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Sample records for swallowtail butterflies lepidoptera

  1. A partitioned likelihood analysis of swallowtail butterfly phylogeny (Lepidoptera:Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, M S; Reed, R D; Kuo, M M; Sperling, F A

    2001-02-01

    Although it is widely agreed that data from multiple sources are necessary to confidently resolve phylogenetic relationships, procedures for accommodating and incorporating heterogeneity in such data remain underdeveloped. We explored the use of partitioned, model-based analyses of heterogeneous molecular data in the context of a phylogenetic study of swallowtail butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Despite substantial basic and applied study, phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of this prominent group remain contentious. We sequenced 3.3 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (2.3 kb of cytochrome oxidase I and II and 1.0 kb of elongation factor-1 alpha, respectively) from 22 swallowtails, including representatives of Baroniinae, Parnassiinae, and Papilioninae, and from several moth and butterfly outgroups. Using parsimony, we encountered considerable difficulty in resolving the deepest splits among these taxa. We therefore chose two outgroups with undisputed relationships to each other and to Papilionidae and undertook detailed likelihood analyses of alternative topologies. Following from previous studies that have demonstrated substantial heterogeneity in the evolutionary dynamics among process partitions of these genes, we estimated evolutionary parameters separately for gene-based and codon-based partitions. These values were then used as the basis for examining the likelihoods of possible resolutions and rootings under several partitioned and unpartitioned likelihood models. Partitioned models gave markedly better fits to the data than did unpartitioned models and supported different topologies. However, the most likely topology varied from model to model. The most likely ingroup topology under the best-fitting, six-partition GTR + gamma model favors a paraphyletic Parnassiinae. However, when examining the likelihoods of alternative rootings of this tree relative to rootings of the classical hypothesis, two rootings of the latter emerge as

  2. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  3. GENETICS OF MIMICRY IN THE TIGER SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLIES, PAPILIO GLAUCUS AND P. CANADENSIS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J Mark; Hagen, Robert H; Lederhouse, Robert C

    1996-02-01

    The tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio glaucus, exhibits a female-limited polymorphism for Batesian mimicry; the Canadian tiger swallowtail, Papilio canadensis, lacks the mimetic (dark) form entirely. The species hybridize to a limited extent where their ranges overlap. Field collections and censuses indicate that mimetic females occur throughout the range of P. glaucus but at lowest frequencies in populations at the latitudinal edges of its geographic range such as the southernmost part of Florida and along the entire northern edge of its distribution from Massachusetts to Minnesota. Frequencies of mimetic females have remained relatively stable over time. Inheritance of the mimetic form is controlled primarily by two interacting sex-linked loci. The typical matrilineal pattern of inheritance in P. glaucus can be explained by polymorphism at a Y-linked locus, b. Analysis of P. glaucus × P. canadensis crosses has also revealed an X-linked locus, s, which controls the expression of the mimetic phenotype. The P. canadensis allele, s can , suppresses the mimetic phenotype in hybrid and backcross females. Results from more than 12 yr of rearing tiger swallowtails, including interspecies hybrids, indicate that the absence of mimetic P. canadensis females is due to both a high frequency of the "suppressing" allele s can and low frequency of the black-pigment-determining b + allele. The frequency of s can (or other suppressing alleles of s) in P. glaucus populations outside the hybrid zone is low. Some males heterozygous at the s locus and some suppressed mimetic females occur within the hybrid zone. A simple genetic model predicts the frequency of daughters that differ in phenotype from their mothers. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of swallowtail butterflies of the tribe Papilionini (Papilionidae, Lepidoptera).

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    Aubert, J; Legal, L; Descimon, H; Michel, F

    1999-07-01

    Swallowtail butterflies of the tribe Papilionini number about 225 species and are currently used as model organisms in several research areas, including genetics, chemical ecology and phylogenetics of host plant utilization and mimicry, mechanisms of speciation, and conservation. We have inferred phylogenetic relationships for a sample of 18 species of the genus Papilio (sensu lato) and five outgroup taxa by sequencing two stretches of mitochondrial DNA that correspond to segments 12886-13370 and 12083-12545 of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA and consist of sections of the genes for the large ribosomal RNA and subunit 1 of NADH-dehydrogenase. Our data support the monophyly of Papilio and, within it, of several traditionally recognized subgroups. Species belonging to groups that utilize primarily Rutaceae as larval foodplants form two clusters, corresponding to Old World and American taxa, respectively, while two previously recognized clades-of American and South Asian-Austronesian origin-whose members were known to feed mostly on Lauraceae and Magnoliaceae, are observed to form a clade. The sister group of Papilio is found to be the South Asian genus Meandrusa, which also happens to feed on Lauraceae. The latter plant family is therefore the probable larval host of the ancestor Papilio and the shift to Rutaceae (which four-fifths of extant Papilio species use as foodplants) is more likely to have occurred only after the initial diversification of the genus. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Age-specific life table of swallowtail butterfly Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno. 2012. Age-specific life table of swallowtail butterfly Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 13: 28-33. Age-specific life table of Papilio demoleus L. in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Development of P. demoleus was observed from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. Survivorship of P. demoleus in the DS was lower than in the SWS and in the PWS. The mortality (qx of the fifth instar larvae P. demoleus in all seasons was higher than in other stages. Predators, parasitoids, and rainfall were the most important factors of mortality in immature stages of P. demoleus. Predators caused the highest mortality in all stages of P. demoleus, except the pupal stage. Predation in the DS (94.39% was higher than in the SWS (90.88% and PWS (84.04% but no significantly different among the seasons. Meanwhile there was significantly different of mortality caused by parasitoids and the rain among the seasons. Spiders were the important mortality agent in the eggs and young larvae, meanwhile in the older larvae were S. dichotomus and Podisus sp. Ooencyrtus papilioni and Pteromalus puparum were the important parasitoids for the eggs and pupae of P. demoleus, respectively. In summary, the season influenced the survivorship of P. demoleus in citrus plantation. P. demoleus had the highest survival in the wet primary season (PWS, while the lowest survival was observed in the dry season (DS.

  6. Identification of odoriferous compounds from adults of a swallowtail butterfly, Papilio machaon (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

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    Omura, H; Honda, K; Hayashi, N

    2001-01-01

    Adults, particularly males, of a papilionid butterfly, Papilio machaon hippocrates, emit a fairly strong scent perceivable by humans. We have identified a variety of volatile compounds (hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and so on) from the wings and bodies of both sexes of the butterfly. Male wings secreted n-dodecane, linalool and geranylacetone as major components together with small amounts of camphene, limonene, p-cymene, 2-phenylethanol, n-hexanal, n-decanal, isoamyl acetate, p-allylanisole, 2-pyrrolidone and other characteristic volatiles. The overall profile of volatile compounds detected from male body was quite different from that of the wings. Male body was devoid of camphene, 2-phenylethanol, n-hexanal but instead contained limonene, acetoin, a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (C15H24, methyl n-octanoate, (E,E)-hepta-2,4-dienal, and another isomer of heptadienal as principal components, of which the last four compounds were specific to the body. All these substances seem to concurrently characterize the male odor. The chemical patterns of compounds found from female wings and body were essentially the same in quality as those of male wings and body, respectively, although their quantities in females were generally smaller than in males. Females, however, had a larger amount of acetamide than males. The chemical compositions of volatiles from the fore and hind wings of males were not greatly different from each other, and every component was considered to be present on all parts of the wings. This suggests that the scent-producing organs or scent-emitting pores are widely distributed on the whole wings. EAG responses of both sexes to 12 selected compounds identified from the butterfly were not strong at a dose of 1 microg, while both sexes showed relatively stronger responses to n-nonanal, methyl n-octanoate, D-limonene and linalool at a higher dose (10 microg). Although sexual difference in EAG response was not prominent, females appeared a

  7. Molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography, and divergence time estimates for swallowtail butterflies of the genus Papilio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Evgueni V; Caterino, Michael S; Sperling, Felix A H

    2004-04-01

    Swallowtail butterflies are recognized as model organisms in ecology, evolutionary biology, genetics, and conservation biology but present numerous unresolved phylogenetic problems. We inferred phylogenetic relationships for 51 of about 205 species of the genus Papilio (sensu lato) from 3.3-Kilobase (kb) sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (2.3 kb of cytochrome oxidases I and II and 1.0 kb of elongation factor 1 alpha). Congruent phylogenetic trees were recovered within Papilio from analyses of combined data using maximum likelihood, Bayesian analysis, and maximum parsimony bootstrap consensus. Several disagreements with the traditional classification of Papilio were found. Five major previously hypothesized subdivisions within Papilio were well supported: Heraclides, Pterourus, Chilasa, Papilio (sensu stricto), and Eleppone. Further studies are required to clarify relationships within traditional "Princeps," which was paraphyletic. Several biologically interesting characteristics of Papilio appear to have polyphyletic origins, including mimetic adults, larval host associations, and larval morphology. Early diversification within Papilio is estimated at 55-65 million years ago based on a combination of biogeographic time constraints rather than fossils. This divergence time suggests that Papilio has slower apparent substitution rates than do Drosophila and fig-pollinating wasps and/or divergences corrected using best-fit substitution models are still being consistently underestimated. The amount of sequence divergence between Papilio subdivisions is equivalent to divergences between genera in other tribes of the Papilionidae, and between genera of moths of the noctuid subfamily Heliothinae.

  8. The proximate control of pupal color in swallowtail butterflies: implications for the evolution of environmentally cued pupal color in butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

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    Jones, Matt; Rakes, Lauren; Yochum, Marisa; Dunn, Gabe; Wurster, Stacey; Kinney, Kevin; Hazel, Wade

    2007-01-01

    The environmentally cued production of cryptic green/yellow or brown/melanized pupae is widespread in butterflies, occurring in the Nymphalidae, Pieridae, and the Papilionidae subfamily Papilioninae. The dimorphism is controlled by the hormone pupal melanization reducing factor (PMRF). In the nymphalid Inachis io dibutryl cAMP mimics PMRF, and inhibits pupal melanization. However, in the papilionid Papilio polyxenes PMRF stimulates browning, suggesting that the control of pupal color by PMRF has evolved independently in the swallowtail and nymphalid-pierid lineages. We examined this hypothesis by using ligatures to prevent hormone release in five species representing three Papilioninae tribes. One species, Papilio glaucus, produces only brown pupae. Ligatures resulted in green cuticle posterior to the ligature in all five swallowtail species, including P. glaucus, suggesting that the mode of action of PMRF is the same in the three tribes. We also found that in P. polyxenes injections of dibutryl cAMP into prepupal larvae mimic the effect of PMRF, by causing dose-dependent pupal browning. Our results support the hypothesis that the control of pupal color by PMRF has evolved independently in the two lineages. The observation that green pupal color can be induced in P. glaucus by ligature indicates that environmentally cued pupal color could evolve by facultative inhibition of PMRF release.

  9. Environmental factors affecting black/white coloration of the silken girdle in the swallowtail butterfly, Atrophaneura alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

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    Saito, Masami; Yamanaka, Akira; Masaki, Hisashi; Nishijima, Ayako; Harada, Yumiko; Kitazawa, Chisato; Abe, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masao; Endo, Katsuhiko

    2005-11-01

    The silken girdles of pupae of the swallowtail butterfly Atrophaneura alcinous show black and white color diphenism. Field observations revealed that all pupae observed on non-food plants and the leaves and stems of the larval food plant Aristolochia debilis were classified as a silken girdle of a black type, while a large portion of pupae pupating on the twigs and trunks of cherry trees in close proximity to A. debilis were classified as a silken girdle of a black type. Additionally, all pupae observed on the surfaces of artificial objects in areas where there are no surrounding plants or trees were classified as a silken girdle of a white type. We demonstrated the effect of day length and the texture, light, plant odor and humidity of pupation sites on the coloration of the silken girdle in A. alcinous. Regardless of long-day or short-day day length conditions, light conditions of constant light or dark, or the presence of a plant odor of A. debilis as environmental cues, all larvae placed at over 80% relative humidity (R.H.) developed into pupae with a silken girdle of a black type. However, all larvae developed into pupae with a silken girdle of a white type when R.H. was below 75%. Furthermore, when pupae with a silken girdle of a white type were transferred to conditions of 90% R.H. within 24 hr of pupation, the white color of the silken girdle changed into a black type within 24 hr of the transfer. The present data suggest that the induction of a black coloration of the silken girdle in A. alcinous requires a R.H. of approximately 80% or more as an environmental factor.

  10. Warning Color Changes in Response to Food Deprivation in the Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor

    OpenAIRE

    Pegram, Kimberly V.; Nahm, Alexandra C.; Ronald L. Rutowski

    2013-01-01

    Predation on distasteful animals should favor warning coloration that is relatively conspicuous and phenotypically invariable. However, even among similarly colored individuals there can be variation in their warning signals. In butterflies, individual differences in larval feeding history could cause this variation. The warning signal of the pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) consists of both a blue iridescent patch and pigmentbased orange spots on...

  11. Population Dynamics of the Swallowtail Butterfly Battus polystictus polystictus (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) with Notes on Its Natural History.

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    Scalco, V W; de Morais, A B B; Romanowski, H P; Mega, N O

    2016-02-01

    Battus polystictus (Butler) is a butterfly from the Neotropical region, occurring in the Atlantic Forest and Pampa biomes. It is commonly found in forest fragments surrounded by meadow formations, subjected to marked seasonal changes. Here, we report the population dynamics of B. polystictus at a high latitude environment and provide notes on its natural history. Population parameters were estimated on a 12-month mark-recapture program and the seasonality of resources investigated by exhaustive mapping of host-plants and flowers. The number of butterflies per day was not stable during the year, ranging from zero (winter) to 22 (summer); the sex ratio was always male biased (3M:1F). The age structure was not constant, with an increase of older individuals toward summer. The population density was positively correlated with temperature, relative humidity, and day length. The residence time was lower for males, while the vagility was lower for females; the increment of resources at forest edges seems to increase the likelihood of occurrence of both sexes. The results shown here suggest that South Brazilian populations of B. polystictus have high ecological demands for spring and summer conditions, avoiding winter in diapause.

  12. Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion

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    Tanaka, Hiroto [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 60 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shimoyama, Isao, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

  13. Colour constancy in the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus.

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    Kinoshita, M; Arikawa, K

    2000-12-01

    We have recently shown that the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus uses colour vision when searching for food. In the field, these butterflies feed on nectar provided by flowers of various colours not only in direct sunlight but also in shaded places and on cloudy days, suggesting that they have colour constancy. Here, we tested this hypothesis. We trained newly emerged Papilio xuthus to feed on sucrose solution on a paper patch of a certain colour under white illumination. The butterflies were then tested under both white and coloured illumination. Under white illumination, yellow- and red-trained butterflies selected the correctly coloured patch from a four-colour pattern and from a colour Mondrian collage. Under four different colours of illumination, we obtained results that were fundamentally similar to those under white illumination. Moreover, we performed critical tests using sets of two similar colours, which were also correctly discriminated by trained butterflies under coloured illumination. Taken together, we conclude that the butterfly Papilio xuthus exhibits some degree of colour constancy when searching for food.

  14. Procurement of exogenous ammonia by the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes, for protein biosynthesis and sperm production

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    Honda, Keiichi; Takase, Hiroyuki; Ômura, Hisashi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    How to acquire sufficient quantity of nitrogen is a pivotal issue for herbivores, particularly for lepidopterans (butterflies and moths) of which diet quality greatly differs among their life stages. Male Lepidoptera often feed from mud puddles, dung, and carrion, a behavior known as puddling, which is thought to be supplementary feeding targeted chiefly at sodium. During copulation, males transfer a spermatophore to females that contains, besides sperm, nutrients (nuptial gifts) rich in sodium, proteins, and amino acids. However, it is still poorly understood how adults, mostly nectarivores, extract nitrogen from the environment. We examined the availability of two ubiquitous inorganic nitrogenous ions in nature, viz. ammonium (or ammonia) and nitrate ions, as nutrients in a butterfly, and show that exogenous ammonia ingested by adult males of the swallowtail, Papilio polytes, can serve as a resource for protein biosynthesis. Feeding experiments with 15N-labeled ammonium chloride revealed that nitrogen was incorporated into eupyrene spermatozoa, seminal protein, and thoracic muscle. Ammonia uptake by males significantly increased the number of eupyrene sperms in the reproductive tract tissues. The females also had the capacity to assimilate ammonia into egg protein. Consequently, it is evident that acquired ammonia is utilized for the replenishment of proteins allocable for reproduction and somatic maintenance. The active exploitation of exogenous ammonia as a nutrient by a butterfly would foster better understanding of the foraging and reproductive strategies in insects.

  15. Winter is coming: Diapause in the subtropical swallowtail butterfly Euryades corethrus (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) is triggered by the shortening of day length and reinforced by low temperatures.

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    Caporale, Andressa; Romanowski, Helena Piccoli; Mega, Nicolás Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Diapause is modulated by genetic responses to some environmental cues. The most common stimulus to trigger diapause is photoperiod, but temperature and humidity can also be important. Subtropical grasslands insects are overexposed to seasonality and can use diapause as strategy to overcome harsh conditions, avoiding freezing winter temperatures and drought summer conditions. Here, we investigate if photoperiod, temperature, and humidity can induce and terminate dormancy using the model Euryades corethrus, a butterfly from Pampa that diapause as pupae. We hypothesize that photoperiod, temperature, and humidity can induce dormancy; to test the hypothesis, individuals from a stock population were subjected to experiments controlling these three factors. Photoperiod and temperature interactions were also tested. To evaluate if the removal of the harsh factor that induced diapause trigger diapause termination, 50% of dormant pupae in each experiment were exposed to amenable conditions. The results indicated that diapause is mainly induced by short photophases, while temperature and humidity separately do not increase dormancy frequency. Short photoperiods and low temperatures interact with each other, increasing dormancy in experimental populations. The evidences suggest that diapause is trigger by short-day lengths and boosted by low temperatures as winter approaches. The incidence of obligatory summer diapause was not supported, but the occurrence of dormant pupae in high-temperature treatments suggests that high temperatures produce facultative diapause. Regarding diapause termination, the softening of harsh conditions that induced diapause was not sufficient to reverse the dormancy state, suggesting that diapause termination is more complex than previously thought, probably involving internal clocks. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sugar receptor response of the food-canal taste sensilla in a nectar-feeding swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi A.; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Seta, Kazuaki; Imaeda, Daisuke; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2009-03-01

    The feeding behavior in nectar-feeding insects is triggered by a sugar-receptor response in contact chemosensilla. The contact chemosensilla are distributed not only on tarsi and the outside of the proboscis but also on the inside of the food canal in Lepidoptera. Although the chemosensilla inside the food canal are assumed to detect sweet taste during the passage of nectar through the food canal, their electrophysiological function has received little attention. In the nectar-feeding Asian swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), we found 15- to 30-μm-long sensilla neatly lined up along the inside galea wall, which forms the food canal in the proboscis. The receptor neurons of these sensilla responded to sucrose. We hypothesized that starch and sucrose compete with each other for a taste receptor site on the sensilla. When we added starch and sucrose to the food-canal sensilla, the electrophysiological responses of food-canal sensilla were inhibited in parallel with the food-sucking behavior of the butterflies. These results suggest that the food-canal sensilla are involved in the behavioral control of nectar-sucking in this butterfly species.

  17. Warning Color Changes in Response to Food Deprivation in the Pipevine Swallowtail Butterfly, Battus philenor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, Kimberly V.; Nahm, Alexandra C.; Rutowski, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Predation on distasteful animals should favor warning coloration that is relatively conspicuous and phenotypically invariable. However, even among similarly colored individuals there can be variation in their warning signals. In butterflies, individual differences in larval feeding history could cause this variation. The warning signal of the pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) consists of both a blue iridescent patch and pigmentbased orange spots on the ventral hindwing. B. philenor males also display a dorsal surface iridescent patch that functions as a sexual indicator signal. A previous study of iridescence in B. philenor found that the iridescent blue on both the dorsal and ventral hind wings is variable and significantly different between lab-reared and field-caught individuals. These differences could be the result of larval food deprivation in the field. Through experimental manipulation of larval diet, larval food deprivation was evaluated as a potential cause of the differences observed between lab and field individuals, and if food deprivation is a source of inter-individual variation in warning signals. B. philenor larvae were food restricted starting at two points in the last larval instar, and one group was fed through pupation. Adult coloration was then compared. Food deprivation led to poorer adult condition, as indicated by lower adult body mass, forewing length, and fat content of stressed individuals. As the level of food deprivation increased, the hue of the iridescent patches on both the dorsal and ventral hind wing shifted to shorter wavelengths, and the chroma of the orange spots decreased. The shifts in iridescent color did not match the differences previously found between lab and field individuals. However, the treatment differences indicate that food deprivation may be a significant source of warning color variation. The differences between the treatment groups are likely detectable by predators

  18. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7

  19. Combined pigmentary and structural effects tune wing scale coloration to color vision in the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Matsushita, Atsuko; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies have well-developed color vision, presumably optimally tuned to the detection of conspecifics by their wing coloration. Here we investigated the pigmentary and structural basis of the wing colors in the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, applying spectrophotometry, scatterometry, light and electron microscopy, and optical modeling. The about flat lower lamina of the wing scales plays a crucial role in wing coloration. In the cream, orange and black scales, the ...

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Alpine black swallowtail, Papilio Maackii (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Zhu, Li-Xin; Wu, Yun-Fei; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2013-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio maackii has been completed. It is 15,357 bp in length, and contains the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA), and 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Two A + T-rich regions are included in this mitogenome. Gene order in P. maackii mitogenome is basically identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome, with the exception of translocations of trnM, which is shared by some Papilios.

  1. Sex chromosome mosaicism and hybrid speciation among tiger swallowtail butterflies.

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    Krushnamegh Kunte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid speciation, or the formation of a daughter species due to interbreeding between two parental species, is a potentially important means of diversification, because it generates new forms from existing variation. However, factors responsible for the origin and maintenance of hybrid species are largely unknown. Here we show that the North American butterfly Papilio appalachiensis is a hybrid species, with genomic admixture from Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Papilio appalachiensis has a mosaic phenotype, which is hypothesized to be the result of combining sex-linked traits from P. glaucus and P. canadensis. We show that P. appalachiensis' Z-linked genes associated with a cooler thermal habitat were inherited from P. canadensis, whereas its W-linked mimicry and mitochondrial DNA were inherited from P. glaucus. Furthermore, genome-wide AFLP markers showed nearly equal contributions from each parental species in the origin of P. appalachiensis, indicating that it formed from a burst of hybridization between the parental species, with little subsequent backcrossing. However, analyses of genetic differentiation, clustering, and polymorphism based on molecular data also showed that P. appalachiensis is genetically distinct from both parental species. Population genetic simulations revealed P. appalachiensis to be much younger than the parental species, with unidirectional gene flow from P. glaucus and P. canadensis into P. appalachiensis. Finally, phylogenetic analyses, combined with ancestral state reconstruction, showed that the two traits that define P. appalachiensis' mosaic phenotype, obligatory pupal diapause and mimicry, evolved uniquely in P. canadensis and P. glaucus, respectively, and were then recombined through hybridization to form P. appalachiensis. These results suggest that natural selection and sex-linked traits may have played an important role in the origin and maintenance of P. appalachiensis as a hybrid species. In

  2. Repeated Reticulate Evolution in North American Papilio machaon Group Swallowtail Butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Dupuis

    Full Text Available Hybridization between distinct populations or species is increasingly recognized as an important process for generating biodiversity. However, the interaction between hybridization and speciation is complex, and the diverse evolutionary outcomes of hybridization are difficult to differentiate. Here we characterize potential hybridization in a species group of swallowtail butterflies using microsatellites, DNA sequences, and morphology, and assess whether adaptive introgression or homoploid hybrid speciation was the primary process leading to each putative hybrid lineage. Four geographically separated hybrid populations were identified in the Papilio machaon species group. One distinct mitochondrial DNA clade from P. machaon was fixed in three hybrid taxa (P. brevicauda, P. joanae, and P. m. kahli, while one hybrid swarm (P. zelicaon x machaon exhibited this hybrid mtDNA clade as well as widespread parental mtDNA haplotypes from both parental species. Microsatellite markers and morphology showed variable admixture and intermediacy, ranging from signatures of prolonged differential introgression from the paternal species (P. polyxenes/P. zelicaon to current gene flow with both parental species. Divergences of the hybrid lineages dated to early- to mid-Pleistocene, suggesting that repeated glaciations and subsequent range shifts of parental species, particularly P. machaon hudsonianus, facilitated initial hybridization. Although each lineage is distinct, P. joanae is the only taxon with sufficient evidence (ecological separation from parental species to define it as a homoploid hybrid species. The repetition of hybridization in this group provides a valuable foundation for future research on hybridization, and these results emphasize the potential for hybridization to drive speciation in diverse ways.

  3. Jamaica's Critically Endangered Butterfly: A Review of the Biology and Conservation Status of the Homerus Swallowtail (Papilio (Pterourus) homerus Fabricius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Matthew S; Kramer, Valerie R; Rawlins, John E; Verdecia, Vanessa; Daniels, Jaret C

    2017-07-10

    The Homerus swallowtail, Papilio (Pterourus) homerus Fabricius, is listed as an endangered species and is endemic to the Caribbean island of Jamaica. The largest butterfly in the Western Hemisphere, P. homerus once inhabited seven of Jamaica's 14 parishes and consisted of at least three populations; however, now only two stronghold populations remain, a western population in the rugged Cockpit Country and an eastern population in the Blue and John Crow Mountains. Despite numerous studies of its life history, much about the population biology, including estimates of total numbers of individuals in each population, remains unknown. In addition, a breeding program is needed to establish an experimental population, which could be used to augment wild populations and ensure the continued survival of the species. Here, we present a review of the biology of P. homerus and recommendations for a conservation plan.

  4. Constituents of osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, B V; Munro, Z; Röth, M; Spies, H S; Truter, V; Geertsema, H; Habich, A

    1985-08-01

    The defensive osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of the citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was found to contain methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, α-pinene, myrcene, limonene, β-phellandrene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, β-caryophyllene, (E)-β-farnesene, and germacrene-A, as well as a further number of unidentified sesquiterpenoid constituents. The presence of germacrene-A in the secretion was inferred from the formation of β-elemene under certain GC conditions. Larvae of the second, third, and fourth instars produce qualitatively similar secretions. Remarkable quantitative differences were found between the secretions of individual larvae. These variations could not be correlated with the diet on which the larvae were fed, their sex, instar, or color form. However, in a number of larvae the two prongs of the osmeterium were found to produce quantitatively different secretions.

  5. Combined pigmentary and structural effects tune wing scale coloration to color vision in the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Matsushita, Atsuko; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies have well-developed color vision, presumably optimally tuned to the detection of conspecifics by their wing coloration. Here we investigated the pigmentary and structural basis of the wing colors in the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, applying spectrophotometry, scatterometry, light and electron microscopy, and optical modeling. The about flat lower lamina of the wing scales plays a crucial role in wing coloration. In the cream, orange and black scales, the lower lamina is a thin film with thickness characteristically depending on the scale type. The thin film acts as an interference reflector, causing a structural color that is spectrally filtered by the scale's pigment. In the cream and orange scales, papiliochrome pigment is concentrated in the ridges and crossribs of the elaborate upper lamina. In the black scales the upper lamina contains melanin. The blue scales are unpigmented and their structure differs strongly from those of the pigmented scales. The distinct blue color is created by the combination of an optical multilayer in the lower lamina and a fine-structured upper lamina. The structural and pigmentary scale properties are spectrally closely related, suggesting that they are under genetic control of the same key enzymes. The wing reflectance spectra resulting from the tapestry of scales are well discriminable by the Papilio color vision system.

  6. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  8. Independent evolution of sexual dimorphism and female-limited mimicry in swallowtail butterflies (Papilio dardanus and Papilio phorcas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, M J T N; Thompson, M J; Collins, S; Vogler, A P

    2017-03-01

    Several species of swallowtail butterflies (genus Papilio) are Batesian mimics that express multiple mimetic female forms, while the males are monomorphic and nonmimetic. The evolution of such sex-limited mimicry may involve sexual dimorphism arising first and mimicry subsequently. Such a stepwise scenario through a nonmimetic, sexually dimorphic stage has been proposed for two closely related sexually dimorphic species: Papilio phorcas, a nonmimetic species with two female forms, and Papilio dardanus, a female-limited polymorphic mimetic species. Their close relationship indicates that female-limited polymorphism could be a shared derived character of the two species. Here, we present a phylogenomic analysis of the dardanus group using 3964 nuclear loci and whole mitochondrial genomes, showing that they are not sister species and thus that the sexually dimorphic state has arisen independently in the two species. Nonhomology of the female polymorphism in both species is supported by population genetic analysis of engrailed, the presumed mimicry switch locus in P. dardanus. McDonald-Kreitman tests performed on SNPs in engrailed showed the signature of balancing selection in a polymorphic population of P. dardanus, but not in monomorphic populations, nor in the nonmimetic P. phorcas. Hence, the wing polymorphism does not balance polymorphisms in engrailed in P. phorcas. Equally, unlike in P. dardanus, none of the SNPs in P. phorcas engrailed were associated with either female morph. We conclude that sexual dimorphism due to female polymorphism evolved independently in both species from monomorphic, nonmimetic states. While sexual selection may drive male-female dimorphism in nonmimetic species, in mimetic Papilios, natural selection for protection from predators in females is an alternative route to sexual dimorphism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) thrived in gymnosperm forests following the end-Triassic extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; van Eldijk, Timo; Wappler, Torsten; Strother, Paul; van der Weijst, Carolien; Rajaei, Hossein; Visscher, Henk

    2017-04-01

    The oldest evidence for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and the Coelolepida (hollow-scaled moths and butterflies) is presented based on an assemblage of fossilized scales encountered in uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic sediments from a core drilled in northern Germany. The diverse assemblage of scales points to a Triassic origin of the Lepidoptera and a radiation of some lineages just before or right after the end-Triassic mass extinction (201 Ma). These findings confirm molecular clock estimates for splits within the Amphiesmenoptera that led to the evolution of true butterflies. Not only did Lepidoptera survive the end-Triassic extinction, they also appear to have radiated directly following this environmental crisis, which could be related to the dramatic changes in paleoclimate triggered by the eruption of the CAMP, especially an increase in humidity. Seen in combination with high-resolution palynological records that show an Early Jurassic dominance of conifer pollen, the presence of scales derived from angiospermivorous Coelolepida likely signifies a host-shift (for multiple lineages of crown group Lepidoptera) from gymnosperms to angiosperms during the Mesozoic.

  10. A contribution key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the useful bio-indicators of an ecosystem, sensitive to any change in environment, such as temperature, microclimate and solar radiation etc, however, they utilize host plants for their oviposition and larval development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare the contribution key for identification of butterflies of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014-May, 2015. The specimens (ni = 506 were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. However, the collected butterflies were comprised of families Nymphalidae 50%> Pieridae 43%> Papilionidae 7%. The family Nymphalidae were primarily, blue, pale brown or orange and antennae-tips with large conspicuous knobs, while, family Pieridae were mostly creamy, white, yellow or light orange, although, the family Papilionidae were multi-colours, i.e., yellow, blackish-brown, white or orange and antennae-tips with or without knobs. The largest butterfly was great black mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Family: Papilionidae with body length 26.0±0.0 (nP. polytes = 1; M±SD mm, while the smallest butterflies Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval (Family: Pieridae with body length 11.5±0.6 (nC. etrida = 4; M±SD mm. The key of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan has been established in this paper. It is recommended to evaluate the butterfly fauna of District Charsadda to educate and create awareness in the local community for conservation and protestation of their habitats.

  11. Time-scale dependency of host plant biomass- and trait-mediated indirect effects of deer herbivory on a swallowtail butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shun; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    Despite recent attempts to quantify the relative strength of density- and trait-mediated indirect effects, rarely has the issue been properly addressed at the population level. Most research is based on short-term small-scale experiments in which behavioural and/or physiological responses prevail. Here, we estimated the time-scales during which density- and trait-mediated effects manifest, as well as the strength of these effects, using an interaction chain with three organisms (deer-plant-butterfly). A hierarchical Bayesian model was performed by using a long-term data set of deer density in the Boso Peninsula, central Japan (where local densities differ spatially and temporally) as well as densities of the swallowtail butterfly Byasa alcinous and its host plant Aristolochia kaempferi. The time-scale effect of deer on plant quantity and quality was estimated according to the degree of carry-over effects. The negative influence on leaf density showed a temporal saturation pattern over the long term, while the positive influence on leaf quality due to resprouting of leaves after deer browsing showed no clear temporal trend. The net indirect effect changed from positive to negative with time, with the negative density-mediated effect becoming prominent in the long term. Our novel approach is widely applicable in assessing the dynamic impacts of wildlife if the spatio-temporal variability of expansion and/or invasion history is known. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  12. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  13. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26798308

  14. Diversity and abundance of butterfly species (Lepidoptera) fauna in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butterflies belong to one of the most important taxa of insects. Understanding their significance in an ecosystem as an environmental health indicator and pollination of flowering plants is crucial to achieving sustainability and conservation of floral diversity. Owing to habitat destruction due to some anthropogenic activities, ...

  15. Comprehensive microarray-based analysis for stage-specific larval camouflage pattern-associated genes in the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus

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    Futahashi Ryo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body coloration is an ecologically important trait that is often involved in prey-predator interactions through mimicry and crypsis. Although this subject has attracted the interest of biologists and the general public, our scientific knowledge on the subject remains fragmentary. In the caterpillar of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus, spectacular changes in the color pattern are observed; the insect mimics bird droppings (mimetic pattern as a young larva, and switches to a green camouflage coloration (cryptic pattern in the final instar. Despite the wide variety and significance of larval color patterns, few studies have been conducted at a molecular level compared with the number of studies on adult butterfly wing patterns. Results To obtain a catalog of genes involved in larval mimetic and cryptic pattern formation, we constructed expressed sequence tag (EST libraries of larval epidermis for P. xuthus, and P. polytes that contained 20,736 and 5,376 clones, respectively, representing one of the largest collections available in butterflies. A comparison with silkworm epidermal EST information revealed the high expression of putative blue and yellow pigment-binding proteins in Papilio species. We also designed a microarray from the EST dataset information, analyzed more than five stages each for six markings, and confirmed spatial expression patterns by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Hence, we succeeded in elucidating many novel marking-specific genes for mimetic and cryptic pattern formation, including pigment-binding protein genes, the melanin-associated gene yellow-h3, the ecdysteroid synthesis enzyme gene 3-dehydroecdysone 3b-reductase, and Papilio-specific genes. We also found many cuticular protein genes with marking specificity that may be associated with the unique surface nanostructure of the markings. Furthermore, we identified two transcription factors, spalt and ecdysteroid signal-related E75, as genes

  16. Annotated checklist of Albanian butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea

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    Rudi Verovnik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Albania has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. However, due to its political isolation, it has never been studied in great depth, and consequently, the existing list of butterfly species is outdated and in need of radical amendment. In addition to our personal data, we have studied the available literature, and can report a total of 196 butterfly species recorded from the country. For some of the species in the list we have given explanations for their inclusion and made other annotations. Doubtful records have been removed from the list, and changes in taxonomy have been updated and discussed separately. The purpose of our paper is to remove confusion and conflict regarding published records. However, the revised checklist should not be considered complete: it represents a starting point for further research.

  17. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  18. A new Heraclides swallowtail (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) from North America is recognized by the pattern on its neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Kojiro; Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V

    2014-01-01

    Heraclidesrumiko Shiraiwa & Grishin, sp. n. is described from southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America (type locality: USA, Texas, Duval County). It is closely allied to Heraclidescresphontes (Cramer, 1777) and the two species are sympatric in central Texas. The new species is diagnosed by male genitalia and exhibits a nearly 3% difference from Heraclidescresphontes in the COI DNA barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. The two Heraclides species can usually be told apart by the shape and size of yellow spots on the neck, by the wing shape, and the details of wing patterns. "Western Giant Swallowtail" is proposed as the English name for Heraclidesrumiko. To stabilize nomenclature, neotype for Papiliocresphontes Cramer, 1777, an eastern United States species, is designated from Brooklyn, New York, USA; and lectotype for Papiliothoas Linnaeus, 1771 is designated from Suriname. We sequenced DNA barcodes and ID tags of nearly 400 Papilionini specimens completing coverage of all Heraclides species. Comparative analyses of DNA barcodes, genitalia, and facies suggest that Heraclidesoviedo (Gundlach, 1866), reinstated status, is a species-level taxon rather than a subspecies of Heraclidesthoas (Linnaeus, 1771); and Heraclidespallas (G. Gray, [1853]), reinstated status, with its subspecies HeraclidesPapiliobajaensis (J. Brown & Faulkner, 1992), comb. n., and Heraclidesanchicayaensis Constantino, Le Crom & Salazar, 2002, stat. n., are not conspecific with Heraclidesastyalus (Godart, 1819).

  19. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil ( Lepidoptera , Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea )

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz-Santos,Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendik

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restri...

  20. Stichelia pelotensis (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae: conservation, notes, and rediscovery of an endangered butterfly from southern Brazil

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    Ricardo Russo Siewert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stichelia pelotensis (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae is an endemic and threatened butterfly from the Pampa biome in southern Brazil, and has not been recorded in its type locality in the last 56 years. Recently, a population was found in two sites from extreme south Brazil, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul state. These records are an important find given the conservation status of S. pelotensis, since all the information gathered is new and involve the natural history of this species. The information obtained is useful for the management, monitoring and conservation priorities of this species and its associated habitats, since its known distribution is restricted to a narrow area in the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain inside this threatened biome in southern Brazil.

  1. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

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    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of the New World Troidini swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on COI, COII, and EF-1alpha genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Lucci Freitas, André Victor; Brower, Andrew V Z; Solferini, Vera Nisaka

    2005-09-01

    A phylogeny of the Neotropical members of the Tribe Troidini (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was obtained with sequences of three protein-coding genes: two mitochondrial (COI and COII), and one nuclear (EF-1alpha). Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of 33 taxa resulted in very similar trees regardless of method used with the 27 troidines always forming a monophyletic clade. Within Troidini, the genus Battus is sister group to the remaining troidines, followed by a clade formed by the Paleotropical taxa (here represented by three exemplars). The genus Euryades is the next branch, and sister group of Parides. The genus Parides is monophyletic, and is divided into four main groups by Maximum Parsimony analysis, with the most basal group composed of tailed species restricted to SE Brazil. Character optimization of ecological and morphological traits over the phylogeny proposed for troidines indicated that the use of several species of Aristolochia is ancestral over the use of few or a single host-plant. For the other three characters, the ancestral states were the absence of long tails, forest as the primary habitat and oviposition solitary or in loose group of several eggs.

  3. Protected species of butterflies (Lepidoptera in the National Nature Park “Velyky Lug”

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    K. K. Goloborodko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Velyky Lug is a unique natural complex which has a large biogeographical, ecological, environmental, historical and recreational value. The National Nature Park “Velyky Lug” was only created as recently as 2006.The park is located in Zaporizhzhya region, 15–18 km south of the city Zaporizhzhya, within the limits of floodplain area of the Dnepr river, which broadens to a width of over 20 kmbetween Bilen’ke and Vasilivka (north-eastern part of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. This enormous expansion of the floodplain (about 80,000 ha which is situated between the Dnepr river and its tributary the Kins’ka was in historical times was called the Kin’ski Floodplain or Great Meadow. In modern times this territory is almost completely flooded by the waters of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. Remnants of natural habitats have been preserved along the river banks – in the form of little valleys and ravines which extend all the shore and also islands which appeared in 1956 when the reservoir was flooded. The overall area of the park “Velyky Lug” is 16,756 ha. Within the territory of the park “Velyky Lug” we have recorded 27 species of Lepidoptera which have various levels of conservation status. The taxonomical structure of the complex varies and included representatives of all basic families of moth and day butterflies which have species that are protected by law. In a taxonomical relation this complex is formed by the representatives of 11 families (Zygaenidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae, Lycaenidae. Zoogeographical analysis of the species that are protected in the territory of the park can be classified into 5 basic groups (Palearctic – 26%, Pontokazach – 26%, Mediterranean– 22%, Eurosiberian – 15%, European – 11%. Analysis of the biotopic advantages of the protected Lepidoptera species present in the territory of the park showed representatives from all

  4. Hormonal control of the orange coloration of diapause pupae in the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Akira; Imai, Hiroshi; Adachi, Miwa; Komatsu, Mitsunobu; Islam, A T M Fayezul; Kodama, Ichiro; Kitazawa, Chisato; Endo, Katsuhiko

    2004-10-01

    Diapause pupae of Papilio xuthus show color polymorphism, represented by diapause-green, orange, and brownish-orange types that are each associated with specific pupation sites. We investigated the role of the site of pupation on the induction of the development of orange types (or brownish-orange types), and the endocrine mechanism underlying the control of color polymorphism in short-day pupae. All short-day larvae of the wandering stage developed into orange or brownish-orange type pupae when they were placed in rough-surfaced containers after gut-purge. Utilizing a pharate pupal ligation between the thorax and abdomen, the endocrine mechanism underlying the control of color polymorphism was shown to involve a head-thorax factor (Orange-Pupa-Inducing Factor: OPIF) that induced orange types in short-day pupae. OPIF was bioassayed using the ligated abdomens of short-day pharate pupae. OPIF was extractable with 2% NaCl solution from 5th-instar larval ganglia complexes following the mesothoracic complex (TG(2,3)-AG(1-7)), but it could not be extracted with either acetone or 80% ethanol solution. OPIF may not exist in the brains of day-0 pupae or in brain-subesophageal ganglion and prothoracic ganglion complexes of 5th-instar larvae. The short-day pharate pupae responded to OPIF in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. The mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and related phylogenetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia; Liu, Dian-Feng; Wang, Nai-Xin; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2010-12-01

    The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was sequenced for its nucleotide sequence of 13,964 bp. The genome has a typical gene order identical to other lepidopteran species. All tRNAs showed same stable canonical clover-leaf structure as those of other insects, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. Anomalous initiation codons have been observed for the cox1 gene, where the ATTACG hexa-nucleotide was believed to be involved in the initiation signaling. Twelve mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequence data were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the insect orders. Even though the number of insect orders represented by complete mitochondrial genomes is still limited, several well-established relationships are evident in the phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequences. Monophyly of the Homometabola was not supported in this paper. Phylogenetic analyses of the available species of Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea, Papilionoidea and Tortricidea bolstered the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea and Papilionoidea are monophyletic (Obtectomera). Bombycoidea (Bombyx mandarina and Antheraea pernyi) and Papilionoidea (P. xuthus and Coreana raphaelis) formed a sister group.

  6. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Mount Sago, West Sumatra: Diversity and Flower Preference

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    Ratih Rusman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of butterfly depends on the availability of food plant and habitat quality. The aims of this study were to assess diversity and flower preference of butterflies in Mount Sago, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Observations were performed by scan sampling method in four types of habitats, i.e. secondary forests, pine forests, rubber forests, and agricultural areas. Our results showed that at least 184 species of butterflies and 56 species of nectar plants have been identified in Mount Sago. Nymphalid butterfly, Neptis hylas, was the most dominant species of butterflies. Two species, i.e. Trogonoptera brookiana and Troides amphrysus, were found as the protected butterflies. Diversity of butterfly in secondary forests was highest, whereas the lowest diversity was found in pine forest. Papilionid butterflies were found frequently feeding on tube blossoms, nymphalid butterflies on head blossoms, and lycaenid butterflies on flag blossom. Our results also showed that habitat change impacts composition and diversity of butterfly.

  7. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  8. Some ecological factors influencing the breeding success of the Brenton Blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

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    D.A. Edge

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brenton Blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen, 1862 (Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae, is endemic to the southern Cape and is currently listed as Endangered. This study looks at some of the key ecological factors influencing the breeding success of the species—host plant abundance and condition, nectar sources, climate/ microclimate, and vegetation management techniques. The adult butterfly population was monitored over an entire breeding season; host plants were identified and individually monitored; and egg counts were done. This enabled the effects of a number of different management techniques to be evaluated (burning, cutting, physical removal of invasive elements, and combinations thereof. A fivefold increase in the population of O. niobe was observed over the breeding season. This increase was positively correlated to a similar increase in host plant abundance in the areas where cutting and physical removal of invasive elements was practiced. Burning, by contrast, appeared to have a negative impact on host plant and butterfly abundance over the same period. Impacts of other factors such as climate, nectar sources and the natural strength of the second brood are discussed. A hypothesis, of megaherbivore activity as the principal historical disturbance mechanism promoting locally favourable conditions for O. niobe to establish and maintain colonies, is proposed. Recommendations for reserve management and future research are made.

  9. Molecular systematics and evolution of the recently discovered "Parnassian" butterfly (Parnassius davydovi Churkin, 2006) and its allied species (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae).

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    Omoto, Keiichi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Shinkawa, Tsutomu

    2009-07-15

    The nucleotide sequence of 807 bp of the mtDNA-ND5 locus of Parnassius davydovi (Churkin, S. 2006. A new species of Parnassius Latreille, 1804, from Kyrgyzstan (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Helios (Moskow) 7,142-158), was determined. This butterfly was unexpectedly discovered recently in Kyrgyzstan, and we wished to shed light on its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other Parnassian butterflies, as well as to the related taxa in the subfamily Parnassiinae of the family Papilionidae. Using the ML method with the GTR+I+Gamma model, we inferred the phylogenetic tree for 60 Parnassius individuals together with materials of the related genera in the subfamily Parnassiinae (Hypermnestra, Archon, Luehdorfia, Bhutanitis, Allancastria, Zerynthia and Sericinus) with Papilio machaon as an out-group. It was found that P. davydovi is a distinct species most closely related to P. loxias in clade VI among the eight clades, or species groups of Parnassius. The morphological diversity in the form of sphragis, the attachment to the female abdomen formed by the male during copulation, is characteristic to this clade, and we inferred the order of emergence of the different sphragis forms during evolution. Attempts to estimate the divergence times between related taxa were also made. It was inferred that the relatively rapid radiation of Parnassian butterflies started at about 24 MYA BP, while P. davydovi diverged from P. loxias at about 10 MYA BP.

  10. [The demonstration of natural hybridization between two swallowtail species Parnassius nomion and Parnassius bremeri (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) using RAPD-PCR technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, E V

    2001-04-01

    Genetic evidence for interspecific hybridization between Parnassius nomion and Parnassius bremeri in nature is presented. To demonstrate hybridization between these species, RAPD analysis was used. By testing 25 decamer primers, three and two diagnostic markers were revealed for P. nomion and P. bremeri, respectively. Out of 28 animals examined, 4 were shown to be interspecific hybrids. According to the distribution of diagnostic markers, the interspecific hybrids were intermediate with regard to the parental species. Ecological and biological characteristics of two swallowtail species that promote their hybridization in nature are discussed.

  11. Effect of Bt-176 maize pollen on first instar larvae of the Peacock butterfly (Inachis io) (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae).

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    Felke, Martin; Langenbruch, Gustav-Adolf; Feiertag, Simon; Kassa, Adane

    2010-01-01

    More than 10 years after registration of the first Bt maize cultivar in Europe, there still exists a remarkable lack of data on effects on Lepidoptera which would be necessary for a complete and comprehensive environmental risk assessment. So far only very few European butterfly species have been tested in this aspect. In our study the effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize pollen (event Bt-176) on the development and survival of neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly, Inachis io (L.) was for the first time shown. The results of our study suggest that the Peacock butterfly may serve as a model organism for assessing potential side effects of new developed transgenic Bt crops on non-target butterflies in a GMO environmental risk assessment. The study was done under laboratory conditions by exposing larvae of the Peacock butterfly to various pollen doses of transgenic maize event Bt-176 (cv. PACTOL CB) or the conventional isogenic maize (cv. PACTOL) using a no-choice test. Larvae feeding for 48 h on nettle plants (Urtica dioica) that were contaminated with higher pollen concentrations from Bt-176 maize (205 and 388 applied pollen.cm⁻²) suffered a significantly higher mortality rate (68 and 85% respectively) compared to larvae feeding on leaves with no pollen (11%), or feeding on leaves with pollen from conventional maize (6 to 25%). At lower Bt maize pollen doses (23-104 applied pollen.cm⁻²),mortality ranged from 11-25% and there were no apparent differences among treatments. The corresponding LC₅₀-and LC₉₀-values for neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly were 187 and 448 applied pollen grains.cm⁻² of Bt-176, respectively.Weight of larvae surviving consumption of Bt-176 maize pollen declined between 10 and 81% with increased pollen doses (r = -0.95). The highest weight reduction (81%) corresponded to the highest pollen concentration (388 pollen grains applied.cm⁻²). Ingestion of pollen from the conventional maize hybrid did not

  12. Diversity of Butterflies (Lepidoptera) in Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri, Roni; Maabuat, Pience V

    The degradation of a habitat will affect the population of butterflies living in it. This study aims to analyse the diversity of butterflies in the area of Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi. Employing purposive sampling, the study was conducted for five months. The collection of butterflies was done by using the sweeping technique, following the transect line applied randomly along 1000 m to three types of habitat (the primary forest, riverside in the forest and agricultural land). The species diversity was determined by using diversity index (Shannon-Wiener). The study identified 4 families, 44 species and 748 individual butterflies. Nymphalidae was a family predominantly found (71.12%), while the species mostly found was Ideopsis juventa tontoliensis (10.16%). Abundance (76.50), richness (20.25), diversity (2.66) and species evenness (0.88) were mostly found in riverside habitats in the forest, while the lowest was found in the primary forest. The similarities of butterfly communities in the different types of habitats indicate that the highest similarity index of butterfly communities is in the habitats of the primary forest and riverside in the forest wi a value of 80%. The highest diversity of butterflies in all types of habitats found in riverside. The high diversity of butterflies in the river is strongly influenced by the presence of vegetation as food and host plants of butterflies and this habitat should be conserved for the survival of the butterfly in a wildlife reserve Manembo-Nembo, North Sulawesi. It is expected that the results of this study could become important data of the diversity of butterflies and effects of changes of habitats on the diversity of butterflies in Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi.

  13. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF BUTTERFLIES (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera IN CAMPUS AREA INDRALAYA SRIWIJAYA UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH SUMATRA

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    Syafrina Lamin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on Diversity and distribution of butterflies, was held at the Campus Indralaya Sriwijaya University of South Sumatra. The purpose of this study was to obtain information species diversity of butterflies at the Sriwijaya University of Inderalaya and distribution of species of butterflies in several different habitat types in the campus area Unsri Indralaya. The study used purposive and collection methods in November 2014-january 2015. Sampling sites were divided into five locations: Arboretum, Science Faculty, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Agriculture and Swamp Cape Disconnect. The parameters used are the index of species diversity, dominance index, and evenness index. The results showed that the diversity of butterflies in the region is classified as moderate. Overall found as many as 40 species of butterflies with a number of 609 individuals consisting of 5 the Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, and Hesperiidae. Regions Sriwijaya University has a diversity of butterflies that were moderate with criteria (H'1≤H'≤3, in each different habitat types, and not found butterfly species that dominate in every type of habitat in this Unsri region. Distribution of butterflies found in the campus area Unsri Indralaya categorized fairly evenly with a range of values from 0.58 to 0.68. Keywords: Butterflies,  Diversity,  Distribution , Sriwijaya University of Indralaya

  14. Temporal occurrence of two morpho butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): influence of weather and food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Geraldo; Nascimento, André Rangel; Malinov, Ivan Konstantinov; Diniz, Ivone R

    2014-04-01

    The seasonality of fruit-feeding butterflies is very well known. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of climatic variables and resource availability on the temporal distributions of butterflies. Morpho helenor achillides (C. Felder and R. Felder 1867) and Morpho menelaus coeruleus (Perry 1810) (Nymphalidae) were used as models to investigate the influences of climatic factors and food resources on the temporal distribution of these Morphinae butterflies. These butterflies were collected weekly from January 2005 to December 2006 in the Parque Nacional de Brasília (PNB). In total, 408 individuals were collected, including 274 of M. helenor and 134 of M. menelaus. The relative abundance of the two species was similar in 2005 (n = 220) and 2006 (n = 188). Of the variables considered, only the relative humidity and resource availability measured in terms of phenology of zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants explained a large proportion of the variation in the abundance of these butterflies. Both of the explanatory variables were positively associated with the total abundance of individuals and with the abundances of M. helenor and M. menelaus considered separately. The phenology of anemochorous fruits was negatively associated with butterfly abundance. The temporal distribution of the butterflies was better predicted by the phenology of the zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants than by the climatic predictors.

  15. Some notes on the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Tantirimale Archaeological Site, Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka

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    M.D.C. Asela

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There are 243 species of butterflies which including 5 families in Sri Lanka and 20 of them are endemic. However out of the 243 species 37 butterfly species belonging to 4 families was discovered from Tanthirimale Archaeological Forest area. This forest is classified as a Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests and its situated dry zone in Anuradapura district of Sri Lanka. We select three habitat types such as: forests, Rock outcrops and scrublands for studding composition and structure of butterflies in Archaeological Forest area. However, this important forest is threatened by harmful human activities such as man made fire, illegal logging, chena cultivation and road kills.

  16. A preliminary checklist of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhophalocera of Mendrelgang, Tsirang District, Bhutan

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    I.J. Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The survey was conducted to prepare a preliminary checklist of butterflies of Mendrelgang, Bhutan. Butterflies were sampled from February 2012 to February 2013 to assess the species richness in a degraded forest patch of a sub-tropical broadleaf forest. This short-term study recorded 125 species of butterflies in 78 genera from five families. Of these, Sordid Emperor Apatura sordida Moore, Black-veined Sergeant Athyma ranga ranga Moore, Sullied Sailor Neptis soma soma Linnaeus, Blue Duke Euthalia durga durga Moore, Pea Blue Lampides boeticus Linnaeus and Chocolate Albatross Appias lyncida Cramer are listed in Schedule II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act (IWPA 1972. This study provides the baseline data of butterfly species richness of Mendrelgang.

  17. Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera fauna of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidopteraare well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabricius; mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius; plain tiger, Danaua chrysippus Linnaeus; blue tiger, Tirumala liminniace Cramer; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; Indian fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius Linnaeus; Indian red admiral, Venesa indica Herbst; yellow pansy, Junonia hierta Fabricius; blue pansy, Junonia orytha Linnaeus; white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis Kollar; banded tree brwon, Lethe confuse Aurivillius; common castor, Ariadne merione Cramer; painted lady, Caynthia cardui Linnaeus; Himalayan sailer, Neptis mahendra Moore; common boran, Euthalia garuda Hewitson; lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and great black mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes Linnaeus. It was concluded that the family Nymphalidae has the highest numbers of individuals in the present checklist. It is recommended that butterfly fauna of the study area should be conserved and their habitat should be protected.

  18. Diversity and distribution of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera of district Dir lower, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

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    Muhammad Inayatullah Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies are the fine-looking creatures and act as ecological indicators and pollinators. The present study is the first record of Butterfly fauna of Dir lower. Collection was carried out during March - August 2013. The specimens were collected and identified with the help of taxonomic keys and preserved specimens in National Insect Museum Islamabad. The collection of 375 specimens were preserved. Identification revealed 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 7 families. The species are Papilio polyctor Boisduval, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, Junonia almanac Linnaeus, Pararge schakra Kollar, Junonia hierta Fabricius, Junonia orythea Linnaeus, Argyrius hyperbius Linnaeus, Hypolimnus bolina Linnaeus, Vanessa cashmiriensis Kollar, Phalantha phalantha Drury, Melitea didyma Esper, Lycaena phalaeas Linnaeus, Lybithea lipita Moore, Danius chrysippus Linnaeus, Hipparchia parasitas Kollar, Lethe rohria Fabricius, Maniola davendra Moore, Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, Belenois aurota Fabricius, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, Colias erate Esper, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, Colias fieldi Linnaeus and Cynthia cardui Linnaeus. The highest population was shown by Pieris brassicae followed by Danius chrysippus and Cynthia cardui. Twelve species belong to family Nymphalidae (50%, which shows the highest abundance rate. Butterfly density was the highest at Timergara. Butterfly fauna was the highest in May followed by August and lowest in March. It is concluded that pollution free environment of Dir Lower is more suitable for the survival of butterfly fauna. Large scale study is required to fully explore the butterfly fauna of the area.

  19. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

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    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  20. Differential patterns of hybridization and introgression between the swallowtails Papilio machaon and P. hospiton from Sardinia and Corsica islands (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianchi, R; Ungaro, A; Marini, M; Bullini, L

    2003-06-01

    Proportions of hybridization and introgression between the swallowtails Papilio hospiton, endemic to Sardinia and Corsica, and the holarctic Papilio machaon, were characterized using nine fully diagnostic and two differentiated allozyme loci and a mitochondrial DNA marker. Very low frequencies of F1 hybrids were detected in both Sardinia (0-4%, average 1.4%) and Corsica (0-3%, average 0.5%), as well as of first generation backcrosses (B1). No F2 were observed, in agreement with the hybrid breakdown detected in laboratory crosses. In spite of this minimal current gene exchange, specimens carrying introgressed alleles were found in high proportions in P. machaon but in lower proportions in P. hospiton. Introgression apparently occurred through past hybridization and repeated backcrossing, as evidenced by hybrid index scores and Bayesian assignment tests. Levels of introgression were low (0-1%) at two sex-linked loci and mitochondrial DNA, limited (0.4-2%) at three autosomal loci coding for dimeric enzymes, and high (up to 43%) at four autosomal loci coding for monomeric enzymes. Accordingly, selective filters are acting against foreign alleles, with differential effectiveness depending on the loci involved. The low levels of introgression at sex-linked loci and mitochondrial DNA are in agreement with Haldane's rule and suggest that introgression in P. machaon proceeds mainly through males, owing to a lower fitness of hybrid females. Papilio machaon populations showed higher levels of introgression in Sardinia than in Corsica. The role of reinforcement in the present reproductive isolation between P. machaon and P. hospiton is examined, as well as the evolutionary effects of introgressive hybridization between the two species.

  1. Butterflies (Lepidoptera of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, western Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    Sanjay Sondhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex in western Arunachal Pradesh, India, covering the protected areas of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakke Tiger Reserve and Sessa Orchid Wildlife Sanctuary were surveyed over a 5-year period (2009–2014.  A total of 421 butterfly species were recorded during the survey, including two species new to India (Gonepteryx amintha thibetana and Bhutanitis ludlowi and several species rediscoveries and range extensions in the Eastern Himalaya, most notably Arhopala belphoebe, Sovia separata magna, Aulocera saraswati vishnu, Calinaga aborica, Callerebia annada annada, and Callerebria scanda opima.  Here we provide an annotated checklist of butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, including historical records, distributions, abundance, habitats and other notes on these 421 species. An additional 42 species recorded in older literature or by other authors in recent times are also listed, taking the total number of species recorded in the landscape to 463.  

  2. Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

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    Jennifer B. Hughes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues concerning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species’ escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

  3. The composition of cuticular compounds indicates body parts, sex and age in the model butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera

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    Stéphanie eHeuskin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals with low or no volatility exchanged during precopulatory gustatory contacts. Yet, knowledge on this latter type of chemicals is so far mostly restricted to the Drosophila fly model. Here we provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the cuticular chemical profile, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds, of a model butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. First, we characterized the body distribution of 103 cuticular lipids, mostly alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Second, we developed a multivariate statistical approach to cope with such complex chemical profiles and showed that variation in the presence or abundance of a subset of the cuticular lipids indicated body parts, and traits involved in B. anynana mate choice, namely sex and age. Third, we identified the chemical structure of the 20 most indicative compounds, which were on average more abundant (1346.4 ± 1994.6 ng; mean ± SD than other, likely less indicative, compounds (225.9 ± 507.2 ng; mean ± SD. Fourth, we showed that wings and legs displayed most of the chemical information found on the entire body of the butterflies. Fifth, we showed that non-random gustatory contacts occurred between specific male and female body parts during courtship. The body parts mostly touched by the conspecific displayed the largest between-sex differentiation in cuticular composition. Altogether, the large diversity of cuticular lipids in B. anynana, which exceeds the one of Drosophila flies, and its non-random distribution and evaluation across individuals, together suggest that gustatory information is likely exchanged during sexual interactions in Lepidoptera.

  4. The Lepidoptera Odorant Binding Protein gene family: Gene gain and loss within the GOBP/PBP complex of moths and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Richard G; Große-Wilde, Ewald; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Butterflies and moths differ significantly in their daily activities: butterflies are diurnal while moths are largely nocturnal or crepuscular. This life history difference is presumably reflected in their sensory biology, and especially the balance between the use of chemical versus visual signals. Odorant Binding Proteins (OBP) are a class of insect proteins, at least some of which are thought to orchestrate the transfer of odor molecules within an olfactory sensillum (olfactory organ), between the air and odor receptor proteins (ORs) on the olfactory neurons. A Lepidoptera specific subclass of OBPs are the GOBPs and PBPs; these were the first OBPs studied and have well documented associations with olfactory sensilla. We have used the available genomes of two moths, Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori, and two butterflies, Danaus plexippus and Heliconius melpomene, to characterize the GOBP/PBP genes, attempting to identify gene orthologs and document specific gene gain and loss. First, we identified the full repertoire of OBPs in the M. sexta genome, and compared these with the full repertoire of OBPs from the other three lepidopteran genomes, the OBPs of Drosophila melanogaster and select OBPs from other Lepidoptera. We also evaluated the tissue specific expression of the M. sexta OBPs using an available RNAseq databases. In the four lepidopteran species, GOBP2 and all PBPs reside in single gene clusters; in two species GOBP1 is documented to be nearby, about 100 kb from the cluster; all GOBP/PBP genes share a common gene structure indicating a common origin. As such, the GOBP/PBP genes form a gene complex. Our findings suggest that (1) the lepidopteran GOBP/PBP complex is a monophyletic lineage with origins deep within Lepidoptera phylogeny, (2) within this lineage PBP gene evolution is much more dynamic than GOBP gene evolution, and (3) butterflies may have lost a PBP gene that plays an important role in moth pheromone detection, correlating with a shift from

  5. Effects of changes in the riparian forest on the butterfly community (Insecta: Lepidoptera in Cerrado areas

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    Helena S.R. Cabette

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preserved riparian vegetation usually has greater environmental complexity than the riparian vegetation modified by human actions. These systems may have a greater availability and diversity of food resources for the species. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of changes on the structure of the riparian forest on species richness, beta diversity and composition of butterfly species in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that: (i higher species richness and (ii beta diversity would be recorded in more preserved environments; and (iii species composition would be more homogeneous in disturbed habitats. For hypothesis testing, the riparian vegetation of eight streams were sampled in four periods of the year in a fixed transect of 100 m along the shores. The richness of butterfly species is lower in disturbed than in preserved areas. However, species richness is not affected by habitat integrity. Beta diversity differed among sites, such that preserved sites have greater beta diversity, showing greater variation in species composition. In addition, beta diversity was positively affected by environmental heterogeneity. A total of 23 of the 84 species sampled occurred only in the changed environment, 42 were exclusive to preserved sites and 19 occurred in both environments. The environmental change caused by riparian forest removal drastically affects the butterfly community. Therefore, riparian vegetation is extremely important for butterfly preservation in the Cerrado and may be a true biodiversity oasis, especially during the dry periods, when the biome undergoes water stress and resource supply is more limited.

  6. Laboratory rearing of Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), an endangered butterfly in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Papps Herms; Deborah G. McCullough; Deborah L. Miller; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack

    1996-01-01

    The Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) is listed as a federally endangered species in the United States. It occurs in oak savanna and pine barren habitats from eastern Minnesota to New Hampshire. In 1994, we successfully reared Karner blue larvae under controlled laboratory conditions for experimental purposes, and report on those...

  7. A review of the occurrence and diversity of the sphragis in butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Paula S; Orr, Albert G; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2017-01-01

    Males of many butterfly species secrete long-lasting mating plugs to prevent their mates from copulating with other males, thus ensuring their sperm will fertilize all future eggs laid. Certain species have further developed a greatly enlarged, often spectacular, externalized plug, termed a sphragis. This distinctive structure results from complex adaptations in both male and female genitalia and is qualitatively distinct from the amorphous, internal mating plugs of other species. Intermediate conditions between internal plug and external sphragis are rare. The term sphragis has often been misunderstood in recent years, hence we provide a formal definition based on accepted usage throughout most of the last century. Despite it being a highly apparent trait, neither the incidence nor diversity of the sphragis has been systematically documented. We record a sphragis or related structure in 273 butterfly species, representing 72 species of Papilionidae in 13 genera, and 201 species of Nymphalidae in 9 genera. These figures represent respectively, 13% of Papilionidae, 3% of Nymphalidae, and 1% of known butterfly species. A well-formed sphragis evolved independently in at least five butterfly subfamilies, with a rudimentary structure also occurring in an additional subfamily. The sphragis is probably the plesiomorphic condition in groups such as Parnassius (Papilionidae: Parnassiinae) and many Acraeini (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae). Some butterflies, such as those belonging to the Parnassius simo group, have apparently lost the structure secondarily. The material cost of producing the sphragis is considerable. It is typically offset by production of a smaller spermatophore, thus reducing the amount of male-derived nutrients donated to the female during mating for use in oogenesis and/or somatic maintenance. The sphragis potentially represents one of the clearest examples of mate conflict known. Investigating its biology should yield testable hypotheses to further our

  8. A review of the occurrence and diversity of the sphragis in butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea

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    Ana Paula S. Carvalho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Males of many butterfly species secrete long-lasting mating plugs to prevent their mates from copulating with other males, thus ensuring their sperm will fertilize all future eggs laid. Certain species have further developed a greatly enlarged, often spectacular, externalized plug, termed a sphragis. This distinctive structure results from complex adaptations in both male and female genitalia and is qualitatively distinct from the amorphous, internal mating plugs of other species. Intermediate conditions between internal plug and external sphragis are rare. The term sphragis has often been misunderstood in recent years, hence we provide a formal definition based on accepted usage throughout most of the last century. Despite it being a highly apparent trait, neither the incidence nor diversity of the sphragis has been systematically documented. We record a sphragis or related structure in 273 butterfly species, representing 72 species of Papilionidae in 13 genera, and 201 species of Nymphalidae in 9 genera. These figures represent respectively, 13% of Papilionidae, 3% of Nymphalidae, and 1% of known butterfly species. A well-formed sphragis evolved independently in at least five butterfly subfamilies, with a rudimentary structure also occurring in an additional subfamily. The sphragis is probably the plesiomorphic condition in groups such as Parnassius (Papilionidae: Parnassiinae and many Acraeini (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae. Some butterflies, such as those belonging to the Parnassius simo group, have apparently lost the structure secondarily. The material cost of producing the sphragis is considerable. It is typically offset by production of a smaller spermatophore, thus reducing the amount of male-derived nutrients donated to the female during mating for use in oogenesis and/or somatic maintenance. The sphragis potentially represents one of the clearest examples of mate conflict known. Investigating its biology should yield testable hypotheses

  9. The butterflies of Turquino National Park, Sierra Maestra, Cuba (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea

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    Núñez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Between February and November 2011, we conducted a species inventory, created a natural history database and a made a first approach to the composition and structure of the butterfly communities present at several vegetation types in the Turquino National Park. The inventory included 83 species, 29 of them endemic. We recorded 57 species (18 endemic in transects along main vegetation pathways. In disturbed vegetation, species richness was higher (48 and abundance was better distributed, but the proportion of endemism was lower (23%. Species richness decreased and the dominance and proportion of endemism increased with altitude. Numbers of species and the proportions of endemism at natural habitats sampled were: 19 and 58% for evergreen forest, 10 and 60% for rainforest, eight and 100% for cloud forest, and four and 100% for the elfin thicket. Flowers of 27 plants were recorded as nectar sources for 30 butterfly species, and host plants were recorded for nine species.

  10. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna), in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have establis...

  11. Reward and non-reward learning of flower colours in the butterfly Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Ikuo; Yamaki, Takafumi

    2012-09-01

    Learning plays an important role in food acquisition for a wide range of insects. To increase their foraging efficiency, flower-visiting insects may learn to associate floral cues with the presence (so-called reward learning) or the absence (so-called non-reward learning) of a reward. Reward learning whilst foraging for flowers has been demonstrated in many insect taxa, whilst non-reward learning in flower-visiting insects has been demonstrated only in honeybees, bumblebees and hawkmoths. This study examined both reward and non-reward learning abilities in the butterfly Byasa alcinous whilst foraging among artificial flowers of different colours. This butterfly showed both types of learning, although butterflies of both sexes learned faster via reward learning. In addition, females learned via reward learning faster than males. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first empirical data on the learning speed of both reward and non-reward learning in insects. We discuss the adaptive significance of a lower learning speed for non-reward learning when foraging on flowers.

  12. ITS2 secondary structure improves phylogeny estimation in a radiation of blue butterflies of the subgenus Agrodiaetus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatus

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    Wolf Matthias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current molecular phylogenetic studies of Lepidoptera and most other arthropods are predominantly based on mitochondrial genes and a limited number of nuclear genes. The nuclear genes, however, generally do not provide sufficient information for young radiations. ITS2 , which has proven to be an excellent nuclear marker for similarly aged radiations in other organisms like fungi and plants, is only rarely used for phylogeny estimation in arthropods, although universal primers exist. This is partly due to difficulties in the alignment of ITS2 sequences in more distant taxa. The present study uses ITS2 secondary structure information to elucidate the phylogeny of a species-rich young radiation of arthropods, the butterfly subgenus Agrodiaetus. One aim is to evaluate the efficiency of ITS2 to resolve the phylogeny of the subgenus in comparison with COI , the most important mitochondrial marker in arthropods. Furthermore, we assess the use of compensatory base changes in ITS2 for the delimitation of species and discuss the prospects of ITS2 as a nuclear marker for barcoding studies. Results In the butterfly family Lycaenidae, ITS2 secondary structure enabled us to successfully align sequences of different subtribes in Polyommatini and produce a Profile Neighbour Joining tree of this tribe, the resolution of which is comparable to phylogenetic trees obtained with COI+COII . The subgenus Agrodiaetus comprises 6 major clades which are in agreement with COI analyses. A dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA traced the origin of most Agrodiaetus clades to separate biogeographical areas in the region encompassing Eastern Anatolia, Transcaucasia and Iran. Conclusions With the inclusion of secondary structure information, ITS2 appears to be a suitable nuclear marker to infer the phylogeny of young radiations, as well as more distantly related genera within a diverse arthropod family. Its phylogenetic signal is comparable to the

  13. ITS2 secondary structure improves phylogeny estimation in a radiation of blue butterflies of the subgenus Agrodiaetus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemers, Martin; Keller, Alexander; Wolf, Matthias

    2009-12-26

    Current molecular phylogenetic studies of Lepidoptera and most other arthropods are predominantly based on mitochondrial genes and a limited number of nuclear genes. The nuclear genes, however, generally do not provide sufficient information for young radiations. ITS2 , which has proven to be an excellent nuclear marker for similarly aged radiations in other organisms like fungi and plants, is only rarely used for phylogeny estimation in arthropods, although universal primers exist. This is partly due to difficulties in the alignment of ITS2 sequences in more distant taxa. The present study uses ITS2 secondary structure information to elucidate the phylogeny of a species-rich young radiation of arthropods, the butterfly subgenus Agrodiaetus. One aim is to evaluate the efficiency of ITS2 to resolve the phylogeny of the subgenus in comparison with COI , the most important mitochondrial marker in arthropods. Furthermore, we assess the use of compensatory base changes in ITS2 for the delimitation of species and discuss the prospects of ITS2 as a nuclear marker for barcoding studies. In the butterfly family Lycaenidae, ITS2 secondary structure enabled us to successfully align sequences of different subtribes in Polyommatini and produce a Profile Neighbour Joining tree of this tribe, the resolution of which is comparable to phylogenetic trees obtained with COI+COII . The subgenus Agrodiaetus comprises 6 major clades which are in agreement with COI analyses. A dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA) traced the origin of most Agrodiaetus clades to separate biogeographical areas in the region encompassing Eastern Anatolia, Transcaucasia and Iran. With the inclusion of secondary structure information, ITS2 appears to be a suitable nuclear marker to infer the phylogeny of young radiations, as well as more distantly related genera within a diverse arthropod family. Its phylogenetic signal is comparable to the mitochondrial marker COI . Compensatory base changes are very rare

  14. CR1 clade of non-LTR retrotransposons from Maculinea butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: evidence for recent horizontal transmission

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    Blinov Alexander

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that propagate themselves by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Non-LTR retrotransposons are known to evolve mainly via vertical transmission and random loss. Horizontal transmission is believed to be a very rare event in non-LTR retrotransposons. Our knowledge of distribution and diversity of insect non-LTR retrotransposons is limited to a few species – mainly model organisms such as dipteran genera Drosophila, Anopheles, and Aedes. However, diversity of non-LTR retroelements in arthropods seems to be much richer. The present study extends the analysis of non-LTR retroelements to CR1 clade from four butterfly species of genus Maculinea (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae. The lycaenid genus Maculinea, the object of interest for evolutionary biologists and also a model group for European biodiversity studies, possesses a unique, specialized myrmecophilous lifestyle at larval stage. Their caterpillars, after three weeks of phytophagous life on specific food plants drop to the ground where they are adopted to the ant nest by Myrmica foraging workers. Results We found that the genome of Maculinea butterflies contains multiple CR1 lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons, including those from MacCR1A, MacCR1B and T1Q families. A comparative analysis of RT nucleotide sequences demonstrated an extremely high similarity among elements both in interspecific and intraspecific comparisons. CR1A-like elements were found only in family Lycaenidae. In contrast, MacCR1B lineage clones were extremely similar to CR1B non-LTR retrotransposons from Bombycidae moths: silkworm Bombyx mori and Oberthueria caeca. Conclusion The degree of coding sequence similarity of the studied elements, their discontinuous distribution, and results of divergence-versus-age analysis make it highly unlikely that these sequences diverged at the same time as their host taxa. The only

  15. Autecology of the tailed jay butterfly Graphium agamemnon (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera : Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, S P Venkata; Atluri, J B; Reddi, C Subba

    2003-07-01

    The Tailed Jay Graphium agamemnon is one of the attractive papilionid butterflies that enliven the environment of Visakhapatnam. It occurs throughout the year. It lays eggs singly on young leaves of the mast tree Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae). The eggs take 3-4 days to hatch. The larvae go through 5 instars over a period of 15-16 days. The pupal period is 13-14 days. The total period from egg to adult emergence spans over 33-36 days. Based on this short life cycle, and larval and pupal development success studied every month, this butterfly can be multivoltine with a minimum of 7-8 broods in a year. Both CI and GR decreased with the age of larva, their average figures being 3.78 and 0.43 respectively. AD values are high (average 92%) and decreased through successive instars. Both ECD and ECI followed a similar pattern with an increase from instar I up to II, then a decrease up to IV and again an increase in instar V and the highest value is with fifth instar. Adults frequently visited flowers (12-35 flowers in a min) spending 1.0 to 3.2 seconds on a flower. The nectar concentration ranged between 16 and 58%. Peak foraging activity mostly fell between 0900-1000 h. The proboscis received pollen in most of the floral species visited, thus satisfying one of the characteristics of butterfly pollination. Being a fast and strong flier it is treated as "high energy" pollinator promoting cross-pollination.

  16. Revised species definitions and nomenclature of the rose colored Cithaerias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, Carla M; Alexander, Laura G; Devries, Philip J

    2014-10-20

    This study provides updated species definitions for five rose-colored Cithaerias butterflies, starting with a historical overview of their taxonomy. Given their mostly transparent wings, genitalia morphology yielded the most reliable characters for species definition and identification. Genitalic divergence is more pronounced when multiple species occur in sympatry than between parapatric taxa. Cithaerias aurorina is granted full species status, C. cliftoni is reinstated as a full species, and one new combination is proposed, i.e. C. aurora tambopata. Two new synonyms are proposed, Callitaera phantoma and Callitaera aura = Cithaerias aurora. 

  17. Sexual dimorphism in the alpine butterflies Boloria pales and Boloria napaea: differences in movement and foraging behavior (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehl, Stefan; Hostert, Katharina; Korsch, Jana; Gros, Patrick; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-06-15

    Sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon in Lepidoptera. It is reflected in differences in life history, behavior and morphology. Analyses of differences in behavior are mostly difficult and time-consuming, especially in high mountain ecosystems. To enhance our knowledge on sexual dimorphisms of alpine butterflies, we performed a mark-release-recapture study on 2 species common in the Alps: Boloria pales and Boloria napaea. We analysed movement and foraging behavior to investigate differences between sexes. Both sexes were mostly sedentary and the movement distances of males and females similar. However, obvious differences in dispersal behavior between the sexes were found in the movement patterns. Three different patterns were distinguished. Most males showed intensive flight activity, but mostly flew only in a limited part of the entire habitat (i.e., their individual home range) searching for females, whereas females were less flight active and flew only to find places for oviposition or feeding. The third pattern, where individuals flew larger distances, was only observed in a small number of males, which always returned to their home range. Nearly all feeding was observed on Asteraceae. However, males preferred the genera Leontodon and Crepis, while females preferred Leontodon and Carduus. Apart from this sexual difference in foraging, individuals of both sexes were found to be more or less specialised on nectar sources. Flight activity was generally greater in males than females. Therefore, we think that sex-specific requirements in nectar ingredients exist, that is, sugar for the intensive flight activity of males and amino acids for egg production of females. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Life History of Aricoris propitia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae—A Myrmecophilous Butterfly Obligately Associated with Fire Ants

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    Lucas A. Kaminski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages of Aricoris propitia (Stichel are described and illustrated for the first time, using both light and scanning electron microscopy. Females oviposit in at least seven host-plant families, always in the presence of fire ants (Solenopsis saevissima (Smith complex, without being attacked by them. Larvae are tended by ants during all larval and pupal stages. From the fourth instar on, larvae feed at night and rest during the day inside underground shelters constructed by ants on the host plant roots, and where pupation occurs. Several observed features, including ant-mediated oviposition, persistent ant attendance throughout all instars, and high spatiotemporal fidelity indicate that A. propitia is a myrmecophile obligately associated with fire ants. We propose A. propitia as an extraordinary model for studies on ant-butterfly evolutionary history in the Neotropics.

  19. Sexual Dimorphism in Eye Morphology in a Butterfly (Asterocampa leilia; Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Kristine S. Ziemba

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Empress Leilia butterfly, Asterocampa leilia, as in many insects, males have larger eyes than females. We explore the morphological causes and consequences of this dimorphism in eye size by comparing the corneal surface area, facet numbers, and patterns of variation in facet dimensions in males and females. We report that, with body size (measured by forewing length controlled, male eyes are consistently larger than female eyes, and that, although males and females do not differ significantly in the number of facets per eye, males have significantly larger facets. Also, males have disproportionately larger facets both frontally and dorsally. As a result of these sexual differences in eye structure, males are expected to have a larger and more acute visual field than females which could be advantageous in the context of this species' mate searching tactic.

  20. Autecology of the common mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera : Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, J B; Ramana, S P Venkata; Reddi, C Subba

    2002-04-01

    The adults of the common mormon butterfly Papilio polytes Linn. feed on a variety of floral species. The larval food plants in the study area included Citrus limon and Murraya koenigii both of the family Rutaceae. The eggs are laid singly, and the hatching time is three days. The larvae pass through five instars. The larval growth is directly correlated with the quantity of food consumed. The AD (approximate digestibility) values decreased from first instar to the last, whereas the ECD (efficiency of conversion of digested food) and ECI (efficiency of conversion of ingested food) values increased, thus bearing an inverse relationship with AD. The development time from egg to adult is 28-30, giving 11-12 generations in a year, but with better breeding during August-February. Thus P. polytes is multivoltine.

  1. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the threatened alpine butterfly, Parnassius nomion (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced mitochondrial genome of the threatened alpine butterfly Parnassius nomion includes 13 protein-coding genes (ND1-6, COI-III, ATP6, ATP8, ND4, ND4L, CTYB), 2 ribosomal RNAs (12 S and 16 S), 22 transfer RNAs, which is 14,547 bp in length. Its gene order and orientation are identical to the common type found in most of other completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which uses CGA as its start codon. Eleven PCGs use the standard TAA as their termination codon, and COI, COII use the incomplete termination codon T.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered butterfly Luehdorfia taibai Chou (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian-Xi, Xing; Peng-Fei, Li; Jia, Wu; Kai, Wang; Ping, You

    2014-04-01

    We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered butterfly, Luehdorfia taibai. The total lenth of the L. taibai mitogenome is 15,553 bp with 81% A + T content. It consists of 13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. All the protein-coding genes used ATN as start codon and TAA as stop codon, except for COI gene, which used CGA as start codon. The A + T-rich region was 939 bp in lenth with 95% A + T content. L. taibai mitogenome contained an extra tRNA(Leu), located from 191 bp to 259 bp, of which function was not clear.

  3. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea from two forest fragments in northern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Bonfantti, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the knowledge concerning diversity of the butterflies in the Atlantic Rainforest ofthe state of Rio Grande do Sul, a systematic survey was carried out in the city of Frederico Westphalen from November2006 to June 2007, in two sampling localities. The total sampling efforts was 80 h, in which 1.785 samples wererecorded, distributed in 161 species. From the latter, 51.57 % (83 belongs to the Nymphalidae family, Hesperiidae20.49 % (33, Pieridae 8.69 % (14, Riodinidae 6.83 % (11, Papilionidae 6.21 % (10, Lycaenidae 6.21 % (10.Regarding the sampled species, 79.50 % (128 were recorded at both studied sites.

  4. Lesions in the wingless gene of the Apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings, coming from the isolated population in Pieniny (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-02-01

    Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is a butterfly species which was common in Europe in 19th century, but now it is considered as near threatened. Various programs devoted to protect and save P. apollo have been established, between others the one in Pieniny National Park (Poland). An isolated population of this butterfly has been restored there from a small group of 20-30 individuals in early 1990s. However, deformations or reductions of wings occur in this population in a relatively large number of insects, and the cause of this phenomenon is not known. In this report, the occurrence of lesions in the wingless (wg) gene is demonstrated in most of tested butterflies with deformed or reduced wings, but not in normal insects. Although the analyses indicated that wg lesion(s) cannot be the sole cause of the deformed or reduced wings in the population of P. apollo from Pieniny, the discovery that this genetic defect occurs in most of malformed individuals, can be considered as an important step in understanding this phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Revisiting the Andean butterfly Eryphanis zolvizora group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: one or several species?

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    Patrick Blandin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eryphanis zolvizora (Hewitson, 1877 is a rare Andean endemic butterfly, described from Bolivia, which has been historically classified either as a unique species, or as part of a group of three allopatric species from Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia. In this paper, the group is revised using more than 200 specimens housed in 34 European, and North and South American public and private collections. For the first time, the presence of the group in Western Ecuador and Venezuela is confirmed, and important data on Peruvian populations are provided. In some populations, individual variations of genitalia are observed. Nevertheless, male genitalia allow the distinction of four geographical groups. Considering also habitus characters, eight taxa are distinguished and considered to be subspecies, of which five are new: Eryphanis zolvizora inca ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora chachapoya ssp. nov., Eryphanis zolvizora casagrande ssp. nov.., Eryphanis zolvizora reyi ssp. nov., and Eryphanis zolvizora isabelae ssp. nov.  In the present state of knowledge, these taxa are allopatric, except for a possible geographic overlap in central Peru, where data are insufficient to prove sympatry. The “several subspecies vs. several species” dilemma is discussed, considering its impact for conservation action and policies.

  6. Two new genera of metalmark butterflies of North and Central America (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae

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    Marysol Trujano-Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera of Riodinidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera are described, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. (Neoapodemia nais (W. H. Edwards, 1876, comb. n., N. chisosensis Freeman, 1964, comb. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. (Plesioarida palmerii palmerii (W. H. Edwards, 1870, comb. n., P. palmerii arizona (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. palmerii australis (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. hepburni hepburni (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. hepburni remota (Austin, 1991, comb. n., P. murphyi (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. hypoglauca hypoglauca (Godman & Salvin, 1878, comb. n., P. hypoglauca wellingi (Ferris, 1985, comb. n., P. walkeri (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. selvatica (De la Maza & De la Maza, 2017, comb. n.. Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. is distributed in the southwestern USA and northeastern Mexico, while Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. is present from the southern USA to Central America. Species of these genera were previously classified as Apodemia C. Felder & R. Felder but molecular and morphological evidence separate them as new taxa. Morphological diagnoses and descriptions are provided for both new genera, including the main distinctive characters from labial palpi, prothoracic legs, wing venation and genitalia, as well as life history traits. A molecular phylogeny of one mitochondrial gene (COI and two nuclear genes (EF-1a and wg are also presented of most species of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n., Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n., and sequences of specimens from all tribes of Riodinidae. We compare the characters of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. and discuss the differences that support the description of these new taxa. This is a contribution to the taxonomy of the Riodinidae of North America of which the generic diversity is greater than previously recognized.

  7. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell’Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007–2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  8. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007-2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal.

  9. Of Swallowtails and Swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Education consultant Samantha Bennett describes an inquiry unit in which 2nd graders practice the habits of lepidopterists to learn about butterflies and to create a literary nonfiction story that incorporated their butterfly research. She takes the reader through the teacher's process of planning this unit, including choosing the "4…

  10. Gene flow rise with habitat fragmentation in the bog fritillary butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

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    Descimon Henri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main components of the spatial genetic structure of the populations are neighbourhood size and isolation by distance. These may be inferred from the allele frequencies across a series of populations within a region. Here, the spatial population structure of Proclossiana eunomia was investigated in two mountainous areas of southern Europe (Asturias, Spain and Pyrenees, France and in two areas of intermediate elevation (Morvan, France and Ardennes, Belgium. Results A total of eight polymorphic loci were scored by allozyme electrophoresis, revealing a higher polymorphism in the populations of southern Europe than in those of central Europe. Isolation by distance effect was much stronger in the two mountain ranges (Pyrenees and Asturias than in the two areas of lower elevation (Ardennes and Morvan. By contrast, the neighbourhood size estimates were smaller in the Ardennes and in the Morvan than in the two high mountain areas, indicating more common movements between neighbouring patches in the mountains than in plains. Conclusion Short and long dispersal events are two phenomena with distinct consequences in the population genetics of natural populations. The differences in level of population differentiation within each the four regions may be explained by change in dispersal in lowland recently fragmented landscapes: on average, butterflies disperse to a shorter distance but the few ones which disperse long distance do so more efficiently. Habitat fragmentation has evolutionary consequences exceeding by far the selection of dispersal related traits: the balance between local specialisation and gene flow would be perturbed, which would modify the extent to which populations are adapted to heterogeneous environments.

  11. Butterfly wings shaped by a molecular cookie cutter: evolutionary radiation of lepidopteran wing shapes associated with a derived Cut/wingless wing margin boundary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Warren P; Martin, Arnaud; Reed, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    Butterflies and moths show a remarkable diversity of specialized wing shapes, yet little is known about the molecular basis of wing shape determination. To learn more about this process we examined the expression of dorsoventral (DV) boundary candidate genes in developing wings of several species of Lepidoptera. We found that the transcription factor Cut and mRNA for the signaling molecule wingless (wg) are strongly co-expressed in a discrete zone around the larval wing disc margin. Surprisingly, the expression boundary of Cut and wg clearly presages complex future adult wing shapes, including the hindwing tails of swallowtail butterflies, very early in final-instar wing disc development. During pupal wing development the cells in this zone undergo apoptosis, thereby defining the actual margin of the adult wing. Comparison with gene expression in beetle and fly wings suggests that this delineation of a topologically independent boundary running parallel to the DV boundary is a derived feature of Lepidoptera. We propose that the developmental decoupling of wing margin determination and DV boundary formation was a major developmental innovation that facilitated the radiation of specialized wing shapes in moths and butterflies.

  12. The Influence of Vegetation and Landscape Structural Connectivity on Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy Farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Giovanni; Sommaggio, Daniele; Marini, Mario; Puppi, Giovanna; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Landi, Sara; Fabbri, Roberto; Pesarini, Fausto; Genghini, Marco; Ferrari, Roberto; Muzzi, Enrico; van Lenteren, Joop C; Masetti, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Vegetation analysis and insect samplings were carried out in nine sites within an intensively farmed landscape in northern Italy. Plant species richness and the percentage of tree, shrub, and herb cover were determined by means of the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet. Landscape structural connectivity was measured as the total length of hedgerow network (LHN) in a radius of 500 m around the center of each sampling transect. Butterflies species richness and abundance were positively associated both to herb cover and to plant species richness, but responded negatively to tree and shrub cover. Shrub cover was strictly correlated to both species richness and activity density of carabids. The species richness of syrphids was positively influenced by herb cover and plant richness, whereas their abundance was dependent on ligneous vegetation and LHN. Rarefaction analysis revealed that sawfly sampling was not robust and no relationship could be drawn with either vegetation parameters or structural connectivity. The specific responses of each insect group to the environmental factors should be considered in order to refine and optimize landscape management interventions targeting specific conservation endpoints. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  14. Aristolochic acids fromThottea spp. (Aristolochiaceae) and the osmeterial secretions of Thottea-feeding troidine swallowtail larvae (Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, R; Weintraub, J D; Feeny, P; Fukami, H

    1993-07-01

    Two aristolochiaceous plants in the genusThottea were shown to contain aristolochic acids. Larvae of two Malaysian troidine swallowtail butterflies,Troides (Troides) amphrysus andPachliopta (Losaria) neptunus, that fed onThottea leaves were found to sequester corresponding aristolochic acid analogs in the osmeterial glands.

  15. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  16. The application of life history information to the conservation management of Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Terblanche

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their intricate life histories and the unique wing patterns and colouring the butterflies of the genus Chrysoritis are of significant conservation and aesthetic value. Thisoverview probes into practical examples of butterfly life history research applicable to environmental management of this relatively well-known invertebrate group in South Africa. Despite the pioneer work on life histories of Chrysoritis in the past, more should be done to understand the life history of the butterflies in the wild, especially their natural host plants and the behaviour of adults and larvae. A system of voucher specimens of host plants should be introduced in South Africa. Although various host plant species in nature are used by the members of Chrysoritis, including the Chrysoritis chrysaor group, the choice of these in nature by each species is significant for conservation management and in the case of Chrysoritis aureus perhaps even as a specific characteristic.A revision of the ant genus Crematogaster will benefit the conservation management of Chrysoritis species since some of these ant species may consist of a number of specieswith much more restricted distributions than previously thought. Rigorous quantified tudies of population dynamics of Chrysoritis butterflies are absent and the introductionof such studies will benefit conservation management of these localised butterflies extensively.

  17. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of true butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) inferred from COI, 16S rRNA and EF-1α sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man Il; Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Ahn, Neung-Ho; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2010-11-01

    The molecular phylogenetic relationships among true butterfly families (superfamily Papilionoidea) have been a matter of substantial controversy; this debate has led to several competing hypotheses. Two of the most compelling of those hypotheses involve the relationships of (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + (Pieridae + Papilionidae) and (((Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + Pieridae) + Papilionidae). In this study, approximately 3,500 nucleotide sequences from cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA), and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) were sequenced from 83 species belonging to four true butterfly families, along with those of three outgroup species belonging to three lepidopteran superfamilies. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic reconstruction via Bayesian Inference (BI), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and Maximum Parsimony (MP) algorithms. The monophyletic Pieridae and monophyletic Papilionidae evidenced good recovery in all analyses, but in some analyses, the monophylies of the Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae were hampered by the inclusion of single species of the lycaenid subfamily Miletinae and the nymphalid subfamily Danainae. Excluding those singletons, all phylogenetic analyses among the four true butterfly families clearly identified the Nymphalidae as the sister to the Lycaenidae and identified this group as a sister to the Pieridae, with the Papilionidae identified as the most basal linage to the true butterfly, thus supporting the hypothesis: (Papilionidae + (Pieridae + (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae))).

  19. A distribution list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera of Tian-Shan within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Korb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A distributive list of butterflies of Tian-Shan in borders of former Soviet Union is compiled, it contains 289 species: Hesperiidae – 21 species, Papilionidae – 21 species; Pieridae – 38 species, Satyridae – 67 species, Lybitheidae – 1 species, Danaidae – 1 species, Nymphalidae – 42 species, Riodinidae – 2 species, Lycaenidae – 96 species. New synonyms are established.

  20. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF FRUIT-FEEDING BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE IN AN EASTERN AMAZONIAN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCAS PEREIRA MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deforestation has negative impacts on diversity and community patterns of several taxa. In the eastern Amazon, where much deforestation is predicted for the coming years, forests patches may be essential to maintain the local biodiversity. Despite increasing concerns about the conservation of threatened areas, few studies have been performed to analyze the communities of diversified groups, such as insects, in the eastern Amazon. Here, we investigated species diversity and community structure of fruit-feeding butterflies, a well-known bioindicator group, in a threatened remnant of an eastern Amazonian forest located on Maranhão Island, northeastern Brazil. Fruit-feeding butterflies were sampled monthly for one year. Diversity and evenness indices, richness estimators, rarefaction curve, and rank-abundance plot were used to describe community structure in the study area. We captured 529 fruit-feeding butterflies in four subfamilies, 23 genera and 34 species. The three most abundant species, Hamadryas februa, Hamadryas feronia, and Hermeuptychia cf. atalanta are indicators of disturbed habitats and represented more than half of the collected individuals. Richness estimators revealed that between 87 and 94% of the fruit-feeding butterfly species were sampled, suggesting few additional records would be made for the area. Our results indicate that human-caused disturbances have altered local community patterns and provide baseline data for future research in threatened regions of the eastern Amazon.

  1. Complete nucleotide sequence and organization of the mitogenome of the red-spotted apollo butterfly, Parnassius bremeri (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and comparison with other lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man Il; Baek, Jee Yeon; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Kim, Ki-Gyoung; Bae, Chang Hwan; Han, Yeon Soo; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Iksoo

    2009-10-31

    The 15,389-bp long complete mitogenome of the endangered red-spotted apollo butterfly, Parnassius bremeri (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was determined in this study. The start codon for the COI gene in insects has been extensively discussed, and has long remained a matter of some controversy. Herein, we propose that the CGA (arginine) sequence functions as the start codon for the COI gene in lepidopteran insects, on the basis of complete mitogenome sequences of lepidopteran insects, including P. bremeri, as well as additional sequences of the COI start region from a diverse taxonomic range of lepidopteran species (a total of 53 species from 15 families). In our extensive search for a tRNA-like structure in the A+T-rich region, one tRNA(Trp)-like sequence and one tRNA(Leu) (UUR)-like sequence were detected in the P. bremeri A+T-rich region, and one or more tRNA-like structures were detected in the A+T-rich region of the majority of other sequenced lepidopteran insects, thereby indicating that such features occur frequently in the lepidopteran mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis using the concatenated 13 amino acid sequences and nucleotide sequences of PCGs of the four macrolepidopteran superfamilies together with the Tortricoidea and Pyraloidea resulted in the successful recovery of a monophyly of Papilionoidea and a monophyly of Bombycoidea. However, the Geometroidea were unexpectedly identified as a sister group of the Bombycoidea, rather than the Papilionoidea.

  2. Comparisons of genetic diversity in captive versus wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Pratt, Gordon F.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Captive populations can play a significant role in threatened and endangered species management. An important consideration when developing and managing captive populations, however, is the maintenance of genetic diversity to ensure that adequate variation exists to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding. In this investigation, we compared genetic diversity patterns within captive and wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]), a taxon with a restricted distribution to chaparral and sage shrublands within Riverside and San Diego counties, California. Our analyses revealed that medium to high-frequency alleles from the wild populations were also present in the captive populations. While there was no significant difference in genetic diversity as quantified by expected heterozygosity, the captive populations showed tendencies toward significantly lower allelic richness than their wild counterparts. Given that alleles from the wild populations were occasionally not detected in captive populations, periodic incorporation of new wild specimens into the captive population would help ensure that allelic diversity is maintained to the extent possible. If performed in advance, genetic surveys of wild populations may provide the clearest insights regarding the number of individuals needed in captivity to adequately reflect wild populations.

  3. Integrable Hamiltonian systems with swallowtails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efstathiou, K.; Sugny, D.

    2010-01-01

    We consider two-degree-of-freedom integrable Hamiltonian systems with bifurcation diagrams containing swallowtail structures. The global properties of the action coordinates in such systems together with the parallel transport of the period lattice and corresponding quantum cells in the joint

  4. Cluster biodiversity as a multidimensional structure evolution strategy: checkerspot butterflies of the group Euphydryas aurinia (Rottemburg, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Bolshakov, L. V.; Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2016), s. 441-457 ISSN 0307-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphydryas aurinia * biodiversity * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.474, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/syen.12167/abstract

  5. Spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production by tropical cryptic butterflies (Hamadryas, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): implications for the "industrial melanism" debate

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Monge-Nájera; Francisco Hernández; María Isabel González; Javier Soley; José Araya; Stefano Zolla

    1998-01-01

    Neotropical butterflies of the genus Hamadryas, noted by the emission of sound, spend much time perching on trees and are believed to be cryptically patterned and colored with respect to tree trunks and branches they use as perching sites, but the subject had not been studied previously. This paper describes spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production in five species, under natural conditions: Hamadryas amphinome (Lucas, 1853), H. februa (Godart, 1824), H. feronia (Fruhstorfer, ...

  6. DNA barcodes and citizen science provoke a diversity reappraisal for the "ring" butterflies of Peninsular Malaysia (Ypthima: Satyrinae: Nymphalidae: Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Sing, Kong-Wah; Wilson, John-James

    2016-10-01

    The "rings" belonging to the genus Ypthima are amongst the most common butterflies in Peninsular Malaysia. However, the species can be difficult to tell apart, with keys relying on minor and often non-discrete ring characters found on the hindwing. Seven species have been reported from Peninsular Malaysia, but this is thought to be an underestimate of diversity. DNA barcodes of 165 individuals, and wing and genital morphology, were examined to reappraise species diversity of this genus in Peninsular Malaysia. DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects-School Butterfly Project and Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count-recently conducted in Peninsular Malaysia were included. The new DNA barcodes formed six groups with different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) representing four species reported in Peninsular Malaysia. When combined with public DNA barcodes from the Barcode Of Life Datasystems, several taxonomic issues arose. We consider the taxon Y. newboldi, formerly treated as a subspecies of Y. baldus, as a distinct species. DNA barcodes also supported an earlier suggestion that Y. nebulosa is a synonym under Y. horsfieldii humei. Two BINs of the genus Ypthima comprising DNA barcodes collected during citizen science projects did not correspond to any species previously reported in Peninsular Malaysia.

  7. Comparative Morphological Analysis of the Immature Stages of the Grass Blue Butterflies Zizeeria and Zizina (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Raj D; Iwata, Masaki; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Degnan, Bernard; Degnan, Sandie; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-08-01

    The pale grass blue butterfly has been used to assess the biological effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident. Zizeeria and Zizina are two closely related genera of grass blue butterflies that are widely distributed in tropical to temperate Asia, Australia, and Africa, making them suitable environmental indicators for these areas. However, the morphological features of the immature stages have been examined only in fragmentary fashion. Here, we reared Zizeeria maha argia, Zizeeria maha okinawana, Zizeeria karsandra karsandra, Zizina emelina emelina, Zizina otis labradus, and Zizina otis riukuensis using a standard rearing method that was developed for Zizeeria maha, and comparatively identified morphological traits to effectively classify the immature stages of species or subspecies. Morphological information on these and other subspecies including Zizeeria knysna knysna and Zizina otis antanossa from Africa was also collected from literature. The subspecies were all reared successfully. The subspecies all had dorsal nectary and tentacle organs with similar morphology. For the subspecies of Zizeeria maha, only minor morphological differences were noted. Similarly, the subspecies of Zizina otis shared many traits. Most importantly, Zizeeria and Zizina differed in the shape of the sensory hairs that accompany the dorsal nectary organ; Zizeeriahad pointed hairs, and Zizina had blunt or rounded hairs. However, Zizina emelina exhibited several intermediate features between these two genera. Overall, the morphological traits did not completely reflect the conventional systematic relationships. This comparative study describes the efficient rearing of the grass blue butterflies and provides a morphological basis for the use of these species as environmental indicators.

  8. Butterfly Survey on Pinckney Island NWR (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Butterfly (adult Lepidoptera) survey conducted monthly (May-Nov 2001) at nine locations within Pinckney Island NWR. These nine locations include Ibis Pond, Woodstork...

  9. ACEPTACIÓN DE UNA DIETA ARTIFICIAL POR LARVAS DE LA MARIPOSA BATTUS POLYDAMAS POLYDAMAS(LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE ACCEPTANCE OF AN ARTIFICIAL DIET FOR CATERPILLARS OF THE BUTTERFLY BATTUS POLYDAMAS POLYDAMAS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A Claro

    Full Text Available Se evalúo la aceptabilidad de dietas artificiales para la alimentación de larvas de la mariposa Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. A las larvas se les ofrecieron dietas en diferentes presentaciones y composiciones: en discos, vertida como suplemento sobre hojas del hospedero y plantas hospedero como control. La composición de la dieta se realizó de acuerdo con ensayos previos y con los análisis nutricionales desarrollados a larvas maduras y a hojas de la planta hospedera, Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae. La longevidad de las larvas, criadas en laboratorio, se vio afectada significativamente por los diferentes tratamientos de alimentación. Solo se finalizó el ciclo de desarrollo entre las larvas alimentadas con hojas jóvenes de la planta (control y con dieta esparcida como suplemento sobre hojas del hospedero; las curvas de sobrevivencia no presentaron diferencias significativas entre las larvas sostenidas con estos dos tratamientos. En contraste, las tasas de crecimiento larval, fueron significativamente afectadas según el tratamiento, obteniéndose mayor biomasa en las alimentadas con hojas con suplemento. Se sustenta la cría de mariposas de la especie B. polydamas bajo una dieta artificial como suplemento esparcido sobre hojas del hospedero bajo condiciones de temperatura, humedad y luminosidad controlada, con propósitos de investigación o futuros planes de manejo y conservación.We evaluated the acceptability of an artificial diet for the feeding larval stage of the butterfly Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae under control conditions. We offered to the larvae a diet in different forms and composition: disks, spilled like a supplement over the host sheet plant and host plant like a control. The diet composition was made according with preliminary essays and nutritional analyses to the larvae and the host plant, Aristolochia maxima. The longevity of the

  10. Measuring the species occurrence and relative abundance in faunal studies: a case study of Finnish butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbach Vyacheslav

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Any faunal study in addition to the list of species assumes an evaluation of their occurrence and abundance. These estimates are usually subjective. We propose to unify the methods, using 10-point logarithmic scale. As an example, the results of day butterfly counts in Finland (1991–2011 were used. All the species were differentiated according to the occurrence in 10x10 km squares and relative abundance. Stochasticity in the distribution of the empirical frequencies can be reduced by fitting to a theoretical model.

  11. Isolated Asian steppe element in the Balkans: habitats of Proterebia afra (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) and associated butterfly communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoňová, Alena; Kolář, Vojtěch; Marešová, Jana; Šašić, M.; Šlancarová, Jana; Sucháček, P.; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2017), s. 559-571 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-33733S Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 04-168/2013/P; GA JU(CZ) 152/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Proterebia afra * Proterebia phegea * butterfly communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10841-017-9995-x

  12. Euptychia boulleti (Le Cerf) n. comb. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae), a rare and endangered butterfly from Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A V L; Wahlberg, N; Matos-Maravi, P F; Marin, M A; Mielke, O H H

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the systematic position of the rare and endangered satyrine butterfly Caenoptychia boulleti Le Cerf, the only included species in Caenoptychia (type species), based on adult morphology and molecular data. The results showed that Caenoptychia Le Cerf belongs to the Euptychia Hübner clade, and the genus is synonymized with Euptychia, new synonymy. Euptychia boulleti (Le Cerf) is a new combination. The male genitalia of E. boulleti showed at least one important synapomorphy with the other species of Euptychia, which is the presence of a posterior projection of the tegumen above the uncus. Molecular data reinforces the position of Caenoptychia within the genus Euptychia.

  13. From the phylogeny of the Satyrinae butterflies to the systematics of Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): history, progress and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, M.A.; Uribe, S.I., E-mail: mamarin0@bt.unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion en Sistematica Molecular; Pena, C. [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (Peru). Museo de Historia Natural; Freitas, A.V.L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IB/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Animal e Museu de Zoologia; Wahlberg, N. [University of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology. Lab. of Genetics

    2011-01-15

    We review the various proposals of evolutionary and classification schemes for Satyrinae and particularly Euptychiina butterflies, assessing progress and prospects of research for the group. Among the highlights is the proposal to include Morphini, Brassolini and Amathusiini as part of Satyrinae. Although it is clear that this hypothesis requires further investigation, phylogenetic studies recently conducted recover this clade as part of Satyrinae with high support. The phylogenetic analyses for Euptychiina carried out to date recover the monophyly of the group and have identified a variety of genera as non-monophyletic. Further work is necessary to resolve the position of the subtribe and the evolutionary relationships of several genera. (author)

  14. Morphological characters are compatible with mitogenomic data in resolving the phylogeny of nymphalid butterflies (lepidoptera: papilionoidea: nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yun-Liang; Hao, Jia-Sheng; Yang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Nymphalidae is the largest family of butterflies with their phylogenetic relationships not adequately approached to date. The mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of 11 new nymphalid species were reported and a comparative mitogenomic analysis was conducted together with other 22 available nymphalid mitogenomes. A phylogenetic analysis of the 33 species from all 13 currently recognized nymphalid subfamilies was done based on the mitogenomic data set with three Lycaenidae species as the outgroups. The mitogenome comparison showed that the eleven new mitogenomes were similar with those of other butterflies in gene content and order. The reconstructed phylogenetic trees reveal that the nymphalids are made up of five major clades (the nymphaline, heliconiine, satyrine, danaine and libytheine clades), with sister relationship between subfamilies Cyrestinae and Biblidinae, and most likely between subfamilies Morphinae and Satyrinae. This whole mitogenome-based phylogeny is generally congruent with those of former studies based on nuclear-gene and mitogenomic analyses, but differs considerably from the result of morphological cladistic analysis, such as the basal position of Libytheinae in morpho-phylogeny is not confirmed in molecular studies. However, we found that the mitogenomic phylogeny established herein is compatible with selected morphological characters (including developmental and adult morpho-characters).

  15. Building a DNA Barcode Reference Library for the True Butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Peninsula Malaysia: What about the Subspecies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John-James; Sing, Kong-Wah; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build a DNA barcode reference library for the true butterflies of Peninsula Malaysia and assess the value of attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records. A new DNA barcode library was constructed with butterflies from the Museum of Zoology, University of Malaya collection. The library was analysed in conjunction with publicly available DNA barcodes from other Asia-Pacific localities to test the ability of the DNA barcodes to discriminate species and subspecies. Analyses confirmed the capacity of the new DNA barcode reference library to distinguish the vast majority of species (92%) and revealed that most subspecies possessed unique DNA barcodes (84%). In some cases conspecific subspecies exhibited genetic distances between their DNA barcodes that are typically seen between species, and these were often taxa that have previously been regarded as full species. Subspecies designations as shorthand for geographically and morphologically differentiated groups provide a useful heuristic for assessing how such groups correlate with clustering patterns of DNA barcodes, especially as the number of DNA barcodes per species in reference libraries increases. Our study demonstrates the value in attaching subspecies names to DNA barcode records as they can reveal a history of taxonomic concepts and expose important units of biodiversity. PMID:24282514

  16. An updated comprehensive annotated list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) occuring at Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Benson County, North Dakota 1995-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    A project to produce a comprehensive, site-specific butterfly list that could serve as a basis for future monitoring of butterfly populations and as an aid in making management decisions for the area.

  17. An updated comprehensive annotated list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) occurring at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex Stutsman County, North Dakota 1995-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    A project to produce a comprehensive, site-specific butterfly list that could serve as a basis for future monitoring of butterfly populations and as an aid in making management decisions for the area.

  18. Community structure of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae along elevational gradients in Brazilian Atlantic forest reflects vegetation type rather than altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carneiro

    Full Text Available Species turnover across elevational gradients has matured into an important paradigm of community ecology. Here, we tested whether ecological and phylogenetic structure of skipper butterfly assemblages is more strongly structured according to altitude or vegetation type along three elevation gradients of moderate extent in Serra do Mar, Southern Brazil. Skippers were surveyed along three different mountain transects, and data on altitude and vegetation type of every collection site were recorded. NMDS ordination plots were used to assess community turnover and the influence of phylogenetic distance between species on apparent community patterns. Ordinations based on ecological similarity (Bray-Curtis index were compared to those based on phylogenetic distance measures (MPD and MNTD derived from a supertree. In the absence of a well-resolved phylogeny, various branch length transformation methods were applied together with four different null models, aiming to assess if results were confounded by low-resolution trees. Species composition as well as phylogenetic community structure of skipper butterflies were more prominently related to vegetation type instead of altitude per se. Phylogenetic distances reflected spatial community patterns less clearly than species composition, but revealed a more distinct fauna of monocot feeders associated with grassland habitats, implying that historical factors have played a fundamental role in shaping species composition across elevation gradients. Phylogenetic structure of community turned out to be a relevant additional tool which was even superior to identify faunal contrasts between forest and grassland habitats related to deep evolutionary splits. Since endemic skippers tend to occur in grassland habitats in the Serra do Mar, inclusion of phylogenetic diversity may also be important for conservation decisions.

  19. Changes is genes coding for laccases 1 and 2 may contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from the isolated population in Pieniny National Park (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    An isolated population of apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) occurs in Pieniny National Park (Poland). Deformations and reductions of wings in a relatively large number of individuals from this population is found, yet the reasons for these defects are unknown. During studies devoted to identify cause(s) of this phenomenon, we found that specific regions of genes coding of enzymes laccases 1 and 2 could not be amplified from DNA samples isolated from large fractions of malformed insects while expected PCR products were detected in almost all (with one exception) normal butterflies. Laccases (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductases) are oxidases containing several copper atoms. They catalyse single-electron oxidations of phenolic or other compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. In insects, their enzymatic activities were found previously in epidermis, midgut, Malpighian tubules, salivary glands, and reproductive tissues. Therefore, we suggest that defects in genes coding for laccases might contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterflies, though it seems obvious that deficiency in these enzymes could not be the sole cause of these developmental improperties in P. apollo from Pieniny National Park.

  20. The butterfly fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod Region inventarisation experience (Insecta: Lepidoptera and its use for the regional Red Data Book building

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    Stanislav K. Korb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussed is an inventory of the Lepidoptera fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod region, its current status and prospects of its study. At the moment 1412 species of Lepidoptera are known from this area, but according to preliminary estimates the total number of species of Lepidoptera in this area amounts probably between 1800 and 2000. The necessity of the inclusion of 66 species of Lepidoptera in the Red Data Book of the Nizhny Novgorod region (approximately 4.5% of its current fauna and about 3.2% of its expected fauna is discussed. The necessity of the exception of 49 species of Lepidoptera by the Red Data Book of Nizhny Novgorod region is shown. The prospects for the protection of the Lepidoptera fauna within this area are discussed. Proposed is the usage of the IUCN status criteria for regional Red List with their modification in the area of the species.

  1. Environmental effects on the shape variation of male ultraviolet patterns in the Brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni, Pieridae, Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecháček, Pavel; Stella, David; Keil, Petr; Kleisner, Karel

    2014-12-01

    The males of the Brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni) have ultraviolet pattern on the dorsal surfaces of their wings. Using geometric morphometrics, we have analysed correlations between environmental variables (climate, productivity) and shape variability of the ultraviolet pattern and the forewing in 110 male specimens of G. rhamni collected in the Palaearctic zone. To start with, we subjected the environmental variables to principal component analysis (PCA). The first PCA axis (precipitation, temperature, latitude) significantly correlated with shape variation of the ultraviolet patterns across the Palaearctic. Additionally, we have performed two-block partial least squares (PLS) analysis to assess co-variation between intraspecific shape variation and the variation of 11 environmental variables. The first PLS axis explained 93% of variability and represented the effect of precipitation, temperature and latitude. Along this axis, we observed a systematic increase in the relative area of ultraviolet colouration with increasing temperature and precipitation and decreasing latitude. We conclude that the shape variation of ultraviolet patterns on the forewings of male Brimstones is correlated with large-scale environmental factors.

  2. Molecular systematics and evolution of the "Apollo" butterflies of the genus Parnassius (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Keiichi; Katoh, Toru; Chichvarkhin, Anton; Yagi, Takashi

    2004-02-04

    Sequences of 777 bp of mtDNA-ND5 locus were determined in order to shed light on the molecular systematics and evolution of the "Apollo" butterflies. Examined were nearly all of about 50 species of the genus Parnassius, together with seven species of the allied genera in the subfamily Parnassiinae (Papilionidae). The NJ and the MP phylogenetic trees show that the "Apollos" constitute a monophyletic group, comprising a number of cluster groups probably reflecting a relatively rapid radiation in evolution. The clusters of species-groups denoted I-VIII correspond to those species-groups recognized on the basis of morphological characters. Our findings will also help understand the biological relationships among several species or subspecies on which the classical taxonomy is in dispute. The unexpected finding is that among the samples of allied genera compared, Hypermnestra helios appears to be the most closely related to the "Apollos", despite morphological and behavioral dissimilarity. Furthermore, in contrast to the previous higher taxonomy, Archon apollinus which is classified in the tribe Parnassiini was found genetically closer to the tribe Zerynthiini, raising a taxonomic controversy.

  3. Spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production by tropical cryptic butterflies (Hamadryas, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: implications for the "industrial melanism" debate

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    Julián Monge-Nájera

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical butterflies of the genus Hamadryas, noted by the emission of sound, spend much time perching on trees and are believed to be cryptically patterned and colored with respect to tree trunks and branches they use as perching sites, but the subject had not been studied previously. This paper describes spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production in five species, under natural conditions: Hamadryas amphinome (Lucas, 1853, H. februa (Godart, 1824, H. feronia (Fruhstorfer, 1916, H. glauconome (Bates, 1864 and H. guatemalena (Bates, 1864. Tree characteristics and use by butterflies were recorded under natural conditions in open habitats (grassland thinly covered with trees in Costa Rica and Panama, avoiding the problems that affected previous natural selection studies in Biston betularia (the "industrial melanism" moth. Males perched on the trees and used them as courting territories. The butterflies perched more often on some individual trees, and did not use others. The general tree bark ("background" color tended to match wing coloration, while presence of food, position of trees along flight routes, tree size, bark texture, and lichen cover were not associated with the frequency of perching on the trees. Most individuals that perched in the study sites were males. Species differed in perching height and populations of H. februa perched at the same heights in both countries; H. feronia moves to higher perches near day's end. The relative use of branches and trunks is not related to the time of day but reflects the typical perching height of each species. The northern side of trees is less used and cardinal side distribution is independent of time of day. Perches exposed to direct sunlight are less used in hot days. All species perch with the head downwards. Perching males frequently fly towards other Hamadryas as well as towards tethered cardboard models. Trees with experimentally removed males were taken by newcomers 32 times

  4. Feeding on toxic prey. The praying mantis (Mantodea) as predator of poisonous butterfly and moth (Lepidoptera) caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, Dietrich; Wunder, Cora; Pogoda, Werner; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-06-01

    Caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, feed on milkweed plants, Asclepias spp. (Apocynaceae), and sequester their toxic cardenolides aimed at deterring predators. Nevertheless, Chinese praying mantids, Tenodera sinensis, consume these caterpillars after removing the midgut ("gutting") including its plant content. In the present study, monarch caterpillars raised on A. curassavica, and those of the death's-head hawkmoth, Acherontia atropos, raised on Atropa belladonna containing atropine, were fed to mantids, Hierodula membranacea, which removed the gut of both species discarding about 59% of cardenolides and more than 90% of atropine, respectively. The ingestion of these compounds produced no apparent ill effects in the mantids and both were excreted with faeces. On the other hand, when mantids were fed with larvae of two moth species, Amata mogadorensis and Brahmaea certia, raised on non-poisonous host plants, the mantids showed the same gutting behaviour, thereby discarding indigestible plant material. As polar compounds, e.g. cardenolides and atropine, are not absorbed from the mantids midgut and do not pass the gut membrane, this enables the mantids to feed on toxic prey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. POPULATION SURVEY AND FLIGHT BEHAVIOR OF BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA IN A FOREST PORTION IN SÃO SEPÉ, RS

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    Maína Roman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze lepidopterous insects with diurnal habits (butterflies associated with a native forest portion. Eight traps with bananas installed at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 m above soil surface were used. Samplings were obtained on a weekly basis from December 2005 to December 2006 in the county of São Sepé, RS. The faunistic indices represented by frequency, constancy, abundance and dominance were analyzed. Height of flight and species diversity were also evaluated. A total of 737 individuals of the Nymphalidae family were collected, which were classified into six subfamilies, 16 genus and 21 species. The most representative species were: Euptychia sp., Hamadryas feronia, Taygetis ypthima, Epiphile huebneri, Biblis hyperia, Taygetis sp.1 and Praepedaliodes phanias. The diversity indices of Shannon and Margalef indicate greater diversity at the height of 4.0 m and lower diversity at the height of 1.0 m, showing relative abundance as an important parameter in determining diversity. About 70% of the collected species were characterized as frequent, common, non-dominant and of accidental occurrence. Hamadryas feronia and Euptychia sp. were constant, dominant and very frequent. The species Euptychia sp. and Taygetis ypthima had height of flight close to the soil surface.

  6. Phylogenetics and biogeography of a spectacular Old World radiation of butterflies: the subtribe Mycalesina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrini

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    Torres Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butterflies of the subtribe Mycalesina (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae are important model organisms in ecology and evolution. This group has radiated spectacularly in the Old World tropics and presents an exciting opportunity to better understand processes of invertebrate rapid radiations. However, the generic-level taxonomy of the subtribe has been in a constant state of flux, and relationships among genera are unknown. There are six currently recognized genera in the group. Mycalesis, Lohora and Nirvanopsis are found in the Oriental region, the first of which is the most speciose genus among mycalesines, and extends into the Australasian region. Hallelesis and Bicyclus are found in mainland Africa, while Heteropsis is primarily Madagascan, with a few species in Africa. We infer the phylogeny of the group with data from three genes (total of 3139 bp and use these data to reconstruct events in the biogeographic history of the group. Results The results indicate that the group Mycalesina radiated rapidly around the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Basal relationships are unresolved, but we recover six well-supported clades. Some species of Mycalesis are nested within a primarily Madagascan clade of Heteropsis, while Nirvanopsis is nested within Lohora. The phylogeny suggests that the group had its origin either in Asia or Africa, and diversified through dispersals between the two regions, during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. The current dataset tentatively suggests that the Madagascan fauna comprises two independent radiations. The Australasian radiation shares a common ancestor derived from Asia. We discuss factors that are likely to have played a key role in the diversification of the group. Conclusions We propose a significantly revised classification scheme for Mycalesina. We conclude that the group originated and radiated from an ancestor that was found either in Asia or Africa, with dispersals between the two regions and to

  7. Population demography of alpine butterflies: Boloria pales and Boloria napaea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and their specific adaptations to high mountain environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehl, Stefan; Ebertshäuser, Marlene; Gros, Patrick; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    High mountain ecosystems are extreme habitats, and adaptation strategies to this ecosystem are still poorly understood in most groups. To unravel such strategies, we performed a MRR study in the Hohe Tauern National Park (Salzburg, Austria) with two nymphalid butterfly species, Boloria pales and B. napaea. We analysed their population structure over one flight period by studying the development of population size and wing wear. B. pales had more individuals and a higher survival probability than B. napaea; the sensitivity to extreme weather conditions or other external influences was higher in B. napaea. We only observed proterandry in B. pales. Imagines of both species survived under snow for at least some days. Additionally, we observed a kind of risk-spreading, in that individuals of both species, and especially B. pales, have regularly emerged throughout the flight period. This emergence pattern divided the population's age structure into three phases: an initial phase with decreasing wing quality (emergence > mortality), followed by an equilibrium phase with mostly constant average wing condition (emergence = mortality) and a final ageing phase with strongly deteriorating wing condition (mortality » emergence). Consequently, neither species would likely become extinct because of particularly unsuitable weather conditions during a single flight period. The observed differences between the two species suggest a better regional adaptation of B. pales, which is restricted to high mountain systems of Europe. In contrast, the arctic-alpine B. napaea might be best adapted to conditions in the Arctic and not the more southern high mountain systems. However, this needs to be examined during future research in the Arctic.

  8. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperoidea) and other protected fauna of Jones Estate, a dying watershed in the Kumaon Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    OpenAIRE

    P. Smetacek

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and forty three species of butterflies recorded from Jones Estate, Uttarakhand between 1951 and 2010 are reported. The ongoing rapid urbanization of Jones Estate micro-watershed will destroy the habitat of 49 species of wildlife protected under Indian law, as well as several species of narrow endemic moths and butterflies. The only known Indian habitat for the butterfly Lister’s Hairstreak Pamela dudgeoni will be destroyed. The effect on the water flow of both the Bhimtal and Sa...

  9. Butterfly fauna of Ženeva pond near Niška Banja spa center (Lepidoptera: Papilionideae & Hesperioideae with some notes on endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research of butterfly species at Ženeva pond near the river Nišava (SE Serbia. In all, the total of 45 species was recorded, representing 23% of Serbian butterfly fauna. Among species recorded, 4 are listed in Red data book of Serbian butterflies and are declared strictly protected in the country, while two are listed in European red list of butterfly and listed in Annex IV of the EU Habitats Directive, namely Lycaena dispar and Zerynthia polyxena.

  10. “Darwin’s butterflies”? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae

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    Andrei Sourakov

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Calisto Hübner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galápagos or Darwin’s finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 DNA ‘barcodes’ (655 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI from 29 putative Calisto species represented by 31 putative taxa was therefore conducted to elucidate taxonomic relationships among these often highly cryptic and confusing taxa. The sympatric, morphologically and ecologically similar taxa C. confusa Lathy, 1899 and C. confusa debarriera Clench, 1943 proved to be extremely divergent, and we therefore recognize Calisto debarriera stat. n. as a distinct species, with Calisto neiba Schwartz et Gali, 1984 as a junior synonym syn. n. Species status of certain allopatric, morphologically similar sister species has been confirmed: Calisto hysius (Godart, 1824 (including its subspecies C. hysius aleucosticha Correa et Schwartz, 1986, stat. n., and its former subspecies C. batesi Michener, 1943 showed a high degree of divergence (above 6% and should be considered separate species. Calisto lyceius Bates, 1935/C. crypta Gali, 1985/C. franciscoi Gali, 1985 complex, also showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%, confirming the species status of these taxa. In contrast, our data suggest that the Calisto grannus Bates, 1939 species complex (including Calisto grannus dilemma González, 1987, C. grannus amazona González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus micrommata Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., C. grannus dystacta González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus phoinix González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus sommeri Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., and C. grannus micheneri

  11. Susceptibility of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki used for gypsy moth suppression in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Papp Herms; Deborah G. McCullough; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Norman R. Dubois

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the phenological and physiological susceptibility of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt), a product widely used for gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) suppression in Michigan and other infested states. We...

  12. Tuning of photoreceptor spectral sensitivities by red and yellow pigments in the butterfly Papilio xuthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikawa, K; Scholten, DGW; Kinoshita, M; Stavenga, DG; Scholten, Dick G.W.

    The compound eye of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, consists of different types of ommatidia characterized by the pigmentation around the rhabdom. About 75% of the ommatidia harbor red pigment, whereas the other 25% contain yellow pigment. We find that the pigments

  13. Butterfly response and successional change following ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy E. M. Waltz; W. Wallace Covington

    2001-01-01

    The Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) can be useful indicators of ecosystem change as a result of a disturbance event. We monitored changes in butterfly abundance in two restoration treatment units paired with adjacent untreated forest at the Mt. Trumbull Resource Conservation Area in northern Arizona. Restoration treatments included thinning trees to density levels...

  14. Plant scents modify innate colour preference in foraging swallowtail butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mina; Itoh, Yuki; Ômura, Hisashi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Kinoshita, Michiyo

    2015-07-01

    Flower-visiting insects exhibit innate preferences for particular colours. A previous study demonstrated that naive Papilio xuthus females prefer yellow and red, whereas males are more attracted to blue. Here, we demonstrate that the innate colour preference can be modified by olfactory stimuli in a sexually dimorphic manner. Naive P. xuthus were presented with four coloured discs: blue, green, yellow and red. The innate colour preference (i.e. the colour first landed on) of the majority of individuals was blue. When scent from essential oils of either orange flower or lily was introduced to the room, females' tendency to select the red disc increased. Scents of lavender and flowering potted Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, however, were less effective. Interestingly, the odour of the non-flowering larval host plant, Citrus unshiu, shifted the preference to green in females. In males, however, all plant scents were less effective than in females, such that blue was always the most favoured colour. These observations indicate that interactions between visual and olfactory cues play a more prominent role in females. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Spread And Environmental Impact To Presence Of Sulawesis Endemic Butterfly Graphium Androcles Boisduval Lepidoptera Papilionidae In Bantimurung-Bulusaraung National Park

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    Harlina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Swallow Tail butterfly Graphium androcles Boisduval is the one of endemic butterfly from Bantimurung-Bulusaraung National Park South Sulawesi. Currently G. androcles very difficult to find in their natural habitat. The purpose of research is to study spread and environmental impact to presence of G. androcles. The research was conducted in April 2014 to March 2015 on two areas Bantimurung and Pattunuang. Our observation was used Cruise Methods and data analysis with descriptive methods. The result was showed total number of butterfly about 57 individuals divided into Bantimurung 12 individuals and Pattunuang 45 individuals. Based on Pearsons analysis temperature r 0.716 p0.009 and rainfall periods r0.676 p0.016 has strong correlation with presence of G. androcles. On the other hand no correlation with humidity r-0.888 p0.786 and light intensity r0.172 p0.593 in the presence of butterfly. We find more G. androcles in the beginning of dry season end of Juni until November 2014 on the river area and open field. Commonly the activity of butterfly was started 11.00 until 14.00 am. The range of temperature light intensity and humidity is 29 31oC 45 -1.735 and 55 70 respectively. Our conclusion is G. androcles activity as the behavioral response to adapted in their environment.

  16. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

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    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban environments, such as parks and gardens, may offer many alimentary resources, besides shelter and favorable conditions, for butterfly survival. This study aimed to make an inventory of butterflies visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM. From March 2006 to March 2007, the floral visitors were observed weekly for 2h. After 108 hours’ observations, 1114 visits by 39 butterfly species, associated with 43 plant species (21 families, were confirmed. Among the butterflies, Nymphalidae had the highest richness of species (S= 18, followed by Hesperiidae (S= 8, Pieridae (S= 7, Papilionidae (S= 4 and Lycaenidae (S= 2. The pierid Phoebis philea philea was the most frequent species (188 visits, followed by hesperiids Urbanus proteus proteus (100, U. teleus (73 and the nymphalid Heliconius erato phyllis (71. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae, Eupatorium laevigatum (Asteraceae, Russelia equisetiformis (Scrophulariaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Verbenaceae were the most visited plants. The Botanical Garden of UFSM is an example of an urban park that seems to provide floral resources for the feeding of many butterfly species, being also a potential refuge for species from forest areas nearby.

  17. High Andean butterflies from southern Peru, I. Dry puna Satyrinae, with the description of two new taxa and three new records from Peru (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

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    José Alfredo Cerdeña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a series of contributions to the knowledge of the high Andean butterfly fauna in southern Peru. In this work the butterfly species of the subfamily Satyrinae present in the dry puna of Peru are reviewed. A new species, Pampasatyrus gorkyi sp. nov. and a new subspecies Argyrophorus lamna cuzcoensis ssp. nov. are described from the department Cusco, Peru. Three species are recorded for the first time for Peru, Argyrophorus gustavi Staudinger, Faunula euripides (Weymer and Faunula eleates (Weymer previously reported from Chile and Bolivia. Ecological and biogeographical data are provided.

  18. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Microsatellite markers for the large blue butterflies Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae) and their amplification in other Maculinea species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeisset, I; Als, Thomas Damm; Settele, J

    2005-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon, two of five species of endangered large blue butterflies found in Europe. Two separate microsatellite libraries were constructed. Eleven markers were developed for M. nausithous and one for M. alcon. The primers were...

  20. Microsatellite markers for the large blue butterflies Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and their amplification in other Maculinea species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeisset, Inga; Damm Als, Thomas; Settele, Josef

    2005-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for Maculinea nausithous and Maculinea alcon, two of five species of endangered large blue butterflies found in Europe. Two separate microsatellite libraries were constructed. Eleven markers were developed for M. nausithous and one for M. alcon. The primers were...

  1. Stepwise evolution of resistance to toxic cardenolides via genetic substitutions in the Na+/K+ -ATPase of milkweed butterflies (lepidoptera: Danaini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschenka, Georg; Fandrich, Steffi; Sander, Nils; Wagschal, Vera; Boppré, Michael; Dobler, Susanne

    2013-09-01

    Despite the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) being famous for its adaptations to the defensive traits of its milkweed host plants, little is known about the macroevolution of these traits. Unlike most other animal species, monarchs are largely insensitive to cardenolides, because their target site, the sodium pump (Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase), has evolved amino acid substitutions that reduce cardenolide binding (so-called target site insensitivity, TSI). Because many, but not all, species of milkweed butterflies (Danaini) are associated with cardenolide-containing host plants, we analyzed 16 species, representing all phylogenetic lineages of milkweed butterflies, for the occurrence of TSI by sequence analyses of the Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase gene and by enzymatic assays with extracted Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase. Here we report that sensitivity to cardenolides was reduced in a stepwise manner during the macroevolution of milkweed butterflies. Strikingly, not all Danaini typically consuming cardenolides showed TSI, but rather TSI was more strongly associated with sequestration of toxic cardenolides. Thus, the interplay between bottom-up selection by plant compounds and top-down selection by natural enemies can explain the evolutionary sequence of adaptations to these toxins. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Naravovarstveno vrednotenje Radenskega polja pri Grosupljem na podlagi inventarizacije favne dnevnih metuljev (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera): Nature conservation value of Radensko polje near Grosuplje based on the inventory of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera):

    OpenAIRE

    Verovnik, Rudi; Rebeušek, Franc

    2001-01-01

    Radensko polje is one of the largest areas of extensively used wet meadows in central Slovenia. In 2000, we surveyed the nature conservation value of this area based on distribution of the butterfly fauna. The presence of strong populations of Maculinea ažcon, Euphydryas aurinia and Pyrgus armoricanus pointed out a very high conservation value of the surveyed area. Equally important is the presence of locally distributed and highly threatened Carcharodus flocciferus in the northern part of th...

  3. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperoidea and other protected fauna of Jones Estate, a dying watershed in the Kumaon Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Smetacek

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and forty three species of butterflies recorded from Jones Estate, Uttarakhand between 1951 and 2010 are reported. The ongoing rapid urbanization of Jones Estate micro-watershed will destroy the habitat of 49 species of wildlife protected under Indian law, as well as several species of narrow endemic moths and butterflies. The only known Indian habitat for the butterfly Lister’s Hairstreak Pamela dudgeoni will be destroyed. The effect on the water flow of both the Bhimtal and Sattal lake systems will clearly be adverse, as is evident from the drying up of Kua Tal and the reduced flow of perennial water springs during the dry season on the Estate. The undoubtedly negative effect of urbanization on these valuable fresh water resources will be irreversible in the long term. The trend can be reversed by extending protection to Jones Estate by re-declaring it a Green Belt of Bhimtal and by banning construction in the catchment area of Bhimtal lake, as has been done in Nainital and Mussoorie, both in Uttarakhand.

  4. A lack of Wolbachia-specific DNA in samples from apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-05-01

    Various insects contain maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria which can cause reproductive alterations, modulation of some physiological responses (like immunity, heat shock response, and oxidative stress response), and resistance to viral infections. In butterflies, Wolbachia sp. is the most frequent endosymbiont from this group, occurring in about 30 % of species tested to date. In this report, the presence of Wolbachia-specific DNA has been detected in apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo). In the isolated population of this insect occurring in Pieniny National Park (Poland), malformed individuals with deformed or reduced wings appear with an exceptionally high frequency. Interestingly, while total DNA isolated from most (about 85 %) normal insects contained Wolbachia-specific sequences detected by PCR, such sequences were absent in a large fraction (70 %) of individuals with deformed wings and in all tested individuals with reduced wings. These results indicate for the first time the correlation between malformation of wings and the absence of Wolbachia sp. in insects. Although the lack of the endosymbiotic bacteria cannot be considered as the sole cause of the deformation or reduction of wings, one might suggest that Wolbachia sp. could play a protective role in the ontogenetic development of apollo butterfly.

  5. Status and Trend of Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in the 4th of July Butterfly Count Program in 1977–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Swengel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regal Fritillary (Speyeria idalia primarily inhabits prairie, a native grassland of central North America, and occurs rarely in nonprairie grasslands further east. This butterfly has experienced widespread decline and marked range contraction. We analyze Regal Fritillary incidence and abundance during 1977–2014 in 4th of July Butterfly Counts, an annual census of butterflies in North America. Volunteers count within the same 24 km diameter circle each year. Only 6% of counts in range reported a Regal, while 18% of counts in core range in the Midwest and Great Plains did. 99.9% of Regal individuals occurred in core range. Only four circles east of core range reported this species, and only during the first half of the study period. All individuals reported west of its main range occurred in two circles in Colorado in the second half of the study. The number of counts per year and survey effort per count increased during the study. During 1991–2014, >31 counts occurred per year in core Regal range, compared to 0–23 during 1975–1990. During 1991–2014, all measures of Regal presence and abundance declined, most significantly. These results agree with other sources that Regal Fritillary has contracted its range and declined in abundance.

  6. Has the currently warming climate affected populations of the mountain ringlet butterfly, Erebia epiphron (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), in low-elevation mountains?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Beneš, Jiří; Čížek, O.; Kuras, T.; Klečková, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, APR 05 (2016), s. 295-301 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA ČR GAP505/10/2248; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-33733S Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Erebia epiphron Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2016/01/36.pdf

  7. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...

  8. Comunidad de mariposas diurnas (Lepidoptera:Rhopalocera en un gradiente altitudinal del cañon del rio Combeima-Tolima, Colombia Butterflies Community (Lepidoptera:Rhopalocera Along an Altitudinal Gradient in Combeima River Canyon Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderón C. Anderson M.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variación altitudinal de la composición, riqueza, diversidad y estructura de la comunidad de mariposas diurnas en un gradiente altitudinal en la cuenca del río Combeima (Juntas-Tolima, Colombia, desde los 1.800 m hasta los 3.000 m a lo largo del año en tres periódos de muestreo, mediante el uso de redes entomológicas y trampas VanSomeren-Rydon. Se encontraron 101 especies de mariposas distribuidas en 59
    géneros y cinco familias cuyos parámetros poblacionales variaron espacial y temporalmente, mostrando marcada zonificación altitudinal en los 1.900 m la cual es una franja
    transicional de la composición faunística y en la que a partir de ella, existe un decremento en el número de especies exclusivas para cada estación de muestreo, las cuales
    podrían considerarse como especies indicadoras de disturbio ecosistémico.Altitudinal variations in composition, richness, diversity and structure were studied in the butterflies' communities along an altitudinal gradient in Combeima River basin (Juntas-Tolima, Colombia from 1800 m until 3000 m during one year through three sampling times, using insect nets and VanSomeren-Rydon traps. 101 butterflies species were collected that were classified into 59 genera and five families. Butterflies population values changed through altitude and year season, and showed important ecological changes in 1900 m where we found a transition zone in fauna composition and where exclusive fauna decrease in each sampling station. This exclusive fauna could be named as indicator of ecological disturbances.

  9. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  10. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and

  11. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Wei; Yen, Shen-Horn; Lees, David C; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of "Agehana" has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, "Agehana" fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present "East Asia-America" disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima.

  12. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Wu

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae. Although the natural history and population conservation of "Agehana" has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, "Agehana" fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present "East Asia-America" disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima.

  13. Poor sequestration of toxic host plant cardenolides and their rapid loss in the milkweed butterfly Danaus chrysippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae: Danaini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, Dietrich; Wunder, Cora; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-06-01

    Butterflies of the genus Danaus are known to sequester toxic cardenolides from milkweed host plants (Apocynaceae). In particular, Danaus plexippus efficiently sequesters and stores these compounds, whereas D. chrysippus, is considered to poorly sequester cardenolides. To estimate its sequestration capability compared with that of D. plexippus, larvae of both species were jointly reared on Asclepias curassavica and the major cardenolides of the host plant, calotropin and calactin, were analyzed in adults sampled at different time intervals after eclosion. Both cardenolides were detected in body and wings of D. plexippus. Whereas the calotropin-concentration remained constant over a period of 24 days, that of calactin steadily decreased. In the body, but not in the wings of D. chrysippus, calactin only was detected in low amounts, which was then almost completely lost during the following 8 days after eclosion, suggesting that in contrast to D. plexippus, cardenolides seem to be less important for that butterfly's defence against predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative evidence for spatial variation in the biennial life cycle of the mountain butterfly Erebia euryale (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klečková, Irena; Vrba, P.; Konvička, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2015), s. 114-119 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2248; GA ČR GAP505/10/2167 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630; GA JU(CZ) 135/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) 144/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) 106/2010/P; Motyli Krkonos contract(CZ) CZ.3.22/1.2.00/12.03299 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Erebia euryale Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2015/01/14.pdf

  15. DIVERSIDADE DE QUINZE ESPÉCIES DE BORBOLETAS (LEPIDOPTERA, PAPILIONIDAE EM SETE COMUNIDADES DE SANTA MARIA, RS DIVERSITY OF FIFTEEN SPECIES OF BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA, PAPILIONIDAE IN SEVEN COMMUNITIES OF SANTA MARIA, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Schwartz

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho compara a diversidade estimada para sete áreas de Santa Maria, RS, com diferentes níveis de antropização, com base na abundância, similaridade e constância de 15 espécies de papilionídeos. O estudo foi realizado de Setembro de 1994 a Março de 1995, e de Novembro de 1995 a Fevereiro de 1996. As capturas foram efetuadas em intervalos médios de trinta dias, utilizando rede entomológica convencional, durante intervalos médios de 4 horas. As borboletas foram transportadas em envelopes glicinados, individualizados e etiquetados, para o laboratório do Departamento de Biologia da UFSM. Os dados sugerem que a cobertura vegetal desempenha uma função importante na distribuição e abundância dessas borboletas, e os mecanismos que agem em escalas geográficas mais amplas podem ser diferentes daqueles que atuam em escalas menores. Habitats, como capões e ambientes urbanos, representam locais favoráveis onde as borboletas podem usar esses ambientes complexos, exibindo uma norma de reação que minimiza a competição e a ação de inimigos naturais.The research has as objective to compare the esteemed diversity for seven of Santa Maria's counties, RS, Brazil, with different urbane levels, based on the study of abundance, similarity and steadiness among 15 Papilionidae species, from September 1994 to March 1995 and November 1995 to February 1996. Captures were performed in intervals of thirty days, using entomological net, during intervals of 4 hours average. The butterflies were transported in glassine envelopes, individualized, properly labeled to the Laboratory at UFSM Biology Department. The results suggest that the canopy carries out an important function in the distribution and abundance of those butterflies. The mechanisms that act in wider geographical scales can be different from those that act in smaller scales. Coppices and urban landscapes can represent locals, where butterflies can use these complex environments

  16. COMUNIDAD DE MARIPOSAS DIURNAS (LEPIDOPTERA:RHOPALOCERA EN UN GRADIENTE ALTITUDINAL DEL CAÑON DEL RÍO COMBEIMATOLIMA, COLOMBIA Butterflies Community (Lepidoptera:Rhopalocera Along an Altitudinal Gradient in Combeima River Canyon Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÉDGAR CAMERO

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variación altitudinal de la composición, riqueza, diversidad y estructura de la comunidad de mariposas diurnas en un gradiente altitudinal en la cuenca del río Combeima (JuntasTolima, Colombia, desde los 1.800 m hasta los 3.000 m a lo largo del año en tres periódos de muestreo, mediante el uso de redes entomológicas y trampas VanSomerenRydon. Se encontraron 101 especies de mariposas distribuidas en 59 géneros y cinco familias cuyos parámetros poblacionales variaron espacial y temporalmente, mostrando marcada zonificación altitudinal en los 1.900 m la cual es una franja transicional de la composición faunística y en la que a partir de ella, existe un decremento en el número de especies exclusivas para cada estación de muestreo, las cuales podrían considerarse como especies indicadoras de disturbio ecosistémico.Altitudinal variations in composition, richness, diversity and structure were studied in the butterflies’ communities along an altitudinal gradient in Combeima River basin (JuntasTolima, Colombia from 1800 m until 3000 m during one year through three sampling times, using insect nets and VanSomerenRydon traps. 101 butterflies species were collected that were classified into 59 genera and five families. Butterflies population values changed through altitude and year season, and showed important ecological changes in 1900 m where we found a transition zone in fauna composition and where exclusive fauna decrease in each sampling station. This exclusive fauna could be named as indicator of ecological disturbances.

  17. The endangered butterfly Charonias theano (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae): current status, threats and its rediscovery in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A V L; Kaminski, L A; Iserhard, C A; Barbosa, E P; Marini Filho, O J

    2011-01-01

    The pierid Charonias theano (Boisduval), an endangered butterfly species, has been rarely observed in nature, and has not been recorded in the state of São Paulo in the last 50 years despite numerous efforts to locate extant colonies. Based on museum specimens and personal information, C. theano was known from 26 sites in southeastern and southern Brazil. Recently, an apparently viable population was recorded in a new locality, at Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, São Paulo, with several individuals observed during two weeks in April, 2011. The existence of this population at Serra do Japi is an important finding, since this site represents one of the few large forested protected areas where the species could potentially persist not only in the state of São Paulo, but within its entire historical distribution.

  18. A failure of the Red Pierrot Talicada nyseus Guérin-Méneville, 1843 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae butterfly to colonize Delhi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv K. Singh Bais

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Red Pierrot Talicada nyseus Guérin-Méneville, 1843 is a butterfly of the semi-arid plains. Its historical distribution range includes Sri Lanka, southern India, northeastern India and Myanmar. It was recently reported from a few places in northern India far away from its known range boundaries in India. Dehradun, Kumaon Himalaya, Delhi and Kalatop are the places from where it has been reported in the recent past. Talicada nyseus nyseus appeared in the Delhi area in 2008, survived and bred for more than a year and then suddenly disappeared in the summer of 2009. The appearance of T.n. nyseus in Dehradun has been linked to the introduction of Kalanchoe ornamental plants in the newly developed residential areas. This paper examines the likely reasons for its disappearance from the Delhi area.

  19. How Do Landscape Structure, Management and Habitat Quality Drive the Colonization of Habitat Patches by the Dryad Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae in Fragmented Grassland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kalarus

    Full Text Available Most studies dealing with species distribution patterns on fragmented landscapes focus on the characteristics of habitat patches that influence local occurrence and abundance, but they tend to neglect the question of what drives colonization of previously unoccupied patches. In a study of the dryad butterfly, we combined classical approaches derived from metapopulation theory and landscape ecology to investigate the factors driving colonization from a recent refugium. In three consecutive transect surveys, we recorded the presence and numbers of imagos in 27 patches of xerothermic grassland and 26 patches of wet meadow. Among the predictors affecting the occurrence and abundance of the dryad, we considered environmental variables reflecting (i habitat patch quality (e.g., goldenrod cover, shrub density, vegetation height; (ii factors associated with habitat spatial structure (patch size, patch isolation and fragmentation; and (iii features of patch surroundings (100-m buffers around patches that potentially pose barriers or provide corridors. Patch colonization by the dryad was strongly limited by the distance from the species refugium in the region; there was a slight positive effect of shrub density in this respect. Butterfly abundance increased in smaller and more fragmented habitat patches; it was negatively impacted by invasive goldenrod cover, and positively influenced by the density of watercourses in patch surroundings. Nectar plant availability was positively related to species abundance in xerothermic grassland, while in wet meadow the effect was the reverse. We conclude that dryad colonization of our study area is very recent, since the most important factor limiting colonization was distance from the refugium, while the habitat quality of target patches had less relevance. In order to preserve the species, conservation managers should focus on enhancing the quality of large patches and should also direct their efforts on smaller and

  20. How Do Landscape Structure, Management and Habitat Quality Drive the Colonization of Habitat Patches by the Dryad Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae) in Fragmented Grassland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalarus, Konrad; Nowicki, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Most studies dealing with species distribution patterns on fragmented landscapes focus on the characteristics of habitat patches that influence local occurrence and abundance, but they tend to neglect the question of what drives colonization of previously unoccupied patches. In a study of the dryad butterfly, we combined classical approaches derived from metapopulation theory and landscape ecology to investigate the factors driving colonization from a recent refugium. In three consecutive transect surveys, we recorded the presence and numbers of imagos in 27 patches of xerothermic grassland and 26 patches of wet meadow. Among the predictors affecting the occurrence and abundance of the dryad, we considered environmental variables reflecting (i) habitat patch quality (e.g., goldenrod cover, shrub density, vegetation height); (ii) factors associated with habitat spatial structure (patch size, patch isolation and fragmentation); and (iii) features of patch surroundings (100-m buffers around patches) that potentially pose barriers or provide corridors. Patch colonization by the dryad was strongly limited by the distance from the species refugium in the region; there was a slight positive effect of shrub density in this respect. Butterfly abundance increased in smaller and more fragmented habitat patches; it was negatively impacted by invasive goldenrod cover, and positively influenced by the density of watercourses in patch surroundings. Nectar plant availability was positively related to species abundance in xerothermic grassland, while in wet meadow the effect was the reverse. We conclude that dryad colonization of our study area is very recent, since the most important factor limiting colonization was distance from the refugium, while the habitat quality of target patches had less relevance. In order to preserve the species, conservation managers should focus on enhancing the quality of large patches and should also direct their efforts on smaller and more

  1. Organization of the olfactory system of nymphalidae butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Schäpers, Alexander; Nässel, Dick R; Janz, Niklas

    2013-05-01

    Olfaction is in many species the most important sense, essential for food search, mate finding, and predator avoidance. Butterflies have been considered a microsmatic group of insects that mainly rely on vision due to their diurnal lifestyle. However, an emerging number of studies indicate that butterflies indeed use the sense of smell for locating food and oviposition sites. To unravel the neural substrates for olfaction, we performed an anatomical study of 2 related butterfly species that differ in food and host plant preference. We found many of the anatomical structures and pathways, as well as distribution of neuroactive substances, to resemble that of their nocturnal relatives among the Lepidoptera. The 2 species differed in the number of one type of olfactory sensilla, thus indicating a difference in sensitivity to certain compounds. Otherwise no differences could be observed. Our findings suggest that the olfactory system in Lepidoptera is well conserved despite the long evolutionary time since butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor.

  2. [Isolation of DNA from museum exhibits of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) and PCR analysis with random and universal genes-specific primers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, E V; Chelomina, G N; Zhuravlev, Iu N

    2000-09-01

    The effect of the duration of storage of entomological material on DNA preservation was estimated. The results of the optimization of conditions for the analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA in a polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) are presented as applied to the DNA of lepidopterans of the family Papilionidae. RAPD patterns are shown for the first time in Atrophaneura alcinous and four species of the genus Parnassius (sensu lata). The applicability of museum specimens of butterflies for RAPD analysis was demonstrated. The results of PCR analysis using DNA obtained from different collection specimens stored for up to five years were compared. The authenticity of DNA obtained from collection specimens was proved using PCR with universal primers, which are specific to the COI and COII cytochrome genes of mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA). The lengths of individuals gene fragments obtained by the amplification of both museum and live specimens were 800 and 1600 bp. The conservative regions of mitochondrial genome were shown to be slightly different in two A. alcinous subspecies.

  3. Egg-laying by the butterfly Iphiclides podalirius (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae on alien plants: a broadening of host range or oviposition mistakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu, C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iphiclides podalirius is an oligophagous butterfly which feeds on plants of the Rosaceae family. In 2002 and 2005 in NE Spain, we recorded for the first time oviposition on two alien plant species, Cotoneaster franchetii and Spiraea cantoniensis. To ascertain if this unusual behaviour represents a broadening of host range or, alternatively, an oviposition mistake, larval performance on the new plants was investigated in the laboratory and compared with performance on the most common host plants used in the study area. Although larval performance on common hosts differed to some extent, the use of a wide range of plants of different quality at population level may in fact respond to the so-called “spreading of risk” strategy in variable environments. On the other hand, larval performance and survival to adulthood were so low on the two new hosts that our observations probably represent a case of maladaptive oviposition behaviour. This may be due to an evolutionary lag between the newly introduced plants and the insect, although other possible explanations are also taken into account.

  4. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  5. Out of the alps: the biogeography of a disjunctly distributed mountain butterfly, the almond-eyed ringlet Erebia alberganus (Lepidoptera, Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louy, Dirk; Habel, Jan Christian; Ulrich, Werner; Schmitt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on the biogeography of thermophilic and arctic-alpine species were performed during the past. Only little is known about species with intermediate characteristics. We analyzed the molecular biogeography of the butterfly Erebia alberganus (30 populations, representing 1106 individuals), sampled over the Alps, Apennines (Italy), and the Stara Planina (Bulgaria) using allozyme electrophoresis (17 loci). Genetic analyses revealed 3 major splits, with the strongest between the Stara Planina populations and all other populations, and a weaker split between the Alps and the Apennines. Individuals from the Apennines were genetically nested within the Alps group. The Alps cluster was segregated into 3 groups: the Southwestern, Western/Central, and Eastern Alps. The genetic diversities were highest for the Alps populations and significantly lower in the 2 isolates (Apennines, Stara Planina). The remarkable genetic split between Stara Planina and all other populations and the genetic distinctiveness of the former cluster might be interpreted as an ancient colonization event of this Balkan mountain range. The Apennines populations derive from a more recent expansion out of the Southwestern Alps. After surviving the Würm ice age most probably in the central Apennines, accompanied by genetic modification of some of these populations, northward expansion might have started from the western parts of the central Apennines reaching the northern Apennines during the early postglacial. The subtle genetic differentiation found among the Alps populations probably reflects 3 geographically disjunct Würm glacial centers located at the western slopes of the Southwestern Alps, at the southern slopes of the Central Alps, and in the Southeastern Alps.

  6. Wolbachia endosymbiont infection in two Indian butterflies and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The presence of the Wolbachia super group 'B' in the butterflies Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus (Guerin) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and Blue Mormon, Papilio polymnestor Cramer (Papilionidae), is documented for the first time in India. The study also gives an account on the lifetime fecundity and female-biased sex ratio in T.

  7. Short-term impact of disturbance on genetic diversity and structure of indonesian populations of the butterfly Drupadia theda in East Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauvelot, C.Y.; Cleary, D.F.R.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the short-term impact of disturbance on genetic diversity and structure of the tropical butterfly Drupadia theda Felder (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Populations were sampled from five landscapes in East Kalimantan (Borneo, Indonesia) which were differentially disturbed by

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Papilio syfanius (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Zhu, Li-Xin; Ding, Meng-Juan; Wang, Jia-Jia; Luo, Lai-Gao; Liu, Yang; Ou, Yong-Yue

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio syfanius has been completed. It is 15,359 bp, and contains the typical complement of 13 protein-coding (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) and 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Two A + T-rich regions are included in this mitogenome. The nucleotide composition is very similar to other insects, showing a high bias towards A + T, especially the control region (92.8%). Gene order in P. syfanius mitogenome is basically identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome, with the exception of translocations of trnM, which is common in genus Papilio.

  9. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: An overview of successful and unsuccessful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terenius, O.; Papanicolaou, A.; Garbutt, J.S.; Eleftherianos, I.; Huvenne, H.; Kanginakudru, S.; Albrechtsen, M.; An, Chunju; Aymeric, J.L.; Barthel, A.; Bebas, P.; Bitra, K.; Bravo, A.; Chevalier, F.; Collinge, D.P.; Crava, C.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Duvic, B.; Erlandson, M.; Faye, I.; Felfoldi, G.; Fujiwara, H.; Futahashi, R.; Gandhe, A.S.; Gatehouse, H.S.; Gatehouse, L.N.; Giebultowicz, J.M.; Gomez, I.; Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P.; Groot, A.T.; Hauser, F.; Heckel, D.G.; Hegedus, D.D.; Hrycaj, S.; Huang, L.; Hull, J.J.; Iatrou, K.; Iga, M.; Kanost, M.R.; Kotwica, J.; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Meyering-Vos, M.; Millichap, P.J.; Monteiro, A.; Mrinal, N.; Niimi, T.; Nowara, D.; Ohnishi, A.; Oostra, V.; Ozaki, K.; Papakonstantinou, M.; Popadic, A.; Rajam, M.V.; Saenko, S.; Simpson, R.M.; Soberon, M.; Strand, M.R.; Tomita, S.; Toprak, U.; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, S.; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, J.; Ffrench-Constant, R.H.; Herrero, S.; Gordon, K.; Swevers, L.; Smagghe, G.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive

  10. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  11. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Contemporary patterns in a historical context: phylogeographic history of the pipevine swallowtail, Battus philenor (Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, James A; Nice, Chris C

    2003-05-01

    We examined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in pipevine swallowtail butterflies (Battus philenor) from throughout its extant range to provide a historical, phylogeographical context for ecological studies of the disjunct population in California. We evaluate current hypotheses regarding host plant use, behavior, and mimetic relationships of B. philenor populations and generate alternative hypotheses. Compared to populations throughout the rest of the species' range, California populations are ecologically distinct in that they lack mimics, lay significantly larger clutches of eggs, and exclusively use a unique, endemic larval host plant. Analysis of molecular variance, tests of population differentiation, and nested clade analysis of mtDNA variation indicate that, despite low levels of population genetic structure across the species' range, there is evidence of recent range expansion from presumed Pleistocene refuge(s) in southeastern North America. Colonization of California appears to have been a recent event. This phylogeographic investigation also suggests that the evolution of life-history adaptations to a novel larval host has occurred rapidly in California and the lack of mimics in California may be attributable to the recency of colonization.

  13. Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles. PMID:22208893

  14. Teaching and Learning with Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Saul

    1996-01-01

    Presents butterflies as an introduction to natural history. Describes observation tips and metamorphosis of butterflies in the classroom. Includes butterfly resources for naturalists and educators. (AIM)

  15. Feeding responses by female Pieris brassicae butterflies to carbohydrates and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeis, J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    Most Lepidoptera feed during the adult stage on carbohydrate-rich food sources, primarily floral nectar. However, little is known about the factors leading to the acceptance of a possible food source. It is reported that butterflies select for nectar rich in sucrose and amino acids. This suggests

  16. Feeding responses by female Pieris brassicae butterflies to carbohydrates and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeis, J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    Most Lepidoptera feed during the adult stage on carbohydrate- rich food sources, primarily floral nectar. However, little is known about the factors leading to the acceptance of a possible food source. It is reported that butterflies select for nectar rich in sucrose and amino acids. This suggests

  17. Páramo de Belmira as an important centre of endemism in the northern Colombian Andes: new evidence from Pronophilina butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae, Satyrini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Clavijo, Alejandra; Uribe, Sandra; Marin, Mario A; Alvarez, Carlos F; Zubek, Anna

    2016-10-28

    Páramo de Belmira (Páramo de Santa Inés) is the highest part of the Andean Central Cordillera in the Colombian department of Antioquia. It harbours a pocket of highlands grassland vegetation isolated from the nearest southerly other large paramo extensions by some 150 km. Butterflies sampling was carried out for over three years in the cloud forest-paramo mosaic and open grassland at 2650-3350 m. As a result, several new taxa of various butterflies groups were identified, including three species and two subspecies belonging to the Satyrinae subtribe Pronophilina, described herein: Lymanopoda casneri n. sp., L. ionius lilliput n. ssp., Panyapedaliodes rojasi n. sp., Pedaliodes nutabe n. sp. and Apexacuta orsedice mariadelmarae n. ssp. L. casneri is particularly interesting from the biogeographical perspective as its nearest relative is L. hazelana Brown, found in south-central Ecuador, some 1000 km southwards. Overall, 48 species of Pronophilina were identified. Considering the occurrence of several endemic species and subspecies of butterflies in the extremely restricted paramo grasslands in the study area, and the anthropogenic pressure from surrounding locations, it is worth attributing the Páramo de Belmira a protection area status.

  18. Extraordinary long life spans in fruit-feeding butterflies can provide window on evolution of life span and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Molleman, F.; Zwaan, B J; Brakefield, P M; Carey, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Information on the life span of organisms in the field is essential for elucidating the evolution of life span and aging. We present mark-recapture data (>30 000 marked individuals, >4000 recaptured at least once) on forty-seven species of fruit-feeding butterflies in a tropical forest in Uganda. The data reveal adult life spans in the field for several species that are significantly longer than previously recorded in Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Longevity records for species of which...

  19. Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. New

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, particularly butterflies and large moths, are popular targets for conservation efforts and as flagship species can help to publicize the need for habitat and resource protection and the ecological value of invertebrates. Here I present an overview of the relevant issues in selecting and promoting flagship species, and discuss how local community support for conservation may be encouraged, using examples from Australia.

  20. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  1. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  2. Seasonal change in pupation behaviour and pupal mortality in a swallowtail butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity in pupal colour has evolved to render cryptic pupae. Apart from characteristics of the pupation site, the photoperiod experienced by larvae is important in determining pupal colour, long and short photophases eliciting the formation of green and brown pupae, respectively. This seasonal polyphenismis often correlated with developmental pathway, green pupae developing directly and brown pupae entering into diapause. From 1996 to 2000, immature stages of Iphiclides podalirius were monitored on natural hostplants in NE Spain. Larvae were followed to the pupation site and pupal colour, characteristics of the pupation site and the fate of pupae were recorded. Before August, pupae were non-diapausing green while in early August they were dimorphic, after which, they were brown and overwintered. As theory predicts, differences in pupation sites in successive generations were found in relation to pupal colour. Green pupae occurred on the hostplants and brown pupae were found among the leaf litter. Mortality ranged from 14.3 to 100%. Bird predation was the major mortality factor for green pupae and was also important for brown pupae. Results suggest that preference for pupation sites in the litter in diapausing broods evolved to avoid strong bird predation on the hostplants. Preference for sites above ground level in summer generations may have evolved in response to both non-visual (small mammals and visual (avian predators.

  3. Anti-aphrodisiac compounds of male butterflies increase the risk of egg parasitoid attack by inducing plant synomone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Aponte Cordero, W.V.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Mumm, R.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.; Huigens, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    During mating in many butterfly species, males transfer spermatophores that contain anti-aphrodisiacs to females that repel conspecific males. For example, males of the large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), transfer the anti-aphrodisiac, benzyl cyanide (BC) to females.

  4. The effect of host acceptability on oviposition and egg accumulation by the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, R.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of host-plant acceptability on oviposition rate, egg load, internal fat storage and longevity was studied in the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Newly emerged females and males were presented with either cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. gemmifera),

  5. Diversity, ecology and herbivory of hairstreak butterflies (Theclinae) associated with the velvet tree, Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.R. Badenes-Pérez; M.A. Alfaro-Alpízar; M.T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of three species of hairstreak butterflies in the subfamily Theclinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) were found feeding on developing inflorescences, flower buds, and immature fruits of the velvet tree, (Miconia calvescens) de Candolle (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica. (Erora opisena) (Druce), (Parrhasius...

  6. Genetics of host-plant preference in the comma butterfly Polygonia c-album (Nymphalidae), and evolutionary implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylin, S.; Nygren, G.H.; Windig, J.J.; Janz, N.; Bergstrom, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the Lepidoptera, sex-linked genes have been found to be of importance for species differences in, for example, hostplant preference, and have been implicated in ecological speciation. Variation within species is typically not sexlinked. However, in the comma butterfly Polygonia c-album

  7. Convergent evolution of neuroendocrine control of phenotypic plasticity in pupal colour in butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnecker, G.; Hazel, W.

    1999-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity in pupal colour occurs in three families of butterflies (the Nymphalidae, Papilionidae and Pieridae), typically in species whose pupation sites vary unpredictably in colour. In all species studied to date, larvae ready for pupation respond to environmental cues associated with the colour of their pupation sites and moult into cryptic light (yellow–green) or dark (brown–black) pupae. In nymphalids and pierids, pupal colour is controlled by a neuroendocrine factor, pupal melanization-reducing factor (PMRF), the release of which inhibits the melanization of the pupal cuticle resulting in light pupae. In contrast, the neuroendocrine factor controlling pupal colour in papilionid butterflies results in the production of brown pupae. PMRF was extracted from the ventral nerve chains of the peacock butterfly Inachis io (Nymphalidae) and black swallowtail butterfly Papilio polyxenes (Papilionidae). When injected into pre-pupae, the extracts resulted in yellow pupae in I. io but brown pupae in P. polyxenes. These results suggest that the same neuroendocrine factor controls the plasticity in pupal colour, but that plasticity in pupal colour in these species has evolved independently (convergently).

  8. On the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shnirelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The term "butterfly effect" means an extreme sensitivity of a dynamical system to small perturbations: "The beating of a butterfly wing in South America can result in the considerable change of positions and force of a tropical cyclon in Atlantic 2 weeks later". Numerical simulations of R.Robert show the absence of the butterfly effect in some simple flows of 2-d ideal incompressible fluid which is a model of the atmosphere. In this work a more complicated flow is considered. Numerical simulation demonstrates the butterfly effect in the strongest form. The effect is robust, and the experiment is 100% reproducible.

  9. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V

    2016-09-01

    A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, [1908], Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia

  10. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A butterfly is the final stage of a life cycle consisting of an egg, larva, pupa and adult. In this adult stage, a butterfly has four main tasks: locating a mate and mating, laying eggs on suitable substrate, feeding and, of course, surviving long enough to achieve the first three. Since we are presently not in a position to attribute ...

  11. The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Labandeira, Conrad C.; Yang, Qiang; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Hotton, Carol L.; Monteiro, Ant?nia; Wang, Yong-Jie; Goreva, Yulia; Shih, ChungKun; Siljestr?m, Sandra; Rose, Tim R.; Dilcher, David L.; Ren, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mid-Mesozoic kalligrammatid lacewings (Neuroptera) entered the fossil record 165 million years ago (Ma) and disappeared 45 Ma later. Extant papilionoid butterflies (Lepidoptera) probably originated 80?70 Ma, long after kalligrammatids became extinct. Although poor preservation of kalligrammatid fossils previously prevented their detailed morphological and ecological characterization, we examine new, well-preserved, kalligrammatid fossils from Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sites in nort...

  12. Adult diet affects lifespan and reproduction of the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zwaan, Bas J; Carey, James R; Brakefield, Paul M

    2008-10-01

    Fruit-feeding butterflies are among the longest lived Lepidoptera. While the use of pollen-derived amino acids by Heliconius butterflies has been interpreted as important for the evolution of extended lifespans, very little is known about the life-history consequences of frugivory. This issue is addressed by investigating effects of four adult diets (sugar, sugar with amino acids, banana, and moistened banana) on lifespan and reproduction in the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens Aurivillius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Female butterflies were collected from Kibale National Park, Uganda, and kept individually in cages near their natural habitat and data were collected on lifespan, oviposition, and hatching of eggs. Lifespan in captivity was longer for the sugar and the amino acid cohort, than for the banana cohorts. The longitudinal pattern of oviposition was erratic, with many days without oviposition and few periods with high numbers of eggs laid. Butterflies typically did not lay eggs during their 1st week in captivity and the length of the period between capture and first reproduction was significantly shorter for butterflies fed moistened banana. The length of the reproduction period (first reproduction-last reproduction in captivity) and the reproduction rate (total number of eggs/length of the reproduction period) did not differ significantly between the diet treatments. Those fed with amino acid and moistened banana had significantly higher egg hatchability than those fed with sugar and banana. We found no evidence for a lifespan cost of reproduction. Our results show that (1) female C. fulvescens can use amino acids in their diet for laying fertile eggs, (2) more wing-wear does correlate with lower survival in captivity (indicating aging in the wild), but not with intensity of reproduction (providing no evidence for reproductive aging), and (3) fruit-feeding butterflies may be dietary restricted in the field.

  13. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukusic Pete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  14. Behavioral foraging responses by the butterfly Heliconius melpomene to Lantana camara floral scent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Susanna; Dobson, Heidi E M

    2003-10-01

    Floral color has been shown to influence flower selection by butterflies, but few studies have investigated the role of floral scent. In this study, adults of Heliconius melpomene L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) were tested in two-choice bioassays to investigate their ability to distinguish floral scent of the butterfly pollinated plant Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) from other plant scents. The relative importance of floral scent vs. color was also studied. Butterfly foraging behavior was measured as probing with proboscis. This probing, on floral models varying in scent and color, was timed. When given a choice of floral and vegetative scents of L. camara, newly emerged butterflies preferred floral scent, indicating an innate response to floral scents. When butterflies were conditioned to L. camara floral scent by offering the scent with yellow color and sugar water, yellow color elicited stronger feeding responses than did the floral scent. However, the floral scent of L. camara was preferred to that of the novel species Philadelphus coronarius L. (Hydrangiaceae). The floral scent of L. camara was dominated by tepenoid compounds, while that of P. coronarius by fatty acid derivatives, thus demonstrating totally different compositions. It is concluded that, while H. melpomene butterflies often use visual floral traits when selecting which flowers to visit, floral scents elicit behavioral responses that initiate and maintain foraging on flowers.

  15. Unscrambling butterfly oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean-Michel; Baker, Simon C; Pink, Ryan; Carter, David R F; Collins, Aiden; Tomlin, Jeremie; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J

    2013-04-26

    Butterflies are popular model organisms to study physiological mechanisms underlying variability in oogenesis and egg provisioning in response to environmental conditions. Nothing is known, however, about; the developmental mechanisms governing butterfly oogenesis, how polarity in the oocyte is established, or which particular maternal effect genes regulate early embryogenesis. To gain insights into these developmental mechanisms and to identify the conserved and divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis, we analysed a de novo ovarian transcriptome of the Speckled Wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.), and compared the results with known model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. A total of 17306 contigs were annotated, with 30% possibly novel or highly divergent sequences observed. Pararge aegeria females expressed 74.5% of the genes that are known to be essential for D. melanogaster oogenesis. We discuss the genes involved in all aspects of oogenesis, including vitellogenesis and choriogenesis, plus those implicated in hormonal control of oogenesis and transgenerational hormonal effects in great detail. Compared to other insects, a number of significant differences were observed in; the genes involved in stem cell maintenance and differentiation in the germarium, establishment of oocyte polarity, and in several aspects of maternal regulation of zygotic development. This study provides valuable resources to investigate a number of divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis requiring further research. In order to fully unscramble butterfly oogenesis, we also now also have the resources to investigate expression patterns of oogenesis genes under a range of environmental conditions, and to establish their function.

  16. Extraordinary long life spans in fruit-feeding butterflies can provide window on evolution of life span and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, F; Zwaan, B J; Brakefield, P M; Carey, J R

    2007-06-01

    Information on the life span of organisms in the field is essential for elucidating the evolution of life span and aging. We present mark-recapture data (>30,000 marked individuals, >4000 recaptured at least once) on 47 species of fruit-feeding butterflies in a tropical forest in Uganda. The data reveal adult life spans in the field for several species that are significantly longer than previously recorded in Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Longevity records for species of which more than 100 individuals were recaptured ranged from 67 (Bicyclus auricruda) to 293 days (Euphaedra medon). In contrast to the majority of Lepidoptera which are short-lived, these all show exceptionally long life spans, and may thus help to better identify factors that affect aging, particularly when combined with information on temporal patterns in reproduction, strategies to avoid predation, and nutritional ecology. These key traits are readily measurable in butterflies and thus studies on fruit-feeding butterflies have much potential for gaining insight into the evolution of life span and aging, especially given the tradition of field-research on butterflies.

  17. Preserving and vouchering butterflies and moths for large-scale museum-based molecular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soowon; Epstein, Samantha W; Mitter, Kim; Hamilton, Chris A; Plotkin, David; Mitter, Charles; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) comprise significant portions of the world's natural history collections, but a standardized tissue preservation protocol for molecular research is largely lacking. Lepidoptera have traditionally been spread on mounting boards to display wing patterns and colors, which are often important for species identification. Many molecular phylogenetic studies have used legs from pinned specimens as the primary source for DNA in order to preserve a morphological voucher, but the amount of available tissue is often limited. Preserving an entire specimen in a cryogenic freezer is ideal for DNA preservation, but without an easily accessible voucher it can make specimen identification, verification, and morphological work difficult. Here we present a procedure that creates accessible and easily visualized "wing vouchers" of individual Lepidoptera specimens, and preserves the remainder of the insect in a cryogenic freezer for molecular research. Wings are preserved in protective holders so that both dorsal and ventral patterns and colors can be easily viewed without further damage. Our wing vouchering system has been implemented at the University of Maryland (AToL Lep Collection) and the University of Florida (Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center of Lepidoptera and Biodiversity), which are among two of the largest Lepidoptera molecular collections in the world.

  18. Preserving and vouchering butterflies and moths for large-scale museum-based molecular research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soowon Cho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera comprise significant portions of the world’s natural history collections, but a standardized tissue preservation protocol for molecular research is largely lacking. Lepidoptera have traditionally been spread on mounting boards to display wing patterns and colors, which are often important for species identification. Many molecular phylogenetic studies have used legs from pinned specimens as the primary source for DNA in order to preserve a morphological voucher, but the amount of available tissue is often limited. Preserving an entire specimen in a cryogenic freezer is ideal for DNA preservation, but without an easily accessible voucher it can make specimen identification, verification, and morphological work difficult. Here we present a procedure that creates accessible and easily visualized “wing vouchers” of individual Lepidoptera specimens, and preserves the remainder of the insect in a cryogenic freezer for molecular research. Wings are preserved in protective holders so that both dorsal and ventral patterns and colors can be easily viewed without further damage. Our wing vouchering system has been implemented at the University of Maryland (AToL Lep Collection and the University of Florida (Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center of Lepidoptera and Biodiversity, which are among two of the largest Lepidoptera molecular collections in the world.

  19. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND HOST USE IN HYBRIDIZING SUBSPECIES OF PAPILIO GLAUCUS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Robert H

    1990-12-01

    Two parapatric subspecies of the eastern tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio glaucus glaucus and P. g. canadensis, differ greatly in larval survival and growth on host plants in the Magnoliaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae. In the first part of this study, butterflies were collected from 17 sites along a transect from Georgia to Quebec and used for allozyme electrophoresis. Two X- (or Z-)linked enzyme loci (Ldh and Pgd) showed allele frequency differences that delineated a hybrid zone between the subspecies in northern Pennsylvania and south-central New York. No significant linkage disequilibrium could be detected among allozyme loci within the hybrid zone samples. Genetic differentiation at Ldh and Pgd coincides with subspecies differences in diapause control and female mimicry, which are also sex-linked. Larval offspring of butterflies from 13 of the sites were then tested in the laboratory for survival and growth on Liriodendron tulipifera (Magnoliaceae), Populus deltoïdes (Salicaceae) and Betula lutea (Betulaceae). Steep clines in survival rates matched the position of the hybrid zone. Hybrid zone larvae showed intermediate survival rates and significant heterogeneity among families on all three plants, indicating presence of substantial genetic variation. The results suggest that differential host use by P. g. glaucus and P. g. canadensis is maintained primarily by independent clines in selection intensity for ability to use allopatric sets of host plants, coupled with restricted gene flow across the hybrid zone. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1) butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2) butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3) butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  1. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Fukano

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1 butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2 butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3 butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  2. Diversidade de borboletas (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea e Hesperioidea em fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Decidual em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Diversity of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea e Hesperioidea in fragments of decidual seasonal forest in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica B. Dessuy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas seis saídas a campo bimestrais, entre julho de 2004 e julho de 2005, em três fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Decidual de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul: Morro do Elefante (E, Morro do Lar Metodista (M e Morro Cerrito (C. Em 135 horas de amostragem, foram registradas 1594 borboletas, distribuídas em 145 espécies. Destas, 59% pertencem a família Nymphalidae, 19% Hesperiidae, 10% Papilionidae, 7% Pieridae e 5% Lycaenidae. Foram registradas nove espécies de borboletas ainda não publicadas para o Estado. M apresentou maior riqueza e abundância de espécies. A menor riqueza foi observada em E e a menor abundância em C. Os índices de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener e de Margalef tiveram a mesma ordenação entre os locais, sendo maiores em M, local mais heterogêneo e perturbado, e menores em E. Os índices de dominância de Simpson e de Berger-Parker, por sua vez, foram mais representativos em E, com o maior número de espécies abundantes, e menos em C. Apenas 30% das espécies foram comuns aos três locais. Cerca da metade do total de espécies registradas foram exclusivas de um dos locais. A maior similaridade (Índices de Morisita e de Jaccard foi observada entre M e E, e a menor entre E e C.Six field trips were carried bimonthly, between July 2004 and July 2005, in three fragments of Decidual Seasonal Forest of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State: Morro do Elefante (E, Morro do Lar Metodista (M and Morro Cerrito (C. After 135 sampling hours, 1594 butterflies of 145 species were registered. Among these, 59% are Nymphalidae, 19% Hesperiidae, 10% Papilionidae, 7% Pieridae and 5% Lycaenidae. Nine species were new registers for Rio Grande do Sul State. M had the highest richness and abundance of species. The lowest richness was observed in E and the lowest abundance in C. Shannon-Wiener and Margalef diversity indexes had the same ordination among localities, being higher in M, more heterogeneous and disturbed, and lower in

  3. Anatomically diverse butterfly scales all produce structural colours by coherent scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O; Quinn, Tim; Torres, Rodolfo H

    2006-02-01

    The structural colours of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been attributed to a diversity of physical mechanisms, including multilayer interference, diffraction, Bragg scattering, Tyndall scattering and Rayleigh scattering. We used fibre optic spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 2D Fourier analysis to investigate the physical mechanisms of structural colour production in twelve lepidopteran species from four families, representing all of the previously proposed anatomical and optical classes of butterfly nanostructure. The 2D Fourier analyses of TEMs of colour producing butterfly scales document that all species are appropriately nanostructured to produce visible colours by coherent scattering, i.e. differential interference and reinforcement of scattered, visible wavelengths. Previously hypothesized to produce a blue colour by incoherent, Tyndall scattering, the scales of Papilio zalmoxis are not appropriately nanostructured for incoherent scattering. Rather, available data indicate that the blue of P. zalmoxis is a fluorescent pigmentary colour. Despite their nanoscale anatomical diversity, all structurally coloured butterfly scales share a single fundamental physical color production mechanism - coherent scattering. Recognition of this commonality provides a new perspective on how the nanostructure and optical properties of structurally coloured butterfly scales evolved and diversified among and within lepidopteran clades.

  4. A model for population dynamics of the mimetic butterfly Papilio polytes in the Sakishima Islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimura, Toshio; Fujihashi, Yuta; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2014-11-21

    We present a mathematical model for population dynamics of the mimetic swallowtail butterfly Papilio polytes in the Sakishima Islands, Japan. The model includes four major variables, that is, population densities of three kinds of butterflies (two female forms f. cyrus, f. polytes and the unpalatable butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae) and their predator. It is well-known that the non-mimic f. cyrus resembles and attracts the male most, and the mimic f. polytes mimics the model butterfly P. aristolochiae. Based on experimental evidence, we assume that two forms f. cyrus and f. polytes interact under intraspecific competition for resources including the male, and the growth rate of f. cyrus is higher than that of f. polytes. We further assume that both the benefit of mimicry for the mimic f. polytes and the cost for the model are dependent on their relative frequencies, i.e. the motality of the mimic by predation decreases with increase in frequency of the model, while the motality of the model increases as the frequency of the mimic increases. Taking the density-dependent effect through carrying capacity into account, we set up a model system consisting of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs), analyze it mathematically and provide computer simulations that confirm the analytical results. Our results reproduce field records on population dynamics of P. polytes in the Miyako-jima Island. They also explain the positive dependence of the relative abundance (RA) of the mimic on the advantage index (AI) of the mimicry in the Sakishima Islands defined in Section 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular logic behind the three-way stochastic choices that expand butterfly colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Saldi, Giuseppe; Huo, Lucy; Arikawa, Kentaro; Desplan, Claude

    2016-07-14

    Butterflies rely extensively on colour vision to adapt to the natural world. Most species express a broad range of colour-sensitive Rhodopsin proteins in three types of ommatidia (unit eyes), which are distributed stochastically across the retina. The retinas of Drosophila melanogaster use just two main types, in which fate is controlled by the binary stochastic decision to express the transcription factor Spineless in R7 photoreceptors. We investigated how butterflies instead generate three stochastically distributed ommatidial types, resulting in a more diverse retinal mosaic that provides the basis for additional colour comparisons and an expanded range of colour vision. We show that the Japanese yellow swallowtail (Papilio xuthus, Papilionidae) and the painted lady (Vanessa cardui, Nymphalidae) butterflies have a second R7-like photoreceptor in each ommatidium. Independent stochastic expression of Spineless in each R7-like cell results in expression of a blue-sensitive (Spineless(ON)) or an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive (Spineless(OFF)) Rhodopsin. In P. xuthus these choices of blue/blue, blue/UV or UV/UV sensitivity in the two R7 cells are coordinated with expression of additional Rhodopsin proteins in the remaining photoreceptors, and together define the three types of ommatidia. Knocking out spineless using CRISPR/Cas9 (refs 5, 6) leads to the loss of the blue-sensitive fate in R7-like cells and transforms retinas into homogeneous fields of UV/UV-type ommatidia, with corresponding changes in other coordinated features of ommatidial type. Hence, the three possible outcomes of Spineless expression define the three ommatidial types in butterflies. This developmental strategy allowed the deployment of an additional red-sensitive Rhodopsin in P. xuthus, allowing for the evolution of expanded colour vision with a greater variety of receptors. This surprisingly simple mechanism that makes use of two binary stochastic decisions coupled with local coordination may prove

  6. A swallowtail catastrophe model for the emergence of leadership in coordination-intensive groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Bond, Robert W

    2007-04-01

    This research extended the previous studies concerning the swallowtail catastrophe model for leadership emergence to coordination-intensive groups. Thirteen 4-person groups composed of undergraduates played in Intersection coordination (card game) task and were allowed to talk while performing it; 13 other groups worked nonverbally. A questionnaire measured leadership emergence at the end of the game along with other social contributions to the groups' efforts. The swallowtail catastrophe model that was evident in previous leadership emergence phenomena in creative problem solving and production groups was found here also. All three control parameters were identified: a general participation variable that was akin to K in the rugged landscape model of self-organization, task control, and whether the groups worked verbally or nonverbally. Several new avenues for future research were delineated.

  7. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the aborted tip of the forewing. There is very little variation between individu- als in this form. Eyespots are found on the wings of certain butterflies sometimes only at certain seasons. The position, number, size and colour of these are determined in four stages during the late larval and early pupal stages. The eyes pots ...

  8. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the adult stage, butterflies depend largely on the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats for energy, especially during flight. The fats are obtained during the larval stage and stored in the body. Carbohydrates in the form of sugars are obtained from nectar, the sap of certain trees, over-ripe fruit and other natural sources.

  9. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Study of Butterflies - Intra-specific Variation. Peter Smetacek. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0008-0015 ...

  10. Project Lifescape: Butterfly Accounts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Project Lifescape: Butterfly Accounts. Krushnamegh J Kunte. Classroom Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 86-97. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/03/0086-0097 ...

  11. Bonjour Papillon (Hello Butterfly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Donald G.; Ogrydziak, Dan

    This story in French about a butterfly who talks to children is presented in comic-book style and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Words and expressions peculiar to the Franco-American idiom are marked and translated into standard French. The drawings are in black and white. (AMH)

  12. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Other experts feel the word is a corruption of 'flutter-bys', referring to their flight. Whatever the origin, it is a pretty name that has stuck to these insects. In India, butterflies were more or less overlooked in the period prior to the advent of Europeans. They are not figured in the rich carvings, wall paintings or other works of art ...

  13. Espécies de Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Alfredo Di Mare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Based on literature, collections and sampled butterflies, a list of twelve species of Adelpha Hübner occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State is presented, including host plants. Adelpha epizygis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha falcipennis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha goyama Schaus, 1902 and Adelpha isis (Drury, 1782 are new reports to Rio Grande do Sul. The species are illustrated and keyed.

  14. A major gene controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J.; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan; Saenko, Suzanne V.; Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Wu, Grace C.; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J.; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard; Dowling, Andrea; ffrench-Constant, Richard; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection1,2. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and if there is any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we identify a gene, cortex, through fine-scale mapping using population genomics and gene expression analyses, which regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell cycle regulators3, suggesting that it most likely regulates pigmentation patterning through regulation of scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia)4, our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects. PMID:27251285

  15. The gene cortex controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan A; Saenko, Suzanne V; Wallbank, Richard W R; Wu, Grace C; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard M; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-06-02

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and whether this control shows any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we use fine-scale mapping with population genomics and gene expression analyses to identify a gene, cortex, that regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast-evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell-cycle regulators, suggesting that it probably regulates pigmentation patterning by regulating scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia), our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects.

  16. The male sex pheromone of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: towards an evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Nieberding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated behaviours, biosynthetic pathways, compounds, scent-releasing structures and receiving systems. Here we assess whether the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana, for which genetic, genomic, phylogenetic, ecological and ethological tools are available, represents a relevant model to contribute to such comparative studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a multidisciplinary approach, we determined the chemical composition of the male sex pheromone (MSP in the African butterfly B. anynana, and demonstrated its behavioural activity. First, we identified three compounds forming the presumptive MSP, namely (Z-9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH, hexadecanal (16:Ald and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol (6,10,14-trime-15-2-ol, and produced by the male secondary sexual structures, the androconia. Second, we described the male courtship sequence and found that males with artificially reduced amounts of MSP have a reduced mating success in semi-field conditions. Finally, we could restore the mating success of these males by perfuming them with the synthetic MSP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides one of the first integrative analyses of a MSP in butterflies. The toolkit it has developed will enable the investigation of the type of information about male quality that is conveyed by the MSP in intraspecific communication. Interestingly, the chemical structure of B. anynana MSP is similar to some sex pheromones of female moths making a direct comparison of pheromone biosynthesis between male butterflies and female moths relevant

  17. Approach to the Interaction Studies of Aristolochia maxima and the Caterpillars of Butterflies Battus polydamas polydamas and Parides panares erythrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Claro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Most butterflies of the tribe Troidini (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae sequester aristolochic acids (AA for their protection. These acids are derived from their host plants -family Aristolochiaceae- upon which they feed on during their larval stages. Using analytical High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC methods we were able to detect the presence of aristolochic acids I and II both in the young leaves of Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae and in the caterpillars of the butterflies Battus polydamas polydamas and Parides panares erythrus (Papilionidae, Papilioninae. Aristolochic acid I was the major constituent found, followed by lesser amounts of Aristoloquic acid II. These results confirm that the host-animal interaction among butterflies of the studied species and A. maxima plants is mediated, by aristolochic acids.

  18. Observations of Resource Use by the Threatened Diana Fritillary Butterfly (Speyeria diana in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie N. Wells

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present four summers (2006–2009 of field observations of the Diana fritillary, Speyeria diana (Cramer, 1777, throughout the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, in the eastern portion of its distribution. We describe our observations of resource use by S. diana in sites located in Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia. Butterflies imbibed nectar from five genera (>11 species of flowering plants and also imbibed liquid from dirt roads and horse manure. The majority of butterflies (57% were observed feeding on milkweed, Asclepias spp., a high-quality nectar-producing plant which is known to be an important resource for many Lepidoptera. We documented 14 species of Viola spp., the larval host plant used by Speyeria, in our survey sites. All butterflies were marked to observe their movement. Recapture rates ranged from 17% to 56%, suggesting that dispersal of S. diana out of suitable habitat was somewhat limited.

  19. Patrones de diversidad de la fauna de mariposas del Parque Nacional de Cabañeros y su entorno (Ciudad Real, España central (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Valverde, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity patterns of the butterfly fauna of the Parque Nacional de Cabañeros and its surroundings (Ciudad Real, Central Spain (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea The butterfly species richness and faunistic composition in six plots with different land uses and dissimilar environmental diversity is studied in the Parque Nacional de Cabañeros and its surroundings (Ciudad Real, Central Spain. The holm-oak forest is the richest sampling plot, with a butterfly species composition that clearly differs from the rest of more humanized sampling plots. The pine plantation has the lowest values of species richness and abundances, with a faunistic composition quite similar to those of the sampling plots with a dominance of hostile habitats for butterflies (grasslands and crops, so the need to create clearings is emphasised. The importance of environmental diversity in humanized habitats and the need for proper management and conservation of woodlands is stressed in order to conserve butterfly biodiversity

  20. A Parallel Butterfly Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Poulson, Jack

    2014-02-04

    The butterfly algorithm is a fast algorithm which approximately evaluates a discrete analogue of the integral transform (Equation Presented.) at large numbers of target points when the kernel, K(x, y), is approximately low-rank when restricted to subdomains satisfying a certain simple geometric condition. In d dimensions with O(Nd) quasi-uniformly distributed source and target points, when each appropriate submatrix of K is approximately rank-r, the running time of the algorithm is at most O(r2Nd logN). A parallelization of the butterfly algorithm is introduced which, assuming a message latency of α and per-process inverse bandwidth of β, executes in at most (Equation Presented.) time using p processes. This parallel algorithm was then instantiated in the form of the open-source DistButterfly library for the special case where K(x, y) = exp(iΦ(x, y)), where Φ(x, y) is a black-box, sufficiently smooth, real-valued phase function. Experiments on Blue Gene/Q demonstrate impressive strong-scaling results for important classes of phase functions. Using quasi-uniform sources, hyperbolic Radon transforms, and an analogue of a three-dimensional generalized Radon transform were, respectively, observed to strong-scale from 1-node/16-cores up to 1024-nodes/16,384-cores with greater than 90% and 82% efficiency, respectively. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. A new Heraclides swallowtail (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae from North America is recognized by the pattern on its neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojiro Shiraiwa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heraclides rumiko Shiraiwa & Grishin, sp. n. is described from southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America (type locality: USA, Texas, Duval County. It is closely allied to H. cresphontes (Cramer, 1777 and the two species are sympatric in central Texas. The new species is diagnosed by male genitalia and exhibits a nearly 3% difference from H. cresphontes in the COI DNA barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. The two Heraclides species can usually be told apart by the shape and size of yellow spots on the neck, by the wing shape, and the details of wing patterns. “Western Giant Swallowtail” is proposed as the English name for H. rumiko. To stabilize nomenclature, neotype for Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777, an eastern United States species, is designated from Brooklyn, New York, USA; and lectotype for Papilio thoas Linnaeus, 1771 is designated from Suriname. We sequenced DNA barcodes and ID tags of nearly 400 Papilionini specimens completing coverage of all Heraclides species. Comparative analyses of DNA barcodes, genitalia, and facies suggest that Heraclides oviedo (Gundlach, 1866, reinstated status, is a species-level taxon rather than a subspecies of H. thoas (Linnaeus, 1771; and H. pallas (G. Gray, [1853], reinstated status, with its subspecies H. P. bajaensis (J. Brown & Faulkner, 1992, comb. n., and Heraclides anchicayaensis Constantino, Le Crom & Salazar, 2002, stat. n., are not conspecific with H. astyalus (Godart, 1819.

  2. Metapopulation structure and movements in five species of checkerspot butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Klemetti, Teemu; Selonen, Vesa; Hanski, Ilkka

    2002-01-01

    We studied the patterns and rates of migration among habitat patches for five species of checkerspot butterflies (Lepidoptera: Melitaeini) in Finland: Euphydryas aurinia, E. maturna, Melitaea cinxia, M. diamina and M. athalia. We applied the virtual migration (VM) model to mark-release-recapture data collected from multiple populations. The model includes parameters describing migration and survival rates and how they depend on the areas and connectivities of habitat patches. The number of individuals captured varied from 73 to 1,123, depending on species and sex, and the daily recapture probabilities varied between 0.09-0.52. The VM model fitted the data quite well. The results show that the five species are broadly similar in their movement rates and patterns, though, e.g. E. maturna tends to move shorter distances than the other species. There is no indication of any phylogenetic component in the parameter values. The parameter values estimated for each species suggest that a large percentage (80-90%) of migration events were successful in the landscapes that were studied. The area of the habitat patch had a substantial effect on emigration and immigration rates, such that butterflies were more likely to leave small than large patches and large patches were more likely than small patches to receive immigrants.

  3. The Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) of Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Sangmi Lee; Catherine Mercado

    2016-01-01

    Panama has among the most diverse Lepidoptera fauna of many regions or habitats, and the micromoth family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) is one of the largest families of microlepidoptera in the world. However, only 6% of neotropical gelechiid species have been reported in Panama, with 49 species from 28 genera. Here, 49 species of Gelechiidae in Panama are cataloged alphabetically.

  4. An unexpected record of Myrmica schencki EMERY, 1895 as a secondary host ant of the hygrophilous form of a small and isolated population of the Alcon Blue butterfly Phengaris (=Maculinea alcon (DENIS et SCHIFFERMÜLLER, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae in NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sielezniew Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phengaris alcon is a socially parasitic butterfly species showing ecological variation across its distribution range. Host ant specificity was studied on a site (a mineral island surrounded by wetlands in the Narew National Park in NE Poland, inhabited by a highly isolated and small population (estimated at several dozen individuals. We examined nests of their potential hosts, i.e. Myrmica ants, in patches of habitat where the initial larval food plant i.e. Gentiana pneumonanthe was recorded. The Myrmica species composition was shown to be unusual for such habitats because of the presence of M. schencki together with the dominant M. scabrinodis. In 2013 we found just one prepupa of P. alcon in a nest of M. schencki, which had never yet been recorded as a host of the hygrophilous form of this butterfly, and none of the M. scabrinodis nests were infested. However, in 2014 a very typical pattern for eastern Europe was observed, i.e. larvae were recorded exclusively in M. scabrinodis colonies and the parasitisation rate was 33%. In both seasons we recorded similar numbers of egg shells on gentians, which indicated a similar population size of adult butterflies. The results are discussed in the context of the ecology and conservation of P. alcon as well as the sampling design.

  5. Butterfly valve. Spjeldventil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupedo, D.J.

    1984-02-06

    Butterfly valve comprising a body and a valve seat arranged therein, on which a valve member is supported. The valve member comprises an operating rod and the assembly of valve member and operating rod has a fixed pivot point at the bottom of the body. The operating rod can be moved by means of pins movable in grooves and slots in such a manner that when the valve is opened the valve member first pivots about the pivot point to lift the valve member from the seat and subsequently rotates about the pivot point to fully open the valve. 12 drawings.

  6. leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le faux ver rose Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae) est une espèce carpophage du cotonnier. En Côte d'Ivoire, elle est difficilement contrôlée par les traitements insecticides et ses infestations sont en forte croissance au cours de ces dix dernières années. En vue de mettre en place une stratégie de gestion.

  7. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  8. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  9. A note on the migration of Dark Cerulean Jamides bochus (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in Eravikulam National Park, Idukki District, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Palot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The migratory movements of butterflies are poorly documented in Kerala. It’s for the first time the migratory behaviour of the Dark Cerulean Jamides bochus (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae was documented from the Kerala part of Western Ghats. The migratory movement was from high ranges of Eravikulam National Park, Idukki district, Kerala at an elevation of 2085m to the lower elevations in a north-east to south-east direction.

  10. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is

  11. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths"), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths.

  12. The chemistry of antipredator defense by secondary compounds in neotropical lepidoptera: facts, perspectives and caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trigo José R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defense against predation in butterflies and moths has been studied since nineteenth century. A classical example is that of the larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, which feed on leaves of Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae, sequestering cardenolides. The adults are protected against predation by birds. Several other substances may be involved in chemical defense, such as iridoid glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids, aristolochic acids, glycosidase inhibitors and pyrazines. The acquisition of these substances by lepidopterans can be due to sequestration from larval or adult host plants or de novo biosynthesis. Many Lepidoptera are known to be unpalatable, including the butterflies Troidini (Papilionidae, Pierinae (Pieridae, Eurytelinae, Melitaeinae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, Heliconiinae and Acraeinae (Nymphalidae, and Arctiidae moths, but knowledge of the chemical substances responsible for property is often scarce. This review discusses mainly three topics: field and laboratory observations on rejection of butterflies and moths by predators, correlation between unpalatability and chemicals found in these insects, and bioassays that test the activity of these chemicals against predators. Perspectives and future directions are suggested for this subject.

  13. Microbial communities of lycaenid butterflies do not correlate with larval diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Whitaker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores possess many counteradaptations to plant defenses, and a growing body of research describes the role of symbiotic gut bacteria in mediating herbivorous diets among insects. However, persistent bacterial symbioses have not been found in Lepidoptera, despite the fact that perhaps 99% of the species in this order are herbivorous. We surveyed bacterial communities in the guts of larvae from 31 species of lycaenid butterflies whose caterpillars had diets ranging from obligate carnivory to strict herbivory. Contrary to our expectations, we found that the bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous caterpillars do not differ in richness, diversity, or composition. Many of the observed bacterial genera are commonly found in soil and plant surfaces, and we detected known homopteran endosymbionts in the guts of homopterophagous species, suggesting that larvae acquire gut bacteria from their food and environment. These results indicate that lycaenid butterflies do not rely on specific bacterial symbioses to mediate their diverse diets, and provide further evidence of taxonomically depauperate bacterial communities among Lepidoptera.

  14. Effect of different mowing regimes on butterflies and diurnal moths on road verges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtonen, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In northern and central Europe road verges offer alternative habitats for declining plant and invertebrate species of semi-natural grasslands. The quality of road verges as habitats depends on several factors, of which the mowing regime is one of the easiest to modify. In this study we compared the Lepidoptera communities on road verges that underwent three different mowing regimes regarding the timing and intensity of mowing; mowing in mid-summer, mowing in late summer, and partial mowing (a narrow strip next to the road. A total of 12,174 individuals and 107 species of Lepidoptera were recorded. The mid-summer mown verges had lower species richness and abundance of butterflies and lower species richness and diversity of diurnal moths compared to the late summer and partially mown verges. By delaying the annual mowing until late summer or promoting mosaic-like mowing regimes, such as partial mowing, the quality of road verges as habitats for butterflies and diurnal moths can be improved.

  15. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  16. Cytogenetic characterization and AFLP-based genetic linkage mapping for the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, covering all 28 karyotyped chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen E Van't Hof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chromosome characteristics of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, have received little attention, despite the scientific importance of this species. This study presents the characterization of chromosomes in this species by means of cytogenetic analysis and linkage mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Physical genomic features in the butterfly B. anynana were examined by karyotype analysis and construction of a linkage map. Lepidoptera possess a female heterogametic W-Z sex chromosome system. The WZ-bivalent in pachytene oocytes of B. anynana consists of an abnormally small, heterochromatic W-chromosome with the Z-chromosome wrapped around it. Accordingly, the W-body in interphase nuclei is much smaller than usual in Lepidoptera. This suggests an intermediate stage in the process of secondary loss of the W-chromosome to a ZZ/Z sex determination system. Two nucleoli are present in the pachytene stage associated with an autosome and the WZ-bivalent respectively. Chromosome counts confirmed a haploid number of n = 28. Linkage mapping had to take account of absence of crossing-over in females, and of our use of a full-sib crossing design. We developed a new method to determine and exclude the non-recombinant uninformative female inherited component in offspring. The linkage map was constructed using a novel approach that uses exclusively JOINMAP-software for Lepidoptera linkage mapping. This approach simplifies the mapping procedure, avoids over-estimation of mapping distance and increases the reliability of relative marker positions. A total of 347 AFLP markers, 9 microsatellites and one single-copy nuclear gene covered all 28 chromosomes, with a mapping distance of 1354 cM. Conserved synteny of Tpi on the Z-chromosome in Lepidoptera was confirmed for B. anynana. The results are discussed in relation to other mapping studies in Lepidoptera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study adds to the knowledge of chromosome structure and

  17. Cryogenic Cam Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A cryogenic cam butterfly valve has a body that includes an axially extending fluid conduit formed there through. A disc lug is connected to a back side of a valve disc and has a circular bore that receives and is larger than a cam of a cam shaft. The valve disc is rotatable for a quarter turn within the body about a lug axis that is offset from the shaft axis. Actuating the cam shaft in the closing rotational direction first causes the camming side of the cam of the cam shaft to rotate the disc lug and the valve disc a quarter turn from the open position to the closed position. Further actuating causes the camming side of the cam shaft to translate the valve disc into sealed contact with the valve seat. Opening rotational direction of the cam shaft reverses these motions.

  18. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion

    OpenAIRE

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choic...

  19. Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Braby, Michael F; Brower, Andrew V.Z; de Jong, Rienk; Lee, Ming-Min; Nylin, Sören; Pierce, Naomi E; Sperling, Felix A.H; Vila, Roger; Warren, Andrew D; Zakharov, Evgueni

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among major clades of butterflies and skippers have long been controversial, with no general consensus even today. Such lack of resolution is a substantial impediment to using the otherwise well studied butterflies as a model group in biology. Here we report the results of a combined analysis of DNA sequences from three genes and a morphological data matrix for 57 taxa (3258 characters, 1290 parsimony informative) representing all major lineages from the three putative butterfly super-families (Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea), plus out-groups representing other ditrysian Lepidoptera families. Recently, the utility of morphological data as a source of phylogenetic evidence has been debated. We present the first well supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the butterflies and skippers based on a total-evidence analysis of both traditional morphological characters and new molecular characters from three gene regions (COI, EF-1α and wingless). All four data partitions show substantial hidden support for the deeper nodes, which emerges only in a combined analysis in which the addition of morphological data plays a crucial role. With the exception of Nymphalidae, the traditionally recognized families are found to be strongly supported monophyletic clades with the following relationships: (Hesperiidae+(Papilionidae+(Pieridae+(Nymphalidae+(Lycaenidae+Riodinidae))))). Nymphalidae is recovered as a monophyletic clade but this clade does not have strong support. Lycaenidae and Riodinidae are sister groups with strong support and we suggest that the latter be given family rank. The position of Pieridae as the sister taxon to nymphalids, lycaenids and riodinids is supported by morphology and the EF-1α data but conflicted by the COI and wingless data. Hedylidae are more likely to be related to butterflies and skippers than geometrid moths and appear to be the sister group to Papilionoidea+Hesperioidea. PMID:16048773

  20. Complete genomes of Hairstreak butterflies, their speciation, and nucleo-mitochondrial incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Shen, Jinhui; Borek, Dominika; Robbins, Robert K; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V

    2016-04-28

    Comparison of complete genomes of closely related species enables research on speciation and how phenotype is determined by genotype. Lepidoptera, an insect order of 150,000 species with diverse phenotypes, is well-suited for such comparative genomics studies if new genomes, which cover additional Lepidoptera families are acquired. We report a 729 Mbp genome assembly of the Calycopis cecrops, the first genome from the family Lycaenidae and the largest available Lepidoptera genome. As detritivore, Calycopis shows expansion in detoxification and digestion enzymes. We further obtained complete genomes of 8 Calycopis specimens: 3 C. cecrops and 5 C. isobeon, including a dry specimen stored in the museum for 30 years. The two species differ subtly in phenotype and cannot be differentiated by mitochondrial DNA. However, nuclear genomes revealed a deep split between them. Genes that can clearly separate the two species (speciation hotspots) mostly pertain to circadian clock, mating behavior, transcription regulation, development and cytoskeleton. The speciation hotspots and their function significantly overlap with those we previously found in Pterourus, suggesting common speciation mechanisms in these butterflies.

  1. Evolution of color and vision of butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Butterfly eyes consist of three types of ommatidia, which are more or less randomly arranged in a spatially regular lattice. The corneal nipple array and the tapetum, Optical Structures that many but not all butterflies share with moths, Suggest that moths are ancestral to butterflies, in agreement

  2. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condamine Fabien L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae. First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. Results The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades + Parides reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the “museum model” of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. Conclusions This study demonstrates that: (i current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed

  3. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae) support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condamine, Fabien L; Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Kergoat, Gael J; Sperling, Felix A H

    2012-06-12

    The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae). First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33-42 Ma) origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades+Parides) reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the "museum model" of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. This study demonstrates that: (i) current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii) the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii) colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv) Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed the persistence of old lineages and contributed to the steady

  4. Systematic Review of the Effects of Chemical Insecticides on Four Common Butterfly Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Mulé

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Safeguarding crop productivity by protecting crops from pest attacks entails the wide use of plant protection products that provide a quick, easy and cheap solution. The objective of this study is to understand the effects of insecticides used in agriculture on non-target butterflies, specifically on the families Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Hesperiidae, and Papilionidae. To achieve this goal, a formal systematic review was performed according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA guidelines, by entering a combination of keywords on 3 online databases. Three reviewers independently extracted information on study characteristics and quality. The main results were collected and grouped by the insecticide used, butterflies species and family, and endpoints. The output was valuable but heterogeneous as the endpoints and methodologies of the studies reviewed were different. Few experimental studies on the effects of insecticides on the most common butterfly families have been published. Naled and permethrin are the most commonly used insecticides in the experiments, whilst the target organisms of these studies are Vanessa cardui, Danaus plexippus, Heliconius charitonius, belonging to the Nymphalidae family, and Eumaeus atala, belonging to the Lycaenidae family; the effects were evaluated on all developmental stages, with special attention to the larval phase. This systematic review highlights the need for more studies on the effects of chemical insecticides on non-target Lepidoptera in light of their ecological importance and the extensive use of these chemical products.

  5. The extremely long-tongued neotropical butterfly Eurybia lycisca (Riodinidae): proboscis morphology and flower handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauder, Julia A S; Lieskonig, Nora R; Krenn, Harald W

    2011-03-01

    Few species of true butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) have evolved a proboscis that greatly exceeds the length of the body. This study is the first to examine the morphology of an extremely long butterfly proboscis and to describe how it is used to obtain nectar from flowers with very deep corolla tubes. The proboscis of Eurybia lycisca (Riodinidae) is approximately twice as long as the body. It has a maximal length of 45.6 mm (mean length 36.5 mm ± 4.1 S.D., N = 20) and is extremely thin, measuring only about 0.26 mm at its maximum diameter. The proboscis has a unique arrangement of short sensilla at the tip, and its musculature arrangement is derived. The flower handling times on the preferred nectar plant, Calathea crotalifera (Marantaceae), were exceptionally long (mean 54.5 sec ± 28.5 S.D., N = 26). When feeding on the deep flowers remarkably few proboscis movements occur. The relationship between Eurybia lycisca and its preferred nectar plant and larval host plant, Calathea crotalifera, is not mutualistic since the butterfly exploits the flowers without contributing to their pollination. We hypothesize that the extraordinarily long proboscis of Eurybia lycisca is an adaptation for capitalizing on the pre-existing mutualistic interaction of the host plant with its pollinating long-tongued nectar feeding insects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical Study on the Heat Release Distributions of a Supersonic Combustor with Three-Dimensional "Swallowtail" Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Sun, Xiaofeng; Yao, Xuanyu; Jiang, Zonglin

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion has been a focus technology in hypersonic aviation in the past decades [1]. Three-dimensional cavity may act as the flame holder of a Scramjet engine in air-breathing hypersonic propulsion. An interesting three-dimensional cavity is "swallowtail" cavity which has a special inner shape like a swallowtail. With three-dimensional cavity in supersonic chamber, threedimensional vortexes may be organized optimally, and the exchange of mass, momentum and energy between cavity flow and supersonic flow may be enhanced to provide better performance of mixing and combustion[2]. Also, three-dimensional cavity may avoid the sharp heat release in local region of chamber and suppress the subsonic combustion oscillation induced by the cavity in a supersonic combustor. It is necessary to study the heat release distribution of a supersonic combustor with three-dimensional cavity.

  7. Extended season for northern butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  8. Reading the complex skipper butterfly fauna of one tropical place.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Janzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An intense, 30-year, ongoing biodiversity inventory of Lepidoptera, together with their food plants and parasitoids, is centered on the rearing of wild-caught caterpillars in the 120,000 terrestrial hectares of dry, rain, and cloud forest of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG in northwestern Costa Rica. Since 2003, DNA barcoding of all species has aided their identification and discovery. We summarize the process and results for a large set of the species of two speciose subfamilies of ACG skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae and emphasize the effectiveness of barcoding these species (which are often difficult and time-consuming to identify. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adults are DNA barcoded by the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Canada; and they are identified by correlating the resulting COI barcode information with more traditional information such as food plant, facies, genitalia, microlocation within ACG, caterpillar traits, etc. This process has found about 303 morphologically defined species of eudamine and pyrgine Hesperiidae breeding in ACG (about 25% of the ACG butterfly fauna and another 44 units indicated by distinct barcodes (n = 9,094, which may be additional species and therefore may represent as much as a 13% increase. All but the members of one complex can be identified by their DNA barcodes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Addition of DNA barcoding to the methodology greatly improved the inventory, both through faster (hence cheaper accurate identification of the species that are distinguishable without barcoding, as well as those that require it, and through the revelation of species "hidden" within what have long been viewed as single species. Barcoding increased the recognition of species-level specialization. It would be no more appropriate to ignore barcode data in a species inventory than it would be to ignore adult genitalia variation or caterpillar ecology.

  9. Reading the Complex Skipper Butterfly Fauna of One Tropical Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Burns, John M.; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Bertrand, Claudia; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background An intense, 30-year, ongoing biodiversity inventory of Lepidoptera, together with their food plants and parasitoids, is centered on the rearing of wild-caught caterpillars in the 120,000 terrestrial hectares of dry, rain, and cloud forest of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Since 2003, DNA barcoding of all species has aided their identification and discovery. We summarize the process and results for a large set of the species of two speciose subfamilies of ACG skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) and emphasize the effectiveness of barcoding these species (which are often difficult and time-consuming to identify). Methodology/Principal Findings Adults are DNA barcoded by the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Canada; and they are identified by correlating the resulting COI barcode information with more traditional information such as food plant, facies, genitalia, microlocation within ACG, caterpillar traits, etc. This process has found about 303 morphologically defined species of eudamine and pyrgine Hesperiidae breeding in ACG (about 25% of the ACG butterfly fauna) and another 44 units indicated by distinct barcodes (n = 9,094), which may be additional species and therefore may represent as much as a 13% increase. All but the members of one complex can be identified by their DNA barcodes. Conclusions/Significance Addition of DNA barcoding to the methodology greatly improved the inventory, both through faster (hence cheaper) accurate identification of the species that are distinguishable without barcoding, as well as those that require it, and through the revelation of species “hidden” within what have long been viewed as single species. Barcoding increased the recognition of species-level specialization. It would be no more appropriate to ignore barcode data in a species inventory than it would be to ignore adult genitalia variation or caterpillar ecology. PMID:21857895

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera Fauna of the lower Sangro valley in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Zahm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of recording Lepidoptera in the lower Sangro valley during a period of 22 years. The investigations were devoted to Macroheterocera and were carried out in the two regional nature reserves Oasi di Serranella and Lecceta di Torino di Sangro. The listing also includes some Microlepidoptera as non-target species, as well as occasionally observed butterflies. The 401 recorded species are presented in a table indicating both the locality of the records and the observed flight times and periods of activity. Fifteen species are published for the Abruzzo region for the first time; 2 species are new for the Italian peninsula.

  11. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    temporary resident. Most records are based on voucher material, the depository of which is stated at http://zoologi.snm.ku.dk/forskning/entomology/. A list of all 1160 species is given, and comments are added for rare, dubious or otherwise interesting records. A considerable part of Anholt consists of open......  The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies...... on Anholt within these two periods, but examples on species which seem to have disappeared from the island during the last 20-30 years, and other which have colonized Anholt during that period, are discussed under comments ("kommentarer"). We consider a number of the species found in Anholt as only...

  13. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...

  14. Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José Sanzana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. When the environmental conditions change locally, the organisms and populations may also change in response to the selection pressure, so that the development of individuals may become affected in different degrees. There have been only a few studies in which the patterns of wing morphology variation have been looked into along a latitudinal gradient by means of geometric morphometrics. The aim of this work was to assess the morphologic differentiation of wing among butterfly populations of the species Auca coctei. For this purpose, 9 sampling locations were used which are representative of the distribution range of the butterfly and cover a wide latitudinal range in Chile. The wing morphology was studied in a total of 202 specimens of A. coctei (150 males and 52 females, based on digitization of 17 morphologic landmarks. The results show variation of wing shape in both sexes; however, for the centroid size there was significant variation only in females. Females show smaller centroid size at higher latitudes, therefore in this study the Bergmann reverse rule is confirmed for females of A. coctei. Our study extends morphologic projections with latitude, suggesting that wing variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yunliang; Zuo, Ni; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae) is a circular molecule of 15,266 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other butterfly species. Ten PCGs terminate in the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, whereas the COI, COII and ND4 genes end with single T. Ten intergenic spacers (73 bp in total), and 12 overlapping regions (28 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 405 bp long and contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 12-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)14 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. Additionally, a 11-bp poly-T sequences and a microsatellite-like (AT)7 repeated elements are detected in this region.

  16. Long Frontal Projections Help Battus philenor (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) Larvae Find Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Ikuo; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Suzuki, Taichi A; Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Papaj, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Animals sometimes develop conspicuous projections on or near their heads as, e.g., weaponry, burrowing or digging tools, and probes to search for resources. The frontal projections that insects generally use to locate and assess resources are segmented appendages, including antennae, maxillary palps, and labial palps. There is no evidence to date that arthropods, including insects, use projections other than true segmental appendages to locate food. In this regard, it is noteworthy that some butterfly larvae possess a pair of long antenna-like projections on or near their heads. To date, the function of these projections has not been established. Larvae of pipevine swallowtail butterflies Battus philenor (Papilionidae) have a pair of long frontal fleshy projections that, like insect antennae generally, can be actively moved. In this study, we evaluated the possible function of this pair of long moveable frontal projections. In laboratory assays, both frontal projections and lateral ocelli were shown to increase the frequency with which search larvae found plants. The frontal projections increased finding of host and non-host plants equally, suggesting that frontal projections do not detect host-specific chemical cues. Detailed SEM study showed that putative mechanosensillae are distributed all around the frontal as well as other projections. Taken together, our findings suggest that the frontal projections and associated mechanosensillae act as vertical object detectors to obtain tactile information that, together with visual information from lateral ocelli and presumably chemical information from antennae and mouthparts, help larvae to find host plants. Field observations indicate that host plants are small and scattered in southern Arizona locations. Larvae must therefore find multiple host plants to complete development and face significant challenges in doing so. The frontal projections may thus be an adaptation for finding a scarce resource before starving to

  17. Long Frontal Projections Help Battus philenor (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Larvae Find Host Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo Kandori

    Full Text Available Animals sometimes develop conspicuous projections on or near their heads as, e.g., weaponry, burrowing or digging tools, and probes to search for resources. The frontal projections that insects generally use to locate and assess resources are segmented appendages, including antennae, maxillary palps, and labial palps. There is no evidence to date that arthropods, including insects, use projections other than true segmental appendages to locate food. In this regard, it is noteworthy that some butterfly larvae possess a pair of long antenna-like projections on or near their heads. To date, the function of these projections has not been established. Larvae of pipevine swallowtail butterflies Battus philenor (Papilionidae have a pair of long frontal fleshy projections that, like insect antennae generally, can be actively moved. In this study, we evaluated the possible function of this pair of long moveable frontal projections. In laboratory assays, both frontal projections and lateral ocelli were shown to increase the frequency with which search larvae found plants. The frontal projections increased finding of host and non-host plants equally, suggesting that frontal projections do not detect host-specific chemical cues. Detailed SEM study showed that putative mechanosensillae are distributed all around the frontal as well as other projections. Taken together, our findings suggest that the frontal projections and associated mechanosensillae act as vertical object detectors to obtain tactile information that, together with visual information from lateral ocelli and presumably chemical information from antennae and mouthparts, help larvae to find host plants. Field observations indicate that host plants are small and scattered in southern Arizona locations. Larvae must therefore find multiple host plants to complete development and face significant challenges in doing so. The frontal projections may thus be an adaptation for finding a scarce resource

  18. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and taxonomic ranking of Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) based on morphology and seven genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Vazrick; Zakharov, Evgueni V; Sperling, Felix A H

    2007-01-01

    We tested the taxonomic utility of morphology and seven mitochondrial or nuclear genes in a phylogenetic reconstruction of swallowtail butterflies in the subfamily Parnassiinae. Our data included 236 morphological characters and DNA sequences for seven genes that are commonly used to infer lepidopteran relationships (COI+COII, ND5, ND1, 16S, EF-1alpha, and wg; total 5775 bp). Nuclear genes performed best for inferring phylogenies, particularly at higher taxonomic levels, while there was substantial variation in performance among mitochondrial genes. Multiple analyses of molecular data (MP, ML and Bayesian) consistently produced a tree topology different from that obtained by morphology alone. Based on molecular evidence, sister-group relationships were confirmed between the genera Hypermnestra and Parnassius, as well as between Archon and Luehdorfia, while the monophyly of the subfamily was weakly supported. We recognize three tribes within Parnassiinae, with Archon and Luehdorfia forming the tribe Luehdorfiini Tutt, 1896 [stat. rev.]. Three fossil taxa were incorporated into a molecular clock analysis with biogeographic time constraints. Based on dispersal-vicariance (DIVA) analysis, the most recent common ancestor of Parnassiinae occurred in the Iranian Plateau and Central Asia to China. Early diversification of Parnassiinae took place at the same time that India collided into Eurasia, 65-42 million years ago.

  19. Microsatellites for the marsh fritillary butterfly: de novo transcriptome sequencing, and a comparison with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, Melanie R; Pauchet, Yannick; Wilkinson, Paul; Wee, Brian; Singer, Michael C; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Hodgson, David J; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2013-01-01

    Until recently the isolation of microsatellite markers from Lepidoptera has proved troublesome, expensive and time-consuming. Following on from a previous study of Edith's checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas editha, we developed novel microsatellite markers for the vulnerable marsh fritillary butterfly, E. aurinia. Our goal was to optimize the process in order to reduce both time and cost relative to prevailing techniques. This was accomplished by using a combination of previously developed techniques: in silico mining of a de novo assembled transcriptome sequence, and genotyping the microsatellites found there using an economic method of fluorescently labelling primers. In total, we screened nine polymorphic microsatellite markers, two of which were previously published, and seven that were isolated de novo. These markers were able to amplify across geographically isolated populations throughout Continental Europe and the UK. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were evident in some populations, most likely due to the presence of null alleles. However, we used an F(st) outlier approach to show that these markers are likely selectively neutral. Furthermore, using a set of 128 individuals from 11 populations, we demonstrate consistency in population differentiation estimates with previously developed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers (r = 0.68, p<0.001). Rapid development of microsatellite markers for difficult taxa such as Lepidoptera, and concordant results with other putatively neutral molecular markers, demonstrate the potential of de novo transcriptional sequencing for future studies of population structure and gene flow that are desperately needed for declining species across fragmented landscapes.

  20. Overwintering of the boreal butterfly Colias palaeno in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, P; Dolek, M; Nedved, O; Zahradnickova, H; Cerrato, C; Konvicka, M

    2014-01-01

    Colias palaeno (Linnaeus, 1761) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is a butterfly with boreal distribution with declining populations in peat bogs and subalpine habitats in Central Europe. We investigated the cold tolerance of overwintering caterpillars from one mountain population from Czech Republic (960m a.s.l.) and one alpine population from Italy (2000m a.s.l.). We measured supercooling point (SCP), lower lethal temperature (LLT) and content of cryoprotectants. The caterpillars were freeze-avoiding, with lower LLT close to their very low SCP (-25 to -27 degree C). The mountain population accumulated high concentrations of glycerol (5% fresh mass) and sugars (trehalose 0.8%, glucose 0.2%), while the Italian alpine population only moderate amounts of glycerol (0.3%) and sugars (trehalose 0.5%, glucose 0.3%) without effect on their cold hardiness. Larvae that overwintered at +5 degree C had a lower body mass than those overwintering in natural conditions, indicating a metabolic weight loss, but both groups survived equally well. We hypothesize that the high concentration of glycerol contributes to the high desiccation tolerance.

  1. On butterfly effect in higher derivative gravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Davody, Ali; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid

    2016-11-01

    We study butterfly effect in D-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. At critical point two velocities coincide.

  2. On butterfly effect in higher derivative gravities

    OpenAIRE

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Davody, Ali; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed

    2016-01-01

    We study butterfly effect in $D$-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. A...

  3. On butterfly effect in higher derivative gravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davody, Ali; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid [School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-07

    We study butterfly effect in D-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. At critical point two velocities coincide.

  4. Navigational Strategies of Migrating Monarch Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-10

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0339 NAVIGATIONAL STRATEGIES OF MIGRATING MONARCH BUTTERFLIES Steven Reppert UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS Final Report 11/10/2014...Final Progress Statement to (Dr. Patrick Bradshaw) Contract/Grant Title: Navigational Strategies of Migrating Monarch Butterflies Contract...Grant #: FA9550-10-1-0480 Reporting Period: 01-Sept-10 to 31-Aug-14 Overview of accomplishments: Migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus

  5. Butterflies regulate wing temperatures using radiative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Shi, Norman Nan; Ren, Crystal; Pelaez, Julianne; Bernard, Gary D.; Yu, Nanfang; Pierce, Naomi

    2017-09-01

    Butterfly wings are live organs embedded with multiple sensory neurons and, in some species, with pheromoneproducing cells. The proper function of butterfly wings demands a suitable temperature range, but the wings can overheat quickly in the sun due to their small thermal capacity. We developed an infrared technique to map butterfly wing temperatures and discovered that despite the wings' diverse visible colors, regions of wings that contain live cells are the coolest, resulting from the thickness of the wings and scale nanostructures. We also demonstrated that butterflies use behavioral traits to prevent overheating of their wings.

  6. Cuticular Lipids as a Cross-Talk among Ants, Plants and Butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Barbero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Even though insects and plants are distantly related organisms, they developed an integument which is functionally and structurally similar. Besides functioning as a physical barrier to cope with abiotic and biotic stress, this interface, called cuticle, is also a source of chemical signaling. Crucial compounds with this respect are surface lipids and especially cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs. This review is focused on the role of CHCs in fostering multilevel relationships among ants, plants and Lepidoptera (primarily butterflies. Indeed, particular traits of ants as eusocial organisms allowed the evolution and the maintenance of a variety of associations with both plants and animals. Basic concepts of myrmecophilous interactions and chemical deception strategies together with chemical composition, biosynthetic pathways and functions of CHCs as molecular cues of multitrophic systems are provided. Finally, the need to adopt a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach in the survey of complex models is discussed.

  7. Cuticular Lipids as a Cross-Talk among Ants, Plants and Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Francesca

    2016-11-24

    Even though insects and plants are distantly related organisms, they developed an integument which is functionally and structurally similar. Besides functioning as a physical barrier to cope with abiotic and biotic stress, this interface, called cuticle, is also a source of chemical signaling. Crucial compounds with this respect are surface lipids and especially cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). This review is focused on the role of CHCs in fostering multilevel relationships among ants, plants and Lepidoptera (primarily butterflies). Indeed, particular traits of ants as eusocial organisms allowed the evolution and the maintenance of a variety of associations with both plants and animals. Basic concepts of myrmecophilous interactions and chemical deception strategies together with chemical composition, biosynthetic pathways and functions of CHCs as molecular cues of multitrophic systems are provided. Finally, the need to adopt a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach in the survey of complex models is discussed.

  8. [Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo Sabaté, David; Luis Martínez, Moisés Armando

    2013-09-01

    Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas. Butterflies constitute an useful group to investigate biodiversity patterns in specific geographic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the altitudinal patterns distribution and to recognize the main grouping factors of these families. We conducted a comparative study between the butterfly fauna (Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae) of five Mexican mountain ranges (Sierra de Manantlán, Sierra de Atoyac de Alvarez, Loxicha Region, Teocelo-Xalapa and Sierra de Juárez), that included 34 sites of altitudinal ranges from 100 to 2 820m. Data was obtained from the Zoology Museum of the National University of Mexico, and comprised more than 60 000 butterfly records of 398 taxa (subspecies level) proceeding during the last 35 years. Fauna similarity between localities were analyzed using a cluster analysis by Sorensen similarity coefficient. Species richness showed a general tendency to decrease with altitude; the main difference was found between the locality with higher altitude and the rest of the sites. The principal factors affecting the identified clusters followed this order: the location in Pacific or Atlantic slope, and location on a particular mountain range. Three altitudinal levels (low elevations, up to 1 200m; intermediate elevations, from 1200 to 1800 m; and high elevations, from 1800 to 2500 m) were described in accordance to their main characteristic taxa. While Neartic elements were common in the highest altitudinal floor, Neotropical taxa were common in the lowest one. It was more difficult to characterize the intermediate level in which a high number of localities were clustered; this intermediate level was characterized by the presence of some endemic species. The results suggest that historical factors are preeminent in butterfly fauna composition in these areas. Future studies may include other Mexican mountain areas to obtain

  9. Ecology and evolution of mountain butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with speciation processes, thermal ecology and habitat use in Holarctic mountain and arctic butterflies. It demonstrates a crucial role of environmental heterogeneity for speciation, survival of butterfly lineages, coexistence of closely related species and, finally, for resource use of sexes with different habitats demands at the level of individual species.

  10. The Butterfly Effect for Physics Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Valentine, John H.

    2015-01-01

    A low-cost chaos dynamics lab is developed for quantitative demonstration of the butterfly effect using a magnetic pendulum. Chaotic motion is explored by recording magnetic time series. Students analyze the data in Excel® to investigate the butterfly effect as well as the reconstruction of the strange attractor using time delay plots. The lab…

  11. Numerical Analysis of Large Diameter Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngchul, Park; Xueguan, Song

    In this paper, a butterfly valve with the diameter of 1,800 mm was studied. Three-dimensional numerical technique by using commercial code CFX were conducted to observe the flow patterns and to measure flow coefficient, hydrodynamic torque coefficient and so on, when the large butterfly valve operated with various angles and uniform incoming velocity.

  12. Retinal regionalization and heterogeneity of butterfly eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Kinoshita, M; Yang, EC; Arikawa, K

    2001-01-01

    The regional characteristics of the eyes of butterflies from different families have been surveyed using epi-illumination microscopy, utilizing the eyeshine visible due to the tapetum situated proximally to the rhabdom. All butterflies studied have a high spatial acuity in the frontal region. The

  13. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  14. Isolation of BAC Clones Containing Conserved Genes from Libraries of Three Distantly Related Moths: A Useful Resource for Comparative Genomics of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yasukochi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the second largest animal order and includes numerous agricultural pests. To facilitate comparative genomics in Lepidoptera, we isolated BAC clones containing conserved and putative single-copy genes from libraries of three pests, Heliothis virescens, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Plutella xylostella, harboring the haploid chromosome number, =31, which are not closely related with each other or with the silkworm, Bombyx mori, (=28, the sequenced model lepidopteran. A total of 108–184 clones representing 101–182 conserved genes were isolated for each species. For 79 genes, clones were isolated from more than two species, which will be useful as common markers for analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, as well as for comparison of genome sequence among multiple species. The PCR-based clone isolation method presented here is applicable to species which lack a sequenced genome but have a significant collection of cDNA or EST sequences.

  15. 78 FR 9067 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... authorization to take (capture, hold, propagate in captivity and release) St. Francis Satyr butterflies for the..., temporarily house, propagate in captivity, and release) Schaus Swallowtail butterflies (Heraclides aristodemus...

  16. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  17. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? - Implications of a Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-08-10

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  18. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  19. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  20. Morphological clines and weak drift along an urbanization gradient in the butterfly, Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Sean D; Widmer, Ivo; Deschamps-Cottin, Magali; Manel, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Urban areas are increasing globally, providing opportunities for biodiversity researchers to study the process in which species become established in novel, highly disturbed habitats. This ecological process can be understood through analyses of morphological and genetic variation, which can shed light on patterns of neutral and adaptive evolution. Previous studies have shown that urban populations often diverge genetically from non-urban source populations. This could occur due to neutral genetic drift, but an alternative is that selection could lead to allele frequency changes in urban populations. The development of genome scan methods provides an opportunity to investigate these outcomes from samples of genetic variation taken along an urbanization gradient. Here we examine morphological variation in wing size and diversity at neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms in the butterfly Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) sampled from the center to the periphery of Marseille. We utilize established and novel environmental correlation approaches to scan genetic variation for evidence of selection. We find significant morphological differences in urban populations, as well as weak genetic structure and decreased genetic diversity in urban versus non-urban sites. However, environmental correlation tests provide little support for selection in our dataset. Our comparison of different methods and allele frequency clines suggests that loci identified as significant are false positives. Although there is some indication that selection may be acting on wing size in urban butterflies, genetic analyses suggest P. rapae are undergoing neutral drift.

  1. Morphological clines and weak drift along an urbanization gradient in the butterfly, Pieris rapae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D Schoville

    Full Text Available Urban areas are increasing globally, providing opportunities for biodiversity researchers to study the process in which species become established in novel, highly disturbed habitats. This ecological process can be understood through analyses of morphological and genetic variation, which can shed light on patterns of neutral and adaptive evolution. Previous studies have shown that urban populations often diverge genetically from non-urban source populations. This could occur due to neutral genetic drift, but an alternative is that selection could lead to allele frequency changes in urban populations. The development of genome scan methods provides an opportunity to investigate these outcomes from samples of genetic variation taken along an urbanization gradient. Here we examine morphological variation in wing size and diversity at neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms in the butterfly Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae sampled from the center to the periphery of Marseille. We utilize established and novel environmental correlation approaches to scan genetic variation for evidence of selection. We find significant morphological differences in urban populations, as well as weak genetic structure and decreased genetic diversity in urban versus non-urban sites. However, environmental correlation tests provide little support for selection in our dataset. Our comparison of different methods and allele frequency clines suggests that loci identified as significant are false positives. Although there is some indication that selection may be acting on wing size in urban butterflies, genetic analyses suggest P. rapae are undergoing neutral drift.

  2. High similarity between flanking regions of different microsatellites detected within each of two species of Lepidoptera: Parnassius apollo and Euphydryas aurinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglecz, Emese; Petenian, Frederic; Danchin, Etienne; D'Acier, Armelle Coeur; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Faure, Eric

    2004-06-01

    Microsatellite flanking regions have been compared in two butterfly species. Several microsatellite flanking regions showed high similarity to one another among different microsatellites within a same species, but very few similarities were found between species. This can be the consequence of either duplication/multiplication events involving large regions containing microsatellites or of microsatellites imbedded in minisatellite regions. The multiplication of microsatellites might also be linked to mobile elements. Furthermore, crossing over between nonhomologous microsatellites can lead to the exchange of the flanking regions between microsatellites. The same phenomenon was observed in both studied butterfly species but not in Aphis fabae (Hemiptera), which was screened at the same time using the same protocol. These findings might explain, at least partially, why microsatellite isolation in Lepidoptera has been relatively unsuccessful so far.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of ionotropic receptors provides insight into their evolution in Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schooten, Bas; Jiggins, Chris D; Briscoe, Adriana D; Papa, Riccardo

    2016-03-22

    In a world of chemical cues, smell and taste are essential senses for survival. Here we focused on Heliconius, a diverse group of butterflies that exhibit variation in pre- and post-zygotic isolation and chemically-mediated behaviors across their phylogeny. Our study examined the ionotropic receptors, a recently discovered class of receptors that are some of the most ancient chemical receptors. We found more ionotropic receptors in Heliconius (31) than in Bombyx mori (25) or in Danaus plexippus (27). Sixteen genes in Lepidoptera were not present in Diptera. Only IR7d4 was exclusively found in butterflies and two expansions of IR60a were exclusive to Heliconius. A genome-wide comparison between 11 Heliconius species revealed instances of pseudogenization, gene gain, and signatures of positive selection across the phylogeny. IR60a2b and IR60a2d are unique to the H. melpomene, H. cydno, and H. timareta clade, a group where chemosensing is likely involved in pre-zygotic isolation. IR60a2b also displayed copy number variations (CNVs) in distinct populations of H. melpomene and was the only gene significantly higher expressed in legs and mouthparts than in antennae, which suggests a gustatory function. dN/dS analysis suggests more frequent positive selection in some intronless IR genes and in particular in the sara/sapho and melpomene/cydno/timareta clades. IR60a1 was the only gene with an elevated dN/dS along a major phylogenetic branch associated with pupal mating. Only IR93a was differentially expressed between sexes. All together these data make Heliconius butterflies one of the very few insects outside Drosophila where IRs have been characterized in detail. Our work outlines a dynamic pattern of IR gene evolution throughout the Heliconius radiation which could be the result of selective pressure to find potential mates or host-plants.

  4. Pollen feeding proteomics: Salivary proteins of the passion flower butterfly, Heliconius melpomene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpel, Desiree; Cullen, Darron A; Ott, Swidbert R; Jiggins, Chris D; Walters, James R

    2015-08-01

    While most adult Lepidoptera use flower nectar as their primary food source, butterflies in the genus Heliconius have evolved the novel ability to acquire amino acids from consuming pollen. Heliconius butterflies collect pollen on their proboscis, moisten the pollen with saliva, and use a combination of mechanical disruption and chemical degradation to release free amino acids that are subsequently re-ingested in the saliva. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of this complex pollen feeding adaptation. Here we report an initial shotgun proteomic analysis of saliva from Heliconius melpomene. Results from liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry confidently identified 31 salivary proteins, most of which contained predicted signal peptides, consistent with extracellular secretion. Further bioinformatic annotation of these salivary proteins indicated the presence of four distinct functional classes: proteolysis (10 proteins), carbohydrate hydrolysis (5), immunity (6), and "housekeeping" (4). Additionally, six proteins could not be functionally annotated beyond containing a predicted signal sequence. The presence of several salivary proteases is consistent with previous demonstrations that Heliconius saliva has proteolytic capacity. It is likely that these proteins play a key role in generating free amino acids during pollen digestion. The identification of proteins functioning in carbohydrate hydrolysis is consistent with Heliconius butterflies consuming nectar, like other lepidopterans, as well as pollen. Immune-related proteins in saliva are also expected, given that ingestion of pathogens is a likely route to infection. The few "housekeeping" proteins are likely not true salivary proteins and reflect a modest level of contamination that occurred during saliva collection. Among the unannotated proteins were two sets of paralogs, each seemingly the result of a relatively recent tandem duplication. These results offer a first glimpse into the

  5. Butterfly Diversity from Farmlands of Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Théodore Munyuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect information about the diversity of butterfly communities in the mixed coffee-banana mosaic (seminatural, agricultural landscapes of rural central Uganda. Data were collected for one year (2006 using fruit-bait traps, line transect walk-and-counts, and hand nets. A total of 56,315 individuals belonging to 331 species, 95 genera, and 6 families were sampled. The most abundant species was Bicyclus safitza (14.5% followed by Acraea acerata (6.3%, Catopsilia florella (6.5% and Junonia sophia (6.1%. Significant differences in abundance, species richness, and diversity of butterflies occurred between the 26 study sites. Farmland butterflies visited a variety of habitats within and around sites, but important habitats included woodlands, fallows, hedgerows, swampy habitats, abandoned gardens, and home gardens. The highest diversity and abundance of butterflies occurred in sites that contained forest remnants. Thus, forest reserves in the surrounding of fields increased the conservation values of coffee-banana agroforestry systems for butterflies. Their protection from degradation should be a priority for policy makers since they support a species-rich community of butterflies pollinating cultivated plants. Farmers are encouraged to protect and increase on-farm areas covered by complex traditional agroforests, linear, and nonlinear seminatural habitats to provide sufficient breeding sites and nectar resources for butterflies.

  6. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Evolutionary Diversifaction of Aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by Conserved Clade-specific Amino Acid Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family. PMID:24675701

  8. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  10. Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this

  11. Mariposas del estado de Morelos, México (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea Butterflies of the state of Morelos, Mexico (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Luna-Reyes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se conjuntó la información disponible para obtener una lista exhaustiva de los ropalóceros del estado de Morelos: 331 taxones de nivel específico pertenecientes a 154 géneros; 18 subfamilias y 5 familias, a partir de 29 981 ejemplares provenientes de las colecciones mexicanas y extranjeras de lepidópteros en la megabase MARIPOSA, la hemerobibliografía especializada y los inventarios faunísticos previos. Con base en estos datos se trazó un esbozo histórico de las recolecciones y recolectores, destacando lo realizado en Morelos desde el siglo XVI. Se compara su riqueza con la de estados contiguos y se advierte mayor similitud con la de Guerrero, con más del 90%. Se encontró que Cuernavaca es la localidad más diversa del estado, puesto que contiene más de la mitad de las especies; en 21 localidades está representado el 95% de los papilionoideos, que han sido satisfactoriamente recolectadas. Los municipios mejor estudiados son Tepoztlán, Tlaquiltenango y Huitzilac. Destaca el estado de Morelos por el alto porcentaje de taxones endémicos de México que presenta, esto es, un tercio del total para el país.We set the information available for a comprehensive list of the state of Morelos Rhopalocera: 331 taxa specific level, contained in 154 genera, 18 subfamilies and 5 families from 29 981 lepidopterists specimens from Mexican and foreign collections contained in the megabase MARIPOSA, it is specialized in wildlife inventories. Based on this, we performed a historical sketch of collecting and collectors, highlighting the work in the state since the sixteenth century. We compared the richness with contiguous states, we found a greater similarity with the state of Guerrero, with more than 90%. We found that Cuernavaca is the town with more diversity, as it contains more than half of the species in the state, 21 sites have been successfully collected, they represented in 95% of the Papilionoidea. Municipalities best studied were Tepoztlan, Tlaquiltenango and Huitzilac. Morelos is highlighted by the percentage of taxa endemic to Mexico it represents one third of the total species endemic for the country.

  12. [Diversity of the order Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) from Corrientes city, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela Lazzeri, María; Esther Bar, María; Pieri Damborsky, Miryam

    2011-03-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important threats for biodiversity. Among many different organisms, butterflies are useful indicators of environment diversity and quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the Lepidoptera from Corrientes city. Random samplings were performed at two sites: a native forest situated in Santa Catalina district and an urban area, Parque Mitre. The captures were carried out using entomological nets, at four seasons between January to October 2007. A total of 1 114 butterflies, represented by six families: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae and Riodinidae and 18 subfamilies were recorded. Fifty-nine genera and 75 species were identified; Anartia jatrophae jatrophae was the most abundant species at both localities. This species and Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus and Dryas iulia alcionea were, among other seven, captured at all months. Highest values of abundance were registered during the warmest seasons. Santa Catalina presented the largest abundance (n = 701), richness (S = 74) and diversity (H' = 3.87). A total of 413 individuals and 52 species were identified at Parque Mitre, and Shannon diversity index was 3.58. The obtained data reveals a high species richness and similarity at both sites.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Shao, Lili; Cheng, Chunhui; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionodae) is a circular molecule of 15,226 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs initiate with typical ATN codons, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon. Ten PCGs use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the COI, COII and ND5 genes end with single T. Twelve intergenic spacers (82 bp in total), and 11 overlapping regions (30 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 403 bp long and contains some conserved structures characteristic of the butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 13-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)12 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  14. Butterfly effect in 3D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.

  15. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  16. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  17. Biology: Birds and butterflies in climatic debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    A European-wide analysis of changing species distributions shows that butterflies outrun birds in the race to move northwards in response to climate change, but that neither group keeps up with increasing temperatures.

  18. Germline transformation of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Jeffrey M; Ramos, Diane M; Monteiro, Antónia

    2004-01-01

    Ecological and evolutionary theory has frequently been inspired by the diversity of colour patterns on the wings of butterflies. More recently, these varied patterns have also become model systems for studying the evolution of developmental mechanisms. A technique that will facilitate our understanding of butterfly colour-pattern development is germline transformation. Germline transformation permits functional tests of candidate gene products and of cis-regulatory regions, and provides a mea...

  19. A Dual-Butterfly Structure Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangming; Xiao, Dingbang; Li, Wenyin; Xu, Qiang; Hou, Zhanqiang; Wu, Xuezhong

    2017-12-11

    This paper reports a dual-butterfly structure gyroscope based on the traditional butterfly structure. This novel structure is composed of two butterfly structures, each of which contains a main vibrational beam, four proof masses, and a coupling mechanism. The coupling mechanism in this proposed structure couples the two single butterfly structures and keeps the driving mode phases of the two single butterfly gyroscopes exactly opposite, increasing the double difference of traditional butterfly gyroscopes to a quad difference, which has the potential advantage of improving bias instability and g-sensitivity. The gyroscope was fabricated using a standard microfabrication method and tested in laboratory conditions. The experimental results show a Q-factor of 10,967 in driving mode and there were two peaks in the frequency responses curve of sensing direction due to unavoidable fabrication errors. Scale factor and bias instability were also measured, reaching a scale factor of 10.9 mV/°/s and a bias instability of 10.7°/h, according to the Allan Variance curve.

  20. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallick, Tapas K

    2015-07-31

    Man's harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies' wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies' thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  1. Can butterflies cope with city life? Butterfly diversity in a young megacity in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Dong, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wilson, John-James

    2016-09-01

    During 30 years of unprecedented urbanization, plant diversity in Shenzhen, a young megacity in southern China, has increased dramatically. Although strongly associated with plant diversity, butterfly diversity generally declines with urbanization, but this has not been investigated in Shenzhen. Considering the speed of urbanization in Shenzhen and the large number of city parks, we investigated butterfly diversity in Shenzhen parks. We measured butterfly species richness in four microhabitats (groves, hedges, flowerbeds, and unmanaged areas) across 10 parks and examined the relationship with three park variables: park age, park size, and distance from the central business district. Butterflies were identified based on wing morphology and DNA barcoding. We collected 1933 butterflies belonging to 74 species from six families; 20% of the species were considered rare. Butterfly species richness showed weak negative correlations with park age and distance from the central business district, but the positive correlation with park size was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Among microhabitat types, highest species richness was recorded in unmanaged areas. Our findings are consistent with others in suggesting that to promote urban butterfly diversity it is necessary to make parks as large as possible and to set aside areas for limited management. In comparison to neighbouring cities, Shenzhen parks have high butterfly diversity.

  2. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  3. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  4. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly Using interactivity to excite and educate children about butterflies and the National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Lydia

    The National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden is a tropical rainforest that allows visitors to step into the world of butterflies, but lacks a more comprehensive educational element to teach visitors additional information about butterflies. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly is a thesis project designed to enhance younger visitors' experience of the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden with an interactive educational application that aligns with The Strong's mission of encouraging learning, creativity, and discovery. This was accomplished through a series of fun and educational games and animations, designed for use as a kiosk outside the garden and as a part of The Strong's website. Content, planning, and organization of this project has been completed through research and observation of the garden in the following areas: its visitors, butterflies, best usability practices for children, and game elements that educate and engage children. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly teaches users about the butterfly's life cycle, anatomy, and characteristics as well as their life in the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden. Through the use of the design programs Adobe Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects; the programming language ActionScript3.0; a child-friendly user interface and design; audio elements and user takeaways, Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly appeals to children of all ages, interests, and learning styles. The project can be viewed at lydiapowers.com/Thesis/FlutterByButterfly.html

  5. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge Butterflies and Dragonflies List

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following butterfly and dragonfly list contains 72 butterfly species and 31 dragonfly and damselfly species that have been recorded by Dr. Brian G Scholtens, Dr....

  6. Microsatellites for the marsh fritillary butterfly: de novo transcriptome sequencing, and a comparison with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie R Smee

    Full Text Available Until recently the isolation of microsatellite markers from Lepidoptera has proved troublesome, expensive and time-consuming. Following on from a previous study of Edith's checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas editha, we developed novel microsatellite markers for the vulnerable marsh fritillary butterfly, E. aurinia. Our goal was to optimize the process in order to reduce both time and cost relative to prevailing techniques. This was accomplished by using a combination of previously developed techniques: in silico mining of a de novo assembled transcriptome sequence, and genotyping the microsatellites found there using an economic method of fluorescently labelling primers.In total, we screened nine polymorphic microsatellite markers, two of which were previously published, and seven that were isolated de novo. These markers were able to amplify across geographically isolated populations throughout Continental Europe and the UK. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were evident in some populations, most likely due to the presence of null alleles. However, we used an F(st outlier approach to show that these markers are likely selectively neutral. Furthermore, using a set of 128 individuals from 11 populations, we demonstrate consistency in population differentiation estimates with previously developed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers (r = 0.68, p<0.001.Rapid development of microsatellite markers for difficult taxa such as Lepidoptera, and concordant results with other putatively neutral molecular markers, demonstrate the potential of de novo transcriptional sequencing for future studies of population structure and gene flow that are desperately needed for declining species across fragmented landscapes.

  7. Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in Heliconius Butterflies: Global yet Still Incomplete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James R; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Jiggins, Chris D

    2015-09-02

    The evolution of heterogametic sex chromosomes is often-but not always-accompanied by the evolution of dosage compensating mechanisms that mitigate the impact of sex-specific gene dosage on levels of gene expression. One emerging view of this process is that such mechanisms may only evolve in male-heterogametic (XY) species but not in female-heterogametic (ZW) species, which will consequently exhibit "incomplete" sex chromosome dosage compensation. However, recent results suggest that at least some Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) may prove to be an exception to this prediction. Studies in bombycoid moths indicate the presence of a chromosome-wide epigenetic mechanism that effectively balances Z chromosome gene expression between the sexes by reducing Z-linked expression in males. In contrast, strong sex chromosome dosage effects without any reduction in male Z-linked expression were previously reported in a pyralid moth, suggesting a lack of any such dosage compensating mechanism. Here we report an analysis of sex chromosome dosage compensation in Heliconius butterflies, sampling multiple individuals for several different adult tissues (head, abdomen, leg, mouth, and antennae). Methodologically, we introduce a novel application of linear mixed-effects models to assess dosage compensation, offering a unified statistical framework that can estimate effects specific to chromosome, to sex, and their interactions (i.e., a dosage effect). Our results show substantially reduced Z-linked expression relative to autosomes in both sexes, as previously observed in bombycoid moths. This observation is consistent with an increasing body of evidence that some lepidopteran species possess an epigenetic dosage compensating mechanism that reduces Z chromosome expression in males to levels comparable with females. However, this mechanism appears to be imperfect in Heliconius, resulting in a modest dosage effect that produces an average 5-20% increase in male expression relative

  8. Holographic butterfly effect at quantum critical points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-10-01

    When the Lyapunov exponent λL in a quantum chaotic system saturates the bound λL ≤ 2π k B T , it is proposed that this system has a holographic dual described by a gravity theory. In particular, the butterfly effect as a prominent phenomenon of chaos can ubiquitously exist in a black hole system characterized by a shockwave solution near the horizon. In this paper we propose that the butterfly velocity can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT) in holographic theories. We provide evidences for this proposal with an anisotropic holographic model exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT), in which the derivatives of the butterfly velocity with respect to system parameters characterizes quantum critical points (QCP) with local extremes in zero temperature limit. We also point out that this proposal can be tested by experiments in the light of recent progress on the measurement of out-of-time-order correlation function (OTOC).

  9. Butterfly velocity bound and reverse isoperimetric inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Lü, H.

    2017-03-01

    We study the butterfly effect of the AdS planar black holes in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We find that the butterfly velocities can be expressed by a universal formula vB2=T S /(2 VthP ). In doing so, we come upon a near-horizon geometrical formula for the thermodynamical volume Vth . We verify the volume formula by examining a variety of AdS black holes. We also show that the volume formula implies that the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality follows straightforwardly from the null-energy condition, for static AdS black holes. The inequality is thus related to an upper bound of the butterfly velocities.

  10. Butterfly rash with periodontitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvi Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashes can occur in any part of the body. But rash which appears on face has got both psychological and cosmetic effect on the patient. Rashes on face can sometimes be very challenging to physicians and dermatologists and those associated with oral manifestations pose a challenge to dentists. Butterfly rash is a red flat facial rash involving the malar region bilaterally and the bridge of the nose. The presence of a butterfly rash is generally a sign of lupus erythematosus (LE, but it can also include a plethora of conditions. The case presented here is of a female with butterfly rash along with typical bright red discoloration of gingiva. The clinical, histopathological and biochemical investigations suggested the presence of rosacea.

  11. DNA barcodes and cryptic species of skipper butterflies in the genus Perichares in Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John M; Janzen, Daniel H; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hebert, Paul D N

    2008-04-29

    DNA barcodes can be used to identify cryptic species of skipper butterflies previously detected by classic taxonomic methods and to provide first clues to the existence of yet other cryptic species. A striking case is the common geographically and ecologically widespread neotropical skipper butterfly Perichares philetes (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae), described in 1775, which barcoding splits into a complex of four species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Three of the species are new, and all four are described. Caterpillars, pupae, and foodplants offer better distinguishing characters than do adults, whose differences are mostly average, subtle, and blurred by intraspecific variation. The caterpillars of two species are generalist grass-eaters; of the other two, specialist palm-eaters, each of which feeds on different genera. But all of these cryptic species are more specialized in their diet than was the morphospecies that held them. The four ACG taxa discovered to date belong to a panneotropical complex of at least eight species. This complex likely includes still more species, whose exposure may require barcoding. Barcoding ACG hesperiid morphospecies has increased their number by nearly 10%, an unexpectedly high figure for such relatively well known insects.

  12. Dynamic karyotype evolution and unique sex determination systems in Leptidea wood white butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šíchová, Jindra; Voleníková, Anna; Dincă, Vlad; Nguyen, Petr; Vila, Roger; Sahara, Ken; Marec, František

    2015-05-19

    Chromosomal rearrangements have the potential to limit the rate and pattern of gene flow within and between species and thus play a direct role in promoting and maintaining speciation. Wood white butterflies of the genus Leptidea are excellent models to study the role of chromosome rearrangements in speciation because they show karyotype variability not only among but also within species. In this work, we investigated genome architecture of three cryptic Leptidea species (L. juvernica, L. sinapis and L. reali) by standard and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reveal causes of the karyotype variability. Chromosome numbers ranged from 2n = 85 to 91 in L. juvernica and 2n = 69 to 73 in L. sinapis (both from Czech populations) to 2n = 51 to 55 in L. reali (Spanish population). We observed significant differences in chromosome numbers and localization of cytogenetic markers (rDNA and H3 histone genes) within the offspring of individual females. Using FISH with the (TTAGG) n telomeric probe we also documented the presence of multiple chromosome fusions and/or fissions and other complex rearrangements. Thus, the intraspecific karyotype variability is likely due to irregular chromosome segregation of multivalent meiotic configurations. The analysis of female meiotic chromosomes by GISH and CGH revealed multiple sex chromosomes: W1W2W3Z1Z2Z3Z4 in L. juvernica, W1W2W3Z1Z2Z3 in L. sinapis and W1W2W3W4Z1Z2Z3Z4 in L. reali. Our results suggest a dynamic karyotype evolution and point to the role of chromosomal rearrangements in the speciation of Leptidea butterflies. Moreover, our study revealed a curious sex determination system with 3-4 W and 3-4 Z chromosomes, which is unique in the Lepidoptera and which could also have played a role in the speciation process of the three Leptidea species.

  13. An annotated checklist of the Italian butterflies and skippers (Papilionoidea, Hesperiioidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletto, Emilio; Cassulo, Luigi A; Bonelli, Simona

    2014-08-20

    We present here an updated checklist of the Italian butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) organised in the following sections (tables):1. Introduction, providing a broad outline of the paper.2. Checklist proper, summarised in a table, listing, in separate columns:a. Indications of endemicity (sub-endemic, Italian endemic).b. The relevant Annex in the Habitats Directive (legally protected species).c. Threat levels (in Europe: for threatened species only).d. A serial number (whose format is uniform across all Italian animal groups). This number runs throughout all the following tables (see 3, 4).e. Name, author, date of publication.f. Schematic overall indication of each specie's Italian range (N[orth], S[outh], Si[icily], Sa[rdinia]).3. Nomenclature, containing basic nomenclatural details for all listed genera, species and some of the generally or historically recognised subspecies and synonyms.4. Notes, where a variety of other information is provided, on a name by name (family, subfamily, genus, species, subspecies) basis. All remaining doubts as concerns each individual case are clearly stated.                The number of nominal species listed in the previous edition of this checklist, published almost 20 years ago, was 275, whereas it has raised to 290 in the current list. The status of about a dozen of these remains controversial, as discussed in the text. The present checklist is meant to provide an update of the Italian butterfly fauna, taking into account all relevant publications, and tries to explain all nomenclatural changes that had to be introduced, in the appropriate section. Many detailed comments are offered, when necessary or useful, in the notes.

  14. Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010 Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conducted by standard walk methods. Host plant and larval food plant was recorded during butterfly survey. Public perception on the development plan of butterfly garden was examined by questionnaire. The results showed that 26 species of butterfly was found in Bosscha area and Delias belisama belisama was the most dominant species. Public perceptions consider that the development plan of butterfly garden will give benefit to the community; not only providing new insight (40.41%, additional tourism object (23.97% and will gave aesthetical value (17.12%. Twelve local species should be considered for development plan of butterfly garden: Papilio agamemnon, P. demoleus, P. memnon, P. sarpedon, Delias belisama, Eurema hecabe, Danaus chrysippus, Argynis hiperbius, Cethosia penthesilea, Hypolimnas missipus, Melanitis phedima and Euthalia Adonijah. Host plant: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Citrus aurantium, Lantana camara, Macaranga tanarius and food plants: Citrus aurantium, Cosmos caudatus, Eupatorium inulifolium, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana camara, and Tithonia diversifolia.

  15. Structure and metamorphic changes in the brain of the lemon butterfly Papilio demoleus L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y N; Maurya, G C

    1977-01-01

    The morphology of the larval and adult brain of Papilio demoleus, and changes in the cell population and neuropile morphology during the pupal period have been described. The larval brain has more simple fibre areas than that of the adult. Dividing neuroblasts have been found which form the adult neurones. The larval brain contains the three neuromeres (proto-, deuto-, and tritocerebrum). The protocerebrum has well developed corpora pedunculata, a central body, a pons cerebralis and developing optic centres. The corpora ventralia are joined with each other by paired ventral commissures (single in adult). The deutocerebrum is simple and small, the antennal centres are small and simple (ef. adult). The glomerular tritocerebrum is posteroventral to the deutocerebrum, and fibres from the former travel to the crura cerebri. The cortex of the brain consists of four types of glial cells and of association cells, and large and medium sized motor neurones. The number of mitoses is greatest in the larval and prepupal stages; in the pupa it decreases gradually and in late stages it does not occur. Histolysis and pyknosis begin in the prepupa and decrease considerably in the late pupa. The entire neural lamella is broken down in the early pupa. Numerous haemocytes penetrate the laminae of the neural lambella and envelop the entire brain. In the adult, behind the well-developed central body is an ellipsoid body. The medulla interna is divided into two smaller lobes and the deutocerebral lobes are differentiated into cortical and medullary zones. Chiasmata between optic centres are also formed during the pupal period.

  16. The mitochondrial genome of the Chinese special butterfly Luehdorfia chinensis Leech (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Pang, Hong-Chun; Hong, Fang

    2013-06-01

    Luehdorfia chinensis is a poorly known species restricted to certain eastern provinces in China. We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of a species of grouse locust, L. chinensis. The 13,860 bp long L. chinensis genome contained 12 protein-coding genes: ATP6, ATP8, COI-COIII, partial ND2, ND3-ND6, ND4L, and Cytb; 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) (partial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA); and 18 transfer RNAs. These genes identified are present in the same order and orientation as the completely sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopteran species. The sequence for COI in L. chinensis starts with ATTTAG and ends with TAA.

  17. Is the butterfly Tomares ballus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae a potential pest of Lens culinaris (Leguminosae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martín Cano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The lentil (Lens culinaris is identified as a new host plant of the lepidopteran Tomares ballus. Five larvae of T. ballus were found on 19 May, 2007 in a crop of "castellana" lentils in Toledo Province, Spain and reared in the laboratory. The larval brown spiracles are slightly darker than the rest of the pupa. Traditional cultural practices reduce the insect’s probability of completing its life-cycle. We present flight phenology data for T. ballus from the unedited Atlamar database (1 073 records from 1887 to 2003, based on the 438 records for which the year, month and day are known. This period coincides with the flowering and formation of the legumes of various species of leguminosae, such as lentils. The peak activity of the imagos occurs in the second half of March and the first half of April, and the last larvae must be present in the field until the beginning of June. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 623-634. Epub 2009 September 30.

  18. Is the butterfly Tomares ballus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae a potential pest of Lens culinaris (Leguminosae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martín Cano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The lentil (Lens culinaris is identified as a new host plant of the lepidopteran Tomares ballus. Five larvae of T. ballus were found on 19 May, 2007 in a crop of "castellana" lentils in Toledo Province, Spain and reared in the laboratory. The larval brown spiracles are slightly darker than the rest of the pupa. Traditional cultural practices reduce the insect’s probability of completing its life-cycle. We present flight phenology data for T. ballus from the unedited Atlamar database (1 073 records from 1887 to 2003, based on the 438 records for which the year, month and day are known. This period coincides with the flowering and formation of the legumes of various species of leguminosae, such as lentils. The peak activity of the imagos occurs in the second half of March and the first half of April, and the last larvae must be present in the field until the beginning of June. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 623-634. Epub 2009 September 30.La lenteja (Lens culinaris es una nueva planta hospedera de la mariposa Tomares ballus. Hallamos cinco larvas el 19 de mayo de 2007 en un cultivo de lentejas de la variedad "castellana" en la provincia de Toledo, España y las criamos en el laboratorio. Los espiráculos, de color marrón, son ligeramente más oscuros que el resto de la pupa. Las prácticas culturales tradicionales reducen al insecto la probabilidad de completar su ciclo de vida. Se presenta la fenología de datos de vuelo para T. ballus a partir de la base de datos Atlamar (1 073 registros de 1887 a 2003, sobre la base de los 438 registros en que se conocen año, mes y día. Este período coincide con la floración de diversas especies de leguminosas, incluyendo las lentejas. El pico de actividad de los imagos se produce en la segunda quincena de marzo y la primera quincena de abril, y las últimas larvas deben estar presentes en el campo hasta principios de junio.

  19. [Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) from Mexico State, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mejía, Claudia; Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2008-09-01

    The State of Mexico is a region with great biological diversity, owing to its geographical and ecological features. Regarding Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea, 15% of the Mexican species are recorded in the State of Mexico, 17% of which are endemic to the country. A checklist of the two superfamilies for the State of Mexico was integrated, based on published literature and databases at the Museo de Zoología of the Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. The checklist is composed by six families, 22 subfamilies, 197 genera and 325 species (95 Hesperiidae, 19 Papilionidae, 35 Pieridae, 54 Lycaenidae, 20 Riodinidae, and 102 Nymphalidae). A list of each species is presented, including collecting localities, flight month, and whether data correspond to scientific collection records or literature.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of rDNA clusters on chromosomes of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nguyen, Petr; Sahara, K.; Yoshido, A.; Marec, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 3 (2010), s. 343-354 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1860; GA AV ČR IAA600960925 Grant - others:Student Grant Agency of the Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia(CZ) SGA2006/01; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) 18380037; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science(JP) 191114; GA ČR(CZ) 521/08/H042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : ribosomal DNA * nucleolar organizer region * chromosome fusion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.358, year: 2010

  1. Enlightening Butterfly Conservation Efforts: The Importance of Natural Lighting for Butterfly Behavioral Ecology and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Seymoure

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Light is arguably the most important abiotic factor for living organisms. Organisms evolved under specific lighting conditions and their behavior, physiology, and ecology are inexorably linked to light. Understanding light effects on biology could not be more important as present anthropogenic effects are greatly changing the light environments in which animals exist. The two biggest anthropogenic contributors changing light environments are: (1 anthropogenic lighting at night (i.e., light pollution; and (2 deforestation and the built environment. I highlight light importance for butterfly behavior, physiology, and ecology and stress the importance of including light as a conservation factor for conserving butterfly biodiversity. This review focuses on four parts: (1 Introducing the nature and extent of light. (2 Visual and non-visual light reception in butterflies. (3 Implications of unnatural lighting for butterflies across several different behavioral and ecological contexts. (4. Future directions for quantifying the threat of unnatural lighting on butterflies and simple approaches to mitigate unnatural light impacts on butterflies. I urge future research to include light as a factor and end with the hopeful thought that controlling many unnatural light conditions is simply done by flipping a switch.

  2. A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report explores a unique and treatable "butterfly"- glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging features were consistent with a "butterfly" lesion that favored the possibility of a gliomatosis cerebri with significant edema and marked corpus callosum and fornix thickening. Contrast-enhanced and perfusion images revealed a confluent tumefactive lesion with a characteristic "broken-ring" pattern of enhancement, mass-effect and low perfusion; features favoring an alternative inflammatory pathology. This was peculiar as calloso-forniceal involvement of this nature has not been previously reported in inflammatory demyelinating mass lesions. This was confirmed as a tumefactive demyelination on histopathology. Following treatment, on clinical and imaging follow-up, significant resolution was evident suggesting a monophasic illness. This case highlights the stringent clinico-radiological-pathological approach required in the evaluation and management of butterfly lesions despite the striking imaging appearances. Tumefactive demyelination in this patient represents a clinically isolated syndromic presentation of an inflammatory pathology that can resemble gliomatosis cerebri. These "butterfly"-glioma mimics are scarcely reported in the literature, are eminently treatable with variable prognosis and prone for relapse.

  3. Ed Lorenz: Father of the 'Butterfly Effect'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ed Lorenz, rightfully acclaimed as the father of the 'Butterfly Effect', was an American math- ematician and meteorologist whose early work on weather prediction convinced the world at large about the unpredictability of weather. His seminal work on a simplified model for convec- tions in the atmosphere led to the modern ...

  4. From medicine to butterflies and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmesan, Camille

    2014-01-01

    My research focuses on the current impacts of climate change on wildlife, from field-based work on butterflies to synthetic analyses of global impacts on a broad range of species across terrestrial and marine biomes. I work actively with governmental agencies and NGOs to help develop conservation assessment and planning tools aimed at preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change.

  5. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  6. Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

  7. South African Red data book - Butterflies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henning, SF

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently 632 species of butterfly are known to occur within the borders of South Africa. Using the well established IUCN definitions, 102 of these are considered to be exposed to some level of threat, two species as endangered, seven species...

  8. Monarch Butterflies: Spirits of Loved Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The study of the beautiful monarch butterfly lends itself to a vast array of subject matter, and offers the opportunity to meet a large and varied number of standards and objectives for many grade levels. Art projects featuring monarchs may include many cross-curricular units such as math (symmetry and number graphing), science (adaptation and…

  9. Reflections on colourful ommatidia of butterfly eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG

    The eye shine of butterflies from a large number of ommatidia was observed with a modified epi-illumination apparatus equipped with an objective lens of large numerical aperture. A few representative cases are presented: the satyrine Bicyclus anynana, the heliconian Heliconius melpomene, the small

  10. The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

  11. Global Dosage Compensation Is Ubiquitous in Lepidoptera, but Counteracted by the Masculinization of the Z Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huylmans, Ann Kathrin; Macon, Ariana; Vicoso, Beatriz

    2017-10-01

    While chromosome-wide dosage compensation of the X chromosome has been found in many species, studies in ZW clades have indicated that compensation of the Z is more localized and/or incomplete. In the ZW Lepidoptera, some species show complete compensation of the Z chromosome, while others lack full equalization, but what drives these inconsistencies is unclear. Here, we compare patterns of male and female gene expression on the Z chromosome of two closely related butterfly species, Papilio xuthus and Papilio machaon, and in multiple tissues of two moths species, Plodia interpunctella and Bombyx mori, which were previously found to differ in the extent to which they equalize Z-linked gene expression between the sexes. We find that, while some species and tissues seem to have incomplete dosage compensation, this is in fact due to the accumulation of male-biased genes and the depletion of female-biased genes on the Z chromosome. Once this is accounted for, the Z chromosome is fully compensated in all four species, through the up-regulation of Z expression in females and in some cases additional down-regulation in males. We further find that both sex-biased genes and Z-linked genes have increased rates of expression divergence in this clade, and that this can lead to fast shifts in patterns of gene expression even between closely related species. Taken together, these results show that the uneven distribution of sex-biased genes on sex chromosomes can confound conclusions about dosage compensation and that Z chromosome-wide dosage compensation is not only possible but ubiquitous among Lepidoptera. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. The performance studies on swallow-tailed naphthalene diimide derivatives in solution processed inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Gulsah; Sarica, Hizir; Erten-Ela, Sule

    2014-10-01

    Two different soluble swallow-tailed naphthalene diimide derivatives were synthesized, 1,4:5,8-naphthalene diimides (NDIs), N,N‧-bis-(1-butylpentyl)-naphthalenetetracarboxylic-1,4:5,8-biscarboximide (NDI-1) and N,N‧-bis-(1-pentylhexyl)-naphthalenetetracarboxylic-1,4:5,8-biscarboximide (NDI-2). Thermal stabilities were also measured with thermal gravimetry analyser (TGA). Naphthalene diimides showed high thermal stability. NDI derivatives exhibited good thermal stabilities that thermal decomposition peak appeared at 438 °C and 421 °C, respectively for NDI-1 and NDI-2. Highly soluble naphthalene diimide derivatives were used in inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells. Two different ZnO cathode layers were used to fabricate bulk heterojunction solar cells. One of them was single layer consists of dense ZnO layer and the other was double layer comprising porous ZnO layer onto dense ZnO layer. Inverted bulk heterojunction devices were designed in a FTO/ ZnO (single or double layer)/P3HT:C60:NDI device geometry. Best efficiency was obtained for FTO/ZnO (single or double layer)/P3HT:C60:NDI-2 device as 8.78 mA/cm2 of short circuit photocurrent density, 300 mV of open circuit voltage, 0.28 of filling factor, 0.74 of overall conversion efficiency.

  13. Start-up Characteristics of Swallow-tailed Axial-grooved Heat Pipe under the conditions of Multiple Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renping

    2017-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for predicting start-up characteristics of Swallow-tailed Axial-grooved Heat Pipe under the conditions of Multiple Heat Sources. The effects of heat capacitance of heat source, liquid-vapour interfacial evaporation-condensation heat transfer, shear stress at the interface was considered in current model. The interfacial evaporating mass flow rate is based on the kinetic analysis. Time variations of evaporating mass rate, wall temperature and liquid velocity are studied from the start-up to steady state. The calculated results show that wall temperature demonstrates step transition at the junction between the heat source and non-existent heat source on the evaporator. The liquid velocity changes drastically at the evaporator section, however, it has slight variation at the evaporator section without heat source. When the effect of heat source is ignored, the numerical temperature demonstrates a quicker response. With the consideration of capacitance of the heat source, the data obtained from the proposed model agree well with the experimental results.

  14. Occurrence of sarmentosin and other hydroxynitrile glucosides in Parnassius (papilionidae) butterflies and their food plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnholt, Nanna; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Kędziorski, Andrzej; Debinski, Diane M; Matter, Stephen F; Olsen, Carl Erik; Zagrobelny, Mika

    2012-05-01

    Sequestration of plant secondary metabolites is a widespread phenomenon among aposematic insects. Sarmentosin is an unsaturated γ-hydroxynitrile glucoside known from plants and some Lepidoptera. It is structurally and biosynthetically closely related to cyanogenic glucosides, which are commonly sequestered from food plants and/or de novo synthesized by lepidopteran species. Sarmentosin was found previously in Parnassius (Papilionidae) butterflies, but it was not known how the occurrence was related to food plants or whether Parnassius species could biosynthesize the compound. Here, we report on the occurrence of sarmentosin and related compounds in four different Parnassius species belonging to two different clades, as well as their known and suspected food plants. There were dramatic differences between the two clades, with P. apollo and P. smintheus from the Apollo group containing high amounts of sarmentosin, and P. clodius and P. mnemosyne from the Mnemosyne group containing low or no detectable amounts. This was reflected in the larval food plants; P. apollo and P. smintheus larvae feed on Sedum species (Crassulaceae), which all contained considerable amounts of sarmentosin, while the known food plants of the two other species, Dicentra and Corydalis (Fumariaceae), had no detectable levels of sarmentosin. All insects and plants containing sarmentosin also contained other biosynthetically related hydroxynitrile glucosides in patterns previously reported for plants, but not for insects. Not all findings could be explained by sequestration alone and we therefore hypothesize that Parnassius species are able to de novo synthesize sarmentosin.

  15. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Diversification of the silverspot butterflies (Nymphalidae) in the Neotropics inferred from multi-locus DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massardo, Darli; Fornel, Rodrigo; Kronforst, Marcus; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Heliconiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is a diverse group of butterflies distributed throughout the Neotropics, which has been studied extensively, in particular the genus Heliconius. However, most of the other lineages, such as Dione, which are less diverse and considered basal within the group, have received little attention. Basic information, such as species limits and geographical distributions remain uncertain for this genus. Here we used multilocus DNA sequence data and the geographical distribution analysis across the entire range of Dione in the Neotropical region in order to make inferences on the evolutionary history of this poorly explored lineage. Bayesian time-tree reconstruction allows inferring two major diversification events in this tribe around 25mya. Lineages thought to be ancient, such as Dione and Agraulis, are as recent as Heliconius. Dione formed a monophyletic clade, sister to the genus Agraulis. Dione juno, D. glycera and D. moneta were reciprocally monophyletic and formed genetic clusters, with the first two more close related than each other in relation to the third. Divergence time estimates support the hypothesis that speciation in Dione coincided with both the rise of Passifloraceae (the host plants) and the uplift of the Andes. Since the sister species D. glycera and D. moneta are specialized feeders on passion-vine lineages that are endemic to areas located either within or adjacent to the Andes, we inferred that they co-speciated with their host plants during this vicariant event. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances in finding Alba: the locus affecting life history and color polymorphism in a Colias butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronik, A; Wheat, C W

    2017-01-01

    Although alternative life-history strategies exist within many populations, very little is known about their genetic basis and mechanistic insight into these traits could greatly advance the understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics. Many species of butterfly within the genus Colias exhibit a sex-limited wing colour polymorphism, called Alba, which is correlated with an alternative life-history strategy. Here, we have taken the first steps in localizing the region carrying Alba in Colias croceus, a species with no genomic resources, by generating whole genome sequence of a single Alba mother and two sequencing pools, one for her Alba and another for her orange, offspring. These data were used in a bulk-segregant analysis wherein SNPs fulfilling the Mendelian inheritance expectations of Alba were identified. Then, using the conserved synteny in Lepidoptera, the Alba locus was assigned to chromosome 15 in Bombyx mori. We then identified candidate regions within the chromosome by investigating the distribution of Alba SNPs along the chromosome and the difference in nucleotide diversity in exons between the two pools. A region spanning ~ 5.7 Mbp at the 5' end of the chromosome was identified as likely to contain the Alba locus. These insights set the stage for more detailed genomic scans and mapping of the Alba phenotype, and demonstrate an efficient use of genomic resources in a novel species. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Dynamics of F-actin prefigure the structure of butterfly wing scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, April; Null, Ryan; Pizzano, Maria; Chuong, Lisa; Leigh Krup, Alexis; Ee Tan, Hwei; Patel, Nipam H

    2014-08-15

    The wings of butterflies and moths consist of dorsal and ventral epidermal surfaces that give rise to overlapping layers of scales and hairs (Lepidoptera, "scale wing"). Wing scales (average length ~200 µm) are homologous to insect bristles (macrochaetes), and their colors create the patterns that characterize lepidopteran wings. The topology and surface sculpture of wing scales vary widely, and this architectural complexity arises from variations in the developmental program of the individual scale cells of the wing epithelium. One of the more striking features of lepidopteran wing scales are the longitudinal ridges that run the length of the mature (dead) cell, gathering the cuticularized scale cell surface into pleats on the sides of each scale. While also present around the periphery of other insect bristles and hairs, longitudinal ridges in lepidopteran wing scales gain new significance for their creation of iridescent color through microribs and lamellae. Here we show the dynamics of the highly organized F-actin filaments during scale cell development, and present experimental manipulations of actin polymerization that reveal the essential role of this cytoskeletal component in wing scale elongation and the positioning of longitudinal ribs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Andrew [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Steinberg, Julia [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity — a speed at which quantum information propagates — may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength “hydrodynamic' disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  20. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-05-01

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  1. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew; Steinberg, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity — a speed at which quantum information propagates — may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength "hydrodynamic" disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  2. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  3. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yi, E-mail: lingy@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China); School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: liup51@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin, E-mail: jianpinwu@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2017-05-10

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  4. (JE Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) annually cause enormous loss to the producers and their combat has become a worldwide challenge mainly due to several reports of pesticides resistance. Today, one of the best alternatives used in this combat is the application of natural insecticides such ...

  5. Nieuwe en interessante Microlepidoptera uit Nederland (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Gielis, C.; Huisman, K.J.; Koster, J.C.; Küchlein, J.H.; Wolf, van der H.W.; Wolschrijn, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    New and interesting Microlepidoptera from The Netherlands (Lepidoptera). This is the fourth 'annual' compilation of Microlepidoptera collected in The Netherlands, the first three having been published in Entomologische Berichten (vols 45: 89-104 [1985]; 46: 137-156 [1986]; 48: 69-81 [1988]). The

  6. The Impact of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundance and effectiveness of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata Rego Barros (Lepidoptera:Arctiidae) in controlling the Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) ... Insect data was collected using line transects of 100 metres long and 100 metres apart and the removal, sweep net and direct count methods were used and ...

  7. Ultra high-field SWI of the substantia nigra at 7T: reliability and consistency of the swallow-tail sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manuel A; Engelhorn, Tobias; Marxreiter, Franz; Winkler, Juergen; Lang, Stefan; Kloska, Stephan; Goelitz, Philipp; Doerfler, Arnd

    2017-10-26

    The loss of the swallow-tail sign of the substantia nigra has been proposed for diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Aim was to evaluate, if the sign occurs consistently in healthy subjects and if it can be reliably detected with high-resolution 7T susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). Thirteen healthy adults received SWI at 7T. 3 neuroradiologists, who were blinded to patients' diagnosis, independently classified subjects regarding the swallow-tail sign to be present or absent. Accuracy, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) as well as inter- and intra-rater reliability and internal consistency were analyzed. The sign could be detected in 81% of the cases in consensus reading. Accuracy to detect the sign compared to the consensus was 100, 77 and 96% for the three readers with PPV reader 1/2/3 = 1/0.45/0.83 and NPV = 1/1/1. Inter-rater reliability was excellent (inter-class correlation coefficient = 0.844, alpha = 0.871). Intra-rater reliability was good to excellent (reader 1 R/L = 0.625/0.786; reader 2 = 0.7/0.64; reader 3 = 0.9/1). The swallow-tail sign can be reliably detected. However, our data suggest its occurrence is not consistent in healthy subjects. It may be possible that one reason is an individually variable molecular organization of nigrosome 1 so that it does not return a uniform signal in SWI.

  8. The role of latitudinal, genetic and temperature variation in the induction of diapause of Papilio glaucus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sean F; Valella, Patti; Thivierge, Gabrielle; Aardema, Matthew L; Scriber, J Mark

    2016-11-29

    A key adaptation in insects for dealing with variable environmental conditions is the ability to diapause. The tiger swallowtail butterflies, Papilio glaucus and P. canadensis are ideal species to explore the genetic causes and population genetic consequences of diapause because divergence in this trait is believed to be a salient factor in maintaining a hybrid zone between these species. Yet little is known about the factors that influence diapause induction in this system. Here we explored how spatial (latitudinal), environmental (temperature) and genetic (hybridization) factors affect diapause induction in this system. Specifically, a series of growth chamber experiments using wild caught individuals from across the eastern United States were performed to: (1) evaluate how critical photoperiod varies with latitude, (2) isolate the stage in which induction occurs, (3) test whether changes in temperature affected rates of diapause induction, and (4) explore how the incidence of diapause is affected in hybrid offspring. We find that induction occurs in the larval stage, is not sensitive to a relatively broad range of temperatures, appears to have a complex genetic basis (i.e., is not simply a dominant trait following a Mendelian inheritance pattern) and that the critical photoperiod increases by 0.4 h with each increasing degree in latitude. This work deepens our understanding of how spatial, environmental and genetic variation influences a key seasonal adaptation (diapause induction) in a well-developed ecological model system and will make possible future studies that explore how climatic variation affects the population dynamics and genetics of this system. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Analysis of the feeding habits of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), in an urban park in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo,MCB; Moreira, DM

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to observe and describe the feeding habits and available food resources of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura. The study was carried out in a municipal park located in the city of Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo. The observations took place between December 2003 and October 2004, recording the following variables: 1) the plant species visited for feeding and territorial defense; 2) the kinds of food resources; and 3) the kinds of flight to procure ...

  10. Pigmentary and photonic coloration mechanisms reveal taxonomic relationships of the Cattlehearts (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Parides)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Ijbema, Natasja; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The colorful wing patterns of butterflies, a prime example of biodiversity, can change dramatically within closely related species. Wing pattern diversity is specifically present among papilionid butterflies. Whether a correlation between color and the evolution of these butterflies

  11. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Pohl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This checklist documents the 2367 Lepidoptera species reported to occur in the province of Alberta, Canada, based on examination of the major public insect collections in Alberta and the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes. Records from relevant literature sources published since 1950 and from selected older works are also included. The entry for each species includes the scientific name, the author and year of publication of the original description, occurrence status, provincial distribution (according to ecoclimatic region, and adult phenology. The most recent taxonomic references are given, and common names are listed for butterflies and conspicuous moth species. The sources of specimen- and literature-based records are provided for each species. An additional 138 species whose occurrence in Alberta is probable are appended to the list. For 1524 of the listed species and subspecies, annotations are given, with selected information on taxonomy, nomenclature, distribution, habitat, and biology. An additional section provides details on 171 species erroneously reported from Alberta in previous works. Introductory sections to the volume provide a general overview of the order Lepidoptera and review the natural regions of Alberta, the state of knowledge of their Lepidoptera faunas, and the history and current state of knowledge of Alberta Lepidoptera. Each of the 63 families (and selected subfamilies occurring in Alberta is briefly reviewed, with information on distinguishing features, general appearance, and general biology. A bibliography and an index of genus-level, species-level, and subspecies-level names are provided. The list is accompanied by an appendix of proposed nomenclature changes, consisting of revised status for 25 taxa raised from synonymy to species level, and new synonymy for 20 species-level and one genus-level taxa here considered to be subjective synonyms, with resultant revised synonymy for one

  12. Comments on compressible flow through butterfly valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakenship, John G.

    In the flow analysis of process piping systems, it is desirable to treat control valves in the same way as elbow, reducers, expansions, and other pressure loss elements. In a recently reported research program, the compressible flow characteristics of butterfly valves were investigated. Fisher Controls International, Inc., manufacturer of a wide range of control valves, publishes coefficients that can be used to calculate flow characteristics for the full range of valve movement. The use is described of the manufacturer's data to calculate flow parameters as reported by the researchers who investigated compressible flow through butterfly valves. The manufacturer's data produced consistent results and can be used to predict choked flow and the pressure loss for unchoked flow.

  13. Butterflies of Garhwal, Uttarakhand, western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty percent of butterfly species that occur in India are found in the Garhwal region of the western Himalaya, which comprise six districts of Uttarakhand State with five major vegetation types lying between the catchments of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers.  The annotated checklist compiled here for this region comprises 407 species and takes into account all the species recorded since 1899, when the first list of 323 species was prepared by Mackinnon & de Nicéville on the ‘butterflies of Mussoorie and its adjacent areas’.  Over a 20 year period (1986–1990; 2000–June 2015 the present authors maintained detailed notes and were able personally to record 349 species.  This information is presented in a checklist, together with details of the month, year and site of each record, relative abundance, Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972 (IWPA status, as well as references of earlier records made by other authors in Garhwal for those species that the authors were not able to record themselves.  Forty-nine species recorded in the region have been placed under various schedules of IWPA; only one species, the Golden Emperor Dilipa morgiana Westwood, is listed in Schedule I Part IV, the others being mainly included under Schedule II Part II.  The paper also discusses new range extensions and significant records (past and present, identifies major biotic factors that threaten butterfly diversity in Garhwal, and suggests the scope for butterfly ecotourism in the state as an option for long term conservation.  

  14. Butterfly valve in a virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talekar, Aniruddha; Patil, Saurabh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    Assembly of components is one of the processes involved in product design and development. The present paper deals with the assembly of a simple butterfly valve components in a virtual environment. The assembly has been carried out using virtual reality software by trial and error methods. The parts are modelled using parametric software (SolidWorks), meshed accordingly, and then called into virtual environment for assembly.

  15. Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Shosaku; Nakatsuma, Sumiya (Kubota Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Sasaki, Iwao; Aoki, Naoshi

    1982-08-01

    The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported.

  16. Various chemical strategies to deceive ants in three Arhopala species (lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) exploiting Macaranga myrmecophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies.

  17. Short Communication A Iycaeoid butterfly (Anthene amarah Guerin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-06-29

    Jun 29, 1989 ... 84. Short Communication. A Iycaeoid butterfly (Anthene amarah. Guerin) selects unseasonal young ... torti/is in the northern Transvaal revealed that Anthene smarah butterflies oviposit on unseasonal new coppice .... MILTON, S.J. 1988. The effects of pruning on shoot production. S. Afr. J. Bot. 54: 109-117.

  18. Flow Characteristics of Butterfly Valve by PIV and CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Lee, Y. H.

    Butterfly valves are widely used as on-off and control valves for industrial process. The importance of butterfly valves as control valves has been increasing because the pressure loss is smaller than other types of valves and compactness is very desirable for installation. These features are desirable for saving energy and high efficiency of instruments.

  19. Gas absorption studies in a butterfly valve scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, S.A.; Taheri, M.

    1974-09-01

    Gas absorption and pressure drop in a wetted butterfly valve constituting a novel scrubber system are investigated. The exceptional suitability of the butterfly device is demonstrated by its flexibility to adjust to large variations in both gas and liquid flow rates. (1 diagram, 5 graphs, 19 references)

  20. Unique wing scale photonics of male Rajah Brooke's birdwing butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ultrastructures in butterfly wing scales can take many shapes, resulting in the often striking coloration of many butterflies due to interference of light. The plethora of coloration mechanisms is dazzling, but often only single mechanisms are described for specific animals. Results: We

  1. Competition: Butterflies eliminate milkweed bugs from a Caribbean Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Nigel R; Dingle, Hugh

    1978-01-01

    By eliminating the food plant, Asclepias curassavica, monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, have virtually eliminated milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus spp., from the island of Barbados. The relatively open terrain of Barbados means the plants have no refuge; the butterflies survive on an alternate milkweed food plant, Calotropis procera, whose thick-walled pods make seeds unavailable to the bugs.

  2. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre S. Gilburn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 despite both a doubling in conservation spending in the UK, and predictions that climate change should benefit most species. Here we build models of the UK population indices from 1985 to 2012 for 17 widespread butterfly species that commonly occur at farmland sites. Of the factors we tested, three correlated significantly with butterfly populations. Summer temperature and the index for a species the previous year are both positively associated with butterfly indices. By contrast, the number of hectares of farmland where neonicotinoid pesticides are used is negatively associated with butterfly indices. Indices for 15 of the 17 species show negative associations with neonicotinoid usage. The declines in butterflies have largely occurred in England, where neonicotinoid usage is at its highest. In Scotland, where neonicotinoid usage is comparatively low, butterfly numbers are stable. Further research is needed urgently to show whether there is a causal link between neonicotinoid usage and the decline of widespread butterflies or whether it simply represents a proxy for other environmental factors associated with intensive agriculture.

  3. Evidence for mate guarding behavior in the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria J. Bennett; Winston P. Smith; Matthew G. Betts

    2011-01-01

    Discerning the intricacies of mating systems in butterflies can be difficult, particularly when multiple mating strategies are employed and are cryptic and not exclusive. We observed the behavior and habitat use of 113 male Taylor's checkerspot butterflies (Euphydryas editha taylori). We confirmed that two distinct mating strategies were...

  4. Monitoring of the endemic Sinai Baton Blue butterfly Pseudophilotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the monitoring of the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly in its stronghold of Farsh Shoeib on Gebel Safsafa in the St Katherine Protectorate between 2004-9 is analysed to compare them with the detailed study of Mike James in 2002-3. The butterfly appears to have a three-year population cycle, with its population crashing ...

  5. Wolbachia endosymbiont infection in two Indian butterflies and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The maternally inherited obligate bacteria Wolbachia is known to infect various lepidopteran insects. However, so far only a few butterfly species harbouring this bacterium have been thoroughly studied. The current study aims to identify the infection status of these bacteria in some of the commonly found butterfly species in ...

  6. Developing "Butterfly Warriors": A Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen…

  7. Propagating native milkweeds for restoring monarch butterfly habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten. Dumroese

    2015-01-01

    The number of monarch butterflies, charismatic nomads of North America, is rapidly declining. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), which are the sole food source for monarch caterpillars, have also experienced a decline throughout the breeding range of this butterfly. Milkweeds can be grown from seeds or vegetatively from root cuttings or rhizomes. Seed germination is often...

  8. Nectar amino acids enhance reproduction in male butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Erhardt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    After over 30 years of research, it was recently shown that nectar amino acids increase female butterfly fecundity. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of nectar amino acids on male butterfly reproduction. Here, we show that larval food conditions (nitrogen-rich vs. nitrogen-poor host plants) and adult diet quality (nectar with or without amino acids) affected the amount of consumed nectar in Coenonympha pamphilus males. Furthermore, amino acids in the nectar diet of males increased progeny's larval hatching mass, irrespective of paternal larval reserves. Our study takes the whole reproductive cycle of male butterflies into account, and also considers the role of females in passing male nutrients to offspring, as males' realized reproduction was examined indirectly via nuptial gifts, by female performance. With this comprehensive approach, we demonstrate for the first time that nectar amino acids can improve male butterfly reproduction, supporting the old postulate that nectar amino acids generally enhance butterfly fitness.

  9. Butterfly diversity in Kolkata, India: An appraisal for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnali Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An appraisal of butterfly species diversity was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Random sampling of rural, suburban, and urban sites in and around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 96 butterfly species, dominated by Lycaenidae (31.25% over Nymphalidae (28.13%, Hesperiidae (18.75%, Pieridae (12.50%, and Papilionidae (9.38%. Suburban sites accounted for 96 species, followed by rural (81 species and urban (53 species over the study period. The relative abundance of the butterflies varied with the site, month, and family significantly. It is apparent that the urban areas of Kolkata can sustain diverse butterfly species which includes species of requiring conservation effort. Considering the landscape of Kolkata, steps to enhance urban greening should be adopted to maintain butterfly diversity and sustain the ecosystem services derived from them.

  10. The evolution of chemical defenses in passion vine butterflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro de Castro, Érika Cristina

    The bright and colorful Neotropical butterflies of the Heliconius genus are avoided by most insectivorous predators. Inexperienced birds and lizards may bite Heliconius butterflies, but immediately release them due to their toxic taste. The distastefulness of these butterflies is associated...... with the presence of defense compounds called cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs), which deter predators because of their bitterness and the release of hydrogen cyanide upon degradation. Heliconius butterflies and basal heliconiines biosynthesize the aliphatic CNglcs linamarin and lotaustralin. Additionally, Heliconius...... heliconiine subfamily. Despite sequestration of these compounds being an older adaptation than expected, biosynthesis of aliphatic CNglcs is hypothesized to be even more ancient, arising in lepidopterans before butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor. In addition, this study shows...

  11. On the reliability of a simple method for scoring phenotypes to estimate heritability: A case study with pupal color in Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Andrejew Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two methods for assessing the degree of melanization of pupal exuviae from the butterfly Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiini are compared. In the first method, which was qualitative, the exuviae were classified by scoring the degree of melanization, whereas in the second method, which was quantitative, the exuviae were classified by optical density followed by analysis with appropriate software. The heritability (h 2 of the degree of melanization was estimated by regression and analysis of variance. The estimates of h 2 were similar with both methods, indicating that the qualitative method could be particularly suitable for field work. The low estimates obtained for heritability may have resulted from the small sample size ( n = 7-18 broods, including the parents or from the allocation-priority hypothesis in which pupal color would be a lower priority trait compared to morphological traits and adequate larval development.

  12. Diversidad del orden Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea de la ciudad Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Lazzeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de urbanización representa una de las amenazas más importantes a la biodiversidad. Los lepidópteros son uno de los grupos taxonómicos utilizados como indicadores de la diversidad y calidad del ambiente. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer los Lepidoptera (Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea de la ciudad de Corrientes. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos al azar en un parche de bosque nativo situado en el barrio Santa Catalina y en un área antropizada, el Parque Mitre. Las recolectas se realizaron en las cuatro estaciones climáticas entre enero y octubre de 2007 con redes entomológicas. El total de ejemplares capturados asciende a 1 114, los que se distribuyen en seis familias: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae y Riodinidae y 18 subfamilias. Se identificaron 59 géneros y 75 especies. Anartia jatrophae jatrophae fue la especie más abundante en ambas unidades. Esta especie junto a Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus y Dryas iulia alcionea se capturaron en todas las estaciones. El mayor número de ejemplares se colectó en las estaciones más cálidas. La abundancia (n=701, riqueza (S=74 y diversidad (H’=3.87 fueron superiores en Santa Catalina. Las unidades exploradas exhiben una elevada riqueza de especies y alta similitud.Diversity of the order Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea from Corrientes city, Argentina. Urbanization is one of the most important threats for biodiversity. Among many different organisms, butterflies are useful indicators of environment diversity and quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the Lepidoptera from Corrientes city. Random samplings were performed at two sites: a native forest situated in Santa Catalina district and an urban area, Parque Mitre. The captures were carried out using entomological nets, at four seasons between January to October 2007. A total of 1 114 butterflies, represented by six families: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae

  13. Not only the butterflies: managing ants on road verges to benefit Phengaris (Maculinea) butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynhoff, I.; Gestel, van R.; Swaay, van C.; Langevelde, van F.

    2011-01-01

    Obligate myrmecophilic butterfly species, such as Phengaris (Maculinea) teleius and P. nausithous, have narrow habitat requirements. Living as a caterpillar in the nests of the ant species Myrmica scabrinodis and M. rubra, respectively, they can only survive on sites with both host ants and the host

  14. stockées Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    herba alba, sur la population d'insectes ravageurs des denrées stockées Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera). Le bio-pesticide agit avec un double mécanisme d'action. Administré chez les adultes, l'huile essentielle provoque un taux de mortalité significatif par rapport aux témoins. Alors que son administration sur les.

  15. Butterfly pollination in Pteroglossa (Orchidaceae, Orchidoideae): a comparative study on the reproductive biology of two species of a Neotropical genus of Spiranthinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansarin, Emerson R; Ferreira, Alessandro W C

    2015-05-01

    Spiranthinae orchids are known for being self-compatible and offering nectar as a reward. Although data on their pollinators are scarce, members of this tribe are mostly pollinated by bees, hummingbirds and moths. Some of them even reproduce through facultative self-pollination. Nothing is known about the pollinators and reproduction system in Pteroglossa. Based on records on flowering phenology, floral morphology, reward production, pollinators and breeding system, this paper aims to study the reproductive biology of two Pteroglossa spp. Both species offer nectar as a resource and are pollinated exclusively by diurnal Lepidoptera at the studied areas. Nectar is produced by two glandular nectaries, and is stored in a spur. Pollinaria possess a ventrally adhesive viscidium that is deposited on the basal portion of butterfly proboscides. Both species are self-compatible but pollinator-dependent. The reproductive success is low when compared to other Spiranthinae. Although no evident mechanical barrier to avoid self-pollination or geitonogamy was identified, the erratic behavior of the butterflies, with their infrequent visits to only one flower per inflorescence, contributes to an increased fruit set produced through cross-pollination. The presence of ventrally adhesive viscidia in Spiranthinae is responsible for greater pollinator diversity when compared to bee-pollinated Goodyerinae with dorsally adhesive viscidia, adapted to attach to bee mouthparts.

  16. Thermoregulation and microhabitat use in mountain butterflies of the genus Erebia: importance of fine-scale habitat heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleckova, Irena; Konvicka, Martin; Klecka, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Mountain butterflies have evolved efficient thermoregulation strategies enabling their survival in marginal conditions with short flight season and unstable weather. Understanding the importance of their behavioural thermoregulation by habitat use can provide novel information for predicting the fate of alpine Lepidoptera and other insects under ongoing climate change. We studied the link between microhabitat use and thermoregulation in adults of seven species of a butterfly genus Erebia co-occurring in the Austrian Alps. We captured individuals in the field and measured their body temperature in relation to microhabitat and air temperature. We asked whether closely related species regulate their body temperature differently, and if so, what is the effect of behaviour, species traits and individual traits on body to air and body to microhabitat temperature differences. Co-occurring species differed in mean body temperature. These differences were driven by active microhabitat selection by individuals and also by species-specific habitat preferences. Species inhabiting grasslands and rocks utilised warmer microclimates to maintain higher body temperature than woodland species. Under low air temperatures, species of rocky habitats heated up more effectively than species of grasslands and woodlands which allowed them to stay active in colder weather. Species morphology and individual traits play rather minor roles in the thermoregulatory differences; although large species and young individuals maintained higher body temperature. We conclude that diverse microhabitat conditions at small spatial scales probably contribute to sympatric occurrence of closely related species with different thermal demands and that preserving heterogeneous conditions in alpine landscapes might mitigate detrimental consequences of predicted climate change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Butterfly Effect on Peace Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Cerdas-Agüero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper on peace education is to generate a reflection, through the metaphor of the butterfly effect, on the importance of educating for peace during the change process of human beings and society.  It proposes education for peace as a human right, an experience and learning process that is put into practice by human beings.  It aims at changing attitudes and actions to create harmonious relationships based on the respect and recognition of human rights, and the freedom and dignity of every person.

  18. Illustrate the Butterfly Effect on the Chaos Rikitake System

    OpenAIRE

    Gholipour, Yousof; Ramezani, Amin; Mola, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents butterfly effect on a Chaos system. In this letter we want to briefly introduce Chaos Rikitake system and monitor the butterfly effect on this system. In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependency on initial conditions. For this goal at the first we suppose initiation point and plot it, for base of work, later will apply small change on one item of initiation point and monitor behavior of Rikitake system. At the end we want to reclaim the famous lectur...

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of partially open butterfly valve flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.; Kim, R.H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science

    1996-09-01

    A numerical simulation of butterfly valve flows is a useful technique to investigate the physical phenomena of the flow field. A three-dimensional numerical analysis was carried out on incompressible fluid flows in a butterfly valve by using FLUENT, which solves difference equations. Characteristics of the butterfly valve flows at different valve disk angles with a uniform incoming velocity were investigated. Comparisons of FLUENT results with other results, i.e., experimental results, were made to determine the accuracy of the employed method. Results of the three-dimensional analysis may be useful in the valve design.

  20. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  1. Neuroethology of ultrasonic hearing in nocturnal butterflies (Hedyloidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yack, Jayne E.; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2007-01-01

    Nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies possess ultrasound-sensitive ears that mediate evasive flight maneuvers. Tympanal ear morphology, auditory physiology and behavioural responses to ultrasound are described for Macrosoma heliconiaria, and evidence for hearing is described for eight other hedylid....... Extracellular recordings from IIN1c reveal sensory responses to ultrasonic (>20 kHz), but not low frequency(butterflies exposed to ultrasound exhibit a variety of evasive maneuvers...... of evolutionary divergence, since we demonstrate that the ears are homologous to low frequency ears in some diurnal Nymphalidae butterflies....

  2. Fractional statistics and the butterfly effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingfei; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Fractional statistics and quantum chaos are both phenomena associated with the non-local storage of quantum information. In this article, we point out a connection between the butterfly effect in (1+1)-dimensional rational conformal field theories and fractional statistics in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states. This connection comes from the characterization of the butterfly effect by the out-of-time-order-correlator proposed recently. We show that the late-time behavior of such correlators is determined by universal properties of the rational conformal field theory such as the modular S-matrix and conformal spins. Using the bulk-boundary correspondence between rational conformal field theories and (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states, we show that the late time behavior of out-of-time-order-correlators is intrinsically connected with fractional statistics in the topological order. We also propose a quantitative measure of chaos in a rational conformal field theory, which turns out to be determined by the topological entanglement entropy of the corresponding topological order.

  3. Wolbachia Sequence Typing in Butterflies Using Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungmi; Shin, Su-Kyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Yi, Hana

    2015-09-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate symbiotic bacteria that is ubiquitous in arthropods, with 25-70% of insect species estimated to be infected. Wolbachia species can interact with their insect hosts in a mutualistic or parasitic manner. Sequence types (ST) of Wolbachia are determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of housekeeping genes. However, there are some limitations to MLST with respect to the generation of clone libraries and the Sanger sequencing method when a host is infected with multiple STs of Wolbachia. To assess the feasibility of massive parallel sequencing, also known as next-generation sequencing, we used pyrosequencing for sequence typing of Wolbachia in butterflies. We collected three species of butterflies (Eurema hecabe, Eurema laeta, and Tongeia fischeri) common to Korea and screened them for Wolbachia STs. We found that T. fischeri was infected with a single ST of Wolbachia, ST41. In contrast, E. hecabe and E. laeta were each infected with two STs of Wolbachia, ST41 and ST40. Our results clearly demonstrate that pyrosequencing-based MLST has a higher sensitivity than cloning and Sanger sequencing methods for the detection of minor alleles. Considering the high prevalence of infection with multiple Wolbachia STs, next-generation sequencing with improved analysis would assist with scaling up approaches to Wolbachia MLST.

  4. Fractional statistics and the butterfly effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yingfei; Qi, Xiao-Liang [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-08-23

    Fractional statistics and quantum chaos are both phenomena associated with the non-local storage of quantum information. In this article, we point out a connection between the butterfly effect in (1+1)-dimensional rational conformal field theories and fractional statistics in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states. This connection comes from the characterization of the butterfly effect by the out-of-time-order-correlator proposed recently. We show that the late-time behavior of such correlators is determined by universal properties of the rational conformal field theory such as the modular S-matrix and conformal spins. Using the bulk-boundary correspondence between rational conformal field theories and (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states, we show that the late time behavior of out-of-time-order-correlators is intrinsically connected with fractional statistics in the topological order. We also propose a quantitative measure of chaos in a rational conformal field theory, which turns out to be determined by the topological entanglement entropy of the corresponding topological order.

  5. A mathematical model of exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to Bt-maize pollen expressing Cry1Ab within Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. N.; Devos, Y.; Arpaia, S.; Bartsch, D.; Gathmann, A.; Hails, R. S.; Kiss, J.; Lheureux, K.; Manachini, B.; Mestdagh, S.; Neemann, G.; Ortego, F.; Schiemann, J.; Sweet, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 expresses a Cry1Ab insecticidal protein, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), toxic to lepidopteran target pests such as Ostrinia nubilalis. An environmental risk to non-target Lepidoptera from this GM crop is exposure to harmful amounts of Bt-containing pollen deposited on host plants in or near MON810 fields. An 11-parameter mathematical model analysed exposure of larvae of three non-target species: the butterflies Inachis io (L.), Vanessa atalanta (L.) and moth Plutella xylostella (L.), in 11 representative maize cultivation regions in four European countries. A mortality–dose relationship was integrated with a dose–distance relationship to estimate mortality both within the maize MON810 crop and within the field margin at varying distances from the crop edge. Mortality estimates were adjusted to allow for physical effects; the lack of temporal coincidence between the susceptible larval stage concerned and the period over which maize MON810 pollen is shed; and seven further parameters concerned with maize agronomy and host-plant ecology. Sublethal effects were estimated and allowance made for aggregated pollen deposition. Estimated environmental impact was low: in all regions, the calculated mortality rate for worst-case scenarios was less than one individual in every 1572 for the butterflies and one in 392 for the moth. PMID:20053648

  6. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.

  7. Diet composition of nestlings and adults of the threatened Bolivian Swallow-tailed Cotinga Phibalura flavirostris boliviana (Aves: Passeriformes: Cotingidae in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica del Rosario Avalos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative composition of the nestling and adult diet of the threatened Swallow-tailed Cotinga Phibalura flavirostris boliviana was studied through the analysis of fecal samples.  Nestling diet consisted of 62% fruit and 38% insects but varied according to the nestling age. The diet of adults was made up of 89% fruit and 11% insects.  The fruit eaten came primarily from the trees Schefflera morototoni, Hyeronima moritziana and Ocotea cuprea.  Most insects in the fecal samples were winged-species of the orders Hymenoptera and Coleoptera.  This species relied mostly on fruiting trees from semi-humid forest fragments and isolated trees on mountain savannas.  Thus, management plans for this bird should consider the conservation of these habitats. 

  8. Holographic butterfly effect and diffusion in quantum critical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Xian, Zhuo-Yu

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the butterfly effect and charge diffusion near the quantum phase transition in holographic approach. We argue that their criticality is controlled by the holographic scaling geometry with deformations induced by a relevant operator at finite temperature. Specifically, in the quantum critical region controlled by a single fixed point, the butterfly velocity decreases when deviating from the critical point. While, in the non-critical region, the behavior of the butterfly velocity depends on the specific phase at low temperature. Moreover, in the holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, the universal behavior of the butterfly velocity is absent. Finally, the tendency of our holographic results matches with the numerical results of Bose-Hubbard model. A comparison between our result and that in the O( N ) nonlinear sigma model is also given.

  9. Numerical study of solid particle erosion in butterfly valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhao, Jiangang; Qian, Jianhua

    2017-07-01

    In the actual operation of butterfly valve, the butterfly valve is found severe erosion wear. A solid particle erosion analysis of butterfly valve based on the erosion theory is researched in this study. A CFD model has been built to simulate the flow erosion. Different parameters of butterfly valve including inlet velocity, particle mass fraction and solid particle diameter are separately analysed. The results show that erosion rate increase with the increase of inlet velocity, particle mass fraction and solid particle diameter. The peak erosion rate is up to 4.63E-5 (kg/m2/s) and erosion of valve disc mainly occurs around the upstream edge and the cylinder face.

  10. Some Possible Cases of Escape Mimicry in Neotropical Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L

    2014-10-01

    The possibility that escape or evasive mimicry evolved in butterflies and other prey insects in a similar fashion to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry has long been advanced in the literature. However, there is a general disagreement among lepidopterists and evolutionary biologists on whether or not escape mimicry exists, as well as in which mimicry rings this form of mimicry has evolved. Here, we review some purported cases of escape mimicry in Neotropical butterflies and suggest new mimicry rings involving several species of Archaeoprepona, Prepona, and Doxocopa (the "bright blue bands" ring) and species of Colobura and Hypna (the "creamy bands" ring) where the palatability of butterflies, their ability to escape predator attacks, geographic distribution, relative abundance, and co-occurrence in the same habitats strongly suggest that escape mimicry is involved. In addition, we also indicate other butterfly taxa whose similarities of coloration patterns could be due to escape mimicry and would constitute important case studies for future investigation.

  11. Study of structural colour of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya; Kuznetsov, D. K.; Pryakhina, V. I.; Kosobokov, M. S.; Zubarev, I. V.; Boymuradova, S. K.; Volchetskaya, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    Structural colours of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales have been studied experimentally using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Visualization of scales structures and computer simulation allowed distinguishing correlation between nanostructures on the scales and their colour.

  12. Karner blue butterfly: Annual summary for Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses research being conducted on the Karner blue butterfly and historic landscape changes in Necedah National Wildlife Refuge.

  13. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  14. Butterfly morphology in a molecular age -- does it still matter in butterfly systematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Thomas J; de Jong, Rienk; Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri

    2012-07-01

    We review morphological characters considered important for understanding butterfly phylogeny and evolution in the light of recent large-scale molecular phylogenies of the group. A number of the most important morphological works from the past half century are reviewed and morphological character evolution is reassessed based on the most recent phylogenetic results. In particular, higher level butterfly morphology is evaluated based on a very recent study combining an elaborate morphological dataset with a similar molecular one. Special attention is also given to the families Papilionidae, Nymphalidae and Hesperiidae which have all seen morphological and molecular efforts come together in large, combined works in recent years. In all of the examined cases the synergistic effect of combining elaborate morphological datasets with ditto molecular clearly outweigh the merits of either data type analysed on its own (even for 'genome size' molecular datasets). It is evident that morphology, far from being obsolete or arcane, still has an immensely important role to play in butterfly (and insect) phylogenetics. Not least because understanding morphology is essential for understanding and evaluating the evolutionary scenarios phylogenetic trees are supposed to illustrate. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  16. Rapid microsatellite isolation from a butterfly by de novo transcriptome sequencing: performance and a comparison with AFLP-derived distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S Mikheyev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The isolation of microsatellite markers remains laborious and expensive. For some taxa, such as Lepidoptera, development of microsatellite markers has been particularly difficult, as many markers appear to be located in repetitive DNA and have nearly identical flanking regions. We attempted to circumvent this problem by bioinformatic mining of microsatellite sequences from a de novo-sequenced transcriptome of a butterfly (Euphydryas editha. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By searching the assembled sequence data for perfect microsatellite repeats we found 10 polymorphic loci. Although, like many expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellites, our markers show strong deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in many populations, and, in some cases, a high incidence of null alleles, we show that they nonetheless provide measures of population differentiation consistent with those obtained by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation between 23 populations were concordant between microsatellite-derived data and AFLP analysis of the same samples (r = 0.71, p<0.00001, 425 individuals from 23 populations. SIGNIFICANCE: De novo transcriptional sequencing appears to be a rapid and cost-effective tool for developing microsatellite markers for difficult genomes.

  17. Rapid microsatellite isolation from a butterfly by de novo transcriptome sequencing: performance and a comparison with AFLP-derived distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheyev, Alexander S; Vo, Tanya; Wee, Brian; Singer, Michael C; Parmesan, Camille

    2010-06-18

    The isolation of microsatellite markers remains laborious and expensive. For some taxa, such as Lepidoptera, development of microsatellite markers has been particularly difficult, as many markers appear to be located in repetitive DNA and have nearly identical flanking regions. We attempted to circumvent this problem by bioinformatic mining of microsatellite sequences from a de novo-sequenced transcriptome of a butterfly (Euphydryas editha). By searching the assembled sequence data for perfect microsatellite repeats we found 10 polymorphic loci. Although, like many expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellites, our markers show strong deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in many populations, and, in some cases, a high incidence of null alleles, we show that they nonetheless provide measures of population differentiation consistent with those obtained by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation between 23 populations were concordant between microsatellite-derived data and AFLP analysis of the same samples (r = 0.71, p<0.00001, 425 individuals from 23 populations). De novo transcriptional sequencing appears to be a rapid and cost-effective tool for developing microsatellite markers for difficult genomes.

  18. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells......This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...

  19. Modal-Based Design Improvement of a Butterfly Valve Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Draghiciu; Zoltan-Iosif Korka; Gilbert-Rainer Gillich

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour control of a butterfly valve is important because, when one of the valve disc natural frequency is close to the frequency of vortex shedding, which appears when the valve is fully open or partially closed, resonance may appear and vibration with significant amplitudes is generated. This paper presents an example by how the design of a butterfly valve disc can be improved by using a modal analysis performed by means of the finite element method. For this purpose, the rese...

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Butterfly Valve Performance Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Del Toro, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Butterfly valves are commonly used in industrial applications to control the internal flow of both compressible and incompressible fluids. A butterfly valve typically consists of a metal disc formed around a central shaft, which acts as its axis of rotation. As the valve's opening angle is increased from 0 degrees (fully closed) to 90 degrees (fully open), fluid is able to more readily flow past the valve. Characterizing a valve's performance factors, such as pressure drop, hydrodynamic torqu...

  1. Infrared detection based on localized modification of Morpho butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangyu; Shen, Qingchen; Shi, Xindong; Li, Shipu; Wang, Wanlin; Luo, Zhen; He, Gufeng; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Di; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-02-01

    Inspired by butterflies an advanced detection and sensing system is developed. The hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Morpho butterfly wings is shown to facilitate the selective modification of such a structure, which results in a sensitive infrared response. These findings offer a new path both for detecting infrared photons and for generating nanostructured bimaterial systems for high-performance sensing platforms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P Patwardhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp., Pieridae (17 spp, Lycaenidae (47 spp., Nymphalidae (40 spp. and Hesperiidae (28 spp.. The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

  3. Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor, Ariadne merione (Cramer; painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury; species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar. In Papilionidae included: subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus. In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus; yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly, Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicae Linnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus; small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.

  4. AFM study of structure influence on butterfly wings coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva; Pavel Tomanek

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body,...

  5. Hearing in a diurnal, mute butterfly, Morpho peleides (Papilionoidea, Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Karla A; Lucas, Kathleen M; Yack, Jayne E

    2008-06-10

    Butterflies use visual and chemical cues when interacting with their environment, but the role of hearing is poorly understood in these insects. Nymphalidae (brush-footed) butterflies occur worldwide in almost all habitats and continents, and comprise more than 6,000 species. In many species a unique forewing structure--Vogel's organ--is thought to function as an ear. At present, however, there is little experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. We studied the functional organization of Vogel's organ in the common blue morpho butterfly, Morpho peleides, which represents the majority of Nymphalidae in that it is diurnal and does not produce sounds. Our results confirm that Vogel's organ possesses the morphological and physiological characteristics of a typical insect tympanal ear. The tympanum has an oval-shaped outer membrane and a convex inner membrane. Associated with the inner surface of the tympanum are three chordotonal organs, each containing 10-20 scolopidia. Extracellular recordings from the auditory nerve show that Vogel's organ is most sensitive to sounds between 2-4 kHz at median thresholds of 58 dB SPL. Most butterfly species that possess Vogel's organ are diurnal, and mute, so bat detection and conspecific communication can be ruled out as roles for hearing. We hypothesize that Vogel's organs in butterflies such as M. peleides have evolved to detect flight sounds of predatory birds. The evolution and taxonomic distribution of butterfly hearing organs are discussed.

  6. The effects of seasonally variable dragonfly predation on butterfly assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiitsaar, Anu; Kaasik, Ants; Teder, Tiit

    2013-01-01

    Where predation is seasonally variable, the potential impact of a predator on individual prey species will critically depend on phenological synchrony of the predator with the prey. Here we explored the effects of seasonally variable predation in multispecies assemblages of short-lived prey. The study was conducted in a landscape in which we had previously demonstrated generally high, but spatially and seasonally variable dragonfly-induced mortality in adult butterflies. In this system, we show that patterns of patch occupancy in butterfly species flying during periods of peak dragonfly abundance are more strongly associated with spatial variation in dragonfly abundance than patch occupancy of species flying when dragonfly density was low. We provide evidence indicating that this differential sensitivity of different butterfly species to between-habitat differences in dragonfly abundance is causally tied to seasonal variation in the intensity of dragonfly predation. The effect of dragonfly predation could also be measured at the level of whole local butterfly assemblages. With dragonfly density increasing, butterfly species richness decreased, and butterfly species composition tended to show a shift toward a greater proportion of species flying during periods of off-peak dragonfly abundance.

  7. Criticality in third order lovelock gravity and butterfly effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2018-01-01

    We study third order Lovelock Gravity in D=7 at the critical point which three (A)dS vacua degenerate into one. We see there is not propagating graviton at the critical point. And also we compute the butterfly velocity for this theory at the critical point by considering the shock wave solutions near horizon, this is important to note that although there is no propagating graviton at the critical point, due to boundary gravitons the butterfly velocity is non-zero. Finally we observe that the butterfly velocity for third order Lovelock Gravity at the critical point in D=7 is less than the butterfly velocity for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity at the critical point in D=7 which is less than the butterfly velocity in D = 7 for Einstein Gravity, vB^{E.H}>vB^{E.G.B}>vB^{3rd Lovelock} . Maybe we can conclude that by adding higher order curvature corrections to Einstein Gravity the butterfly velocity decreases.

  8. Genetic Basis of Melanin Pigmentation in Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Martin, Arnaud; Perry, Michael W; van der Burg, Karin R L; Matsuoka, Yuji; Monteiro, Antónia; Reed, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Despite the variety, prominence, and adaptive significance of butterfly wing patterns, surprisingly little is known about the genetic basis of wing color diversity. Even though there is intense interest in wing pattern evolution and development, the technical challenge of genetically manipulating butterflies has slowed efforts to functionally characterize color pattern development genes. To identify candidate wing pigmentation genes, we used RNA sequencing to characterize transcription across multiple stages of butterfly wing development, and between different color pattern elements, in the painted lady butterfly Vanessa cardui This allowed us to pinpoint genes specifically associated with red and black pigment patterns. To test the functions of a subset of genes associated with presumptive melanin pigmentation, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in four different butterfly genera. pale, Ddc, and yellow knockouts displayed reduction of melanin pigmentation, consistent with previous findings in other insects. Interestingly, however, yellow-d, ebony, and black knockouts revealed that these genes have localized effects on tuning the color of red, brown, and ochre pattern elements. These results point to previously undescribed mechanisms for modulating the color of specific wing pattern elements in butterflies, and provide an expanded portrait of the insect melanin pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Developing `Butterfly Warriors': a Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-12-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen scientists. The butterfly unit included five lessons. The researchers observed the lessons and interviewed students and the classroom teacher. The students completed a unit evaluation survey after the unit. Findings indicate that the students enjoyed and were interested in activities such as reading about butterflies, learning and using new vocabulary, drawing butterfly life cycles, as well as hunting, tagging and releasing butterflies and publishing the data they had collected on a dedicated website. Through their participation in the unit, students had opportunities to act locally and globally, and to `see themselves' in science through `being there' experience. Units like this have the potential to develop students' interest for longer-term engagement in science, even those students who may never envision themselves as professional scientists.

  10. Interspecific and intersexual learning rate differences in four butterfly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Ikuo; Yamaki, Takafumi; Okuyama, Sei-Ichi; Sakamoto, Noboru; Yokoi, Tomoyuki

    2009-12-01

    Learning plays an important role in food acquisition for a wide range of insects and has been demonstrated to be essential during flower foraging in taxa such as bees, parasitoid wasps, butterflies and moths. However, little attention has been focused on differences in floral cue learning abilities among species and sexes. We examined the associative learning of flower colour with nectar in four butterfly species: Idea leuconoe, Argyreus hyperbius, Pieris rapae and Lycaena phlaeas. All butterflies that were trained learned the flower colours associated with food. The flower colour learning rates were significantly higher in I. leuconoe and A. hyperbius than in P. rapae and L. phlaeas. Among the four species examined, the larger and longer-lived species exhibited higher learning rates. Furthermore, female butterflies showed a significantly higher learning rate than males. This study provides the first evidence that learning abilities related to floral cues differ among butterfly species. The adaptive significance of superior learning abilities in the larger and longer-lived butterfly species and in females is discussed.

  11. Multidisciplinary optimization of a butterfly valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xue Guan; Wang, Lin; Baek, Seok Heum; Park, Young Chul

    2009-07-01

    A butterfly valve is a type of flow control device, typically used to regulate fluid flow. This paper proposes a new process to meet desired needs in valve design that is characterized by the complex configuration. First, the need is identified according to the valve user/company, and then the problem is defined with a characteristic function. Second, the initial model of valve is made, and then the initial analysis including fluid and/or structural analysis is carried out to predict the fluid and/or structural performance of the valve. Third, the optimization in the form of mathematical functions, which considers single or multiple objective and/or discipline, is handled. This part includes the design of computer experiment, approximation technique, topology optimization and sizing optimization. Finally, the validation experiment is conducted based on the optimum result to verify the accuracy of the optimization. An example is provided to confirm the availability of the process proposed here.

  12. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  13. Coloration mechanisms and phylogeny of Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M A; Yoshioka, S; Liu, C; Stavenga, D G

    2016-12-15

    Morpho butterflies are universally admired for their iridescent blue coloration, which is due to nanostructured wing scales. We performed a comparative study on the coloration of 16 Morpho species, investigating the morphological, spectral and spatial scattering properties of the differently organized wing scales. In numerous previous studies, the bright blue Morpho coloration has been fully attributed to the multi-layered ridges of the cover scales' upper laminae, but we found that the lower laminae of the cover and ground scales play an important additional role, by acting as optical thin film reflectors. We conclude that Morpho coloration is a subtle combination of overlapping pigmented and/or unpigmented scales, multilayer systems, optical thin films and sometimes undulated scale surfaces. Based on the scales' architecture and their organization, five main groups can be distinguished within the genus Morpho, largely agreeing with the accepted phylogeny. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Symmetry Breaking in Hofstadter's Butterfly in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Carlos; Dean, Cory; Wang, Lei; Maher, Patrick; Ghahari, Fereshte; Moon, Pilkyung; Koshino, Mikito; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Shepard, Ken; Hone, Jim; Kim, Philip

    2013-03-01

    We will present magnetotransport measurements in hBN encapsulated bilayer graphene devices where one of hBN substrates provides a weak modulation of lattice potential. Under a strong magnetic field, interplay between periodic electric potential and quantizing magnetic field lead to a fractal energy spectrum known as Hofstadter's butterfly. In graphene, while spin and layer symmetry breakings are expected in dual gated devices under large magnetic fields, valley symmetry breaking in the Hofstadter regime is not so easily understood. We will present the observance of these measured gaps along with a discussion of symmetry breaking in our BLG-hBN devices. Further quantitative analysis of these breakings will be presented through the temperature dependence of quantized conductance at these gaps. Through careful modulation of temperature and electron density, we have extracted a range of activation energies associated with symmetry breakings. the speaker acknowledges support from the Columbia Optics and Quantum Electronics IGERT under NSF grant DGE-1069420

  15. Determining optimal population monitoring for rare butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick M; Hudgens, Brian; Damiani, Chris; Gross, Kevin; Kuefler, Daniel; Pollock, Ken

    2008-08-01

    Determining population viability of rare insects depends on precise, unbiased estimates of population size and other demographic parameters. We used data on the endangered St. Francis' satyr butterfly (Neonympha mitchellii francisci) to evaluate 2 approaches (mark-recapture and transect counts) for population analysis of rare butterflies. Mark-recapture analysis provided by far the greatest amount of demographic information, including estimates (and standard errors) of population size, detection, survival, and recruitment probabilities. Mark-recapture analysis can also be used to estimate dispersal and temporal variation in rates, although we did not do this here. Models of seasonal flight phenologies derived from transect counts (Insect Count Analyzer) provided an index of population size and estimates of survival and statistical uncertainty. Pollard-Yates population indices derived from transect counts did not provide estimates of demographic parameters. This index may be highly biased if detection and survival probabilities vary spatially and temporally. In terms of statistical performance, mark-recapture and Pollard-Yates indices were least variable. Mark-recapture estimates were less likely to fail than Insect Count Analyzer, but mark-recapture estimates became less precise as sampling intensity decreased. In general, count-based approaches are less costly and less likely to cause harm to rare insects than mark-recapture. The optimal monitoring approach must reconcile these trade-offs. Thus, mark-recapture should be favored when demographic estimates are needed, when financial resources enable frequent sampling, and when marking does not harm the insect populations. The optimal sampling strategy may use 2 sampling methods together in 1 overall sampling plan: limited mark-recapture sampling to estimate survival and detection probabilities and frequent but less expensive transect counts.

  16. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Seasonal dynamics of butterfly population in DAE Campus, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal population trends of butterflies inhabiting the campus of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE at Kalpakkam were recorded by setting a permanent line transect of 300m and recording all species of butterflies observed within a 5m distance. The survey yielded 2177 individuals of 56 butterfly species, belonging to the families Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae and Hesperiidae. Nymphalidae were found to be the dominant family during all seasons. Species richness and abundance were highest during the northeast monsoon and winter periods, indicating that in the southern plains of India butterflies prefer cool seasons for breeding and emergence. The taxonomic structure of the butterflies sampled resembles that of the Western Ghats and other regions of India in two ways: (a dominance of nymphalids and (b peak abundance during wet seasons. A detailed study of ecologically important local butterfly fauna and their host plants is in progress, to construct a butterfly garden in Kalpakkam to attract and support butterflies.

  18. Using a phenological network to assess weather influences on first appearance of butterflies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, Van Der Henk Jan; Wallis de Vries, Michiel; Vliet, Van Arnold J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Phenological responses of butterflies to temperature have been demonstrated in several European countries by using data from standardized butterfly monitoring schemes. Recently, phenological networks have enabled volunteers to record phenological observations at project websites. In this study,

  19. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.

  20. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species.

  1. The butterfly effect: an investigation of sectioned roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Assil A; Chandler, Nicholas P; Hauman, Catharina; Siddiqui, Amna Y; Tompkins, Geoffrey R

    2013-02-01

    The butterfly effect is an optical phenomenon seen in some sections of tooth roots. The aim of this work was to investigate the density of dentinal tubules in mesiodistal and buccolingual cross-sections of roots exhibiting the butterfly effect and to determine if the effect is featured throughout the length of roots and is age related. Thirty extracted single-rooted teeth were allocated to the following groups according to patient age: group 1: 15-24 years, group 2: 25-44 years, and group 3: 45 years and over. The teeth were decoronated, and their roots were embedded in acrylic and cut into ten 1 mm-thick cross-sections. Sections were viewed under a light microscope and coded (1 or 2) according to presence or absence of the butterfly effect. A root scored 20 when all levels exhibited the butterfly appearance. The 2 teeth with the highest score from each group and 2 control teeth with the minimum score (of 10) were selected. Two adjacent, consecutive cross-sections were chosen with the most coronal cut mesiodistally and the other buccolingually. Scanning electron micrographs (×850) were taken of the central portion of their canal lumina and the density of the dentinal tubules determined. The butterfly effect was found at all levels in the roots of the affected teeth. The tubule density was highest in the buccolingual root sections (45,348 mm(-2)) and lowest mesiodistally (12,605 mm(-2)), a significant difference (P = .02). This trend was found across all age groups. Root sections with the butterfly effect have a lower density of dentinal tubules mesiodistally corresponding to the wings of the butterfly. The pattern was observed in teeth from all age groups and was absent in controls. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. APROXIMACIÓN AL ESTUDIO DE LA INTERACCIÓN ENTRE Aristolochia maxima Y LARVAS DE LAS MARIPOSAS Battus polydamas polydamas Y Parides panares erythrus MEDIADA POR ÁCIDOS ARISTOLÓQUICOS Approach to the Interaction Studies of Aristolochia maxima and the Caterpillars of Butterflies Battus polydamas polydamas and Parides panares erythrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO A CLARO

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Las mariposas de la tribu Troidini (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae capturan los ácidos aristolóquicos (AAs provenientes de su alimentación larval en plantas de Aristolochiaceae para su protección. En este estudio se detectó la presencia de los ácidos aristóloquicos I y II (AAI y AAII en hojas jóvenes de Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae y en larvas de las mariposas Battus polydamas polydamas y Parides panares erythrus (Papilionidae, Papilioninae por Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Eficiencia (CLAE. De acuerdo con los resultados de los perfiles cromatógraficos por CLAE, el AAI fue el ácido aristolóquico mayoritario encontrado tanto en las larvas como en las hojas jóvenes de la planta, seguido por cantidades menores del AAII. Estos resultados permiten afirmar que la interacción plantaanimal entre las mariposas de las especies B. polydamas y P. panares y las plantas de A. maxima, está mediada, por los ácidos aristóloquicos I y II.Most butterflies of the tribe Troidini (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae sequester aristolochic acids (AA for their protection. These acids are derived from their host plants family Aristolochiaceae upon which they feed on during their larval stages. Using analytical High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC methods we were able to detect the presence of aristolochic acids I and II both in the young leaves of Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae and in the caterpillars of the butterflies Battus polydamas polydamas and Parides panares erythrus (Papilionidae, Papilioninae. Aristolochic acid I was the major constituent found, followed by lesser amounts of Aristoloquic acid II. These results confirm that the hostanimal interaction among butterflies of the studied species and A. maxima plants is mediated, by aristolochic acids.

  3. The butterflies and land snails of Ndere Island National Park, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After a survey of Ndere Island National Park between October and November 2004, we recorded 18 species of butterflies and 3 species of land snails. Eurema brigitta brigitta was the most abundant butterfly whereas Thapsia karamwegasensis was the most abundant land snail. Majority of the butterfly species are found in ...

  4. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Weingartner, Elisabet; Nylin, Sören

    2003-09-01

    Research on the molecular systematics of higher taxa in the butterfly family Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) is only just beginning. Outgroup selection is difficult at the moment due to the lack of consensus on the basal relationships of the major groups in Nymphalidae. We identify four major clades in the Nymphalidae based on a cladistic analysis of one mitochondrial gene sequence (COI, 1450 bp) and two nuclear gene sequences (EF-1alpha, 1064 bp, and wingless, 412-415 bp) from 54 exemplar species sampled from all currently recognized subfamilies. The COI data set was found to be highly incongruent with the nuclear data sets and a Partitioned Bremer Support analysis shows that the COI data set largely undermines support for most clades. Transitions at the third codon positions of the COI data set were highly saturated, but analyzing the combined data set with the COI third positions removed did not change the results. The major clades we found are termed the danaine clade (including Danainae), the satyrine clade (including Charaxinae, Satyrinae, Calinaginae, and Morphinae), the heliconiine clade (including Heliconiinae and Limenitidinae excluding Biblidini, Cyrestini, Pseudergolini, and Coeini) and the nymphaline clade (including Nymphalinae, Apaturinae, and Coeini, Cyrestini, Pseudergolini, and Biblidini from Limenitidinae). The heliconiine and nymphaline clades are sister groups, while the most parsimonious explanation for the combined data set places the danaine clade as the most basal large group of Nymphalidae. Our results give one of the strongest hypotheses for the subfamilial relationships within Nymphalidae. We were able to resolve the polyphyletic nature of Limenitidinae, which we recommend to be split into three subfamilies: Limenitidinae, Biblidinae, and Cyrestinae. The tribe Coeini belongs in Nymphalinae.

  5. Assessing diversity of diurnal lepidoptera in habitat fragments: testing the efficiency of strip transects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew R

    2008-10-01

    Species richness is the most widely used measure of biodiversity, but the relationship between the observed and true numbers of species present in a study site is not always investigated. A field study at 27 habitat remnants was used to measure the effectiveness of a survey regimen for assessing species richness of butterflies and day-active moths in southwest Western Australia. Observed species richness was compared with known species richness and to statistical estimates of true species richness, and the bootstrap was found to be the best predictor of true richness. A regimen of 10-m-wide walk transects sampled on six occasions at 2-wk intervals during the austral spring (mid-September to mid-December) gave an almost complete inventory of resident species for each site (approximately 87% of the fauna detected), consistent with two previous studies that have assessed sample completeness in temperate areas. The abundance of diurnal lepidoptera showed large temporal variation over the flight season and varied to a lesser extent with time of day and temperature, but not with cloud cover or wind speed. Transect route and sampling frequency were the most important considerations in devising a survey regimen: transects placed off tracks detected both more species and more individuals per unit length. The fraction of the site area sampled was relatively unimportant, and even low sampling fractions of 1-2% may be adequate if the number and frequency of surveys is sufficient. The design of future surveys would be facilitated if sampling fraction was routinely reported and examined in relation to sample completeness.

  6. Citizen Science: The First Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John-James; Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Lim, Aik-Hean; Lim, Voon-Ching; Lee, Ping-Shin; Sing, Kong-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, Southeast Asia has suffered the greatest losses of biodiversity of any tropical region in the world. Malaysia is a biodiversity hotspot in the heart of Southeast Asia with roughly the same number of mammal species, three times the number of butterfly species, but only 4% of the land area of Australia. Consequently, in Malaysia, there is an urgent need for biodiversity monitoring and also public engagement with wildlife to raise awareness of biodiversity loss. Citizen science is "on the rise" globally and can make valuable contributions to long-term biodiversity monitoring, but perhaps more importantly, involving the general public in science projects can raise public awareness and promote engagement. Butterflies are often the focus of citizen science projects due to their charisma and familiarity and are particularly valuable "ambassadors" of biodiversity conservation for public outreach. Here we present the data from our citizen science project, the first "Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count". Participants were asked to go outdoors on June 6, 2015, and (non-lethally) sample butterfly legs for species identification through DNA barcoding. Fifty-seven citizens responded to our adverts and registered to take part in the butterfly count with many registering on behalf of groups. Collectively the participants sampled 220 butterfly legs from 26 mostly urban and suburban sampling localities. These included our university campus, a highschool, several public parks and private residences. On the basis of 192 usable DNA barcodes, 43 species were sampled by the participants. The most sampled species was Appias olferna, followed by Junonia orithya and Zizina otis. Twenty-two species were only sampled once, five were only sampled twice, and four were only sampled three times. Three DNA barcodes could not be assigned species names. The sampled butterflies revealed that widely distributed, cosmopolitan species, often those recently arrived to the

  7. Butterfly Learning and the Diversification of Plant Leaf Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dalbosco Dell'aglio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual cues are important for insects to find flowers and host plants. It has been proposed that the diversity of leaf shape in Passiflora vines could be a result of negative frequency dependent selection driven by visual searching behavior among their butterfly herbivores. Here we tested the hypothesis that Heliconius butterflies use leaf shape as a cue to initiate approach towards a host plant. We first tested for the ability to recognize shapes using a food reward conditioning experiment. Butterflies showed an innate preference for flowers with three and five petals. However, they could be trained to increase the frequency of visits to a non-preferred flower with two petals, indicating an ability to learn to associate shape with a reward. Next we investigated shape learning specifically in the context of oviposition by conditioning females to lay eggs on two shoots associated with different artificial leaf shapes: their own host plant, Passiflora biflora, and a lanceolate non-biflora leaf shape. The conditioning treatment had a significant effect on the approach of butterflies to the two leaf shapes, consistent with a role for shape learning in oviposition behavior. This study is the first to show that Heliconius butterflies use shape as a cue for feeding and oviposition, and can learn shape preference for both flowers and leaves. This demonstrates the potential for Heliconius to drive negative frequency dependent selection on the leaf shape of their Passiflora host plants.

  8. Developmental lead exposure has mixed effects on butterfly cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Kinsey H; Kobiela, Megan E; Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of lead pollution have been well studied in vertebrates, it is unclear to what extent lead may negatively affect insect cognition. Lead pollution in soils can elevate lead in plant tissues, suggesting it could negatively affect neural development of insect herbivores. We used the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a model system to study the effect of lead pollution on insect cognitive processes, which play an important role in how insects locate and handle resources. Cabbage white butterfly larvae were reared on a 4-ppm lead diet, a concentration representative of vegetation in polluted sites; we measured eye size and performance on a foraging assay in adults. Relative to controls, lead-reared butterflies did not differ in time or ability to search for a food reward associated with a less preferred color. Indeed, lead-treated butterflies were more likely to participate in the behavioral assay itself. Lead exposure did not negatively affect survival or body size, and it actually sped up development time. The effects of lead on relative eye size varied with sex: lead tended to reduce eye size in males, but increase eye size in females. These results suggest that low levels of lead pollution may have mixed effects on butterfly vision, but only minimal impacts on performance in foraging tasks, although follow-up work is needed to test whether this result is specific to cabbage whites, which are often associated with disturbed areas.

  9. Butterfly fauna in Mount Gariwang-san, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Min Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to elucidate butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, Korea. A field survey was conducted from 2010 to 2015 using the line transect method. A literature survey was also conducted. A total of 2,037 butterflies belonging to 105 species were recorded. In the estimation of species richness of butterfly, 116 species were estimated to live in Mt. Gariwang-san. In butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, the percentage of northern species was very high and the percentage of grassland species was relatively higher than that of forest edge species and forest interior species. Sixteen red list species were found. In particular, Mimathyma nycteis was only recorded in Mt. Gariwang-san. When comparing the percentage of northern species and southern species including those recorded in previous studies, the percentage of northern species was found to have decreased significantly whereas that of southern species increased. We suggest that the butterfly community, which is distributed at relatively high altitudes on Mt. Gariwang-san, will gradually change in response to climate change.

  10. Changing biodiversity scenario in the Himalayan ecosystem: Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India, as revealed by the study of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Sidhu

    2011-01-01

    Any change in the population of butterflies is an early warning of pollution or other kinds of habitat degradation. An area rich in butterfly diversity has its own significance in the ecosystem. The current status of butterflies in Mussoorie (Uttarakhand) is reviewed. The degradation of the butterfly-rich spots of Mussoorie is discussed. A comparative chart of 66 species of Lycaenid butterflies compares species collected by earlier authors from Mussoorie with current observations. Some of the...

  11. Unconventional lift-generating mechanisms in free-flying butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, R B; Thomas, A L R

    2002-12-12

    Flying insects generate forces that are too large to be accounted for by conventional steady-state aerodynamics. To investigate these mechanisms of force generation, we trained red admiral butterflies, Vanessa atalanta, to fly freely to and from artificial flowers in a wind tunnel, and used high-resolution, smoke-wire flow visualizations to obtain qualitative, high-speed digital images of the air flow around their wings. The images show that free-flying butterflies use a variety of unconventional aerodynamic mechanisms to generate force: wake capture, two different types of leading-edge vortex, active and inactive upstrokes, in addition to the use of rotational mechanisms and the Weis-Fogh 'clap-and-fling' mechanism. Free-flying butterflies often used different aerodynamic mechanisms in successive strokes. There seems to be no one 'key' to insect flight, instead insects rely on a wide array of aerodynamic mechanisms to take off, manoeuvre, maintain steady flight, and for landing.

  12. Light trapping structures in wing scales of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Niu, Shichao; Shang, Chunhui; Liu, Zhenning; Ren, Luquan

    2012-04-28

    The fine optical structures in wing scales of Trogonoptera brookiana, a tropical butterfly exhibiting efficient light trapping effect, were carefully examined and the reflectivity was measured using reflectance spectrometry. The optimized 3D configuration of the coupling structure was determined using SEM and TEM data, and the light trapping mechanism of butterfly scales was studied. It is found that the front and back sides of butterfly wings possess different light trapping structures, but both can significantly increase the optical path and thus result in almost total absorption of all incident light. An optical model was created to check the properties of this light trapping structure. The simulated reflectance spectra are in concordance with the experimental ones. The results reliably confirm that these structures induce efficient light trapping effect. This functional "biomimetic structure" would have a potential value in wide engineering and optical applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  13. Numerical Analysis for Structural Safety Evaluation of Butterfly Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myung-Seob; Yoon, Joon-Yong; Park, Han-Yung

    2010-06-01

    Butterfly valves are widely used in current industry to control the fluid flow. They are used for both on-off and throttling applications involving large flows at relatively low operating pressure especially in large size pipelines. For the industrial application of butterfly valves, it must be ensured that the valve could be used safety under the fatigue life and the deformations produced by the pressure of the fluid. In this study, we carried out the structure analysis of the body and the valve disc of the butterfly valve and the numerical simulation was performed by using ANSYS v11.0. The reliability of valve is evaluated under the investigation of the deformation, the leak test and the durability of the valve.

  14. Evasive response to ultrasound by the crepuscular butterfly Manataria maculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Jens; Kaerma, Sirje; Hedelin, Henrik; Skals, Niels

    2003-02-01

    The crepuscular nymphalid butterfly Manataria maculata was studied in Monteverde cloud forest, Costa Rica, during the dry season reproductive diapause. M. maculata has ears in the form of Vogel's organs located near the base of the forewings. Its behaviour in response to bursts of ultrasonic pulses (26 kHz, 110 dB SPL at 1 m) was condition-dependent. At dusk and dawn the sound consistently elicited evasive responses, similar to those of moths, in flying individuals. In contrast day-roosting individuals always remained motionless although they were alert to other stimuli. The daily movements between day- and night-roosts coincided in time and light intensity with the activity of insectivorous bats. This is the first reported case of ultrasonic hearing connected to evasive flights in a true butterfly (Papilionoidea). It strongly supports the idea that echolocating bats were involved in the evolution of hearing in butterflies.

  15. A mosaic of chemical coevolution in a large blue butterfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David R; Als, Thomas Damm; Maile, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms of recognition are essential to the evolution of mutualistic and parasitic interactions between species. One such example is the larval mimicry that Maculinea butterfly caterpillars use to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies. We found that the greater the match between the surface chemistry...... of Maculinea alcon and two of its host Myrmica species, the more easily ant colonies were exploited. The geographic patterns of surface chemistry indicate an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between the butterflies and Myrmica rubra, which has significant genetic differentiation between populations......, but not between the butterflies and a second, sympatric host, Myrmica ruginodis, which has panmictic populations. Alternative hosts may therefore provide an evolutionary refuge for a parasite during periods of counteradaptation by their preferred hosts. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jan-4...

  16. A Monarch Butterfly Optimization for the Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic vehicle routing problem (DVRP is a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP in which customers appear dynamically. The objective is to determine a set of routes that minimizes the total travel distance. In this paper, we propose a monarch butterfly optimization (MBO algorithm to solve DVRPs, utilizing a greedy strategy. Both migration operation and the butterfly adjusting operator only accept the offspring of butterfly individuals that have better fitness than their parents. To improve performance, a later perturbation procedure is implemented, to maintain a balance between global diversification and local intensification. The computational results indicate that the proposed technique outperforms the existing approaches in the literature for average performance by at least 9.38%. In addition, 12 new best solutions were found. This shows that this proposed technique consistently produces high-quality solutions and outperforms other published heuristics for the DVRP.

  17. A checklist of butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Naik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a preliminary study on the butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, located in the southwestern part of the Karnataka along the Western Ghats in Karnataka State in India, a total of 172 species of butterflies belonging to 117 genera, from six families was prepared by visiting various landscapes during the period September 2012 to December 2015.  Of the various species recorded, Papilio clytia (Linnaeus, Papilio lio medon (Moore, Pachlio ptahector (Linnaeus, Castalius rosimon (Fabricius, Acytolepis puspa (Horsefield, Lethe europa (Fabricius, Neptis jumbah (Moore, Dophlae velina (Stoll, Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus and Doleschallia bisaltide (Cramer comes under the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972.  The present study provides the baseline data of butterfly species of Dakshina Kannada. 

  18. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  19. Both Palatable and Unpalatable Butterflies Use Bright Colors to Signal Difficulty of Capture to Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L; Campos, V C; DeVries, P J; Penz, C M

    2016-04-01

    Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of capture to predators is a widespread phenomenon in butterflies, and this ability may not be limited to palatable butterflies. The possibility that both palatable and unpalatable species signal difficulty of capture has not been fully explored, but helps explain the existence of aposematic coloration and escape mimicry in butterflies lacking defensive chemicals. This possibility may also change the role that putative Müllerian and Batesian mimics play in a variety of classical mimicry rings, thus opening new perspectives in the evolution of mimicry in butterflies.

  20. Color generation in butterfly wings and fabrication of such structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Teh-Hwa; Gupta, Mool C; Robins, Bruce; Levendusky, Thomas L

    2003-12-01

    The wings of the morpho butterfly demonstrate an iridescent blue color over wide viewing angles. The mechanism that generates this blue color is studied. Optical and transmission electron microscopy of the butterfly wings reveal a complex wing structure with as many as 24 layers with periodic structures. The color generation is caused by interference of the multilayer structure as well as diffraction. It is possible to specially design grating structures so that a specific blue color can be generated and observed over wider angles. To demonstrate the grating concept, complex multigratings are designed and fabricated with electron-beam lithography. The light-diffraction properties of these gratings are presented.

  1. AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

  2. Pigmentary and photonic coloration mechanisms reveal taxonomic relationships of the Cattlehearts (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Parides)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilts, Bodo D; IJbema, Natasja; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2014-01-01

    Background The colorful wing patterns of butterflies, a prime example of biodiversity, can change dramatically within closely related species. Wing pattern diversity is specifically present among papilionid butterflies. Whether a correlation between color and the evolution of these butterflies exists so far remained unsolved. Results We here investigate the Cattlehearts, Parides, a small Neotropical genus of papilionid butterflies with 36 members, the wings of which are marked by distinctly c...

  3. Sound production and hearing in the blue cracker butterfly Hamadryas feronia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) from Venezuela

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yack, J E; Otero, L D; Dawson, J W

    2000-01-01

    of exoskeleton (the tympanum) bordered by a rigid chitinous ring; associated with its inner surface are three chordotonal sensory organs and enlarged tracheae. The largest chordotonal organ attaches to a sclerite positioned near the center of the eardrum and possesses more than 110 scolopidial units. The two...

  4. The fossil record and taphonomy of butterflies and moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera): implications for evolutionary diversity and divergence-time estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C; Davis, Donald R

    2015-02-04

    It is conventionally accepted that the lepidopteran fossil record is significantly incomplete when compared to the fossil records of other, very diverse, extant insect orders. Such an assumption, however, has been based on cumulative diversity data rather than using alternative statistical approaches from actual specimen counts. We reviewed documented specimens of the lepidopteran fossil record, currently consisting of 4,593 known specimens that are comprised of 4,262 body fossils and 331 trace fossils. The temporal distribution of the lepidopteran fossil record shows significant bias towards the late Paleocene to middle Eocene time interval. Lepidopteran fossils also record major shifts in preservational style and number of represented localities at the Mesozoic stage and Cenozoic epoch level of temporal resolution. Only 985 of the total known fossil specimens (21.4%) were assigned to 23 of the 40 extant lepidopteran superfamilies. Absolute numbers and proportions of preservation types for identified fossils varied significantly across superfamilies. The secular increase of lepidopteran family-level diversity through geologic time significantly deviates from the general pattern of other hyperdiverse, ordinal-level lineages. Our statistical analyses of the lepidopteran fossil record show extreme biases in preservation type, age, and taxonomic composition. We highlight the scarcity of identified lepidopteran fossils and provide a correspondence between the latest lepidopteran divergence-time estimates and relevant fossil occurrences at the superfamily level. These findings provide caution in interpreting the lepidopteran fossil record through the modeling of evolutionary diversification and in determination of divergence time estimates.

  5. Spatial distribution, territoriaiity and sound production by tropical cryptic butterflies (Hamadryas, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): implications forthe· '''industrial melanism" debate

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Hernández, Francisco; González, María Isabel; Soley, Javier; Araya, José; Zolla, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Neotropical buttert1ies of the genus Hamadryas, noted b y the emission of sound, spend much lime perching on trees and are believed 10 be cryptically pattemed and colored with respecI lo Iree trunks and branches ¡hey use as perching siles, bul ¡he subject had not been studied previously. This paper describes spatial distribution, territoriality ¡¡nd sound production in five species, under natural conditions: Hamadryas amphinome (Lucas, 1 853), H. februa (Godart, 1 824), H. feronia (Fruhstorfe...

  6. Elfin butterflies of the genus Rhamma Johnson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae): A review of the Colombian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Carlos; Vargas, Maria A

    2016-03-22

    The Colombian species of the genus Rhamma Johnson, 1992 are revised. Male and female phenotypes of all species are associated and diagnosed, and data on their distributions are given along with a discussion of the geographic variability of the species. Thirteen taxa are considered valid at the species level. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Rhamma andradei (Le Crom & Johnson), stat. nov, comb. nov.; previously considered a nomen dubium in Penaincisalia Johnson, the taxon is considered a valid species of Rhamma. The placement of Rhamma anosma (Draudt), comb. nov., described as Thecla, is confirmed as belonging to Rhamma. A lectotype is designated for Thecla mishma Hewitson, 1878. Adults, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are depicted for all species, along with an identification key based on adults.

  7. Effects of changing climate on species diversification in tropical forest butterflies of the genus Cymothoe (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, van R.; Wahlberg, N.; Sosef, M.S.M.; Bakker, F.T.

    2013-01-01

    Extant clades may differ greatly in their species richness, suggesting differential rates of species diversification. Based on phylogenetic trees, it is possible to identify potential correlates of such differences. Here, we examine species diversification in a clade of 82 tropical African forest

  8. Ejaculation Timing of Eupyrene and Apyrene Sperm in the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera : Pieridae) during Copulation

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Wiklund, Christer; BONNO, Minetaka

    1998-01-01

    During copulation, the male small white, Pieris rapae, fills a single spermatophore in the bursa copulatrix of the female. Artificial interruption of copulation showed that the male filled first white gel after which the spermatophore was structured. No sperm were found in the gel. Both eupyrene sperm bundles and free apyrene sperm were ejaculated into the structured spermatophore immediately before the completion of copulation. A male transferred about 11, 000 eupyrene sperm, whereas about 4...

  9. On moths and butterflies, or how to orient oneself through images. Georges-Didi Huberman’s art criticism in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Ionescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay discusses the motif of the butterfly and other Lepidoptera that Georges Didi-Huberman occasionally addressed in the two volumes of Essais sur l’apparition, Phasmes (1998 and Phalènes (2013. The hypothesis is that this motif can be viewed as a figural model of conceiving two essential elements of all art history, namely the nature of the image and its temporality. The fluttering butterfly becomes an occasion to explain Didi-Huberman’s art history by relating its fundamental dimensions to other key figures with which he is implicitly or explicitly in dialogue: Aloïs Riegl, Franz Wickhoff or Aby Warburg. Whereas the content of their specific art histories differs, they all resist the canonical conception of the image as an entity whose place and ‘immanent sense’ is fixed in a diachronic narrative. Alternatively, they develop an art historical prototype where the image is thought of as an essentially relational entity whose latency of sense emerges when it is dialectically superposed to other images. Art history does not function as the stable chronological juxtaposition of artefacts but as the extraction of a virtual sense through the anachronistic superposition of images kept in movement. When the diachronic arrangement of primary sources whose sense depends on the world where they emerged fails, art history interiorizes a speculative epistemology where sense is equivalent to an associative force of images. Reading Didi-Huberman nowadays confronts the art historiographer with a fundamental epistemological question: what is the structure of the interpretative process presupposed in all story of art? An earlier version of this essay has been published in the Romanian journal Images, Imagini, Images 5/2016.

  10. COMPOSICIÓN VEGETAL, PREFERENCIAS ALIMENTICIAS Y ABUNDANCIA DE BIBLIDINAE (LEPIDOPTERA: NYMPHALIDAE EN UN FRAGMENTO DE BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL ATLÁNTICO, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica VARGAS- ZAPATA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variación espacio-temporal de la abundancia de las mariposas de la subfamilia Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae en un fragmento de Bs-T en la Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM, Atlántico, Colombia; desde enero hasta agosto de 2011. Se marcaron cuatro puntos dentro del área de estudio, donde se ubicaron trampas Van Someren–Rydon cebadas con calamar en descomposición, fruta fermentada y con una mezcla de los anteriores cebos. Adicionalmente, se realizó una caracterización de la vegetación por punto, para lo cual se tomaron datos de diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP, altura y tamaño de la copa para todas aquellas plantas leñosas con DAP mayor o igual a 2,5 cm. Se capturaron 76 individuos agrupados en seis especies y cuatro géneros; destacándose Hamadryas februa (Hübner como la más dominante con 32 individuos. El mes de marzo presentó la mayor riqueza y abundancia (6 especies y 25 individuos durantes las primeras lluvias en la zona. El punto 3 presentó los valores más altos de diversidad y abundancia de Biblidinae (5 especies y 37 individuos y la mayor densidad de árboles (D= 0,28 individuos/m2. Se demuestra que la estructura de este grupo de mariposas presenta un patrón temporal y espacial en esta reserva. El análisis de componentes principales demostró que el área basal total (ABT y la Densidad (D de plantas leñosas, pueden considerarse como un factor determinante en la distribución y abundancia de las especies de la subfamilia Biblidinae en la RCM.Plant Composition, Feeding Preferences and Abundance of Biblidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in a Tropical Dry Forest Fragment in the Department of Atlántico, ColombiaThe abundance and spatio-temporal variation of butterflies of the Biblidinae subfamily (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in a fragment of Tropical dry forest at the Reserva Campesina La Montaña (RCM, Atlántico, Colombia; from January until August 2011, was analyzed. Within the study area four

  11. Analysis of the feeding habits of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, in an urban park in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCB. Toledo

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to observe and describe the feeding habits and available food resources of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura. The study was carried out in a municipal park located in the city of Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo. The observations took place between December 2003 and October 2004, recording the following variables: 1 the plant species visited for feeding and territorial defense; 2 the kinds of food resources; and 3 the kinds of flight to procure and obtain food. E. macroura visited 12 plant species. For territorial defense, Mangifera indica was the most visited, whereas Malvaviscus arboreus was most visited for feeding. The foliage was the plant part that received the most frequent visits. In order to obtain nectar, the only species visited was M. arboreus; to obtain arthropods, the species most visited were Mangifera indica and Hymenaea stilbocarpa. In the dry season, the hummingbirds visited flowers, whereas in the rainy season they visited leaves to acquire food. The arthropod groups most frequently found on leafy branches were Homoptera and Psocoptera. Finally, the results of the type of flight analysis showed that flight used to capture food was more often observed than were flights to search for food. In conclusion, these observations suggest that E. macroura shows plasticity in feeding behavior, which can help it to persist in urban areas.

  12. Negative density-distribution relationship in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotiaho Janne S

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship between density and distribution within a given taxonomic assemblage; that is, locally abundant species are more widespread than locally sparse species. Several mechanisms have been proposed to create this positive relationship, and the testing of these mechanisms is attracting increasing attention. Results We report a strong, but counterintuitive, negative relationship between density and distribution in the butterfly fauna of Finland. With an exceptionally comprehensive data set (data includes all 95 resident species in Finland and over 1.5 million individuals, we have been able to submit several of the mechanisms to powerful direct empirical testing. Without exception, we failed to find evidence for the proposed mechanisms creating a positive density-distribution relationship. On the contrary, we found that many of the mechanisms are equally able to generate a negative relationship. Conclusion We suggest that one important determinant of density-distribution relationships is the geographical location of the study: on the edge of a distribution range, suitable habitat patches are likely to be more isolated than in the core of the range. In such a situation, only the largest and best quality patches are likely to be occupied, and these by definition can support a relatively dense population leading to a negative density-distribution relationship. Finally, we conclude that generalizations about the positive density-distribution relationship should be made more cautiously.

  13. Diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a mountaintop archipelago of rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanne Carla Novais Pereira

    Full Text Available We provide the first description of the effects of local vegetation and landscape structure on the fruit-feeding butterfly community of a natural archipelago of montane rainforest islands in the Serra do Espinhaço, southeastern Brazil. Butterflies were collected with bait traps in eleven forest islands through both dry and rainy seasons for two consecutive years. The influence of local and landscape parameters and seasonality on butterfly species richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. We also examined the partitioning and decomposition of temporal and spatial beta diversity. Five hundred and twelve fruit-feeding butterflies belonging to thirty-four species were recorded. Butterfly species richness and abundance were higher on islands with greater canopy openness in the dry season. On the other hand, islands with greater understory coverage hosted higher species richness in the rainy season. Instead, the butterfly species richness was higher with lower understory coverage in the dry season. Butterfly abundance was not influenced by understory cover. The landscape metrics of area and isolation had no effect on species richness and abundance. The composition of butterfly communities in the forest islands was not randomly structured. The butterfly communities were dependent on local and landscape effects, and the mechanism of turnover was the main source of variation in β diversity. The preservation of this mountain rainforest island complex is vital for the maintenance of fruit-feeding butterfly community; one island does not reflect the diversity found in the whole archipelago.

  14. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  15. Diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a mountaintop archipelago of rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Geanne Carla Novais; Coelho, Marcel Serra; Beirão, Marina do Vale; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first description of the effects of local vegetation and landscape structure on the fruit-feeding butterfly community of a natural archipelago of montane rainforest islands in the Serra do Espinhaço, southeastern Brazil. Butterflies were collected with bait traps in eleven forest islands through both dry and rainy seasons for two consecutive years. The influence of local and landscape parameters and seasonality on butterfly species richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. We also examined the partitioning and decomposition of temporal and spatial beta diversity. Five hundred and twelve fruit-feeding butterflies belonging to thirty-four species were recorded. Butterfly species richness and abundance were higher on islands with greater canopy openness in the dry season. On the other hand, islands with greater understory coverage hosted higher species richness in the rainy season. Instead, the butterfly species richness was higher with lower understory coverage in the dry season. Butterfly abundance was not influenced by understory cover. The landscape metrics of area and isolation had no effect on species richness and abundance. The composition of butterfly communities in the forest islands was not randomly structured. The butterfly communities were dependent on local and landscape effects, and the mechanism of turnover was the main source of variation in β diversity. The preservation of this mountain rainforest island complex is vital for the maintenance of fruit-feeding butterfly community; one island does not reflect the diversity found in the whole archipelago.

  16. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  17. Editorial: Butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Huigens, M.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.

    2005-01-01

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts1, 2, 3. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to

  18. Colors and pterin pigmentation of pierid butterfly wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, B.; Leertouwer, H. L.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    The reflectance of pierid butterfly wings is principally determined by the incoherent scattering of incident light and the absorption by pterin pigments in the scale structures. Coherent scattering causing iridescence is frequently encountered in the dorsal wings or wing tips of male pierids. We

  19. Effects of altitude on the climbing performance of Monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Kwon; Sridhar, Madhu; Landrum, David; Aono, Hikaru

    2016-11-01

    Millions of Monarchs annually travel up to 4,000km, the longest migration distance among insects. They fly and overwinter at high altitudes. However, the aerodynamic mechanism enabling the long-range flight of Monarch butterflies is unknown. To study the effects of altitude on the aerodynamic performance of Monarch butterflies, a unique combination of a motion tracking system and a variable pressure chamber that allows controlling the density is used. The condition inside the chamber is systematically varied to simulate high altitude conditions up to 3,000 m. An optical tracking technique is used to characterize the climbing trajectories of freely flying Monarch butterflies. Customized reflective markers are designed to minimize the effects of marker addition. Flapping amplitude and frequency as well as climbing trajectories are measured. Lift acting on the butterfly is also determined by considering the force balance. Results show that the average flight speed and the Reynolds number, in general, decreased with the altitude, whereas, interestingly, the lift coefficient increased with the altitude. More detailed measurements and analyses will be performed in the future to explain the lift enhancement by flying at higher altitudes. This work is partly supported by NSF Grant CBET-1335572 and in part by CK's startup fund provided by UAH.

  20. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  1. seasonal dynamics of the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BioMAP

    larval hostplant, the near-endemic Sinai Thyme (Labiatae: Thymus decussatus Benth.) is patchily distributed among the mountains. Pseudophilotes sinaicus is one of only two endemic animals in the Protectorate (both butterflies), its endemicity making it a world conservation issue. It is therefore a flagship species for the ...

  2. Immigration and emigration in the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... patch was composed of immigrants, most of which were females. Individuals assumed to be immigrants arrived in the patch throughout the adult flight period, but older individuals generally arrived later in the season. Timing of migration was almost certainly linked to phenology of the butterfly's only hostplant, Sinai Thyme.

  3. Investigation of dentin hardness in roots exhibiting the butterfly effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Assil A; Chris He, Li Hong; Chandler, Nicholas P

    2014-06-01

    Most vertical root fractures occur in root canal treated teeth, and they usually run in a buccolingual direction. The butterfly effect is an optical phenomenon seen in some sections of tooth roots. The aim was to investigate the microhardness of dentin in mesiodistal and buccolingual cross sections of roots exhibiting the effect. Thirty extracted single-rooted teeth were allocated according to patient age: group 1, 15-24 years; group 2, 25-44 years; and group 3, 45 years and older. Roots were embedded in acrylic and cut into ten 1-mm-thick cross sections. Sections were viewed under a light microscope and coded (1 or 2) according to presence or absence of the butterfly effect. A root scored 20 when all levels featured the butterfly appearance. The 2 teeth with the highest score from each group and 2 control teeth with the minimum score (10) were selected. Two adjacent, consecutive cross sections were chosen from the middle of the roots. Vickers microhardness testing was carried out on the dentin walls. Mean hardness scores were highest mesiodistally (83.7 kgf/mm(2)) and lowest buccolingually (56.4 kgf/mm(2)), a significant difference (P = .028). This trend was found across all age groups. Root sections with the butterfly effect are harder mesiodistally. This might explain the high prevalence of vertical root fractures that run buccolingually. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, G.; Catana, I.; Magheti, I.; Safta, C. A.; Savu, M.

    2010-08-01

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  5. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, G; Safta, C A [Department of Hydraulic and Hydraulic Machineries, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Catana, I [Department of Control and Computer Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Magheti, I; Savu, M, E-mail: baran_gheorghe@yahoo.co.u [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  6. Noise Caused by Cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    HASSIS, H.

    1999-08-01

    An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar values. Focus is particularly placed on both unsteady pressure and acoustic pressure fluctuations. In this paper, the effects of cavitation on local fluctuation pressure (turbulence), acoustic propagation (damping and sound velocity), resonance frequencies and level of noise are presented.

  7. Butterfly wing colours : scale beads make white pierid wings brighter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Stowe, S; Siebke, K; Zeil, J; Arikawa, K

    2004-01-01

    The wing-scale morphologies of the pierid butterflies Pieris rapae (small white) and Delias nigrina (common jezabel), and the heliconine Heliconius melpomene are compared and related to the wing-reflectance spectra. Light scattering at the wing scales determines the wing reflectance, but when the

  8. Evolutionary genetics of dorsal wing colour in Colias butterflies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.; Boggs, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of butterfly wing colouration is strongly affected by its multiple functions and by the correlated evolution of wing colour elements. Both factors may prevent local adaptation to ecological conditions. We investigated one aspect of wing colouration, the degree of dorsal wing

  9. Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous–Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae. PMID:21920981

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šašić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in the publication of three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania, Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices and consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However, with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve traditional agricultural practices.

  11. A role of abdomen in butterfly's flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Jeeva; Senda, Kei; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2017-11-01

    Butterfly's forward flight with periodic flapping motion is longitudinally unstable, and control of the thoracic pitching angle is essential to stabilize the flight. This study aims to comprehend roles which the abdominal motion play in the pitching stability of butterfly's flapping flight by using a two-dimensional model. The control of the thoracic pitching angle by the abdominal motion is an underactuated problem because of the limit on the abdominal angle. The control input of the thorax-abdomen joint torque is obtained by the hierarchical sliding mode control in this study. Numerical simulations reveal that the control by the abdominal motion provides short-term pitching stabilization in the butterfly's flight. Moreover, the control input due to a large thorax-abdomen joint torque can counteract a quite large perturbation, and can return the pitching attitude to the periodic trajectory with a short recovery time. These observations are consistent with biologists' view that living butterflies use their abdomens as rudders. On the other hand, the abdominal control mostly fails in long-term pitching stabilization, because it cannot directly alter the aerodynamic forces. The control for the long-term pitching stabilization will also be discussed.

  12. High-Arctic butterflies become smaller with rising temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Joseph James; Eskildsen, Anne; Hansen, Rikke Reisner

    2015-01-01

    size but long growing seasons could also increase body size as was recently shown in an Arctic spider species. Here, we present the longest known time series on body size variation in two High-Arctic butterfly species: Boloria chariclea and Colias hecla. We measured wing length of nearly 4500...

  13. Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-03-22

    Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae.

  14. Butterfly hematoma after traumatic intercourse | Hajji | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butterfly hematoma after traumatic intercourse. F Hajji, A Ameur. Abstract. No Abstract. http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.20.317.6660 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

  15. The Nation and the Subaltern in Yvonne Vera's Butterfly Burning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yvonne Vera's death in 2005 brought to a tragic close the career of one of Zimbabwe's, indeed Africa's, more engaging contemporary writers. But her powerful novel, Butterfly Burning continues to mirror an aspect of Vera's enduring concern: the place of African women in the context of power both within the colonial and the ...

  16. The Study of Butterflies-Flight, Fuels and Senses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 8. The Study of Butterflies - Flight, Fuels and Senses. Peter Smetacek. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 8 August 2000 pp 4-12. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/08/0004-0012 ...

  17. Preliminary assessment of fruit-feeding butterfly communities in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness, diversity and composition of fruit-feeding Nymphalid butterflies in the three different flora communities (Celtis-Triplochiton forest, Cassia siamea plantation and Riverine forest) in Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary (OWS) were studied and subsequently compared. OWS has three distinct flora communities.

  18. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories of a child soldier | Dahms | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 40, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories ...

  19. Becoming Butterflies: Making Metamorphosis Meaningful for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Baggett, Paige V.; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although butterflies are a common topic of study in many early childhood classrooms, integrating art production broadens the scope of the study and allows children to deepen their knowledge and understanding through creative self-expression. This article presents a set of integrated activities that focus on helping children fully grasp the process…

  20. Design and Analysis of Butterfly Valve Disc Using Aluminium (1100 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study butterfly valve which is commonly used for water line application was designed by using Pro-E software and analyzed its deflection using Ansys software. For the analysis, two materials such as aluminium (1100) and aluminium carbon nanotube 4% was used and compared these two materials ...

  1. Contrasting supercooling ability in lowland and mountain European Colias butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, P.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Konvička, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 63-69 ISSN 0749-8004 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630; GA JU(CZ) 144/2010/100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterfly ecology * diapause * frost survival Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2014

  2. Butterfly effects in reading? The relationship between decoding and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the metaphor of butterfly effects, this paper considers how literacy inequalities in comprehension performance amongst Grade 6 learners in high poverty schools can be linked to skills that should have been developed in earlier stages of reading development. The reading comprehension skills of Grade 6 learners in ...

  3. Wing coloration and pigment gradients in scales of pierid butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    Depending on the species, the individual scales of butterfly wings have a longitudinal gradient in structure and reflectance properties, as shown by scanning electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry. White scales of the male Small White, Pieris rapae crucivora, show a strong gradient in both

  4. Far field scattering pattern of differently structured butterfly scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, M. A.; Yoshioka, S.; Stavenga, D. G.

    The angular and spectral reflectance of single scales of five different butterfly species was measured and related to the scale anatomy. The scales of the pierids Pieris rapae and Delias nigrina scatter white light randomly, in close agreement with Lambert's cosine law, which can be well understood

  5. BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

  6. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seasons (winter, spring, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon lasting 18 days from January 2009 to March 2010. Pollard walk method was used to assess the diversity on four-line transects within 10-12 km radius of the proposed dam site. Two hundred and thirteen species, including 22 papilionids, were thus sampled. Eleven species amongst these are listed in Schedules I and II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972, of which 10 taxa (Pareronia avatar avatar, Nacaduba pactolus continentalis, Porostas aluta coelestis, Elymnias vasudeva vasudeva, Mycalesis mestra retus, Melanitis zitenius zitenius, Charaxes marmax, Athyma ranga ranga, Neptis manasa manasa and Neptis soma soma are of conservation priority as they are ‘rare’ in occurrence across their distribution range in the region. The maximum number of species (128 were recorded during the spring season (March and lowest (66 during July (monsoon. The seasonal pattern of variation in diversity was very typical of the pattern found in other areas of the lower foothills and adjoining plains of the Himalaya. Relative abundances of butterflies during spring varied significantly (p<0.05 as compared to winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. However, species composition changed with every season as Sorensen’s similarity index varied between 0.3076 to 0.5656. All these findings suggest that the lowland forests of Bhutan hold a rich and unique diversity of butterflies during every season of the year thus having

  7. Using citizen science butterfly counts to predict species population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily B; Morgan, Byron J T; Brereton, Tom M; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Citizen scientists are increasingly engaged in gathering biodiversity information, but trade-offs are often required between public engagement goals and reliable data collection. We compared population estimates for 18 widespread butterfly species derived from the first 4 years (2011-2014) of a short-duration citizen science project (Big Butterfly Count [BBC]) with those from long-running, standardized monitoring data collected by experienced observers (U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme [UKBMS]). BBC data are gathered during an annual 3-week period, whereas UKBMS sampling takes place over 6 months each year. An initial comparison with UKBMS data restricted to the 3-week BBC period revealed that species population changes were significantly correlated between the 2 sources. The short-duration sampling season rendered BBC counts susceptible to bias caused by interannual phenological variation in the timing of species' flight periods. The BBC counts were positively related to butterfly phenology and sampling effort. Annual estimates of species abundance and population trends predicted from models including BBC data and weather covariates as a proxy for phenology correlated significantly with those derived from UKBMS data. Overall, citizen science data obtained using a simple sampling protocol produced comparable estimates of butterfly species abundance to data collected through standardized monitoring methods. Although caution is urged in extrapolating from this U.K. study of a small number of common, conspicuous insects, we found that mass-participation citizen science can simultaneously contribute to public engagement and biodiversity monitoring. Mass-participation citizen science is not an adequate replacement for standardized biodiversity monitoring but may extend and complement it (e.g., through sampling different land-use types), as well as serving to reconnect an increasingly urban human population with nature. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published

  8. Pure and Poetic: Butterfly in the Quantum World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Indubala

    Story of the Hofstadter butterfly is a magical occurrence in a quantum flatland of two-dimensional crystals in a magnetic field. In this drama, the magnetic flux plays the role of Planck constant, linking the variables x and p in the butterfly Hamiltonian H = cosx + cosp as [ x , p ] = iℏ . It is a story of reunion of Descartes and Pythagoras and tale of this quantum fractal is related to Integral Apollonian gaskets. Integers rule the butterfly landscape as quantum numbers of Hall conductivity while irrational numbers emerge as the asymptotic magnification of these topological integers in the kaleidoscopic images of the butterfly. Simple variations of the above Hamiltonian generates a wide spectrum of physical phenomenon. For example, the Hamiltonian H = cosx + λcosp with the parameter λ ≠ 1 in its zero energy solution hides the critical point of a topological transition in a superconducting chain and thus barely misses the Majorana fermions. Another example is the Hamiltonian obtained by including terms like cos (x +/- p) which for flux half exhibits Dirac semi-metallic states in addition to all integer quantum Hall states corresponding to all possible solutions of the Diophantine equation for this value of the magnetic flux. In this analytically tractable model where the parameter λ varies periodically with time, the topological states are described by edge modes whose dispersion is given by a pure cosine function. Finally, nature has composed beautiful variations of the Hofstadter butterfly not only in systems such as Penrose and Kagame lattices and also in the relativistic colorful world of quarks and antiquarks.

  9. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR expression analysis of candidate genes involved in olfactory communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  10. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR expression analysis of candidate genes involved in olfactory communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Arun

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae, two developmental stages (pupal and adult and two sexes (male and female, all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum. The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the

  11. Ezra Pound’s orientalist poetry, natural rootedness, and Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Terblanche

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on the outward purpose (Umberto Eco and natural rootedness of Ezra Pound’s translation of Li Tai Po’s “The River Merchant’s Wife: a Letter.” Natural rootedness – a sign actively conditioned by and into a dynamic ecosystem – is a central aspect of Taoist poetics and modernist orientalism (Gary Snyder. We follow the outward purpose of the sign, in further exploration of a zone of between-ness: between the opposites of culture and nature (William Howarth. In particular, we focus on the butterfly image in this poem. An interdisciplinary, ecosemiotic reading is made of this image within its poetic and natural context. We argue that this image is related to actual (ecological and evolutionary butterfly colouration and behaviour in the (Chinese ecosystem. Although no historical evidence of either Pound’s or Li Po’s interest in butterflies exists as far as could be determined, the middle ground between English and Chinese that Pound occupies (Eric Hayot in this translation, could partially explain the interlevel correspondence between this image and actual butterfly behaviour. The article demonstrates that the image ties in well with an autumnal orpimentation or “enyellowment” of butterflies, as well as their sexual behaviour. It concludes that the significance of the sign is enhanced by its outward purpose towards and interpenetration with and within active nature, culminating in this central natural image in this important and creative poetic translation by Pound.

  12. Changing biodiversity scenario in the Himalayan ecosystem: Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India, as revealed by the study of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sidhu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Any change in the population of butterflies is an early warning of pollution or other kinds of habitat degradation. An area rich in butterfly diversity has its own significance in the ecosystem. The current status of butterflies in Mussoorie (Uttarakhand is reviewed. The degradation of the butterfly-rich spots of Mussoorie is discussed. A comparative chart of 66 species of Lycaenid butterflies compares species collected by earlier authors from Mussoorie with current observations. Some of the rare butterflies species have disappeared, probably due the loss of habitat to developmental activities, use of pesticides in farming, urbanization and other anthropogenic activities.

  13. Soul, butterfly, mythological nymph: psyche in philosophy and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakou, Elena I; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2017-03-01

    The term "psyche" and its derivatives - including "Psychology" and "Psychiatry" - are rooted in classical philosophy and in mythology. Over the centuries, psyche has been the subject of discourse and contemplation, and of fable; it has also come to signify, in entomology, the order of Lepidoptera. In the current surge of research on brain and mind, there is a gradual transition from the psyche (or the "soul") to the specified descriptors defined by the fields of Behavioral, Cognitive and Integrative Neuroscience.

  14. The genus Scrobipalpa in the Netherlands (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Het genus Scrobipalpa in Nederland (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Scrobipalpa is een geslacht van kleine, lastig uit elkaar te houden motjes. In heel Europa zijn ongeveer 70 soorten bekend. Doorgaans zijn de vleugels bruin- of grijsachtig met een tekening van stippels en strepen die bovendien erg kan

  15. The genus Bryotropha in the Netherlands (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Het genus Bryotropha in Nederland (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Het genus Bryotropha staat bekend als een notoir lastig geslacht van kleine bruine motjes. Die moeilijkheid komt door de variatie, maar vooral ook door gebrek aan bruikbare beschrijvingen. Met dit artikel zijn de negen Nederlandse soorten

  16. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  17. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula.

  18. Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, including one new species from Marenji Forest in southeast ... Journal of East African Natural History ... from Morogoro (Uluguru Mountains) and Ortharbela cliftoni spec. nov. from Amani (East Usambara Mountains).

  19. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  20. Clepsis dumicolana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), new to the Belgian fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Prins, W.; Baugnée, J.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    On 17 August 2008 a specimen of Clepsis dumicolana (Zeller, 1847) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was caught at Liège, leg. J.-Y. Baugnée. It was resting on Hedera helix, in the vicinity of the Kennedy bridge. During the following days, about 40 specimens were seen in two localities of the slope to the