raised in 5 ranches ...

  20. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic Variation of mtDNA Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI in Local Swamp Buffaloes in Indonesia

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    F. Saputra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify genetic variation of mitochondria DNA especially in cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI among population of Indonesian buffaloes. Samples of swamp buffaloes were collected from Aceh (n= 3, North Sumatra (n= 3, Riau (n= 3, Banten (n= 3, Central Java (n= 3, West Nusa Tenggara (n= 3 and South Sulawesi (n= 3, and riverine buffalo from North Sumatra (n= 1 out of group for comparison. Sequence of COI was analyzed using MEGA 5.10 software with neighbor-joining method kimura 2-parameter model to reconstruct phylogeny tree. The result showed that three haplotypes for swamp buffalo and one haplotype for riverine buffalo in Indonesia resulted from 41 polymorphic sites. This finding showed that the COI gene could be considered as a marker to distinguish among swamp buffaloes in Indonesia.

  2. Test-day milk yield as a selection criterion for dairy buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis Artiodactyla, Bovidae

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    Humberto Tonhati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great demand for buffalo milk by-products the interest in technical-scientific information about this species is increasing. Our objective was to propose selection criteria for milk yield in buffaloes based on total milk yield, 305-day milk yield (M305, and test-day milk yield. A total of 3,888 lactations from 1,630 Murrah (Bubalus bubalis cows recorded between 1987 and 2001, from 10 herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. Covariance components were obtained using the restricted maximum likelihood method applied to a bivariate animal model. Additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were considered as random, and contemporary group and lactation order as fixed effects. The heritability estimates were 0.22 for total milk yield and 0.19 for M305. For test-day yields, the heritability estimates ranged from 0.12 to 0.30, with the highest values being observed up to the third test month, followed by a decline until the end of lactation. The present results show that test-day milk yield, mainly during the first six months of lactation, could be adopted as a selection criterion to increase total milk yield.

  3. Effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and reproductive hormone of weaned Swamp buffalo and Murrah X Swamp buffalo calves

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    M. Kamonpatana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and plasma Oestradiol 17- β (E2, Progesterone (P4 and Testosterone (T were studied in 16 male and female swamp (SS buffaloes and Murrah x Swamp buffalo crossbreeds (MS calves. The treatment group was fed with a concentrate supplemented with 30 g of dry powder of L. spinosa/head/d for 7 months. It was found that L .spinosa could have effect on male and female buffalo growth rate. The growth rate of male SS treated group were 130 g/d higher than control group. In female both SS and MS buffalo, the highest growth rate (830 to 840 g/d was found after the 2nd month of treatment while a reduction in growth rate (-1,030 to - 450 g/d was found in the 3rd month. After that the growth rate of SS and MS gradually increased until the last three months to 200 and 80 g/d in average, respectively. In female MS, plasma E2 in the treated group was lower than control group during Jan to Jul. Similar result was found in SS female, level of plasma E2 in treated group was lower than in control group in the first and last three month and there was no difference of plasma E2 in May. In MS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in Jan, Mar, Apr and Jul. In SS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in every month except in Jul. In female SS, L. spinosa could decreased plasma P4 through the experiment and could not have an effect on plasma P4 in female MS and plasma T in male buffalo calves. In conclusion, the addition to the concentrate of dry powder of L. spinosa 30 g/headl/d had an effect to increase growth rate in male SS and female MS buffalo calves, decrease plasma E2 in female both SS and MS and male SS and decrease plasma P4 in female SS.

  4. Prevalence and distribution of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverauskas, Claudia E; Nasir, Amar; Reichel, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia has never been determined. A total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the NT Government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the Northern Territory were tested by commercial ELISA for anti-N. caninum antibodies. The water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence of 88.3% (95% CI ± 2.9%), while 31.8% (±6.1%) of the cattle sera tested positive for N. caninum antibodies. Individual buffalo from the same herd, sampled over years, showed considerable fluctuations in S/P ratios. Overall, seropositivity was consistent across buffalo herds, and showed a slight decline over the years. The study presents evidence for the first time that N. caninum infection in water buffalo in the Northern Territory is a highly endemic and that infection rates are higher than those for cattle. This is important for an understanding of any potential sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum in Northern Australia. This survey also tests cattle from that territory for the first time for evidence of N. caninum infection and makes an important contribution to the understanding of disease management issues for the beef industry in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Leptin on In Vitro Nuclear Maturation and Apoptosis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Oocyte

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    Amir Khaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptin, as a 16 kDa adipokine, is a pleiotropic cytokine-like hormone that primarily secreted from adipose tissue. It also involves in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, immunity, lipid and glucose homeostasis, fatty acid oxidation, angiogenesis, puberty and reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of in vitro addition of leptin to in vitro maturation (IVM medium on buffalo oocyte maturation and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Ovaries from apparently normal reproductive organs of slaughtered adult buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with unknown breeding history were collected from Urmia Abattoir, Urmia, Iran, and were transported immediately to the laboratory in a thermos flask containing sterile normal saline with added antibiotics. Oocytes were aspirated from 2-8 mm visible follicles of the ovaries using an 18-G needle attached to a 10 ml syringe. IVM medium included tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199, 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, 22 μg/ml sodium pyruvate, 0.5 IU/ml ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (oFSH, 0.5 IU/ml ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH, 1 μg/ml oestradiol, 50 μg/ml gentamycin, and leptin [0 (control, 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml]. The good quality buffalo oocytes (batches of 10 oocytes were placed in a culture plate containing six 50 μl droplets of maturation medium, covered with sterilized mineral oil, and then incubated at 38.5˚C with 5% CO2 in air for 24 hours. The maturation of oocytes was evaluated under a stereomicroscope by detecting the first polar body extrusion of oocytes. FITC-Annexin V - propidium iodide (PI staining method was used to detect oocyte apoptosis. Results: From a total of 115 collected ovaries, 1100 oocytes were recovered among which 283 oocyte were suitable for IVM. In the groups of leptin treated with 0 (control, 10, 50 and 100 ng/ml, the percentage of oocytes maturation was 74.65, 83.81, 77.85, and 75.40%, while the

  6. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of the Chinese Swamp Buffalo by RNA Sequencing and SSR Marker Discovery.

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    Tingxian Deng

    Full Text Available The Chinese swamp buffalo (Bubalis bubalis is vital to the lives of small farmers and has tremendous economic importance. However, a lack of genomic information has hampered research on augmenting marker assisted breeding programs in this species. Thus, a high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing of B. bubalis was conducted to generate transcriptomic sequence dataset for gene discovery and molecular marker development. Illumina paired-end sequencing generated a total of 54,109,173 raw reads. After trimming, de novo assembly was performed, which yielded 86,017 unigenes, with an average length of 972.41 bp, an N50 of 1,505 bp, and an average GC content of 49.92%. A total of 62,337 unigenes were successfully annotated. Among the annotated unigenes, 27,025 (43.35% and 23,232 (37.27% unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases (E-value < 1.0E-5, respectively. Of these annotated unigenes, 14,439 and 15,813 unigenes were assigned to the Gene Ontology (GO categories and EuKaryotic Ortholog Group (KOG cluster, respectively. In addition, a total of 14,167 unigenes were assigned to 331 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. Furthermore, 17,401 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. One hundred and fifteen primer pairs were randomly selected for amplification to detect polymorphisms. The results revealed that 110 primer pairs (95.65% yielded PCR amplicons and 69 primer pairs (60.00% presented polymorphisms in 35 individual buffaloes. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the five swamp buffalo populations were clustered together, whereas two river buffalo breeds clustered separately. In the present study, the Illumina RNA-seq technology was utilized to perform transcriptome analysis and SSR marker discovery in the swamp buffalo without using a reference genome. Our findings will enrich the current SSR markers resources and help spearhead

  7. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces Cerevisae + Candida Utilis) and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyuddin, P; Widiawati, Y

    2010-01-01

    A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation conta...

  9. Effect of day or night grazing on behaviour of swamp buffalo heifers

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    Somparn, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of day or night grazing on behaviour by swamp buffaloes. A grazing trial was conducted over 42 days in the late rainy season, during September to November2005 at Surin Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Surin province. The experimental period was divided into two 21-day periods. Twelve 2-year-old swamp buffalo heifers were allocated to four groups, eachcontaining three heifers, with the mean group weights being as similar as possible. Each group was allowed to graze either from 06:20 to 18:00 h (daytime treatment or from 18:20 to 06:00 h (nighttime treatment infour separate paddocks, each of 5 rai, using a cross-over design. When not at pasture the animals in each group were kept in the common corral with free access to fresh drinking water and mineral blocks. Individualanimal activity was recorded by visual observation at 1-min intervals during the period at pasture. Individual groups within each period were treated as replicates. Differences between group means weretested using MIXED procedure of SAS.The buffaloes on daytime treatment spent longer (P<0.05 grazing than those on nighttime treatment (423 vs 332 min. The number of meals differed (P<0.05 between treatments, but overall mean meal durationswere similar (73 min. Buffaloes allowed to graze during daylight had a tendency (P<0.10 toward a higher bite and step rates than those grazing during the night. With the reduction in grazing activity duringthe night on nighttime treatment, the animals ruminated for longer during the period at pasture (327 and 191 min, P<0.001. Live-weight change over periods of 20 days did not differ significantly. The difference intemporal behaviour patterns between treatments indicated that animals have to adapt foraging strategies appropriate for different situations in order to maintain feed intake and subsequently production.

  10. Local immune responses of the Chinese water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum larvae: crucial insights for vaccine design.

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    Hamish E G McWilliam

    Full Text Available Asian schistosomiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease infecting up to a million people and threatening tens of millions more. Control of this disease is hindered by the animal reservoirs of the parasite, in particular the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, which is responsible for significant levels of human transmission. A transmission-blocking vaccine administered to buffaloes is a realistic option which would aid in the control of schistosomiasis. This will however require a better understanding of the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in naturally exposed buffaloes, particularly the immune response to migrating schistosome larvae, which are the likely targets of an anti-schistosome vaccine. To address this need we investigated the immune response at the major sites of larval migration, the skin and the lungs, in previously exposed and re-challenged water buffaloes. In the skin, a strong allergic-type inflammatory response occurred, characterised by leukocyte and eosinophil infiltration including the formation of granulocytic abscesses. Additionally at the local skin site, interleukin-5 transcript levels were elevated, while interleukin-10 levels decreased. In the skin-draining lymph node (LN a predominant type-2 profile was seen in stimulated cells, while in contrast a type-1 profile was detected in the lung draining LN, and these responses occurred consecutively, reflecting the timing of parasite migration. The intense type-2 immune response at the site of cercarial penetration is significantly different to that seen in naive and permissive animal models such as mice, and suggests a possible mechanism for immunity. Preliminary data also suggest a reduced and delayed immune response occurred in buffaloes given high cercarial challenge doses compared with moderate infections, particularly in the skin. This study offers a deeper understanding into the immunobiology of schistosomiasis in a natural host, which may aid in the future design of more

  11. Effect of bypass fat supplementation on productive performance and blood biochemical profile in lactating Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Amit; Sahoo, Biswanath; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Srivastava, Susant; Singh, Suresh Pratap; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar

    2012-10-01

    The study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of bypass fat on productive performance and blood biochemical profile of lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Fifteen multiparous buffaloes (2-4 lactation) of early to mid lactation were divided in three homogenous groups T(1) (control), T(2), and T(3) of five each. The animals in T(1) were fed with a basal diet consisting of a concentrate mixture, green sorghum, and wheat straw as per requirements, while the animals in group T(2) and T(3) were fed with same ration supplemented with 0.7 % (100 g/day) and 1.4 % (200 g/day) bypass fat (on dry matter intake (DMI) basis), respectively. The feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not influenced by supplemental bypass fat. However, fat-corrected milk (6.5 %) yield was higher (P fat which is 1.4 % (200 g/day) of the diet were economically more efficient. The serum cholesterol level was higher (P fat-supplemented group (T(2) and T(3)) of animals. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (good cholesterol) level was more (P bad cholesterol) level with higher dose of bypass fat in T(3) than T(2). It was concluded that bypass fat supplementation with 1.4 % of the diet (200 g/day) increased the fat-corrected milk production and feed efficiency along with serum HDL cholesterol level in lactating Murrah buffaloes.

  12. Growth, metabolic status and ovarian function in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers fed a low energy or high energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanile, G; Baruselli, P S; Vecchio, D; Prandi, A; Neglia, G; Carvalho, N A T; Sales, J N S; Gasparrini, B; D'Occhio, M J

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to establish the capacity of buffalo heifers to adapt their metabolic requirements to a low energy diet. Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers undergoing regular estrous cycles were randomly assigned by age, live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) to a high energy group (HE, 5.8 milk forage units (MFU)/day, n=6) or low energy group (LE, 3.6 MFU/day, n=6). Circulating concentrations of metabolic substrates, metabolic hormones and reproductive hormones were determined weekly for 19 weeks. Ovarian follicular characteristics and oocyte parameters were also ascertained weekly. Heifers fed the LE diet had a better dry matter conversion than heifers fed the HE diet and the calculated daily energy provision was negative for heifers fed the LE diet (-0.248 MFU) and positive for heifers fed the HE diet (5.4 MFU). Heifers fed the HE diet had an increase in 50 kg LW over the duration of the study whereas LW remained constant for heifers fed the LE diet. The BCS of heifers fed the HE diet (4.2) was greater (Prequirements when dietary energy is limiting. This adaptive capacity would explain why buffaloes remain productive in environments that are limiting to other ruminants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. EFFECT OF NON-ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS IN EXTENDER ON POST-THAW QUALITY OF BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS BULL SPERMATOZOA

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    S. M. H. ANDRABI, M. S. ANSARI, N. ULLAH AND M. AFZAL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C or E in tris-citric acid buffer (TCA on post-thaw quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bull spermatozoa. Split pooled buffalo bull ejaculates were diluted in TCA egg yolk glycerol extender containing either vitamin C (TCAC, vitamin E (TCAE or without antioxidant (TCAN at 37°C. Extended semen was cooled to 4C in 2 h and equilibrated for 4 h at 4C. Cooled semen was then filled in 0.5 ml straws at 4C and frozen in programmable cell freezer. Thawing of semen was performed at 37°C for 30 seconds. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and sperm morphology (acrosome integrity, head, mid-piece and tail abnormalities of each semen sample were evaluated. Percentage of post-thaw spermatozoal motility assessed visually at 0 and 6 h and the post-thaw percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membranes at 0 h were higher (P0.05. In conclusion, non-enzymatic antioxidants, particularly vitamin E, in the tris citric acid extender may improve the quality of frozen-thawed buffalo bull spermatozoa.

  14. Molecular cloning, sequencing and structural studies of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    KAUST Repository

    Sugumar, Thennarasu

    2013-06-25

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine that is essential for growth and development of progenitors of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we report molecular cloning, sequencing and characterization of GM-CSF from Indian water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. In addition, we performed sequence and structural analysis for buffalo GM-CSF. Buffalo GM-CSF has been compared with 17 mammalian GM-CSFs using multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree. Three-dimensional model for buffalo GM-CSF and human receptor complex was built using homology modelling to study cross-reactivity between two species. Detailed analysis was performed to study GM-CSF interface and various interactions at the interface. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ketosis in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): clinical findings and the associated oxidative stress level.

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    Youssef, Mohamed A; El-Khodery, Sabry Ahmed; El-deeb, Wael M; Abou El-Amaiem, Waleed E E

    2010-12-01

    As little is known about the oxidant/antioxidant status in buffalo with ketosis, the present study was delineated to assess the oxidative stress level associated with clinical ketosis in water buffalo. A total of 91 parturient buffalo at smallholder farms were studied (61 suspected to be ketotic and 30 healthy). Clinical and biochemical investigations were carried out for each buffalo. Based on clinical findings and the level of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), buffalo were allocated into ketotic (42), subclinical cases (19). Clinically, there was an association between clinical ketosis and anorexia (pketosis compared with subclinical and control cases, there was a significant increase (pketosis.

  16. Effect of Combined Probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisae + Candida utilis and Herbs on Carcass Characteristics of Swamp Buffalo

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    P Mahyuddin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A feedlot trial was conducted to study the effect of probiotics + herbs on carcass characteristics. Thirty male swamp buffaloes aged 2–2.5 years with the average body weight of 297 kg were used in this trial. They were fattened for 75 days to reach a slaughter weight of around 350–400 kg. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals in each group, and were placed in a shaded paddock. The groups were the control and the treated animals. The treated animals were given a supplementation containing combined yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida utilis, and herbs. All animals were fed basal diet of ammoniated rice straw and commercial concentrate with a ratio of 10: 90. There was no effect of probiotics+herbs on live weight gain, percentage of carcass, dressing, meat and by products, back fat thickness and eye muscle area. Addition of probiotics+herbs increased proportion of bone, reduced meat : bone ratio, body fat and proportion of offal. Although body fat content was reduced by the treatment, the compositions of fat were similar between the control and treated animals. (Animal Production 12(2: 69-73 (2010Key Words: buffalo, feedlot, yeast, carcass

  17. Cloning and sequencing of Indian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) interleukin-3 cDNA

    KAUST Repository

    Sugumar, Thennarasu

    2011-12-12

    Full-length cDNA (435 bp) of the interleukin-3(IL-3) gene of the Indian water buffalo was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. This sequence had 96% nucleotide identity and 92% amino acid identity with bovine IL-3. There are 10 amino acid substitutions in buffalo compared with that of bovine. The amino acid sequence of buffalo IL-3 also showed very high identity with that of other ruminants, indicating functional cross-reactivity. Structural homology modelling of buffalo IL-3 protein with human IL-3 showed the presence of five helical structures.

  18. Effect of Parity and Calving Month on Milk Production and Quality of Greek Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Vasileios A. Bampidis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty lactating Greek buffalo cows were used in an experiment to determine effects of parity and calf birth month onproductivity and milk composition. Buffalo cows gave birth on months June and August 2009, and were kept undersemi closed system of management. From June to November, during the day the buffalo cows were allowed to grazeon the surroundings from 10:00 h and flocked back at 16:00 h. In the experiment, which started on week 6postpartum and lasted 24 weeks, buffalo cows were fed alfalfa hay, corn silage, wheat straw and concentrate, andwere allocated, relative to parity, into treatments GBP1 (21 buffalo cows with parity 1, 2, and 3 and GBP2 (19buffalo cows with parity 4, 5, and 6, and, relative to calf birth month, into treatments GBB1 (20 buffalo cows withJune as calf birth month and GBB2 (20 buffalo cows with August as calf birth month. Productivity and milkcomposition were not affected (P>0.05 by calf birth month. During the experiment, there were differences(P0.05 byparity. Milk production and quality of Greek buffalo is generally satisfactory, and may be economically beneficialfor local breeders.

  19. PATHO-BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN BUFFALOES (BUBALUS BUBALIS SUFFERING FROM PARTURIENT HAEMOGLOBINURIA

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    M. ZUBAIR AKHTAR, AHRAR KHAN, M. ZARGHAM KHAN AND ASIF JAVAID1

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess the role of glucose, bilirubin, cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase as aetiological factors in parturient haemoglobinuria (PHU in buffaloes and gross and histopathological changes taking place in this disease. For this purpose, 120 buffaloes, including 60 PHU affected and 60 apparently healthy buffaloes were used. These animals were subjected to collection of blood, urine and tissue samples. Blood glucose, serum total bilirubin and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations in PHU affected buffaloes were significantly higher (P<0.05 than in healthy buffaloes. The colour of urine in PHU affected buffaloes ranged from red, dark red to coffee coloured and its pH was strongly alkaline. Urine of affected buffaloes was positive for haemoglobin (100% and albumin (95% but negative for sugar and ketone bodies. Microscopic examination of urine of affected buffaloes revealed no intact erythrocytes. Grossly, carcasses of buffaloes died of PHU were anaemic and jaundiced. Kidneys, liver and spleen were pale, enlarged and congested. Liver was friable and swollen. Epicardium and endocardium showed ecchymotic haemorrhages. Lungs were emphysemated and oedematous. Histopathologically, kidneys showed necrosis of tubular epithelium and deposition of casts alongwith atrophy of glomeruli. Liver exhibited centrilobular necrosis, haemorrhages and congestion. There was haemosiderin deposition in kidneys, liver and spleen. Heart muscles showed degenerative changes, whereas lungs were haemorrhagic, congested and emphysemated. It was concluded that significantly high blood glucose, serum total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were found in PHU affected buffaloes. Histopathologically, necrosis of tubular epithelium, deposition of casts along with atrophy of glomeruli, centrilobular necrosis and haemosiderin deposition were the main findings.

  20. A diagnostic protocol to identify water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Manuela; Atzeni, Marcello; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Ferri, Nicola; Marchi, Enrico; Martucciello, Alessandra; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The use of live vaccine strain RB51 for vaccination of domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at risk of infection with Brucella abortus is permitted notwithstanding the plans for the eradication and only under strict veterinary control. The antibodies induced by RB51 vaccination are not detectable using conventional diagnostic techniques; therefore, it is necessary to have a specific diagnostic tool able to discriminate vaccinated from unvaccinated animals. The combination of a complement fixation test (CFT) with specific RB51 antigen (RB51-CFT) and a brucellin skin test has been demonstrated to be a reliable diagnostic system to identify single cattle (Bos taurus) vaccinated with RB51. So far, no data are available in the international scientific literature regarding the use of this test association in water buffalo. For this reason the suitability of this test combination has been evaluated in a water buffalo herd. One hundred twenty-seven animals farmed in a herd of Salerno province (Campania, Southern Italy), in the context of a presumptive unauthorized use of RB51 vaccine were chosen for this study. All tested animals resulted negative to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for the detection of specific antibodies against Brucella field strains. Seventy-one animals (56%) developed RB51 antigen-specific CFT (RB51-CFT) antibodies against RB51 vaccine in a first sampling, while 104 animals (82%) gave positive result to a second serum sampling conducted 11 days after the intradermal inoculation of the RB51 brucellin. One hundred and seven animals (84%) showed a positive reaction to the RB51-CFT in at least 1 sampling, while 111 animals (87%) resulted positive to the RB51 brucellin skin test. Thus, analysing the results of the 3 testing in parallel, 119 animals (94%) were positive to at least 1 of the performed tests. The results suggest that the use in parallel of the RB51 brucellin skin test with RB51-CFT may represent a reliable

  1. Tuberculosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in the Baixo Araguari Region, Amapá, Brazil

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    Silvia Minharro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region of Amapá, Brazil. Thirty herds, randomly selected from the 41 herds of water buffalo in the region, were sampled. From those herds, 212 randomly selected water buffalo were subjected to the comparative tuberculin skin test. The proportion of Baixo Araguari River region herds that were positive for bovine tuberculosis was 50.0% (95% CI 31.3% to 68.7% and the proportion of animals that were positive was estimated to be 14.8% (95% CI 7.8% to 21.9%. Our results show that bovine tuberculosis is spread widely among water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region, which suggests that measures to control the disease should be undertaken in the region.

  2. Alginate encapsulation preserves the quality and fertilizing ability of Mediterranean Italian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus) spermatozoa after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perteghella, Sara; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Cenadelli, Silvia; Bornaghi, Valeria; Galli, Andrea; Crivelli, Barbara; Vigani, Barbara; Vigo, Daniele; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Faustini, Massimo; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2017-03-30

    The use of artificial insemination (AI) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is limited by poor ovarian activity during the hot season, seasonal qualitative patterns in semen, low resistance of sperm cells in the female tract, difficulties in estrus detection, and variable estrus duration. Although AI procedures are commonly used in bovine, use of AI has been limited in buffalo. In the zootechnical field, different studies have been conducted to develop techniques for improvement of fertilizing ability of buffalo spermatozoa after AI. In this study, for the first time, the use of alginate encapsulation and cryopreservation of buffalo spermatozoa is described, and the same procedure was performed with Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus) semen. Results obtained from in vitro analyses indicate that the encapsulation process does not have detrimental effects (compared to controls) on quality parameters (membrane integrity, progressive motility, path average velocity) in either species. Similarly, there were no detrimental effects after cryopreservation in either species. The fertilizing potential of encapsulated and cryopreserved semen was evaluated after AI in 25 buffalo and 113 bovine females. Pregnancy rates were not affected in either species. The results of this study show proof of concept for the use of frozen semen controlled-release devices in buffalo.

  3. Intermolecular Interactions Between DMα and DMβ Proteins in BuLA-DM Complex of Water Buffalo Bubalus bubalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Leena; Panwar, Deepak; Ali, Sher

    2017-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) with its three classes represents a cluster of tightly linked genes with defined immunological and non-immunological functions. The DM, a MHC class II molecule is formed by the non-covalent association of DMα and DMβ chains. It binds with the processed peptide antigens and presents them to T lymphocytes, thereby triggering the immune responses. Startlingly, the expression pattern and structural organization of DMα and DMβ proteins in buffalo remains undefined. We isolated and purified the DMα and DMβ proteins from Bubalus bubalis using gel filtration chromatography. Employing western blotting and immunohistochemistry, highest expression of these proteins was observed in spleen and were later localized in the cytoplasm. We modelled 3D structures of the proteins and assessed the binding interface of BuLA-DM docked complex. In the process, we uncovered 9 DMα and 8 DMβ specific residues participating in the formation of BuLA-DM complex. Our work demonstrated active participation of the critical amino acid residues engaged in the formation of BuLA-DM complex facilitating deeper understanding on the structure-function relationship of these proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4254-4266, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Serological and bacteriological responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) vaccinated with two doses of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnanan, Anil; Diptee, Michael; Asgarali, Zinora; Campbell, Mervyn; Adesiyun, Abiodun Adewale

    2012-10-01

    Thirty-two water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves aged 6–10 months were used to evaluate serological responses to Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccination in a dose-response study and to compare the use of two selective media for the isolation of RB51. The animals were randomly divided into three treatment groups. Groups I-III received the recommended vaccine dose (RD) twice 4 weeks apart, RD twice 18 weeks apart and saline once, respectively. Lymph nodes were excised from the three groups and subjected to bacteriological examination to determine the frequency of detection of RB51. Pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were collected and tested for B. abortus antibodies using the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and dot-blot assay. Sera taken at all post-inoculation weeks (PIW) were negative for field strain B. abortus using the BPAT. Antibody responses to RB51 were demonstrated in all vaccinates but not in controls by CFT and dot-blot assay from 1 PIW up to 16 weeks following booster vaccination. The agreement for both assays was 80.7% and there was a linear interdependence with a Pearson's correlation coefficient value of 0.578. The frequency of isolation of RB51 from the two selective media used was not significantly different (P > 0.05).

  5. Use of peripheral blood for production of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos by handmade cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotsana, Basanti; Sahare, Amol A; Raja, Anuj K; Singh, Karn P; Nala, Narendra; Singla, S K; Chauhan, M S; Manik, R S; Palta, P

    2016-09-15

    Buffalo embryos were produced by handmade cloning using peripheral blood-derived lymphocytes as donor cells. Although the blastocyst rate was lower (P cloned groups. The level of H3K27me3 was similar among the three groups. The expression level of DNMT1, DNMT3a, HDAC1, and IGF-1R was higher (P cloning embryos in bubaline buffaloes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Shedding of Brucella abortus rough mutant strain RB51 in milk of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Mariangela; Mallardo, Karina; Montagnaro, Serena; De Martino, Luisa; Gallo, Sergio; Fusco, Giovanna; Galiero, Giorgio; Guarino, Achille; Pagnini, Ugo; Iovane, Giuseppe

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if Brucella abortus rough mutant strain RB51 (SRB51) is eliminated in buffalo milk. Thirty Brucella-free female buffaloes were used in this study: ten 4-5 years old were inoculated with the triple of the recommended calfhood dose of SRB51 by subcutaneous route, ten 2-3 years old at the first lactation were previously vaccinated twice as calves with triple the recommended calf dose of RB51, while five 4-5 years old and five 2-3 years old not vaccinated Brucella-free female buffaloes served as controls. Milk samples were taken aseptically on a daily basis for the first 30 days and weekly for the second and third months. The samples were inoculated on selective media for isolation of SRB51 and incubated for 11 days. Moreover, PCR analysis was also performed directly on milk samples. SRB51 was isolated from milk samples only during the first week post-vaccination while RB51 DNA was detected during the first week till the fourth week post-vaccination only in water buffaloes vaccinated as adults. The identification of Brucella RB51 in milk samples, strongly suggests that this Brucella vaccine could be excreted in milk of buffalo cows vaccinated as adults, while our data demonstrate that the vaccine is safe for use in buffaloes vaccinated as calves in which it was not excreted in milk.

  7. Assessment of semen quality in Swamp Buffalo AI Bulls in Thailand

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    S. Koonjaenak

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Thai swamp buffalo bulls semen used for artificial insemination (AI in Thailand, aspects relevance in freezing and thawing of semen are review. Semen and sperm characteristics were evaluated included sperm count, motility (assessed subjectively and by CASA, morphology (using phase-contrast light microscopy and SEM, plasma membrane integrity (PMI (using a hypo-osmotic swelling test [HOST] and SYBR- 14/propidium iodide [PI], plasma membrane stability (PMS (using Annexin-V/PI and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity (using SCSA and flow cytometry [FCM]. The average ejaculate volume was about 3.0–4.0 mL, with good viability (PMI measured by the HOST and motility (>65% and >70%, respectively. Sperm concentration ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 billion/mL, being also affected by bull age. Whereas semen quality (including sperm output, pH and initial sperm motility did not differ between the seasons. Few spermatozoa (<15%/ ejaculate had abnormal morphology with abnormalities resembling those in other bovidae. In FT semen, PMI (using SYBR-14/PI and PMS were highest in winter. Across seasons, ~50% of post-thaw spermatozoa depicted linear motility, a proportion that decreased to ~35% during incubation (38oC for 60 minutes, without marking any seasonal difference. The sperm DNA was hardly damaged (with <3% fragmentation, expressed as DNA fragmentation index [DFI], among seasons.

  8. Organization and differential expression of the GACA/GATA tagged somatic and spermatozoal transcriptomes in Buffalo Bubalus bubalis

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    Srivastava Jyoti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs of GACA/GATA have been implicated with differentiation of sex-chromosomes and speciation. However, the organization of these repeats within genomes and transcriptomes, even in the best characterized organisms including human, remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to explore the buffalo transcriptome for its association with GACA/GATA repeats, and study the structural organization and differential expression of the GACA/GATA repeat tagged transcripts. Moreover, the distribution of GACA and GATA repeats in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes was studied to highlight their significance in genome evolution. Results We explored several genomes and transcriptomes, and observed total absence of these repeats in the prokaryotes, with their gradual accumulation in higher eukaryotes. Further, employing novel microsatellite associated sequence amplification (MASA approach using varying length oligos based on GACA and GATA repeats; we identified and characterized 44 types of known and novel mRNA transcripts tagged with these repeats from different somatic tissues, gonads and spermatozoa of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. GACA was found to be associated with higher number of transcripts compared to that with GATA. Exclusive presence of several GACA-tagged transcripts in a tissue or spermatozoa, and absence of the GATA-tagged ones in lung/heart highlights their tissue-specific significance. Of all the GACA/GATA tagged transcripts, ~30% demonstrated inter-tissue and/or tissue-spermatozoal sequence polymorphisms. Significantly, ~60% of the GACA-tagged and all the GATA-tagged transcripts showed highest or unique expression in the testis and/or spermatozoa. Moreover, ~75% GACA-tagged and all the GATA-tagged transcripts were found to be conserved across the species. Conclusion Present study is a pioneer attempt exploring GACA/GATA tagged transcriptome in any mammalian species highlighting their

  9. Soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M

    2012-10-01

    Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ≤ 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with abomasal ulcer

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    Javad Tajik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA in water buffaloes with abomasal ulcers, the abomasums of 100 randomly selected water buffaloes were examined after slaughter. Type I abomasal ulcers were found in 56 out of 100 buffaloes. Serum concentrations of Hp and SAA were measured. There was no significant difference between affected and non-affected buffaloes in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA. The serum concentrations of Hp and SAA had no significant correlation with age and the serum SAA revealed no significant correlation with the number of abomasal ulcers. A significant correlation was found between the serum Hp and the number of abomasal ulcers (r =0.29, p = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA between buffaloes with different ulcer locations in the abomasums. Although more work on a larger number of animals is required in this area, it seems that the measurement of the serum Hp can be used to predict the abundance of type I abomasal ulcers.

  11. Biochemical and hormonal composition of follicular cysts in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Das, G K; Pande, Megha; Pathak, M K; Sarkar, M

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the follicular fluid biochemical and hormonal changes associated with ovarian follicular cysts in buffalo. Follicular fluid was aspirated from eight cysts and eight preovulatory follicles, and subjected to biochemical and hormonal analyses. Cysts were characterized by a greater (Pfollicular cysts had greater concentrations of progesterone (Pfollicular cysts in buffalo have an altered biochemical and hormonal composition. The alterations include increases in nitric oxide, progesterone, cortisol and T(3) concentrations with a concurrent reduction in ascorbic acid, insulin and glucose concentrations. The study suggests that greater progesterone concentrations possibly inhibit the onset of LH surge resulting in formation of follicular cysts in buffalo. In addition, it implies the plausible role of intra-ovarian regulators such as nitric oxide, ascorbic acid and insulin in development of the condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Fayer, R; Rosenthal, B M; Calero-Bernal, R; Uggla, A

    2014-09-15

    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta (feline definitive host), and S. hominis (primate definitive host). Recently, a fourth Sarcocystis species with an unknown life cycle has been reported from cattle. In the water buffalo, four species of Sarcocystis have been described: S. fusiformis (feline definitive host), S. buffalonis (feline definitive host), S. levinei (canine definitive host), and S. dubeyi (definitive host unknown but not cat or dog). Besides, there are studies of Sarcocystis infections in buffalo and cattle from China with results that are difficult to interpret and validate. For example, some of the studies report transmission of Sarcocystis species between cattle and buffalo, but steps to preclude exogenous exposures were not reported. A species of the water buffalo, 'S. sinensis', was proposed at a Chinese national conference in 1990, and published as an abstract without figures and with no archived type specimens for verification. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Articles 9 and 10 state that "abstracts of articles, papers, posters, text of lectures, and similar material when issued primarily to participants at meetings, symposia, colloquia or congress does not constitute published work"; therefore, S. sinensis is a nomen nudum. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Swamp buffalo keeping – an out-dated farming activity? A case study in smallholder farming systems in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, PR China

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    Anne Schiborra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of rubber tree plantations and agricultural mechanization caused a decline of swamp buffalo numbers in the Naban River National Nature Reserve (NRNNR, Yunnan Province, China. We analysed current use of buffaloes for field work and the recent development of the regional buffalo population, based on interviews with 184 farmers in 2007/2008 and discussions with 62 buffalo keepers in 2009. Three types of NRNNR farms were distinguished, differing mainly in altitude, area under rubber, and involvement in livestock husbandry. While pig based farms (PB; n=37 have abandoned buffalo keeping, 11% of the rubber based farms (RB; n=71 and 100% of the livestock-corn based farms (LB; n=76 kept buffaloes in 2008. Herd size was 2.5 +/-1.80 (n=84 buffaloes in early 2008 and 2.2 +/-1.69 (n=62 in 2009. Field work on own land was the main reason for keeping buffaloes (87.3 %, but lending work buffaloes to neighbours (79.0% was also important. Other purposes were transport of goods (16.1%, buffalo trade (11.3% and meat consumption (6.4%. Buffalo care required 6.2 +/-3.00 working hours daily, while annual working time of a buffalo was 294 +/-216.6 hours. The area ploughed with buffaloes remained constant during the past 10 years despite an expansion of land cropped per farm. Although further replacement of buffaloes by tractors occurs rapidly, buffaloes still provide cheap work force and buffer risks on poor NRNNR farms. Appropriate advice is needed for improved breeding management to increase the efficiency of buffalo husbandry and provide better opportunities for buffalo meat sale in the region.

  14. Genetic Traceability of the geographical origin of different water buffalo populations (Bubalus bubalis by molecular markers

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    M. Blasi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to distinguish Mediterranea Italiana breed from other populations of water buffaloes we develop a tool for genetic traceability of the geographical origin based on microsatellite markers. Fourteen microsatellite loci, amplified with a protocol of one multiplex-PCR, were used to define genetic variation and relationships among Mediterranea Italiana breed and other buffalo groups coming from three different geographical districts: one group from North Africa, two groups from East Europe and one group from China. A total of 153 buffaloes were analysed. GENETIX computer package were used to calculate the following parameters for each population: allelic frequencies, number of alleles for each locus, average observed (Hobs and expected (Hexp heterozygosities, genetic distances and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Population differentiation was analysed by estimation of Fst and Fis index for various group combinations. Population assignment were computed by GENECLASS 2 based on different approach. The individual assignment by different approach has given a result of robustness demarcation distinguishing three definite clusters, therefore this method is useful for distinction of typical products belonging to Mediterranea Italiana breed from the others derived from the other populations of buffalo.

  15. Assessment of Nili-Ravi buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) semen by MTT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh semen samples from breeding Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n = 20) were collected using an artificial vagina. After assessing the quality of semen for normal parameters, the MTT assay was carried out in phosphate buffer saline. Results revealed a high significant correlation (r = 0.995) between the viability of sperm and the ...

  16. Macro-microscopical aspects of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758 pineal gland

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    Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross and microscopical aspects of the buffalo pineal gland were described in seasonal parturition animals, since this gland is responsible for melatonin secretion which acts upon the hypothalamus-hypophysis reproductive axis feedback system. (Hafez, 1995. For the present study, 11 cross-bred buffaloes, predominantly of the Mediterranean breed, from the Pirassununga Campus - USP (University of São Paulo, were killed in different photoperiods in the slaughterhouse. The pineal glands were obtained, fixed, weighed, measured, photographed, processed, cut into sections and stained. All glands demonstrated the same global shape, with a mean length of 8.82 ± 1.07mm and a width of 7.91 ± 0.83mm, and a stem length of 5.50 ± 4.18mm. The stems had a microscopically visible lumen. The mean gland weight was 251.45 ± 83.1mg. The buffalo pineal gland presented right and left lobes of different sizes. Microscopically, they were surrounded by a connective tissue layer with blood vessels infiltrating into the glandular parenchyma, which became separated into glial cell lobules. A great number of the pinealocytes were arranged in irregular strings, and cells from the connective tissue could be observed in the glandular parenchyma. We conclude that the buffalo pineal gland is similar to that of pineal cows and that it does not show morphologic alterations during different photoperiods of the year.

  17. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: gts553@gmail.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  18. Molecular characterization of MHC-DRB cDNA in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    Soumen Naskar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, water buffalo MHC (Bubu-DRB cDNA was cloned and characterized. The 1022 base long-amplified cDNA product encompassed a single open reading frame of 801 bases that coded for 266 amino acids. The Bubu-DRB sequence showed maximum homology with the BoLA-DRB3*0101 allele of cattle. A total of seven amino acid residues were found to be unique for the Bubu-DRB sequence. The majority of amino acid substitutions was observed in the β1 domain. Residues associated with important functions were mostly conserved. Water buffalo DRB was phylogenetically closer to goat DRB*A.

  19. Development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transferred blastocysts

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    Syed Mohmad Shah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed buffalo embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer derived blastocysts, produced by hand-guided cloning technique. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst was cut mechanically using a Microblade and cultured onto feeder cells in buffalo embryonic stem (ES cell culture medium at 38 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. The stem cell colonies were characterized for alkaline phosphatase activity, karyotype, pluripotency and self-renewal markers like OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, c-Myc, FOXD3, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 and CD90. The cell lines also possessed the capability to differentiate across all the three germ layers under spontaneous differentiation conditions.

  20. Macro-microscopical aspects of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758 pineal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Carvalho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p127 Gross and microscopical aspects of the buffalo pineal gland were described in seasonal parturition animals, since this gland is responsible for melatonin secretion which acts upon the hypothalamus-hypophysis reproductive axis feedback system. (Hafez, 1995. For the present study, 11 cross-bred buffaloes, predominantly of the Mediterranean breed, from the Pirassununga Campus - USP (University of São Paulo, were killed in different photoperiods in the slaughterhouse. The pineal glands were obtained, fixed, weighed, measured, photographed, processed, cut into sections and stained. All glands demonstrated the same global shape, with a mean length of 8.82 ± 1.07mm and a width of 7.91 ± 0.83mm, and a stem length of 5.50 ± 4.18mm. The stems had a microscopically visible lumen. The mean gland weight was 251.45 ± 83.1mg. The buffalo pineal gland presented right and left lobes of different sizes. Microscopically, they were surrounded by a connective tissue layer with blood vessels infiltrating into the glandular parenchyma, which became separated into glial cell lobules. A great number of the pinealocytes were arranged in irregular strings, and cells from the connective tissue could be observed in the glandular parenchyma. We conclude that the buffalo pineal gland is similar to that of pineal cows and that it does not show morphologic alterations during different photoperiods of the year.

  1. Physicochemical properties and oxidative inactivation of soluble lectin from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sabika; Banu, Naheed

    2008-03-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present in a wide variety of plants and animals, which serve various important physiological functions. A soluble beta-galactoside binding lectin has been isolated and purified to homogeneity from buffalo brain using ammonium sulphate precipitation (40-70%) and gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G50-80 column. The molecular weight of buffalo brain lectin (BBL) as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions was 14.2 kDa, however, with gel filtration it was 28.5 kDa, revealing the dimeric form of protein. The neutral sugar content of the soluble lectin was estimated to be 3.3%. The BBL showed highest affinity for lactose and other sugar moieties in glycosidic form, suggesting it to be a beta-galactoside binding lectin. The association constant for lactose binding as evidenced by Scatchard analysis was 6.6 x 10(3) M(-1) showing two carbohydrate binding sites per lectin molecule. A total inhibition of lectin activity was observed by denaturants like guanidine HCl, thiourea and urea at 6 M concentration. The treatment of BBL with oxidizing agent destroyed its agglutination activity, abolished its fluorescence, and shifted its UV absorption maxima from 282 to 250 nm. The effect of H2O2 was greatly prevented by lactose indicating that BBL is more stable in the presence of its specific ligand. The purified lectin was investigated for its brain cell aggregation properties by testing its ability to agglutinate cells isolated from buffalo and goat brains. Rate of aggregation of buffalo brain cells by purified protein was more than the goat brain cells. The data from above study suggests that the isolated lectin may belong to the galectin-1 family but is glycosylated unlike those purified till date.

  2. Clinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in Mediterranean buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnardi, Petra; Guccione, Jacopo; Villa, Roberto; D'Andrea, Luigi; Di Loria, Antonio; Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Borriello, Giuliano; Zicarelli, Luigi; Ciaramella, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the investigation were to establish for the first time (i) clinical efficacy and (ii) pharmacokinetic profile of meloxicam intravenously (IV) administered in male Mediterranean buffalo calves after surgical orchiectomy. The study was performed on 10 healthy buffalo calves, between 4 and 5 months old and between 127 and 135 kg of body weight (b.w.). An IV injection of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. of meloxicam was administered in six calves (treated group, TG) immediately after surgery; the other four animals were used as untreated control group (CG). The clinical efficacy of meloxicam was evaluated pre- and post-surgery by monitoring respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (T°C), serum cortisol levels (SCL) and pain score (PS). Significant inter-groups differences were detected at sampling times (T): 4 hour (h) for RR (Pmeloxicam mean concentrations at 96 h was of 0.18 ± 0.14 μg/mL. The volume of distribution and clearance values were quite low, but reasonably homogenous among individuals (Vdss 142.31 ± 55.08 mL/kg and ClB 4.38 ± 0.95 mL/kg/h, respectively). The IV administration of meloxicam in buffalo calves shows encouraging effects represented by significant and prolonged analgesic effects, significant reduction of SCL as well as similar pharmacokinetic profile to bovine calves.

  3. Carbonic anhydrase and acid base balance in relation to thermal stress in buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. N.; Gangwar, P. C.

    1983-03-01

    The blood samples from fifteen normal lactating buffaloes were taken from December 15th 1978 to 31st August, 1979. Depending upon the climatic conditions, the whole period of study was divided into four seasons. The mean values of carbonic anhydrase (moles CO2/l/sec×10-5) were 3.08±0.26, 4.94±0.44, 5.23±0.35, 6.44±0.32 in pregnant and 4.87±0.27, 4.53±0.41, 4.74±0.45, 6.36±0.40 in non-pregnant animals during winter, spring, hot and dry and hot and humid seasons. Mean values of pO2 (mm Hg) were 31.26±1.41, 31.92±0.61, 35.90±0.59, 33.80 ±0.67 in pregnant and 31.89±0.44, 31.53±0.54, 35.52±0.69, 31.65±0.95 in non-pregnant buffaloes during winter, spring, hot and dry and hot and humid periods, respectively. There were highly significant (P< 0.01) differences between seasons with respect to pO2, pCO2, actual HCO3 and heamoglobin. However, PCV changed significantly (P<0.01) with the physiological status of the animal. Different correlation of biochemical parameters with climatic elements were discussed. Thus, the shifts in the levels of carbonic anhydrase, HCO3 and heamoglobin may prove to be a better tool/index for thermal stress in buffaloes.

  4. Evaluation of Glycopyrrolate as an Anticholinergic in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

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    S. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Glycopyrrolate was injected @ 0.01 mg/kg, IM. After glycopyrrolate administration, two animals became ataxic. Muzzle, mouth and nostrils became dry after 41.5±3.334 minute of drug administration; the same again became wet at 578.8±19.27 minute. The pulse pressure increased significantly after glycopyrrolate administration without any significant variation in heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP and central venous pressure (CVP.

  5. Glutathione-S-transferase: role in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm capacitation and cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Singh, V K; Atreja, S K

    2014-03-01

    In this study, glutathione-S-transferase Mu3 (GST) has been reported to play an important role in sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction, and fertilization. The freshly ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa were in vitro capacitated using heparin (10 μg/mL) or cryopreserved in egg yolk citrate extender. Glutathione-S-transferase was identified and characterized in terms of their isozymic forms, tyrosine phosphorylation, and immunolocalization patterns in cryopreserved buffalo spermatozoa in comparison with freshly ejaculated and in vitro capacitated spermatozoa. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblot, immunocytochemistry, and enzyme activity analyses were done to characterize GST in this study. Five and eight isozymic forms of GST were detected in cryopreserved and capacitated spermatozoa, respectively. Differential tyrosine phosphorylation of these enzymes was observed in cryopreserved and capacitated spermatozoa. The tyrosine phosphorylation of this enzyme involved cAMP protein kinase-A dependent and extracellular signal-regulated kinase independent pathways during in vitro capacitation of the spermatozoa. Differential immunolocalization patterns of GST were observed in freshly ejaculated, capacitated, and cryopreserved spermatozoa. Glutathione-S-transferase Mu3 enzyme activity was found to be significantly (P sperm cryopreservation could be a good target to improve fertility of cryopreserved spermatozoa for their use in assisted reproductive technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of cryopreservation on mitochondrial activity in buffalo sperm Bubalus bubalis

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    O. Kandil

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sperm mitochondrial activity is investigated and used as “in vitro” spermatozoa vitality indicator and about quality effectiveness of different sperm diluents. It was studied the cytochemically activity of NADPH-diaphorase and LDH-C4 in cryopreserved buffalo sperm. Low intensity of the enzyme reaction was established in all examined sperm samples in both enzymes, regardless from the used cryoprotectors. The main part of the enzyme reaction was localized in mitochondrial sheath and in a very small degree in the head base of spermatozoa. No increase of the enzymes activities or the spermatozoa motility has been found after the incubating with Sp-TALP medium although the established caffeine stimulating effect on the glycolysis and fresh spermatozoa motility. Established by us low sperm motility after cryopreservation may be due to low LDH and NADPH-diaphorase activity due to glycolisis disturbances and ATP synthesis. This method allows to estimate quality of buffalo semen and to find some different disturbances in mitochondrial sheath, which could not be found by routine morphological studies and could be used in practice ejaculates with high number of metabolic active sperm cells.

  7. Clinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in Mediterranean buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis.

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    Petra Cagnardi

    Full Text Available The aims of the investigation were to establish for the first time (i clinical efficacy and (ii pharmacokinetic profile of meloxicam intravenously (IV administered in male Mediterranean buffalo calves after surgical orchiectomy. The study was performed on 10 healthy buffalo calves, between 4 and 5 months old and between 127 and 135 kg of body weight (b.w.. An IV injection of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. of meloxicam was administered in six calves (treated group, TG immediately after surgery; the other four animals were used as untreated control group (CG. The clinical efficacy of meloxicam was evaluated pre- and post-surgery by monitoring respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR, rectal temperature (T°C, serum cortisol levels (SCL and pain score (PS. Significant inter-groups differences were detected at sampling times (T: 4 hour (h for RR (P<0.05, at T1-4-6-8 h for PS (P<0.05 and at T4-6-8 h for SCL (P < 0.0001. Regarding the mean intra-group values observed pre (T0 and post-surgery (from T15 min to T72 h, significant difference between the groups were found for RR (P<0.01, PS and SCL (P<0.05. The pharmacokinetic profile was best fitted by a two-compartmental model and characterized by a fast distribution half-life and slow elimination half-life (0.09 ± 0.06 h and 21.51 ± 6.4 h, respectively and meloxicam mean concentrations at 96 h was of 0.18 ± 0.14 μg/mL. The volume of distribution and clearance values were quite low, but reasonably homogenous among individuals (Vdss 142.31 ± 55.08 mL/kg and ClB 4.38 ± 0.95 mL/kg/h, respectively. The IV administration of meloxicam in buffalo calves shows encouraging effects represented by significant and prolonged analgesic effects, significant reduction of SCL as well as similar pharmacokinetic profile to bovine calves.

  8. Comparative study of heparin-binding proteins profile of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis semen

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    S. S. Ramteke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The experiment was conducted to study the total seminal plasma protein (TSPP and heparin-binding proteins (HBPs in relation to initial semen quality of buffalo bull. Materials and Methods: Semen from two Murrah buffalo bulls (bull no. 605 and 790 with mass motility of ≥3+ were used for the study and categorized into three groups (Group I- Mass motility 3+, Group II- Mass motility 4+ and Group III- Mass motility 5+. Seminal plasma from semen was separated by centrifugation. HBPs was isolated and purified from heparin-agarose affinity column by modified elution buffer. TSPP and isolated HBPs concentration was estimated by Lowry’s method. The purified HBPs were resolved on Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to check the protein profile of two bulls. Results: The mean values of TSPP concentrations in bull no. 605 and 790 in Group I, II and III were 30.64±0.12, 31.66±0.09, 32.53±0.19 and 28.51±0.09, 29.49±0.15, 30.45±0.17 mg/mL, respectively. The mean values of HBPs concentrations in bull no. 605 and 790 in Group I, II and III were 3.11±0.07, 3.32±0.06, 3.46±0.08 and 2.51±0.08, 2.91±0.05, 3.10±0.03 mg/mL, respectively. Both the values of TSPP and HBPs were significantly higher (p<0.01 in bull no. 605 when compared to 790 in all the three groups. 31 kDa HBP was more intensely present in bull no. 605, thus may indicate its superiority over bull no. 790 in relation to fertility potential. Conclusion: TSPP and HBPs shows variation in concentration with respect to initial semen quality. Furthermore, presence of fertility related 31 kDa HBPs in one of the bull may be an indication of high fertility of a bull. In future, in-vivo and in-vitro correlative study on larger basis is needed for the establishment of fertility-related HBPs in semen which might establish criteria for selection of buffalo bull with high fertility potential.

  9. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ENDOCRINE CELLS IN VARIOUS REGION OF DIGESTIVE TRACT OF BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS

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    S. Dehury

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The histomorphology of enteroendocrine cells were studied in different segments of gastrointestinal tract of six adult buffalo. Depending upon the histomorphological study, the enteroendocrine cells were divided into 7 different types viz. oval cell (type I, pyriform cell (type II, spherical or rounded cell (type III, elongated cell (type IV, pyramidal cell (typeV, spindle cell (type VI and large oblong cell (type VII. Further the granulation pattern of the cell types were noted as basal granulation, dense granulation, peripheral granulation and diffuse granulation.The endocrine cells revealed differential staining character with each of the stain (Masson-Haemperl argentaffin reaction, Grimelius silver technique, Ferric ferricyanide reduction reaction, Lead haematoxylin employed in the present study depending upon their physiological status.

  10. Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as a spontaneous animal model of Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Pal; Motiani, Rajender K; Singh, Archana; Malik, Garima; Aggarwal, Rangoli; Pratap, Kunal; Wani, Mohan R; Gokhale, Suresh B; Natarajan, Vivek T; Gokhale, Rajesh S

    2016-07-01

    Vitiligo is a multifactorial acquired depigmenting disorder. Recent insights into the molecular mechanisms driving the gradual destruction of melanocytes in vitiligo will likely lead to the discovery of novel therapies, which need to be evaluated in animal models that closely recapitulate the pathogenesis of human vitiligo. In humans, vitiligo is characterized by a spontaneous loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis, but most animal models of vitiligo are either inducible or genetically programmed. Here, we report that acquired depigmentation in water buffalo recapitulates molecular, histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural changes observed in human vitiligo and hence could be used as a model to study vitiligo pathogenesis and facilitate the discovery and evaluation of therapeutic interventions for vitiligo. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genetic Evaluation of Dual-Purpose Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Colombia Using Principal Component Analysis.

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    Divier Agudelo-Gómez

    Full Text Available Genealogy and productive information of 48621 dual-purpose buffaloes born in Colombia between years 1996 and 2014 was used. The following traits were assessed using one-trait models: milk yield at 270 days (MY270, age at first calving (AFC, weaning weight (WW, and weights at the following ages: first year (W12, 18 months (W18, and 2 years (W24. Direct additive genetic and residual random effects were included in all the traits. Maternal permanent environmental and maternal additive genetic effects were included for WW and W12. The fixed effects were: contemporary group (for all traits, sex (for WW, W12, W18, and W24, parity (for WW, W12, and MY270. Age was included as covariate for WW, W12, W18 and W24. Principal component analysis (PCA was conducted using the genetic values of 133 breeding males whose breeding-value reliability was higher than 50% for all the traits in order to define the number of principal components (PC which would explain most of the variation. The highest heritabilities were for W18 and MY270, and the lowest for AFC; with 0.53, 0.23, and 0.17, respectively. The first three PCs represented 66% of the total variance. Correlation of the first PC with meat production traits was higher than 0.73, and it was -0.38 with AFC. Correlations of the second PC with maternal genetic component traits for WW and W12 were above 0.75. The third PC had 0.84 correlation with MY270. PCA is an alternative approach for analyzing traits in dual-purpose buffaloes and reduces the dimension of the traits.

  12. Ultrastructural changes in the sublingual salivary gland of prenatal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    A. D. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to elucidate ultrastructural changes in the development of sublingual salivary gland of buffalo during prenatal life. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on sublingual salivary gland of 36 buffalo fetuses ranging from 13.2 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL (88th day to full term. The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. Results: The cells lining the terminal tubules were undifferentiated with poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles but lacked secretory granules (SGs at 13.2 cm CVRL (88th day. The SGs appeared first in the form of membrane-bound secretory vesicles with homogeneous electron-dense as well as electron-lucent contents at 21.2 cm CVRL (122nd day; however, mucous acinar cells contained electron-lucent granules, while serous secretory cells as well as serous demilunes showed electron-dense granules at 34 cm CVRL (150th day of prenatal life. At 53.5 cm CVRL (194th day, both mucous and serous acini were differentiated by the density of SGs. Conclusion: The cytoplasm of acinar cells was filled with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi profiles in mid and late fetal age groups. The SGs were increased in number during the late fetal age group. The myoepithelial cells (MECs were located at the base of the acinar cells as well as intercalated and striated ducts and were stellate in shape. The ultrastructure of MEC revealed a parallel stream of myofilaments in the cytoplasm and its processes. The mucous cells were predominantly present in the sublingual salivary gland and were pyramidal in shape.

  13. Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yongfang; Yindee, Marnoch; Li, Kuan-Yi; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yu-Ten; Ye, Shaohui; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yachun; Cuong, Vu Chi; Pham, Lan Doan; Bouahom, Bounthong; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Cai, Zhihua; Vankan, Dianne; Manatchaiworakul, Wallaya; Kowlim, Nonglid; Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Colenbrander, Ben; Zhang, Yuan; Beerli, Peter; Lenstra, Johannes A; Barker, J Stuart F

    The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal

  14. Effect of thermo-tolerant yeast on intake and nutrient digestibility's in Murrah buffalo steers (Bubalus bubalis fed straw based complete diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bhima

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, we determined the effect and optimum level of inclusion of a thermo-tolerant probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae OBV9 on nutrient intake and digestibilities in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis. Materials and Methods: A straw based complete diet (crude protein (CP 12% with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% of lyophilized yeast was evaluated in a 4X4 Latin Square metabolism trial in fistulated Murrah buffalo steers (223.81 kg ± 2.91. Diet with no yeast was taken as control. Results: Dry matter intake (DMI was not significantly (P>0.05 influenced by any level (% of yeast in complete diet. The digestibility's (% of dry matter (DM and crude fibre (CF were significantly (P0.05 different from each other. Intake of DCP (g/d or g/kg w0.75, TDN (kg/d or g/kg w0.75, ME (MJ/d or MJ/kg w0.75 and N balance (g/d were not (P>0.05 affected by the level of yeast in the diet. Conclusion: It can be concluded that, 0.1% thermo-tolerant yeast had greater influence on majority of the nutrients in the straw based complete diets of Murrah buffaloes.

  15. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  16. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (12 from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull with mass motility (≥3+ and total motility (70% and above were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage. Results: Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01 higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01 higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages. Conclusion: Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%.

  17. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine–butorphanol and midazolam–butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Malik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis 2–3 years of age and weighing 290–325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 andH2. The animals of groupH1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg, i.v. and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v., while in groupH2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5%thiopental sodium inH1 (3.85±0.63 mg/kg and H2 (6.96 ± 0.45 mg/kg groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2 , whereas no significant (P > 0.05 difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P<0.01 after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 fall in RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05 fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05 after premedication and a significant (P<0.05 occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 increase in CVP and a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P<0.01 decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groupsH1 andH2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P<0.05 decrease in PR interval in groupH2 , a significant (P<0.05 decrease in T wave amplitude in groupH1, and a

  18. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in vitro embryo production in two different defined culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro embryo production (IVEP is largely applied world wide to animal breeding. One of the principal steps of the IVEP is represented by embryo culture (Khurana and Niemann., 2000. In the past, embryos were grown in co-culture systems with other cells such as oviductal epithelial cells, cumulus cells, Buffalo rat liver (BRL and VERO cells (Duszewska et al., 2000. These cells are able to supply the nutrients for embryo development by their replication and metabolism. Nevertheless, the metabolic activity of these cells is also responsible of an early lowering of pH in the culture medium: that needs to be changed every two days. Furthermore, with this culture system it is impossible to standardize all the procedure: in fact the result is dependent from several variables, as the quality of the cells and their concentration in co-culture. The use of defined culture media is necessary to acquire a better comprehension of metabolism and biochemical requirements for IVEP........

  19. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Cherdthong, A.

    2015-01-01

    Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (pefficiency. PMID:26104399

  20. Comparative therapeutic effect of toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium on Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii given at different times following infection in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mohamed M; Radwaan, Mervat E; Moustafa, Abdel Moneim M; Ebeid, Mohamed H

    2008-04-17

    We compared the therapeutic effect of three anticoccidial drugs (toltrazuril, sulphadimidine and amprolium) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves experimentally infected with Eimeria bovis (E. bovis) and E. zuernii oocysts (3 x 104oocyst/calf). Buffalo calves (1.5-4 month old, 70-kg body weight) were randomly allocated into 3 groups (9 calves each). Group T was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with toltrazuril (20 mg/kg BW twice orally at a 1-week interval). Group S was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with sulphadimidine (125 mg/kg injected IM followed by half dose for 4 successive days). Group A was experimentally infected with oocysts and treated with amprolium (50 mg/kg orally for 7 successive days). Each group had three subgroups (three calves/subgroup) to represent timing of the drug administration: 1st day of coccidia infection (FD), onset of clinical signs of coccidiosis (CC), and onset of oocyst shedding into the faeces (OS). Clinical signs, body-weight gain (BWG) and number of oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were monitored daily for 35 days post-infection (DPI). The OPG were reduced (but the BWG was not different) in the T calves compared to S and A calves. Within the same group, treatment from the 1st day of infection reduced the OPG and increased the BWG compared to the later treatment timings.

  1. Importance of body-water circulation for body-heat dissipation in hot-humid climates: a distinctive body-water circulation in swamp buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chanpongsang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-regulation in swamp buffaloes has been investigated as an adaptive system to hot-humid climates, and several distinctive physiological responses were noted. When rectal temperature increased in hot conditions, blood volume, blood flow to the skin surface and skin temperature markedly increased in buffaloes relatively to cattle. On the other hand, the correlation between blood volume and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP was compared between buffaloes and cattle under dehydration. Although plasma AVP in cattle increased immediately for reducing urine volume against a decrease in blood volume as well as the response observed in most animal species, the increase in plasma AVP was delayed in buffaloes, even after a large decrease in blood volume. In buffaloes, a marked increase in blood volume facilitated the dissipation of excess heat from the skin surface during wallowing. In addition, the change in plasma AVP observed in buffaloes was consistent with that of other animals living in habitats with the high availability of water. These results suggest that the thermo-regulatory system in buffaloes accelerates body-water circulation internally and externally. This system may be adaptive for heat dissipation in hot-humid climates, where an abundance of water is common.

  2. SOME CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL OBSERVATIONS OF PARTURIENT HAEMOGLOBINURIA IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. AKHTAR, A. KHAN, T. ZAMAN AND N. AHMAD1

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was executed to know the clinico-epidemiology of parturient haemoglobinuria (PHU in buffaloes. A total of 60 buffaloes suffering from PHU were randomly selected from field cases occurring in Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh and Jhang districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Sixty clinically healthy buffaloes of similar description from the same localities were also included in the study as control. The most prominent clinical sign was passing of red to coffee coloured urine. Milk production in affected buffaloes was significantly (P<0.001 reduced, while respiration and pulse rates were accelerated (P<0.001. Ruminal motility was significantly weak and reduced alongwith characteristic straining while defecating. The case fatality was 15%. A significantly higher occurrence of PHU was observed in the winter season (41.8%. Maximum number of affected buffaloes (25.0% was in 4th lactation. Twenty seven (45.0% buffaloes developed haemoglobinuria in the post calving period and majority (59.3% of these were within 1-23 days of calving. Of the 33(55.0% PHU affected pregnant buffaloes, 18 (54.6% were in their third trimester. The highest cases of PHU were observed in buffaloes producing 10 or more litres of milk/day (42.5%. Recurrence of PHU was observed in 18.3% buffaloes. Berseem constituted a major component (65% of fodders of most of the PHU affected buffaloes. Significantly lowered serum phosphorus, copper and selenium, while higher potassium, iron and molybdenum, were found in affected buffaloes as compared to healthy buffaloes. It was concluded that PHU mostly affects high yielding buffaloes in their 3-5th lactation particularly in early lactation or advanced pregnancy. Disease is strongly associated with Berseem feeding in winter season.

  3. Proteomic Profiles of the Embryonic Chorioamnion and Uterine Caruncles in Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with Normal and Retarded Embryonic Development1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Luisa Balestrieri; Bianca Gasparrini; Gianluca Neglia; Domenico Vecchio; Maria Strazzullo; Alfonso Giovane; Luigi Servillo; Luigi Zicarelli; Michael J. D'Occhio; Giuseppe Campanile

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the proteome profiles of the chorioamnion and corresponding caruncle for buffalo embryos that had either normal or retarded development on Day 25 after...

  4. Cryotop vitrification for in vitro produced bovine and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryos at different stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to vitrify in vitro produced (IVP buffalo and bovine embryos at different stages of development by an advanced version of the “minimal volume approaches”: the Cryotop method. In both experiments, the embryos were vitrified at the tight morula (TM, early blastocyst (eBl, blastocyst (Bl, expanded blastocyst (xBl and, only for buffalo, at the hatched blastocyst (hBl stage. After warming, the embryos were cultured in vitro for 24 hours. Stage of development affected the freezability of IVP embryos of both species with the highest embryo survival rates at advanced stages (xBl=76% and hBl=75% for buffalos and xBl=75% for bovine. These results suggest that Cryotop vitrification is an efficient method for buffalo and bovine IVP embryo cryopreservation.

  5. Post-exposure serological and bacteriological responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Brucella abortus biovar 1 following vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diptee, M D; Asgarali, Z; Campbell, M; Fosgate, G; Adesiyun, A A

    2007-12-01

    Serological and bacteriological responses to Brucella abortus biovar 1 following vaccination with B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) were evaluated in thirty domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) randomly divided into five treatment groups. Groups I to V received, respectively, the recommended dose (RD) of RB51 vaccine once, RD twice 4 weeks apart, double RD once, double RD twice 4 weeks apart, and saline once (control). Vaccination did not result in a serological response. Experimental animals released 27 weeks post initial inoculation (27 PIIW) into a brucellosis-positive herd failed to seroconvert after 29 weeks. Experimental challenge commenced at 57 PIIW. All animals received B. abortus biovar 1 intraconjunctivally at 0, 5 and 9 weeks post experimental exposure (PEEW). Serum samples collected at 4, 8 and 13 PEEW were negative. At 16 PEEW all animals received B. abortus biovar 1 subcutaneously (SC), and all seroconverted by 20 PEEW. Five of twenty-six animals were positive for Brucella infection on bacterial culture. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from three animals; B. abortus RB51 was isolated from two. Treatment group, age and sex had no effect on the isolation of Brucellae (P>0.05).

  6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, IN VITRO RUMEN FERMENTATION, AND DIGESTIBILITY OF SELECTED BROWSE SPECIES BY BUFFALOES (Bubalus bubalis L. AT A SEMI-DECIDUOUS FOREST IN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Ojeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the chemical composition and nutritive value of selected browse species by buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis L. in a silvopastoral system at a semi-deciduous tropical forest (SDTF, epidermal fragments in fecal samples from 14 males of Murrah breed were evaluated. The animals grazed for 91 days in 85 ha located in Portuguesa State, Venezuela, of which 35 ha corresponded to natural grass pastures (969.3 ± 28.6 kg DM ha-1, and the rest to SDTF with 463 plant ha-1. Eleven botanical families and 22 species were identified, 40.9% belonged to the Fabaceae family. The specie Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae had the highest relative dominancy (60.4% and an Importance Value Index of 162.6. 60.4% of epidermal fragments corresponded to herbaceous Poaceae, and the rest was distributed among five different species, with the highest occurrence (94.6% for Samanea saman and Sida acuta. There were differences (P

  7. Comparison of non-linear models to describe the lactation curves for milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-02-01

    In order to describe the lactation curves of milk yield (MY) and composition in buffaloes, seven non-linear mathematical equations (Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Brody, Dijkstra and Rook) were used. Data were 116,117 test-day records for MY, fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentages of milk from the first three lactations of buffaloes which were collected from 893 herds in the period from 1992 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly production records of dairy buffaloes using the NLIN and MODEL procedures in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using adjusted coefficient of determination (Radj(2)), root means square error (RMSE), Durbin-Watson statistic and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The Dijkstra model provided the best fit of MY and PP of milk for the first three parities of buffaloes due to the lower values of RMSE and AIC than other models. For the first-parity buffaloes, Sikka and Brody models provided the best fit of FP, but for the second- and third-parity buffaloes, Sikka model and Brody equation provided the best fit of lactation curve for FP, respectively. The results of this study showed that the Wood and Dhanoa equations were able to estimate the time to the peak MY more accurately than the other equations. In addition, Nelder and Dijkstra equations were able to estimate the peak time at second and third parities more accurately than other equations, respectively. Brody function provided more accurate predictions of peak MY over the first three parities of buffaloes. There was generally a positive relationship between 305-day MY and persistency measures and also between peak yield and 305-day MY, calculated by different models, within each lactation in the current study. Overall, evaluation of the different equations used in the current study indicated the potential of the non-linear models for fitting monthly productive records of buffaloes.

  8. Exploration of Luteinizing hormone in murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) urine: Extended surge window opens door for estrus prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Ramu Muthu; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Nayan, Varij; Sivakumar, Muthusamy; Singh, Dheer; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2017-09-15

    Estrus detection in buffaloes has been a major concern for decades, and lack of reliable methods affects their effective reproductive management. Luteinizing hormone (LH) detection in urine is in practice for several mammals for timed insemination, whereas very few reports are available on buffalo urinary LH. The focus of this study is to detect the presence of LH in buffalo urine, quantitate variation in urinary LH during different estrous cycle phases and examine the duration of mid-cycle LH window. Nearly hundred buffaloes were examined, longitudinal urine samples (n=42) were collected from seventeen animals and classified into respective phases based on several estrus detection parameters. The urinary LH was detected using bovine LH ELISA kit validated for serum/plasma/tissue homogenate. Detection of buffalo LH in the neat urine convincingly proved the competence of the bovine LH kit. Variation in the LH range was observed between different phases of estrous cycle and significant fold variation (Psurge was observed due to its lingering excretion in urine. The results, altogether, revealed that LH can be detected in buffalo urine with noticeable fold variation during estrus phase and the extended LH window intensifies the chance of ovulation prediction for timed insemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  10. Trends in the quality and hygiene parameters of bulk Italian Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk: A three year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Marina; Osimani, Andrea; Tavoletti, Stefano; Moreno, Itzhak; Clementi, Francesca; Trombetta, Maria Federica

    2017-09-29

    Buffalo milk represents an indispensable source of nourishment in many parts of the world and it is the second most consumed milk worldwide. Buffalo milk is actually used for the production of many dairy products such as pasteurized or concentrated milk, butter, yogurt, ice-cream, dehydrated milk products and cheeses. Due to its high nutritional value and the presence of natural bioactive substances, buffalo milk can also provide health benefits to consumers. In Italy, buffalo milk is used mainly for cheese making, mozzarella PDO (Protected Designation of Origin), which is a highly valued dairy product. This 3-year study, carried out between 2011 and 2013, was aimed at evaluating the quality of bulk Italian Mediterranean buffalo milk by monitoring physico-chemical parameters, somatic cell and total bacterial counts. A total of 51 samples of bulk milk were collected from one herd throughout the monitored period. Analysis of variance, carried out to test month, season and year main effects, highlighted remarkable seasonal effects for fat, protein and lactose content, as well as for predicted mozzarella cheese yield, and somatic cell counts. The calculation of simple correlations allowed the identification of positive correlations between estimated cheese yield and fat and protein content. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. In vitro embryo production in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using sexed sperm and oocytes from ovum pick up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X W; Lu, Y Q; Chen, M T; Zhang, X F; Lu, S S; Zhang, M; Pang, C Y; Huang, F X; Lu, K H

    2008-04-15

    The objective was to explore the use of sexed sperm and OPU-derived oocytes in an IVP system to produce sex-preselected bubaline embryos. Oocytes were recovered from 20 fertile Murrah and Nili-Ravi buffalo cows by repeated (twice weekly) ultrasound-guided transvaginal ovum pick up (OPU), or by aspiration of abbatoir-derived bubaline ovaries, and subjected to IVF, using frozen-thawed sexed or unsexed bubaline semen. On average, 4.6 oocytes were retrieved per buffalo per session (70.9% were Grades A or B). Following IVF with sexed sperm, oocytes derived from OPU had similar developmental competence as those from abattoir-derived ovaries, in terms of cleavage rate (57.6 vs. 50.4%, P=0.357) and blastocyst development rate (16.0 vs. 23.9%, P=0.237). Furthermore, using frozen-thawed sexed versus unsexed semen did not affect rates of cleavage (50.5 vs. 50.9%, P=0.978) or blastocyst development (15.3 vs. 19.1%, P=0.291) after IVF using OPU-derived oocytes. Of the embryos produced in an OPU-IVP system, 9 of 34 sexed fresh embryos (26.5%) and 5 of 43 sexed frozen embryos (11.6%) transferred to recipients established pregnancies, whereas 7 of 26 unsexed fresh embryos (26.9%) and 6 out of 39 unsexed frozen embryos (15.4%) transferred to recipients established pregnancies. Eleven sex-preselected buffalo calves (10 females and one male) and 10 sexed buffalo calves (six females and four males) were born following embryo transfer. In the present study, OPU, sperm sexing technology, IVP, and embryo transfer, were used to produce sex-preselected buffalo calves. This study provided proof of concept for further research and wider field application of these technologies in buffalo.

  12. Cryotop vitrification for in vitro produced bovine and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos at different stages of development

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gasparrini; G. Campanile; D. Vecchio; L. Boccia; L. Attanasio; De Rosa, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to vitrify in vitro produced (IVP) buffalo and bovine embryos at different stages of development by an advanced version of the “minimal volume approaches”: the Cryotop method. In both experiments, the embryos were vitrified at the tight morula (TM), early blastocyst (eBl), blastocyst (Bl), expanded blastocyst (xBl) and, only for buffalo, at the hatched blastocyst (hBl) stage. After warming, the embryos were cultured in vitro fo...

  13. Ocorrência de paratuberculose em búfalos (Bubalus bubalis em Pernambuco Occurrence of paratuberculosis in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo A. Mota

    2010-03-01

    subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. No record on the occurrence of paratuberculosis in buffaloes in Brazil could be found. Five of 100 buffaloes in a herd in Pernambuco-Brazil showed clinical signs characteristic of PTB. At necropsy, of two animals the lesions were restricted to the small intestine with thickening and corrugation of the mucosa, increase of mesenteric lymph nodes and prominent lymph vessels. Histopathology revealed granulomatous inflammation infiltrated with numerous epithelioid macrophages, Langhans type giant cells, and clusters of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN positive organisms within the intestinal mucosa. In the mesenteric lymph nodes there was thickening of the capsule and marked granulomatous inflammation. Smears of feces and scrapping smears were prepared from intestinal mucosa and cut surface of mesenteric lymph nodes and, stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen method for research of acid fast bacilli, with positive results. Lymph nodes and intestinal mucosa revealed at IS900 specific polymerase chain reaction amplification of a fragment of about 110pb, confirmed by the comparison with other sequences of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis available in GenBank.

  14. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus ( Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

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    N. T. Thao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis leaf meal (ELM supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05 while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05. Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05 with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05 while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency.

  15. Species-specific and differential expression of BSP-5 and other BSP variants in normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) seminal plasma.

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    Divyashree, B C; Roy, Sudhir C

    2018-01-15

    Binder of sperm-5 (BSP-5) is one of the fertility-associated proteins of cattle seminal plasma. Binding of sperm to the oviductal epithelium is mediated by BSP group of proteins. However, it is not clear, whether this protein is also involved in sperm motility. In the present study, attempts were made to characterize BSP-5 protein in both normozoospermic (NS) and asthenozoospermic (AS) Murrah buffalo (n = 18; Bubalus bubalis), Holstein Friesian (n = 8, Bos taurus) and Jersey cattle (n = 8; Bos taurus) bull seminal plasma and also study its expression pattern in these species. 1-D Western blot demonstrated three major BSP-5 immunoreactive protein bands (24.2 kDa, 20.5 kDa, and 12.3 kDa) in buffalo seminal plasma. Of these, the intensities of 24.2 and 20.5 kDa protein bands reduced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in seminal plasma of AS group compared to that of NS group. On the contrary, the expression of 12.3 kDa protein band did not vary significantly between the groups. In Holstein Friesian seminal plasma, at least six BSP-5 immunoreactive protein bands (25.1, 23.6, 19.5, 13.8, 13.1 and 12.3 kDa) could be detected. Of these, the intensities of 23.6, 13.8/13.1 and 12.3 kDa protein bands decreased (P = 0.058, 0.111, 0.053) in AS group bulls compared to NS bulls. Holstein Friesian bull seminal plasma demonstrated a BSP-5 immunoreactive duplex protein band of 13.8/13.1 kDa, which was not evident in buffalo seminal plasma. In 2-D Western blot, a train of five BSP-5 immunoreactive duplex protein spots (Mr 21.0-27.6 kDa, pI of ∼3.9-5.1) was detected. Mass spectrometry of one of the representative duplex spot confirmed that these were BSP-5 and BSP-3 proteins, respectively. Indirect immunofluorescence studies showed that BSP-5 is primarily localized to the mid-piece/mitochondrial region of buffalo spermatozoa. To conclude, the findings of the present study could establish the significance and association of BSP-5 proteins in sperm motility and how their

  16. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in Switzerland

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    Dettwiler Martina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF. This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2 sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated.

  17. Seasonal reproductive activity and innervation of vas deferens and accessory male genital glands in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

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    G. Paino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nerves supplying mammalian male internal genital organs have an important role in the regulation of reproductive function. To find out the relationships between the neurochemical content of these nerves and the reproductive activity, we performed an immunohistochemical study in a species, the water buffalo, exhibiting a seasonal sexual behaviour. The distribution of noradrenergic and peptide-containing nerves was evaluated during the mating (autumn-winter and non-mating (spring-summer periods. During the mating period, a dense noradrenergic innervation was observed to supply the vas deferens as well as the accessory genital glands. Peptide-containing nerves were also observed but with a lower density. During the non-mating period noradrenergic nerves dramatically reduced. These results suggest that there is a neuro-endocrine interaction between androgen hormones and the autonomic nerve supply in the regulation of male water buffalo reproductive functions.

  18. Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus and Streptococcus Agalactiae: Subclinical Mastitis Causes in Dairy Cow and Dairy Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)

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    Lucia Ratna Winata, Lucia Ratna Winata

    2017-01-01

    - Abstract This study aims to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aereus) and Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in subclinical mastitis infection in dairy cows and buffalo in Enrekang (region in South Sulawesi). Subclinical mastitis was pre-examined using California Mastitis Test (CMT) reagent and 33 samples were positively detected. The positive samples were then isolated with culture test on the Baird Parker Agar media (BPA), identified with catalyst, Gram...

  19. Isolation of Leptospira santarosai, serovar guaricura from buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Vasconcellos Silvio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 1998 urine samples from adult female buffaloes were collected in a farm located in Registro, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil. The urine samples obtained after furosemide injection were immediately transported to the laboratory in liquid modified EMJH medium and seeded, by the serial dilution technique, into Fletcher's or modified EMJH-0.2% agar, both of them with 5-fluorouracil 100mg/mL. The intraperitoneoum inoculation of 0.5 mL was also performed with each urine sample in young, adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. All samples seeded directly in culture medium were contaminated. The hamsters did not show any sign of disease and were killed at the 21st post inoculation day. At this time kidney cultures of these animals were performed and from one of them, one leptospira strain (M04-98 was isolated, identified as belonging to serogroup Sejroe by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT with a panel of 36 rabbit sera against serovars representative for the pathogenic serogroups. Subsequently, MAT was carried out with antisera against the 19 reference strains of serogroup Sejroe, revealing a close relationship with serovar guaricura. Afterwards the MAT was done with a panel of 18 monoclonal antibodies representative for serovars of serogroup Sejroe. The histogram closely resembled that of serovar guaricura. So Cross Agglutination Absorption Test (CAAT was carried out with the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura, supporting the relationship between the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura.

  20. Impact of Livestock Hygiene Education Programs on Mastitis in Smallholder Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Chitwan, Nepal

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    Ng, Linda; Jost, Christine; Robyn, Misha; Dhakal, I.P.; Bett, Bernard; Dhakal, Pramod; Khadkha, Rupak

    2010-01-01

    A project implemented from 2003–2005 trained women in Chitwan District, Nepal, in hygienic dairy production using a process of social mobilization. The aim of this research was to assess if the prevalence of mastitis in water buffalo in the households of women who were trained was lower one year after training than in untrained households, if the training influenced knowledge and practices for the prevention or control of mastitis, and if these practices and knowledge were associated with a lower prevalence of mastitis. A total of 202 households from Eastern and Western Chitwan District were included in the study. Of these, 60 households had participated in the project and 142 had not. Milk samples were collected from 129 households (33 project households and 96 non-project households). Clinical mastitis was determined using visual inspection of udders and detection of macroscopic clots and flakes in milk. The California Mastitis Test was used to diagnose sub-clinical mastitis from milk samples, and the IDEXX SNAP test to identify the presence of tetracycline residues. The prevalence of mastitis in trained households (39.4%) was 43.78% of that in untrained households (60.4%), lower but not significantly so (p = 0.08, 95% CI 0.17–1.12). Thirteen indicators of knowledge or practice for the control or prevention of mastitis were more likely to occur in trained households, four significantly so (not consuming milk from sick buffalo (p=0.001), using soap to wash hands before milking (p=0.001), discarding milk after antibiotic usage (p=0.01), and choosing appropriate flooring for their livestock (p=0.03)). Trained households that discarded milk from sick buffalo were 2.96 times more likely to have at least one animal with mastitis in the household (p=0.03, 95% CI 1.15–7.65). Trained households that knew to wash buffalos teats after milking were less likely (OR 0.25) to have mastitis in their herd ((p=0.02, 95% CI 0.08–0.80). Of the 138 buffalos tested, only one

  1. Brucellosis in water buffaloes

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    Melina G.S. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The domestication of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis originated in India and China and spread throughout the world and represents an important source of food of high biological value. Given the importance and relevance of brucellosis for buffalo production, this article reviews the history, etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical signs, anatomopathological findings, diagnosis and control of the disease, focusing on data from studies on water buffaloes performed in different countries and the Brazilian Amazon biome.

  2. Impact of Heat Stress on Cellular and Transcriptional Adaptation of Mammary Epithelial Cells in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis).

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    Kapila, Neha; Sharma, Ankita; Kishore, Amit; Sodhi, Monika; Tripathi, Pawan K; Mohanty, Ashok K; Mukesh, Manishi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the heat responsive genes and biological pathways in heat stressed buffalo mammary epithelial cells (MECs). The primary mammary epithelial cells of riverine buffalo were exposed to thermal stress at 42°C for one hour. The cells were subsequently allowed to recover at 37°C and harvested at different time intervals (30 min to 48 h) along with control samples (un-stressed). In order to assess the impact of heat stress in buffalo MECs, several in-vitro cellular parameters (lactate dehydrogenase activity, cell proliferation assay, cellular viability, cell death and apoptosis) and transcriptional studies were conducted. The heat stress resulted in overall decrease in cell viability and cell proliferation of MECs while induction of cellular apoptosis and necrosis. The transcriptomic profile of heat stressed MECs was generated using Agilent 44 K bovine oligonucleotide array and at cutoff criteria of ≥3-or ≤3 fold change, a total of 153 genes were observed to be upregulated while 8 genes were down regulated across all time points post heat stress. The genes that were specifically up-regulated or down-regulated were identified as heat responsive genes. The upregulated genes in heat stressed MECs belonged to heat shock family viz., HSPA6, HSPB8, DNAJB2, HSPA1A. Along with HSPs, genes like BOLA, MRPL55, PFKFB3, PSMC2, ENDODD1, ARID5A, and SENP3 were also upregulated. Microarray data revealed that the heat responsive genes belonged to different functional classes viz., chaperons; immune responsive; cell proliferation and metabolism related. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of several biological processes like; cellular process, metabolic process, response to stimulus, biological regulation, immune system processes and signaling. The transcriptome analysis data was further validated by RT-qPCR studies. Several HSP (HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and HSPB1), apoptotic (Bax and Bcl2), immune (IL6, TNFα and NF-kβ) and oxidative

  3. Impact of Heat Stress on Cellular and Transcriptional Adaptation of Mammary Epithelial Cells in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis.

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    Neha Kapila

    Full Text Available The present study aims to identify the heat responsive genes and biological pathways in heat stressed buffalo mammary epithelial cells (MECs. The primary mammary epithelial cells of riverine buffalo were exposed to thermal stress at 42°C for one hour. The cells were subsequently allowed to recover at 37°C and harvested at different time intervals (30 min to 48 h along with control samples (un-stressed. In order to assess the impact of heat stress in buffalo MECs, several in-vitro cellular parameters (lactate dehydrogenase activity, cell proliferation assay, cellular viability, cell death and apoptosis and transcriptional studies were conducted. The heat stress resulted in overall decrease in cell viability and cell proliferation of MECs while induction of cellular apoptosis and necrosis. The transcriptomic profile of heat stressed MECs was generated using Agilent 44 K bovine oligonucleotide array and at cutoff criteria of ≥3-or ≤3 fold change, a total of 153 genes were observed to be upregulated while 8 genes were down regulated across all time points post heat stress. The genes that were specifically up-regulated or down-regulated were identified as heat responsive genes. The upregulated genes in heat stressed MECs belonged to heat shock family viz., HSPA6, HSPB8, DNAJB2, HSPA1A. Along with HSPs, genes like BOLA, MRPL55, PFKFB3, PSMC2, ENDODD1, ARID5A, and SENP3 were also upregulated. Microarray data revealed that the heat responsive genes belonged to different functional classes viz., chaperons; immune responsive; cell proliferation and metabolism related. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment of several biological processes like; cellular process, metabolic process, response to stimulus, biological regulation, immune system processes and signaling. The transcriptome analysis data was further validated by RT-qPCR studies. Several HSP (HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and HSPB1, apoptotic (Bax and Bcl2, immune (IL6, TNFα and NF-kβ and

  4. Freezability of water buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa is improved with the addition of curcumin (diferuoyl methane) in semen extender.

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    Shah, S A H; Andrabi, S M H; Qureshi, I Z

    2017-10-01

    Effects of curcumin as antioxidant in extender were evaluated on freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. Semen from each of the five bulls (n = 3 replicates, six ejaculates/bull, a total of 30 ejaculates) was diluted in Tris-citric acid extender containing curcumin (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mM) or control. At pre-freezing and post-thawing, total antioxidant contents (μM/L) and lipid peroxidation levels (μM/ml) were higher (p straight-line velocity, μm/s; curved-line velocity, μm/s; straightness, %; linearity, %), in vitro longevity (%, PM and RV) and DNA integrity (%) at post-thawing were higher (p < .05) with 1.5 mM compared to control. At post-thawing, supravital plasma membrane integrity (%) and viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome (%) were higher with 1.5 compared to 2.0 mM curcumin and control. We concluded that freezability of water buffalo spermatozoa is improved with the addition of 1.5 mM curcumin in extender. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin increases freezability of buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis spermatozoa by increasing cholesterol to phospholipid ratio

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    J. S. Rajoriya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC on freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: Murrah buffalo bull semen samples with progressive motility of 70% and greater were used. After the evaluation of motility and livability, four equal fractions of semen samples were made. Group I was kept as control and diluted with Tris, whereas Group II, III and IV were treated with CLC solution at the rate of 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg/ml respectively to obtain 120 × 106 sperm/ml as final spermatozoa concentration. The aliquots of all the groups were incubated for action of CLC, followed by dilution and freezing. Evaluation at pre-freeze and post-thaw stage of progressive motility, viability and level of cholesterol and phospholipid was done. Results: The mean cholesterol content (μg/100 × 106 spermatozoa of Group I, II, III and IV at pre-freeze stage was 21.55±0.63, 49.56±1.38, 55.67±0.45 and 47.79±1.01 and at post-thaw stage were 13.18±0.45, 34.27±0.71, 36.21±0.48 and 33.68±0.56, respectively. At pre-freeze stage, cholesterol content was significantly (p<0.01 higher in Group III in comparison to other groups. The mean cholesterol and phospholipids content of fresh sperm was 24.14±0.58 and 51.13±0.66 μg/100 × 106 sperm cells, respectively, and C/P ratio of spermatozoa at fresh stage was 0.47±0.067. Conclusion: CLC treatment maintains the C/P ratio and plays an important role in maintaining membrane architecture of spermatozoa. Hence, addition of CLC may be helpful in increasing freezability of buffalo spermatozoa by increasing the C/P ratio of spermatozoa.

  6. Descripción de un caso de labio leporino y paladar hendido en bubalus bubalis bubalis (búfalo), Sucre, Colombia - Description of a case of harelip and cleft palate in bubalus bubalis bubalis (buffalo), Sucre, Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Vergara, Donicer; De La Ossa Velázquez, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    ResumenEl presente trabajo muestra el hall azgo de un caso de labio leporino y paladar hendido en una cría de Bubalus bubalis bubalis (Murrah x Murrah) en una la finca, dedicada a la explotación de esta especie de ganado ubicada en la depresión del Bajo Cauca y San Jorge del Municipio de San Benito Abad, departamento de Sucre, Colombia.SummaryThe present work report the discovery of a case of harelip and cleft palate in a newborn of Bubalus bubalis bubalis (Murrah x Murrah) on a farm dedicate...

  7. Involvement of the nervous system following experimental infection with Pasteurella multocida B:2 in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): A clinicopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd

    2016-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by one of two specific serotypes of Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2 in Asian and African, respectively. It is well known that HS affect mainly the respiratory and digestive tracts. However, involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS has been reported in previous studies without details. In this study, nine buffalo calves of 8 months old were distributed into three groups. Animals of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 ml of 1 × 10(12) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while animals of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. All calves in Group 1 and Group 3 were euthanised after 504 h (21 day) post-infection, while calves in Group 2 had to euthanise after 12 h post-infection as they develop sever clinical signs of HS. Significant differences were found in Group 2 in the mean scores of clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system. In addition, successful bacterial isolation of P. multocida B:2 were obtained from different sites of the nervous system. On the other hand, less sever, clinical, gross and histopathological changes were found in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence of involving of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS, especially in the peracute stage of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism.

  9. Prognostic value of various spermatological attributes as predictors of zona binding and zona penetration of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen.

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    Selvaraju, S; Ghosh, J; Ravindra, J P

    2009-02-01

    Twenty-four ejaculates from six (four ejaculates each) Surti buffalo bulls aged 4-8 years were used to assess various attributes of spermatozoa influencing the zona-binding and zona-penetration tests. Ejaculates from each bulls were subjected to in vitro sperm--zona binding and sperm--zona penetration tests (four replicates per bull) using immature buffalo oocytes. The average number of spermatozoa bound per oocyte was 27.79 +/- 5.90. The average number of spermatozoa penetrated per oocyte was 3.35 +/- 0.64. The average number of zona-bound and -penetrated spermatozoa differed significantly between animals. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between the plasmalemma integrity as assessed by eosin--nigrosin stain and hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test. Furthermore, the percentage of cells positive for the HOS test, i.e. functional membrane integrity (51.25 +/- 2.32) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than hypo-osmotic swelling-Giemsa (HOS-G) test, i.e. the subpopulation of spermatozoa positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities (42.87 +/- 4.56). The HOS test had significant correlations with plasmalemma integrity as measured by the vital stain, eosin--nigrosin (r = 0.85, p < 0.05). The HOS-G test also had significant correlation with plasmalemma integrity measured by vital stains such as eosin--nigrosin (r = 0.90, p < 0.05) and fluorogenic stains [carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodide (PI); r = 0.92, p < 0.01] and HOS test (r = 0.93), acrosomal integrity (r = 0.86, p < 0.05) and mitochondrial membrane potential (r = 0.99, p < 0.01). The plasmalemma integrity (fluorogenic stain), functional membrane integrity (HOS test), subpopulation of spermatozoa positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities (HOS-G test) and mitochondrial membrane potential had significant (p < 0.05) correlation with sperm zona binding and penetration. The present study indicates that these parameters could represent important determinants

  10. Ovarian morphometric characterization and in vitro maturation of oocytes obtained from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ovaries – partial results

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    F.C. Landim-Alvarenga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo ovaries were collected from a slaughterhouse (Frigol, Brazil and transported to the laboratory in saline solution at 36º C. The ovaries were dissected to realize the evaluations (weight, length, width and height of the ovary; corpus luteum and dominant follicle diameters. The Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were recovered by aspiration of 2-8 mm follicles. Selected COCs were matured in TCM 199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, sodium pyruvate, LH, FSH, estradiol and gentamicin. In vitro maturation was carried out at 38.5° C for 22-24 h and 34-36 h. For the evaluation of the nuclear maturation the oocytes were placed in TCM 199 medium added with type v hialuronidase where the granulosa cells were extracted. The denuded oocytes were transferred to 10 μl of Hoescht 33342 and the chromosomic configuration was evaluated. The oocytes were classified according to meiosis stage in: Germinal Vesicle, Germinal Vesicle Breakdown, Metaphase I, Metaphase II and Degenerated. The means of weight, length, width and height of the ovary were 3.83 g, 2.27 cm, 1.08 cm and 1.56 cm, respectively. The means of corpus luteum and dominant follicle diameters were 1.40 cm and 7.77 mm. The proportion of oocytes that reached metaphase II stage was: 36.68%.

  11. Equivalency of Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cells Derived From Fertilized, Parthenogenetic, and Hand-Made Cloned Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Musharifa; Selokar, Naresh L.; Singh, Karn P.; Zandi, Mohammad; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Riaz A.; Chauhan, Manmohan S.; Singla, Suresh K.; Palta, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was aimed at establishing buffalo embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from in vitro fertilized (IVF), parthenogenetic, and hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos and to check their equivalency in terms of stem cell marker expression, longevity, proliferation, and differentiation pattern. ESCs derived from all three sources were found by immunofluorescence to express the pluripotency markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, OCT4, and SOX2 and were able to form embryoid bodies containing cells expressing genes specific to endoderm (AFP, HNF4, and GATA4), mesoderm (MSX1, BMP4, and ASA), and ectoderm (cytokeratin 8 and NF68). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed cells from all sources to be positive for pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, STAT3, REX1, FOXD3, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and TELOMERASE. Pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and c-MYC were also analyzed by real-time PCR. No significant differences were observed among ESCs from all three sources for all these genes except NANOG, whose expression was higher (pcloning, chimera formation, and transgenic animal production. PMID:22582863

  12. Developmental competence and expression profile of genes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes and embryos collected under different environmental stress.

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    Sadeesh, E M; Sikka, P; Balhara, A K; Balhara, S

    2016-12-01

    The study examined the effects of different environmental stress on developmental competence and the relative abundance (RA) of various gene transcripts in oocytes and embryos of buffalo. Oocytes collected during cold period (CP) and hot period (HP) were matured, fertilized and cultured in vitro to blastocyst hatching stage. The mRNA expression patterns of genes implicated in developmental competence (OCT-4, IGF-2R and GDF-9), heat shock (HSP-70.1), oxidative stress (MnSOD), metabolism (GLUT-1), pro-apoptosis (BAX) and anti-apoptosis (BCL-2) were evaluated in immature and matured oocytes as well as in pre-implantation stage embryos. Oocytes reaching MII stage, cleavage rates, blastocyst yield and hatching rates increased (P < 0.05) during the CP. In MII oocytes and 2-cell embryos, the RA of OCT-4, IGF-2R, GDF-9, MnSOD and GLUT-1 decreased (P < 0.05) during the HP. In 4-cell embryos, the RA of OCT-4, IGF-2R and BCL-2 decreased (P < 0.05) in the HP, whereas GDF-9 increased (P < 0.05). In 8-to 16-cell embryos, the RA of OCT-4 and BCL-2 decreased (P < 0. 05) in the HP, whereas HSP-70.1 and BAX expression increased (P < 0.05). In morula and blastocyst, the RA of OCT-4, IGF-2R and MnSOD decreased (P < 0.05) during the HP, whereas HSP-70.1 was increased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, deleterious seasonal effects induced at the GV-stage carry-over to subsequent embryonic developmental stages and compromise oocyte developmental competence and quality of developed blastocysts.

  13. Comparative morphometrical and histological study of lingual papillae in two different ages of the Iraqi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Hasso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty two tongues of buffalo collected from the slaughter house of Mousl city (11 tongues for adult animals 3-4 years and11tongues for small ages 1 weake-2 monthes. Two groups were used in this study, twelve samples for anatomical study and ten samples for histological study, in each group of this study, the tongues were divided into four regions from apex to the end of the root. The tongue is a muscular organ which consists of dorsal and ventral surfaces, it is formed from three parts (apex, body and root. The lingual fossa and torus linguae both appear on the dorsal surface. The total average of the tongue length in adult animals (36.00±0.97 cm while the highest average of the length, width and thickness found in the third region. The total length in small ages was (16.92±0.98 cm and the highest average of length and thickness again it happens in third region and the highest width in this age group found in the second region. The investigation of the normal anatomical structures of the tongue distinguished four lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvalate while the lenticuler papillae absent in both age groups. The filiform and fungiform papillae spread over the dorsal surface and ventro-lateral surface terminat abruptly at the ventro-lateral border forming a distinct straight line from apex to the torus linguae in both ages. The present work reveals that the highest average of filiform papillae in both surface (dorsal and ventro-lateral surface founds in second region in adult group, while in small group founds in first region. The highest average of fungiform papillae in both surface of both age groups are in the apex of tongue. The highest average of conical and circumvalate papillae in both age group (adult and young were on torus linguae. The histological study has been used the shape, diameter and the type of epithelium which covered the papillae in both groups. The filiform papillae are long fine projection beading

  14. The efficacy and safety of alphacypermethrin as a pour-on treatment for water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) infested with Haematopinus tuberculatus (Phthiraptera: Haematopinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Cimmino, Roberta; Balestrieri, Anna; Rufrano, Domenico; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Santoro, Mario; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    The sucking louse Haematopinus tuberculatus (Burmeister 1839) is an ectoparasite of buffaloes, cattle, camels, and American bison. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used to control arthropods of veterinary and public health interest. Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, is often administered to buffaloes based on dosage and intervals recommended for cattle because very few drugs have buffalo-specific label indications. A trial was conducted on 20 louse-infested buffaloes at a farm to assess the efficacy and safety of ACYP pour-on, at the manufacturer's recommended dose for cattle, on buffaloes naturally infested by H. tuberculatus. Ten animals were assigned to ACYP-treated group (ACYP-group) and ten to untreated control group (C-group). On day 0, all ACYP-group buffaloes received alphacypermethrin pour-on. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at eight predilection sites on the skin of each buffalo. ACYP was completely effective (100%) at day 7, highly effective (99.8%) at day 14, and completely effective (100%) from day 21 until the end of the study (day 56 post-treatment). During the trial, ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinically adverse reactions. The results of this trial suggest that ACYP is an effective, safe, and user-friendly compound suitable for treatment of buffaloes with natural louse infestations.

  15. Clinical and hematological study on crossbred cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected with Theileria annulata in Sharkia province, Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and hematological findings in crossbred cattle and water buffaloes naturally infected with Theileria annulata with special reference to the clinical picture of tropical theileriosis in Egyptian buffaloes. A total 50 field cases of cattle...... in infected buffaloes was more prominent than in infected cattle with persistence of some lesions after recovery as corneal opacity and pulmonary lesions. Hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease in RBCS count, PCV%, hemoglobin amount and WBCs in the infected animals comparing to the healthy...

  16. Cholesterol and fatty acid composition of longissimus thoracis from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Brahman-influenced cattle raised under savannah conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida-Mendoza, Maria; Arenas de Moreno, Lilia; Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Uzcátegui-Bracho, Sojan; Valero-Leal, Kutchynskaya; Romero, Sonia; Rodas-González, Argenis

    2015-08-01

    Male (n=66) water buffalo (Buffalo) and Brahman-influenced cattle (Brahman) were born, raised, weaned, fattened on grazing savannah and harvested at two different ages (19 and 24months) to compare lipid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Half of the animals were castrated at seven months of age (MOA) to examine the castration effects. At 24 MOA Brahman steers showed the highest content of total lipids (Pcholesterol content for either the main or interaction effects in the age groups. Some individual fatty acids varied with the species (Pvalues in favor of Buffalo meat (Pcholesterol level, AI indicates that Buffalo meat might be beneficial from a human health standpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performans Kerbau Lumpur dan Strategi Pengembangannya pada Daerah dengan Ketinggian Berbeda di Kabupaten Cianjur (PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SWAMP BUFFALO AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDES IN CIANJUR DISTRICT AND ITS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komariah .

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives were to analyze reproduction performance and productivity of swamp buffalofrom different altitudes in Cianjur and draw up a hierarchy of productivity strategy development usinganalysis of SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threats and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHPwith four criteria: technology, costs, impact, and the response of farmers. Survey was conducted in Cianjurduring January-March 2014 by interview prepared questionnaires and direct observation of 63 buffalo farmers. Secondary data were also obtained from relevant agencies. Primary data were collected usingdirect observation of 139 reproductive female buffaloes then were further analyzed. A total of 58 buffaloesat their productive period were sampled and taken their morphometric data. Whilst 37 buffaloes weremeasured their frame size using Body Condition Score (BCS. The results showed that the reproductionperformance of buffaloes in the lowlands are not significantly different from those in the highland. The ageat first oestrus, first mating, first calving, gestation period were 25.6 months, 26.6 months, 38.7 months,11.8 months, respectively.. The oestrus period was 5.3 days, and post-partum mating interval was 54.6days. Differences in altitude and sex significantly affected (P <0.05 the morphometry assessment. Thebody weight of male buffaloes were found lower than the females both in highlands and lowlands (P<0.05.The body conditioning score of buffalo performance at highland was better compared to those in thelowland. Based on the SWOT analysis and AHP: (1 The main strategy is to improve the technology basedon the criteria of internal weakness by increasing scale holdings to seize opportunities buffalo meat selfsufficiency;(2 based on the criteria of cost and impact, the strategy was to cover threats over the professionout of the region by empowering farmers (facilitate increased productivity buffalo; (3 based on the responsecriteria, the primary

  18. Contagem de células somáticas e isolamento de agentes causadores de mastite em búfalas (Bubalus bubalis Somatic cell count and mastitis causing pathogens isolation in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was accomplished in eight dairy water buffalo herds, randomically choosen in Região do Alto São Francisco, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Information was collected from March to November, 2003 during 270 days of observation. In order to determine the somatic cell count (SCC in presence or absence of microbial isolation, 1,393 samples were collected from 285 lactating females and microbiological exams and SCC were done. Samples obtained from udders without evidence of clinical or subclinical inflammation showed infection for a great variety of microbial mastitis pathogens. The low SCC did not necessarily indicate the absence of intramammary infection, suggesting that SCC patterns used for bovine cannot be appropriate in order to control mastitis in buffalo herds.

  19. Impact of Buserelin Acetate or hCG Administration on the Day of First Artificial Insemination on Subsequent Luteal Profile and Conception Rate in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A K; Ghuman, Sps; Dhaliwal, G S; Agarwal, S K; Phogat, J B

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of buserelin acetate (BA) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on the day of first artificial insemination (AI) on subsequent luteal profile (diameter of corpus luteum (CL) and plasma progesterone) and conception rate in Murrah buffalo. The present experiment was carried out at two locations in 117 buffalo that were oestrus-synchronized using cloprostenol (500 μg) administered (i.m.) 11 days apart followed by AI during standing oestrus. Based on treatment (i.m.) at the time of AI, buffalo were randomly categorized (n = 39 in each group) into control (isotonic saline solution, 5 ml), dAI-BA (buserelin acetate, 20 μg) and dAI-hCG (hCG, 3000 IU) group. Out of these, 14 buffalo of each group were subjected to ovarian ultrasonography on the day of oestrus to monitor the preovulatory follicle and on days 5, 12, 16 and 21 post-ovulation to monitor CL diameter. On the day of each sonography, jugular vein blood samples were collected for the estimation of progesterone concentrations. All the buffalo (n = 117) were confirmed for pregnancy on day 40 post-ovulation. The conception rate was better (p hCG (66.7%) groups as compared to their control counterparts (30.8%). Furthermore, the buffalo of dAI-hCG group had improved (p  0.05) to exhibit stimulatory impact of treatment on luteal profile when compared to control group. In brief, buserelin acetate or hCG treatment on the day of first AI leads to an increase in conception rate; however, an appreciable impact on post-ovulation luteal profile was observed only in hCG-treated Murrah buffalo. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. In silico mining of putative microsatellite markers from whole genome sequence of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis and development of first BuffSatDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though India has sequenced water buffalo genome but its draft assembly is based on cattle genome BTau 4.0, thus de novo chromosome wise assembly is a major pending issue for global community. The existing radiation hybrid of buffalo and these reported STR can be used further in final gap plugging and “finishing” expected in de novo genome assembly. QTL and gene mapping needs mining of putative STR from buffalo genome at equal interval on each and every chromosome. Such markers have potential role in improvement of desirable characteristics, such as high milk yields, resistance to diseases, high growth rate. The STR mining from whole genome and development of user friendly database is yet to be done to reap the benefit of whole genome sequence. Description By in silico microsatellite mining of whole genome, we have developed first STR database of water buffalo, BuffSatDb (Buffalo MicroSatellite Database (http://cabindb.iasri.res.in/buffsatdb/ which is a web based relational database of 910529 microsatellite markers, developed using PHP and MySQL database. Microsatellite markers have been generated using MIcroSAtellite tool. It is simple and systematic web based search for customised retrieval of chromosome wise and genome-wide microsatellites. Search has been enabled based on chromosomes, motif type (mono-hexa, repeat motif and repeat kind (simple and composite. The search may be customised by limiting location of STR on chromosome as well as number of markers in that range. This is a novel approach and not been implemented in any of the existing marker database. This database has been further appended with Primer3 for primer designing of the selected markers enabling researcher to select markers of choice at desired interval over the chromosome. The unique add-on of degenerate bases further helps in resolving presence of degenerate bases in current buffalo assembly. Conclusion Being first buffalo STR database in the world

  1. Birth of cloned calves from vitrified-warmed zona-free buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos produced by hand-made cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ambikaprasanna; Panda, Sudeepta K; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    The availability of techniques for the vitrification of cloned blastocysts can improve their effective use. The present study compared the developmental competence of buffalo cloned embryos derived from adult (BAF), newborn (BNF) and fetal fibroblast (BFF) before and after vitrification. Despite similar cleavage rates among the three groups, the blastocyst rate was lower for BAF- than BNF- and BFF-derived embryos (30.2±2.2% vs 41.7±1.7% and 39.1±2.1%, respectively; Pcloned buffalo embryos cryopreserved by vitrification can be used to obtain live offspring.

  2. Half dose of prostaglandin F2a is effective to induce luteolysis in the synchronization of ovulation protocol for fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Berber, Rodolfo Cassimiro de Araújo; Madureira, Ed Hoffman; Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza de

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of half dose of PGF2alpha in the synchronization of ovulation protocol (GnRH/PGF2alpha/GnRH) for fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo. Two hundred and sixty two buffaloes (³40 days postpartum) were divided in 2 groups (Group 1, n = 125, GnRH/ ½ dose de PGF2alpha/GnRH; Control Group, n = 137, GnRH/PGF2alpha/GnRH). Animals in Group 1 received 25mg of GnRH IM (Lecirelin, Gestran-plus®) and, seven days later, half dose of PGF2alp...

  3. binding globulin gene of Bubalus bubalis bulls in Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lillian

    This study was carried out on 67 adult buffalo bulls of the species Bubalus bubalis from different farms in. Damietta and .... result of the development and functional differentiation of the testis (Sharma et al. 1984 .... Gulia S., Sarkar M., Kumar V., Meyer H. H. D. and Prakash B. S. 2010 Divergent development of testosterone.

  4. Effect of Sex of Embryo on Developmental Competence, Epigenetic Status, and Gene Expression in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos Produced by Hand-Made Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Anjit; Mohapatra, Sushil K; Agrawal, Himanshu; Singh, Manoj K; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhey S

    2016-10-01

    Buffalo embryos were produced by hand-made cloning using skin fibroblasts from male and female buffaloes (n = 4 each) as donor cells for examining the effect of sex. Although the rate of blastocyst formation (43.8% ± 1.31% vs. 42.2% ± 1.22%) was similar, the total cell number (333 ± 10.4 vs. 270 ± 10.9) was higher (p female>IVF (in vitro fertilization) blastocysts (p cloned than in IVF blastocysts. This study demonstrates that the epigenetic status, quality, and expression level of several genes but not the developmental competence are affected by the sex of cloned embryos.

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis NOD1 and NOD2 receptors and their functional role in in-vitro cellular immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Brahma

    Full Text Available Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptors (NLRs are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo--a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and NOD2 was performed across different species. The NOD mediated in-vitro cellular responses were studied in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells, resident macrophages, mammary epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Buffalo NOD1 (buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed conserved domain architectures as found in other mammals. The domains of buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed analogy in secondary and tertiary conformations. Constitutive expressions of NODs were ubiquitous in different tissues. Following treatment with NOD agonists, peripheral lymphocytes showed an IFN-γ response along-with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages and mammary epithelial cells showed NOD mediated in-vitro immune response through NF-κB dependent pathway. Fibroblasts showed pro-inflammatory cytokine response following agonist treatment. Our study demonstrates that both immune and non-immune cells could generate NOD-mediated responses to pathogens though the type and magnitude of response depend on the cell types. The structural basis of ligand recognition by buffalo NODs and knowledge of immune response by different cell types could be useful for development of non-infective innate immune modulators and next generation anti-inflammatory compounds.

  6. Cellular conservation of endangered midget buffalo (Lowland Anoa, Bubalus quarlesi) by establishment of primary cultured cell, and its immortalization with expression of cell cycle regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Iino, Yuuka; Eitsuka, Takahiro; ONUMA, Manabu; Katayama, Masafumi; Murata, Koichi; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hara, Kumiko; Isogai, Emiko; Kiyono, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Lowland Anoa has become endangered due to hunting and human activity. Protection and breeding of endangered species in a controlled environment is the best way of conservation. However, it is not possible to adopt this approach for all endangered species because of the cost involved and the ever-increasing number of critically endangered species. In consideration of these limitations to the conventional conservation methods, we established a primary cell culture of endangered buffalo (Lowland...

  7. Effects of recipient oocyte age and interval from fusion to activation on development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, F; Jiang, J; Li, N; Zhang, S; Sun, H; Luo, C; Wei, Y; Shi, D

    2011-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 μg/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 μM ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P fusion (P fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of embryo culture conditions for increasing efficiency of cloning in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and generation of transgenic embryos via cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Neerja; Kunj, Neetu; Tiwari, Shuchita; Saraiya, Megha; Majumdar, Subeer S

    2009-09-01

    Cloning in bovine species is marred by low efficiency of blastocyst formation. Any increase in the efficiency of blastocyst formation upon nuclear transfer will greatly enhance the efficiency of cloning. In the present study, the effect of various media, protein sources, and growth factors on the development of cloned buffalo embryos was evaluated. Among various combinations tested, culture of cloned embryos in TCM-199 media on the feeder layer of Buffalo Oviductal Epithelial Cells (BOEC) in the presence of bovine serum albumin-free fatty acid (BSA-FFA) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) provided most suitable environment for efficient development of cloned blastocysts. Under these conditions, we achieved a blastocyst formation rate of 43%, which is better than those reported previously. Because preimplantation embryonic development, in vivo, occurs in an environment of oviductal cells, the blastocysts generated by this method may presumably be more suitable for implantation and further development. Additionally, we generated green blastocysts from enucleated oocytes by transfer of nuclei from cells transfected with EGFP transgene, showing possibility of transgenesis via cloning in this species. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the production of transgenic cloned buffalo embryos and their developmental competence with respect to various media, cocultures, and supplements.

  9. Use of different doses of rBST associated to a protocol for multiple ovulation and embryo transfer in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Baruselli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of different doses of rBST in a MOET protocol was verified in buffaloes. The animals received an intravaginal progesterone device (DIB plus 2.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (Ric-BE, i.m. and 0 mg, 250 mg or 500 mg of rBST. Ovarian follicular growth was stimulated by treatment with 200 mg of FSH in decreasing amount (12/12hs. Buffaloes received injections of PGF2α on D6 and on D7. The DIB was removed on D7. On D8, 24 hours after DIB removal, ovulation was induced with GnRH. The follicular emergence and the response to FSH treatment were evaluated by ultrasound on D4 and D8. The artificial insemination (AI was performed 12 and 24 hours after the GnRH administration. The embryonic structures were collected 5.5 days after the first AI. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. No statistical differences were found between groups. The results indicated that rBST, associated to a MOET protocol at the different dosages used, does not to improve the efficiency of the technique in buffalo.

  10. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-03-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (pmilk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×10(5) cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology.

  11. Insight into buffalo (Bubalus bubalis RIG1 and MDA5 receptors: a comparative study on dsRNA recognition and in-vitro antiviral response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvender Singh

    Full Text Available RIG1 and MDA5 have emerged as important intracellular innate pattern recognition receptors that recognize viral RNA and mediate cellular signals controlling Type I interferon (IFN-I response. Buffalo RIG1 and MDA5 genes were investigated to understand the mechanism of receptor induced antiviral response. Sequence analysis revealed that RIG1 and MDA5 maintain a domain arrangement that is common in mammals. Critical binding site residues of the receptors are evolutionary conserved among mammals. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that RIG1 and MDA5 follow a similar, if not identical, dsRNA binding pattern that has been previously reported in human. Moreover, binding free energy calculation revealed that MDA5 had a greater affinity towards dsRNA compared to RIG1. Constitutive expressions of RLR genes were ubiquitous in different tissues without being specific to immune organs. Poly I:C stimulation induced elevated expressions of IFN-β and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs through interferon regulatory factors (IRFs mediated pathway in buffalo foetal fibroblast cells. The present study provides crucial insights into the structure and function of RIG1 and MDA5 receptors in buffalo.

  12. Diagnóstico ultra-sonográfico do momento ovulatório em búfalas (Bubalus bubalis inseminadas no estro espontâneo e induzido Ultrasonographical diagnosis of ovulation in buffaloes (Bubalus Bubalis inseminated in spontaneous and induced oestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Damian Stumpfs Diaz

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi determinar o intervalo entre o início do estro induzido ou espontâneo e a ovulação em fêmeas bubalinas (Bubalus bubalis com o auxílio da ultra-sonografia, o que permitirá a determinação de um horário mais apropriado para a I.A. pré-fixada. Nos meses de março a junho, outono no sul do Brasil (época reprodutiva dos bubalinos, 132 fêmeas adultas ciclando foram divididas em 3 grupos experimentais: Grupo A - 53 fêmeas foram tratadas com implante subcutâneo de Norgestomet ou espiral intravaginal contendo progesterona. Na retirada dos dispositivos, foi aplicado 250mg de cloprostenol pela via intra-submucosa vulvar (i.s.m.v., Grupo B - 48 búfalas foram tratadas com dupla aplicação de 250mg de cloprostenol pela via i.s.m.v. com intervalo de 11 dias e Grupo C - 31 búfalas foram consideradas testemunhas, sem tratamento. Todas as búfalas foram inseminadas no momento da observação do maior diâmetro do folículo pré-ovulatório, detectado por ultra-sonografia, durante o estro. Após o diagnóstico de prenhez, constatou-se, nos três tratamentos, que houve diferença significativa entre as búfalas prenhes e vazias no período compreendido entre o início do estro até o momento da ovulação e no período entre a I.A.e a ovulação. Os índices de prenhez foram de 41,5%, 52,1% e 54,8% nos grupos A, B e C, respectivamente. A variação no intervalo estro-ovulação nas búfalas é uma barreira para a obtenção de taxas de prenhez por I.A. pré-fixada comparáveis à monta natural, tanto no estro induzido através de progesterona e prostaglandina F2 alfa como no estro espontâneo.The aim of this experiment was to determine the interval between the beginning of the spontaneous or induced oestrus and the ovulation in females buffaloes using ultrasonography. This will be useful in the determination of the most proper moment for the pre-fixed artificial insemination. In the reproductive season, autumn in

  13. DETERMINAÇÃO DA CRONOLOGIA DENTÁRIA DE MACHOS BUBALINOS(Bubalus bubalis CRIADOS NO ESTADO DO PARÁ DETERMINATION OF DENTAL CRONOLOGY OF MALE BUFFALOES (Bubalus bubalis RAISED IN PARÁ STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Luis Assunção Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho objetivou estimar a idade de machos bubalinos a partir da avaliação da dentição (den-tes incisivos criados no Estado do Pará. Para isso, foram utilizados 174 animais do nascimento até cem meses de idade, sem distinção de raça, distribuídos em oito grupos por faixa etária. Verificou-se a ausência dos cantos decíduos (4º par nos animais de zero a três meses de idade. Os cantos estabeleceram-se definitivamente entre três e seis meses de idade. A partir dos seis meses de idade, todos os dentes incisivos decíduos estavam presentes e estabelecidos. Aos 24 meses observou-se o início da troca dentária das pinças (1º par. Entre os 30 e 55 meses de idade ocorreram as trocas dentárias dos primeiros e dos segundos médios (2º e 3º par, respectivamente e acima dos 55 meses de idade houve a troca dos cantos. Dos 55 aos 100 meses de idade todos os dentes incisivos permanentes estavam estabelecidos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bubalino, dentes, idade dentária.

    The present study had the purpose to identify the age of male buffaloes from Pará State, Brazil by teeth evaluation (incisive teeth. There was utilized 174 animals from zero to 100 month of age, without breed distinction and different farms in Pará State. Animals were separated in eight groups by age. Results showed the absence of 4th pair of incisive teeth (milk teeth in animals aging between zero and three months. The 4th pair of incisive teeth was established definitively in animals aging between three and six months. After six months of age, animals had all of milk incisive teeth established. At 24 months of age was observed exchanges of the 1st pair of incisive teeth. Between 30 and 55 months of age occurred the exchanges of 2nd and 3rd pair of incisive teeth, respectively and above 55 months of age, animals had the exchange of 4th pair of incisive teeth. All permanent incisive teeth were established in animals aging between 55 to 100 month

  14. Intoxicação experimental por monensina em búfalos e bovinos Experimental monensin poisoning in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. Rozza

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinais clínicos e lesões característicos de intoxicação por monensina foram induzidos em búfalos dosados (1 dia com 15, 10, 7,5 e 5mg/kg de monensina. Apenas os búfalos dosados com 2,5 (1 dia e 1 mg/kg (7 dias de monensina não morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram cerca de 6 h após dosagem com monensina e incluíram apatia, anorexia, diarréia, sialorréia, fraqueza muscular, taquicardia, dificuldade locomotora, dispnéia, distensão da jugular, decúbito e morte. As dosagens de creatinina quinase (CK dos búfalos aumentaram acentuadamente após dosagem com monensina. As alterações macroscópicas foram ascite, hidrotórax, hidropericárdio, cardiomegalia, hepatomegalia e áreas pálidas focais no miocárdio e nos músculos esqueléticos. Degeneração e necrose de miofibras foram os principais achados histopatológicos. Por outro lado, nenhuma evidência de doença, nem mesmo alteração nos níveis de CK, foram observados nos bovinos dosados com as mesmas dosagens de monensina, confirmando observações preliminares que esses animais são mais resistentes à monensina que os búfalos.Monensin is widely used as a feed additive to improve performance of livestock; however accidental poisoning by this ionophore compound has been reported in a number of animal species. Typical clinical signs and lesions of monensin poisoning were induced in water buffaloes dosed with single dosages of 15, 10, 7.5, and 5mg/kg of the compound. Only buffaloes dosed with 2.5 mg/kg (1 day and 1mg/kg (7 days survived. Clinical signs initiated about 6 h post-dosing and included apathy, anorexia, diarrhea, drooling, muscular weakness, locomotion disorders, dyspnea, tachycardia, jugular distension and pulse, recumbency and death. The creatine kinase (CK levels were highly augmented in blood samples of buffaloes dosed with monensin. Most prominent gross changes were ascites, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, cardiomegaly, hepatomegaly, and focal pale areas in the

  15. Basic fibroblast growth factor is critical to reprogramming buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) primordial germ cells into embryonic germ stem cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caizhu; Deng, Yanfei; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Peng; Wei, Jingwei; Luo, Chan; Lu, Fenghua; Yang, Sufang; Shi, Deshun

    2017-03-15

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are destined to form gametes in vivo, and they can be reprogrammed into pluripotent embryonic germ (EG) cells in vitro. Buffalo PGC have been reported to be reprogrammed into EG-like cells, but the identities of the major signaling pathways and culture media involved in this derivation remain unclear. Here, the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and downstream signaling pathways on the reprogramming of buffalo PGCs into EG-like cells were investigated. Results showed bFGF to be critical to buffalo PGCs to dedifferentiate into EG-like cells (20 ng/mL is optimal) with many characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, including alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, expression of pluripotency marker genes such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-1, CDH1, and TRA-1-81, and the capacity to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers. After chemically inhibiting pathways or components downstream of bFGF, data showed that inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway led to significantly lower EG cell derivation, while inhibition of P53 activity resulted in an efficiency of EG cell derivation comparable to that in the presence of bFGF. These results suggest that the role of bFGF in PGC-derived EG-like cell generation is mainly due to the activation of the PI3K/AKT/P53 pathway, in particular, the inhibition of P53 function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of boron as an antidote on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization and fluorine balance in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) exposed to high fluoride ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D

    2008-12-01

    It is well known that excessive accumulation of fluorides can exert toxic effects on various tissues and organs so as to severely damage the health and production of animals. The aim of this study was to determine beneficial effect of boron on nutrient utilization in buffalo calves exposed to high fluoride (F) ration. For this purpose, we used three groups of four male Murrah buffalo calves (body weight 98-100 kg, aged 6-8 month) each. Control animal was given only basal diet and concentrate mixture. However, treatment I animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, and F [as NaF, 60 ppm of dry matter (DM)]. The treatment II animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, F (as NaF, 60 ppm of DM), and B (as sodium tetraborate, 140 ppm of DM). After 90 days of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial of 7 days duration was conducted to study the treatment effect on nutrient utilization of proximate nutrients, absorption, excretion, and retention of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, and F. Dietary F significantly (p matter intake and increased the apparent digestibility, absorption, and retention of F. However, boron supplementation significantly (p matter intake, fecal excretion, and percent of absorbed F excreted via urine. Apparent digestibility of proximate nutrients (viz. DM, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract) was unaffected on either F or F+B treatment. However, absorption and excretion of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and Cu were affected significantly (p < 0.05) on F or F+B treatment. These findings suggest that fluoride-containing diet for short duration has effect on nutrient utilization, and boron at 140-ppm dose level, in general, antagonized the absorption and retention of F and also improved the feed intake in buffalo calves.

  17. Comparison of the tuberculin test, histopathological examination, and bacterial culture for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Lima, Danillo Henrique da Silva; da Silva e Silva, Natália; Cardoso, Douglas Pinheiro; Lopes, Cinthia Távora Albuquerque; Brito, Marilene de Farias; da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-08-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease with a great zoonotic potential. It is considered a major obstacle to cattle production and is responsible for severe losses in several production systems. A comparative cervical test (CCT) was performed in 1140 buffaloes from different mesoregions of the state of Pará, Brazil, with the aim of comparing the sensitivity and specificity of CCT with histopathological examination and bacterial culture. Of the animals tested using CCT, 4.65% (53/1140) were positive, 2.98% (34/1140) were inconclusive, and 92.36% (1053/1140) were negative. Among the 168 sacrificed animals, 33 were positive, 18 were inconclusive, and 117 were negative by CCT, and samples from the sacrificed animals were collected for histopathological examination and bacterial culture. A qualitative evaluation of the tuberculin test was performed by comparing the test results with the histopathological and bacteriological results. The latter two tests yielded a prevalence of 4.16%, a sensitivity of 71.43%, and a specificity of 82.61%. Based on these results, we concluded that CCT yielded satisfactory results and can be applied in diagnostic studies in buffaloes. The prevalence rate obtained using three distinct diagnostic methods suggests that Mycobacterium bovis was present in a few animals in the population evaluated.

  18. Use of post-thaw semen quality parameters to predict fertility of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull during peak breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H; Andrabi, S M H; Anwar, M; Jahan, S

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to predict the fertility of water buffalo bull using post-thaw semen quality parameters during peak breeding season. Thirty ejaculates were collected from five bulls with artificial vagina and cryopreserved. At post-thaw, semen was analysed for motility parameters, velocity distribution, kinematics, DNA integrity/fragmentation, viability, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, morphology, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity. Data of 514 inseminations were collected for estimation of in vivo fertility. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that progressive motility (PM), rapid velocity, average path velocity, straight line velocity, straightness, supravital plasma membrane integrity, viable spermatozoon with intact acrosome or with high mitochondrial activity were correlated with in vivo fertility (r = .81, p fertility was PM. However, combinations of semen quality parameters to predict fertility were better as compared to single parameter. In conclusion, fertility of buffalo bull can be predicted through some of the post-thaw in vitro semen quality tests during peak breeding season. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Serologic responses, biosafety and clearance of four dosages of Brucella abortus strain RB51 in 6-10 months old water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diptee, M D; Adesiyun, A A; Asgarali, Z; Campbell, M; Adone, R

    2006-01-15

    Thirty water buffalo were obtained from a brucellosis-free farm in order to evaluate antibody responses, bacterial clearance and safety to Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in a dose response study. The animals were randomly divided into five treatment groups. Groups I-V received the recommended dose of RB51 vaccine (RD) once, RD twice 4 weeks apart, double RD once, double RD twice 4 weeks apart and saline once, respectively. Antibody responses to RB51 were monitored at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 18, 22, 24 and 27 post-initial-inoculation weeks (PIW). Clearance of RB51 from the prescapular lymph node was evaluated at 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 24 PIW for groups 1, III and V and at 6, 8, 10, 16, 22 and 27 PIW for groups II and IV. To evaluate shedding of the RB51 strain, nasal, conjunctival, vaginal or preputial swabs were taken from all experimental animals at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 PIW. Sera taken at all PIW were negative for field strain B. abortus by both the buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Antibody responses to RB51 were demonstrated in all vaccinates but not in the controls, up to 12 PIW, by complement fixation test (CFT) and the dot-blot assay with an 83.7% agreement for both tests. Clearance of RB51 occurred between 6 and 12 PIW in group I but less than 2 weeks after booster vaccinations in groups II and IV and between 4 and 6 PIW in group III. RB51 was not recovered at any time from swabs obtained from either RB51-vaccinates or non-vaccinates. The results of this study indicate that serologic responses to RB51 vaccination can be monitored by both CFT and dot-blot assay in water buffalo. Our data also indicates that RB51 vaccination does not interfere with brucellosis sero-surveillance and is safe (no serological and bacteriological evidence of spread to non-vaccinates, no adverse clinical signs or detectable abnormalities on haematology and serum biochemistry) for use in water buffalo.

  20. Molecular differentiation of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Abbas, Ibrahim E

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain sarcocysts of Sarcocystis buffalonis and Sarcocystis levinei from water buffaloes and characterize the isolates by molecular methods in order to determine whether the two species were genetically different from Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi, respectively, from cattle, which had been characterized before. About 35 macroscopically visible (3-4 × 1-2 mm) and 20 barely visible (1-3 × 0.2 mm) sarcocysts were excised from the esophagus of 18 naturally infected and freshly slaughtered adult water buffaloes at three slaughterhouses in Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were first characterized at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Selected isolates were subsequently further characterized at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit by direct sequencing or cloning. Only six of the isolated macroscopic sarcocysts belonged to S. buffalonis, whereas the others belonged to Sarcocystis fusiformis. Twelve of the smaller cysts belonged to S. levinei and seven to Sarcocystis sinensis. The characterization of the sarcocysts of S. sinensis and some of the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis have been reported before. Fifteen additional sarcocyst isolates of S. fusiformis were characterized at cox1 in the present study and found to be identical or closely similar to previous isolates. At cox1, the sequence identity between the six isolates of S. buffalonis was 99.8-100 % (two haplotypes), whereas the identity between the 12 isolates of S. levinei was 99.0-100 % (10 haplotypes). The identity between cox1 sequences of S. buffalonis and S. hirsuta (n = 56) was 92.9-93.6 % (on average 93.4 %), and the identity between cox1 sequences of S. levinei and S. cruzi (n = 22) was 92.9-94.0 % (on average 93.5 %). The phylogenetic

  1. Relationships among frozen-thawed semen fertility, physical parameters, certain routine sperm characteristics and testosterone in breeding Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to examine the relationships among frozen-thawed semen fertility, physical parameters, seminal quality, and testosterone concentration in Murrah buffalo bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 breeding Murrah buffalo bulls (either progeny tested or under progeny testing program were randomly selected from two government bull farms in Punjab. None of the bulls selected for this study had any preceding physical abnormality. A field fertility trial was conducted to determine the first service conception rate (FSCR. The number of females inseminated per bull semen was 10. All the bulls were inspected for structural soundness, measurement of scrotal circumference, testicular biometry, and internal pelvic area (IPA. Frozen-thawed semen was evaluated for total motility, progressive motility, viability, concentration, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST. Testosterone was estimated in blood plasma, seminal plasma as well as frozen-thawed semen extracts for establishing relationship. Results: The FSCR was 48% in the bulls having a scrotal circumference of ≥44 cm, although, there was no significant correlation between FSCR and scrotal circumference. Similarly, no consistent relationship existed between sperm concentration and scrotal circumference. A positive correlation was observed between IPA and FSCR (r=0.294. Of the six post-thaw seminal components (total motility, progressive motility, viability, HOST (%, total abnormality and concentration only total motility had a high significant (p<0.01 correlation with FSCR (r=0.694. Varied correlations existed between other seminal parameters and fertility. Using a simple regression analysis, the post-thaw motility, IPA, prepuce length and testosterone (independent variables combined to explain approximately 62% of the variation in the FSCR (dependent variable. Conclusion: The present study indicated that despite low to high correlations between seminal

  2. Ultra-structural study of Egyptian Buffalo oocytes before and after in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-12

    2008). Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) preantral follicle population and ultrastructural characterization of antral follicle oocyte. Reprod. Dom. Anim. Epub ahead of print. Boni R, Santella L, Dale B, Roviello S, Di. Palo R, Barbieri V (1992).

  3. Using real-time PCR to identify pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 2 (PAG-2) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) blood in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, O; Guelfi, G; Barile, V L; Menchetti, L; Tortiello, C; Canali, C; Brecchia, G; Traina, G; Beckers, J F; Melo de Sousa, N

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates for the first time mRNA pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 2 (PAG-2) expression in blood cells during early pregnancy in water buffalo. The PAGs constitute a large family of glycoproteins expressed in the outer epithelial layer of the placenta in eutherian species. All PAGs are not concomitantly expressed throughout pregnancy; some of them are expressed in the earlier phases, whereas others appear later and are expressed over a shorter period. Twenty-one lactating buffaloes were analyzed-17 females were synchronized with PRID and artificially inseminated (AI), whereas four females were synchronized but not inseminated (control group). Blood was collected at Days 0, 18, 28, 40, and 75 from AI (AI = Day 0). Expression of PAG-2 mRNA in blood samples was measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on Day 28 (D28) and Day 40 (D40) after AI by ultrasonography (US) and by PAG-1 RIA method. The females diagnosed pregnant at D28 and confirmed pregnant at D40 were defined as D28(+)D40(+) group; the females diagnosed pregnant at D28 but not confirmed pregnant at D40 were defined as D28(+)D40(-) group; and the females that were diagnosed as nonpregnant on either days were defined as D28(-)D40(-) group. PAG-2 mRNA at Day 0 was not observed in any groups. The D28(+)D40(+) group showed the highest expression, starting on Day 18 and increasing progressively up to Day 75. PAG-2 mRNA was also expressed on Day 18 in both D28(+)D40(-) and D28(-)D40(-) groups, but their levels were lower than those of D28(+)D40(+) group and almost constant over time. PAG-2 mRNA was never detected in the control group. The significant difference in the expression of PAG-2 mRNA between the D28(+)D40(+) group and the D28(-)D40(-) group, starting from Day 18, suggests that these animals might have conceived, but have experienced early embryonic loss; therefore, the PAG-2 mRNA was still present in blood circulation although at lower levels

  4. Molecular Genetic Diversity and Quantitation of Methanogen in Ruminal Fluid of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Fed Ration (Wheat Straw and Concentrate Mixture Diet

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    K. M. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High roughage diet causes more methane emissions; however, the total methanogen abundance is not influenced by roughage proportion. Technologies to reduce methane emissions are lacking, and development of inhibitors and vaccines that mitigate rumen-derived methane by targeting methanogens relies on present knowledge of the methanogens. In this work, we have investigated molecular diversity of rumen methanogens of Surti buffalo. DNA from rumen fluid was extracted, and 16S rRNA encoding genes were amplified using methanogen specific primer to generate 16S rDNA clone libraries. Seventy-six clones were randomly selected and analysed by RFLP resulting in 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. BLAST analysis with available sequences in database revealed sequences of 13 OTUs (55 clones showing similarity with Methanomicrobium sp, 3 OTUs (15 clones with Methanobrevibacter sp. The remaining 5 OTUs (6 clones belonged to uncultured archaea. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that methanogenic communities found in the library were clustered in the order of Methanomicrobiales (18 OTUs and Methanobacteriales (3 OTUs. The population of Methanomicrobiales, Methanobacteriales, and Methanococcales were also observed, accounting for 1.94%, 0.72%, and 0.47% of total archaea, respectively.

  5. Calcium, Magnesium and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC in Seminal Plasma of Water Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis Bulls and their Relationships with Semen Characteristics

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    Mohammad-Hassan Khadem Ansari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC of seminal plasma in buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls; semen quality was evaluated, seminal plasma was then harvested by centrifugation and its Ca and Mg content were estimated and its TAC determined. The Ca and Mg content of the seminal plasma (Mean ± SEM were recorded as 22.36 ± 0.52 mg dl-1 and 11.94 ± 0.36 mg dl-1 respectively, while, its mean TAC value was 1.50 ± 0.02 mmol L-1. The mean Ca value was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility, viability (P = 0.000 for all, negatively with semen volume (P = 0.01, and with Mg and TAC values (P = 0.000 for both. The mean Mg values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and TAC (P = 0.000 for all and negatively associated with semen volume (P = 0.014. The mean TAC values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and Mg (P = 0.000 for all. For further clarification of these associations, the data was categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33, good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15 and moderate (Mo, <79% motile, n = 6 according to their percentage of sperm motility. The mean progressive motility in Ex group was 92.24 ± 0.51%, in Go group it was 81.66 ± 0.62 %, and in Mo group it was 71.66 ± 1.05 %. The mean Ca, Mg and TAC values were respectively recorded as 25.12 ± 0.29 mg dl-1, 13.78 ± 0.20 mg dl-1, and 1.57 ± 0.009 mmol L-1 in Ex, 18.74 ± 0.63 mg dl-1, 9.14 ± 0.33mg dl-1, and 1.42 ± 0.044 mmol L-1 in Go, and 17.34 ± 0.18 mg dl-1, 8.06 ± 0.25 mg dl-1, and 1.23± 0.05 mmol L-1 in Mo groups. The associations in groups are discussed. These results show that seminal plasma Ca and Mg content and TAC are associated with semen

  6. Extra and intracellular calcium signaling pathway(s) differentially regulate histamine-induced myometrial contractions during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Nakade, Udayraj P; Choudhury, Soumen; Yadav, Rajkumar Singh; Garg, Satish Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the differential role of calcium signaling pathway(s) in histamine-induced uterotonic action during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes. Compared to mid pregnancy, tonic contraction, amplitude and mean-integral tension were significantly increased by histamine to produce myometrial contraction during early pregnancy with small effects on phasic contraction and frequency. Although uterotonic action of histamine during both stages of pregnancy is sensitive to nifedipine (a L-type Ca2+ channels blocker) and NNC55-0396 (T-type Ca2+ channels blocker), the role of extracellular calcium seems to be more significant during mid-pregnancy as in this stage histamine produced only 9.38±0.96% contraction in Ca2+ free-RLS compared to 21.60±1.45% in uteri of early pregnancy stage. Intracellular calcium plays major role in histamine-induced myometrial contraction during early pregnancy as compared to mid pregnancy, as in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) Ca2+-free RLS, histamine produced significantly higher contraction in myometrial strips of early-pregancy in comparison to mid-pregnancy (10.59±1.58% and 3.13±0.46%, respectively). In the presence of U-73122, the DRC of histamine was significantly shifted towards right with decrease in maximal effect (Emax) only in early pregnancy suggesting the predominant role of phospholipase-C (PL-C) in this stage of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Selection of Suitable Internal Control Genes for Accurate Normalization of Real-Time Quantitative PCR Data of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Blastocysts Produced by SCNT and IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Tanushri Jerath; Lagah, Swati Viviyan; Sharma, Ankita; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Mukesh, Manishi; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Manik, Radheysham; Palta, Prabhat

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated the suitability of 10 candidate internal control genes (ICGs), belonging to different functional classes, namely ACTB, EEF1A1, GAPDH, HPRT1, HMBS, RPS15, RPS18, RPS23, SDHA, and UBC for normalizing the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data of blastocyst-stage buffalo embryos produced by hand-made cloning and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Total RNA was isolated from three pools, each of cloned and IVF blastocysts (n = 50/pool) for cDNA synthesis. Two different statistical algorithms geNorm and NormFinder were used for evaluating the stability of these genes. Based on gene stability measure (M value) and pairwise variation (V value), calculated by geNorm analysis, the most stable ICGs were RPS15, HPRT1, and ACTB for cloned blastocysts, HMBS, UBC, and HPRT1 for IVF blastocysts and RPS15, GAPDH, and HPRT1 for both the embryo types analyzed together. RPS18 was the least stable gene for both cloned and IVF blastocysts. Following NormFinder analysis, the order of stability was RPS15 = HPRT1>GAPDH for cloned blastocysts, HMBS = UBC>RPS23 for IVF blastocysts, and HPRT1>GAPDH>RPS15 for cloned and IVF blastocysts together. These results suggest that despite overlapping of the three most stable ICGs between cloned and IVF blastocysts, the panel of ICGs selected for normalization of qPCR data of cloned and IVF blastocyst-stage embryos should be different.

  8. A new extinct dwarfed buffalo from Sulawesi and the evolution of the subgenus Anoa: An interdisciplinary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzi, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    The fossil and extant faunas of Sulawesi, the largest island within the Wallacea biogeographic region, exhibit a high degree of endemism. The lowland anoa Bubalus depressicornis and the mountain anoa Bubalus quarlesi, two closely-related dwarfed buffaloes, are among the most peculiar endemic mammals of the region. Here, I describe a new species, Bubalus grovesi, from the Late Pleistocene/Holocene of South Sulawesi and I give a revised diagnosis of Anoa. Bubalus grovesi sp. nov. differs from all previously described Bubalus in both the size and proportions of the skeleton and in possessing a unique combination of discrete character states. Body mass estimates suggest an average mass of 117 kg for Bubalus grovesi sp. nov. and a body size reduction of about 90% with respect to a typical water buffalo. A comprehensive overview of body mass estimates of dwarfed buffaloes and differences in their dental and postcranial features is included. Finally, new evidence on the taxonomy and island dwarfing of the anoas and available data from different disciplines are used to discuss the timing and mode of their evolution. The representatives of the subgenus Anoa would be dwarfed forms of the Asian water buffalo that arose following dispersal to Sulawesi during the Middle/Late Pleistocene.

  9. Characterization of buffalo interleukin 8 (IL-8 and its expression in endometritis

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    Ahlam A. Abou Mossallam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available River buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bubalis with a population over 135 million heads is an important livestock. Interleukin 8 (IL-8 is a member of the chemokine family and is an important chemoattractant for neutrophils associated with a wide variety of inflammatory diseases such as endometritis. Tissue samples from the mammary gland, uterus and ovary were obtained from river buffalo (Mediterranean type with and without endometritis. Bacteriological examination showed the presence of both gram positive and negative in all buffalo with endometritis. RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA synthesis were conducted from all tissues. Specific primer for IL8 full coding regions was designed using known cDNA sequences of Bubalus bubalis, Genbank accession number AY952930.1. IL-8 gene expression was investigated in buffalo tissues. Expression of IL-8 in buffalo with endometritis was found to increase significantly over buffalo without endometritis only in the uterus (P = 0.0159. PCR products from uterus tissues (target organs of buffalo with and without endometritis, were purified and sequenced. No polymorphic sites were detected in the investigated samples. IL-8 cDNA nucleotide sequences of buffalo with and without endometritis were 100% identical (accession number JX413057. Buffalo IL8 cDNAs were compared with corresponding sequences of member of subfamily Bovinae (buffalo and cattle and subfamily Caprinae (sheep and goat. IL-8 species specific differences were identified.

  10. Anticorpos IgG anti-Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em búfalas (Bubalus bubalis criadas no estado do Pará Occurrence of IgG antibodies anti-Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in female water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis raised in the Brazilian state of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro P. Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a ocorrência de anticorpos IgG anti-Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em 14 unidades produtivas de búfalos, situadas em 13 municípios no estado do Pará, foram coletadas amostras de soro sanguíneo de 374 fêmeas adultas. Os soros foram submetidos à reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, utilizando-se os títulos 200 e 64, respectivamente como ponto de corte para N. caninum e T. gondii. Obteve-se 153 (40,9% de animais soropositivos para N. caninum com 100% das propriedades com focos da infecção, enquanto que quatro búfalas (1,1% foram soropositivas em quatro fazendas para T. gondii e uma búfala (0,27% foi soropositiva para ambos parasitos. A presença de anticorpos é um indicativo da circulação desses protozoários em búfalos das propriedades estudadas, representando uma fonte de infecção para outros animais, assim como o possível envolvimento em distúrbios reprodutivos nessa espécie.To investigate the occurrence of antibodies IgG anti-Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii, blood samples were collected from 374 adult female water buffaloes originated from 14 production units located in 13 counties of the state of Pará. The sera were subjected to indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA, using titers of 200 and 64 as IFA cut off points for N. caninum and T. gondii, respectively. Hundred and fifty three (40.9% buffaloes were sero-positive for N. caninum, with 100% of the properties being sources of infection. Four buffaloes (1.1% in four farms were seropositive for T. gondii, and one buffalo cow (0.27% was seropositive for the two parasites. The presence of antibodies indicates that these protozoan parasites are circulating among buffaloes from the properties studied, representing a source of infection to other animals, as well as a possible cause of reproductive disorders in this species.

  11. Alterações histológicas em fígados e linfonodos de búfalos (Bubalus bubalis mantidos em pastagens de Brachiaria spp. Histologic lesions in livers and lymph nodes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis grazing in Brachiaria spp. pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Riet-Correa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltração por macrófagos espumosos e outras lesões podem ser encontradas em bovinos clinicamente sadios em pastagens de Brachiaria spp. Com o objetivo de determinar as alterações histológicas do fígado e linfonodos mesentéricos em búfalos no Pará foram estudadas as alterações histológicas de fragmentos desses órgãos de 142 búfalos da raça Murrah e de 15 bovinos da raça Nelore, coletados em frigoríficos. As coletas foram separadas em grupos de animais de acordo com sua origem e tempo de permanência na pastagem de Brachiaria spp., sendo o Grupo (G 1 composto por 79 búfalos provenientes da Ilha de Marajó, criados em pastagens de campo nativo; o G2 composto por 17 búfalos mantidos desde o nascimento em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha; o G3 composto por 29 búfalos adquiridos na Ilha do Marajó e introduzidos em pastagem de B. decumbens por aproximadamente 12 meses; o G4 composto por 17 búfalos adquiridos na Ilha de Marajó e introduzidos em pastagem de B. brizantha por aproximadamente 18 meses; e o G5 composto por 15 bovinos mantidos em pastagem de B. brizantha por aproximadamente 12 meses. Para avaliar a gravidade da lesão hepática foram estabelecidos graus de acordo com a quantidade e tamanho dos grupos de macrófagos espumosos, seguindo uma escala de 0 a 4. Nos animais do G1, provenientes da Ilha de Marajó, não foram observadas alterações histológicas significativas no fígado e linfonodos mesentéricos. Em todas as amostras dos grupos G2, G3 e G4 foram observados quantidades variáveis de macrófagos espumosos no fígado e linfonodos mesentéricos. Os animais dos grupos G2 e do G4, que permaneceram um período maior em pastagens de Brachiaria spp, apresentaram lesões mais acentuadas (PInfiltration by foamy macrophages and other lesions are reported in healthy cattle held in Brachiaria spp. pastures. With the objective to study histologic lesions in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes in buffalo in the state

  12. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and weight ...

  13. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and.

  14. Evaluation of cell-mediated immune responses and bacterial clearance in 6-10 months old water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) experimentally vaccinated with four dosages of commercial Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diptee, M D; Adesiyun, A A; Asgarali, Z; Campbell, M; Fosgate, G T

    2005-07-15

    Thirty water buffalo, obtained from a brucellosis-free farm, were used to evaluate cell-mediated immune responses and bacterial clearance in response to vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) in a dose-response study. The animals were randomly divided into five treatment groups. Groups I--V received the recommended dose (RD) of RB51 vaccine once, RD twice 4 weeks apart, double RD once, double RD twice 4 weeks apart and saline once, respectively. Cell-mediated immune response to RB51 was assessed by the histological examination of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections of lymph nodes draining the sites of inoculation and by comparison of stimulation indices (SI) derived from gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) assay. A mixture of cytoplasmic proteins from B. melitensis B115 (brucellergene) was used as a specific antigenic stimulus to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMC) up to 22 post-initial-inoculation week (PIW). Supernatants harvested at 18-24h after the in vitro antigenic stimulus were assayed for their IFN-gamma content by using a commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Clearance of RB51 was assessed by the sequential immunohistochemical examination of sections of draining lymph nodes post-inoculation. There was no observable expansion of the deep cortex of lymph nodes on H&E sections indicating poor T-cell stimulation. All group V (control) water buffalo PBMC ELISA values were negative (SIRB51 occurred between 4 and 6 PIW in treatment groups I and III and between 6 and 12 PIW in groups II and IV. RB51 was not detected in any of the control animals at sampling intervals post-inoculation.

  15. Studies on the ultrastructure and histochemistry of the lymph system in three species of amphistome (Trematoda: Digenea) Gigantocotyle explanatum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Srivastavaia indica from the Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, T S; Nizami, W A; Hanna, R E

    1985-03-01

    The lymph system of three amphistome parasites from buffaloes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Srivastavaia indica was studied using light microscope histochemistry and electron microscopy. In each case the system comprised a single pair of main longitudinal vessels which gave rise to numerous sub-dividing lateral branches. Although the finer lymph channels associated with most internal systems, they did not penetrate the basement membrane of any organ. The lymph vessels were delimited by a unit membrane and separated from adjacent cells by interstitial material. The lymph fluid consisted of an amorphous proteinaceous, lipid-rich matrix, containing naked nuclei and granules of various sizes. Complexes of endoplasmic reticulum were frequently associated with the nuclei. No distinct Golgi bodies or mitochondria were evident. The granules noted throughout the lymph morphologically resembled autophagosomes and lysosomes. Autophagy within the lymph system presumably mobilizes amino acids for subsequent transport to tissues undergoing active protein synthesis. The lymph channels displayed an intimate relationship with the general parenchyma. In particular, numerous protrusions of lymph occurred into the cytoplasm of certain specialized parenchymal cells surrounding the pharynx. Within these 'juxtapharyngeal' cells autophagic degradation of sequestered lymph cytoplasm apparently occurred. In the three species of amphistome studied, the lymph system appears to function in storage and mobilization of amino acids and possibly lipids. It may also serve to distribute other small molecules throughout the body. The detection of haemoglobin in the lymph system of G. crumenifer and S. indica, but not in Gigantocotyle explanatum, suggests a further role in oxygen storage and transport.

  16. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

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    Kumar Niraj

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds.

  17. Establishment of Trophectoderm Cell Lines from Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Embryos of Different Sources and Examination of In Vitro Developmental Competence, Quality, Epigenetic Status and Gene Expression in Cloned Embryos Derived from Them.

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    Sushil Kumar Mohapatra

    Full Text Available Despite being successfully used to produce live offspring in many species, somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT has had a limited applicability due to very low (>1% live birth rate because of a high incidence of pregnancy failure, which is mainly due to placental dysfunction. Since this may be due to abnormalities in the trophectoderm (TE cell lineage, TE cells can be a model to understand the placental growth disorders seen after NT. We isolated and characterized buffalo TE cells from blastocysts produced by in vitro fertilization (TE-IVF and Hand-made cloning (TE-HMC, and compared their growth characteristics and gene expression, and developed a feeder-free culture system for their long-term culture. The TE-IVF cells were then used as donor cells to produce HMC embryos following which their developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression were compared with those of HMC embryos produced using fetal or adult fibroblasts as donor cells. We found that although TE-HMC and TE-IVF cells have a similar capability to grow in culture, significant differences exist in gene expression levels between them and between IVF and HMC embryos from which they are derived, which may have a role in the placental abnormalities associated with NT pregnancies. Although TE cells can be used as donor cells for producing HMC blastocysts, their developmental competence and quality is lower than that of blastocysts produced from fetal or adult fibroblasts. The epigenetic status and expression level of many important genes is different in HMC blastocysts produced using TE cells or fetal or adult fibroblasts or those produced by IVF.

  18. Serum levels of triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Lin.) raised in Amazon region; Niveis sericos de triiodotironina (T{sub 3}) e tiroxina (T{sub 4}) em bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis Lin.) criados na regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.O.A. da

    1991-08-01

    Through the use of radioimmunoassay (RIA) it was determined blood serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) (n=78) for two different water buffalo racial groups. Blood serum was collected from young and adult animals belonging to two farms in Castanhal country, state of Para, Brazil, through the year of 1988. The serum levels of T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} were statistically correlated with climatic parameters, e.g., pluviometric precipitation, environmental temperature, humidity, light intensity variation and physiological factors such as age, breed and sex. It was identified two seasons during experiment, one season the rainfall period with high precipitation rates and the other one was considered as dry season, with low precipitation rates. The average rate of temperature and humidity have shown no significant statistic difference between the two seasons. On the other hand, it was found a significant relationship between luminosity and seasons, since when the luminosity decreases the pluviometric rates increases. (author). 51 refs, 15 figs, 15 tabs.

  19. Husbandry and Sustainability of Water Buffaloes in Turkey

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    Orhan Ermetin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Water buffaloes in Turkey originate from Mediterranean Water Buffaloes, a subgroup of river water buffaloes and are known as Anatolian Water Buffalo. During the 1970’s the number of water buffaloes in Turkey was one million, but in 2010 this figure dropped to about 85.000. Thanks to the incentives introduced for water buffalo husbandry in recent years, the water buffalo population has risen to 143.073 heads. Water buffalo husbandry in Turkey is performed in some provinces of the Black Sea, Marmara and Central Anatolian Regions. The provinces with the highest amount of water buffalo existence are listed as Samsun, Diyarbakır, Istanbul, Tokat, Bitlis, Muş, Afyon, Kayseri, Sivas and Amasya. Breeding style in Turkey is in the form small family business, with an average of 1-5 animals per enterprise. Family enterprises are keeping water buffaloes for their own consumption. Mostly breeding in modern enterprises formed for indoor barn breeding, the size of the herds is around 50 to 100 heads. Being done only at swamps or waterfronts in the past, water buffalo husbandry increasingly takes place in modern facilities nowadays. The colour of Anatolian Water Buffaloes is generally black and their horns curved backwards, are called arch horns in Turkey. The lactation milk yield and lactation length in Anatolian Water Buffaloes are between 800 and 1100 kg and about 180-280 days respectively. It is demonstrated that they varied according to effects of environmental factors, care and feeding. Adult water buffalo’s live weight is about 411-518 kg. The first insemination age of water buffalo is 32 to 43 months and during a lifespan the number of lactation periods is 5 to 10. For adult water buffalo at withers the height of females is being expressed as around 135 cm. Calves are generally breastfed for 3-4 months. Generally, water buffaloes are milked twice a day in the village farms by hand.

  20. Preliminary results on the composition of oviductal fluid in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if qualitative and quantitative differences exist in energy substrates and ionic components of buffalo cow oviductal fluid during dioestrus, pre-ovulatory and ovulatory phases of the oestrous cycle. Ten multiparous Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis cows at 15 days in milk were used. Cannulation of oviduct was performed as previously described by Kavanaugh et al.(1992 for cattle, adapting the technique to the smaller dimension of buffalo reproductive tract. We evaluated daily secretion rates, energy substrates and ions concentration during the three phases. Oviductal fluid secretion rates (ml/24h and glucose concentration were significantly greater in the ovulatory phase (P<0.01 and in the pre-ovulatory phase (P<0.05 than in dioestrus. No significant differences were detected between oestrous phases for the other parameters analyzed.

  1. Understanding tenderness variability and ageing changes in buffalo meat: biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, M; Naveena, B M; Reddy, K S; Shahikumar, M; Reddy, V R; Kulkarni, V V; Rapole, S; More, T H

    2016-06-01

    Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (Pmuscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.

  2. The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This introduction to the natural history of the Great Dismal Swamp is presented at a time when 50,000 acres of the Swamp are being converted from private holdings to...

  3. Fine structure of Egyptian buffalo oocytes ( Bubalus bubalis ) during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that the cumulus cells were close to each other and zona plucida (ZP) in the first group than the second and third group, lipid droplets (LD) appeared normal and nearly from plasma membrane in the group of oocytes matured in vitro for 8 h than oocytes matured in vitro for 24 h, microvilli (Mv) appeared with ...

  4. Characterization of cathelicidin gene from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Satya Sarmah

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... examination before slaughter from local abattoir in ice after washing by chilled phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4). RNA was isolated using. TRI Reagent TM ..... Antimicrobial protein (h CAP-18) is expressed in the epithelium of human epididymis, is present in the seminal plasma at high concentration and is ...

  5. Karyotypic evolution of ribosomal sites in buffalo subspecies and their crossbreed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Marafiga Degrandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic buffaloes are divided into two group based on cytogenetic characteristics and habitats: the "river buffaloes" with 2n = 50 and the "swamp buffaloes", 2n = 48. Nevertheless, their hybrids are viable, fertile and identified by a 2n = 49. In order to have a better characterization of these different cytotypes of buffaloes, and considering that NOR-bearing chromosomes are involved in the rearrangements responsible for the karyotypic differences, we applied silver staining (Ag-NOR and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments using 18S rDNA as probe. Metaphases were obtained through blood lymphocyte culture of 21 individuals, including river, swamp and hybrid cytotypes. Ag-NOR staining revealed active NORs on six chromosome pairs (3p, 4p, 6, 21, 23, 24 in the river buffaloes, whereas the swamp buffaloes presented only five NOR-bearing pairs (4p, 6, 20, 22, 23. The F1 crossbreed had 11 chromosomes with active NORs, indicating expression of both parental chromosomes. FISH analysis confirmed the numerical divergence identified with Ag-NOR. This result is explained by the loss of the NOR located on chromosome 4p in the river buffalo, which is involved in the tandem fusion with chromosome 9 in this subspecies. A comparison with the ancestral cattle karyotype suggests that the NOR found on the 3p of the river buffalo may have originated from a duplication of ribosomal genes, resulting in the formation of new NOR sites in this subspecies.

  6. Effect of mastitis on luteal function and pregnancy rates in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mohamed Mohsen; Hendawy, Amin O; Zeitoun, Moustafa M

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mastitis on CL development and function and pregnancy rate in buffaloes. Sixty-six buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) reared in a commercial farm at El-Beheira governorate, north of Egypt were used in this study. According to the visual observation of milk, physical examination of the udder and actual somatic cell count in milk, buffalo cows were divided into three groups: without mastitis (W), n = 23; subclinical mastitis (SC), n = 18; and clinical mastitis (C), n = 25. All buffalo cows were synchronized by double dose of PGF2α (11-day interval) and inseminated by frozen-thawed semen of fertile bull. Mean CL diameter was ultrasonically examined on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were taken on the days of ultrasonography for progesterone (P4) assay. Results indicated that pregnancy rates were lower (P mastitis occurred during Day -15 before to Day +30 after AI, compared with 59.22% in the uninfected cows. The diameter of CL was greater (P mastitis revealed suppression to both CL diameter and function leading to significant reduction in pregnancy outcome of buffalo cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Southern deepwater swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Conner; Marilyn A. Buford

    1998-01-01

    The authors define, classify, and analyze the economic significance of southern deepwater swamps. They discuss the physical environment, vegetational communities, animal communities, management issues, and research needs for this complex resource.

  8. Dismal Swamp Wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Conceived and constructed by nature the Great Swamp is the most gigantic filtration plant ever built; and more. To protect the health of the wildlife, for which-...

  9. Dismal Swamp Staff Gages

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Well design - Dismal Swamp Shallow observation wells - these are the early wells put in during 1975, 1976. They are black ABS plastic, 2-inch diameter, open at the...

  10. Expression, Localization of SUMO-1, and Analyses of Potential SUMOylated Proteins in Bubalus bubalis Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Dad Brohi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mature spermatozoa have highly condensed DNA that is essentially silent both transcriptionally and translationally. Therefore, post translational modifications are very important for regulating sperm motility, morphology, and for male fertility in general. Protein sumoylation was recently demonstrated in human and rodent spermatozoa, with potential consequences for sperm motility and DNA integrity. We examined the expression and localization of small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1 in the sperm of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis using immunofluorescence analysis. We confirmed the expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome. We further found that SUMO-1 was lost if the acrosome reaction was induced by calcium ionophore A23187. Proteins modified or conjugated by SUMO-1 in water buffalo sperm were pulled down and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Sixty proteins were identified, including proteins important for sperm morphology and motility, such as relaxin receptors and cytoskeletal proteins, including tubulin chains, actins, and dyneins. Forty-six proteins were predicted as potential sumoylation targets. The expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome region of water buffalo sperm and the identification of potentially SUMOylated proteins important for sperm function implicates sumoylation as a crucial PTM related to sperm function.

  11. Expression, Localization of SUMO-1, and Analyses of Potential SUMOylated Proteins in Bubalus bubalis Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohi, Rahim Dad; Wang, Li; Hassine, Najla Ben; Cao, Jing; Talpur, Hira Sajjad; Wu, Di; Huang, Chun-Jie; Rehman, Zia-Ur; Bhattarai, Dinesh; Huo, Li-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Mature spermatozoa have highly condensed DNA that is essentially silent both transcriptionally and translationally. Therefore, post translational modifications are very important for regulating sperm motility, morphology, and for male fertility in general. Protein sumoylation was recently demonstrated in human and rodent spermatozoa, with potential consequences for sperm motility and DNA integrity. We examined the expression and localization of small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) in the sperm of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) using immunofluorescence analysis. We confirmed the expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome. We further found that SUMO-1 was lost if the acrosome reaction was induced by calcium ionophore A23187. Proteins modified or conjugated by SUMO-1 in water buffalo sperm were pulled down and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Sixty proteins were identified, including proteins important for sperm morphology and motility, such as relaxin receptors and cytoskeletal proteins, including tubulin chains, actins, and dyneins. Forty-six proteins were predicted as potential sumoylation targets. The expression of SUMO-1 in the acrosome region of water buffalo sperm and the identification of potentially SUMOylated proteins important for sperm function implicates sumoylation as a crucial PTM related to sperm function.

  12. A Review of Recent Developments in Buffalo Reproduction — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Warriach

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo is an important livestock resource in several countries of South Asia and the Mediterranean regions. However, reproductive efficiency is compromised due to known problems of biological and management origins, such as lack of animal selection and poor nutrition. Under optimal conditions puberty is attained at 15 to 18 months in river buffalo, 21 to 24 months in swamp buffalo and is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate. However, under field conditions these values deteriorate up to a significant extant. To improve reproductive efficiency, several protocols of oestrus and ovulation synchronization have been adopted from their use in commercial cattle production. These protocols yield encouraging pregnancy rates of (30% to 50%, which are comparable to those achieved in buffaloes bred at natural oestrus. The use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers also showed promising pregnancy rates (50% when compared with conventional non-sexed semen. Assisted reproductive technologies have been transferred and adapted to buffalo but the efficiency of these technologies are low. However, these latest technologies offer the opportunity to accelerate the genetic gain in the buffalo industry after improving the technology and reducing its cost. Most buffaloes are kept under the small holder farming system in developing countries. Hence, future research should focus on simple, adoptable and impact- oriented approaches which identify the factors determining low fertility and oestrus behaviour in this species. Furthermore, role of kisspeptin needs to be explored in buffalo.

  13. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  14. Pathology of experimental infection by Pasteurella multocida serotype A: 1 in buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, P E; Periasamy, S; Kumar, A A; Singh, N

    2014-11-01

    Pasteurella multocida serotype A:3 has been mostly implicated in pneumonic pasteurellosis in ruminants. In contrast, our previous studies have reported that both serotypes A:1 and A:3 were responsible for respiratory diseases in cattle and buffaloes. However, the pathology and pathogenesis of P. multocida serotype A:1 (Pm A:1) infection have not been studied in ruminants. In the present study, 12- to 15-week-old buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) infected by Pm A:1 had fibrinous and suppurative bronchopneumonia with focal areas of coagulation necrosis typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis. For the first time, this study reports the lung pathology and pathogenecity of Pm A:1 infection in calves. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Total digestibility and in situ degradability of bulky diets with the inclusion of ionophores or probiotics for cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Zeoula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ionophores (monensin and probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae + selenium + chromium in diets with 80% forage were evaluated on the digestibility of nutrients. Three buffaloes, Murrah (Bubalus bubalis and three cattle, Holstein (Bos taurus, with an average weight of 520 ± 30 kg and 480 ± 182 kg, respectively, with rumen cannula, over experimental design with two 3 x 3 Latin squares in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with the absence or presence of additives: ionophore or probiotic and two species, were used. The internal flow indicator of fecal dry matter (DM was the acid insoluble ash. DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF ruminal degradability of Tifton 85 hay was conducted for cattle and buffaloes. A diet containing probiotics had higher dry matter and organic matter digestibility in buffalo and cattle, indicating a good performance in bulky diets. The potential and effective dry matter degradability in diet with probiotic in buffaloes, were smaller than diet with ionophore, suggesting that there was a better digestion of nutrients in the intestine of these animals. The potential and effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein in the diet containing ionophores were superior than diet containing probiotic. Buffaloes showed higher capacity of dry matter and fiber digestion than cattle.

  16. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  17. In vitro production of cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos using cattle oocytes and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) epididymal sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiny, O D; Barry, D M; Agaba, M; Godke, R A

    2009-04-01

    Interspecies hybridization of bovids occurs between domestic cattle and at least three other species; American bison (Bison bison), yak (Bos grunniens) and banteng (Bos banteng). Birth of a cattlexbuffalo (Bubalus bubalis) hybrid has reportedly occurred in Russia and in China, but these reports were not authenticated. Such hybrids could be important in improving livestock production and management of diseases that impede production in tropical Africa. This study investigated hybridization between cattle and its closest African wild bovid relative, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). In an attempt to produce cattlexbuffalo hybrid embryos in vitro, matured cattle oocytes were subjected to a standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure with either homologous cattle (n=1166 oocytes) or heterologous African buffalo (n=1202 oocytes) frozen-thawed epididymal sperm. After IVF, 67.2% of the oocytes inseminated with the homologous cattle sperm cleaved. In contrast, fertilization with buffalo sperm resulted in only a 4.6% cleavage rate. The cleavage intervals were also slower in hybrid embryos than in the IVF-derived cattle embryos. Of the cleaved homologous cattle embryos 52.2% progressed to the morula stage compared with 12.7% for the buffalo hybrid embryos. No hybrid embryos developed beyond the early morula stage, while 40.1% of the cleaved cattlexcattle embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Transfer of buffalo hybrid IVF embryos to domestic cattle surrogates resulted in no pregnancies at 60 days post-transfer. This study indicates that interspecies fertilization of cattle oocytes with African buffalo epididymal sperm can occur in vitro, and that a barrier to hybridization occurs in the early stages of embryonic development. Chromosomal disparity is likely the cause of the fertilization abnormalities, abnormal development and subsequent arrest impairing the formation of hybrid embryos beyond the early morula stage. Transfer of the buffalo hybrid embryos

  18. Remote Sensing of Wetland Types: Peat Swamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, D.H.

    2017-01-01

    Deposits of peat underneath peat swamp forests are among the world’s largest reservoirs of carbon. Although tropical peatlands occupy only about 0.3 % of the global land surface, they could contain as much as 20 % of the global soil carbon stock, representing 63–148 Gt of carbon.

    Peat swamp

  19. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Caporale

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 250 000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150 000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51 has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19. The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group.

  20. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Vincenzo; Bonfini, Barbara; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Provvido, Andrea; Forcella, Simona; Giovannini, Armando; Tittarelli, Manuela; Scacchia, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 250,000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150,000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51) has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19). The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT) and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group.

  1. The BUFFALO HST Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles; Jauzac, Mathilde; Capak, Peter; Koekemoer, Anton; Oesch, Pascal; Richard, Johan; Sharon, Keren q.; BUFFALO

    2018-01-01

    Beyond Ultra-deep Frontier Fields And Legacy Observations (BUFFALO) is an astronomical survey built around the six Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Fields clusters designed to learn about early galactic assembly and clustering and prepare targets for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. BUFFALO will place significant new constraints on how and when the most massive and luminous galaxies in the universe formed and how early galaxy formation is linked to dark matter assembly. The same data will also probe the temperature and cross section of dark matter in the massive Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, and tell us how the dark matter, cluster gas, and dynamics of the clusters influence the galaxies in and around them. These studies are possible because the Spitzer Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and ground based telescopes have already invested heavily in deep observations around the Frontier Fields, so that the addition of HST observations can yield significant new results.

  2. Molecular detection of natural Babesia bovis infection from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    PCR identified 29 (85.3%). B. bovis infected animals showed high fever, anaemia, jaundice, haemoglobinuria, and accelerated heart and respiratory rates. Out of 15 animals clinically infected, PCR identified 14 animals (93.3%) as infected while ME identified only, 8 animals (53.3%). Out of 19 animals...

  3. EFFECT OF REDUCING SPERM NUMBERS PER INSEMINATION DOSE ON FERTILITY OF CRYOPRESERVED BUFFALO BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. H. ANDRABI, M. SIDDIQUE1, N. ULLAH AND L. A. KHAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing sperm numbers per insemination dose on fertility of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen. For this purpose, semen was collected at weekly intervals from a Nili-Ravi buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis using an artificial vagina in two batches. The ejaculates were split-sampled and diluted at 37°C with tris-citric acid extender having 15x106 or 30x106 motile spermatozoa/0.5 ml. After dilution, the semen was cooled to 4C, equilibrated for 4 hours, packaged in 0.5 ml straws and frozen in programmable cell freezer. Fertility test based on 75-days first service pregnancy rate was determined under field conditions. A total of 500 buffaloes were inseminated with frozen semen and out of these 431 could be followed, 209 for semen straws packaged with 15x106 spermatozoa/straw and 222 for doses filled with 30x106 spermatozoa/straw. The inseminations were performed in two batches and each batch was spread over a period of three months. The fertility rate for sperm concentration of 15x106 spermatozoa/0.5 ml vs. 30x106 spermatozoa/0.5 ml (49.28 vs. 56.75% was similar (P>0.05. The fertility rates were also similar (P>0.05 in the first and second batch of inseminations performed with 15x106 or 30x106 spermatozoa/0.5 ml straw of cryopreserved semen. In conclusion, reduction of sperm number from 30x106 to 15x106 spermatozoa/0.5 ml dose of insemination did not affect fertility of cryopreserved buffalo bull semen.

  4. The Aquatic Coleoptera of the Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A brief review of the aquatic habitats and an annotated list of the aquatic Cleoptera of the Dismal Swamp is presented. Six families with a total of 53 species are...

  5. The Great Dismal Swamp A Brief Interpretation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — All through man's experience with the Dismal swamp, People old as well as young, women as well as men have been drawn to it, repelled by it and completely fascinated...

  6. Phytomass Budgets for the Dismal Swamp Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp is a heterogeneous ecosystem as a result of various human disturbances. We studied the phytomass distribution in four community types in the...

  7. Kennedy Space Center: Swamp Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Robert

    2013-01-01

    When I began my internship with the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations laboratory (GMRO), also known as Swamp Works, I was given the unique opportunity to shadow many teams working on various projects, and decide what projects I wanted to take part in. Before I go into details of my experiences at Swamp Works, I would like to take a moment to explain what I discovered Swamp Works to be. Swamp Works is a family of hardworking, dedicated, and driven people from various backgrounds and skill sets. These people all work to advance technologies and make science fiction science fact through means of rapid prototyping. They support and encourage failure as an option when learning new things, as long as lesson learned from said failure. In fact, their motto states "Fail, Fast, Forward." What this means is, not if but when one fails he or she must do so quickly and spring forward from the failure so that his or her progress is not delayed. With this acceptance, it provided me the confidence to dive into a multitude of projects working in various fields and with a wide range of skill sets. The first project I joined was Badger. My motivation for taking on this project was the opportunity I would have to obtain valuable experience working with 3D modeling and 3D printing technologies. Badger was a digging apparatus to be used in a highly dusty environment in a material known as Regolith. Regolith is a scientific term for the dirt or top soil found on planetary bodies. Regolith contains a large quantity of sediments less than lOppm and as a result poses a challenge of keeping it out of any cracks and crevices. Furthermore, regolith can create high levels of electrostatic energy, which can prove damaging to sensitive electrical hardware. With these characteristics in mind, I decided to take on the task of designing and manufacturing a dust proof cover for the sensitive electrical hardware. When I began this project, I did not have the slightest idea as to how to use 3D

  8. Tuberculosis diagnostic methods in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of buffalo herds and condemnation of carcasses in slaughterhouses due to tuberculosis lesions have resulted in increasing economic losses because these animals cannot be treated and must be destroyed by sanitary slaughter. Tuberculosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects the beef supply chain of the Brazilian agribusiness economically and socially. Like cattle, buffaloes are sensitive to Mycobacterium bovis, which is the main causative agent of zoonotic tuberculosis. Tuberculosis in buffaloes has been reported in several countries, including Brazil. In order to control and eradicate this disease among cattle and buffaloes in Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply created the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis with the main objective of finding a significant number of disease-free herds throughout the national territory using reliable methods. This review summarizes the main data on the history of occurrence of M. bovis in Brazilian herds and the diagnostic methods for the disease in buffaloes. Little information is available on buffalo tuberculosis. Due to the increasing population of buffaloes and their economic importance, more studies investigating the occurrence and identification of tuberculosis in this species are clearly needed.

  9. Microsatellite loci isolation from river buffalo using enriched partial genomic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of buffalo in agriculture, especially in developing countries, begs for genetic resources to evaluate and improve traits important to local and regional economies. Brazil presents the largest water buffalo populations in the New World, with 1.1 million heads including swamp and river types. To design rational breeding strategies for optimum utilization and conservation of available genetic variability in the Brazilian buffalo’s population, it is essential to understand their genetic architecture and relationship among various breeds. This depends, in part, on the knowledge of their genetic structure based on molecular markers like microsatellites. In the present study, we developed six enriched partial genomic libraries for river buffalo using selective hybridization methods. Genomic DNA was hybridized with six different arrays of repeat motif, 5’ biotinylated - (CA15, (CT15, (AGG8, (GAAA8, (GATA8, (AAAAC8 – and bound to streptavidin coated beads. The cloning process generated a total of 1920 recombinant clones. Up to date, 487 were directly sequenced for the presence of repeats, from which 13 have been positive for presence of repeats as follows: 9 for di-nucleotide repeats, 3 for tri-nucleotide repeats and 1 for tetra-nucleotide repeat. PCR primer pairs for the isolated microsatellites are under construction to determine optimum annealing temperature. These microsatellites will be useful for studies involving phylogenetic relationships, genome mapping and genetic diversity analysis within buffalo populations worldwide.

  10. Role of buffalo in international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ibrahim; Bassiony, Hala

    2011-01-01

    Although buffalo populations expand in 43 courtiers in the world, only four countries are producing more than 98% of the world buffalo milk in 2007 and around 73% of the world buffalo meat in the same year. These are China, India, Pakistan, and Egypt. Egypt is almost the only country in Africa that raises buffalo. There was a growth rate in the number of milking buffaloes and the percentage of milking buffaloes in the total stock is around 44%. The average annual milk yield per head increased...

  11. Embryonic mortality in buffalo cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Neglia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In buffalo species embryonic mortality is considered one of the major causes of fertility loss, especially in the animals that are not mated during their reproductive period. Embryonic loss in animals mated by artificial insemination (AI is 20-40% during seasons characterized by high number of light hours. Also in buffalo naturally mated the incidence of embryonic mortality is about 20% and a higher incidence is observed between 28- 60 days of gestation in buffaloes that conceive during increasing daylight length. A reduced capacity to secrete progesterone seems to explain in part this embryonic mortality but other as yet unidentified factors contribute between 40-50% to the embryonic losses. Treatments with hCG, GnRH agonist or progesterone on Days 5 after AI not always reduce embryonic mortality in buffalo species. Embryonic mortality in buffaloes appears to occur later (Day 25-40 than in cattle and P4 treatments should perhaps be applied later in buffaloes.

  12. Developmental And Environmental History Of The Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Pollen analysis of several cores from the Dismal Swamp in southeastern Virginia have indicated that the swamp is a relatively young feature, having begun to develop...

  13. Comparative expression profiling of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in milk of Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, S K; Singh, S; Kumar, S; Dang, A K; Datta, T K; Das, S K; Mohanty, T K; Kaushik, J K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is a key molecule in mammary gland development, which facilitates the removal of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) by apoptosis that takes place during remodeling of the mammary gland during involution. IGFBP-5 binds with IGFs for their bioavailability. IGFBP-5 has been reported to perform pleiotropic roles such as cellular apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. To understand the role of IGFBP-5 during lactation and clinical mastitis, expression profiling of IGFBP-5 at the protein level was performed in both indigenous cows (Bos indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to two different breeds - Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) of IGFBP-5 mRNA confirmed its expression in milk somatic cells and MECs of Sahiwal cows. ELISA was performed for quantitative measurement of IGFBP-5 concentrations in milk during different days (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300) of lactation, during the involution period and in animals exhibiting short lactation and clinical mastitis. The highest concentration of IGFBP-5 in milk was observed during the involution period followed by colostrum, late and early lactation, respectively, in both cattle and buffaloes. No significant difference in the concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed during the first 150 days of lactation between cows and buffaloes. However, higher concentration of IGFBP-5 was observed in cows during late lactation (200 to 300 days) in comparison with buffaloes. To validate the ELISA data, quantitative real-time PCR was performed in MECs of Sahiwal cows. The relative mRNA abundance of IGFBP-5 was found to be significantly (Plactation in case of Sahiwal cows. Highest mRNA expression of IGFBP-5 was observed around 300 days of lactation followed by 200 and 250 days (Plactation in ELISA. Animals having history of short lactation length (short lactating animals) showed higher levels of IGFBP-5 expression (at protein level) in

  14. Seasonal habitat selection by African buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Savuti–Mababe–Linyanti ecosystem of northern Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keoikantse Sianga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish seasonal movement and habitat selection patterns of African buffalo Syncerus caffer in relation to a detailed habitat map and according to seasonal changes in forage quality and quantity in the Savuti–Mababe–Linyanti ecosystem (Botswana. Two buffalo were collared in November 2011 and another in October 2012. All three buffalo had greater activities in the mopane–sandveld woodland mosaic during the wet season, which provided high-quality leafy grasses and ephemeral water for drinking, but moved to permanent water and reliable forage of various wetlands (swamps and floodplains and riverine woodlands during the dry season. Wetlands had higher grass greenness, height and biomass than woodlands during the dry season. Buffalo had similar wet season concentration areas in the 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 wet seasons and similar dry season concentration areas over the 2012 and 2013 dry seasons. However, their dry season location of collaring in 2011 differed dramatically from their 2012 and 2013 dry season concentration areas, possibly because of the exceptionally high flood levels in 2011, which reduced accessibility to their usual dry season concentration areas. The study demonstrates that extremely large and heterogeneous landscapes are needed to conserve buffalo in sandy, dystrophic ecosystems with variable rainfall.Conservation implications: This study emphasises the importance of large spatial scale available for movement, which enables adaptation to changing conditions between years and seasons.

  15. The role of Bahi swamp wetlands in enhancing household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the role of Bahi swamp resources in enhancing household food security and income of adjacent communities. Specifically, the study assessed the socioeconomic activities in the swamp with a potential contribution to local livelihoods, the contribution of the swamp in enhancing ...

  16. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  17. Studies on mangrove swamps of Goa 1. Heterotrophic bacterial flora from mangrove swamps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mathani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Heterotrophic bacterial flora from the mangrove swamps of Goa consisted of physiologically active organisms exhibiting cellulolytic, pectinolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic and H2S forming activities, throughout the year. Coryneform and Bacillus were...

  18. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.

  19. Improving Buffalo Milk Production to Sustain the Production of Dadih by Small Farmers in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The swamp buffalo which is found in many Asian regions is mainly raised for meat and draft purposes. However, in West Sumatera, it is also milked and the milk is mostly consumed as “dadih“, a well known traditional product from this area. Dadih is actually a product made from fresh buffalo milk, which is kept in bamboo tube for about 2-3 days under room temperature, without any application or addition of bacteria starter although the end product of this fermentation contains various bacteria, mould and khamir. As the natural fermented milk product, dadih is white in colour and the curd texture like tofu, tastes like yoghurt, and it is generally served as a complementing meal in some traditional occasion as well as delicacy from West Sumatera. Dadih is highly nutritive product, protein and fat contents are higher than those of yoghurt, rich in amino acids and bacteria such as Lactobacillus sp. and low in cholesterol. The raw material for dadih is limited due to the low productivity of fresh buffalo milk which is generally collected for about 0.5 – 2.0 litres/head/day. The effort in sustaining “dadih product“ is directed to the improving the management of the buffalo condition particularly those in lactating period. Feeding improvement is recommended in order to provide an adequate milk for raising its calf and to be milked for making dadih and to support the optimal reproductive activity of the buffalo dam. In future, the assessment on “dadih“ should also include the packaging improvement which can improve and prolong the storage time for the benefit of marketing purposes.

  20. Protein Modeling and Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Cloned Regucalcin (RGN) Gene from Bubalus bubalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Harikrishna; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Jan, Arif Tasleem; Gupta, Girish Kumar; Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Bhure, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Regucalcin (RGN), a calcium regulating protein having anti-prolific, antiapoptotic functions, plays important part in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid. It is a highly conserved protein that has been reported from many tissue types of various vertebrate species. Employing its effect of regulating enzyme activities through reaction with sulfhydryl group (-SH) and calcium, structural level study believed to offer a better understanding of binding properties and regulatory mechanisms of RGN, was performed. Using sample from testis of Bubalus bubalis, amplification of regucalcin (RGN) gene was subjected to characterization by performing digestion using different restriction endonucleases (RE). Alongside, cDNA was cloned into pPICZαC vector and transformed in DH5α host for custom sequencing. To get a better insight of its structural characteristics, three dimensional (3D) structure of protein sequence was generated using in silico molecular modelling approach. The full trajectory analysis of structure was achieved by the Molecular Dynamics (MD) that explains the stability, flexibility and robustness of protein during simulation in a time of 50ns. Molecular docking against 1,5-anhydrosorbitol was performed for functional characterization of RGN. Preliminary screening of amplified products on Agarose gel showed expected size of ~893 bp of PCR product corresponding to RGN. Following sequencing, BLASTp search of the target sequence revealed that it shares 91% similarity score with human senescence marker protein-30 (pdb id: 3G4E). Molecular docking of 1,5-anhydrosorbitol reveals information regarding important binding site residues of RGN. 1,5-anhydrosorbitol was found to interact with binding free energy of - 6.01 Kcal/mol. RMSD calculation of subunits A, B and D-F might be responsible for functional and conserved regions of modeled protein. Three dimensional structure of RGN was generated and its interactions with 1,5- anhydrosorbitol, demonstrates the role of key

  1. Partial genetic characterization of Stearoyl Coa-Desaturase´s structural region in Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Thomazine

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLAs comprise a family of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. The main form of CLA, cis-9, trans-11-C18:2 show positive effects in cancer prevention and treatment. The major dietary sources of these fatty acids are derived from ruminant animals, in particular dairy products. In these animals, the endogenous synthesis mainly occurs in mammary gland by the action of enzyme Stearoyl CoA Desaturase (SCD. Different levels of expression and activity of SCD in mammary gland can explain partially the variation of CLA levels in fat milk. Considering a great fat concentration in bubaline milk and the benefit of a high and positive correlation between fat milk and CLA production, this study was carried on with the intention of sequencing and characterizing part of the gene that codifies SCD in buffaloes. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of lactating bubaline which begins to the breed Murrah. After the (acho que nao precisa desse the extractions, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction reactions were made by using primers Z43D1 and E143F1. The fragments obtained in PCR were cloned into “T” vectors and transformed in competent cells DH10B line. After this, three samples of each fragment were sequenced from 5’ and 3’ extremities using a BigDye kit in an automatic sequencer. Sequences were edited in a consensus of each fragment and were submitted to BLAST-n / NCBI for similarity comparisions among other species. The sequence obtained with Z43D1 primers shows 938 bp enclosing exons 1 and 2 and intron 1. The primers E143F1 show 70 bp corresponding to exon 3 of bubaline SCD gene. Similarities were obtained between 85% and 97% among bubaline sequences and sequences of SCD gene described in human, mouse, rat, swine, bovine, caprine and ovine species. This study has permitted the identification and partial characterization of SCD codifing region in Bubalus bubalis specie.

  2. Temperamento em bubalinos: testes de mensuração Temperament in buffalos: mensurament tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Secchin Scárdua

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicabilidade, para búfalos (Bubalus bubalis, de testes de avaliação de temperamento, utilizados para bovinos. Foram avaliados os testes de docilidade, teste de reação a objetos novos, de tronco e de isolamento social em 12 bezerros e suas 12 mães, separadamente. Tanto os bezerros como suas mães responderam a todos os testes com vários comportamentos. Para os bezerros e as mães, os testes que promoveram maior número de comportamentos foram o de tronco e de reação a objetos novos. Houve diferenças individuais (coeficiente de variação de 32-51% nos resultados de todos os testes tanto nos bezerros como nas mães. Os resultados individuais, em testes de isolamento social e de reação a objetos novos apresentaram correlação positiva tanto com as mães (rs = 0,76, PThe objective of this study was to assess the applicability of temperament tests commonly used in bovines for water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis. The tests for docility, reaction to a novel object, squeeze cage and social isolation were applied individually with 12 calves and their 12 mothers. Both calves and their mothers responded to all tests with a variety of behaviors. The tests that elicited the larger number of behaviors were the squeeze cage and the novel object. There were large individual differences (coefficients of variation of 32-51% in the scores for all tests for calves and adults. The individual scores for the tests of isolation and novel object were significantly correlated for calves (rs = 0.66, P< 0.01 and adults (rs = 0.76, P< 0.01. Using the criteria of sensitivity (range of individual differences, responsiveness and applicability, the squeeze cage test and the isolation test seem well suited for water buffaloes.

  3. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the Buffalo... celebrate the removal of the ice boom in Lake Erie and the beginning of spring. Establishing a safety zone... waters of the NFTA small boat marina known as Doug's Dive and part of the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo...

  4. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an aver...

  5. Toxicity of 5% rotenone to nonindigenous Asian swamp eels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, P.J.; Nico, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    Our primary goal was to determine whether rotenone would be a useful control against introduced populations of Asian swamp eels (family Synbranchidae, genus Monopterus). We report the results of a laboratory experiment comparing the efficacy of various rotenone concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 mg of 5% liquid rotenone/L of water) in killing nonindigenous swamp eels of various sizes (1-350 g) from the three known Florida populations. Although most small swamp eels were killed at concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L. 100% mortality of adult swamp eels was achieved only at 8 mg/L. We conclude that the effective use of rotenone to control established Florida swamp eel populations would be difficult, based on the relatively high concentration of rotenone needed to kill swamp eels; the complexity of the swamp eel's habitat; and our observations of the species' habitat use and behavior, including its widespread distribution and life history characteristics (e.g., burrowing and overland movement) that enhance its invasion and survival in multiple environments. Nevertheless, control of swamp eels may be achieved in certain situations. A combination of rotenone and electroshocking may be an effective way to eradicate swamp eels from small water bodies and to control populations in larger habitats. However, we are cautious in this recommendation and provide details related to the technical aspects of this type of strategy and caveats related to the toxicity of the chemical.

  6. Marsh and Water Management Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Many people perceive swamps as having standing water year-round. However, this is not the case in the Dismal Swamp, and, in fact, most swamp vegetation could not...

  7. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Swamps, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_swamp_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) swamps data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  8. Lactoferrin concentration in buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Giacinti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify lactoferrin (Lfe in buffalo milk and to examine the factors affecting milk Lfe, such as the lactation stage, daily milk yield, parity, and milk somatic cells count (SCC. Milk Lfe concentration was detected by the SDS-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The overall mean of Lfe concentration was 0.332±0.165 g/L and ranged from 0.030 to 0.813 g/L. Milk Lfe concentrations increased (P<0.01 with the increase of days in milk, but it was not affected by parity. It was estimated an increase of 0.0015 g/L daily of Lfe in milk during lactation. Milk Lfe concentration was significantly affected by SCC. The differences became significant when the levels of SCC increased up to 200.000/mL. This is the first investigation on the levels of Lfe in buffalo milk in reference to daily milk production, lactation stage, parity and SCC. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between Lfe and SCC in buffalo milk.

  9. Effect of Enterococcus faecium SF68 on growth performance and in vivo digestibility in buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary supplementation with Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 on growth performance, faecal consistency and in vivo digestibility in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis calves was evaluated. Forty calves were randomly assigned at 10 d of age to one of four treatments: (A milk replacer with no additive, (B milk replacer supplemented with 0.17 g/l of viable (2 x l09 cfu/g E. faecium bacteria daily for 3 days with an interval of 7 days throughout 11 weeks, (C milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 4 weeks, (D milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 11 weeks. A total mixed ration was offered ad libitum from 5th week of the experimental period. Faecal score was significantly better in E. faecium-treated calves than control ones. The use of E. faecium had no effect on average daily gain at any stage, total body weight (BW gain, dry matter intake or total tract digestibility. Therefore, E. faecium supplementation may be able to act favourably on the health of the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Population and Strategy Development in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Praharani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo is a potential large ruminant that its contribution in national program on beef self sufficiency has been unrecognized in Indonesia. In rural community, buffalo has similar functions as cattle, it is used as draught animal, meat (beef producer, saving, milk producer, sacrificial ritual animal to social status. The peak of buffalo population was on 1925, 3.227 million heads in Java and 1.10 million in outside Java. The centers of cattle production sites for national program of self sufficiency on beef were formly as noted the centers of buffalo production. The introduction of Bali cattle to those former buffalo centers particularly in outside of Java depressed buffalo population and then dominated by Bali cattle. Then Bali cattle were noted to be the major beef animal supplier beside buffalo to the centers of consumers for domestic and export. This article aims to discuss the depleting buffalo population and to formulate development strategy. Historical approaches system and critical evaluation population, SWOT (strength, weaknesses, opportunity and threat analysis were used as tools for analyzing. Two case studies on herd survival from Banten indicated depleting population of buffalo. Despite low reproductive profile, strategic diseases and farmers’ institution needed to be optimized on services. Understanding criticizing on ecological habitats in the potential regions, the need of spatial planning for its development, zoning program for strategic diseases free, reproductive problems and village institution are the important areas of improvement for buffalo development in supporting beef self sufficiency and the welfare of rural people with their buffalo in sustainable beef production.

  11. Comparison of α1-Antitrypsin, α1-Acid Glycoprotein, Fibrinogen and NOx as Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Guha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis set apart as clinical and sub clinical is a disease complex of dairy cattle, with sub clinical being the most important economically. Of late, laboratories showed interest in developing biochemical markers to diagnose sub clinical mastitis (SCM in herds. Many workers reported noteworthy alternation of acute phase proteins (APPs and nitric oxide, (measured as nitrate+nitrite = NOx in milk due to intra-mammary inflammation. But, the literature on validation of these parameters as indicators of SCM, particularly in riverine milch buffalo (Bubalus bubalis milk is inadequate. Hence, the present study focused on comparing several APPs viz. α1- anti trypsin, α1- acid glycoprotein, fibrinogen and NOx as indicators of SCM in buffalo milk. These components in milk were estimated using standardized analytical protocols. Somatic cell count (SCC was done microscopically. Microbial culture was done on 5% ovine blood agar. Of the 776 buffaloes (3,096 quarters sampled, only 347 buffaloes comprising 496 quarters were found positive for SCM i.e. milk culture showed growth in blood agar with SCC≥2×105 cells/ml of milk. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. It was observed that α1- anti trypsin and NOx had a highly significant (p<0.01 increase in SCM milk, whereas, the increase of α1- acid glycoprotein in infected milk was significant (p<0.05. Fibrinogen was below detection level in both healthy and SCM milk. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Udder profile correlation coefficient was also used. Allowing for statistical and epidemiological analysis, it was concluded that α1- anti trypsin indicates SCM irrespective of etiology, whereas α1- acid glycoprotein better diagnosed SCM caused by gram positive bacteria. NOx did not prove to

  12. Analysis of Technical Efficiency among Swamp Rice Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the Technical efficiency among swamp rice farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 159 swamp rice farmers. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the stochastic frontier production function. The results showed ...

  13. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, efficiency and output in swamp rice production in the area can be increased by reducing the amount of labour used but increasing the quantity of seeds planted and adopting improved technologies such as improved seeds, agrochemicals, and fertilizer. Keywords: Agrochemical; fertilizers; swamp ric

  14. Microhabitat Characteristics of sites used by swamp rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick A. Zollner; Winston P. Smith; Leonard A. Brennan

    2000-01-01

    The swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus) is one of the least studied North American lagomorphs; a better understanding of the habitat types it uses will improve management of this species. We studied microhabitat characteristics of sites associated with specific behaviors of the swamp rabbit. During spring-summer (15 April-1 October) and fall-winter (...

  15. Economic analysis of swamp rice production in Ebonyi Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to analyze the determinants and profitability of the output of swamp rice farmers in Ebonyi southern Agricultural zone of Ebonyi State. Primary data were obtained through the use of structured questionnaires. A total of eighty (80) swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from the different blocks ...

  16. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an average freezing point of -0.528°C for buffalo milk and -0.522°C for bovine milk. Given the lack of data on the freezing point of buffalo milk, our study provides the first indication of a basic freezing point of the milk of this species in Italy.

  17. The buffalo in Southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zava

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of buffaloes in the American continent is growing at the explosive rate of 12.7 % a year, well above all other continents. Within this context the different situations of the southern part of South America are described, those countries that two hundred years ago were part of the River Plate Viceroyship and the Chile General Command, both of them part of the Spanish empire. The first steps of buffaloes in Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. The expansion of buffaloes in Argentina and their recent start up in Chile. The production systems in the region are described, principally Argentina and Paraguay. The major changes and expansion of agriculture in Argentina are displacing cattle production from the North towards the Tropics, where buffalo has proven to be very superior in productivity compared to cattle production thanks to its very good adaptation to the local conditions. In Paraguay, a totally subtropical country, something very similar is happening. Paraguay has consolidated its sales of buffalo hides and beef. Argentina is well on its way to having a very efficient buffalo beef marketing competing with cattle of the highest quality. Buffalo milk production is still not mature in these countries, although there are several projects underway in Uruguay, Bolivia and Argentina.

  18. The scientific value and potential of New Zealand swamp kauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrey, Andrew M.; Boswijk, Gretel; Hogg, Alan; Palmer, Jonathan G.; Turney, Christian S. M.; Fowler, Anthony M.; Ogden, John; Woolley, John-Mark

    2018-03-01

    New Zealand swamp kauri (Agathis australis) are relic trees that have been buried and preserved in anoxic bog environments of northern New Zealand for centuries through to hundreds of millennia. Kauri are massive in proportion to other native New Zealand trees and they can attain ages greater than 1000 years. The export market for swamp (subfossil) kauri has recently been driven by demand for a high-value workable timber, but there are concerns about the sustainability of the remaining resource, a situation exacerbated in recent years by the rapid extraction of wood. Economic exploitation of swamp kauri presents several unique opportunities for Quaternary science, however the scientific value of this wood is not well understood by the wider research community and public. Here, we summarise the history of scientific research on swamp kauri, and explore the considerable potential of this unique resource. Swamp kauri tree-ring chronologies are temporally unique, and secondary analyses (such as radiocarbon and isotopic analyses) have value for improving our understanding of Earth's recent geologic history and pre-instrumental climate history. Swamp kauri deposits that span the last interglacial-glacial cycle show potential to yield "ultra-long" multi-millennia tree-ring chronologies, and composite records spanning large parts of MIS3 (and most of the Holocene) may be possible. High-precision radiocarbon dating of swamp kauri chronologies can improve the resolution of the global radiocarbon calibration curve, while testing age modelling and chronologic alignment of other independent long-term high-resolution proxy records. Swamp kauri also has the potential to facilitate absolute dating and verification of cosmogenic events found in long Northern Hemisphere tree-ring chronologies. Future efforts to conserve these identified values requires scientists to work closely with swamp kauri industry operators, resource consent authorities, and export regulators to mitigate

  19. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  20. Differences between high- and low-motility buffalo sperm identified by comparative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y-L; Fu, Q; Yang, L; Guan, J-L; Pan, H; Chen, F-M; Lu, K-L; Zhang, M

    2015-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate differences in protein expression between high- and low-motility sperm of swamp buffalo. The research used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) to analyse the different proteins. The results showed 18 different expression protein spots between high- and low-motility buffalo sperm; eight of these proteins were up-regulated in low-motility sperm, five were down-regulated, one deleted and four proteins specifically expressed. Finally, four proteins were successfully identified by MS as belonging to three unique proteins; they are outer dense fibre of sperm tails protein 2 (ODF2), ATP synthase subunit alpha (ATP5A1) and succinyl-CoA synthetase subunit beta (SUCLG2). In summary, these results help to develop an understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with low-motility sperm and provide clues for finding molecular markers associated with sperm motility. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. AFRICAN BUFFALO OPTIMIZATION ico-pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Beneoluchi Odili

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This is an introductory paper to the newly-designed African Buffalo Optimization (ABO algorithm for solving combinatorial and other optimization problems. The algorithm is inspired by the behavior of African buffalos, a species of wild cows known for their extensive migrant lifestyle. This paper presents an overview of major metaheuristic algorithms with the aim of providing a basis for the development of the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm which is a nature-inspired, population-based metaheuristic algorithm. Experimental results obtained from applying the novel ABO to solve a number of benchmark global optimization test functions as well as some symmetric and asymmetric Traveling Salesman’s Problems when compared to the results obtained from using other popular optimization methods show that the African Buffalo Optimization is a worthy addition to the growing number of swarm intelligence optimization techniques.

  2. Buffalo Air Traffic Control Tower Operations Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This report provides a description of the non-surveillance aspects of the FAA air traffic control facility operation at Greater Buffalo International Airport from the air traffic controller's point of view. It includes photographs of all controller c...

  3. ALLERGENICITY AND CROSS- REACTIVITY OF BUFFALO GRASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu), Cynodon dactylon. (Bermuda), and Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo); for pastures. (Digitaria erianthe); garden ornamentals (e.g. Pennisetum villosum); and for erosion control, Pennisetum and Eragrostis. Lolium perenne (rye grass), of the subfamily Pooideae, has been.

  4. Serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility, and virulence genes screening of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from diarrheic buffalo calves in Egyptian farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf S. Hakim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Egypt as in many other countries, river water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis is considered an important source of high-quality milk and meat supply. The objective of this study was to investigate serotypes, virulence genes, and antibiotic resistance determinants profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from buffalo at some places in Egypt; noticibly, this issue was not discussed in the country yet. Materials and Methods: A number of 58 rectal samples were collected from diarrheic buffalo calves in different regions in Egypt, and bacteriological investigated for E. coli existence. The E. coli isolates were biochemically, serologicaly identified, tested for antibiotic susceptibility, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyzed for the presence of antibiotic resistance determinants and virulence genes. Results: Overall 14 isolates typed as E. coli (24.1%; 6 were belonged to serogroup O78 (10.3%, followed by O125 (4 isolates, 6.9%, then O158 (3 isolates, 5.2% and one isolate O8 (1.7%, among them, there were 5 E. coli isolates showed a picture of hemolysis (35.7%. The isolates exhibited a high resistance to β lactams over 60%, followed by sulfa (50% and aminoglucoside (42.8% group, in the same time the isolates were sensitive to quinolone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline (100%, and cephalosporine groups (71.4%. A multiplex PCR was applied to the 14 E. coli isolates revealed that all were carrying at least one gene, as 10 carried blaTEM (71.4%, 8 Sul1 (57.1%, and 6 aadB (42.8%, and 9 isolates could be considered multidrug resistant (MDR by an incidence of 64.3%. A PCR survey was stratified for the most important E. coli virulence genes, and showed the presence of Shiga toxins in 9 isolates carried either one or the two Stx genes (64.3%, 5 isolates carried hylA gene (35.7%, and eae in 2 isolates only (14.3%, all isolates carried at least one virulence gene except two (85.7%. Conclusion: The obtained data displayed that in Egypt, buffalo as

  5. The fungal flora of the mangrove swamps of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahtani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Mangrove swamps of Goa (India) showed the presence of fungi belonging to 14 different genera, predominant ones being Monilia, Mucor, Syncephalastrum, Aspergillus and Trichothecium. Most of the isolates were found to be physiologically active...

  6. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Contaminants Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alternatives for an environmental contaminants monitoring plan have been developed for the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). This study...

  7. Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Hunting Plan and Controversy.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collections covers Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge's hunting plan and memos (specifically Mike Espy) between the refuge on the local community. The local...

  8. Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Bond Swamp NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  9. Forest Management Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the timber management program at Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge are: 1) protecting and preserving the unique and outstanding ecosystem...

  10. Hydrology Study at Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study evaluates the effects of changing land use on the water environment of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Past, present and future land use maps...

  11. Ecotone Dynamics And Boundary Determination In The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data on hydrogeology, soils, and vegetation collected on four transects across the 48-km wetland-to-upland transition zone of the Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia/...

  12. The Natural And Cultural History Of The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp is a forested wetland located on the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain in Southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina. Estimates of the...

  13. Spiders of the Great Dismal Swamp: Lake Drummond 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the results of a study of spiders that was conducted along the shores of Lake Drummond, in the Great Dismal Swamp. The purpose of the study was...

  14. Field Research on the Great Dismal Swamp Shrew 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a progress report outlining the results of a study done on the evaluation of the distribution of the Dismal Swamp southeastern shrew in the refuge and areas...

  15. Animal Control Plan Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl production objectives for the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge are to create habitat supporting the production of 16,000 ducks and 500 geese annually....

  16. Panther Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Public Use Development Plan - 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for Panther Swamp NWR involves setting station public use goals, project a positive attitude, welcome and orient visitors, develop key resources awareness,...

  17. Late Pleistocene and Holocene History at Mubwindi Swamp, Southwest Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Robert; Taylor, David; Hamilton, Alan

    1997-05-01

    Deposits beneath Mubwindi Swamp provide a partial record of vegetation history since at least 43,000 yr ago. We studied pollen from two cores and obtained nine radiocarbon ages from one of these cores and three radiocarbon ages from the other. Pollen deposited before and soon after the last glacial maximum represents vegetation very different from the modern vegetation of the Mubwindi Swamp catchment. Although species now associated with higher altitudes were dominant some elements of moist lower montane forest persisted, possibly because of favorable soils or topography. The pollen data provides evidence for a late glacial montane forest refuge near Mubwindi Swamp. Moist lower montane forest became much more widespread soon after the glacial maximum. The only irrefutably Holocene sediments from Mubwindi Swamp date to the past 2500 yr. During this time a combination of climatic and human-induced changes in vegetation can be seen in the pollen records.

  18. Narrative Report : Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuges : January - December 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Great Swamp Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Great Swamp Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  20. Safety Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Suffolk, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to...

  1. Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Management Study Transmittal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study will investigate temporal and spatial variations in the concentrations of methane, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds in the Dismal Swamp....

  2. Mammals Of The Dismal Swamp: A Historical Account

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For the first time, individual species of mammals of the Dismal Swamp area were considered in detail when K. A. Wilson studied the role of mink, otter, and raccoon...

  3. Annual Narrative 1967 Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. Phosphate relationships in acid-sulphate soils of Mbiabet swamp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatments consisted of potassium dihydrogen phosphate added to the swamp mud, cat-clay, and mud-clay in equal doses of 122 kg/ha P205, fitted into Latin square of 36 x 5 m swamp, except for the control plots. Limestone (CaC03) was applied to both fertilized and unfertilized plots at the rate of 50 kg/ha to reduce

  5. Regeneration potential of Taxodium distichum swamps and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Seed bank densities respond to factors across local to landscape scales, and therefore, knowledge of these responses may be necessary in forecasting the effects of climate change on the regeneration of species. This study relates the seed bank densities of species of Taxodium distichum swamps to local water regime and regional climate factors at five latitudes across the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley from southern Illinois to Louisiana. In an outdoor nursery setting, the seed banks of twenty-five swamps were exposed to non-flooded (freely drained) or flooded treatments, and the number and species of seeds germinating were recorded from each swamp during one growing season. Based on ANOVA analysis, the majority of dominant species had a higher rate of germination in non-flooded versus flooded treatments. Similarly, an NMS comparison, which considered the local water regime and regional climate of the swamps, found that the species of seeds germinating, almost completely shifted under non-flooded versus flooded treatments. For example, in wetter northern swamps, seeds of Taxodium distichum germinated in non-flooded conditions, but did not germinate from the same seed banks in flooded conditions. In wetter southern swamps, seeds of Eleocharis cellulosa germinated in flooded conditions, but did not germinate in non-flooded conditions. The strong relationship of seed germination and density relationships with local water regime and regional climate variables suggests that the forecasting of climate change effects on swamps and other wetlands needs to consider a variety of interrelated variables to make adequate projections of the regeneration responses of species to climate change. Because regeneration is an important aspect of species maintenance and restoration, climate drying could influence the species distribution of these swamps in the future. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Domestic livestock resources of Turkey: water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet; Wilson, Richard Trevor

    2012-04-01

    Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage.

  7. Vabariigi aastapäev Buffalos / Edgar Zirna ; foto: Virve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirna, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    25. veebruaril Morgan restoranis Buffalo Eestlaste Koondise ja E.E.L.K. Buffalo Pauluse koguduse korraldusel. Avasõna koondise esimehelt Peeter Ojalt, koraali esitas Andres Raudsepp, vaimulik Hannes Aasa palvele järgnes eeskava

  8. Genetic variation among Northern and Southern Egyptian buffaloes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domestic water buffalo is a species of great economic potential, especially in developing countries like Egypt. Egyptian buffalo have been classified according to minor phenotypic differences and their geographical locations. Few studies have taken place to investigate the genetic variations in Egyptian buffalo using ...

  9. Embryonic mortality in buffalo naturally mated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of embryonic mortality in three different period of year in buffaloes naturally mated. The trial was carried out in a buffalo farm located in Caserta province between 2000-2006. In this period were registered natural insemination on 200 buffaloes. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out on Day 30, confirmed on Day 45 and every 15th days until 90 days after natural mating. Buffaloes that were pregnant on Day 30 but not on Day 45 or Day 90 were considered to have undergone embryonic (EM or fetal mortality (FM respectively. EM and FM were 8.8% and 13.4% respectively throughout the experimental period. A high incidence (P<0.01 of FM was found in the transitional period (December-March than in other months of the year. The incidence of embryonic mortality was significantly (P<0.01 higher between 28-60 days of gestation and lower after 71 day of gestation. The higher fetal mortality found in this study could be due the lower serum levels of progesterone normally found in transitional period in buffalo cows.

  10. Benefits of Riverine Water Discharge into the Lorian Swamp, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipporah Musyimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Use and retention of river water in African highlands deprive communities in arid lowlands of their benefits. This paper reviews information on water use in the Ewaso Ng’iro catchment, Kenya, to evaluate the effects of upstream abstraction on the Lorian Swamp, a wetland used by pastoralists downstream. We first assess the abstractions and demands for water upstream and the river water supplies at the upper and the lower end of the Lorian Swamp. Further analysis of 12 years of monthly SPOT-VEGETATION satellite imagery reveals higher NDVI (Normalized Differential Vegetation Index values in the swamp than nearby rainfed areas, with the difference in NDVI between the two positively related to river water discharged into the swamp. The paper next reviews the benefits derived from water entering the swamp and the vulnerability to abstractions for three categories of water: (i the surface water used for drinking and sanitation; (ii the surface water that supports forage production; and (iii the water that recharges the Merti Aquifer. Our results suggest that benefits from surface water for domestic use and forage production are vulnerable to abstractions upstream whereas the benefits from the aquifer, with significant fossil water, are likely to be affected in the long run, but not the short term.

  11. In vitro gas production in rumen fluid of buffalo as affected by urea-calcium mixture in high-quality feed block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Wanapat, Metha

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of urea-calcium sulphate mixture (U-cas) levels in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on ruminal digestibility, fermentation and gas kinetics in rumen fluid of swamp buffalo by using in vitro techniques. The treatments were seven levels of U-cas incorporated in HQFB at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18% and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Gas production rate constants for the insoluble fraction, potential extent of gas and cumulative gas were linearly increased with increasing levels of U-cas in HQFB. The in vitro dry matter digestibility, in vitro organic matter digestibility, true digestibility and microbial mass were altered by treatments and were greatest at 18% U-cas supplementation. Concentrations of propionate were linearly increased with increasing levels of U-cas and was highest with U-cas supplementation at 18%. The NH3 -N concentration was highest when urea was added in the HQFB while NH3 -N concentration tended to be reduced with increasing level of U-cas. The findings suggest supplementation of 18% U-cas in HQFB improves kinetics of gas production, rumen fermentation, digestibility and microbial mass as well as controlling the rate of N degradation in the rumen of swamp buffalo. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. The Mastitis Case in Water Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Şahin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an important disease which causes economic losses in the water buffalo breeding. According to severity, duration and primary, mastitis is generally classified as clinical and subclinical. Because of contamination from other animals in the herd, subclinical mastitis is a important dairy herd problem. However, clinical mastitis is a clinical case created by deformation of udder gland and decreasing milk yield. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactia and Streptococcus dysgalactia are in clinical mastitis, but Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus agalactia and Streptococcus dysgalactia are the most common isolated microorganisms in subclinical mastitis. Due to mastitis caused by these microorganisms in Water Buffalo, abnormality in the structure of milk are observed, and it causes economic losses to farmers from reduced production. Therefore, the detection of effective factors on mastitis and taking of the necessary precautions are very important. In this review, mastitis case in water Buffalo and its effects were discussed.

  13. Affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Misk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine different affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes with special reference to diagnosis and treatment. The study was carried out on 39 buffaloes suffering from different affections of the salivary ducts. The recorded affections of the salivary ducts in buffaloes include; ectasia of the parotid duct (21 cases, parotid duct fistula (15 cases and sialocele (3 cases. Each case was subjected to full study including case history, clinical examination, diagnosis, and treatment whenever possible. Exploratory puncture and radiography were used for confirmation of diagnosis. Intraoral marsupialization was performed for treatment of parotid duct ectasia. Salivary fistula was corrected by one of two successful techniques; the first by reconstruction of the parotid duct and the second by ligation of the parotid duct just caudal to the fistula opening. Sialoceles were corrected by removal of the mandibular salivary gland of the affected side.

  14. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M A; M. H. Rashid; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  15. Status Survey for the Dismal Swamp- Green Stink Bug (Chlorochroa dismalia) in Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Dismal Swamp green stink bug (Chlorochroa dismalia), also known as the Dismal Swamp chlorochroan bug, is one of 52 members of the Family Pentatomidae (Order...

  16. Penaeid prawn population and fry resource in a mangrove swamp of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    Penaeid prawns abundantly occur in the mangrove swamp during the premonsoon season. They are constituted by the commercial species, Penaeus merguiensis, Metapenaeus dobsoni and M. monoceros. Recruitment of the swamp takes place when the individuals...

  17. COMPLEX STUDY OF THE LACUSTRIAN ECOSYSTEMS OF MOHOŞ SWAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Constantin DIACONU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohoş Swamp is an oligotroph swamp, formed in a volcanic crater on the site of a former lake, which permanently changes. Using a series of modern methods such as ultrasound bathymetry, we want to set up a reference base so that in the future one can be able to determine the rhythm and direction of the development of this complex ecosystem, both in terms of morph metrics and chemical hydrology parameters point of view. Bathymetry and geomorfological study represents the most important stage because it makes it possible to establish the concrete characteristics of the investigated lakes as well as their placement.

  18. Bilateral follicular cysts in a water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Nabi, S U; Pande, Megha; Das, G K; Sarkar, M

    2011-03-01

    The present short communication puts on record a case of bilateral, multiple follicular cysts in a water buffalo along with a detailed description of its ovarian biometry and follicular fluid composition. The ovarian weight and biometrical parameters were much higher than in normal cycling buffaloes. A total of three follicular cysts were observed, two on the right ovary and one on the left ovary, measuring 4.9, 3.0 and 2.6 cm yielding 21, 9 and 5 ml of follicular fluid, respectively. The cystic fluid was deep yellow in colour with a viscous consistency. The follicular fluid concentrations of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and progesterone in all the cysts were within the range reported previously in normal buffalo follicular fluid; however, the alkaline phosphatase concentration in cyst 1 and total bilirubin concentration in cysts 1 and 2 were higher than the values in normal follicular fluid. In contrast, the levels of urea nitrogen in cysts 1 and 3, and oestradiol in cyst 3 were lower than the normal values. All the three follicles had an oestradiol to progesterone ratio less than 1. The results of our study suggest that follicular cysts in buffalo are oestrogenically inactive and have an altered concentration of certain biochemical and hormonal constituents.

  19. "Buffalo Bill" and the Siouan Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    The popular art of William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody--lithographic posters advertising his Wild West Show and depicting the Indians who performed in it--created the visual image of the American Indian that we have come to know as the Siouan stereotype. By contrast the artists' images of the American Indian were inaccessible to the general…

  20. Characteristics of mangrove swamps managed for mosquito control in eastern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Devlin, D.; Proffitt, E.; McKee, K.; Cretini, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulations of the vegetation and hydrology of wetlands for mosquito control are common worldwide, but these modifications may affect vital ecosystem processes. To control mosquitoes in mangrove swamps in eastern Florida, managers have used rotational impoundment management (RIM) as an alternative to the worldwide practice of mosquito ditching. Levees surround RIM swamps, and water is pumped into the impoundment during the summer, a season when natural swamps have low water levels. In the New World, these mosquito-managed swamps resemble the mixed basin type of mangrove swamp (based on PCA analysis). An assessment was made of RIM, natural (control), and breached-RIM (restored) swamps in eastern Florida to compare their structural complexities, soil development, and resistance to invasion. Regarding structural complexity, dominant species composition differed between these swamps; the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle occurred at a higher relative density in RIM and breached-RIM swamps, and the black mangrove Avicennia germinans had a higher relative density in natural swamps. Tree density and canopy cover were higher and tree height lower in RIM swamps than in natural and breached-RIM swamps. Soil organic matter in RIM swamps was twice that in natural or breached-RIM swamps. RIM swamps had a lower resistance to invasion by the Brazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthifolius, which is likely attributable to the lower porewater salinity in RIM swamps. These characteristics may reflect differences in important ecosystem processes (primary production, trophic structure, nutrient cycling, decomposition). Comparative assessments of managed wetlands are vital for land managers, so that they can make informed decisions compatible with conservation objectives. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  1. The White Cedar of the Dismal Swamp 1923

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a report that discusses the various uses, yields and properties of the White Cedar in the Great Dismal Swamp area in the early 1920s. It also discusses the...

  2. Invertebrate Encrustations On The Mangrove Swamp Oyster And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mangrove swamp oyster Crassostrea tulipa demonstrates a symbiotic relationship with the barnacle. Balnus sp and other encrusting invertebrates. It is inferred that the latter militate against predatory drilling on the oyster by Thais califera as well as prevent algal infestation and the consequent bioerosion by herbivorous ...

  3. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the variable inputs were inefficiently utilized and about 85% of the variations in rice output could be explained by factors included in the regression model. In conclusion, efficiency and output in swamp rice production in the area can be increased by reducing the amount of labour used but increasing the quantity of seeds ...

  4. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments.

  5. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  6. Swamp tours in Louisiana post Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn J. Schaffer; Craig A. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in southern Louisiana during August and September 2005. Prior to these storms, swamp tours were a growing sector of nature-based tourism that entertained visitors while teaching about local flora, fauna, and culture. This study determined post-hurricane operating status of tours, damage sustained, and repairs made. Differences...

  7. Production Efficiency of Swamp Rice Production in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    397.00k with N9.80K made on every naira invested in improved variety of swamp rice produced in the study area. Rice farming business is a profitable business, with attractive net return on investment. Therefore, unemployed youths in Cross River ...

  8. Papillomatosis in buffaloes: a less-known disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somvanshi, R

    2011-08-01

    Scant information is available on papillomatosis in buffaloes, and it is an almost unknown disease. It has been described from India, Italy and Turkey. Buffalo papillomatosis occurs in cutaneous and mucosal forms. Cutaneous papillomatosis is manifested as cutaneous wart (CW) and teat papilloma types. The condition is known to be caused by bovine papillomaviruses (BPV)-1 and 2 and their mixed infections. Buffalo CWs are experimentally transmissible to hamsters, cattle as well as buffaloes. Once BPV establishes infection in buffaloes, infection spreads from buffalo to buffalo, without cattle intermediary. Histologically, CWs are mostly diagnosed as fibropapillomas. The mucosal form occurs as urinary bladder tumours similar to enzootic bovine haematuria which is also associated with bracken fern infested areas. BPVs are yet to be demonstrated in teat papillomas and urinary bladder tumours of buffalo cases. Papillomatosis in buffaloes is a little-known disease, but it is a separate infectious ailment of buffaloes and deserves more attention by researchers. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Genetic analysis of congenital hemimelia in buffaloes from Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Tafuri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemimelia is a common congenital limb abnormality found in water buffaloes from Southern Italy. In humans, such defect has been associated with mutations in WNT7A and ESCO2 genes. These two candidate genes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction in the genomic DNA extracted from the blood of buffaloes, and cows for control. No differences in WNT7A and ESCO2 sequences between affected and healthy buffaloes were identified. However, comparing sequences of control cows and buffaloes, WNT7A showed simple species polymorphisms, and ESCO2 showed seven base-pair substitutions. These results demonstrate that limb malformations in buffaloes are not related to congenital defects in WNT7A gene. Interestingly, our findings highlight for the first time differences in the sequences of WNT7A and ESCO2 genes between buffaloes and cows.

  10. Buffalo bulls for meat production: feeding and meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Oswaldo Josè

    2011-01-01

    The general aim of the PhD thesis, realised at the Department of Animal Science and Food Control (University of Napoli, Federico II, Italy), was to study animal performance and the nutritional characteristics of meat from Buffalo bred in Italy (Italian Mediterranean Buffalo) fed different diets. The importance of this research is to give a contribute to better characterize the buffalo infra vitam performance (i.e. weight gain, feed conversion index, etc.) and meat quality (mainly in terms of ...

  11. Research Concerning the Reproduction Seasonality in Carpathian Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Sertu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fertility in buffalo is low. That could be a question of species adaptation in new climate or a genetic trait. Scientists think buffaloes entered the South-est of Europe on two ways one with the Hune and Avar people coming trough the North of Black Sea up to the intra Charpathian Hils and a later one more prolonged with penetratio trough Egypt, Small Asia and Greece at the time when some people migrated up to the Danube River. Buffaloes which originated from Egypt were domesticated before the ones that came through the North of Black Sea. That means in Romania there are two different buffalo populations: the Carpathian Buffalo adapted to reproduce in a cold and wet climate, outside the area of its wild ancestors and a Danube Buffalo that underwent more influence domestication apart. These two populations reproduced separately by territorial state insulation. All buffalo breeds including the ones in the native domestication area show grouped calving. The present paper has to answer if grouped calving in buffalo is due to photoperiodic exchange along the year or to the poor feeding in some seasons. The answer to this question will decide the actions needed to improve buffalo cows’ fertility.

  12. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P < 0.05) BCS score at the end of the trial (7.39 ± 0.1 vs. 7.14 ± 0.1 in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). The average milk yield/buffalo was higher (P < 0.05) in Group A compared to Group S (10.58 ± 0.1 vs. 10.39 ± 0.1 kg in Group A vs. Group S, respectively) and this was mainly due to the higher milk production recorded in buffaloes at less than 75 d in milk (11.81 ± 0

  13. Buffalo heifers selected for lower residual feed intake have lower feed intake, better dietary nitrogen utilisation and reduced enteric methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V K; Kundu, S S; Datt, C; Prusty, S; Kumar, M; Sontakke, U B

    2017-10-13

    This study was conducted to evaluate the utilisation of the residual feed intake (RFI) as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with methane emissions. Eighteen Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers were fed ad libitum with total mixed ration (TMR) for 120 days. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size (MBW0.75 ), heifers were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.09 to +0.12 kg DM/day with average RFI of -0.05 and 0.05 kg DM/day in low and high RFI heifers respectively. Low RFI heifers ate 11.6% less DM each day, yet average daily gain (ADG) and feed utilisation were comparable among low and high RFI groups. Low RFI heifers required significantly (p energy for maintenance (MEm) compared to high RFI heifers. Apparent nutrient digestibility showed non-significant difference (p > .05) among low and high RFI groups. Although the nitrogen balance was similar among heifers of low and high RFI groups, nitrogen metabolism was significantly higher (p > .05) in high RFI heifers. Comparison of data from heifers exhibiting the low (n = 9) and high (n = 9) RFI showed that the low RFI heifers have lower enteric methane production and methane losses than high RFI heifers. In conclusion, results of this study revealed that selection of more efficient buffalo heifers has multiple benefits, such as decreased feed intake and less emission of methane. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The Mastitis Case in Water Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Şahin; Arda Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is an important disease which causes economic losses in the water buffalo breeding. According to severity, duration and primary, mastitis is generally classified as clinical and subclinical. Because of contamination from other animals in the herd, subclinical mastitis is a important dairy herd problem. However, clinical mastitis is a clinical case created by deformation of udder gland and decreasing milk yield. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactia and Stre...

  15. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  16. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  17. Forest Dynamics of Peat Swamp Forest in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDI MIRMANTO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Forest dynamics were studied from 1999 to 2001 for individuals > 15 cm in girth of 24 most common species in six 0.25-ha plots. The plots were set up in natural peat swamp forest in the upper catchments of Sebangau, Central Kalimantan. Aim of the study is to understand the dynamics and vegetation changes of forest studied during period of study. The peat swamp forest in the study site might be categorized as moderately forest dynamic in term of rate of growth, mortality and recruitment. Annual relative growth rate and mortality rate was comparable to previous study but recruitment rate relatively higher. There was significant effect of diameter class on annual growth rate, but not to mortality rate. Even not too strong two environment factors (peat depth and distance to river were significant correlated with rate of mortality and recruitment. During two-year period study there was no significant changes in vegetation structure.

  18. Brucellosis in buffalos from Corrientes northeast (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s production represents an important option as input source in livestock systems located in areas with little profitability by cattle. In mostly farms, cattle and buffalos are breeding together, due that in Argentina, to carry out buffalo’s production is in an extensive way, with the aim to produce meat – mostly- milk – for this production nutritional supplements are used- and leathers. Brucellosis is zoonic illnesses from bacteria belong to Brucella which caused human human health problems by contaminated food ingestion or to those who are in touch with cattle. In Argentina, exist the National Control an Elimination Program for cattle Brucellosis, which include buffalos also, there is inclosed female vaccination and serologic segregation of positive reactants. Diagnosis techniques ruled for cattle brucellosis are BPA (Buffered Plate Agglutination, Tube seroaglutination and 2MercaptoEthanol. International reference test is Complement Fixation. By means of this present work, we pretend to evaluate the serologic diagnosis utility, ruled to the buffalos and compare obtained results by BPA, SAT and 2ME with Complement Fixation Test. In the present communication are presented results from the use of diagnosis techniques recommended by SENASA (National Service of Sanity and Quality Agro-Food to buffalo’s serums which belong to nine farms from NE Corrientes State. Obtained results show that association o BPA as Screening Test and SAT and 2ME as Confirmated Test has a valid correlation for the detection of positive animals with the reference technique Complement Fixation.

  19. Mating system and the critical migration rate for swamping selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin-Sheng

    2011-06-01

    Crow et al. (1990) and Barton (1992) have examined the critical migration rate for swamping selection in the nuclear system. Here, I use the same methodology to examine the critical migration rate in the cytonuclear system for hermaphrodite plants with a mixed mating system. Two selection schemes for a nuclear gene (heterozygote disadvantage and directional selection) and the directional selection scheme for organelle genes are considered. Results show that under random mating, the previous results are applicable to plant species by appropriate re-parameterization of the migration rate for nuclear and paternal organelle genes. A simple complementary relationship exists between seed and pollen flow in contributing to the critical migration rate. Under the mixed mating system, the critical migration rate of seeds and pollen for nuclear and paternal organelle genes can be changed due to the effects of selection and the cytonuclear linkage disequilibrium generated by migration and inbreeding. A negative but not complementary relationship exists between seed and pollen flow in contributing to the critical migration rate, varying with the mating system. Partial selfing can also adjust the critical seed flow for the maternal organelle gene, with a small critical migration rate for species of a high selfing rate. Both concordance and discordance among cytonuclear genes can occur under certain conditions during the process of swamping selection. This theory predicts the presence of various contributions of seed versus pollen flow to genetic swamping for plants with diverse mating systems.

  20. Chromosome evolution and improved cytogenetic maps of the Y chromosome in cattle, zebu, river buffalo, sheep and goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Floriot, S; Incarnato, D; Rullo, R; Caputi Jambrenghi, A; Ferretti, L; Vonghia, G; Cribiu, E; Eggen, A; Iannuzzi, L

    2005-01-01

    Comparative FISH-mapping among Y chromosomes of cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60, BTA, submetacentric Y chromosome), zebu (Bos indicus, 2n = 60, BIN, acrocentric Y chromosome but with visible small p-arms), river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50, BBU, acrocentric Y chromosome), sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54, OAR, small metacentric Y chromosome) and goat (Capra hircus, 2n = 60, CHI, Y-chromosome as in sheep) was performed to extend the existing cytogenetic maps and improve the understanding of karyotype evolution of these small chromosomes in bovids. C- and R-banding comparison were also performed and both bovine and caprine BAC clones containing the SRY, ZFY, UMN0504, UMN0301, UMN0304 and DYZ10 loci in cattle and DXYS3 and SLC25A6 in goat were hybridized on R-banded chromosomes by FISH. The main results were the following: (a) Y-chromosomes of all species show a typical distal positive C-band which seems to be located at the same region of the typical distal R-band positive; (b) the PAR is located at the telomeres but close to both R-band positive and ZFY in all species; (c) ZFY is located opposite SRYand on different arms of BTA, BIN, OAR/CHI Y chromosomes and distal (but centromeric to ZFY) in BBU-Y; (d) BTA-Y and BIN-Y differ as a result of a centromere transposition or pericentric inversion since they retain the same gene order along their distal chromosome regions and have chromosome arms of different size; (e) BTA-Y and BBU-Y differ in a pericentric inversion with a concomitant loss or gain of heterochromatin; (f) OAR/CHI-Y differs from BBU-Y for a pericentric inversion with a major loss of heterochromatin and from BTA and BIN for a centromere transposition followed by the loss of heterochromatin.

  1. (LH) on in vitro maturation of Egyptian buffalo oocytes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsoft Corporation

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... immature bovine oocytes. Gamete Res. 24:197-204. Deshmukh SP, Pawshe CH, Ingawale MV, Deshmukh SG (2010). In vitro maturation of buffalo immature oocyte after Vitrification with combination of Ethylene Glycol and Dimethyl Sulfoxide. Proceedings. 9th World Buffalo Congress, pp. 911-921. Duncan ...

  2. Causes of infectious abortion in the Mediterranean buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galiero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and viruses can cause abortion in buffaloes. This review describes the abortigenic infectious agents found in Mediterranean buffalo cows and the microbiological methods used for their diagnosis. The abortigenic agents are: Brucella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bacillus licheniformis, E.coli, Leptospira spp., Bubaline Herpes Virus-1 (BuHV-1, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus.

  3. Listeric septicaemia and abotion in African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... this L. monocytogenesacquisition is possible cause of the septicemia and abortion in the African buffalo. Consequently listeriosis in wildlife deserves further investigation in Nigeria. Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, listeriosis, African buffalo, septicemia, abortion > Animal Production Research Advances Vol. 2 (4) 2006: ...

  4. Detection of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the aetiological agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in wildlife and livestock. A study to detect BTB in live buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) and evaluation of diagnostics was conducted in buffaloes and indigenous cattle in Mikumi ecosystem. Gamma interferon (γIFN) and BovidTB Stat-Pak tests were used ...

  5. Semen Characteristics of First and Second Ejaculates of Buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four treatments, no sexual preparation (control), 10 min restraint, three false mounts and 10 min restraint followed by three false mounts, were replicated with eight sexually mature buffalo bulls, before the first and second ejaculates to study their effects on the seminal characteristics of buffalo bulls. Seminal characteristics of ...

  6. The immunological response of RB51 vaccinated buffalo calves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immune status of RB51 vaccinated buffaloes was evaluated using tube agglutination test (TAT) and ELISA, using both periplasmic protein antigen (PPA) and lipopolysaccharide antigen (LPS). For this purpose, three groups of buffalo calves were used. The first one received S19 vaccine subcutaneously; the second was ...

  7. Perspectives of fetal dystocia in cattle and buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Narayan Purohit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.

  8. Possibilities for a Reference and Research Library System in the Buffalo-Niagara Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This survey to determine how the library resources in the Buffalo-Niagara area might be utilized in a regional Reference and Research Library Resources (3R's) system studied: (1) area library resources, (2) strength of the libraries at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY Buffalo) and the Buffalo and Erie County Public Library…

  9. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the updated noise exposure maps submitted by the Niagara... on the noise exposure maps is September 20, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Suki Gill...

  10. DETERMINAÇÃO DA CRONOLOGIA DENTÁRIA DE MACHOS BUBALINOS(Bubalus bubalis) CRIADOS NO ESTADO DO PARÁ DETERMINATION OF DENTAL CRONOLOGY OF MALE BUFFALOES (Bubalus bubalis) RAISED IN PARÁ STATE, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Washington Luis Assunção Pereira; Cláudio Vieira de Araújo; Elyzabeth da Cruz Cardoso; Vitória Nazaré Costa Seixas; Rinaldo Batista Viana

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou estimar a idade de machos bubalinos a partir da avaliação da dentição (den-tes incisivos) criados no Estado do Pará. Para isso, foram utilizados 174 animais do nascimento até cem meses de idade, sem distinção de raça, distribuídos em oito grupos por faixa etária. Verificou-se a ausência dos cantos decíduos (4º par) nos animais de zero a três meses de idade. Os cantos estabeleceram-se definitivamente entre três e seis meses de idade. A partir dos seis mes...

  11. Application of dissociation curve analysis to radiation hybrid panel marker scoring: generation of a map of river buffalo (B. bubalis chromosome 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäffer Alejandro A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescence of dyes bound to double-stranded PCR products has been utilized extensively in various real-time quantitative PCR applications, including post-amplification dissociation curve analysis, or differentiation of amplicon length or sequence composition. Despite the current era of whole-genome sequencing, mapping tools such as radiation hybrid DNA panels remain useful aids for sequence assembly, focused resequencing efforts, and for building physical maps of species that have not yet been sequenced. For placement of specific, individual genes or markers on a map, low-throughput methods remain commonplace. Typically, PCR amplification of DNA from each panel cell line is followed by gel electrophoresis and scoring of each clone for the presence or absence of PCR product. To improve sensitivity and efficiency of radiation hybrid panel analysis in comparison to gel-based methods, we adapted fluorescence-based real-time PCR and dissociation curve analysis for use as a novel scoring method. Results As proof of principle for this dissociation curve method, we generated new maps of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis chromosome 20 by both dissociation curve analysis and conventional marker scoring. We also obtained sequence data to augment dissociation curve results. Few genes have been previously mapped to buffalo chromosome 20, and sequence detail is limited, so 65 markers were screened from the orthologous chromosome of domestic cattle. Thirty bovine markers (46% were suitable as cross-species markers for dissociation curve analysis in the buffalo radiation hybrid panel under a standard protocol, compared to 25 markers suitable for conventional typing. Computational analysis placed 27 markers on a chromosome map generated by the new method, while the gel-based approach produced only 20 mapped markers. Among 19 markers common to both maps, the marker order on the map was maintained perfectly. Conclusion Dissociation curve

  12. Protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos e bubalinos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com monensina ou própolis Ruminal ciliate protozoa of cattle and buffalo fed on diet supplemented with monensin or extracts from propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Barros Ríspoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dietas suplementadas com monensina ou produtos à base de própolis, nas populações de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos (Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis. Quatro bovinos da raça Holandesa e quatro búfalos da raça Murrah adultos, fistulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino (4x4. A dieta constituiu-se de 50% de silagem de milho e 50% de concentrado à base de milho em grãos e farelo de soja, com adição de monensina sódica ou aditivo à base de própolis LLOSA2 ou LLOSC1. As amostras do conteúdo ruminal foram coletadas duas horas após a alimentação. O gênero Entodinium foi o mais representativo em todos os tratamentos, para ambas as raças de ruminantes. Em búfalos, foi observado o efeito redutor do tratamento LLOSC1 nas populações do gênero Entodinium, além do efeito redutor dos tratamentos monensina e LLOSA2 sobre os gêneros da subfamília Diplodiniinae. A média de ciliados foi maior em bubalinos (56x10(4 mL-1 do que em bovinos (26x10(4 mL-1. Houve aumento do pH ruminal dos bovinos no tratamento com monensina. O extrato de própolis LLOSC1 reduziu os ciliados do rúmen em bubalinos.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of diets supplemented with monensin or with extracts of propolis, on the population of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of cattle (Bos taurus and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Four Holstein cattle and four Murrah buffalo, fistulated in the rumen, were distributed in 4x4 Latin square design. The diet was constituted by 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate based on corn grain and soybean meal, and the supplementation of monensin sodium or propolis extracts LLOSA2 or LLOSC1. Samples of ruminal contents were collected two hours after feeding. The genus Entodinium was the most common in all treatments for both cattle and buffalo. The LLOSC1 treatment reduced the populations of the genus Entodinium in buffalo

  13. Electrophoresis of buffalo (bos bubalis) serum proteins including immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, K C; Rajpal, S; Pandey, R; Sharma, V K

    1979-05-01

    Antigenic components of buffalo (Bos bubalis) serum, which were also components of buffalo colostrum, seminal plasma, milk whey, saliva, and tears, were investigated by the ager gel diffusion test and immunoelectrophoresis. Immunoglobulins of buffalo serum were identified by immunoelectrophoresis employing rabbit-anti-buffalo serum and rabbit-anti-buffalo gamma-globulin. Based on immunoelectrophoretic patterns immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgGA, and IgM were detected both in the serum and colostrum of buffaloes. Tears contained both IgG and IgM. Cross-reactions of buffalo serum with seminal plasma, saliva, and milk whey were observed only in the IgG region. By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, lipoprotein (5.2% +/- 0.41), IgM (11.4% +/- 3.1), IgG (9.4% +/- 0.98), haptoglobin 21.8% +/- 3.73), transferrin (10.4% +/- 2.15), ceruloplasmin (7.8% +/- 1.3), postalbumin (20.8% +/- 2.09), and albumin (13.7% +/- 0.75) were identified provisionally.

  14. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo Swamp Uganda: processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Nakivubo swamp is located in Uganda, near its capital Kampala, and has been receiving wastewater from Kampala for over 30 years. This swamp consists of a floating root mat co-dominated by the sedges Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum. Tbe partially treated wastewater mostly flows

  15. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Nelson; Neil C. Dulohery; Randall K. Kolka; William H. McKee

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River swamp, a 3020 ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River, USA is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically, the swamp consisted of approximately 50% bald cypress-water tupelo (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica) stands, 40% mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and...

  16. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  17. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to

  18. Paratuberculosis in buffaloes in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Brito, Marilene; Dos Santos Belo-Reis, Alessandra; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Ubiali, Daniel Guimarães; de Castro Pires, Ana Paula; de Medeiros, Elizabeth Sampaio; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; Yamasaki, Elise; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2016-10-01

    Several farms in the Northeast of Brazil were investigated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in order to identify the occurrence of paratuberculosis in buffaloes. Samples were obtained from 17 farms, two slaughter houses, and a quarantine area in the Northeast. About 15,000 buffaloes of the Murrah, Mediterranean, and Jafarabadi breed as well as their crossbreeds were evaluated for meat, dairy, and mixed farms with semi-intensive or extensive breeding practices. For diagnostic purposes, postmortem and histopathological examination, including Ziehl-Neelsen test of fecal smears and scraped intestinal mucosa were performed. PCR was applied for fecal samples, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestines. Six Johne's disease-positive farms, which together with those previously identified, indicate that the disease is spread through the Brazilian Northeast, similar to what occurs in cattle herds in other regions of the country. The increase in prevalence of paratuberculosis is a consequence of introduction of animals from other regions without adequate veterinary assistance and due to the little official attention paid to this initially silent and chronic disease.

  19. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1 and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2. The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg, bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg, ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg, xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, medetomidine (15 μg/kg, romifidine (30-50 μg/kg, ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg, tramadol (1 mg/kg, and neostigmine (10 μg/kg, and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.

  20. Vegetation analyses of Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDI MIRMANTO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirmanto E (2010 Vegetation analyses of Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. Biodiversitas 11: 82-88. The vegetation analysis study has been made in Sebangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. Eight permanent plots of 50-m x 50-m were set-up distribute from close to the river with shallow peat-layer up to the inland with relatively deep peat-layer. Enumeration of trees (GBH > 15 cm was conducted in all of 8 plots. Overall there are 133 species (taxa were recorded within 8 plots belong to 34 families where Dipterocarpaceae, Clusiaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae were the most dominant family. Out of all species recorded, Combretocarpus rotundatus, Palaquium leiocarpum, Stemonurus scorpioides and Tristania whittiana were the most dominant species. Two community’s types namely Combretocarpus rotundatus-Shorea balangeran community and Palaquium leiocarpum-Eugenia densinervium community were recognized and they distributed in slightly different habitat condition. The sequence of these two communities’ shows significantly related to both distances to river and peat-depth. In addition there was indication the presence of habitat preference among tree species.

  1. Molecular Dynamics Studies on the Buffalo Prion Protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to TSEs (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) (same as rabbits, horses and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (in humans prion diseases are (v)CJDs, GSS, FFI, and kulu etc). It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to prion diseases (as rabbits, dogs, horses). In molecular structures, these neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein, predominantly with alpha-helices, into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions, rich in beta-sheets. This paper studies the molecular structure and structural dynamics of buffalo prion protein, in order to find out the reason why buffaloes are resistant to prion diseases. We first did molecular modeling a homology structure constructed by one mutation at residue 143 from the Nuclear Magnetic Resonanc...

  2. Study on growth performance of Murrah buffaloes raised under farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VCRI_AN_GENETICS

    genetic and genetic factors influencing growth performance in. Murrah Buffalos. A.K. Thiruvenkadan. #. , S. Panneerselvam and R. Rajendran. Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding,. Veterinary College and Research Institute, ...

  3. SPERM DNA INTEGRITY IN BUFFALO, BULL AND STALLION

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    The interest in sperm DNA integrity evaluation and its relationship to subfertility and infertility loaded to development of several sperm DNA assays. The aim of this study was to compare several sperm DNA assays in buffaloes, bulls and stallions, and to identify the relationships between those DNA assays and traditional sperm features. In Italian Mediterranean Buffalo (IMB) bulls traditional sperm features (motility, viability, acrosome integrity and morphology), sperm DNA integrity (neutral...

  4. Productive level and energy balance in buffalo cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo cow, at the beginning of lactation, shows a decrease in DM intake which determines a condition of physiologic hyponutrition (Campanile et al., 1997. In order to ensure physiologic haematic levels of glucose, the organism mobilizes the fat deposits and muscle proteins. Aim of present study was to evaluate the loss of body weight during the first months of lactation and the energy required for standard milk production in buffalo cow........

  5. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodinamics Integration of Sulfametazine in buffalo and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. San Andrés

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfamethazine is a sulfonamide that presents a broad spectrum of activity, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Chlamydia spp. and some protozoa and it commonly used in ruminants. The aim of our work was to study the possible inter-species differences in the pharmacokinetic behavior and pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic(PK/PD integration of sulfamethazine after intravenous administration in buffalo and bovine. A single intravenous dose of 60 mg/kg was administered to six bovine and five buffalo (3-4 month old and weighting 120±15kg. Plasma concentrations of sulfamethazine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Differences between bovine and buffalo calves were found in t½λ (buffaloes: t1/2λ =6.17±0.58h; bovine t1/2λ=7.46±1.05h, Cl (buffaloes: 45.31ml/h·kg; bovines 30.34ml/h·kg. As a consequence of the lower clearance in bovines, the AUC and t½λ values were higher in this species. Important differences between bovine and buffalo exist for microorganisms that have a MIC value<32μg/ml related to time over minimum inhibitory concentration and weighted AUC.

  6. STUDIES ON MASTITIS AMONG DAIRY BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahmad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2340 mammary glands of 585 primiparous and pluriparous lactating buffaloes in different stages of lactation were examined with California Mastitis Test ( CMT and laboratory examination was carried out to identify the most prevalent micro-organisms in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis. The physical examination revealed 2.61 per cent blind teats and CMT revealed 6.71 per cent positive quarters for mastitis. Microbiological examination of 157 sub-clinical mastitis milk samples and 46 clinical mastitis milk samples was carried out. There was high occurrence of streptococci (35.46% followed by staphylococci (33.99%, E. coli (27.09%, pseudomonas spp. ( 1.97% and Corynaebacterium pyogenes (1.48%. The in vitro sensitivity revealed kanamyciin (82.6%, highly effective against various isolates followed by gentamycin (53.0%.

  7. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel; Sleeter, Benjamin M; Williams, Brianna; Hogan, Dianna; Hawbaker, Todd; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-12-01

    Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting. We modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985-2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C) coming from above-ground biomass and detritus. Natural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha -1 /year -1 for Atlantic white cedar), the total soil carbon loss from the South One and Lateral West fires

  8. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sleeter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting. Results We modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985–2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C coming from above-ground biomass and detritus. Conclusions Natural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha−1/year−1 for Atlantic white cedar, the total

  9. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Williams, Brianna; Hogan, Dianna; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundCarbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting.ResultsWe modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985–2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C) coming from above-ground biomass and detritus.ConclusionsNatural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha−1/year−1 for Atlantic white cedar), the total soil carbon loss from the

  10. THE DISTRIBUTION AND BIODIVERSITY OF FISHES IN LEBAK PAMPANGAN SWAMP SOUTH SUMATRA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Muthmainah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the fish distribution and biodiversity within three types of swamp ecosystem with different water sources in Pampangan Sub-district during July to December 2011. The field observation were conducted in three different types of swamp. Ecological data and samples were collected from three sampling points in each swamp type. Parameters including local distribution, diversity index, similarity index, evenness and species richness, were analyzed. The results show a number of 9,723 fishes corresponding to 46 species were collected, the fish categorized into 16 families belonging to five orders. Eight species were found in all type of swamps i.e. Mystus nemurus, Channa striata, Cyclocheilchthys apogon, Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Pristolepis fasciata, Puntius lineatus, Osteochillus hasselti, and Trichogaster pectoralis. A diversity index of fishes in Pampangan Swamp ranged from 2.31 to 2.85, indicating moderate values. The evenness index was high more than 50%. The highest similarity was found between type 1 and type 3 of (0.43. The highest diversity index (2.85 found in type 2 of swamp indicates the swamp in more stable condition.

  11. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-11-14

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  12. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Cooksey-Stowers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision. Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16. Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05 and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01. Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  13. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity. PMID:29135909

  14. SWAMP+: multiple subsequence alignment using associative massive parallelism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfadt, Shannon Irene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Johnnie W [KENT STATE UNIV.

    2010-10-18

    A new parallel algorithm SWAMP+ incorporates the Smith-Waterman sequence alignment on an associative parallel model known as ASC. It is a highly sensitive parallel approach that expands traditional pairwise sequence alignment. This is the first parallel algorithm to provide multiple non-overlapping, non-intersecting subsequence alignments with the accuracy of Smith-Waterman. The efficient algorithm provides multiple alignments similar to BLAST while creating a better workflow for the end users. The parallel portions of the code run in O(m+n) time using m processors. When m = n, the algorithmic analysis becomes O(n) with a coefficient of two, yielding a linear speedup. Implementation of the algorithm on the SIMD ClearSpeed CSX620 confirms this theoretical linear speedup with real timings.

  15. Weeds optimally grow in peat swamp after burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Susanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After clearing land by burning the peat, then the weeds and undergrowth will flourish. Even sometimes, the weeds are eventually burned again. Weed is known as a destroyer plant that has to be controlled. Through proper treatment, the existing weeds in peatlands can be potentiallly exploited. The purpose of this study was to determine the calorific value of briquettes as one of peatland weeds utilization. The results showed that the calorific value ranged from 2,492 cal/g to 5,230 cal/g. The lowest calorific value was on ‘teki kecil’ grass (Scirpus grossus Lf, while the highest calorific value was observed for ‘bantalaki grass’ (Hymenachne amplexicaulis Nees. The high calorific value of the peat weeds are potential for biomass briquettes raw materials. The utilization and use of peat weed briquettes as a raw materials expected can reduce land degradation due to peat swamp burning

  16. Epidemiological studies on forestomach disorders in cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The 106 buffaloes and 32 cattle referred for treatment to the university large animals teaching hospital with the complaint of gastrointestinal diseases constituted the study material. The cases were diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, hematology, biochemistry, radiography, peritoneal fluid analysis and ultrasonography, rumenotomy, and postmortem. A questionnaire was prepared containing important information on housing, husbandry practices, including feeding practices and individual animal information viz. age, species, month of the year, parity, gestation (month, and recent parturition. The animals were divided into eight groups and analysis of variance was performed to study risk factors associated with each condition. Results: The forestomach disorders are widely prevalent in cattle and buffaloes between April and October, during summer and rainy season (90% and constituted a significant proportion of diseased cows and buffaloes (138/1840 at the hospital. Different forestomach disorders and their prevalence was: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH 17%, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP 14%, idiopathic motility disorder or vagus indigestion (VI 22%, adhesive peritonitis (AP 13%, frank exudative peritonitis (FEP 12%, reticular abscess (RA 8%, ruminal and omasal impaction (RI 5%, and abomaso duodenal ulceration (ADU 9%. DH and RA were significantly more common in buffaloes as compared to cattle. Similarly, impactions were more in buffaloes but its incidence was very low (5%. ADU was present in buffalo as commonly as in cows. Exclusive feeding of wheat straw was present in an abysmally low number of animals and hence could not be considered the cause of these disorders. DH was significantly higher in buffaloes (>5 years of 5-8 years of age and TRP, VI and AP were observed in cattle and buffalo of 2-8 years

  17. Greater Buffalo-Niagara Regional Transportation Council Scenario Planning Workshop : Sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report summarizes noteworthy practices and key recommendations shared during a scenario planning workshop, hosted by the Greater Buffalo-Niagara Regional Transportation Council, on April 19-20, 2016, in Buffalo, New York. The Federal Highway Adm...

  18. Growth response of yearling buffalo male calves to different dietary energy levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FAZAELI, Hassan; MAHMOUDZADEH, Homayoun

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate different levels of energy for optimum growth in Iranian regional buffalo male calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 27 yearling buffalo male calves with initial live weight of 201 ± 14 kg...

  19. Impact of Climate change on Milk production of Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ashutosh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is likely to impact productivity of buffaloes due to their sensitivity to temperature changes. Air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation are the main climate variables that affect buffalo production in tropical climate. In the present study sensitivity of lactating Murrah buffaloes to sudden temperature (Tmax, Tmin change and THI have been analyzed from milk production and climatic records (1994-2004 of Karnal. Algorithms were developed and validated on lactating buffaloes during 2005-2006 at the Institute. A sudden change (rise or fall in Maximum/Minimum temperature during summer and winter was observed to affect milk production. The decline in minimum temperature (>3°C during winter and increase (>4°C during summer than normal were observed to negatively impact milk production upto 30% on the next or subsequent days after extreme event. The return to normal milk production depended on severity and time period of thermal stress/ event occurrence. The R² was very low for cool period observed during Feb- April/Sept-Nov and actual effect on milk production was minimum. This indicated that low THI had a relatively small effect on milk production performance. The lactation period of animals are shortened during extreme summer when THI were more than 80 and reproductive functions were also adversely affected. Thermal stressed buffaloes did not exhibit estrus or exhibited estrus for short period. The potential direct effects of possible climate change and global warming on summer season milk production of Murrah buffaloes were evaluated using widely known global circulation model UKMO to represent possible scenarios of future climate. Both milk production and reproductive functions of Murrah buffaloes are likely to be affected due to warming effects.

  20. Protective effect of the antioxidant enzyme on sperm from Bubalus bubalis type after cryoconservation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov R.; Sabev M.; Ivanova-Kicheva M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies were carried out in order to determine the presence of damaged intracellular proteins in sperm from water buffalo as a result of toxic action of free radicals and their attitude towards the vitality of the gametes. Experiments were performed with thawed semen samples as the trial has been added antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. It was found that added to the test sample exogenous antioxidant makes inoffensive much of the available free radica...

  1. 75 FR 41879 - Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... refuge, contact William Koch, Refuge Manager, at Great Swamp NWR, 241 Pleasant Plains Road, Basking Ridge... listed endangered Indiana bats are known to occur on the refuge. Reptile and amphibian species of...

  2. A Contribution towards a Vascular Flora of the Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This flora is an enumeration of the vascular plants growing without cultivation in the Great Dismal Swamp. It is hoped that this work will be of value to the rapidly...

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement For The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp Refuge Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies,...

  4. Swainson’s Warbler And the Cowbird In The Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii , is a fairly common breeding bird in the Dismal Swamp of Virginia and North Carolina where it is near the northern limit...

  5. A Report Concerning the Soils of a Portion of the Okefenokee Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains description of vegetation and organic and mineral soil of the Okefenokee Swamp. This report covers the investigations made on a tract of the...

  6. Environmental Impact Statement Master Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following report describes the proposed master plan for long range management and development of Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge and compares the...

  7. Water Control System In The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reference is made to your letter of 21 September 1977, requesting a description of the water control system in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge....

  8. Developmental History and Ecology of the Dismal Swamp with Recommendations for Public Ownership and Management 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report discusses the development and history of the Dismal Swamp and proposes the designation of a Research Natural Area. Management and research needs are...

  9. Peat deposits Of Dismal Swamp Pocosins, Camdem, Currituck, Gates, Pasquotank, And Perquimans Counties, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Peat is present in the Dismal Swamp of northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia. In North Carolina the peat is in 4 separate deposits located west,...

  10. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  11. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  12. Notes On The Amphibians And Reptiles Of The Great Dismal Swamp Of Virginia And North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp encompasses approximately 200,000 acres in southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina. As with this paper, most of the published...

  13. Aerial Orthophotography, Interpretation and Forest Type Mapping on Great Dismal Swamp NWR.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sewall forest typing services for the Northern portion of Great Dismal Swamp NWR in northeastern North Carolina. This includes complete new aerial photography and...

  14. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge FY 1994 Prescribed Fire Proposal Plan Remnant Marsh

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses...

  16. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  19. Assessment of mercury contamination in bats at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — While bats at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GDSNWR) have relatively low mean blood and fur Hg concentrations compared to point source...

  20. A survey of contaminants in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A contaminant survey was conducted in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge to determine the extent of contamination entering the Refuge from sources near...

  1. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  2. Synopsis Of Planning Needs And Issues Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Master Plan January, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies,...

  3. 75 FR 8107 - Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Bibb and Twiggs Counties, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation/photography, environmental education/interpretation... opportunities for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation, wildlife photography, and environmental education and... impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment for Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). In the...

  4. Influence Of Species, Season, And Soil On Foliar Macronutrients In The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Leaf macronutrient variation was studied in four plant communities in the Dismal Swamp of Virginia. Soils and species composition differed markedly between sites....

  5. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  6. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  7. Annual Water Management Program Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management objectives discussed in this report are: 1) To improve and better interpret the hydrologic and vegetative databases for the Great Dismal swamp, 2) To...

  8. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  9. Annual Water Management Program Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management objectives discussed in this report are: 1) To improve and better interpret the hydrologic and vegetative databases for the Great Dismal swamp, 2) To...

  10. Public Use Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge October 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp Refuge Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies,...

  11. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  12. A Water Budget and Water Quality Study of the Dismal Swamp Thesis Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main objective of this project is to determine the change in water quality throughout a section of the Dismal Swamp and to calculate the water budget for the...

  13. Free amino acid profile of Bubalus bubalis L. meat from the Campania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Landi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, we determined the amount of carnosine and anserine in water buffalo meat without hanging treatment and the free amino acid profile by using amino acid analyser with post-column ninhydrin derivatization procedure. The main free amino acids present in samples were glutamic acid (>60 mg/100 g, followed by alanine, glycine, and arginine. Other protein amino acids were detected in minor amounts (less than 2 mg/100 g. Among the non-protein amine-containing compounds, taurine and urea were the most abundant. The analysis showed that 50% of the total free amino acids was represented by dipeptides carnosine (average ~130.3 mg/100 g and anserine (average ~17.9 mg/100 g. Thus, this study for the first time reports the free amino acids profile of water buffalo meat and the content of carnosine and anserine, potentially involved in the darkening meat process and their ratio, that could be used to estimate the water buffalo meat portion in mixed meat products.

  14. Wastewater treatment by a natural wetland: the Nakivubo swamp, Uganda : processes and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kansiime, F.; Nalubega, M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation to assess the capacity of the Nakivubo swamp, Kampala-Uganda (which has been receiving partially treated sewage from the city for more than 30 years now), to remove nutrients and pathogens was carried out. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of this swamp to remove nutrients and pathogens from wastewater in a sustainable way, with emphasis on describing and quantifying their pathways, transformations and budgets.

    From field studies, water balan...

  15. The Ecology of Rawa Aopa, a Peat-swamp in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Zwahlen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Rawa Aopa is a large swamp in South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia — the only major peat-swamp in this mainly mountainous island. Its vegetation and fauna are still quite poorly known. The existing information is summarized here. With the creation of new villages as part of Indonesia's transmigration programme, the human population in this area has increased very rapidly. Pressure on natural resources — especially soils and forests — is increasing, and primary forests are dwindling rapidly. This in...

  16. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive. PMID:26880872

  17. Follicular dynamics in synchronized Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Francillo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the length and the characteristics of the oestrous cycle in Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows, undergone synchronization of ovulation. The trial was performed on 32 buffaloes synchronized by the Ovsynch Program, which consists of an injection of GnRH on day 0, PGF2α on day 7 and GnRH on day 9. Starting on day 10 (Day 0 of the new cycle. Buffaloes undergone ultrasound examination of the ovaries on alternate days until the following heat. Follicular growth and corpus luteum formation and dimensions were recorded as well as the number of follicular waves. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. Four animals (12.5% did not show signs of oestrous and were excluded from the trial. The mean length of the oestrous cycle was 23.7±3.4 days. In particular, 1 animal (3.6% showed an oestrous cycle characterized by 1 follicular wave with a length of 16 days, 17 subjects (60.7% showed 2 follicular waves with a cycle length of 22.4±2.3 days and 10 buffaloes (35.7% showed 3 follicular waves with a cycle of 26.8±2.0 days. These results confirm previous reports performed in buffalo species, although the cycle resulted longer in the 3-waves group.

  18. Role of Buffaloe in Contributing Milk and Meat in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Raza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan being an agricultural country supports a national herd of 28.4 million buffaloe which constitutes 8-10% of the global buffaloe population. Buffaloe contributes 72% of the national milk supply. Buffaloe is intricately interwoven with the social fabric of the rural families. In these areas it is mainly raised for milk production. Pakistan is the largest buffaloe meat producer followed by India, China, Thailand and Vietnam. The share of buffaloe’s meat at national level is over 55%. Slaughtering of male young calves for meat is common which has high degree of preference among the consumers. Fattening is rarely practiced, as there is poor price structure for beef. Female calves are usually raised for future herds. Little effort has been done so far to feed them on scientific lines. Mortality is high in calves during pre-weaning age. Seasonal variation in mortality is common. Poor nutrition, health and management have been demonstrated to be the main contributory factors affecting the calves’ survival.

  19. Prevalence of Warble Fly Infestation in Buffalo in Chakwal, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Waheed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is the major problem affecting livestock in many parts of the world. Amongst these parasitic problems, the warble fly infestation (hypodermosis is a notorious and common malady of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in Pakistan. The disease is endemic in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in semi-hilly and mountainous areas of Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of buffaloes an epidemiological survey was conducted to find the prevalence of hypodermosis in district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan, during the year 2005- 2006. Buffaloes are mainly kept for milk purpose in the study area. Out of 2000 buffaloes examined clinically, for grub infestation in the study area 125 (6.25% and 37 (5.20% found to be positive for the warble fly infestation in slaughter house as well as in the field. A prevalence variation among the male and female animals was also observed during the study. The factors of climatic conditions that favor the fly activity and contribute in the onset of disease.

  20. Cost Benefits Analysis of Anthelmintic Treatment of Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiq Ahmed Athar, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Tauseef-ur-Rehman and Izhar Ahmad Khan1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the point prevalence of various helminths of cattle and buffalo population of district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan and economic benefits of deworming with oxyclozanide. Out of 540 fecal samples examined, 205 (37.96% were found infected with helminths. Significantly higher (OR=2.2; P<0.05 prevalence of helminths was recorded in buffaloes (40%; 112/280 as compared to cattle (35.77%; 93/260. Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloide, Ostertagia, Fasciola (F. hepatica, F. gigantica and Haemonchus contortus were the helminth species identified in the study area. Oxyclozanide medicated buffaloes (E=96.66% and cattle (E=95.64% showed a significant decrease in fecal egg counts on day 14 post-treatment. An average daily increase of 0.89 and 0.71 liters of milk along with 0.42 and 0.37% more fat per buffalo and cattle, respectively was observed in oxyclozanide medication. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$ 0.47 (Pak Rupees 40 and US$ 0.41 (Pak Rupees 35 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. It can be concluded that single dose of oxyclozanide is effective against all bovine helminths.

  1. Solving the Traveling Salesman's Problem Using the African Buffalo Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odili, Julius Beneoluchi; Mohmad Kahar, Mohd Nizam

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the African Buffalo Optimization (ABO) which is a new metaheuristic algorithm that is derived from careful observation of the African buffalos, a species of wild cows, in the African forests and savannahs. This animal displays uncommon intelligence, strategic organizational skills, and exceptional navigational ingenuity in its traversal of the African landscape in search for food. The African Buffalo Optimization builds a mathematical model from the behavior of this animal and uses the model to solve 33 benchmark symmetric Traveling Salesman's Problem and six difficult asymmetric instances from the TSPLIB. This study shows that buffalos are able to ensure excellent exploration and exploitation of the search space through regular communication, cooperation, and good memory of its previous personal exploits as well as tapping from the herd's collective exploits. The results obtained by using the ABO to solve these TSP cases were benchmarked against the results obtained by using other popular algorithms. The results obtained using the African Buffalo Optimization algorithm are very competitive.

  2. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  3. Growth curve of buffalo grazing on a grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 17 buffaloes (Mediterranean, from birth to slaughter age (720 days with monthly measures of weight, thoracic perimeter, body length, and height at withers. At the end of experimental period, the animals were separated into two different groups for statistical analysis according to slaughter weight: light body weight (LBW, mean 517 kg and heavy body weight (HBW, mean 568 kg. Buffalo growth occurs in the same way up to weaning age, and after that, two distinct groups grow in different forms in the same conditions of management and feeding. Body weight can be estimated according to age, thoracic perimeter, height, and length, showing high correlations. Buffaloes show growth in a sigmoid-curve model.

  4. Ecological implications of bovine tuberculosis in African Buffalo herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alex; Cross, Paul C.; du Toit, Johan T.

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent invasion of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) into the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we conducted a study on the maintenance host, African buffalo, to investigate associations between BTB prevalence and calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, and endoparasite load. Statistical analyses compared herds of zero, medium (1–40%), and high (>40%) BTB prevalence. To control for ecological variation across the park we collected data in northern, central, and southern regions and restricted some analyses to particular regions of the park. Body condition declined over the course of the 2001 dry season, and buffaloes in the southern region of the park, with the highest BTB prevalence, were in worse condition than buffaloes in the northern region (which receives less annual rainfall but is still virtually BTB-free). Herd-level analyses of the entire park, the south and central regions, and just the southern region all indicated that herds of higher BTB prevalence were in worse condition and lost condition faster through the dry season than herds of lower BTB prevalence. Fecal endoparasite egg counts increased during the dry season and were associated with both decreased body condition and increased BTB prevalence. Although we did not detect any obvious effect of BTB on the age structure of the buffalo population, our findings indicate early symptoms of wider scale BTB-related ecological disturbances: buffalo herds with high BTB prevalence appear more vulnerable to drought (because of a decrease in body condition and an increase in endoparasite load), and because lions selectively kill weak buffaloes their prey base is accumulating a disproportionately high prevalence of BTB, to which lions are susceptible.Rea10.1890/02-5266d More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs

  5. Exploring DNA Polymorphisms of Leptin Gene within Indian Water Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Kale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a 16-kDa protein secreted predominantly from white adipose tissue and performs important roles in controlling the body weight, feed intake, immune function, production and reproduction. In present study, buffalo leptin gene was analyzed using DNA markers for polymorphism and its association with production traits. The PCR-RFLP analysis of leptin gene using BsaAI, Sau3AI and Kpn2I restriction enzymes revealed monomorphism. The PCR-SSCP followed by DNA sequencing of Murrah buffalo leptin gene spanning exon III revealed two SNPs viz., c.25 T>C and c.316A>G, which were used to genotype the Murrah, Surti and Bhadawari populations. The c.25 T>C allele frequencies was found 0.81 and 0.19 for C and T in Murrah; 0.65 and 0.35 for C and T in Surti and 0.65 and 0.35 for C and T in Bhadawari buffaloes respectively. The c.25T>C genotypes were not in Hardy-Weinberg proportions, however c.316A>G genotypes maintained equilibrium at this locus in the populations studied. The c.316A>G SNP allele frequencies were observed in Murrah 0.31 and 0.69 for A and G; Surti 0.3 and 0.7 for A and G and Bhadawari 0.3 and 0.7 for A and G respectively. The Murrah buffalo leptin allelic variant sequences revealed 99 % similarity with cattle sequence. The statistical analysis using general linear model procedure indicated that Murrah buffalo leptin c.25 T>C and c.316A>G SNP genotypes were not related significantly (P>0.01 with Murrah buffalo milk production traits viz; milk yield, fat percentage and SNF percentage.

  6. Economic Feed Utilization for Dairy Buffalo Under Intensive Agricultural System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Soliman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The national strategies for the irrigated intensive agricultural system in developing countries should focus upon Producing less expensive milk from dairy buffaloes that, efficiently, utilize the limited expensive produced feed resources. Therefore, planning for the least cost feeds combination is the most recommended approach to keep buffalo milk price at a competitive level and being low enough to make milk available for the major proportion of the low-income households, particularly “Vulnerable Groups”. Estimation of the least cost feed ration combination of the limited expensive feed resources were conducted from a recent farm survey of the dairy buffalo performances and the feed use pattern in Egypt. The estimated average production elasticity of fodder, concentrate feeds mix and straw, implies that their shares in generated buffalo milk income are 41.7%, 35%, and 23.3%, respectively.. The response of the human labor was of negative direction and statistically insignificant. This means that the labor used per dairy buffalo was beyond the economic level, that reflects the excess farm-family labor involved in such activity, because they have almost nil opportunity income of off farm work. The other capital inputs have small positive effect on milk production, The average marginal return from milk per onedollar expenditure reached $.1.08 for fodder, and $ 1.04 for concentrated feed mix, i.e. it is feasible to expand the usage of fodder more than concentrates. The wheat straw has shown uneconomic efficiency. Therefore, it is recommended to limit its level in the ration. The least cost ration reduces feed cost of one ton of buffalo milk equivalent (4% fat by 22%. The less costs of production will strength the competition of domestic supply either against in the international export market or against the dumping policies followed by exporters to the domestic market.

  7. Escherichia coli O26 IN RAW BUFFALO MILK: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O26 is considered to be one of the most important food-borne pathogen. In this study, 120 buffalo milk samples collected in Lazio and in Apulia regions were tested for the presence of E. coli O26. One buffalo milk sample (0,8% tested positive for E. coli O26; the isolate was positive at the verocytotoxicity test and it showed resistance properties to different antimicrobial classes. These preliminary results highlight the need to monitor the foods of animal origin used for production and eaten by a wide range of persons, respect VTEC organism.

  8. In vitro evaluation of liquid-stored buffalo semen at 5°C diluted in soya lecithin based extender (Bioxcell®), tris-citric egg yolk, skim milk and egg yolk-citrate extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Andrabi, S M H; Khalid, M

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to compare the quality of liquid-stored buffalo bull spermatozoa in soya lecithin based extender Bioxcell(®) (BIOX), milk (MILK), tris-citric egg yolk (TEY) and egg yolk-citrate (EYC) extender at 5°C. Semen was collected from five Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of 6-7 years of age with artificial vagina over a period of 3 weeks (two consecutive ejaculates once in a week). Semen ejaculates having more than 60% motility were pooled, split into four aliquots, diluted (37°C; 10 × 10(6) motile spermatozoa/ml), cooled from 37 to 5°C in 2 h (0.275°C/min) and stored for 5 days. Sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and normal acrosomal ridge were studied at first, third and fifth day of storage. Higher values of progressive sperm motility (%), sperm viability (%), sperm PMI (%) and normal apical ridge (%) were observed in BIOX, MILK and TEY extenders at first, third and fifth day of storage than EYC extender. Progressive sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm PMI in BIOX(®) extender were not different from MILK and TEY extenders at 1st and third day storage period. However, at fifth day of storage, the values for these parameters remained significantly higher (p<0.05) in BIOX(®) compared with MILK, TEY and EYC extenders. At fifth day of storage, the semen quality parameters for Bioxcell(®) were comparable to those with MILK and TEY extenders at third day of storage. In conclusion, motility, viability and PMI of buffalo bull spermatozoa remained similar in Bioxcell(®) , milk and TEY extender at first and third days of storage at 5°C. Yet, the values for the aforementioned parameters in Bioxcell(®) were higher compared with milk, TEY and EYC extender at fifth day of storage at 5°C. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Hemato-biochemical and clinico-epidemiological aspects of parturient hemoglobinuria in Nili-Ravi buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For this study, 60 buffaloes suffering from parturient hemoglobinuria (PHU were randomly selected from field cases occurring in three districts of Punjab, Pakistan and simultaneously, 60 clinically healthy buffaloes of similar description from the same localities were included for case control study. Clinico-epidemiological data were collected. Blood/serum samples from all buffaloes were collected and analyzed. The most prominent clinical sign was passing of red to coffee colored urine. Milk production was reduced and respiration and pulse rates were significantly accelerated. Ruminal motility was significantly weak and reduced along with characteristic straining while defecating. The case fatality was 15%. A significantly high occurrence of PHU was observed in the winter season (41.8%. Maximum number of affected buffaloes (25.0% was in 4th lactation. Twenty-seven (45.0% buffaloes developed hemoglobinuria in the post calving period and majority (59.3% of these were within 1-23 days of calving. Of the 33 (55.0% PHU affected pregnant buffaloes, 18 (54.6% were in their third trimester. The highest cases of PHU were observed in buffaloes producing 10 or more liters of milk/day (42.5%. Recurrence of PHU was observed in 18.3% buffaloes. Mean values of total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were lower (P<0.001, while erythrocyte sediment rate was higher (P<0.001 in PHU affected buffaloes as compared to the values in healthy buffaloes. Neutrophils were significantly higher, while lymphocytes and erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were lower, in PHU affected buffaloes than in healthy buffaloes. Serum phosphorus, copper and selenium were significantly (P<0.001 lower, whereas potassium, iron and molybdenum (P<0.001 were higher in buffaloes suffering from PHU than healthy buffaloes.

  10. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.

    2017-06-09

    The use of freshwater diversions (river reintroductions) from the Mississippi River as a restoration tool to rehabilitate Louisiana coastal wetlands has been promoted widely since the first such diversion at Caernarvon became operational in the early 1990s. To date, aside from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (which is designed and operated for flood control), there are only four operational Mississippi River freshwater diversions (two gated structures and two siphons) in coastal Louisiana, and they all target salinity intrusion, shellfish management, and (or) the enhancement of the integrity of marsh habitat. River reintroductions carry small sediment loads for various design reasons, but they can be effective in delivering fresh­water to combat saltwater intrusion and increase the delivery of nutrients and suspended fine-grained sediments to receiving wetlands. River reintroductions may be an ideal restoration tool for targeting coastal swamp forest habitat; much of the area of swamp forest habitat in coastal Louisiana is undergo­ing saltwater intrusion, high rates of submergence, and lack of riverine flow leading to reduced concentrations of important nutrients and suspended sediments, which sustain growth and regeneration, help to aerate swamp soils, and remove toxic compounds from the rhizosphere.The State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restora­tion Authority (CPRA) has made it a priority to establish a small freshwater river diversion into a coastal swamp forest located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, to reintroduce Mississippi River water to Maurepas Swamp. While a full understanding of how a coastal swamp forest will respond to new freshwater loading through a Mississippi River reintroduction is unknown, this report provides guidance based on the available literature for establishing performance measures that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

  11. Traditional and silvipastoral system on Eastern Amazon - production and carcass and meat quality from buffaloSistemas silvipastoril e tradicional na Amazônia Oriental – produção e qualidade da carcaça e carne de búfalos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Sarkis Peixoto Joele

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to comparatively evaluate the physical and physico-chemical properties of buffaloes carcasses (Bubalus bubalis, Murrah/Mediterranean finished in Traditional System, with pasture and mineral supplements, with buffalo, from same race, finished in a Silvopastoral System, with mineral supplementation and diet composed of organic residues, in research unit of Embrapa Eastern Amazon, Belém, Para State, Brazil. The slaughter occurred in commercial slaughterhouse, following its normal flow, with quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the carcasses. The experimental design was randomized, with the data submitted to ANOVA and means compared using the ‘t’ test at 5% significance. Animals from Silvopastoral System slaughtered at weights similar to those of Traditional System in different ages, showed better carcass conformation and fat distribution, with significant differences (P Objetivou-se avaliar comparativamente as características físicas e físico-químicas das carcaças de búfalos (Bubalus bubalis, Murrah/Mediterrâneo, terminados em Sistema Tradicional, com pastagem cultivada e suplementação mineral, com animais terminados em Sistema Silvipastoril, com suplementação mineral e ração composta por resíduos agroindustriais, em Unidades de Pesquisa da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, em Belém, Pará. Os abates ocorreram em abatedouro comercial, com posteriores avaliações quantitativas e qualitativas das carcaças. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, submetidos à análise de variância e médias comparadas pelo teste ‘t’, a 5% de significância. Os animais do Sistema Silvipastoril, abatidos com pesos similares aos do Sistema Tradicional, apresentaram melhor conformação de carcaça e acabamento de gordura, com diferenças significativas (P < 0,05 no marmoreio do músculo Longissimus dorsi e nos pesos de quartos traseiros, com aumento na produção de carnes nobres. Embora as carcaças tenham

  12. Caracterização das membranas fetais em búfalas no terço inicial da gestação Characterization of the fetal membranes in buffalo cows in the first three months of gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Morini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou à caracterização das membranas fetais em búfalas (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus 1758 no terço inicial da gestação. As membranas fetais foram analisadas macroscópica e microscopicamente (luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. O córion possui uma camada simples de células circulares, com núcleos de forma esférica, denominadas trofobláticas; há outro tipo celular, as células trofoblásticas gigantes, com dois ou mais núcleos. Ambas possuem uma grande quantidade de vesículas no citoplasma e retículo endoplasmático à microscopia de transmissão. O alantóide possui vasos preenchidos com eritrócitos, e contêm células alongadas, que formam um epitélio estratificado simples. O âmnion é uma membrana transparente, ou esbranquiçada; constituído por epitélio estratificado simples. A diferença principal entre o alantóide e o âmnion é que o último é avascular. O saco vitelínico é uma membrana opaca que desaparece durante a gestação; é a única membrana que não está em contato com as outras e apresenta três tipos diferentes de células que dão forma a três camadas distintas (endoderma, mesotélio, mesênquima.The aim of the study was to characterize the fetal membranes in buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus 1758 in the first 3 months of the gestation. The fetal membranes were analyzed gross and microscopically (light and ultrastructural analysis. The corion is a simple layer of circle cells, with spherical nucleus, named trofoblastics; there is another cellular type, named trophoblastic giant cells, with two or more nucleus. Both of them have many cytoplasmic and reticule endoplasmic vesicles on transmission electron microscopy. The allantoic has many vessels filled with eritrocytes, elongated cells which form a stratified simple epithelium. The amnion is transparent or sometimes whitish, consisting of a stratified simple epithelium. The main difference between the allantoic and amnion is

  13. Follicular dynamics, corpus luteum growth and regression in multiparous buffalo cows and buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ojeda R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Characterize the follicular dynamics and luteal growth and regression pattern of multiparous (MB and heifer (BH Murrah buffaloes in Colombian tropical conditions. Material and methods. Ten MB and ten BH were synchronized with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device. No artificial insemination was performed during the estrous and daily ultrasound examinations were performed 15 days later to determine the number and diameter of the structures present in both ovaries in the subsequent natural estrous cycle. The Student’s T test was used to evaluate differences between MB and BH. All data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Results. The length of the estrous cycle was 22.00±4.50 days for MB and 22.00±2.70 days for BH. Follicular growth occurs in one (n=1; 5.89%, two (n=14; 82.35% or three waves (n=2; 11.76%. The first wave initiated the day after ovulation with the recruitment of 8.33±2.06 and 10.00±2.72 follicles in MB and BH, while the second wave started on day 11.00±2.00 and 10.50±2.82, presenting 8.37±2.26 and 8.00±1.51 follicles. The third wave began on day 16.21±3.10 showing 6.50±1.70 follicles, only BM had three waves. The maximum luteal diameter was 19.58±4.16 mm and 17.74±3.32 mm respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups for these variables. Conclusions. These results show that the follicular development in buffaloes occurs in waves, where two waves is the most common pattern, as previously reported by other authors.

  14. Nonomuraea rhodomycinica sp. nov., isolated from peat swamp forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Supong, Khomsan; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2017-06-01

    The taxonomic position of an actinomycete, strain NR4-ASC07T, isolated from a soil sample collected from Sirindhorn peat swamp forest, Narathiwat Province, Thailand, was clarified using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it was classified among the members of the genus Nonomuraea. It produced tightly closed spiral spore chains on aerial mycelium as well as forming a pseudosporangium. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, ribose, madurose and mannose. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, unknown ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipids and unknown glycolipid. Menaquiones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H0), MK-9(H2), MK-10(H4) and MK-9(H6). Predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 0 10-methyl, C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c, C16 : 0 2-OH and iso-C15 : 0. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain fell within the clade containing Nonomuraea muscovyensis FMN03T, Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. roseoviolaceaNBRC 14098T and Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. carminataNBRC 15903T. The DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data supported that strain NR4-ASC07T was clearly distinguished from the closely related species and represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea for which the name Nonomuraea rhodomycinica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NR4-ASC07T (=NBRC 112327T=TISTR 2465T).

  15. Identification of retrotransposon-like sequences in Iranian river buffalo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may occur by mutations and extinction of elements during evolution. The identification of these retrotransposable elements for the first time in Iranian river buffalo represents an important step towards the understanding of mechanisms of genome evolution within the species and perhaps will be useful in other related ...

  16. Effect of housing system on behavioural activity of lactating buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grasso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of a pool on behaviour and milk yield, eighty-eight lactating buffalo cows equally allocated to two treatments were used. Group WP was provided with a concrete pool of 208 m2, 36 m2/ head + 10 m2 of outdoor and indoor space allowance, respectively, whereas group NP only received 10 m2. Less animals from group WP were observed idling (P<0.05 compared to buffaloes from group NP, whereas subjects provided with a pool were more often involved in investigative activities (locomotion and exploration than cows without access to it (P< 0.01. A higher number of social interactions (sniffing and nuzzling and allogrooming were observed in group WP than in group NP (P< 0.01 and P< 0.05, respectively. The WP buffalo cows exhibited a higher yield of milk than NP subject (P< 0.05, whereas no differences between the two groups were observed for protein and fat contents. The provision of a pool can have beneficial effects on behaviour and milk production of buffaloes.

  17. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Great Lakes, from cheap energy at nearby Niagara Falls, and from its railroad links to the great markets of North America. The opening of the Panama ...vious years. (Sweeny and Merckel: 1972). A 1977 benthic study of Buffalo Harbor showed the family Chironomidae was the most diverse group followed by

  18. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    between 1933-1937 of 98 million bushels (Barrick, 1970). The opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, the growing use of alternative inland waterways, and...Sweeny and Merckel: 1972). A 1977 benthic study of Buffalo Harbor showed the family Chironomidae was the most diverse group followed by Tubificidae and

  19. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus in buffaloes and wildebeests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sero-survey was conducted in buffalo and wildebeests in Ngorongoro Crater and Serengeti National Park (SNP) collectively known as Serengeti ecosystem to establish the level of exposure to Brucella arbortus. Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test and Competitive ELISA were used serially in the analysis of 205 serum ...

  20. Listeric septicaemia and abotion in African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listeria monocytogenes infection is insidious in mammals and systemic cases have been reported. We report an unusual clinical case and manifestation of Listeria monocytogenes infection in an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) culminating in septicemia and abortion. The infection was unsuspected but only diagnosed by ...

  1. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cairo H S De Oliveira; Jose D Barbosa; Karine A Damasceno; Geovanni D Cassali; Carlos MC Oliveira; Romulo C Leite; Jenner K P Reis

    2016-01-01

    .... The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV...

  2. Inhibitory activity of the peptides derived from buffalo prolactin on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The peptide fragments obtained by cathepsin digestion of purified buffalo prolactin (buPRL) monomer have been characterized using SDS-PAGE and FPLC with regard to size and pI. Their antiangiogenic activity was tested in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and the human endothelial cells wound ...

  3. Inhibitory activity of the peptides derived from buffalo prolactin on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The peptide fragments obtained by cathepsin digestion of purified buffalo prolactin (buPRL) monomer have been characterized using SDS-PAGE and FPLC with regard to size and pI. ... The synthetic peptide matching with SST sequence was found to exhibit antiangiogenic activity in both in vitro and ex vivo assays.

  4. CAUSES OF DISPOSAL OF MURRAH BUFFALO FROM AN ORGANISED HERD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taraphder

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprised of 602 disposal records of adult Murrah buffaloes , spread over a period of 16 years from 1985 to 2000 at NDRI, Karnal, Haryana. Analysed data showed that the reproductive problems (38.62, low milk production (24.01 and udder problems (22.76 were the three major reasons of culling in adult Murrah buffaloes . The culling of cows due to involuntary reason (reproductive problems, udder problems and locomotive disorders accounted for nearly 63.68 percent of total culling in Murrah buffaloes in the NDRI herd. The data revealed that maximum mortality occurred due to digestive problems accounting for 30.89 percent followed by cardio-vascular problems (26.02 percent, respiratory problems (21.14 percent, parasitic problems (8.13 percent and uro-genital problems (5.69 percent. The results showed that there is a scope for further improvement in production and reproductive efficiency through better monitoring of reproduction and udder health status of the buffaloes. The high involuntary culling rate not only makes the dairy enterprises economically less profitable but also reduces the genetic improvement by lowering the selection differential for milk production.

  5. Biological nitrogen fixation and habitat of running buffalo clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.R. Morris; V.S. Baligar; T.M. Schuler; P.J. Harmon

    2002-01-01

    Running buffalo clover (RBC) [Trifolium stoloniferum (Muhl. ex Eat.)] is an endangered species whose survival is uncertain. An experiment was conducted on extant RBC sites to investigate biological nitrogen (N2) fixation, associated plant species, and soil conditions under natural mountain settings. Isotope (15...

  6. Genetic variation among Northern and Southern Egyptian buffaloes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hussiun

    2012-08-14

    Aug 14, 2012 ... ACG GCC GAC C. 701. CCC ACA ACC C. 705. GGA GGA AGG G. 713. CCC TCC CTC T. 725. GGG TTG GGT G. 731. CCC ACA CCA C. 743. CCA CCC ACA C. 745. GGG AAG AGG G. 747. CCA CCA ACC C. Table 2. Band frequencies for random primers in tested buffalo populations. Band number. North.

  7. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C.; Carmo, Priscila M.S.; Iversen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw) (similar to 1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw). The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a...

  8. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Barbosa, José D; Damasceno, Karine A; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Carlos Mc; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-10-20

    The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas. Over a period of ten years, four buffaloes were observed presenting progressive weight loss, swelling of peripheral lymph nodes, and nodules in the subcutaneous tissue. Upon necropsy, whitish-colored tumor masses were observed in the form of nodules in the subcutaneous tissue, along with miliary nodules on the serosal surfaces of abdominal and thoracic organs and tumors in lymph nodes and other organs. Neoplastic lymphocyte proliferation was observed through histopathology. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the neoplasias were formed by proliferation of predominantly B lymphocytes. The presence of BLV genome was not detected in the lymphomas when using the real-time PCR technique, nor was it detected through immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against two viral proteins. Bovine herpesvirus 6 was not detected in the tumors. However, Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was detected in samples of lymphoma and in the lymph nodes and kidneys of one of the animals. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes is reported for the first time in Brazil and is characterized by B-cell multicentric lymphoma. The etiology of the disease does not appear to be associated with BLV; however, the detection of BIV in samples of lymphoma from one sick animal deserves further study, considering the oncogenic potential of this virus.

  9. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairo H S De Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas. Results Over a period of ten years, four buffaloes were observed presenting progressive weight loss, swelling of peripheral lymph nodes, and nodules in the subcutaneous tissue. Upon necropsy, whitish-colored tumor masses were observed in the form of nodules in the subcutaneous tissue, along with miliary nodules on the serosal surfaces of abdominal and thoracic organs and tumors in lymph nodes and other organs. Neoplastic lymphocyte proliferation was observed through histopathology. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the neoplasias were formed by proliferation of predominantly B lymphocytes. The presence of BLV genome was not detected in the lymphomas when using the real-time PCR technique, nor was it detected through immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against two viral proteins. Bovine herpesvirus 6 was not detected in the tumors. However, Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV was detected in samples of lymphoma and in the lymph nodes and kidneys of one of the animals. Conclusions The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes is reported for the first time in Brazil and is characterized by B-cell multicentric lymphoma. The etiology of the disease does not appear to be associated with BLV; however, the detection of BIV in samples of lymphoma from one sick animal deserves further study, considering the oncogenic potential of this virus.

  10. Rotavirus diarrhoea in Buffaloes: epidemiology, pathogenesys and prophilaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Pagnini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, rotavirus infection is the most important cause of severe diarrhea in infants and animals. In this report, we review the results of pathogenesys studies, strain surveillance and characterization studies published and discuss new insights gained from these studies on the potential mechanisms of the evolution and spread of new rotavirus strains. Early epidemiological studies in Italian buffalo herds revealed the predominance of strains with G8 specificity and detected strains with the rare, RRV-like, VP4 P[3] genotype. In an our previous study 125 fecal samples were collected from buffalo calves affected with diarrhoea, in seven dairy farms in Southern Italy. Rotaviruses were detected in 21 samples (16.8% by an immunochromatographic assay and by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR. Analysis of the VP7 gene revealed that 57% (12 of 21 of the isolates were G6, 23.8% were G8 (5 of 21 and 19% (4 of 21 were G10. Analysis of the VP4 revealed that 71.4% (15 of 21 of the isolates were P[5] and that 28.6% (6 of 21 were P[1]. The most common combination of G and P types was P[5],G6 (57%, followed by P[1],G10 (19%, P[5],G8 (14% and P[1],G8 (9.5%. While P[5],G6 rotaviruses are very common in Italian bovine herds, the antigenic combination P[1],G10 is unusual and presumably derives from reassortment between P[1] and G10 strains, that appear to be more frequent in buffaloes and bovines, respectively. The presence of bovine-like G and P serotypes suggests that in Italy the epidemiology of buffalo rotaviruses overlaps the epidemiology of bovine rotaviruses, presumably because of the strict species affinity and/or of the intermingled distribution over the same geographical areas of the buffalo and bovine herds.

  11. Variação Polimórfica de Hemoglobinas em Búfalos (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Rodrigues Ramos

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present report the biochemical polymorphism of hemoglobins in 96 Indian buffaloes from different breed groups of Murrah, Jafarabadi and Mediterranean races reared in the experimental farm Lageado - UNESP - Botucatu, State of São Paulo was studied. Hemoglobins variants were identified through agarstarch gel electrophoresis, in discontinuous buffer system, pH 8.6. Animals showing one fast band (A, were considered AA (4.4%; buffaloes with two bands (A, and A2 were considered AB (31.87% when A2 was weak and BB (31.87%, when A2 was strong. A third band was detected, named N. Phenotypes with three bands with the respective frequencies: ABN (3.3% and BBN (30.77%. Densitometric analyses and the lack of AAN phenotype drove us to conclude that, in some way, the mutant (3 chains synthesis that originated N band was related probably to a" allele. Probably, the high frequency of N band was due to the intensive use of few breeders.

  12. Evaluation of biochemical alterations produced by combined exposure of fenvalerate and nitrate in Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalpreet Kaur Gill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of combined effect of fenvalerate and nitrate on biochemical parameters in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male buffalo calves were divided into four groups of four calves each. Group I receiving no treatment served as the control. Group II and III animals were orally administered with fenvalerate (1.0 mg/kg/day and sodium nitrate (20 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 21 consecutive days and were kept as positive control. Group IV animals were co-administered with fenvalerate and sodium nitrate at the above dose rates for 21 consecutive days. Biochemical parameters including Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Glucose, Total protein, Albumin, Cholesterol, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN and Creatinine were determined on 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 day of treatment. Estimation of these parameters was also done on 7th day of post-treatment period. Results: Co-administration of fenvalerate and sodium nitrate produced significant increase in the plasma levels of AST, ALP, GGT, LDH, glucose, BUN, cholesterol and creatinine while significant decrease in the plasma levels of total proteins was observed. No significant alteration was observed in albumin levels. Extent of organ damage as evidenced by biochemical alterations was more pronounced in calves exposed to combination of fenvalerate and sodium nitrate as compared to their individual exposures. Conclusion: Fenvalerate and sodium nitrate co-administration potentiates the toxicological injury produced, in comparison to their individual exposure.

  13. Using a dynamic hydrology model to predict mosquito abundances in flood and swamp water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Stieglitz, Marc; Stark, Colin; Le Blancq, Sylvie; Cane, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We modeled surface wetness at high resolution, using a dynamic hydrology model, to predict flood and swamp water mosquito abundances. Historical meteorologic data, as well as topographic, soil, and vegetation data, were used to model surface wetness and identify potential fresh and swamp water breeding habitats in two northern New Jersey watersheds. Surface wetness was positively associated with the subsequent abundance of the dominant floodwater mosquito species, Aedes vexans, and the swamp water species, Anopheles walkeri. The subsequent abundance of Culex pipiens, a species that breeds in polluted, eutrophic waters, was negatively correlated with local modeled surface wetness. These associations permit real-time monitoring and forecasting of these floodwater and nonfloodwater species at high spatial and temporal resolution. These predictions will enable public health agencies to institute control measures before the mosquitoes emerge as adults, when their role as transmitters of disease comes into play.

  14. The Effects of Corrosive Chemicals on Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement Bars: I. Swamp Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyoweni Widanarko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of infrastructures using steel concrete to reinforce the strength of concrete. Steel concrete is so vulnerable to chemical compounds that can cause corrosion. It can happen due to the presence of chemical compounds in acid environment in low pH level. These chemical compounds are SO42-, Cl-, NO3-. There are many swamp area in Indonesia. The acid contents and the concentration of ion sulphate, chlorides, and nitrate are higher in the swamp water than in the ground water .The objective of this research was to find out the influence of corrosive chemicals in the swamp water to the steel concrete corrosion rate. There were two treatment used: (1 emerging ST 37 and ST 60 within 60 days in the 'polluted' swamp water, (2 moving the ST 37 up and down periodically in the ' polluted' swamp water. Three variation of 'polluted' swamp water were made by increasing the concentration of corrosive chemical up to 1X, 5X and 10X respectively. The corrosion rate was measured by using an Immersion Method. The result of Immersion test showed that chloride had the greatest influence to corrosion rate of ST 37 and ST 60 and followed by sulphate and Nitrate. Corrosion rate value for ST 37 is 24.29 mpy and for ST 60 is 22.76 mpy. By moving the sample up and down, the corrosion rate of ST 37 increase up to 37.59 mpy, and chloride still having the greatest influence, followed by sulphate and nitrate.

  15. Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lydia E S; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c. 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance. Evidence for episodes of climatic variability, predominantly linked to ENSO events, and wildfires is present throughout. However, in the last c. 500 years, burning and indicators of human disturbance have elevated beyond past levels at these sites, concurrent with a reduction in peat swamp forest pollen. 4. Two key insights have been gained through this palaeoecological analysis: (i) peat swamp forest vegetation has demonstrated resilience to disturbance caused by burning and climatic variability in Sarawak in the late Holocene, however (ii) coincident with increased fire combined with human impact c. 500 years ago, these communities started to decline. 5.Synthesis. Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggest that recent, anthropogenic disturbances are of a greater magnitude, causing

  16. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  17. A Cultural Resources Survey of Proposed Project Areas in the Buffalo Harbor, Erie County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    1379 Grain Elevators of Buffalo. Publications of the Buffalo Historical Society, Vol. 1. Buffalo. s7O iii. - A Davis , Margaret, B. 1958 Three Pollen...Anthropology, University of Michigan, No. 65. Ann Arbor. Hedin, Karl E. 1966 Directory of Shipwrecks of the Great Lakes. Bruce Humphries . Boston. Hill...the War of 1812.. 4. International Railroad Bridge -Niagara and Bridge Streets. This bridge crossing the Niagara River was built by Sir Casimer S

  18. Evaluation of fertility in relation to milk production and productivity of Murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamuna, V; Chakravarty, A K

    2016-08-01

    Intense selection of buffaloes for milk production at organized herds of the country without giving due attention to fertility traits has lead to deterioration in their performances. The study was initiated to assess the relationship between milk production and productivity with fertility in Murrah buffaloes. In the present study, fertility was defined in terms of pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes. Pregnancy rate measures the percentage of non-pregnant animals that become pregnant during each oestrous cycle. Data pertaining to 1224 lactation records of Murrah buffaloes spread over a period 22 years from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed in the study. It was observed that pregnancy rate is negatively associated with 305days or less milk yield (-0.08±0.04) and wet average (-0.12±0.02) and positively associated with life time (0.15±0.03) in Murrah buffaloes. Wet average is defined as average daily milk yield per lactation of Murrah buffaloes. To achieve around 2000kg 305days or less milk yield and 7.5kg wet average, the level of pregnancy rate in Murrah buffaloes should vary between 30 and 50%. The per unit change in pregnancy rate with respect to milk yield in Murrah buffaloes, were studied using regression analysis. The results suggest that increasing hundred kilogram in 305days or one kilogram milk yield per day in 305days, pregnancy rate reduced by 0.9% in overall lactations of Murrah buffaloes. By increasing hundred kilogram life time 305days or less milk yield and one kilogram life time wet average, pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes reduced by about 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively. The study quantifies the decline of pregnancy rate with increase of lactation milk yield and wet average in Murrah buffaloes and emphasis the importance of fertility i.e. pregnancy rate in the evaluation and breeding programmes of Murrah buffaloes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New approaches in buffalo artificial insemination programs with special reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Balhara, A K

    2016-07-01

    Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac biomarkers and ultrasonography as tools in prediction and diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis in Egyptian buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Noura E. Attia

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the cardiac biomarkers and ultrasonography in prediction and early diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis (TP) in Egyptian buffaloes. Materials and Methods: A total number of 47 buffaloes were included in the study and divided into two groups: Healthy (n=10) and diseased groups (n=37). Diseased buffaloes were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Zagazig University, Egypt, with a history of anorexia, sudden, and severe reduction of milk producti...

  1. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

    OpenAIRE

    Nasr-Eldin M. Aref; Ali El-Sebaie; Hammad Zaghloul Hammad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to: (1) Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2) Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift) in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo) were included in the study. Animals were divide...

  2. The role of grazing land on the buffalo population dynamics in Brebes regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanto

    2017-04-01

    Brebes District is one of the centre of grazing buffalo in Indonesia that involve thousands of rearers usually kept as a family savings. This paper highlighted the availability of land and the role of the grazing land for the durability of the maintenance of buffalo in Brebes Regency. The information obtained is from interviewed the livestock facilitators in the sub-district (primary data) and from statistic of agriculture in Brebes Regency 2014 (secondary data). Generally the buffalo kept semi-intensively and commonly the buffaloes graze in the fields that are not used from morning until evening and during nights buffaloes are placed in the stalls. Rearers chose the semi-intensive system in rearing the buffalo because it is considered easy to manage and they do not need to provide fresh money to prepare the roughage for feed, because commonly the grazing buffalo are shepherd by herdman that will receive buffalo as their payment. The population density is very high (1.056 heads/km2), the buffalo ownership is between 2-4 head/households; generally the location of the grazing land is in the forest, rice fields fallow, and sleeping land, and estimated that greenfeed stock is still available abunandtly, on the other hand the urban land is less capacity of feed. The spread of buffalo is only in 125 villages from 297 villages in Brebes. The acceptance of buffalo business is around IDR 3.5 million to IDR 7.5 million/family/year. The availability of grazing land strongly influence the maintaining of buffalo farming by rearers.

  3. Transabdominal color doppler ultrasonography: A relevant approach for assessment of effects of uterine torsion in buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Devender; Ramesh Kumar Chandolia; Anand Kumar Pandey; Vishal Yadav; Parveen Kumar; Jasmer Dalal

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted on advanced pregnant buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion to assess the status of fetus and uterus by transabdominal ultrasonography, and the findings were compared with normal advanced pregnant buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 clinical cases of uterine torsion and 20 normal advanced pregnant buffaloes (control group). The lower ventral area just lateral to linea alba (on both sides of the udder) in standing animals wa...

  4. Prevalence of Balantidium coli in Buffaloes at different areas of Mymensingh

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, B.C.; Mondal, M. M. H.; Talukder, M.H.; Majumder, S

    2011-01-01

    Balantidium coli is a common protozoan disease of animals. A total of 151 buffaloes were examined through faecal examination, of which 68 (45.03%) found to be infected with B. coli infection. Prevalence of B. coli infection was relatively higher in adult buffaloes (49.52%) aged > 5 years than young (39.29%) aged > 2- ≤ 5 years and buffalo calves (27.78%) aged ≤ 2 years. Higher prevalence of B. coli was observed in female (47.32%) than that of male (38.46%) buffaloes which are not statisticall...

  5. Chemical composition and some properties of modified buffalo milk for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ella, W M; Faharat, S M; Zawahry, M R

    1976-01-01

    A proposed formula for modifying buffalo milk for infant feeding was described. Buffalo milk was diluted with four parts of whey that was produced by addition of citric acid or lemon juice to milk and neutralization with sodium bicarbonate. The chemical composition and the properties of the proposed formula were compared with raw buffalo milk, human milk and buffalo milk modified by the ordinary method. The proposed formula was characterised by low casein/whey protein N comparable to human milk and by curd tension.

  6. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar, Shyam P.; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; K. N. Wadhwani; Darji, V. B.; Aparnathi, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT) of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT ...

  7. Comparison of quality attributes of buffalo meat curry at different storage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeepan, Gurunathan; Anjaneyulu, Anne Seet Ram; Kondaiah, Napa; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The product quality of curry is determined by the food animal source, raw materials and the method of processing. Moreover the scientific information on processing and quality of traditional buffalo meat curry from different groups of buffaloes is not available. This study was undertaken to develop processed curry from different buffalo groups and to compare its quality during storage at ambient and refrigeration temperature. The meat samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi muscle of the carcasses from each group of buffaloes slaughtered according to the traditional halal method. Buffalo meat curry was prepared in a pressure cooker with the standardized formulation. This final product was subjected to evaluation of quality and shelf life. To evaluate the effect of different groups of meat samples on the quality of curry, product yield, pH, proximate composition, water activity (aw), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), calorific value, sensory attributes and microbiological assay were determined The energy of meat curry from young buffaloes was significantly lower than the meat curry from spent animal groups. The overall acceptability of curry decreased significantly during 3 days ambient storage compared to refrigeration storage. Scientific processing by adopting good manufacturing practices and suitable packaging helped greatly to improve the shelf life of the ambient temperature stored buffalo meat curry. Buffalo meat curry from young male group showed better product characteristics and overall acceptability scores than spent buffalo group.

  8. PREVALENCE OF ENDO (TREMATODES) AND ECTO-PARASITES IN COWS AND BUFFALOES OF QUETTA, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    M. N. KAKAR AND J. K. KAKARSULEMANKHEL1

    2008-01-01

    Prevalence of endo and ecto-parasites in cows and buffaloes were investigated in Quetta city, Pakistan. A total of 396 livers and gall bladders of cows and 340 of buffaloes were selected randomly. Overall prevalence of liver parasites in cows and buffaloes was 45.70 and 37.05%, respectively. The species found in livers of cows were: Fasciola hepatica (16.16%), Fasciola gigantica (12.37%), Paramphistomum explanatum (7.82%) and mixed infections (9.34%). The corresponding values for buffaloes ...

  9. Identificação diferencial de Rhodococcus equi e Dietzia maris em bubalinos Differential identification of Rhodococcus equi and Dietzia maris in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Viana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 24 isolados bacterianos oriundos de leite e pele de búfalas (Bubalus bubalis, os quais foram previamente identificados como Rhodococcus equi com o auxílio de fenotipia concisa. Testes fenotípicos complementares e ferramentas moleculares foram utilizados com o objetivo de caracterizar esses isolados, bem como diferenciá-los de outros microrganismos intimamente relacionados. Observaram-se três fenótipos distintos, porém a identificação dos isolados foi inconclusiva. Apenas um dos isolados foi comprovado como sendo R. equi com a realização da PCR espécie-específica, sequenciamento e análise dos fragmentos de DNA. Os demais isolados só foram identificados pelo sequenciamento de fragmento do gene que codifica a região 16S do rRNA universal de bactérias, indicando tratar-se de Dietzia maris. O perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos revelou maior resistência dos isolados de D. maris para oxacilina (96% e rifampicina (87%. O isolado de R. equi apresentou resistência à amicacina, oxacilina, penicilina, rifampicina e tetraciclina. Alerta-se para o risco da incorreta identificação dos isolados baseados em testes fenotípicos concisos e para a necessidade de utilização de testes complementares para diferenciação entre R. equi e D. maris.Twenty-four bacterial isolates from milk and skin of buffalo females (Bubalus bubalis, which previously had been identified as Rhodococcus equi by using a restricted number of phenotypical tests for bacterial characterization, were analyzed. The goal of this study was to perform the characterization of these isolates, as well as the differentiation of other microorganisms closely related by using additional phenotypical tests and molecular tools. Based on the phenotypical results, three different biotypes were obtained. However, the identification of the isolates was inconclusive. Only one of the isolates was confirmed as R. equi by the PCR specifically for this species, as

  10. Milk flow traits of buffalo cows in intensive farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zucali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The particular morphology of buffalo udder is associated to milking difficulties. To better understandthe characteristics of milk ejection in buffaloes, a study was conducted in an intensive farm in Lombardy, Italy. Atotal of 184 milk flow profiles were measured with an electronic flow meter. The results showed that during the first3 minutes of milking 73% of total milk yield was milked; lag time of milk ejection (1.94 min ± 1.57 was very longand increased significantly with the increasing of lactation stage. The overmilking phase has also a long duration(33% of total milking time, on average. Administration of oxytocin before milking did not significantly affect milkflow parameters and machine on-time. The results suggested that proper pre-milking stimulation and prompt clustertakeoff could improve milking efficiency, ensuring good milk letdown and protecting teat conditions.

  11. Oil spill impact on the finfish of Azhiwari swamp, Joinkrama in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of an oil spill on surface water, sediment and finfish assemblage characteristics in a freshwater swamp forest was assessed by dividing the wetland into four zones on the basis of spilled oil cover on the water surface – High Impact Zone (HIZ >60%), Medium Impact Zone (MIZ 30 – 60%), Low Impact Zone - (LIZ 5 ...

  12. Effect of gas flaring on plants in a tropical fresh water swamp forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An oil field in a fresh water swamp forest was visited during the wet and dry seasons to assess the impact of gas flaring on vegetation in the area. Gas flaring attracts yam beetles (Heteroligus spp.) and grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates) to the area, and these attack crops. Generally, the nearer plantain (Musa sp.) and oil ...

  13. Floristic composition and diversity of three swamp forests in northwest Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, T.R. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the floristic composition, vegetation structure, and diversity of three types of swamp forest that cover a considerable part of Guyana’s North-West District. Trees, shrubs, lianas, herbs, and hemi-epiphytes were inventoried in three hectare plots: one in Mora forest, one in

  14. Management of Bottomland Hardwoods and Deepwater Swamps for Threatened and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Zone Species II III IV V VI Acer negundo (boxelder) X X X X Acer rubrum (red maple) X X X X Alnus serrulata (common alder) X X X Amorpha...virginiana (persimmon) X X X X Euonymus americanus (strawberry bush) X X Fagus grandifolia (American beech) X X Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet) X

  15. Diversity and Antagonistic Activity of Actinomycete Strains From Myristica Swamp Soils Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Rlnoy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the present investigation Actinomycetes were isolated from the soils of Myristica swamps of southern Western Ghats and the antagonistic activity against different human bacterial pathogens was evaluated. Results of the present study revealed that Actinomycetes population in the soils of Myristica swamp was spatially and seasonally varied. Actinomycetes load was varied from 24×104 to 71×103, from 129×103 to 40×103 and from 31×104 to 84×103 in post monsoon, monsoon and pre monsoon respectively. A total of 23 Actinomycetes strains belonging to six genera were isolated from swamp soils. Identification of the isolates showed that most of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces (11, followed by Nocardia (6, Micromonospora (3, Pseudonocardia (1, Streptosporangium (1, and Nocardiopsis (1. Antagonistic studies revealed that 91.3% of Actinomycete isolates were active against one or more tested pathogens, of that 56.52% exhibited activity against Gram negative and 86.95% showed activity against Gram positive bacteria. 39.13% isolates were active against all the bacterial pathogens selected and its inhibition zone diameter was also high. 69.5% of Actinomycetes were exhibited antibacterial activity against Listeria followed by Bacillus cereus (65.21%, Staphylococcus (60.86%, Vibrio cholera (52.17%, Salmonella (52.17% and E. coli (39.13%. The results indicate that the Myristica swamp soils of Southern Western Ghats might be a remarkable reserve of Actinomycetes with potential antagonistic activity.

  16. Potential roles of fish, birds, and water in swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata) seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan B. Adams; Paul B. Hamel; Kristina Connor; Bryce Burke; Emile S. Gardiner; David Wise

    2007-01-01

    Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet) is a common wetland shrub/small tree native to the southeastern United States. We examined several possible dispersal avenues for the plant. We tested germination of seeds exposed to various treatments, including passage through Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh) guts, and conducted other...

  17. Skin disease affecting the conservation of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, J M; Kuchling, G; Burford, D; Boardman, W; Raidal, S R

    1998-11-01

    To review the present position of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) as an endangered species and significant health issues affecting efforts to save it from extinction. A retrospective analysis of the husbandry, hospital and pathology records of the western swamp tortoise captive breeding program at Perth Zoo. In 1987 a captive breeding project was developed to prevent the extinction of the western swamp tortoise but an outbreak of a necrotising dermatitis in 1989 threatened the survival of the captive bred hatchlings. Less severe outbreaks occurred in 1990 and 1993, with isolated cases in between. Of 283 tortoises that were born in captivity or came into captivity from the wild, 37 (13.1%) were affected, comprising 37% of all males, 26% of all females and 13% of animals of unknown gender. Of the affected animals, 70% were less than 2 years of age and 29% were older. Males were 1.6 times more likely to be infected than females but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.27). Culture of the lesions consistently yielded unidentified Pseudomonas sp. Improved husbandry, such as strict maintenance of water quality and temperature conditions similar to that of the animal's natural habitat, and monitoring the health of individual tortoises have successfully controlled skin disease in the captive breeding of the western swamp tortoise.

  18. Decline of the Maurepas Swamp, Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, and Approaches to Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P. Shaffer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maurepas swamp is the second largest contiguous coastal forest in Louisiana but it is highly degraded due to subsidence, near permanent flooding, nutrient starvation, nutria herbivory, and saltwater intrusion. Observed tree mortality rates at study sites in the Maurepas swamp are very high (up to 100% tree mortality in 11 years and basal area decreased with average salinities of <1 ppt. Habitat classification, vegetation productivity and mortality, and surface elevation changes show a clear trajectory from stagnant, nearly permanently flooded forests with broken canopy to degraded forests with sparse baldcypress and dominated by herbaceous species and open water to open water habitat for most of the Maurepas swamp without introduction of fresh water to combat saltwater intrusion and stimulate productivity and accretion. Healthy forests in the Maurepas are receiving fresh water containing nutrients and sediments from urban areas, high quality river water, or secondarily treated municipal effluent. Currently, two proposed diversions into the swamp are via Hope Canal (57 m3·s−1 and Blind River (142 m3·s−1. These diversions would greatly benefit their immediate area but they are too small to influence the entire Maurepas sub-basin, especially in terms of accretion. A large diversion (>1422 m3·s−1 is needed to deliver the adequate sediments to achieve high accretion rates and stimulate organic soil formation.

  19. Survey of economic trees in fresh water swamp of Calabar | Okon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of economic trees namely Elaeis guineensis (oil-palm) and Colocasia esculenta (taro) in fresh water swamp, Calabar was conducted. The survey area located in the vicinity of Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH), Calabar premises covered an area of 0.5km x 0.2km was divided into five plots (A – E).

  20. Isolation and antigenicity evaluation of β-lactoglobulin from buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buffalo β-lactoglobulin in phosphate buffer (0.02 M, pH6.8) was adsorbed on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow gel, and eluted with a linear gradient of NaCl (0-0.5 M) in 0.02 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. A further purification was performed on Sephadex G-75 gel by loading a concentrated and dialyzed fraction of samples ...

  1. Relationship between lactodinamographic and characteristics of buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Potena

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between 44 components and/or characteristics of milk samples collected every 50 days from 60 buffaloes (326 samples and 14,344 values. The animals were half sib (same father or same mother and were bred in two farms. Significant associations but with a low values of coefficient of correlation were present, demonstrating that lactodinamographic parameters marginally affect cheese yield.

  2. Inhibitory activity of the peptides derived from buffalo prolactin on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci. Inhibitory activity of the peptides derived from buffalo prolactin on angiogenesis. JAEOK LEE, SYAMANTAK MAJUMDER, SUVRO CHATTERJEE and KAMBADUR MURALIDHAR. M L1 L2 L3 L4 L5. (A). (B). Densitometry of 15% SDS-PAGE on 20th Oct. 07. 0. 0.5. 1. 1.5. Rf. O.D.. Protein Marker.

  3. Estimates of genetic parameters for fat yield in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors affecting milk fat yield and to estimate genetic parameters of monthly test day fat yields (MTDFY and lactation 305-day fat yield (L305FY in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The data on total of 10381 MTDFY records comprising the first four lactations of 470 Murrah buffaloes calved from 1993 to 2014 were assessed. These buffaloes were sired by 75 bulls maintained in an organized farm at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. Least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic and non-genetic parameters. Heritability estimates were obtained using paternal half-sib correlation method. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among MTDFY, and 305-day fat yield were calculated from the analysis of variance and covariance matrix among sire groups. Results: The overall least squares mean of L305FY was found to be 175.74±4.12 kg. The least squares mean of overall MTDFY ranged from 3.33±0.14 kg (TD-11 to 7.06±0.17 kg (TD-3. The h2 estimate of L305FY was found to be 0.33±0.16 in this study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations between 305-day fat yield and different MTDFY ranged from 0.32 to 0.48 and 0.51 to 0.99, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, all the genetic and non-genetic factors except age at the first calving group, significantly affected the traits under study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations of MTDFY with 305-day fat yield was generally higher in the MTDFY-5 of lactation suggesting that this TD yields could be used as the selection criteria for early evaluation and selection of Murrah buffaloes.

  4. Study on growth performance of Murrah buffaloes raised under farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VCRI_AN_GENETICS

    used for this study. Data were analysed using least-squares procedures. The adjusted birth weights of male and female calves were 33.0 ± 0.49 and 31.9 ± 0.27 kg, respectively, with an overall value of 32.4 ± 0.30 kg. .... Murrah buffaloes in its breeding tract are generally hot, semi-arid and dry in nature; whereas the climatic.

  5. Phragmites Management at Times Beach, Buffalo, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    other species in each treatment area was also recorded. Treatment Phragmites % Cover # of other species present TA1 Glyphosate + Cutting 0.82...Biology. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii. Kay, S. 1995. Efficacy of wipe-on applications of glyphosate and imazapyr on common reed in aquatic ...next five years, the site attracted a variety of fish, plant, and bird species . In 1976, the Ornithological Society of Buffalo requested that the USACE

  6. Primary production in an impounded baldcypress swamp (Taxodium distichum) at the northern limit of the range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)swamps to maintain themselves near the northern limit of their range depends on their levels of production, which is not only are response to climate but also to local environmental factors(e.g., impoundment). We asked if primary production was reduced under impounded conditions and if species' responses to impoundment were individualistic or more generalized. To examine long-term production trends in a permanently impounded baldcypress swamp, a 6-year study of leaf litterfall was conducted in Buttonland Swamp, Illinois, which had been impounded for 10 years before the beginning of the study. Buttonland Swamp is at the northern boundary of the baldcypress swamp region along the Cache River, Illinois, in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley of the United States. When the litter production of impounded sites was compared to those with natural hydrology in the same region, impounded sites had about half of the total litterfall of natural sites. Overall, leaf litterfall rates declined during the study(201 vs. 113 gm-2 yr-1), but the pattern was negatively correlated with water depth, which explained 97% of the variation in the data. Along the transect with the lowest mean minimum water depth(<0.5 cm), leaf litterfall decreased linearly over 6 years from 377 to 154gm-2 yr-1. Total leaf litterfall rates were lower at the other three depths(5, 43, and 49 cm mean minimum water depths)and remained below 200 gm-2 yr -1 throughout the study. Acer saccharinum, Nyssa aquatica, and Salix nigra were most responsible for the decline in total leaf litterfall. Amounts of leaf litterfall of T. distichum and Liquidambar styraciflua also generally decreased, while that of Cephalanthus occidentalis increased overtime. Because species' responses to environmental factors such as impoundment are individualistic, models should be based on the responses of individual species, rather than on communities. Our study further suggests that the

  7. 78 FR 73584 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Corporate Family Merger Exemption-- Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Company CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) and Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh...

  8. Economic Productive Characters of Buffaloes in Relation to Management Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.U. Bidwe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of individual indices, the productive characters of buffaloes was formulated and it was noticed that the dairy farmers had fair management index (between 71 to 80 %. As regards quantity and quality of milk it was noticed that the milk yield was 5.27, 6.21 and 7.2 kg in group I, II and III respectively. The corresponding fat and SNF contents of milk were 6.17 and 8.75, 6.8 and 8.8 and 7.2 and 9.0 % respectively. It was also noticed that the level of management influenced the production in buffaloes. The production under satisfactory management status was 3 to 4, 4 to 5 and 5 to 7 kg under satisfactory, fair and good management index while it was 10 to 14 kg under very good management index. The milk produced by the buffaloes under all the three herd size groups was meeting out the fat content standard according to PFA rules prescribed for Maharashtra but the milk produced under herd size group I and II did not meet out the standards prescribed for SNF content. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 98-99

  9. Logged peat swamp forest supports greater macrofungal biodiversity than large-scale oil palm plantations and smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-09-01

    Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.

  10. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  11. Comparative clinicopathological changes in buffalo and cattle following infection by Pasteurella multocida B:2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jesse, F F A; Zunita, Z

    2015-11-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffalo of Asia and Africa caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 or E:2. Buffaloes are believed to be more susceptible than cattle. In this study, 9 buffaloes of 8 months old were divided equally into 3 groups (Groups 1, 3, 5). Similarly, 9 cattle of 8 months old were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 2, 4, 6). Animals of Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with PBS while Groups 3 and 4 were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2. Animals of Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum. Both buffaloes and cattle that were inoculated subcutaneously succumbed to the infection at 16 h and 18 h, respectively. Two buffaloes that were inoculated intranasally (Group 5) succumbed at 68 h while the remaining cattle and buffaloes survived the 72-h study period. Endotoxin was detected in the blood of infected cattle (Group 4) and buffaloes (Groups 3 and 5) prior to the detection of P. multocida B:2 in the blood. The endotoxin was detected in the blood of buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 at 0.5 h post-inoculation while buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6 at 1.5 h. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected at 2.5 h in buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 and at 12 h in buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6. Affected cattle and buffaloes showed lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These included congestion and haemorrhages in the organs of respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts with evidence of acute inflammatory reactions. The severity of gross and histopathology lesions in cattle and buffalo calves that succumbed to the infection showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference. However, inoculated buffalo and cattle that survived the infection showed significantly (p multocida B:2 than buffaloes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Haematological and blood biochemical profile in lactating buffaloes in and around Parbhani city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Hagawane

    Full Text Available Forty buffaloes in early, mid and late lactation with a drop in a milk production were screened for haematological and blood biochemical profile. In early stage of lactation haemoglobin concentration showed lowered trend as compared to recorded means in other groups of lactating buffaloes.  The mean value of TLC in dry pregnant group of buffaloes was 10.05± 0.89 X 103 /cmm showed slightly higher trend than the normal healthy control group. The blood glucose was significantly higher in dry buffaloes (52.72±4.22 mg/dl than the early and late lactating buffaloes (48.23±3.44 mg/dl. During early stage of lactation the serum total protein values (8.36±0.47 g/dl was slightly elevated than the normal healthy control (8.00±0.57 g/dl. The urea nitrogen values differ significantly (P<0.05 amongst different groups of lactating buffaloes. The descending trend in the serum cholesterol concentration in dry pregnant buffaloes compared to lactating buffaloes was observed. There was drop in calcium level during early stage of lactation (8.19±0.83 mg/dl than the normal healthy buffaloes (11.21±0.19 mg/dl. As the stage of lactation progresses the serum calcium level increased. Serum magnesium concentration in various groups of buffaloes did not differ significantly. Early lactation showed highest susceptibility for ketosis and hypocalcaemia. The metabolic disorder associated with hypophosphatemia was significantly high in dry (advance pregnant buffaloes. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 467-469

  13. Sex and age data from cropping of Buffalo Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R Mason

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex and age classifications of buffalo cropped in the Kruger National Park suggest that cropping is biased towards females, and prime breeding individuals of both sexes are apparently under-represented. The implications are discussed in relation to buffalo social organisation and comparative data on population structure.

  14. Diet selection and density estimates of forest buffalo in Campo-Ma'an National Park, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhuis, P.; Jong, de C.B.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2008-01-01

    We studied diet selection and density of forest buffalo in the Campo Ma'an National Park of southern Cameroon. The buffalo's diet in this rainforest comprised 43% grass, including 15%Leptochloa caerulecens. Other species eaten were non-graminoid monocots (21.3%), mainly Commelinaceae (18.2%),

  15. The adrenal gland of the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer: a light and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-02-13

    Feb 13, 1992 ... Although the histology of the adrenal gland of many mammals, particularly domestic animals, is known, the histology of that of the African buffalo, SyncenJs caffer, has not been described previously. Tissue from seven male and female adult buffalo was processed for light and electron microscopy.

  16. 75 FR 57056 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft Buffalo Resource Management Plan Amendment... Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Environmental... comment period. The RMPA/EA will amend the 1985 Buffalo Resource Management Plan. The BLM also announces...

  17. QUARTER-WISE COMPARATIVE PREVALENCE OF MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Khan and G. Muhammad1

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the quarter-wise comparative prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes and crossbred cows. Milk samples collected from 50 dairy buffaloes and 50 crossbred cows were tested for subclinical mastitis by Surf Field Mastitis Test. In addition, all milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of pathogens. In buffaloes, overall prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 27%, clinical mastitis 4% and blind quarters 10%. In crossbred cows, subclinical mastitis was observed in 36%, clinical mastitis in 5.5% and blind quarters in 8% quarters. Prevalence was higher (32% in hindquarters of crossbred cows than those of buffaloes (29%. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest (45% frequency, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (23%, E. coli (18% and Bacillus spp. (14% in buffaloes. In case of crossbred cows, Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 48, 30, 13 and 8% milk samples respectively.

  18. Ovarian follicular dynamics in buffaloes during different estrus synchronization protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M.B. Noseir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out on 26 normal cycling buffaloes. Animals were divided into 4 groups according to the hormonal treatment regime. Group 1 included 11 buffaloes without hormonal treatment. Group 2: five buffaloes injected with one dose of 25 mg prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2α after ultrasound diagnosis of a mature corpus luteaum in one ovary. Group 3: five buffaloes injected blindly with two doses of 25 mg PGF2α 11-days interval. Group 4: five buffaloes treated with ovsynch protocol. The pattern of follicular growth (FG and the corpus luteum (CL regression were monitored by transrectal ultrasound scanning. Estradiol 17β and progesterone profiles were estimated by radioimmunoassay for all groups. Buffaloes in Group 1 showed two (72.7% or three (27.3% waves-like patterns of follicular development. The average length of the estrous cycle was 21.75±0.53 and 27.0±0.58 days in 2- and 3- wave cycle respectively. The duration of the CL was 16.63±0.53 and 22.3±0.88 days in 2- and 3- wave cycles. One buffalo in Group 2 did not respond to injection of a single dose of PGF2α, while the other 4 responded. On the day of injection the diameter of the CL was 1.90±0.11 cm and that of dominant follicle was 0.97±0.07 cm. On day 2 after injection the follicle diameter was 1.4±0.09 cm and the preovulatory follicle on days 3-4 was 1.5±0.03 cm. The regressing CL diameter was 1.3±0.07 cm and progesterone level decreased from 6.27±0.82 ng/mL on day 0, to 0.13±0.06 ng/mL on days 3-4 post injection. Estradiol levels were increased from 5.40±1.2 pg/mL on day 0, to 15.09±1.97 pg/mL on day 3-4 post injection. After injection of the first dose of PGF2α, in group 3 the maximum follicle diameter was 1.10±0.04 cm on day 6, then started to regress (0.60±0.04 cm on days 13-17 after injection. In the 2nd wave, the ovulatory follicle showed marked increase from day 2 (0.34±0.01 cm till days 13-17 (1.33±0.08 cm. The diameter of CL increased from 1.53

  19. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Nasr-Eldin M; El-Sebaie, Ali; Hammad, Hammad Zaghloul

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to: (1) Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2) Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift) in buffalo calves. A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo) were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8) weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6) weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned), and buffalo calves (n=4) weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned). Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning). The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW) post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift). There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (pweaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio) and growth rate. Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness) is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological characters of growth suggest that IGF-1 is a reliable indicator for assessing metabolic status of individual calves.

  20. Economic and Technical Feasibility Study of Utility-Scale Wind Generation for the New York Buffalo River and South Buffalo Brownfield Opportunity Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing contaminated lands in the Buffalo, New York, area for utility-scale wind development is explored. The study found that there is available land, electrical infrastructure, wind resource, and local interest to support a commercial wind project; however, economies of scale and local electrical markets may need further investigation before significant investment is made into developing a wind project at the Buffalo Reuse Authority site.

  1. Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge FY 1994 Prescribed Fire Proposal Plan Fringe Marsh-Highway 158

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses...

  2. Effects of historical and active nursery operations on the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Morris County, New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents preliminary reconnaissance data on sediment and fish samples collected within the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (GSNWR) Tract 141A - the...

  3. Dismal Swamp In Legend And History: George Washington Owned Large Tracts in Region Which He Described as a "Glorious Paradise"

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ever since it was first explored, Dismal Swamp has remained a mystery place. Its last Indian disappeared around the 179o's, but in its depths it is almost as wild...

  4. A Compositional Study Of The Phytoplankton Of Lake Drummond And The Rivers And Canals That Drain The Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A six-week study of the phytoplankton in Lake Drummond and the canals and river which drain the Dismal Swamp resulted in the identification of 110 species. These...

  5. [Amphibians and reptiles in the swamps dominated by the palm Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Beneyto, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    The herpetofauna that inhabits Caribbean Costa Rica has received considerable attention in the last two decades. This assemblage includes a total of 141 species of reptiles and 95 amphibians mostly distributed in tropical wet and moist lowland forests. While most information available came from primary and secondary forest sites, little is known about the amphibians and reptiles that inhabit more open habitats, such as wetlands and swamps. For instances, swaps dominated by the yolillo palm Raphia taedigera extend through much of the northeastern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and eastern Nicaragua, but information about the herpetological community that uses such environments remains practically unknown. This situation reflects the little research conducted in such inhospitable environments. Here, we report the results of an intensive survey conducted to assess the herpetological community that inhabit R. taedigera palm-swamps. A total of 14 species of amphibians and 17 of reptiles have been recorded from these swamps. Amphibians and reptiles that inhabit yolillo swamps have wide distributions along much of Middle America and are considered common species throughout their range. In general, yolillo swamps are poor environments for herpetofauna: richness of reptiles and amphibians is almost two times higher in the adjacent forest than in the palm dominated swamps. Furthermore, most species observed in this swamps can be considered habitat generalists that are well adapted to the extreme conditions imposed by the changes in hydroperiods, reduce understory cover, low tree diversity and simple forest architecture of these environments. Despite similarities in the herpetofauna, it is clear that not all forest species use yolillo habitat, a characteristic that is discussed in terms of physical stress driven by the prolonged hydroperiod and reduced leaflitter in the ground, as these features drive habitat structure and herpetofaunal complexity. Our list of species using

  6. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  7. AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M

    2006-10-09

    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.

  8. AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M

    2007-04-04

    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.

  9. Mortality pattern of Murrah buffalo males in an organised herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Raj Shivahre

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to analyze mortality pattern in Murrah buffalo males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Materials and Methods: Records of 1029 Murrah buffalo males born during the period 1997-2012, at NDRI, Karnal, were analyzed to study mortality pattern in different age groups. The percent of animal disposed from the herd due to different reasons was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. Results: The overall percent mortality in 0-1m, 1-2m, 2-3m, 3-6m, 6-18m, 18m-3 yr and >3 year age groups were 17.49, 5.99, 3.34, 5.42, 6.35, 2.59 and 3.93, respectively. The main cause of mortality in 0-1, 1-2, 2-3 and 6-18 m of age groups was respiratory problems (6.61%, 1.79%, 1.06% and 1.97% respectively. Main causes of mortality in age group 3-6 months were general debility (1.57% followed by respiratory and digestive problems (1.22%, miscellaneous (0.87%, liver and urinary problems (0.17%. Mortality could not reveal any consistent trend across different seasons and period of birth. General debility (1.29% followed by toxemia, liver problems and miscellaneous reasons were main causes of mortality in age group 18 m – 3 yr of age. In males above three years of age, general debility (2.81% followed by respiratory problems (1.12% were the main causes of mortality. Conclusion: Intensive health care and management is required for young male buffalo calves especially in hot humid months of rainy season and cold inclement weather conditions in winter months to minimize mortality due to respiratory and digestive problems.

  10. Restoration and Management of a Degraded Baldcypress Swamp and Freshwater Marsh in Coastal Louisiana

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael G. Hunter; John W. Day; Gary P. Shaffer; Robert R. Lane; Andrew J. Englande; Robert Reimers; Demetra Kandalepas; William B. Wood; Jason N. Day; Eva Hillmann

    2016-01-01

    The Central Wetlands Unit (CWU), covering 12,000 hectares in St. Bernard and Orleans Parishes, Louisiana, was once a healthy baldcypress–water tupelo swamp and fresh and low salinity marsh before construction of levees isolated the region from Mississippi River floodwaters. Construction of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO), which funneled saltwater inland from the Gulf of Mexico, resulted in a drastic ecosystem change and caused mortality of almost all trees and low salinity marsh, but...

  11. Aquatic organisms as amber inclusions and examples from a modern swamp forest

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Alexander R.; Dilcher, David L.

    2007-01-01

    To find aquatic organisms in tree resin may seem to be highly unlikely, but the fossil record provides numerous amber-preserved limnetic arthropods (e.g., water beetles, water striders, and crustaceans) and microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, algae, ciliates, testate amoebae, and rotifers). Here we explain the frequently discussed process of embedding aquatic organisms in tree resin based on field studies in a Florida swamp forest. Different aquatic arthropods and all major groups of limnetic mic...

  12. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Sheng; Wei Zhao; Ying Song; Zhigang Li; Majing Luo; Quan Lei; Hanhua Cheng; Rongjia Zhou

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transf...

  13. Latitudinal variation in carbon storage can help predict changes in swamps affected by global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Plants may offer our best hope of removing greenhouse gases (gases that contribute to global warming) emitted to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. At the same time, global warming could change environments so that natural plant communities will either need to shift into cooler climate zones, or become extirpated (Prasad and Iverson, 1999; Crumpacker and others, 2001; Davis and Shaw, 2001). It is impossible to know the future, but studies combining field observation of production and modeling can help us make predictions about what may happen to these wetland communities in the future. Widespread wetland types such as baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps in the southeastern portion of the United States could be especially good at carbon sequestration (amount of CO2 stored by forests) from the atmosphere. They have high levels of production and sometimes store undecomposed dead plant material in wet conditions with low oxygen, thus keeping gases stored that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere (fig. 1). To study the ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon, our project has taken two approaches. The first analysis looked at published data to develop an idea (hypothesis) of how production levels change across a temperature gradient in the baldcypress region (published data study). The second study tested this idea by comparing production levels across a latitudinal range by using swamps in similar field conditions (ongoing carbon storage study). These studies will help us make predictions about the future ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon in soil and plant biomass, as well as the ability of these forests to shift northward with global warming.

  14. Nariva Swamp Ramsar Site, Trinidad and Tobago (West Indies) Wetland Habitat Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat Carbonell; Nadra Nathai-Gyan

    2005-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago, a twin island nation, is the most southerly of the Caribbean islands and lies just 11 km off the coast of Venezuela, near the Orinoco delta. Trinidad, the larger of the two islands, is approximately 5,000 km² and the Nariva Swamp is located on its eastern coast (fig. 1). In 1993, this site was designated as a wetland of international...

  15. Repeated drought alters resistance of seed bank regeneration in baldcypress swamps of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Middleton, Beth A.

    2018-01-01

    Recurring drying and wetting events are likely to increase in frequency and intensity in predicted future droughts in the central USA and alter the regeneration potential of species. We explored the resistance of seed banks to successive droughts in 53 sites across the nine locations in baldcypress swamps in the southeastern USA. Along the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley and northern Gulf of Mexico, we investigated the capacity of seed banks to retain viable seeds after successive periods of drying and wetting in a greenhouse study. Mean differences in species richness and seed density were compared to examine the interactions of successive droughts, geographical location and water regime. The results showed that both species richness and total density of germinating seedlings decreased over repeated drought trials. These responses were more pronounced in geographical areas with higher annual mean temperature. In seed banks across the southeastern swamp region, most species were exhausted after Trial 2 or 3, except for semiaquatic species in Illinois and Tennessee, and aquatic species in Texas. Distinct geographical trends in seed bank resistance to drought demonstrate that climate-induced drying of baldcypress swamps could influence the regeneration of species differently across their ranges. Despite the health of adult individuals, lack of regeneration may push ecosystems into a relict status. Seed bank depletion by germination without replenishment may be a major conservation threat in a future with recurring droughts far less severe than megadrought. Nevertheless, the protection of moist refugia might aid conservation.

  16. Tuberculosis prevalence and risk factors for water buffalo in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José D; da Silva, Jenevaldo B; Rangel, Charles P; da Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Silva, Natália S; Bomjardim, Henrique A; Freitas, Nayra F Q R

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of and possible risk factors for tuberculosis were studied in water buffalo from Pará, Brazil. In this study, 3,917 pregnant and nonpregnant female Murrah and Mediterranean buffaloes were studied; 2,089 originated from Marajó Island, and 1,108 were from the mainland. The comparative cervical tuberculin test was used as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis in these animals. The prevalence of positive buffaloes was 3.5 % (100/2,809) on Marajó Island and 7.2 % (80/1,108) on the mainland. The municipalities with the highest tuberculosis prevalence rates in animals were Ipixuna do Pará (10.1 %), Marapanim (9.8 %), Chaves (9.4 %), Paragominas (8.6 %), and Cachoeira do Arari (6.7 %). The tuberculosis prevalence was not significantly different between the Murrah (4.3 %) and Mediterranean (4.8 %) breeds or between pregnant (5 %) and nonpregnant (4.3 %) buffaloes. Tuberculosis was detected in water buffaloes from Pará, Brazil; the mainland buffalo exhibited the highest tuberculosis prevalence. These results indicate that this disease is dangerous to public health and buffalo farming in Pará.

  17. Effect of Buffalo Dung to the Water Ratio on Production of Methane through Anaerobic Digestion

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    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Generation of methane from animal dung through AD (Anaerobic Digestion is the most feasible way to get energy from it. Pakistan has about 70 million heads of cattle and buffalos, and about 90 million heads of sheep and goats. The dung from these animals can overcome the energy crisis and can fulfill the future energy demands of Pakistan. In present study, buffalo dung is used as the substrate for anaerobic digestion process, whereas the production of methane was analyzed as the function of buffalo dung to water ratio. Six batch reactors with different buffalo dung to water ratios were incubated in the AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test Setup for 51 days. The highest methane production was observed from the buffalo dung to water ratio of 2.0 i.e. 226.4 NmL/gVS loss , followed by 198.6 NmL/ gVS loss from the buffalo dung to the water ratio of 1.0. The suitable hydraulic retention time of the anaerobic digester treating buffalo dung was observed as 20 days

  18. PREVALENCE OF ENDO (TREMATODES AND ECTO-PARASITES IN COWS AND BUFFALOES OF QUETTA, PAKISTAN

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    M. N. KAKAR AND J. K. KAKARSULEMANKHEL1

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of endo and ecto-parasites in cows and buffaloes were investigated in Quetta city, Pakistan. A total of 396 livers and gall bladders of cows and 340 of buffaloes were selected randomly. Overall prevalence of liver parasites in cows and buffaloes was 45.70 and 37.05%, respectively. The species found in livers of cows were: Fasciola hepatica (16.16%, Fasciola gigantica (12.37%, Paramphistomum explanatum (7.82% and mixed infections (9.34%. The corresponding values for buffaloes were 11.47, 13.52, 5.58 and 6.47%. For ecto-parasites, out of 404 cows and 386 buffaloes examined, 28.96 and 25.64% respectively gave positive results for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was found to be 10.14, 7.17, 5.19 and 6.43%, respectively in cows and 6.99, 9.84, 4.92 and 3.88% respectively in buffaloes. It was concluded that the prevalence of endo and ecto-parasites in cows was higher than in buffaloes due to differences in feeding habits and hygienic habitats of the two species.

  19. A comparative therapeutic management of anoestrus in buffaloes using insulin and GnRH

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    R. D. Purkayastha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25. In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 μg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28% was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05 as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66% was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69 and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions.

  20. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (p<0.001). In addition, one buffalo lymphoma sample was negative in both PCR assays used in this study. BLV was not detected in buffaloes from the Amazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Somatic cell count and alkaline phosphatase activity in milk for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo

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    M. P. Patil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Mastitis is a serious disease of dairy animals causing great economic losses due to a reduction in milk yield as well as lowering its nutritive value. The application of somatic cell count (SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity in the milk for diagnosis of mastitis in buffalo is not well documented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity for evaluation of mastitis in buffalo. Materials and Methods: Milk samples of forty apparently healthy lactating buffaloes were selected and categorized into five different groups viz. normal buffaloes, buffaloes with subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples (+1 Grade, (+2 Grade, (+3 Grade, and buffaloes with clinical mastitis with 8 animals in each group. The milk samples were analyzed for SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results: The levels of SCC (×105 cells/ml and alkaline phosphatase (U/L in different groups were viz. normal (3.21±0.179, 16.48±1.432, subclinical mastitis with CMT positive milk samples with +1 Grade (4.21±0.138, 28.11±1.013, with +2 Grade (6.34±0.183, 34.50±1.034, with +3 Grade (7.96±0.213, 37.73±0.737 and buffaloes with clinical mastitis (10.21±0.220, 42.37±0.907 respectively, indicating an increasing trend in the values and the difference observed among various group was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the concentration of milk SCC and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher in the milk of buffaloes with mastitis than in the milk of normal buffaloes.

  2. The Evolution of a Freshwater Wetland in a Semi-arid Environment, Loboi Swamp, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, G. M.; Driese, S. G.; Mworia, J. M.; Muasya, A. M.; Hover, V. C.; Owen, R. B.; Goman, M. F.

    2002-12-01

    Loboi Swamp is situated near the equator on the western fault-bounded margin of an asymmetric half-graben within the East African Rift valley. The freshwater wetland is ~ 3km2 and developed during mid to late Holocene on the low relief floodplain of the axial Loboi River. The swamp is groundwater-fed by several springs and seeps associated with the border fault system. Spring waters are ~35°C, with pH ~6.4-6.9 and the water compositions suggest that the sources are shallow, and dominated by meteoric water with little contributed by deep re-circulating fluids. The climate is semi-arid. P is ~700 mm/yr on the valley bottom and 1200mm/yr in the adjacent highlands; ET is estimated to be ~2500 mm/yr. Variation in precipitation occurs on a range of time scales: semi-annual monsoonal rains in Nov. and April; El Nino and La Nina periods every 5-7 years; and long term variations in climate are also likely, such as, orbitally-forced Precession cycles (~20ka). The modern swamp is dominated by Typha domingensis Pers. (~80%) and Cyperus papyrus L. (20%), a crocodile habitat. The stratigraphy revealed in a soil pit and 8 piston cores (1.5-4 m long) records the formation, evolution and maybe the beginning of the demise of the wetland. Basal sediments are floodplain (sandy silts) that fine upward to f. silt and clay and are capped with organic-rich sediment (peat). Subparallel siderite concretion horizons in the silts indicate that Fe-reducing conditions developed as the basal sediments were flooded by the developing wetland. The peat is thickest (1.5 m) in the spring-proximal area near the fault and thins to 0.30m in the spring-distal areas. The appearance and expansion of peat indicates moister climate, however preliminary pollen analyses reveals that Cyperaceae and Tpyha are less abundant now than earlier suggesting a change from moister to drier conditions after the development of the swamp. Surface and porewater compositions in the swamp are modified by processes of

  3. Assessing Anthracene and Arsenic Contamination within Buffalo River Sediments

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    Adrian Gawedzki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracene and arsenic contamination concentrations at various depths in the Buffalo River were analyzed in this study. Anthracene is known to cause damage to human skin and arsenic has been linked to lung and liver cancer. The Buffalo River is labelled as an Area of Concern defined by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between Canada and the United States. It has a long history of industrial activity located in its near vicinity that has contributed to its pollution. An ordinary kriging spatial interpolation technique was used to calculate estimates between sample locations for anthracene and arsenic at various depths. The results show that both anthracene and arsenic surface sediment (0–30 cm is less contaminated than all subsurface depths. There is variability of pollution within the different subsurface levels (30–60 cm, 60–90 cm, 90–120 cm, 120–150 cm and along the river course, but major clusters are identified throughout all depths for both anthracene and arsenic.

  4. SHORT AND ATYPICAL LACTATIONS IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES

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    M. S. Khan and H. Z. Chaudhry

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on 2704 lactations of 993 Nili-Ravi buffaloes were analyzed to investigate the extent and behavior of short and complete lactations. Lactation milk yield up to 44 weeks was used and lactations with less .than eight weeks of duration were excluded. Fifty nine percent of the lactation records were shorter than 44 weeks. When minimum lactation length was required to be 26 weeks, 11% of lactations did not meet this criterion. Among 2107 lactations of< 308 days duration, reasons of drying were known for 534 lactations (25%. Out of these 31% had mastitis, 16% were shorter because buffaloes had been auctioned while she was in milk, 13% had bad temperament .while the other 40% were short because of reproductive problems and other reasons such as death of calf, old age, disease etc. Lactation curves were different for first and later parities with lactations of different duration. About 10% of lactations were atypical, with first calvers having the highest frequency. Improvement in data recording will help explore lactation length problems mote precisely in future.

  5. Successful Intracervical Insemination and Characteristics of Anoa (Bubalus sp. Parturation Behavior in Captivity

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    Judi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anoa, which is the endemic animal in Indonesia, its population is unevitably decreasing, therefore anoa included in the list of endangered species by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. The experiment was aimed to apply the artificial insemination (AI technique for anoa and to examine their parturition behavior. The experiment involved 2 males and 5 females anoa at Taman Safari Indonesia Bogor. Semen was collected by electroejaculator, then evaluated and diluted in Tris-egg yolk extender. The anesthetized estrous females were inseminated intracervically with extended semen (100x106 sperm/1.0 mL. Females which did not show estrous signs during 2-3 cycles after AI were predicted pregnant, and therefore confirmed by ultrasonography. As a comparison, another predicted-pregnant female after natural mating was scanned. The results showed that intracervical AI resulted pregnancy in one female, and the gestation period of anoa was ranged from 313 d (AI to 324 d (natural mating. There were three stages of parturition process was observed: Stage 1 was characterized by the abdominal contraction and amniotic membrane rupture, Stage 2 was characterized by the fetal expulsions, and Stage 3 was characterized by the placental expulsions and ingestion of placenta by the dam. The duration of each stage of parturition was 6-8 h (stage 1, 30-60 min (stage 2, and 15-180 min (stage 3. It is concluded that AI technique was applicable to anoa in captivity, and the parturation behavior of anoa was comparable to buffalo and cattle. However, the fetal delivery occurred when the dam was in standing position and the dam ingested the placenta.

  6. Characteristics of seminal plasma and cryopreservation of anoa (Bubalus sp. semen obtained by electroejaculation

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    Yudi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of anoa, which is an endemic fauna to Indonesia, was getting decrease caused by the illegal hunting and deforestation. Anoa is included in endangered species by IUCN, and Appendix I by CITES. The experiment aimed to characterize the seminal plasma contents and to cryopreserve the anoa semen for artificial insemination application in captivity. The experiment was carried out in Taman Safari Indonesia (Bogor. Semen was collected from 2 anesthetized males (4-10 years by electroejaculation. Seminal plasma gained by centrifugation of ejaculate (3000 rpm, 20 minutes, and then was evaluated the biochemical contents. Other ejaculates were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically, and then extended in Tris and Na-citrate media to a total concentration of 100 billion cells mL-1. Extended semen was stored at 4oC, and evaluated the motility and viability every 12 h. Frozen semen was made in Tris medium added with 5% of glycerol. The seminal plasma of anoa contained total lipid, Na, Ca and Mg higher than the buffalo, but its total protein, K and Cl were lower. Electrophoresis of seminal plasma using by SDS-PAGE method showed 10 bands of proteins (17-148 kDa. The motility and viability of chilled-extended semen in Tris and Na-citrate media were not significantly different (P > 0.05 during 72 h of evaluation. Extended semen in both of media may applicable for AI program for 24-48 h. Post thawing motility of frozen semen was still low, 26.00 ± 9.62%. Therefore, it is necessary to improve each stages of semen processing, so the motility will increased and resulted high pregnancy in AI program.

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH MURRAH BUFFALO AND INDIGENOUS GIR SPERMATOZOA TO HYPO-OSMOTIC SWELLING TEST

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    Sumit Chowdhury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypo-Osmotic Swelling Test (HOST is a simple but authentic test to measure the integrity of sperm membrane. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the HOST value in Murrah buffalo and indigenous Gir bull in 150 mosm/l tri-sodium citrate and D-fructose HOST solution. Murrah buffalo was having more HOST (49±0.39 % reacted spermatozoa than indigenous Gir (42±0.57 % bulls suggesting lesser membrane damage during cryo-preservation and higher fertility rate in Murrah buffalo than Gir cattle.

  8. TUTORIALS ON AFRICAN BUFFALO OPTIMIZATION FOR SOLVING THE TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM

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    Odili J.B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The African Buffalo Optimization is a newly designed metaheuristic optimization algorithm inspired by the migration of African buffalos from place to place across the vast African forests, deserts and savannah in search of food. Being a new algorithm, several researchers from different parts of the research world have indicated huge interest in understanding the working of the novel algorithm. This paper presents a practical demonstration of the workings of the African Buffalo Optimization in solving the popular travelling salesman problem. It is our belief that this tutorial paper will be helpful in further introducing the new algorithm and making it user-friendly.

  9. Anticorpos em bovinos (Bos indicus e Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis inoculados com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Estudo comparativo

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    Oliveira F.C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Três animais de cada espécie (Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis foram inoculados, via oral, com 2×10(5 oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Seis outros animais, dois de cada espécie, foram mantidos como testemunhas. A resposta de anticorpos avaliada por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta iniciou-se a partir do quinto dia pós-inoculação (DPI nos zebuínos e bubalinos, e no sétimo DPI nos taurinos. Os títulos sorológicos nos taurinos permaneceram elevados até o final do experimento (70º DPI, alcançando níveis máximos (1:16.384 entre o 42º e 49º DPI. Nos zebuínos e bubalinos o maior título de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma foi de 1:256. A resposta de anticorpos mais ou menos acentuada não está necessariamente relacionada à sensibilidade ao T. gondii.

  10. A preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda

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    G. Kalema-Zikusoka

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging African buffaloes, (Syncerus caffer from May to June 1997 in the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. Using the gamma interferon test, exposure to M. bovis was detected in 21.6 % of the buffaloes. One dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from which M. bovis was isolated. None of the buffaloes sampled in Sector A of the park, which has no cattle interface, tested positive for bovine tuberculosis (BTB exposure. The prevalence and distribution of BTB does not appear to have changed significantly since the 1960s, but this may be due to fluxes in the buffalo population. Serological testing for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD demonstrated positive exposure of 57.1% of the buffaloes sampled, with types A, O and SAT 1-3, which is the first known report of FMD antibodies to A and O types in free ranging African buffaloes. Foot-and-mouth disease virus types SAT 1 and SAT 3 were isolated from buffalo probang samples. Two percent of the buffaloes had been exposed to brucellosis. None of the buffaloes tested had antibodies to rinderpest, leptospirosis or Q fever.

  11. Conducta de búfalos en pastoreo en humedales de Ciego de Ávila, Cuba Behavior of grazing buffaloes in wetlands of Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

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    A Caraballoso¹

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar la conducta de búfalos en pastoreo en el humedal avileño se realizó el presente estudio en áreas de la Empresa Agropecuaria del municipio Bolivia, en el Humedal Norte de la provincia Ciego de Ávila, Cuba. Se emplearon búfalos de río, de pantano y bufalipso mestizo, clínicamente sanos. Para determinar la composición florística se hicieron diferentes transeptos por el procedimiento de la línea intercepto. Se evaluó el comportamiento bufalino en pastoreo durante 10 días consecutivos y en ambas épocas del año, a través del método visual adaptado para esta especie. Se identificaron en el área de pastoreo de los búfalos un total de 165 especies vegetales correspondientes a 20 familias. Los animales dedicaron la mayor parte del tiempo al pastoreo en ambos períodos (58,5 y 64,3% para los períodos I y II, respectivamente, seguido de la rumia (13,2 y 15,1%, respectivamente. Se concluye que el estudio de la conducta resulta una herramienta importante en la explotación y manejo del búfalo; se apreció que los búfalos dedicaron el mayor porcentaje del tiempo a la actividad de pastoreo, con tendencia a su incremento en las tres primeras horas del día. Se recomienda intensificar la siembra de la cobertura vegetal para evitar su deterioro, así como la migración de los animales a otros ecosistemas.With the objective of characterizing the behavior of grazing buffaloes in a Ciego de Ávila wetland, this study was conducted in areas of the Livestock Production Enterprise of the Bolivia municipality, in the Northern Wetland of the Ciego de Ávila province. Clinically healthy river, swamp and crossbred Buffalypso buffaloes were used. In order to determine the floristic composition different transepts were made through the intercept line procedure. The behavior of the grazing buffaloes was evaluated for 10 consecutive days and in both seasons, through the visual method adapted for this species. A total of 165

  12. Identification of Theileria parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA gene sequence variants in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2011-12-15

    Theileria parva is the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle in South Africa. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in South Africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. A T. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle in South Africa. However, because of the high similarity between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), the latter is also amplified by the real-time PCR primers, although it is not detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. Preliminary sequencing studies have revealed a small number of sequence differences within the 18S rRNA gene in both species but the extent of this sequence variation is unknown. The aim of the current study was to sequence the 18S rRNA genes of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), and to determine whether all identified genotypes can be correctly detected by the real-time PCR assay. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to identify T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples from buffalo blood samples originating from the Kruger National Park, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, and a private game ranch in the Hoedspruit area. T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) were identified in 42% and 28%, respectively, of 252 samples, mainly as mixed infections. The full-length 18S rRNA gene of selected samples was amplified, cloned and sequenced. From a total of 20 sequences obtained, 10 grouped with previously published T. parva sequences from GenBank while 10 sequences grouped with a previously published Theileria sp. (buffalo) sequence. All these formed a monophyletic group with known pathogenic Theileria species. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the

  13. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  14. An integrated regional planning/microsimulation model for the Buffalo/Niagara Falls area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This presentation examines the major planning issues facing the Buffalo and Niagara Falls area, which include freight, cross border congestion, and domestic issues. A Transportation Analysis and Simulation System (TRANSIMS) model is discussed that co...

  15. Population Dynamics of Banteng, Buffalo and Deer in Bekol Savannah, Baluran National Park

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SUHADI

    2009-01-01

    .... Research method use population dynamics perception of banteng, buffalo and deer in savannah of Bekol year 2004 and year 2005 as primary data, while secondary data year population dynamics 2003, 2004...

  16. Phase II Contaminants Investigation of Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, 1993-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Buffalo Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located in the Southern High Plains in Randall County, Texas. The lake from which the Refuge received its name has not...

  17. Effect of steroids on ovarian follicle growth in river buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Seraj

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to control follicular growth using norgestomet implant along with steroids in river buffalo. The estrous cycle of females (n=12 was synchronized with two prostaglandin F2α analogue (PG; 15 mg, IM; Prosolvin®, Intervet, Holland injections, 14 days apart. On Day 6 or 7 of the ensuing cycle (Day 0 of experiment, females received norgestomet implant (NORG; 3 mg; Crestar®, Intervet, Holland. Females received PG on Days 0, 1 and 13. On Day 5, females assigned randomly into three groups (n=4 in each group. The females of the 1st and 2nd groups received 2 and 5 mg estradiol benzoate (EB; Aburaihan, Iran, respectively, in association with 100mg of progesterone (PROG; Aburaihan, Iran. Group three females were did not receive any further treatment (control. The implant was removed on Day 14. Daily Ultrasonography was conducted to identify ovarian structures. In control group females, ovarian dominant follicle became persistent (PDF and ovulation of PDF occurred within 64±8 hours after implant removal. In steroid groups, the injection of 2mg (Group 1 and 5mg (Group 2 EB along with 100mg PROG caused regression of PDF in 50% and 100% of treated females, respectively. The time of follicular regression (2mg: 5.5±1.5 days; 5mg: 5.5±0.87 days and the emergence of the new follicular wave (2mg: 8 day; 5mg: 7.5±0.5 days were not different between steroid treated groups (P>0.05. None of the treated animals in these groups had ovulation during 5 days after implant removal. In conclusion, 5 mg EB in association with 100 mg PROG results in a consistent follicle regression followed by an emergence of new follicular wave. However, steroids along with NORG may not be advised in river buffalo due to the ovulation failure after implant removal. This might be due to the high sensitivity of river buffalo to steroid treatments.

  18. Response of primiparous and multiparous buffaloes to yeast culture supplementation during early and mid-lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne H. Hansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strains of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast have exhibited probiotic effects in ruminants. This study investigated the effects of the dietary yeast supplement, S. cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc1026, on primiparous (PP and multiparous (MP Egyptian buffaloes in early to mid-lactation. Lactating buffaloes were fed either a basal total mixed ration (TMR, control; 4 PP and 8 MP or the basal TMR plus 10 g Yea-Sacc1026 per buffalo cow per day (yeast; 4 PP and 8 MP. The feeds were given from 15 days prepartum to 180 days postpartum. Feed intake, body weight, and milk yields (MY were recorded, and milk and blood samples were collected for analyses. Feces were collected from days 45 to 47 during early lactation and from days 90 to 92 during mid-lactation to determine apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and crude fiber (CF. Energy corrected milk yield (ECM, feed conversion, and energy and nitrogen conversion efficiency were calculated. Yeast treated MP buffaloes consumed more DM (P ≤ 0.041 and CP than the untreated control group. Apparent digestibility of DM and OM were significantly greater at mid-lactation for treated versus control group (P = 0.001. Crude fiber digestibility was greater in MP than in PP buffaloes (P = 0.049, and yeast supplemented MP cows had a greater CF digestibility than control MP buffaloes at mid-lactation (P = 0.010. Total blood lipids decreased after yeast supplementation (P = 0.029. Milk yields, ECM, fat and protein yields increased for yeast treated MP buffaloes (P ≤ 0.039. The study concluded that the response to yeast supplementation in buffalo cows is parity dependent. Multiparous buffaloes respond to yeast supplementation with an increased DM intake and CF digestibility without significant weight gains, allowing a greater ECM yield with less fat mobilization. Supplementing buffaloes with yeast culture may increase milk production in early lactation and results in a

  19. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metagenomic analysis of buffalo rumen microbiome: Effect of roughage diet on Dormancy and Sporulation genes

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K.M.; Reddy, B; Patel, A K; H. Panchasara; Parmar, N.; Patel, A.B.; T.M. Shah; V.D. Bhatt; Joshi, C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Buffalo rumen microbiome experiences a variety of diet stress and represents reservoir of Dormancy and Sporulation genes. However, the information on genomic responses to such conditions is very limited. The Ion Torrent PGM next generation sequencing technology was used to characterize general microbial diversity and the repertoire of microbial genes present, including genes associated with Dormancy and Sporulation in Mehsani buffalo rumen metagenome. The research findings revealed the abunda...