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Sample records for swallowing solid food

  1. Instrumental and sensory quantification of oral coatings retained after swallowing semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Huntjens, L.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2006-01-01

    After a mouthful of food has been swallowed, some food material is always retained in the mouth. With semi-solid foods this is in the form of a coating that adheres to the oral mucosa. The amount and location of this material may play an important role in food sensations. In this study two

  2. Instrumental and sensory quantification of oral coatings retained after swallowing semi-solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, J F; Huntjens, L; de Wijk, R A

    2006-12-01

    After a mouthful of food has been swallowed, some food material is always retained in the mouth. With semi-solid foods this is in the form of a coating that adheres to the oral mucosa. The amount and location of this material may play an important role in food sensations. In this study two quantitative methods of describing the coatings, generated by a set of 16 model custards varying in degree of lubrication (fat content) and degree of viscosity (starch concentration) are investigated. In the first method, a trained quantitative descriptive analysis panel (N=8) was instructed to take single mouthfuls of semi-solid foods, swallow and then rinse twice for 5s with water and spit out. The turbidity of the rinse water was then measured. During the same session, sensory assessments of the products were obtained. In the second method the thickness of the coating on the anterior and middle one-thirds of the tongue was quantified using a pair of opto-electronic reflectance sensors mounted on a probe which was placed on the tongue, one sensor measuring the anterior part of the tongue the other the posterior (middle third) of the tongue. Turbidity of the first rinse related strongly to the food's viscosity, as well as to sensory attributes associated with the food's fat content and viscosity, such as perceived thickness, creaminess and fattiness. Turbidity of subsequent rinses related primarily to fat content. These results indicate that turbidity of rinse water is a useful tool in fundamental (e.g., food texture research) as well as applied research (e.g., product development and quality assurance in food industry). Reflectance varied primarily with fat content and did not relate well to sensory attributes.

  3. Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing.

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    Miyu Hosotsubo

    Full Text Available Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy. The results indicated that Young's modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing.

  4. Effects of age and viscosity on food transport and breathing-swallowing coordination during eating of two-phase food in nursing home residents.

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    Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Matsuo, Koichiro; Izawa, Masayuki; Yamada, Shizuru; Masuda, Yuji; Ogasawara, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    When eating food that contains both liquid and solid phases, the liquid component frequently enters the hypopharynx before swallowing and can increase the risk of aspiration. Thus, we examined whether the initial viscosity of mixed consistency food could alter pre-swallow food transport and breathing-swallowing coordination in older adults. Fiberoptic endoscopy was recorded while 18 healthy young adults and 19 older adults ate 5 g of steamed rice combined with 3 mL of blue-dye water. Liquid viscosity was set at three levels by the addition of a thickening agent (0 wt%, thin; 2 wt%, thicker; 4 wt%, higher-viscosity, respectively). We measured the timing of swallow initiation and its corresponding respiratory phase for each participant. For thin mixed consistency food, whereas the timing of swallow initiation was comparable between young and older participants, swallowing was initiated during inspiration significantly more often in older participants (31.6 %) than in young participants (5.6 %). In contrast, the timing of swallow initiation was delayed in older participants for thicker and higher-viscosity foods, although swallowing was commonly initiated during expiration in both groups. In older adults, we observed that swallow initiation function was preserved for thin mixed consistency samples, but breathing-swallowing coupling was diminished. For higher-viscosity foods, swallow initiation was delayed in this group, but breathing-swallowing coordination was not disturbed, probably as a result of the slow bolus flow into the hypopharynx. Thus, it appears the initial viscosity of mixed consistency food profoundly affects food transport before swallowing as well as breathing-swallowing coordination in nursing home residents. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2171-2177. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Mastication and swallowing: influence of fluid addition to foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano José Pereira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence chewing physiology. Materials and METHODS: Twenty subjects chewed on melba toast, cake, carrot, peanut and Gouda cheese. They also chewed on these foods after addition of different volumes of water or alpha-amylase solution. Jaw muscle activity, number of chewing cycles until swallowing and chewing cycle duration were measured. Repeated measures analysis of variance was applied to test the null hypothesis that there would be no statistically significant difference among the results obtained for the various food types and fluids. Subsequently, contrasts were determined to study the levels of intra-subjects factors (food type and fluid volume. Linear regression was used to determine the changes in muscle activity and cycle duration as a function of the chewing cycles. RESULTS: Fluid addition significantly decreased muscle activity and swallowing threshold for melba, cake and peanut (p0.05. Doubling the volume of tap water had a greater effect. CONCLUSIONS: Fluid addition facilitated chewing of dry foods (melba, cake, but did not influence the chewing of fatty (cheese and wet products (carrot. This study is relevant to improve patients' life quality and the management of chewing and feeding disorders caused by hyposalivation.

  6. Introducing solid foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To encourage and establish healthy eating habits, parents and caregivers should offer a wide variety of dark green, leafy and deep yellow vegetables and colourful fruits. Pure fruit juices (115-170 ml/day) may be introduced into the diet after six months of age.14. Introducing solid foods. Lombard MJ, PhD, NICUS Manager, ...

  7. Peer-Mediated Procedures to Induce Swallowing and Food Acceptance in Young Children.

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    Greer, R. Douglas; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A peer modeling procedure was shown to induce swallowing in a young child with dysphagia, and to increase food acceptance in a young child who consistently declined food. A peer-mediated procedure, consisting of rotated opportunities to consume food with a peer, increased consumption more than did modeling alone. (Author/JDD)

  8. Sensory and instrumental analysis for slipperiness and compliance of food during swallowing.

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    Seo, H-S; Hwang, I K; Han, T R; Kim, I S

    2007-11-01

    In spite of its importance, there have been few attempts to evaluate the sensory attributes of the food bolus during swallowing. In the current study, the slipperiness, the degree of slide for the food bolus through the mucosal surface of the oro-pharynx, and the compliance, how easily the shape of a food bolus can be transformed for automatic and comfortable swallowing, were derived among several sensory attributes related to the swallowing. Therefore, the study aims were twofold: (1) to develop the methods of sensory and instrumental analyses for determining the slipperiness and compliance of the food bolus during swallowing and (2) to examine the appropriateness of the newly designed devices by correlating the data between the sensory and instrumental analyses. Six commercial food products were evaluated by 10 trained panelists for each attribute. The devices for assessing each attribute were developed in consideration of the oro-pharyngeal movements. The sensory and instrumental analyses showed high correlation and regression coefficients as well as intensity differences of the 6 samples for each attribute. In conclusion, the slipperiness and the compliance were suitable for acquiring a better understanding of the sensory attributes of the food bolus during swallowing, and the newly developed devices showed a high potential for determining those attributes.

  9. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia Dalmazo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteration of esophageal contraction and/or transit. METHODS: The investigation included 11 asymptomatic volunteers, 4 men and 7 women aged 19-58 years. The subjects were evaluated in the sitting position. They performed swallows of the same volume of liquid (isotonic drink and solid (macaroni boluses in a random order and in duplicate. After each swallow they were asked about the sensation of bolus passage through the esophagus. Contractions and transit were evaluated simultaneously by solid state manometry and impedance. RESULTS: Perception of bolus transit occurred only with the solid bolus. The amplitude and area under the curve of contractions were higher with swallows of the solid bolus than with swallows of the liquid bolus. The difference was more evident in swallows with no perception of transit (n = 12 than in swallows with perception (n = 10. The total bolus transit time was longer for the solid bolus than for the liquid bolus only with swallows followed by no perception of transit. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the perception of esophageal transit may be the consequence of inadequate adaptation of esophageal transit and contraction to the characteristics of the swallowed bolus.

  10. Nitric Oxide and Histamine Signal Attempts to Swallow: A Component of Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

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    Katzoff, Ayelet; Miller, Nimrod; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2010-01-01

    Memory that food is inedible in "Aplysia" arises from training requiring three contingent events. Nitric oxide (NO) and histamine are released by a neuron responding to one of these events, attempts to swallow food. Since NO release during training is necessary for subsequent memory and NO substitutes for attempts to swallow, it was suggested that…

  11. The Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS): reliability, validity and international normative data.

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    Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; McIntosh, Theresa; Fuller, Laura; Curry, Morgan; Thomas, Paige; Walshe, Margaret; McCague, Ellen; Battel, Irene; Nogueira, Dalia; Frank, Ulrike; van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Sella-Weiss, Oshrat

    2017-07-05

    Clinical swallowing assessment is largely limited to qualitative assessment of behavioural observations. There are limited quantitative data that can be compared with a healthy population for identification of impairment. The Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS) was developed as a quantitative assessment of solid bolus ingestion. This research programme investigated test development indices and established normative data for the TOMASS to support translation to clinical dysphagia assessment. A total of 228 healthy adults (ages 20-80+ years) stratified by age and sex participated in one or more of four consecutive studies evaluating test-retest and interrater reliability and validity to instrumental assessment. For each study the test required participants to ingest a commercially available cracker with instructions to 'eat this as quickly as is comfortably possible'. Further averaged measures were derived including the number of masticatory cycles and swallows per bite, and time per bite, masticatory cycle and swallow. Initial analyses identified significant differences on salient measures between two commercially available crackers that are nearly identical in shape, size and ingredients, suggesting the need for separate normative samples for specific regional products. Additional analyses on a single cracker identified that the TOMASS was sensitive at detecting changes in performance based on age and sex. Test-retest reliability across days and interrater reliability between clinicians was high, as was validation of observational measures to instrumental correlates of the same behaviours. Therefore, normative data are provided for the TOMASS from a minimum of 80 healthy controls, stratified by age and sex, for each of seven commercially available crackers from broad regions worldwide. Analyses on a single cracker identified Arnott's Salada, and that TOMASS measures were sensitive for detecting changes in performance based on age and sex. Interrater

  12. Introducing solid foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leafy and deep yellow vegetables and colourful fruits. Pure fruit juices ... Cow's milk is a poor source of iron and should not the ... fibre. The AHA further recommends diets that are low in saturated and trans-fats and healthy foods such as fruit,.

  13. Simultaneous videoradiography and solid state intraluminal pharyngeal manometry during barium swallow; videomanometry

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    Olsson, Rolf

    1995-08-01

    The technique was used in nondysphagic volunteers and in dysphagic patients. Our normal values in nondysphagic volunteers are in accordance with normal values in the literature. Regarding catheter movement we found the a previously not described sensor movement where the sensor in the upper esophageal sphincter followed the laryngeal elevation with no response to soft palate elevation. We found a longitudinal asymmetry in the pharynx with higher contraction pressures at lower levels. In the experimental model we found that intrabolus pressure was dependent on bolus volume, lumen narrowing, sensor position, flow rate, and bolus viscosity. In patients with a cricopharyngeal indentation we found weak pharyngeal constrictors with outpouching of the lumen above and below. Finally, in dysphagic patients with a normal radiologic investigation, videomanometry displayed abnormalities in 74% of the patients. We conclude that barium swallow and manometry are complementary and we suggest the addition of pharyngeal solid state manometry, preferably with simultaneous videoradiography, in dysphagic patients. 128 refs, 4 figs.

  14. Alternative antiretroviral therapy formulations for patients unable to swallow solid oral dosage forms.

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    Duggan, Joan M; Akpanudo, Barbara; Shukla, Vipul; Gutterson, Glen; Eitniear, Lindsey; Sahloff, Eric G

    2015-09-15

    Evidence-based guidance is presented to assist clinicians in selecting alternative formulations of antiretroviral (ARV) agents for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are unable to swallow tablets or capsules. The inability to take medications in standard oral dosage forms can be associated with nonadherence or the use of alternative administration strategies such as capsule or tablet breaking, crushing, or chewing. Patients with HIV infection require long-term ARV therapy to maintain viral suppression; ARV agents are predominately available as tablets and capsules that may pose swallowing difficulties for some patients. Using a variety of sources (the primary literature, pharmaceutical package inserts, and requests for unpublished data from drug manufacturers), available evidence on the bioavailability of ARV medications after disruption of the capsule or tablet matrix was reviewed; information on alternative formulations of ARV agents was also assessed. With several ARV agents, disruption of the solid oral dosage form by crushing, chewing, or breaking tablets or opening capsules prior to ingestion has been shown to result in altered bioavailability or pharmacokinetics and thus the potential for incomplete virological suppression, increased adverse effects, and suboptimal health outcomes. Of the 33 single-agent ARV medications and combination ARV products in five classes available at the time of review, approximately half exist as powders, liquids, injectables, or chewable or dissolvable tablets. If alternative ARV formulations or administration methods are used, close monitoring for achievement of virological and immunologic success and potential toxicities is recommended. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Unlocking opportunities in food design for infants, children, and the elderly: Understanding milestones in chewing and swallowing across the lifespan for new innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A Y

    2017-08-01

    Intake of a variety of foods increases the likelihood of good general health. From as early as life in utero, humans are exposed to flavor. Further flavor imprinting occurs via breast milk, increasing the likelihood of acceptance of a variety flavors when solids are introduced. While first foods need to be smooth and runny, experience managing soft lumps is required for rudimentary development of chewing skills. Texture experiences are critical to providing building blocks for food acceptance and gradual increase in the range of food textures eaten. Persistence in offering flavors and textures on multiple occasions increases the likelihood of acceptance of new foods. Opportunities exist in novel food texture use and flavor bridging to improve food variety in children. During adulthood lifestyle changes impact on chewing and gastrointestinal efficiency affecting the variety of food consumed. Foods that are moist, and encourage the consumer to slow down and savor food may reduce diseases affecting the esophagus. The aging process sees an increase in medication use with an impact on reduction in saliva flow. Further, physiologic changes in taste and olfaction that occur with aging may see elders benefit from novel food design that utilizes the intact trigeminal system. New food design opportunities exist in the areas of carbonation, dissolvable solids, microencapsulation of flavor volatiles or pressurized carbon dioxide granules. The use of standardized nomenclature for food labeling, description, and measurement methods such as that used by the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative is advocated to accelerate food oral processing research. The human feeding, chewing, and swallowing mechanism adapts and changes over the life span. There are opportunities to influence flavor development from as early as life in utero, and through milk feeds. Infants also need exposure to soft lumps to develop rudimentary chewing skills that lay the foundation for

  16. Temperature effects on food supply and chick mortality in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).

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    Winkler, David W; Luo, Miles K; Rakhimberdiev, Eldar

    2013-09-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding success in Ithaca, NY, USA, over the past quarter century has shown generally healthy fledgling production punctuated by years of high nestling mortality. This study tested the potential effects that temperature may have on the food supply and breeding success of swallows. Data from 17 years of daily insect samples were used to relate flying insect abundances to daily maximum temperatures and to define "cold snaps" as strings of consecutive days when the maximum temperatures did not exceed critical temperatures. The distributions of cold snaps and chick mortality events were investigated both through detailed reconstructions of the fates and fate dates of individual chicks, focused on the three breeding seasons of lowest fledging success, and with less detailed brood-level analyses of a larger 11-year dataset including years of more moderate mortality. Mark-recapture analyses of daily brood survival rate (DSR) reveal very strong support for the effects of cold temperatures on brood survival rates, and all the top models agree on a critical temperature of 18.5 °C for insect flight activity in Ithaca. The individual-level analyses, focused on years of higher mortality, favored a 3-day cold snap definition as the most predictive of DSR effects, whereas the larger-scale brood-level analyses revealed 1- and 2-day cold snaps as having the most significant effects on DSR. Regardless, all analyses reveal that, in an age of generally warmer climates, the largest effect of weather on swallow fledgling production is from cold temperatures.

  17. Swallowing Disorders in Severe Brain Injury in the Arousal Phase.

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    Bremare, A; Rapin, A; Veber, B; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Verin, E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of swallowing disorders in severe brain injury in the arousal phase after coma. Between December 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, eleven patients with severe acquired brain injury who were admitted to rehabilitation center (Male 81.8 %; 40.7 ± 14.6 years) were included in the study. Evaluation of swallowing included a functional examination, clinical functional swallowing test, and naso-endoscopic swallowing test. All patients had swallowing disorders at admission. The first functional swallowing test showed oral (77.8 %) and pharyngeal (66.7 %) food bolus transport disorders; and alterations in airway protection mechanisms (80 %). Swallowing test under endoscopic control showed a disorder in swallowing coordination in 55.6 % of patients tested. Seven (63.6 %) patients resumed oral feeding within an average of 6 weeks after admission to rehabilitation center and 14 weeks after acquired brain injury. Six (85.7 %) of these seven patients continued to require modified solid and liquid textures. Swallowing disorders are a major concern in severe brain injury in the arousal phase. Early bedside assessment of swallowing is essential for detection of swallowing disorders to propose appropriate medical rehabilitation care to these patients in a state of altered consciousness.

  18. A biomechanical model of swallowing for understanding the influence of saliva and food bolus viscosity on flavour release

    CERN Document Server

    De Loubens, Clément; Doyennette, Marion; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian; Souchon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    After swallowing a liquid or a semi-liquid food product, a thin film responsible for the dynamic profile of aroma release coats the pharyngeal mucosa. The objective of the present article was to understand and quantify physical mechanisms explaining pharyngeal mucosa coating. An elastohydrodynamic model of swallowing was developed for Newtonian liquids that focused on the most occluded region of the pharyngeal peristaltic wave. The model took lubrication by a saliva film and mucosa deformability into account. Food bolus flow rate and generated load were predicted as functions of three dimensionless variables: the dimensionless saliva flow rate, the viscosity ratio between saliva and the food bolus, and the elasticity number. Considering physiological conditions, the results were applied to predict aroma release kinetics. Two sets of conditions were distinguished. The first one was obtained when the saliva film is thin, in which case food bolus viscosity has a strong impact on mucosa coating and on flavour rel...

  19. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  20. [Solid food introduction and allergic risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Thi, N; Bidat, E

    2014-12-01

    Solid food introduction in childhood suffered in recent decades many changes due to findings of increased allergies with a likely mismatch schemes and a recent reversal of recommendations for delaying the introduction of foods. The advice may still change due to the latest findings on the mechanisms of sensitization. There is little or no certainty on the date and to provide food at the right time. It seems that the introduction of solid foods may be favorable age between 4 and 6 months. Delaying the introduction of allergenic potential has not yet demonstrated a preventive effect. It could be preferable to induce an early oral tolerance that cause allergy with transcutaneous sensitization by ingesting any new dietary protein introduced in the environment of the infant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of added fluids on the perception of solid food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, L.J.; Wijk, de R.A.; Gaviao, M.B.D.; Bilt, van der A.

    2006-01-01

    The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. We examined the hypothesis that adding fluid to a food will influence the chewing process. Twenty healthy subjects chewed

  2. Perceived creaminess of semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A.de; Terpstra, M.E.J.; Janssen, A.M.; Prinz, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Results of sensory, physiological and physico-chemical studies from our laboratory on perceived creaminess of semi-solids foods are reviewed. Most results stem from studies using model vanilla custard desserts, allowing systematic variation of fat, flavor and thickener properties. The

  3. Effects of added fluids on the perception of solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luciano Jose; de Wijk, René A; Gavião, Maria Beatriz D; van der Bilt, Andries

    2006-07-30

    The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. We examined the hypothesis that adding fluid to a food will influence the chewing process. Twenty healthy subjects chewed on melba toast, breakfast cake, carrot, peanut and Gouda cheese. In addition they chewed on these foods after we added different volumes of tap water or a solution of alpha-amylase. We measured jaw muscle activity and the number of cycles until swallowing. Furthermore, we obtained visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for texture and sound attributes for all foods and fluid conditions. The additional fluids significantly lowered muscle activity and swallowing threshold for melba, cake and peanut. The effect of alpha-amylase in the solutions was rather limited. Doubling the volume of tap water had a larger effect. Several texture and sound attributes of melba, cake and peanut were also significantly affected by the additional fluids. For melba, cake, and peanut we observed significant correlations between the physiology parameters and several attributes for the various fluid conditions. This indicates that the added fluid affects both the physiology (muscle activity and number of cycles) and the sensory perception of a number of texture and sound attributes. Adding fluid facilitates the chewing of dry foods (melba, cake), but does not influence the chewing of fatty (cheese) and wet products (carrot).

  4. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing

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    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx serve multiple functions in breathing, speaking, mastication and swallowing. Thus, the fine temporal coordination of feeding among breathing, mastication and swallowing is essential to provide proper food nutrition and to prevent pulmonary aspiration. This review paper will review the temporo-spatial coordination of the movements of oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal structures during mastication and swallowing, and temporal coordination between breathing, mastication, and swallowing. PMID:20161022

  5. Swallowing Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is important to seek treatment to avoid malnutrition and dehydration. How are swallowing disorders treated? Many ... causing discomfort. Other causes may include: hypertension; diabetes; thyroid disease; stroke; progressive neurologic disorder; the presence of ...

  6. Swallowing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007543.htm Swallowing difficulty To use the sharing features on this page, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  7. Anatomy and Physiology of Feeding and Swallowing – Normal and Abnormal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Eating and swallowing are complex behaviors involving volitional and reflexive activities of more than 30 nerves and muscles. They have two crucial biological features: food passage from the oral cavity to stomach and airway protection. The swallowing process is commonly divided into oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal stages according to the location of the bolus. The movement of the food in the oral cavity and to the oropharynx differs between eating solid food and drinking liquid. Dysphagia can result from a wide variety of functional or structural deficits of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx or esophagus. The goal of dysphagia rehabilitation is to identify and treat abnormalities of feeding and swallowing while maintaining safe and efficient alimentation and hydration. PMID:18940636

  8. Utility of a Clinical Swallowing Exam for Understanding Swallowing Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarathnam, Balaji; McCullough, Gary H

    2016-08-01

    A clinical swallowing examination (CSE) is generally believed to be inadequate for making judgments regarding swallowing physiology compared to objective assessments. A large volume of studies has heavily focused on identifying aspiration using a CSE and research addressing physiologic information gathered from a CSE is sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the CSE for assessing physiology compared to videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). Data were derived from a prior investigation of sixty adult patients post-stroke tested with CSE and VFSS. The CSE included an examination of historical measures, oral motor/speech/voice, and trial swallows. The VFSS consisted of swallows of controlled portions of thin, thick, puree, and solid boluses. Previous results from these patients demonstrated significant accuracy in making binary estimates of aspiration and the presence of dysphagia. This analysis of data focused on physiologic measures, as well as overall dysphagia severity and diet recommendations. Significant associations between CSE and VFSS ratings were observed for hyolaryngeal elevation, overall swallowing severity, and diet recommendations. These findings were specific for certain bolus consistencies. These data suggest that the CSE may not provide significant physiological information other than hyolaryngeal excursion. This does not preclude the fact that the CSE is important in providing substantial information about overall dysphagia severity. It appears that the CSE is more powerful than simply a "screening" tool. More prospective research designs are warranted to substantiate the strengths of the CSE.

  9. Oral processing characteristics of solid savoury meal components, and relationship with food composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, C G; van Kuijk, N; Thaler, T; de Graaf, C; Martin, N

    2013-01-01

    The modern food supply is often dominated by a large variety of energy dense, softly textured foods that can be eaten quickly. Previous studies suggest that particular oral processing characteristics such as large bite size and lack of chewing activity contribute to the low satiating efficiency of these foods. To better design meals that promote greater feelings of satiation, we need an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a range of solid food items that could be used to replace softer textures during a normal hot meal. The primary aim of this study was to establish an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a set of solid savoury meal components. The secondary aim was to determine the associations between oral processing characteristics, food composition, sensory properties, and expected satiation. In a within subjects design, 15 subjects consumed 50 g of 35 different savoury food items over 5 sessions. The 35 foods represented various staples, vegetables and protein rich foods such a meat and fish. Subjects were video-recorded during consumption and measures included observed number of bites, number of chews, number of swallows and derived measures such as chewing rate, eating rate, bite size, and oral exposure time. Subjects rated expected satiation for a standard 200 g portion of each food using a 100mm and the sensory differences between foods were quantified using descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel. Statistical analysis focussed on the oral processing characteristics and associations between nutritional, sensory and expected satiation parameters of each food. Average number of chews for 50 g of food varied from 27 for mashed potatoes to 488 for tortilla chips. Oral exposure time was highly correlated with the total number of chews, and varied from 27 s for canned tomatoes to 350 s for tortilla chips. Chewing rate was relatively constant with an overall average chewing rate of approximately 1 chew

  10. Dysphagia in Dementia: Influence of Dementia Severity and Food Texture on the Prevalence of Aspiration and Latency to Swallow in Hospitalized Geriatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, Alexander; Pfeil, Silke; Lessmann, Hendrik; Höder, Jürgen; Befahr, Alina; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate influences of disease severity and food texture on prevalence and type of dysphagia in hospitalized geriatric patients. We screened for dysphagia in 161 geriatric inpatients with different forms of dementia and 30 control patients. Signs of aspiration were registered with 3 different food consistencies (water, apple puree, and slice of an apple) and the latency until the first swallow was documented. Geriatric department of an academic teaching hospital in Hamburg, Germany. Compared with the controls, patients with dementia more often showed signs of aspiration. In the patients with dementia, signs of aspiration occurred more frequently with water (35.6%) than with a slice of an apple (15.1%) or apple puree (6.3%). We observed an inverse relationship between Mini-Mental State Examination score level and the suspected rate of aspiration, as well as with the length of latency until the first swallow of puree. The prevalence of dysphagia is high in patients with dementia, especially in patients with moderate to severe cognitive impairment. The relationships observed in this study encourage screening for dysphagia and adapting meal consistencies to prevent aspiration in patients with dementia. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of 8 Synthetic Food Dyes by Solid Phase Extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recovery was 94.2 % for Brilliant blue in jelly powder. Conclusion: This method was successfully applied to determine colorants in various (30) water-soluble foods, including fruit flavored drinks, sugar confectionery, sweets, etc. Keywords: Synthetic colors, Food, Fruit flavored drinks, Solid phase extraction, RP-HPLC ...

  12. VIDEOFLUOROSCOPIC SWALLOWING STUDY: esophageal alterations in patients with dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina SCHEEREN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Videofluoroscopic swallowing study is a dynamic exam and allows the evaluation of the complete swallowing process. However, most published studies have only reported alterations in the oropharynx and pharyngoesophageal transition, leaving the analysis of the esophagus as a secondary goal. Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alterations in the esophageal phase thorough videofluoroscopic swallowing study in patients with dysphagia. Methods Consecutive patients with dysphagia who underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study including esophageal analysis between May 2010 and May 2012 had their exams retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into two groups: Group I - without a pre-established etiological diagnosis and Group II - with neurological disease. During the exam, the patients ingested three different consistencies of food (liquid, pasty and solid contrasted with barium sulfate and 19 items were analyzed according to a protocol. The esophageal phase was considered abnormal when one of the evaluated items was compromised. Results Three hundred and thirty-three (n = 333 consecutive patients were studied - 213 (64% in Group I and 120 (36% in Group II. Esophageal alterations were found in 104 (31% patients, with a higher prevalence in Group I (36.2%, especially on the items esophageal clearance (16.9% and tertiary contractions (16.4%. It was observed that 12% of individuals in Group I only presented alterations on the esophageal phase. Conclusion Evaluation of the esophageal phase of swallowing during videofluoroscopic swallowing study detects abnormalities in patients with cervical dysphagia, especially in the group without pre-established etiological diagnosis.

  13. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of tree swallows influenced by oil sands aquatic reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farwell, A.; Dixon, D. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Harms, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study in which tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied to evaluate reclamation strategies used by oil sand operators in Alberta. Wetland reclamation involves the transformation of tailings water and solids into functioning aquatic ecosystems. Naphthenic acids (NAs) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in tailing/reclamation material are toxic constituents that pose concern for growth rate, reproductive function and immune function in tree swallows. Exposure to xenobiotics from these tailings-based sites was determined by increased detoxification enzyme (EROD) activity. The dietary exposure of tree swallows to oil sands constituents was determined through stable isotope analysis. Previous studies revealed trends of 13C depletion and 15N enrichment in benthic invertebrates from reclaimed wetlands on the oil sands. Since most food consumed by tree swallow nestlings is aquatic, the isotope signatures in tree swallows should provide evidence of exposure to oil sands constituents. Tree swallow feather and muscle tissues were examined in this study to determine if stable isotopes could be used to identify dietary contributions from oil sands reclamation sites versus reference sites containing no tailings materials.

  14. Speech and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home › Speech and Swallowing Problems Speech and Swallowing Problems People with Parkinson’s may notice ... How do I know if I have a speech or voice problem? My voice makes it difficult ...

  15. Swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolar Andrés, Sandra; Santamarina Rabanal, María Liliana; Granda Membiela, Carla María; Fernández Gutiérrez, María José; Sirgo Rodríguez, Paloma; Álvarez Marcos, César

    Parkinson's disease is a type of chronic neurodegenerative pathology with a typical movement pattern, as well as different, less studied symptoms such as dysphagia. Disease-related disorders in efficacy or safety in the process of swallowing usually lead to malnutrition, dehydration or pneumonias. The aim of this study was identifying and analyzing swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease. The initial sample consisted of 52 subjects with Parkinson's disease to whom the specific test for dysphagia SDQ was applied. Nineteen participants (36.5%) with some degree of dysphagia in the SDQ test were selected to be evaluated by volume-viscosity clinical exploration method and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were detected in 94.7% of the selected sample. With regards to efficiency, disorders were found in food transport (89.5%), insufficient labial closing (68.4%) and oral residues (47.4%), relating to duration of ingestion. Alterations in security were also observed: pharynx residues (52.7%), coughing (47.4%), penetration (31.64%), aspiration and decrease of SaO 2 (5.3%), relating to the diagnosis of respiratory pathology in the previous year. The SDQ test detected swallowing disorders in 36.5% of the subjects with Parkinson's disease. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were demonstrated in 94.7% of this subset. Disorders of efficiency were more frequent than those of safety, establishing a relationship with greater time in ingestion and the appearance of respiratory pathology and pneumonias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of dairy farm management regime on swallow (Hirundo rustica) abundance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, S.K.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify differences in Swallow abundance between organically and conventionally managed dairy farms, by examining three factors: farm buildings, food availability and farmer attitudes to Swallows. Methods Organic and conventional dairy farm holdings were compared in pairwise fashion. On

  17. Methanization potential of anaerobic biodigestion of solid food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís R. G. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion of solid and semi-solid wastes has been widely used for the treatment of these residues and methane production; however, during the process (more specifically in the acidogenic phase, there is a tendency of pH reduction, an unfavorable condition to methanogenic bacteria. Thus, the present work aims to evaluate the methanization potential of an agroindustrial anaerobic granular sludge (AIS from UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor, individually and biodigested with food waste (FW from the University Restaurant of the Federal University of Pernambuco with buffering agent (AIS + FW + b and without it (AIS + FW. After the laboratory tests, the AIS + FW + b configuration obtained a cumulative methane production approximately six times greater than that of AIS + FW, and approximately twice that of the inoculum alone (AIS.

  18. Swallowed toothbrush: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toothbrush swallowing is rare, and most cases are seen in young women with anorexia nervosa or bulimia or associated with mental retardation or schizophrenia. Prompt removal is recommended because no cases of spontaneous passage have been reported. There is no previously reported case series on swallowed toothbrush in mentally normal young men. Here, we report three cases of swallowed toothbrush found in the esophagus and stomach on endoscopy. In our case series, successful removal of the toothbrush was done without endotracheal intubation or over tube, without any complications. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case series of swallowed toothbrush managed successfully endoscopically.

  19. Chemical Sensing Regulates Mastication/Swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Kensuke; Kurose, Masayuki; Okamoto, Keiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Mastication and swallowing are the first stage of digestion involving several motor processes such as food intake, intra-oral food transport, bolus formation and chewing and swallowing reflex. These complicated motor functions are accomplished by the well-coordinated activities in the jaw, hyoid, tongue, facial and pharyngeal muscles. Although the basic activity patterns of these movements are controlled by the brainstem pattern generators, these movements generate various peripheral sensory inputs. Among the sensory inputs, it is well-known that somatic sensory inputs play important roles in reflexively modulating the movements so that the final motor outputs fit the environmental demand. However, little is known about the effects of chemical sensory inputs such as taste and olfaction originating from the ingested foods by these movements. A possible reason could be raised that cognition of the chemical sensory inputs at the higher brain also influences the movements, so it is difficult to discuss the neural mechanisms underlying the observed effect. In this review, we focus on the effects of chemical sensory inputs on the masticatory movements and initiation of swallowing. We first summarize chemical sensory inputs occurring during mastication and swallowing, and their receptive mechanisms. In addition, we will introduce the effect of application of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) solution as an umami taste to the oropharynx on the swallow initiation which is involuntary controlled and the possible neural mechanisms underlying this effect is discussed.

  20. Deglutição e consistências alimentares pastosas e sólidas: revisão crítica de literatura Deglutition of pasty and solid food: a critical review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Checchinato Pansarini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Levantar artigos científicos internacionais sobre a fisiologia da deglutição de alimentos nas consistências néctar, mel, pudim, pastosa heterogênea, semissólida e sólida, nas fases oral e faríngea. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo de revisão qualitativa da literatura. Para a seleção dos artigos, foi utilizada a base de dados PubMed com emprego dos descritores "Swallowing and consistency", "Swallowing and solid" e "Swallowing and pasty", limitando-se a pesquisas publicadas no idioma inglês, entre os anos de 2005 e 2010, realizadas com seres humanos maiores de 18 anos. A metodologia empregada envolveu formulação da pergunta, localização e seleção dos estudos, e avaliação crítica dos artigos, conforme os preceitos do Cochrane Handbook. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 211 estudos, dos quais 18 foram analisados, pois permitiam acesso ao texto completo e eram diretamente relacionados ao tema. CONCLUSÃO: Os estudos apresentam metodologia pouco uniforme, não havendo padronização, principalmente quanto aos métodos de avaliação. Em geral, as pesquisas foram realizadas com sujeitos saudáveis ou remeteram a um tipo de patologia, sem utilização de casos-controle. A heterogeneidade dos estudos possibilita que diferentes grupos de patologias sejam avaliados, porém, a variabilidade metodológica dificulta a definição e generalização dos padrões encontrados. Sendo assim, não é possível evidenciar dados que embasem a prática clínica fonoaudiológica no que diz respeito à fisiologia normal ou alterada da deglutição de diferentes consistências alimentares, tanto para sujeitos normais quanto para os acometidos por alguma desordem.PURPOSE: To analyze published international scientific papers on the physiology of deglutition in oral and pharyngeal phases, considering different food consistencies: nectar, honey, pudding, pasty heterogeneous, semi-solid, and solid. METHODS: This is a qualitative literature reviews

  1. Assessment of swallowing sounds by digital cervical auscultation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Sheila T; Ferlin, Elton L; Parente, Maria Alice M P; Goldani, Helena A S

    2008-04-01

    There is a lack of studies regarding swallowing sounds in children 3 to 11 years of age. This study aimed to assess swallowing sounds by digital cervical auscultation in children of this age group without symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Digital cervical auscultation was performed in 118 subjects by use of a piezoelectric microphone. The children swallowed 5 mL of liquid and yogurt. The components of perceptual acoustic analysis were discrete initial signal (DIS), main signal of swallowing sound (MS), discrete final signal (DFS), and expiratory return (ER). Duration in seconds was the objective parameter of the swallowing sound signal analyzed. Fifty-six boys and 62 girls were evaluated at a mean (+/- SD) age of 6.9 +/- 2.03 years. A complete DIS-MS-DFS-ER swallowing sequence was found in 60% of the children. There was no significant difference in swallowing sound duration between both food consistencies (p = .189) or between genders either for liquid (p = .327) or yogurt (p = .792). There was no correlation between age and duration of the swallowing sound for liquid or yogurt. We concluded that digital cervical auscultation was able to provide objective information about the swallowing process that could contribute to methodological standardization in children.

  2. Speech and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Smell Cognitive Changes Depression Fatigue Constipation & Nausea Hallucinations/Delusions Pain Skeletal & Bone Health Skin Changes Sleep Disorders Speech & Swallowing Problems Urinary Incontinence Vision Changes Weight Management Help Us Make a Difference ...

  3. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. RESULTS: Water migration in cellular solid foods

  4. Predictive model to describe water migration in cellular solid foods during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.A.; Hirte, A.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Water migration in cellular solid foods during storage causes loss of crispness. To improve crispness retention, physical understanding of this process is needed. Mathematical models are suitable tools to gain this physical knowledge. Results: Water migration in cellular solid foods

  5. Swallow syncope caused by third-degree atrioventricular block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roust Aaberg, Anne Marie; Eriksson, Anna Elin; Madsen, Per Lav

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker.......We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker....

  6. The swallowing reflex and its significance as an airway defensive reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eNishino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing function, in humans, is very complex. Swallowing plays, not only an important role in food digestion, but also a major role in preventing the entrance of food and/or other materials into the lower respiratory tract. To achieve this, precise coordination is necessary between breathing and swallowing since the pharynx serves as a common pathway for both respiration and digestion. The swallowing reflex consists of afferent pathways, central integration, and efferent pathways. Any defect or disorder along reflex arc can cause a potential delay or impairment in swallow function. The swallowing reflex can be modulated not only by pathological factors but also by physiological factors. Among these, timing of swallows in relation to the phase of respiration may be the most important factor that determines the occurrence of pulmonary aspiration, since phases of inspiration and the expiration-inspiration transition are the most vulnerable for pulmonary aspiration.

  7. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted from "Swallowing Disorders After a Stroke," Stroke Connection Magazine July/August ...

  8. Atypical swallowing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, C; Prevedello, C; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Farronato, G

    2014-06-01

    Atypical swallowing is a myofunctional problem consisting of an altered tongue position during the act of swallowing. High incidence in population, multifactorial etiology and the recurring connection with the presence of malocclusions made it a topic of strong interest and discussion in science. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the current orientation on the topic of atypical swallowing, trying in particular to answer two questions: 1) what kind of connection is there between atypical swallowing and malocclusion; 2) what kind of therapy should be used to solve it. This review was conducted on the Medline database [www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/pubmed] searching for the keywords "atypical swallowing" and "tongue thrust". We examined all the documents from the year 1990 onwards, excluding the ones about syndromic cases of the central motor system. The causal relation between the two problems seems to be biunique: some authors affirm that this oral habit starts as a compensation mechanism for a preexisting malocclusion (especially in case of open-bite); other texts show that it has a tendency to exacerbate cases of malocclusion; it is also proven that a non-physiological tongue thrust can negatively influence the progress of an ongoing orthodontic therapy. Thereby, the best therapeutic approach seems to be a multidisciplinary one: beside orthodontics, which is necessary to correct the malocclusion, it is essential to set up a myofunctional rehabilitation procedure to correct the oral habit, therefore granting long time permanent results. There is also proof of a substantial difference between the results obtained from early (deciduous or primary mixed dentition) or later treatments. The biunique causal relation between atypical swallowing and malocclusion suggests a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach, orthodontic and myofunctional, to temporarily solve both problems. An early diagnosis and a prompt intervention have a significantly positive influence on the

  9. Timing of solid food introduction and obesity: Hong Kong's "children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-05-01

    Some observational studies in Western settings show that early introduction of solid food is associated with subsequent obesity. However, introduction of solid food and obesity share social patterning. We examined the association of the timing of the introduction of solid food with BMI and overweight (including obesity) into adolescence in a developed non-Western setting, in which childhood obesity is less clearly socially patterned. We used generalized estimating equation models to estimate the adjusted associations of the timing of the introduction of solid food (8 months) with BMI z score and overweight (including obesity) at different growth phases (infancy, childhood, and puberty) in 7809 children (88% follow-up) from a Chinese birth cohort, "Children of 1997." We assessed if the associations varied with gender or breastfeeding. We used multiple imputation for missing exposure and confounders. The introduction of solid food at obesity) in infancy [mean difference in BMI z score: 0.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.14 to 0.17], childhood (0.14; 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.40), or at puberty (0.22; 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.52), adjusted for SEP and infant and maternal characteristics. In a non-Western developed setting, there was no clear association of the early introduction of solid food with childhood obesity. Together with the inconsistent evidence from studies in Western settings, this finding suggests that any observed associations might simply be residual confounding by SEP.

  10. Perspectives of Solid State Fermentation for Production of Food Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Cristobal Noe Aguilar; Gerardo Gutiérrez-Sánchez; PLilia A. rado-Barragán; Raul Rodríguez-Herrera; José L. Martínez-Hernandez; Juan C. Contreras-Esquivel

    2008-01-01

    Food industry represents one of the economic sectors where microbial metabolites have found a wide variety of applications. This is the case of some enzymes, such as amylases, cellulases, pectinases and proteases which have played a very important role as food additives. Most of these enzymes have been produced by submerged cultures at industrial level. Many works in the literature present detailed aspects involved with those enzymes and their importance in the food industry. However, the pro...

  11. Assessing children's swallowing: Parent and professional perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Cockerill, H.; Van Den Engel-Hoek, L.; Harding, C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose-For infants and children who have difficulties with eating, drinking and swallowing (dysphagia), there are significant health risks that include aspiration (food and fluid entering the lungs) and poor growth. Videofluoroscopy is often the instrumental method of assessment used to exclude or confirm aspiration. The purpose of this paper is to investigate parental and referrer perceptions of the reasons for and the outcomes of videofluoroscopy. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach-Data w...

  12. Ethanol production from food waste at high solid contents with vacuum recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve the environmental issues but also provide renewable biofuel to partially substitute fossil fuels. This study investigated the feasibility of utilization of food wastes for producing ethanol at high solid contents (35%, w/w). Vacuum recovery sys...

  13. Tribological properties of rice starch in liquid and semi-solid food model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, K.; Stieger, M.A.; Linden, van der E.; Velde, van de Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the tribological and rheological properties of liquid and semi-solid food model systems containing micro-granular rice starch. Native (uncooked) and gelatinized rice starch dispersions, o/w emulsions and emulsion-filled gelatin gels were studied as food model systems. Native

  14. Beliefs and practices regarding solid food introduction among Latino parents in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Amy L; Hoeft, Kristin S; Takayama, John I; Barker, Judith C

    2018-01-01

    Latino children are more likely to be obese than non-Hispanic white children, and feeding patterns that begin in infancy may contribute to this disparity. The objective of this study was to elucidate beliefs and practices related to the introduction of solids and solid food feeding in the first year of life among low-income Latino parents residing in Northern California. We conducted 26 semi-structured interviews that explored the timing of introduction of solids, selection of foods to serve to infants, feeding strategies, sources of information on solid food feeding and concerns about infant weight. We found that most parents relied on traditional practices in selecting first foods for infants and had a strong preference for homemade food, which was often chicken soup with vegetables. Parents generally described responsive feeding practices; however a minority used pressuring practices to encourage infants to eat more. Very few parents practiced repeated gentle introduction of unfamiliar food to increase acceptance. High calorie low nutrient foods were typically introduced at around 12 months of age and parents struggled to limit such foods once children were old enough to ask for them. Parents were concerned about the possibility of infants becoming overweight and considered health care providers to be an important source of information on infant weight status. The results of this study can be used to inform the development of interventions to prevent obesity in Latino children with similar demographics to our study population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Robust Modelling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Processing of Solid Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu

    The study is focused on combined heat and mass transfer during processing of solid foods such as baking and frying processes. Modelling of heat and mass transfer during baking and frying is a significant scientific challenge. During baking and frying, the food undergoes several changes...... in microstructure and other physical properties of the food matrix. The heat and water transport inside the food is coupled in a complex way, which for some food systems it is not yet fully understood. A typical example of the latter is roasting of meat in convection oven, where the mechanism of water transport...... is unclear. Establishing the robust mathematical models describing the main mechanisms reliably is of great concern. A quantitative description of the heat and mass transfer during the solid food processing, in the form of mathematical equations, implementation of the solution techniques, and the value...

  16. Food safety for the solid organ transplant patient: preventing foodborne illness while on chronic immunosuppressive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Patricia A C

    2012-12-01

    Issues regarding food safety are seen increasingly in the news; outbreaks of foodborne illness have been associated with public health concerns ranging from mild illness to death. For the solid organ transplant patient, immunosuppressive and antibacterial drugs, which maintain transplant organ function, can expose the transplant patient to increased risk of foodborne illness from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This review article describes the clinical consequences, sources of foodborne illness, and food safety practices needed to minimize risks to the solid organ transplant patient who must take lifelong immunosuppressive drugs. All members of the transplant team share responsibility for education of the solid organ transplant patient in preventing infections. The registered dietitian, as part of the transplant team, is the recognized expert in providing food safety education in the context of medical nutrition therapy to solid organ transplant patients, the patients' caregivers, and other healthcare providers.

  17. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of mastication and swallowing in individuals with TMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Carla; Mello, Marçal Motta de; Biase, Noemi Grigoletto de; Pasetti, Lilian; Camargo, Paulo A Monteiro; Silvério, Kelly Cristina Alves; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Rebelo

    2012-01-01

    To study mastication and swallowing disorders in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). To investigate mastication and swallowing disorders in patients with severe TMD referred to surgery. Clinical and experimental study involving ten individuals with TMD submitted to deglutition videofluoroscopy. These patients did not have posterior teeth, mastication pain and food replacement in favor of pasty consistence food. The assessment of the oral and pharyngeal phases approached the following aspects: side of onset and preferential side for chewing, premature escape, remains of food residues in the oral cavity or in the pharyngeal recesses, number of necessary swallowing efforts, laryngeal penetration and/or tracheal aspiration. During mastication and the oral phase we observed tongue compensatory movements upon chewing (n = 7; 70%), premature escape (n = 4; 40%), food remains in the cavity after swallowing (n = 5; 50%) and an excessive number of deglutition efforts (n = 5; 50%). On the pharyngeal phase we observed food remains in the valleculae (n = 6; 60%), in the pyriform sinuses (n = 4; 40%); laryngeal penetration (n = 1; 10%) and tracheal aspiration (n = 4; 40%). TMD patients may have alterations in their chewing and swallowing patterns, with laryngeal penetration and/or tracheal aspiration. The study indicates the need for a multidisciplinary assessment because of dysphagia in TMD patients.

  18. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008, Liberia (LDHS, 2007, Nigeria (NDHS, 2013 and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  19. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  20. Solid Foods: How to Get Your Baby Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not be given home-prepared spinach, beets, carrots, green beans or squash. These foods might contain enough ... 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/healthy-baby/ ...

  1. Ways and Means for the Infusion of Bioactive Constituents in Solid Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellary, Ashwini N; Rastogi, Navin K

    2016-05-18

    The development and consumption of functional food, or foods that promote health not merely basic nutrition, is on rise. In recent years, industrial and consumer interests have focused on developing foods supplemented with bioactive constituents that provide greater physiological benefits. The direct addition of these components to liquid or fabricated solid foods has led to a wide range of new products appearing on the market. Osmotic dehydration, an operation in which food stuff is soaked in solution of low water activity, has been reported as a suitable technology for formulating new products because of the twofold effect that it has on food where it partially removes water and impregnates the food pieces (solid food matrix) with solutes from the osmotic solution. The article focuses on the impregnation of bioactive constituents having added advantage to human health such as antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, and probiotics. The infusion of enzymes and aroma also has been discussed. Application of ultrasound, vacuum, high pressure, and/or atmospheric impregnation techniques appears to be the feasible technologies for impregnation of solid food matrix for the incorporation of bioactive ingredients.

  2. Predictors of the early introduction of solid foods in infants: results of a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Kathleen I

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early introduction of solid foods before 4 months of age has been associated with an increased risk of diarrhoea in infancy and a greater risk of wheeze and increased percentage body fat and weight in childhood. The purpose of this study was to identify the level of compliance with national recommendations related to the timing of the introduction of solid foods and to describe the maternal and infant characteristics associated with the timing of the introduction of solids. Methods Subjects were 519 participants in the second longitudinal Perth Infant Feeding Study (PIFS II recruited from two maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia in 2002/3. Data collected prior to, or shortly after discharge from hospital, and at 4, 10, 16, 22, 32, 40 and 52 weeks postpartum included timing of the introduction of solid foods and a variety of maternal and infant characteristics associated with the introduction of solid foods. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify those factors associated with the risk of introducing solid foods early, which for the purposes of this study was defined as being before 17 weeks. Results The median age of introduction of solid foods was 17.6 weeks. In total, 44% of infants had received solids before 17 weeks and 93% of infants had received their first solids before 26 weeks of age. The strongest independent predictors of the early introduction of solids were young maternal age, mother smoking prior to pregnancy and not fully breastfeeding at 4 weeks postpartum. In general, mothers introduced solids earlier than recommended because they perceived their baby to either need them or be ready for them. Conclusion This study showed a high level of non-compliance among Australian mothers with the infant feeding recommendation related to the timing of solids that was current at the time. In order to improve compliance health professionals need to be aware of those groups least likely to comply

  3. Age at Introduction to Solid Foods and Child Obesity at 6 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Chloe M; Perrine, Cria G; Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that timing of introduction of solid foods may be associated with subsequent obesity, and the association may vary by whether an infant is breastfed or formula-fed. We included 1181 infants who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II) and the Year 6 Follow Up (Y6FU) study. Data from IFPS II were used to calculate the primary exposure and timing of solid food introduction (obesity at 6 years of age (BMI ≥95th percentile). We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between timing of the introduction of solids and obesity at 6 years and test whether this association was modified by breastfeeding duration (breastfed for 4 months vs. not). Prevalence of obesity in our sample was 12.0%. The odds of obesity was higher among infants introduced to solids obesity. We found no interaction between breastfeeding duration and early solid food introduction and subsequent obesity. Timing of introduction of solid foods was not associated with child obesity at 6 years in this sample. Given the inconsistency in findings with other studies, further studies in larger populations may be needed.

  4. Effect of decompression drying treatment on physical properties of solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takuya; Takada, Norihisa; Miura, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    This study used a decompression drying instrument to investigate the effects of a drying treatment on the physical properties of solid foods. Commercial tofu was used as a model food and was treated at different temperature and pressure conditions in a drying chamber. Overall, high temperatures resulted in better drying. Additionally, pressure in the chamber influenced the drying conditions of samples. Differences in physical properties, such as food texture, shrinkage, and color were observed among some samples, even with similar moisture content. This was caused by differences in moisture distribution in the food, which seems to have manifested as a thin, dried film on the surfaces of samples. It caused inefficient drying and changes in physical properties. Control of the drying conditions (i.e. pressure and heat supply) has relations with not only physical properties, but also the drying efficiency of solid foods.

  5. Timing of solid food introduction and association with later childhood overweight and obesity: The IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsou, Stalo; Savva, Savvas C; Hunsberger, Monica; Jilani, Hannah; Michels, Nathalie; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Molnár, Dénes; Siani, Alfonso; Moreno, Luis A; Hadjigeorgiou, Charis

    2017-06-08

    This study investigated associations between timing of solid food introduction and childhood obesity and explored maternal characteristics influencing early feeding practices. Cross-sectional data from children 2-9 years (n = 10,808; 50.5% boys) residing in 8 European countries of the IDEFICS study (2007-2008) were included. Late solid food introduction (≥7 months of age) was associated with an increased prevalence of later childhood overweight/obesity among exclusively breastfed children (OR [odds ratio]: 1.38, 95% CI [confidence interval] [1.01, 1.88]). In contrast, early solid food introduction (introduction. Future studies should examine whether guidelines for solid food introduction timing have to distinguish between exclusively breastfed, formula fed, and too early exclusive breastfeeding-ceased infants. There is also need for more prospective studies; recall bias was an important current limitation. In conclusion, health professionals should emphasize benefits of breastfeeding and appropriate solid food introduction, especially to mothers that are less likely to follow recommendations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Determination of 8 Synthetic Food Dyes by Solid Phase Extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at 250 nm for Brilliant blue, and 0.873 ppm for carmoisine. Recovery was 94.2 % for Brilliant blue in jelly powder. Conclusion: This ..... Trop J Pharm Res, January 2016; 15(1): 179. Table 4: Characteristics of eight water soluble synthetic colors among 30 food samples of six types. Sample type. Sample code. Color found.

  7. EFFECT OF SWALLOWED BOLUS VISCOSITY AND BODY POSITION ON ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT, CONTRACTION AND PERCEPTION OF TRANSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia DALMAZO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The esophagus has a different response in relation to the characteristics of a swallowed bolus. Bolus viscosity and body position may affect esophageal contraction and transit. Objectives To investigate the effect of bolus viscosity and body position on esophageal contraction, transit and perception. Methods Esophageal contraction, transit and perception of transit were evaluated in 26 asymptomatic volunteers, 13 men and 13 women aged 18-60 years, mean: 33.6 (12.2 years. Esophageal contraction (manometry and transit (impedance were measured with a solid state catheter with sensors located 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. Each volunteer swallowed in duplicate and in random sequence a 5 mL low viscous (LV liquid bolus of an isotonic drink with pH 3.3, and a 5 mL high viscous (HV paste bolus, which was prepared with 7.5 g of instant food thickener diluted in 50 mL of water (pH: 6.4. Results Total bolus transit time, in the sitting position, was longer with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus. Esophageal transit was longer in the supine position than in the sitting position. Bolus head advance time was longer with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus in both positions. Contraction esophageal amplitude was higher in the supine position than in the sitting position. The perception of bolus transit was more frequent with the HV bolus than with the LV bolus, without differences related to position. Conclusions The viscosity of the swallowed bolus and body position during swallows has an influence on esophageal contractions, transit and perception of transit.

  8. Timing of introduction of solid food and risk of allergic disease development: understanding the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansotta, N; Piacentini, G L; Mazzei, F; Minniti, F; Boner, A L; Peroni, D G

    2013-01-01

    Strategies to prevent or reduce the risk of allergic diseases are needed. The time of exclusive breastfeeding and introduction of solid foods is a key factor that may influence the development of allergy. For this reason, the aim of this review was to examine the association between exposure to solid foods in the infant's diet and the development of allergic diseases in children. Classical prophylactic feeding guidelines recommended a delayed introduction of solids for the prevention of atopic diseases. Is it really true that a delayed introduction of solids (after the 4th or 6th month) is protective against the development of eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis and food or inhalant sensitisation? In recent years, many authors have found that there is no statistically significant association between delayed introduction of solids and protection for the development of allergic diseases. Furthermore, late introduction of solid foods could be associated with increased risk of allergic sensitisation to foods, inhalant allergens and celiac disease in children. Tolerance may be driven by the contact of the mucosal immune system with the allergen at the right time of life; the protective effects seem to be enhanced by the practice of the breastfeeding at the same time when weaning is started. Therefore, recent guidelines propose a "window" approach for weaning practice starting at the 17th week and introducing almost all foods within the 27th week of life to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as allergic ones and the celiac disease. Guidelines emphasize the role of breastfeeding during the weaning practice. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. The interactions between different tastes on initiation of reflex swallow elicited by electrical stimulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Masanori; Kurose, Masayuki; Uchida, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Mana; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Saito, Isao; Yamamura, Kensuke

    2016-09-01

    The act of eating is a source of pleasure for people and is a major factor in maintaining a good quality of life. Several types of products for dysphagia patients are available to decrease aspiration of food that often accompanies daily food intake. The final goal of these products is to improve the ease of forming a food bolus and/or the safety of the swallowing process; however, tastes of products are not a major concern with initiation of swallowing. In the present study, we investigated the effect of bitter taste stimuli (quinine) and the combination of quinine and umami (monosodium glutamate: MSG) applied to the oropharynx on reflex swallows evoked by electrical stimulation to the oropharyngeal mucosa. Each of the distilled water (DW), quinine and quinine-MSG mixture solution (volume of each solutions, 100 µl) was applied 1 s prior to electrical stimulation. No swallow was evoked when each of the solutions was applied without electrical stimulation. The application of DW and lower concentration of quinine (<100 µM) did not affect the latency of reflex swallow, but 100 µM quinine application increased the latency of the reflex swallow. In addition, application of quinine-MSG mixture solution counteracted the increase in latency induced by quinine application alone. These findings suggest that MSG enhances the initiation of swallowing along with its well-known increase in appetite stimulation. Adding MSG might be effective when creating food to promote swallowing.

  10. SILYMARIN FOOD SUPPLEMENTS – ORAL SOLID DOSAGE FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA G. GLIGOR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several tablet formulations containing silymarin were developed, in order to meet the requirements of different markets. Milk thistle - Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn – standardized extracts have proven their positive effect on liver functionality plus other health benefits. Lactose is a widely used excipient for the production of oral solid dosage forms. One important inconvenient of lactose is related to the lactose intolerant potential customers. Cellulose, isomalt and dicalcium phosphate have been selected as alternative possible tablet binders and diluents. Laboratory and pilot batches were studied for each excipient. The pharmacotechnical properties and silybin content of the tablets were measured and recorded in accordance to the European Pharmacopoeia. All pilot batches had results in the desired range of values in order to permit large scale compacting and blistering of the tablets. Currently the formulations containing isomalt and dicalcium phosphate that made the subject of this study are being produced on industrial scale.

  11. Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Uçkun Kiran; Antoine P. Trzcinski; Yu Liu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, food wastes such as waste bread, savory, waste cakes, cafeteria waste, fruits, vegetables and potatoes were used as sole substrate for glucoamylase production by solid state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for improving the production of high activity enzyme. It was found that waste cake was the best substrate for glucoamylase production. Among all the parameters studied, glucoamylase activity was significantly aff...

  12. An improved instrumental characterization of mechanical and acoustic properties of crispy cellular solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Prada, E.M.; Luyten, J.M.J.G.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed study was performed to simultaneously measure the mechanical and acoustic properties of crispy cellular solid foods. Different critical aspects are discussed in order to assess optimal test conditions. These are primarily data sampling rate, microphone positioning, frequency spectrum of

  13. An improved instrumental characterization of mechanical and acoustic properties of crispy cellular solid food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Castro-Prada, E.M.; Luyten, H.; Lichtendonk, W.; Hamer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed study was performed to simultaneously measure the mechanical and acoustic properties of crispy cellular solid foods. Different critical aspects are discussed in order to assess optimal test conditions. These are primarily data sampling rate, microphone positioning, frequency spectrum of

  14. Crispy/crunchy crusts of cellular solid foods: a literature review with discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, J.M.J.G.; Plijter, J.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2004-01-01

    Literature on the crispy / crunchy behaviour of cellular solid foods with a crust is discussed. The emphasis is on products with a dry crispy or crunchy crust as bread and various snacks and especially on mesoscopic and macroscopic aspects. Successively, the sensory sensation involved, the relation

  15. Effect of morphology on water sorption in cellular solid foods. Part I: Pore scale network model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esveld, D.C.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Dalen, van G.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    A pore scale network model is developed to predict the dynamics of moisture diffusion into complex cellular solid foods like bread, crackers, and cereals. The morphological characteristics of the sample, including the characteristics of each cellular void and the open pore connections between them

  16. Predictors for early introduction of solid food among Danish mothers and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Foverskov, Else; Væth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early introduction of complementary feeding may interfere with breastfeeding and the infant's self-controlled appetite resulting in increased growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors for early introduction of solid food. METHODS: In an observational study...

  17. Scaling of sound emission energy and fracture behavior of cellular solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, M.B.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study was performed of the fracture behavior of toasted rusk rolls, a cellular solid food, at different water activities and morphologies. We find that the energies of the emitted sound pulses follow Gutenberg-Richter power laws with characteristic exponents b~1.5. The scaling exponents

  18. [Dysphagia after introduction of solid food: typical presentation of congenital oesophageal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelkoren, Esther; Sleeboom, Christien; van der Voorn, J Patrick; Wilde, Jim C H; Koot, Bart G P; Kneepkens, C M Frank

    2012-01-01

    Congenital oesophageal stenosis is a rare cause of food passage symptoms in infants. It has a typical presentation with symptoms of dysphagia of solid food, starting at the time of introducing supplementary feeding. We present a 6-month-old girl, who started spitting and coughing and had a slower growth rate after the introduction of solid food. Using upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, oesophagogastroscopy and histopathological examination, a congenital oesophageal stenosis due to tracheobronchial remnants was demonstrated. The stenosis was surgically removed. This case description is typical for congenital oesophageal stenosis. Early recognition of the typical presentation of congenital oesophageal stenosis can prevent unnecessary investigation and delay in treatment. Surgical resection of the stenotic oesophageal segment usually results in full recovery.

  19. A model experiment to study swallowing of spherical and elongated particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconati, Marco; Raut, Sharvari; Charkhi, Farshad; Burbidge, Adam; Engmann, Jan; Ramaioli, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Swallowing disorders are not uncommon among elderly and people affected by neurological diseases. For these patients the ingestion of solid grains, such as pharmaceutical oral solid formulations, could result in choking. This generally results in a low compliance in taking solid medications. The effect of the solid medication size on the real or perceived ease of swallowing is still to be understood from the mechanistic viewpoint. The interplay of the inclusion shape and the rheology of the liquid being swallowed together with the medication is also not fully understood. In this study, a model experiment was developed to study the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing, replicating the dynamics of the bolus flow induced by the tongue (by means of a roller driven by an applied force). Experiments were performed using a wide set of solid inclusions, dispersed in a thick Newtonian liquid. Predictions for a simple theory are compared with experiments. Results show that an increase in the grain size results in a slower dynamics of the swallowing. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrated the paramount role of shape, as flatter and more streamlined inclusions flow faster than spherical. This approach can support the design of new oral solid formulations that can be ingested more easily and effectively also by people with mild swallowing disorders.

  20. A model experiment to study swallowing of spherical and elongated particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconati Marco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing disorders are not uncommon among elderly and people affected by neurological diseases. For these patients the ingestion of solid grains, such as pharmaceutical oral solid formulations, could result in choking. This generally results in a low compliance in taking solid medications. The effect of the solid medication size on the real or perceived ease of swallowing is still to be understood from the mechanistic viewpoint. The interplay of the inclusion shape and the rheology of the liquid being swallowed together with the medication is also not fully understood. In this study, a model experiment was developed to study the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing, replicating the dynamics of the bolus flow induced by the tongue (by means of a roller driven by an applied force. Experiments were performed using a wide set of solid inclusions, dispersed in a thick Newtonian liquid. Predictions for a simple theory are compared with experiments. Results show that an increase in the grain size results in a slower dynamics of the swallowing. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrated the paramount role of shape, as flatter and more streamlined inclusions flow faster than spherical. This approach can support the design of new oral solid formulations that can be ingested more easily and effectively also by people with mild swallowing disorders.

  1. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  2. Swallow syncope caused by third-degree atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaberg, Anne Marie Roust; Eriksson, Anna Elin; Madsen, Per Lav; Dixen, Ulrik

    2015-10-27

    We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Effects of liquid stimuli on dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals in a healthy population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdić Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual-axis swallowing accelerometry has recently been proposed as a tool for non-invasive analysis of swallowing function. Although swallowing is known to be physiologically modifiable by the type of food or liquid (i.e., stimuli, the effects of stimuli on dual-axis accelerometry signals have never been thoroughly investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate stimulus effects on dual-axis accelerometry signal characteristics. Signals were acquired from 17 healthy participants while swallowing 4 different stimuli: water, nectar-thick and honey-thick apple juices, and a thin-liquid barium suspension. Two swallowing tasks were examined: discrete and sequential. A variety of features were extracted in the time and time-frequency domains after swallow segmentation and pre-processing. A separate Friedman test was conducted for each feature and for each swallowing task. Results Significant main stimulus effects were found on 6 out of 30 features for the discrete task and on 5 out of 30 features for the sequential task. Analysis of the features with significant stimulus effects suggested that the changes in the signals revealed slower and more pronounced swallowing patterns with increasing bolus viscosity. Conclusions We conclude that stimulus type does affect specific characteristics of dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals, suggesting that associated clinical screening protocols may need to be stimulus specific.

  4. Bank Swallow - Monitoring [ds6

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The data set represents the annual count of bank swallow burrows at nesting colonies located along the Sacramento River. The data set contains two databases which...

  5. Effect of posture on swallowing.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neck flexed, head/neck extend- ed and lying supine. There are individual differences in swallowing and dys- phagia limit depending on individual condition, prefer- ences and habits. However, different head and neck posi- tions can facilitate ...

  6. The anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal swallowing in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasegbon, A; Hamdy, S

    2017-11-01

    Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. The oropharynx is the anatomical region encompassing the oral cavity and the pharynx. Food must be masticated, formed into a bolus and transported to the pharynx by the tongue whereas fluids are usually held within the mouth before being transported ab-orally. The bolus must then be transported through the pharynx to the esophagus without any matter entering the larynx. The muscles needed for all these steps are coordinated by swallowing centers within the brainstem which are supplied with sensory information by afferent nerve fibers from several cranial nerves. The swallowing centers also receive modulatory input from higher centers within the brain. Hence, a swallow has both voluntary and involuntary physiologic components and the term dysphagia is given to difficult swallowing while oropharyngeal dysphagia is difficult swallowing due to pathology within the oropharynx. Problems affecting any point along the complex swallowing pathway can result in dysphagia. This review focuses on the anatomy and physiology behind normal and abnormal oropharyngeal swallowing. It also details the common diseases and pathology causing oropharyngeal dysphagia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Optimization of solid content, carbon/nitrogen ratio and food/inoculum ratio for biogas production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaser-Celik, Filiz; Azgin, Sukru Taner; Yildiz, Yalcin Sevki

    2016-12-01

    Biogas production from food waste has been used as an efficient waste treatment option for years. The methane yields from decomposition of waste are, however, highly variable under different operating conditions. In this study, a statistical experimental design method (Taguchi OA9) was implemented to investigate the effects of simultaneous variations of three parameters on methane production. The parameters investigated were solid content (SC), carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and food/inoculum ratio (F/I). Two sets of experiments were conducted with nine anaerobic reactors operating under different conditions. Optimum conditions were determined using statistical analysis, such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). A confirmation experiment was carried out at optimum conditions to investigate the validity of the results. Statistical analysis showed that SC was the most important parameter for methane production with a 45% contribution, followed by F/I ratio with a 35% contribution. The optimum methane yield of 151 l kg-1 volatile solids (VS) was achieved after 24 days of digestion when SC was 4%, C/N was 28 and F/I were 0.3. The confirmation experiment provided a methane yield of 167 l kg-1 VS after 24 days. The analysis showed biogas production from food waste may be increased by optimization of operating conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Comfort Food

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joan Kelly Arsenault; Jane G R Musgrave

    2015-01-01

    ...: * Could adding weight (like Enid the stuffed bear) improve stability to get food to the mouth or keep a patient from moving during a swallow study, as well as provide a calming state of alertness...

  9. Sword swallowing and its side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcombe, Brian; Meyer, Dan

    2006-12-23

    To evaluate information on the practice and associated ill effects of sword swallowing. Letters sent to sword swallowers requesting information on technique and complications. Membership lists of the Sword Swallowers' Association International. 110 sword swallowers from 16 countries. We had information from 46 sword swallowers. Major complications are more likely when the swallower is distracted or swallows multiple or unusual swords or when previous injury is present. Perforations mainly involve the oesophagus and usually have a good prognosis. Sore throats are common, particularly while the skill is being learnt or when performances are too frequent. Major gastrointestinal bleeding sometimes occurs, and occasional chest pains tend to be treated without medical advice. Sword swallowers without healthcare coverage expose themselves to financial as well as physical risk. Sword swallowers run a higher risk of injury when they are distracted or adding embellishments to their performance, but injured performers have a better prognosis than patients who suffer iatrogenic perforation.

  10. Evaluation of an EMG bioimpedance measurement system for recording and analysing the pharyngeal phase of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Corinna; Schauer, Thomas; Nahrstaedt, Holger; Seidl, Rainer O

    2013-07-01

    A neuroprosthetic device for treating swallowing disorders requires an implantable measurement system capable to analysing the timing and quality of the swallowing process in real time. A combined EMG bioimpedance (EMBI) measurement system was developed and is evaluated here. The study was planned and performed as a case-control study. The studies were approved by the Charité Berlin ethics committee in votes EA1/160/09 and EA1/161/09. Investigations were carried out on healthy volunteers in order to examine the usefulness and reproducibility of measurements, the ability to distinguish between swallowing and head movements and the effect of different food consistencies. The correlation between bioimpedance and anatomical and functional changes occurring during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in non-healthy patients was examined using videofluoroscopy (VFSS). 31 healthy subjects (15♂, 16♀) were tested over the course of 1350 swallows and 19 (17♂, 2♀) non-healthy patients over the course of 54 swallows. The signal curves obtained from both transcutaneous and subcutaneous measurement were similar, characteristic and reproducible (r > 0.5) and correlated with anatomical and functional changes during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing observed using VFSS. Statistically significant differences between head movements and swallowing movements, food volumes and consistencies were found. Neither the conductivity of the food, the sex of the test subject nor the position of the measurement electrodes exerted a statistically significant effect on the measured signal. EMBI is able to reproducibly map the pharyngeal phase of swallowing and changes associated with it both transcutaneously and subcutaneously. The procedure therefore appears to be suitable for use in performing automated evaluation of the swallowing process and for use as a component of an implant.

  11. Oral medication delivery in impaired swallowing: thickening liquid medications for safe swallowing alters dissolution characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Yady J; Sparkes, Arron M; Cichero, Julie A Y; Stokes, Jason R; Nissen, Lisa M; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is available in a wide range of oral formulations designed to meet the needs of the population across the age-spectrum, but for people with impaired swallowing, i.e. dysphagia, both solid and liquid medications can be difficult to swallow without modification. The effect of a commercial polysaccharide thickener, designed to be added to fluids to promote safe swallowing by dysphagic patients, on rheology and acetaminophen dissolution was tested using crushed immediate-release tablets in water, effervescent tablets in water, elixir and suspension. The inclusion of the thickener, comprised of xanthan gum and maltodextrin, had a considerable impact on dissolution; acetaminophen release from modified medications reached 12-50% in 30 min, which did not reflect the pharmacopeia specification for immediate release preparations. Flow curves reflect the high zero-shear viscosity and the apparent yield stress of the thickened products. The weak gel nature, in combination with high G' values compared to G'' (viscoelasticity) and high apparent yield stress, impact drug release. The restriction on drug release from these formulations is not influenced by the theoretical state of the drug (dissolved or dispersed), and the approach typically used in clinical practice (mixing crushed tablets into pre-prepared thickened fluid) cannot be improved by altering the order of incorporation or mixing method.

  12. Inactivation of bacteria found in solid particulate foods by using a continuous UV irradiation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchido, Tetsuaki; Hayashi, Masashi; Matsumura, Yoshinobu [Kansai Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ohya, Seiji

    2001-05-01

    We examined the effectiveness of a continuous tube-flow type UV irradiation system developed for cold pasteurization of solid particulate foods in flowing air. Among the six kinds of solid particulate foods tested, black pepper, red pepper, and oolong tea leaves could not be sterilized, since these were contaminated with bacterial spores which accounted for almost all counts of detectable bacteria. An apparently marked inactivation effect was obtained with green laver contaminated with relatively high counts of nonsporing bacteria. The effect of the irradiation system on green laver depended upon the flow rate of air supply and the irradiation time within the first 4 s. This system is not effective for killing bacterial spores but can be applied to kill vegetative cells. (author)

  13. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Stafleu, A; Mars, M; de Graaf, C

    2012-09-01

    People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake. To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption. In a randomized crossover design, participants (n=27, age: 21±2.4 years, body mass index: 22.2±1.6 kg m(-2)) repeatedly consumed highly novel foods that were either low-energy-dense (LE: 30 kcal per 100 g) or high-energy-dense (HE: 130 kcal per 100 g), and either liquid or semi-solid, resulting in four product conditions. In each condition, a fixed portion of test food was consumed nine times as an obligatory part of breakfast, lunch and dinner on 3 consecutive days. All meals continued with an ad libitum buffet; food items for evening consumption were provided and the intake (kcal per day) was measured. Buffet intake depended on energy density and day of consumption of the test foods (day*energy interaction: P=0.02); daily buffet intake increased from day 1 (1745±577 kcal) to day 3 (1979±567 kcal) in the LE conditions; intake did not change in the HE conditions (day 1: 1523±429 kcal, day 3: 1589±424 kcal). Food texture did not affect the intake (P=0.56). Intake did depend on energy density of the test foods; participants increased their buffet intake over days in response to learning about the satiating capacity of the LE foods, but did not change buffet intake over days when repeatedly consuming a HE food as part of their meal. The adjustments in intake were made irrespective of the food texture.

  14. Normal swallowing acoustics across age, gender, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youmans, Scott R; Stierwalt, Julie A G

    2011-12-01

    Cervical auscultation has been proposed as an augmentative procedure for the subjective clinical swallowing examination due to the tangible differences between normal and dysphagic swallowing sounds. However, the research is incomplete regarding cervical auscultation and swallowing acoustics in that the differences between the sounds of normal versus dysphagic swallowing have yet to be fully understood or quantified. The swallows of 96 reportedly healthy adults, balanced for gender and divided into younger, middle, and older age groups, were audio-recorded while ingesting several boluses of varying viscosity and volume. The audio signals were then analyzed to determine their temporal and acoustic characteristics. Results indicated increasing pharyngeal swallowing duration with increasing age, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume. In addition, an increased duration to peak intensity with increasing age was found in one of our two analyses, as well as with some of the more viscous versus less viscous boluses. Men and older persons produced higher peak intensities and peak frequencies than women and younger persons. Thin liquids were produced with more intensity than honey or more viscous boluses, and with greater frequency than mechanical soft solids. Larger volumes resulted in greater peak frequency values. Some of the acoustic measurements appear to be more useful than others, including the duration of the acoustic swallowing signal and the within-subjects peak intensity variable. We noted that differences in swallowing acoustics were more related to changes in viscosity rather than volume. Finally, within-participant observations were more useful than between-participant observations.

  15. Swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Camargo Remesso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate occurrences of swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke. METHOD: This was a retrospective study on 596 medical files. The inclusion criterion was that the patients needed to have been hospitalized with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke; the exclusion criteria were the presence of associated cardiac problems and hospital stay already more than 14 days. RESULTS: 50.5% were men and 49.5% women; mean age 65.3 years (SD=±11.7 (p<0.001. Among the risk factors, 79.4% had hypertension, 36.7% had diabetes (p<0.001 and 42.7% were smokers. 13.3% of the patients died. Swallowing disorders occurred in 19.6%, among whom 91.5% had mild difficulty and 8.5% had severe difficulty. 87.1% had spontaneous recovery after a mean of 2.4 months. A lesion in the brainstem region occurred in 6.8% (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Swallowing disorders occurred in almost 20% of the population and most of the difficulty in swallowing found was mild. The predictors for swallowing disorders were older age, diabetes mellitus and lesions in the brainstem region.

  16. Dose-dependent deterioration of swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haderlein, M.; Semrau, S.; Ott, O.; Speer, S.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Bohr, C. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the influence of clinical, treatment- and dose-dependent factors on posttreatment swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy in a group of homogeneously treated laryngopharyngeal cancer patients. From 28 May 2008 to 15 February 2013, 45 patients with borderline inoperable laryngopharyngeal cancer that had responded well to induction chemotherapy were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Median follow-up was 22 months. Swallowing function and clinical data were prospectively analyzed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Swallowing structures were retrospectively delineated on the original treatment planning CT. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for swallowing structures and D{sub mean}, D{sub max} and V50-V64 values (in 2 Gy increments) were determined for each patient. Tumor volume and infiltration of the swallowing apparatus was defined by CT before induction chemotherapy. Of the 45 patients, 26 (57.8 %) fully regained swallowing function after chemoradiotherapy. A further 12 patients (26.7 %) were able to manage soft, pureed and/or liquid foods; the remaining 7 (15.6 %) were completely dependent on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Posttreatment swallowing function was significantly influenced by D{sub mean} to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM, p = 0.041). Correlations between late dysphagia and dose-volume relationships in the superior PCM and soft palate were also observed, which were significant from V60 (p = 0.043) and V58 for the soft palate and superior PCM, respectively. Of the evaluated clinical and tumor-related factors, only alcohol abuse (p = 0.024) had an influence on posttreatment swallowing function. Almost 50 % of patients had deterioration of swallowing function after definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. The dose to anatomical structures responsible for swallowing function appears to play a role. Therefore, in selected patients, target

  17. Dysphagia (Difficulty Swallowing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falls into one of the following categories. Esophageal dysphagia Esophageal dysphagia refers to the sensation of food ... to inflammation and scarring of the esophagus. Oropharyngeal dysphagia Certain conditions can weaken your throat muscles, making ...

  18. A contrasting study: cliff and bank swallows

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the project was to contrast as population of Cliff Swallows and a population of Bank Swallows. Both populations had nests located in a gravel pit near...

  19. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  20. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  1. Glucoamylase production from food waste by solid state fermentation and its evaluation in the hydrolysis of domestic food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Uçkun Kiran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food wastes such as waste bread, savory, waste cakes, cafeteria waste, fruits, vegetables and potatoes were used as sole substrate for glucoamylase production by solid state fermentation. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the fermentation conditions for improving the production of high activity enzyme. It was found that waste cake was the best substrate for glucoamylase production. Among all the parameters studied, glucoamylase activity was significantly affected by the initial pH and incubation time. The highest glucoamylase activity of 108.47 U/gds was achieved at initial pH of 7.9, moisture content of 69.6% wt., inoculum loading of 5.2×105 cells/gram substrate (gs and incubation time of 6 d. The enzyme preparation could effectively digest 50% suspension of domestic food waste in 24 h with an almost complete saccharification using an enzyme dose of only 2U/g food waste at 60°C.

  2. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  3. Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics Secondary to Hemispheric Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Nelson H; Pisegna, Jessica M; Marchina, Sarah; Langmore, Susan E; Kumar, Sandeep; Pearson, William G

    2017-05-01

    Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is a method that utilizes multivariate shape change analysis to uncover covariant elements of pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with impairment using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. The goals of this preliminary study were to (1) characterize swallowing mechanics underlying stroke-related dysphagia, (2) decipher the impact of left and right hemispheric strokes on pharyngeal swallowing mechanics, and (3) determine pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with penetration-aspiration status. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies of 18 dysphagic patients with hemispheric infarcts and age- and gender-matched controls were selected from well-controlled data sets. Patient data including laterality and penetration-aspiration status were collected. Coordinates mapping muscle group action during swallowing were collected from videos. Multivariate morphometric analyses of coordinates associated with stroke, affected hemisphere, and penetration-aspiration status were performed. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in the following comparisons: stroke versus controls (D = 2.19, P mechanics associated with each comparison were visualized using eigenvectors. Whereas current literature focuses on timing changes in stroke-related dysphagia, these data suggest that mechanical changes are also functionally important. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed by the affected hemisphere and the penetration-aspiration status. CASM can be used to identify patient-specific swallowing impairment associated with stroke injury that could help guide rehabilitation strategies to improve swallowing outcomes. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between breast milk feeding, introduction of solid foods, and weight gain in the first 12 months of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klag, Elizabeth A.; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R.; Keim, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Breast milk feeding and solid food introduction can influence infant growth, but are rarely examined together. The objectives were: describe relationships between feeding practices, feeding practices and weight gain, and how the relationship of breast milk feeding and growth may change when breastfed infants start solid foods before 6 months. Methods Data was analyzed on 438 infants from the Moms2Moms Study (2011–2012, Ohio), using multivariable linear and logistic regression models to explore each of the relationships. Results For each additional month of breast milk feeding, solid food introduction was delayed by 1.32 days (95% CI: 0.11 to 2.53) and average weight gain per month decreased by 5.05 grams (95% CI: 7.39 to 2.17). There was no association between solid food introduction and growth. Conclusions Longer breastfeeding duration was associated with slower growth regardless of solid food introduction. Age at solid food introduction was not associated with growth. PMID:25644649

  5. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis).

  6. Improving medication administration in nursing home residents with swallowing difficulties: sustainability of the effect of a multifaceted medication safety programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijt, Clementine C. M.; Klopotowska, Joanna E.; Kluft-van Driel, Chantal; Le, Nhut; Binnekade, Jan; van der Kleij, Bea; van der Schors, Tjalling; van den Bemt, Patricia; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine

    2013-01-01

    Crushing solid oral dosage forms is an important risk factor for medication administration errors (MAEs) in patients with swallowing difficulties. Nursing home (NH) residents, especially those on psychogeriatric wards, have a high prevalence of such difficulties. Six different psychogeriatric wards

  7. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Gibson, R.J.; Eilers, J.G.; Waltimo, T.; Bots, C.P.; Michelet, M.; Sollecito, T.P.; Rouleau, T.S.; Sewnaik, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Fliedner, M.C.; Silverman, S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  8. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; Brennan, Mike T.; Leeuw, Irma M. Verdonck-de; Gibson, Rachel J.; Eilers, June G.; Waltimo, Tuomas; Bots, Casper P.; Michelet, Marisol; Sollecito, Thomas P.; Rouleau, Tanya S.; Sewnaik, Aniel; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Fliedner, Monica C.; Silverman, Sol; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  9. Effect of posture on swallowing.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lowing stroke, motor neuron disease, Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, etc.3,4 It can further lead to aspiration pneu- ... umes of water, healthy adults didn't experience piecemeal deglutition or aspiration; however while ... help in treatment of dysphagia by affecting bolus flow to improve speed and safety of swallowing by ...

  10. Age-related Differences in Tongue-Palate Pressures for Strength and Swallowing Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Tiffany; Polacco, Rebecca Cliffe; Hori, Sarah E.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Tsang, Clemence; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    The tongue plays a key role in the generation of pressures for transporting liquids and foods through the mouth in swallowing. Recent studies suggest that there is an age-related decline in tongue strength in healthy adults. However, whether age-related changes occur in tongue pressures generated for the purpose of swallowing remains unclear. Prior literature in this regard does not clearly explore the influence of task on apparent age-related differences in tongue pressure amplitudes. Furthe...

  11. Tachyarrhythmias triggered by swallowing and belching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmshurst, P

    1999-01-01

    Three cases with supraventricular tachyarrhythmias related to oesophageal transit are reported. A 61 year old man had episodes of atrial tachycardia on each swallow of food but not liquid; this has been reported only rarely. A 55 year old man had atrial fibrillation initiated by drinking ice cold beverages; this has not been described previously although atrial tachycardia triggered by drinking ice cold beverages has been described once. A 68 year old man had supraventricular tachycardia initiated by belching; this has not been described previously. These cases illustrate the diversity of atrial tachyarrhythmias that can be precipitated by oesophageal stimulation and suggest that what is regarded as a very rare phenomenon may be found more commonly when sought.

 Keywords: atrial tachycardia; atrial fibrillation; deglutition; eructation; arrhythmias PMID:10026360

  12. A holistic approach for food waste management towards zero-solid disposal and energy/resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    This study developed a holistic approach which was based on the ultra-fast hydrolysis of food waste with the fungal mash rich in various hydrolytic enzymes produced in situ from food waste as well. After the 8-h hydrolytic treatment, the solid residue and liquor were separated. It was found that the produced solid residue can meet all the requirements for biofertilizer in terms of NPK and heavy metal contents, while the separated liquor with high soluble organics concentration was further subject to anaerobic digestion for enhanced biomethane production. The results showed that 0.41kg of biofertilizer with a moisture content of 76.9% and 54.4L of biomethane could be produced from 1kg of food waste. As such, it is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in food waste management with the ultimate target of zero-solid discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On-cartridge derivatisation using matrix solid phase dispersion for the determination of cyclamate in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianjun, E-mail: bootan12@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China); Liu, Yun [College of Food Engineering and Nutritional Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liu, Qianping [National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China); Hui, Junfeng [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Liu, Yangzi [National Engineering Research Center for Miniaturized Detection Systems, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2017-06-15

    A novel method for determination of sodium cyclamate in foods was developed. In this method, a syringe was loaded with the homogeneous mixture of the sample, KMnO{sub 4} powder and silica dispersant and used as a matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) reactor. As the reactor was infiltrated with small amounts of concentrated HCl, cyclamate was converted to 2-chlorocyclohexanone quickly and effectively within 5 min and determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase column using UV detection at a wavelength of 310 nm. Comparing with the traditional derivatisation in solution, the better clean-up was provided using on-cartridge derivatisation of MSPD, and much time, labor, and expense were saved. The results showed good linearity (r{sup 2} = 0.9998) over the concentration range of 1–500 mg/L. The limit of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of the cyclamate were 0.3 mg/L and 1 mg/L respectively. The recoveries ranged from 91.6% to 101.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) in the range of 2.5%–4.3%. - Highlights: • A novel method was developed for the determination of cyclamate in foods. • On cartridge derivatisation, using matrix solid phase dispersion, was developed. • A new derivatisation reaction for cyclamate conversion to 2-chlorocyclohexanone was developed. • The method was rapid, simple, inexpensive, effective.

  14. Neonatal swallowing assessment using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter-Laracy, Susanne; Osona, Borja; Roca, Antonia; Peña-Zarza, Jose A; Gil, Jose A; Figuerola, Joan

    2018-01-22

    Swallowing disorders which lead to aspiration are common in premature infants with a postmenstrual age (PMA) of >36 weeks. Aspiration is often silent and the unique symptom is desaturation during feeding. The aim of this study was 1) to determine the number of prematures with desaturations during feeding due to aspiration, using Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES); 2) to relate clinical factors and FEES findings to aspiration; and 3) to describe type and efficacy of suggested treatments. A retrospective review of 62 ex-premature babies with a median PMA of 40 weeks which underwent FEES due to persistent feeding desaturations. Aspiration was related to other FEES findings and to clinical and demographic data. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated during the FEES and by comparing recorded desaturations during feeding 7 days before and after FEES. A total of 44 (71%) infants were diagnosed with aspiration and/or penetration. No relation was found to demographic or clinical data. The accumulation of saliva and residues post-swallowing were related to aspiration (P thickener seemed to reduce aspiration during FEES and was suggested as a treatment. 13.6% of infants received anti-reflux treatment after FEES and 9.1% required gastrostomy. Aspiration is very frequent in premature infants who present desaturations during feeding and FEES is a useful method for diagnosing and suggesting treatments. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Current food classifications in epidemiological studies do not enable solid nutritional recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: the impact of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-11-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Current Food Classifications in Epidemiological Studies Do Not Enable Solid Nutritional Recommendations for Preventing Diet-Related Chronic Diseases: The Impact of Food Processing12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-01-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. PMID:26567188

  17. Surface electromyography pattern of human swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadaro Alessandro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiology of swallowing is characterized by a complex and coordinated activation of many stomatognathic, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles. Kinetics and electromyographic studies have widely investigated the pharyngeal and laryngeal pattern of deglutition in order to point out the differences between normal and dysphagic people. In the dental field, muscular activation during swallowing is believed to be the cause of malocclusion. Despite the clinical importance given to spontaneous swallowing, few physiologic works have studied stomatognathic muscular activation and mandibular movement during spontaneous saliva swallowing. The aim of our study was to investigate the activity patterns of the mandibular elevator muscles (masseter and anterior temporalis muscles, the submental muscles, and the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid muscles in healthy people during spontaneous swallowing of saliva and to relate the muscular activities to mandibular movement. Methods The spontaneous swallowing of saliva of 111 healthy individuals was analyzed using surface electromyography (SEMG and a computerized kinesiography of mandibular movement. Results Fifty-seven of 111 patients swallowed without occlusal contact (SNOC and 54 individuals had occlusal contact (SOC. The sternocleidomastoid muscles showed a slight, but constant activation during swallowing. The SEMG of the submental and sternocleidomastoid muscles showed no differences between the two groups. The SEMG of the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles showed significant differences (p Conclusion The data suggest that there is not a single "normal" or "typical" pattern for spontaneous saliva swallowing. The polygraph seemed a valuable, simple, non-invasive and reliable tool to study the physiology of swallowing.

  18. Oral Health and Swallowing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...

  19. Mathematical Model of Solid Food Pasteurization by Ohmic Heating: Influence of Process Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurization of a solid food undergoing ohmic heating has been analysed by means of a mathematical model, involving the simultaneous solution of Laplace’s equation, which describes the distribution of electrical potential within a food, the heat transfer equation, using a source term involving the displacement of electrical potential, the kinetics of inactivation of microorganisms likely to be contaminating the product. In the model, thermophysical and electrical properties as function of temperature are used. Previous works have shown the occurrence of heat loss from food products to the external environment during ohmic heating. The current model predicts that, when temperature gradients are established in the proximity of the outer ohmic cell surface, more cold areas are present at junctions of electrodes with lateral sample surface. For these reasons, colder external shells are the critical areas to be monitored, instead of internal points (typically geometrical center as in classical pure conductive heat transfer. Analysis is carried out in order to understand the influence of pasteurisation process parameters on this temperature distribution. A successful model helps to improve understanding of these processing phenomenon, which in turn will help to reduce the magnitude of the temperature differential within the product and ultimately provide a more uniformly pasteurized product.

  20. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abukari I. Issaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012, Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010, Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012, Guinea (GDHS, 2012, Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013, Niger (NDHS, 2012 and Senegal (SDHS, 2010. The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal, infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin, whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger, were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal, lived in an urban areas (Senegal, or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal. Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality.

  1. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of soft, semi-solid or solid food among infants in Boucle du Mouhoun, Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny A Cresswell

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is among the most effective interventions for preventing child mortality. The objectives of this paper are to describe infant feeding knowledge and practices in Boucle du Mouhoun, Burkina Faso; to identify predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among infants <6 months, and consumption of soft, semi-solid or solid food among infants 6-11 months; to describe mothers' sources of information regarding breastfeeding.A cross-sectional survey (n = 2288 of a representative sample of women aged 15-49 years with at least one live birth in past year took place during June and July 2015. Crude and multivariable random-effects logistic regressions were used to identify factors predictive of exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of soft, semi-solid or solid food.30% of infants <6 months were exclusively breastfed; 67% of infants age 6-11 months consumed soft, semi-solid or solid food the day and night before the interview. 2% of infants age 6-11 months had a minimum acceptable diet. There was strong evidence of a positive association between knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding, nonetheless 60% of mothers who correctly identified that an infant should be exclusively breastfed for 6 months did not breastfeed their infant exclusively. Only 42% of mothers reported receiving advice on breastfeeding from a health worker, despite all mothers having contact with a health worker at least once during pregnancy or postpartum.Given poor practices and low levels of knowledge, targeted interventions are needed to improve infant nutrition in Boucle du Mouhoun during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. Most women now deliver in a facility in Burkina Faso; increased attention should be paid to ensuring that existing guidelines relating to support and counselling for infant feeding are adhered to. Factors such as social norms are also important and these should be investigated in more detail using qualitative methods.

  2. SWALLOWING DISORDERS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY, ASSESSMENT AND REHABILITATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANESCU Ioana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing is a complex process consisting in transporting food from mouth to the stomach; it involves voluntary and reflex activity of more than 30 nerves and muscles, requiring complex neuromuscular coordination and brainstem and cortical centers for controle. Dysphagia is defined as a alteration in the swallowing process, which cause difficulty in transporting saliva and aliments from the mouth trough the pharynx and esophagus into the stomach . It is a frequent symptom, affecting especially old people, people with neurological diseases, cancers of head and neck or severe reflux . Dysphagia can result from a wide variety of functional or structural deficits of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx or esophagus, which could e caused by neurological conditions. Dysphagia carries serious health risks: malnutrition, dehydration, increase risk of infections. Effective dysphagia management requires an interdisciplinary approach; the goal of rehabilitation is to identify and treat abnormalities of swallowing while maintaining safe and efficient nutrition. KEY WORDS: swallowing, dysphagia, functional anatomy, rehabilitation, neuroplasticity

  3. Recent trends in non-invasive in situ techniques to monitor bacterial colonies in solid (model) food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobete, María M; Fernandez, Estefania Noriega; Van Impe, Jan F M

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic cells typically found in liquid systems, are routinely used for building predictive models or assessing the efficacy of food preserving technologies. However, freely suspended cells often show different susceptibility to environmental hurdles than colony cells in solid matrices. Limited oxygen, water and nutrient availability, metabolite accumulation and physical constraints due to cell immobilization in the matrix, are main factors affecting cell growth. Moreover, intra- and inter-colony interactions, as a consequence of the initial microbial load in solid systems, may affect microbial physiology. Predictive food microbiology approaches are moving toward a more realistic resemblance to food products, performing studies in structured solid systems instead of liquids. Since structured systems promote microbial cells to become immobilized and grow as colonies, it is essential to study the colony behavior, not only for food safety assurance systems, but also for understanding cell physiology and optimizing food production processes in solid matrices. Traditionally, microbial dynamics in solid systems have been assessed with a macroscopic approach by applying invasive analytical techniques; for instance, viable plate counting, which yield information about overall population. In the last years, this approach is being substituted by more mechanistically inspired ones at mesoscopic (colony) and microscopic (cell) levels. Therefore, non-invasive and in situ monitoring is mandatory for a deeper insight into bacterial colony dynamics. Several methodologies that enable high-throughput data collection have been developed, such as microscopy-based techniques coupled with image analysis and OD-based measurements in microplate readers. This research paper provides an overview of non-invasive in situ techniques to monitor bacterial colonies in solid (model) food and emphasizes their advantages and inconveniences in terms of accuracy, performance and output information.

  4. Surface Electromyographic Assessment of Swallowing Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Poorjavad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of surface electromyographic (sEMG variables during swallowing determines the potential usefulness of these measures in swallowing assessment and treatment. This study aimed to establish the reliability of the sEMG measures of the swallowing function of muscles during different swallowing conditions in healthy young and old volunteers. Two groups of volunteers (24 older adults, 10 younger adults participated in this cross-sectional study during 2014. The activity of masseter, submental, and infrahyoid groups were measured using sEMG during three repetitions of different swallowing tasks. Both the relative and absolute reliability (characterized respectively by ICC, SEM%, and SRD% were calculated for the sEMG indices of muscle activity during swallowing events. Statistical analyses were performed by the SPSS 19.0 and Microsoft Excel 2007 software packages. Statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. The relative reliability calculations showed significant agreements between repetitions for the mean and peak amplitude and the average of median frequency (MDF of the studied muscles function during most swallowing types in both groups. However, the duration and particularly the time to peak of muscle activity showed significant agreements during fewer swallowing conditions. Excluding MDF, we found high SEM% and SRD% for the studied measures (particularly timing measures of muscles function during most swallowing types in both groups. The reliability of sEMG measures was influenced by the age and swallowing types. Our findings suggest that the MDF of muscle function during almost all studied swallowing types can be a reliable measure for the sEMG assessment of swallowing function in both younger and older adults.

  5. The Effects of Removable Denture on Swallowing

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Dae-Sik; Seong, Jin Wan; Kim, Younghoon; Chee, Youngjoon; Hwang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between removable dentures and swallowing and describe risks. Methods Twenty-four patients with removable dentures who were referred for videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were enrolled. We evaluated the change of swallowing function using VFSS before and after the removal of the removable denture. The masticatory performance by Kazunori's method, sensation of oral cavity by Christian's method, underlying disease, and National Institutes of Hea...

  6. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  7. Salivary protein levels as a predictor of perceived astringency in model systems and solid foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary protein difference value (SP D-value) is a quantitative measure of salivary protein replenishment, which reportedly relates to individual differences in perceived astringency. This in vitro measure is calculated as the difference in total salivary protein before (S1) and after (S2) stimulation with tannic acid, with a greater absolute value (S2-S1) indicating less protein replenishment. Others report this measure predicts perceived astringency and liking of liquid model systems and beverages containing added polyphenols. Whether this relationship generalizes to astringent compounds other than polyphenols, or to solid foods is unknown. Here, the associations between SP D-values and perceived astringency and overall liking/disliking for alum and tannic acid (experiment 1) as well as solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added tannic acid or grape seed extract (GSE) (experiment 2) were examined. In both experiments, participants (n=84 and 81, respectively) indicated perceived intensity of astringency, bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, and degree of liking of either aqueous solutions, or solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added astringents. Data were analyzed via linear regression, and as discrete groups for comparison to prior work. Three discrete groups were formed based on first and third quartile splits of the SP D-value distribution: low (LR), medium (MR), and high responding (HR) individuals. In experiment 1, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were observed for the HR as compared to the LR/MR groups for alum and tannic acid, confirming and extending prior work. In experiment 2, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were also observed for HR as compared to LR groups in solid chocolate-flavored compound containing added tannic acid or GSE. Significant differences in liking were found between HR and LR groups for alum and tannic acid in water, but no significant differences in liking were observed for chocolate

  8. Production and characterization of nanostructured lipid carriers and solid lipid nanoparticles containing lycopene for food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoond Zardini, Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Farhoosh, Reza; Bolurian, Shadi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, lycopene, was loaded on nanostructured lipid carrier and solid lipid nanoparticles using combination of high shear homogenization and ultrasonication method. Effect of applied lipids types, nanocarrier's type and lycopene loading on physicochemical properties of developed nanocarriers were studied. Particle sizes of developed nanocarriers were between 74.93 and 183.40 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of nanostructured lipid carrier was significantly higher than solid lipid nanoparticles. Morphological study of developed nanocarriers using scanning electron microscopy showed spherical nanoparticles with smooth surface. Lycopene was entrapped in nanocarriers without any chemical interaction with coating material according to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry thermogram. Glycerol monostearate containing nanoparticles showed phase separation after 30 days in 6 and 25 °C, whereas this event was not observed in nanosuspensions that produced by glycerol distearate. Lycopene release in gastrointestinal condition was studied by the dialysis bag method. To evaluate nanocarrier's potential for food fortification, developed lycopene-loaded nanocarriers were added to orange drink. Results of sensory analysis indicated that nanoencapsulation could obviate the poor solubility and tomato after taste of lycopene. Fortified sample with lycopene nanocarriers didn't show significant difference with blank orange drink sample except in orange odor.

  9. Early childhood healthy and obese weight status: potentially protective benefits of breastfeeding and delaying solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Brian G; Yeaton, William H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and postponing introduction to solid food (SF) on children's obesity and healthy weight status (WS), at 2 and 4 years. Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we estimated the magnitude of the relationship between children's WS and early feeding practices. Contingency tables and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze obese and healthy WS for breastfed and never breastfed children and examine three timing categories for SF introduction. With both percentages and odds, breastfeeding and delaying introduction to SF until 4 months were associated with lower obesity rates and higher, healthy WS rates (typically 5-10%). Analyses of feeding practice combinations revealed that when children were not breastfed, obesity odds decreased when SF introduction was postponed until 4 months. Obesity odds were further reduced when SF delay was combined with breastfeeding. Consistent increases in healthy WS were also observed. Benefits were stable across both follow-up periods. Breastfeeding and delaying complementary foods yielded consistently and substantially lower likelihood of obesity and greater probability of healthy WS. Health policies targeting early feeding practices represent promising interventions to decrease preschool obesity and promote healthy WS.

  10. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thorough Mastication Prior to Swallowing Increases Postprandial Satiety and the Thermic Effect of a Meal in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Naho; Motokubota, Naoko; Suzuki, Maki; Hayashi, Ikuyo; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence to support that mastication may contribute to the prevention of weight gain via reduction of appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. However, the metabolic effect of mastication after consumption of a daily meal, composed of the staple food (rice), soup, main and side dishes, is limited. Therefore, the effect of thorough mastication on greater satiety and the thermic effect of a meal (TEM) was investigated in young women. In study 1, energy expenditure (EE) derived from masticatory muscle activity for 20 min was measured while chewing hard, tasteless, non-caloric gum in seven subjects. In study 2, ten subjects consumed a solid meal performing 30 chews per mouthful (30 CPM), or swallowed the same, pureed meal without chewing (0 CPM) on two separate days, and postprandial EE, substrate oxidation, subjective appetite ratings and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for 3 h were examined. Both test meals were iso-caloric (2,510 kJ) and -weighted (884 g), and consumed in 20 min. From study 1, the EE of mastication itself for the 20 min was estimated to be 3.7±0.8 kJ. From study 2, significantly higher TEM (134.2±15.5 vs. 67.8±13.8 kJ/3 h, pmastication before swallowing increased postprandial satiety and the TEM in young women, suggesting such eating behavior may be useful for preventing obesity.

  12. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber-Durlacher, Judith E; Brennan, Mike T; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Gibson, Rachel J; Eilers, June G; Waltimo, Tuomas; Bots, Casper P; Michelet, Marisol; Sollecito, Thomas P; Rouleau, Tanya S; Sewnaik, Aniel; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Fliedner, Monica C; Silverman, Sol; Spijkervet, Fred K L

    2012-03-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools, prevalence, complications, and impact on quality of life in patients with a variety of different cancers, particularly in those treated with curative chemoradiation for head and neck cancer. The literature search was limited to the English language and included both MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE. The search focused on papers reporting dysphagia as a side effect of cancer and cancer therapy. We identified relevant literature through the primary literature search and by articles identified in references. A wide range of assessment tools for dysphagia was identified. Dysphagia is related to a number of factors such as direct impact of the tumor, cancer resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy and to newer therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. Concomitant oral complications such as xerostomia may exacerbate subjective dysphagia. Most literature focuses on head and neck cancer, but dysphagia is also common in other types of cancer. Swallowing impairment is a clinically relevant acute and long-term complication in patients with a wide variety of cancers. More prospective studies on the course of dysphagia and impact on quality of life from baseline to long-term follow-up after various treatment modalities, including targeted therapies, are needed.

  13. Development of a Portable Non-Invasive Swallowing and Respiration Assessment Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Yun Shieh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders.

  14. Quantitative classification of pediatric swallowing through accelerometry

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    Celeste Merey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia or swallowing disorder negatively impacts a child’s health and development. The gold standard of dysphagia detection is videofluoroscopy which exposes the child to ionizing radiation, and requires specialized clinical expertise and expensive institutionally-based equipment, precluding day-to-day and repeated assessment of fluctuating swallowing function. Swallowing accelerometry is the non-invasive measurement of cervical vibrations during swallowing and may provide a portable and cost-effective bedside alternative. In particular, dual-axis swallowing accelerometry has demonstrated screening potential in older persons with neurogenic dysphagia, but the technique has not been evaluated in the pediatric population. Methods In this study, dual-axis accelerometric signals were collected simultaneous to videofluoroscopic records from 29 pediatric participants (age 6.8 ± 4.8 years; 20 males previously diagnosed with neurogenic dysphagia. Participants swallowed 3-5 sips of barium-coated boluses of different consistencies (normally, from thick puree to thin liquid by spoon or bottle. Videofluoroscopic records were reviewed retrospectively by a clinical expert to extract swallow timings and ratings. The dual-axis acceleration signals corresponding to each identified swallow were pre-processed, segmented and trimmed prior to feature extraction from time, frequency, time-frequency and information theoretic domains. Feature space dimensionality was reduced via principal components. Results Using 8-fold cross-validation, 16-17 dimensions and a support vector machine classifier with an RBF kernel, an adjusted accuracy of 89.6% ± 0.9 was achieved for the discrimination between swallows with and with out airway entry. Conclusions Our results suggest that dual-axis accelerometry has merit in the non-invasive detection of unsafe swallows in children and deserves further consideration as a pediatric medical device.

  15. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Kathy R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Nichols, John W.; Secord, Anne L.; McCarty, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25 000 ng/g and accumulated to 32 000 and 96 000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d-1 based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  16. Pain, masticatory performance and swallowing threshold in orthodontic patients

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    Marcos Porto Trein

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess pain, masticatory performance and swallowing threshold of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. METHODS: Ten patients of both genders (mean age of 17.25 ± 5.21 years, with complete permanent dentition, who underwent orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were evaluated. The masticatory performance and the swallowing threshold were assessed by patient's individual capacity of fragmenting an artificial test food (Optocal which was chewed and had the resulting particles processed by a standardized sieving method, presenting the median particle size (MPS of crushed units. The intensity of pain / discomfort during chewing was evaluated by means of a visual analog scale. All tests were performed at the following times: T0 - before activating the orthodontic appliance; T1 - 24 hours after activation, and T2 - 30 days after activation. RESULTS: The results showed a significant increase in pain at T1 (T0 - 0.60 ± 0.70 mm; T1 - 66.2 ± 34.5 mm, returning to baseline values at T2 (3.20 ± 3.82 mm. Masticatory performance was also reduced in T1 (MPS 10.15 ± 1.1 mm² in comparison to T0 (MPS 7.01 ± 2.9 mm² and T2 (MPS 6.76 ± 1.3 mm². However, particle size was not affected in the swallowing threshold test (T0 - 5.47 ± 2.37 mm²; T1 - 6.19 ± 2.05 mm²; T2 - 5.94 ± 2.36 mm². CONCLUSION: The orthodontic appliances did not interfere in the size of the particles that would be swallowed, even in the presence of pain.

  17. High-solid Anaerobic Co-digestion of Food Waste and Rice Straw for Biogas Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Zhan-jiang; Liu Jie; Shi Feng-mei; Wang Su; GaoYa-bing; Zhang Da-lei

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste (FW) and rice straw (RS) in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at high organic loading rate (OLR) was investigated. Co-digestion studies of FW and RS with six different mixing ratios were conducted at an initial volatile solid (VS) concentration of more than 3 gVS•L-1. The biogas production, methane contents, degradation efficiency of VS, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were determined to evaluate the stability and performance of the system. The results showed that the co-digestion process had higher system stability and higher volumetric biogas production than mono-digestions. Increase in FW content in the feedstock could increase the methane yield and shorten retention time. The efficiency of co-digestion systems mainly relied on the mixing ratios of FW and RS to some extent. The highest methane yield was 60.55 mL•gV•S-1•d-1 at a mass ratio (FW/RS) of 3: 1, which was 178% and 70% higher than that of mono-digestions of FW and RS, respectively. Consequently, the anaerobic co-digestion of FW and RS could have superior stability and better performance than mono-digestions in higher organic loading system.

  18. A Management Framework for Municipal Solid Waste Systems and Its Application to Food Waste Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L. Thyberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a complex task involving numerous waste fractions, a range of technological treatment options, and many outputs that are circulated back into society. A systematic, interdisciplinary systems management framework was developed to facilitate the planning, implementation, and maintenance of sustainable waste systems. It aims not to replace existing decision-making approaches, but rather to enable their integration to allow for inclusion of overall sustainability concerns and address the complexity of solid waste management. The framework defines key considerations for system design, steps for performance monitoring, and approaches for facilitating continual system improvements. It was developed by critically examining the literature to determine what aspects of a management framework would be most effective at improving systems management for complex waste systems. The framework was applied to food waste management as a theoretical case study to exemplify how it can serve as a systems management tool for complex waste systems, as well as address obstacles typically faced in the field. Its benefits include the integration of existing waste system assessment models; the inclusion of environmental, economic, and social priorities; efficient performance monitoring; and a structure to continually define, review, and improve systems. This framework may have broader implications for addressing sustainability in other disciplines.

  19. Movements of temporomandibular condyles during swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čimić, Samir; Šimunković, Sonja Kraljević; Gospić, Renata Kevilj; Badel, Tomislav; Dulčić, Nikša; Ćatić, Amir

    2015-03-01

    There have been studies that investigated mandibular movements and positioning during swallowing, but the results were inconsistent, and still the exact position of the condyles during swallowing is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to study the kinematics of the mandible and the condyles, and to determine the actual movement paths and position of mandible and condyles during the process of swallowing. The study was performed on a sample of 44 dental students. Measurements were done with an electronic axiograph. After non-occlusing attachment was fixed in the mouth, every subject swallowed for five times from the rest position. The final swallowing position of the left and the right condyles was measured in the sagittal plane. The final swallowing position of the sagittal incisal point was measured in sagittal, frontal and horizontal plane, and data was statistically analyzed. The condyles showed average movement toward posterior (left 0.17 mm, SD 0.28, right 0.16 mm, SD 0.25) and superior (left 0.14 mm, SD 0.20, right 0.14 mm, SD 0.23). Anterior and/or inferior position had 20% of participants. The average sagittal incisal point movement during swallowing was toward anterior (0.30 mm, SD 0.53) and superior (0.81 mm, SD 0.84). The mean mandibular lateral movement was 0.1 mm (SD 0.1). The results of the study suggest that retrusion during swallowing is not the rule, although on average there is a slight tendency of condylar movement toward posterior. Swallowing can be used as auxiliary method for determining vertical dimension of occlusion.

  20. Lung Volume Measured during Sequential Swallowing in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Outcomes from studying the coordinative relationship between respiratory and swallow subsystems are inconsistent for sequential swallows, and the lung volume at the initiation of sequential swallowing remains undefined. The first goal of this study was to quantify the lung volume at initiation of sequential swallowing ingestion cycles and…

  1. Analysis of oropharyngeal dysphagia through fibroendoscopy evaluation of swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Flores, Melissa; Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Villeda-Miranda, Alicia; Rocha-Cacho, Karina Elizabeth; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Hernández-López, Xochiquetzal

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a high incidence in Mexico and is estimated at approximately 500,000 patients. One of the main clinical manifestations of PD is dysphagia, which is the difficult passage of food from the mouth to the stomach. The aim of this study was to assess oropharyngeal dysphagia through fibroendoscopy evaluation of swallowing in patients with PD. We conducted a census sample of patients with PD: 17 males and 10 females, aged >49 years. Clinical history, physical examination and neurological evaluation of swallowing fibroendoscopy were carried out. Of the symptomatic patients, 16 patients (59.25%) reported dysphagia. Fibroendoscopic evaluation demonstrated swallowing disorders in 25 patients (92.59%). The main findings were poor bolus control in 19 patients (70.37%), deficits in bolus propulsion in 25 patients (92.59%), impaired swallowing in 14 patients (51.85%), fractional swallowing in 11 patients (40.74%), reduced epiglottic tilting in 11 patients (48.14%), food residue in vallecula in 24 patients (88.88%) and piriform sinus in 19 patients (70.37%). There was no correlation between duration of PD and degree of involvement of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with PD is a common symptom and can range from the oral cavity to the upper esophageal sphincter. Early onset of severe dysphagia is exceptional in this disease and should alert the clinician to the diagnostic possibility of parkinsonism.

  2. Fluid mechanics of eating, swallowing and digestion - overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Jan; Burbidge, Adam S

    2013-02-26

    From a very simplistic viewpoint, the human digestive system can be regarded as a long tube (with dramatic variations in diameter, cross-section, wall properties, pumping mechanisms, regulating valves and in-line sensors). We single out a few fluid mechanical phenomena along the trajectory of a food bolus from the mouth to the small intestine and discuss how they influence sensorial perception, safe transport, and nutrient absorption from a bolus. The focus is on lubrication flows between the tongue and palate, the oropharyngeal stage of swallowing and effects of flow on absorption in the small intestine. Specific challenges and opportunities in this research area are highlighted.

  3. Objective and quantitative definitions of modified food textures based on sensory and rheological methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Wendin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients who suffer from chewing and swallowing disorders, i.e. dysphagia, may have difficulties ingesting normal food and liquids. In these patients a texture modified diet may enable that the patient maintain adequate nutrition. However, there is no generally accepted definition of ‘texture’ that includes measurements describing different food textures. Objective: Objectively define and quantify categories of texture-modified food by conducting rheological measurements and sensory analyses. A further objective was to facilitate the communication and recommendations of appropriate food textures for patients with dysphagia. Design: About 15 food samples varying in texture qualities were characterized by descriptive sensory and rheological measurements. Results: Soups were perceived as homogenous; thickened soups were perceived as being easier to swallow, more melting and creamy compared with soups without thickener. Viscosity differed between the two types of soups. Texture descriptors for pâtés were characterized by high chewing resistance, firmness, and having larger particles compared with timbales and jellied products. Jellied products were perceived as wobbly, creamy, and easier to swallow. Concerning the rheological measurements, all solid products were more elastic than viscous (G′>G″, belonging to different G′ intervals: jellied products (low G′ and timbales together with pâtés (higher G′. Conclusion: By combining sensory and rheological measurements, a system of objective, quantitative, and well-defined food textures was developed that characterizes the different texture categories.

  4. Identification of Swallowing Tasks from a Modified Barium Swallow Study That Optimize the Detection of Physiological Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelwood, R. Jordan; Armeson, Kent E.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify which swallowing task(s) yielded the worst performance during a standardized modified barium swallow study (MBSS) in order to optimize the detection of swallowing impairment. Method: This secondary data analysis of adult MBSSs estimated the probability of each swallowing task yielding the derived…

  5. No difference in compensation for sugar in a drink versus sugar in semi-solid and solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadah, Nouf S; Kyle, Lesley A; Smith, Jessica E; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J

    2016-03-15

    It is claimed that sugar consumed in a drink is poorly compensated for by a reduction in subsequent energy intake, however very little research has tested directly the effect on appetite of adding sugar to a drink versus food. In this between subjects study, 144 participants (72 men) consumed preloads sweetened with either sucrose or the low-energy sweetener, sucralose (preload energy difference 162kcal) in the form of a blackcurrant drink, jelly or candy. The different preload viscosities were achieved by varying the amount of thickener (carrageenan) and water in the recipes. Participants completed hunger ratings before and 5, 10 and 20min after consuming their preload. After the 20-minute rating they were served a test-meal comprising an excess of bite-sized sandwiches and a sweet dessert. Energy intake measured for the same meal consumed the previous day (baseline day, no preload consumed) was used in the data analyses to control for individual differences in energy intake. Overall, there was 36% compensation for the energy difference in the preloads, but this did not vary with preload viscosity - if anything compensation was greater for the drink preload, and greater in men. The drink preload also showed an effect of sucrose versus sucralose for hunger. The lack of the predicted effect of viscosity on compensation could not be explained by differences in blood-glucose concentration 20min after the preload (measured in a separate study) or by differences in preload sweetness, flavour intensity, liking or familiarity. Comparison of baseline and test-meal food intakes indicated that, irrespective of energy content, the sweet drinks reduced the relative intake of sweet food. In conclusion, short-term energy compensation did not differ across a set of realistic drink and food stimuli. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of sword-swallower injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, A C; Fritsch, M H; Mosier, K M

    2011-02-01

    To report an unusual case of hypopharyngeal perforation in a sword-swallower, with emphasis on management options. Case report and review of the English language literature concerning sword-swallowing injuries to the hypopharynx and oesophagus. A 29-year-old male sword-swallower suffered hypopharyngeal perforation during a performance. The patient received conservative management, with intensive care unit admission, infectious disease consultation, intravenous antibiotics, discontinuation of oral intake and close observation. He progressed well, resumed oral intake on hospital day six, and was discharged home on hospital day eight. Sword-swallowing is an unusual vocation which may lead to potentially devastating injuries. This case report and review of the literature illustrates the management options for such hypopharyngeal and oesophageal injuries.

  7. [The physiologic and the pathologic swallowing process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantemir, S; Laubert, A

    2017-03-01

    It is estimated that 5 million people in Germany currently suffer from swallowing disorders. Due to increasing life expectancy and the good outcome of very premature infants, this number is expected to increase. Swallowing normally occurs in four phases, and for each phase there are diagnostic tools to assess whether the problem is anatomic-organic or functional. A detailed case history is followed by clinical examination of the cranial nerves, the orofacial region, the swallowing reflex, and pharyngeal and esophageal transit. Attention is also paid to age-related changes in the swallowing process, nasal regurgitation, retention at the base of the tongue or in the hypopharynx, and signs of aspiration.

  8. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Edward; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprised of sensors, related hardware and software for multimodal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in twenty one volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of 5 subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews, and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines, and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior. PMID:18427161

  9. Effect of IQoro(R) training in hiatal hernia patients with misdirected swallowing and esophageal retention symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägg, Mary; Tibbling, Lita; Franzén, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Misdirected swallowing can be triggered by esophageal retention and hiatal incompetence. The results show that oral IQoro(R) screen (IQS) training improves misdirected swallowing, hoarseness, cough, esophageal retention, and globus symptoms in patients with hiatal hernia. The present study investigated whether muscle training with an IQS influences symptoms of misdirected swallowing and esophageal retention in patients with hiatal hernia. A total of 28 adult patients with hiatal hernia suffering from misdirected swallowing and esophageal retention symptoms for more than 1 year before entry to the study were evaluated before and after training with an IQS. The patients had to fill out a questionnaire regarding symptoms of misdirected swallowing, hoarseness, cough, esophageal retention, and suprasternal globus, which were scored from 0-3, and a VAS on the ability to swallow food. The effect of IQS traction on diaphragmatic hiatus (DH) pressure was recorded in 12 patients with hiatal hernia using high resolution manometry (HRM). Upon entry into the study, misdirected swallowing, globus sensation, and esophageal retention symptoms were present in all 28 patients, hoarseness in 79%, and cough in 86%. Significant improvement was found for all symptoms after oral IQS training (p < 0.001). Traction with an IQS resulted in a 65 mmHg increase in the mean HRM pressure of the DH.

  10. The Andean Swallow (Orochelidon andecola) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mazar Barnett, Juan; Pugnali, Germán D.; Pearman Morrison, Mark; Bodrati, Alejandro; Moschione, Flavio; Clark, Ricardo; Roesler, Carlos Ignacio; Monteleone, Diego; Casañas, Hernán; Burgos Gallardo, Freddy; Segovia, José; Pagano, Luis; Povedano, Hernán; Areta, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    During ornithological studies in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, and San Juan, we recorded the Andean Swallow Orochelidon andecola at 40 localities. These are the first records in Argentina, and also represent the southernmost for the species. Some of these localities are up to 1500 m lower than the previously known elevational limit (now 800 masl), and up to 1100 km southwards. This is a relatively poorly known swallow, and we present novel natural history data. We found evidence of breeding ...

  11. Effect of a food waste disposer policy on solid waste and wastewater management with economic implications of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Amani; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the carbon footprint of introducing a food waste disposer (FWD) policy was examined in the context of its implications on solid waste and wastewater management with economic assessment of environmental externalities emphasizing potential carbon credit and increased sludge generation. For this purpose, a model adopting a life cycle inventory approach was developed to integrate solid waste and wastewater management processes under a single framework and test scenarios for a waste with high organic food content typical of developing economies. For such a waste composition, the results show that a FWD policy can reduce emissions by nearly ∼42% depending on market penetration, fraction of food waste ground, as well as solid waste and wastewater management schemes, including potential energy recovery. In comparison to baseline, equivalent economic gains can reach ∼28% when environmental externalities including sludge management and emissions variations are considered. The sensitivity analyses on processes with a wide range in costs showed an equivalent economic impact thus emphasizing the viability of a FWD policy although the variation in the cost of sludge management exhibited a significant impact on savings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 99mTc-tagged chicken liver as a marker of solid food in the human stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J H; MacGregor, I L; Gueller, R; Martin, P; Cavalieri, R

    1976-04-01

    Past measurement of gastric emptying of solid food in man has depended on external counting of surface-absorbed isotopes without verification that isotopic labels remain attached to solid food in the stomach. In this study chicken liver was isotopically labeled with 99mTc incorporated uniformly and intracellularly throughout the liver substance. In vitro studies showed less than 10% loss of 99mTc from liver incubated with pepsin HC1. By contrast, up to 90% of 51Cr absorbed to scrambled eggs became detached under similar conditions. In feeding experiments less than 10% of 99mTc was liberated from fed 99mTc liver, while significantly more 51Cr became detached from egg under identical intragastric conditions. We conclude that 99mTc-tagged chicken liver is an adequate marker of the rate of emptying of solid food and appears to be more reliable than 51Cr-labeled scrambled eggs from which 51Cr dissociates in the stomach.

  13. Early infant feeding practice and childhood obesity: the relation of breast-feeding and timing of solid food introduction with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Yazıcı, Mebrure; Demir, Ayşegul Dogan; Turkmen, Serdar; Nursoy, Mustafa; Ozkaya, Emin

    2014-11-01

    We assessed the association of breast-feeding and timing of solid food introduction with childhood obesity. The children were grouped according to the duration of breast-feeding (0-1, 2-6, 7-12, 13-18, and 19-24 months) and the age at which solid foods were introduced (breastfeeding has been previously reported to protect against childhood obesity, we were unable to find a significant association between obesity and either longer duration of breastfeeding or later introduction to solid foods in our sample.

  14. Instrumentation for bedside analysis of swallowing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Catiuscia S S; Nunes, Luiz G Q; Melo, Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    Disordered swallowing, or dysphagia, is a common problem seen in patients undergoing treatment for cancer, stroke and neurodegenerative illnesses. This disease is associated with aspiration-induced chest infections. The methods currently used for diagnosis, however, are qualitative or based on expensive equipment. Swallowing accelerometry is a promising low-cost, quantitative and noninvasive tool for the evaluation of swallowing. This work describes the design and application of a bedside instrument able to evaluate swallowing mechanisms and to identify patients at risk of aspiration. Three-axis swallowing accelerometry was used to measure the neck vibrations associated with deglutition, providing analog signals to a virtual instrument developed in LabVIEW environment. In vivo tests in normal subjects as well as tests with disphagic patients showed that the system was able to easily and non-invasively detect changes in the swallowing acceleration pattern associated with increasing values of water volume (p disphagia. We concluded that the developed system could be a useful tool for the objective bedside evaluation of patients at risk of aspiration.

  15. Impact of proprioception during the oral phase on initiating the swallowing reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hikaru; Saitoh, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that proprioceptive signals during the oral phase play a pivotal role in the initiation of pharyngeal phase during volitional swallowing. Therefore, we tested if swallowing could be modified by changing the amount of proprioceptive feedback from a number of different receptors while holding a food bolus in the mouth and clenching. Basic research. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings of the masticatory muscles were obtained during volitional swallowing movements from seven healthy adults with no clinical history of swallowing difficulties. The swallowing procedure involved holding 5 ml of jelly on the tongue before swallowing it completely, according to visual cues on a computer display. Initiation of the swallowing reflex was detected by an anterior shift of the thyroid cartilage using a laser displacement sensor and by submental sEMG signals. To vary the proprioceptive input, the participants were instructed to occlude their teeth at various intensities (weak, intermediate, and strong) while holding the 5-ml jelly bolus on the tongue. Rectified and integrated sEMG (iEMG) signals obtained from the submental area showed two upward deflections. Contractile forces of the masseter muscles showed significant negative values for Pearson correlation coefficient against time intervals from the onset of the second submental iEMG deflection to the onset of the anterior shift of the thyroid cartilage in six of the seven participants (average -0.534, standard deviation 0.176). Contractile forces of the masseter muscles during occlusion tended to correlate negatively with electromechanical delays on suprahyoid muscle contraction. NA Laryngoscope, 126:1595-1599, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

    2013-10-01

    To avoid the inhibition from both of waste oil and high concentrations of cationic elements, anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid (ADSL) system was examined in this present paper. Results from batch test indicated that a higher methane yield could be obtained in the ADSL system. The methane yield of food solid waste (FSW), food liquid waste (FLW) and raw food waste (RFW) were 643, 659 and 581 mL/g-VS, respectively. In semi-continuous anaerobic digestion, the optimum organic loading rates (OLR) for FSW, FLW and RFW were 9, 4 and 7 g-VS/L/d, respectively. The total methane production of RFW and ADSL systems, based on 1 kg-VS(RFW), were 405 and 460 L, respectively, indicating that the methane production increased by 13.6% in the ADSL system. The optimum C/N ratio, redistribution of metal element and lower content of waste oil in FSW explain the higher methane production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of high-solids to liquid anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Yan, Wei; Sheng, Kuichuan; Sanati, Mehri

    2014-02-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and green waste was conducted with six feedstock mixing ratios to evaluate biogas production. Increasing the food waste percentage in the feedstock resulted in an increased methane yield, while shorter retention time was achieved by increasing the green waste percentage. Food waste/green waste ratio of 40:60 was determined as preferred ratio for optimal biogas production. About 90% of methane yield was obtained after 24.5 days of digestion, with total methane yield of 272.1 mL/g VS. Based the preferred ratio, effect of total solids (TS) content on co-digestion of food waste and green waste was evaluated over a TS range of 5-25%. Results showed that methane yields from high-solids anaerobic digestion (15-20% TS) were higher than the output of liquid anaerobic digestion (5-10% TS), while methanogenesis was inhibited by further increasing the TS content to 25%. The inhibition may be caused by organic overloading and excess ammonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gastric emptying and sieving of solid food and pancreatic and biliary secretions after solid meals in patients with nonresective ulcer surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E.A.; Thomson, J.B.; Jehn, D.; Reedy, T.; Elashoff, J.; Deveny, C.; Meyer, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    This study was undertaken to compare with previously published findings in normal subjects and subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy the effects of nonresective ulcer surgery on (a) gastric emptying, grinding, and sieving of solid food and on (b) pancreatic and biliary secretions. Six subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy and 7 subjects with truncal vagotomy with pyloroplasty were studied using a previously validated indicator perfusion system with its aspiration port placed in the proximal jejunum. All subjects were given a meal of 30 g of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, 60 g of beefsteak, and 100 ml of H/sub 2/O. In conjunction with a gamma-camera to measure total gastric emptying of /sup 99m/Tc-liver, this method allowed the estimation of the fraction of 99mTc-liver emptied from the stomach as particles of less than 1-mm diameter; in addition, it was possible to measure jejunal concentrations and outputs of bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In subjects with proximal gastric vagotomy, all parameters studied were indistinguishable from normal. Subjects with truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty behaved similarly to subjects with vagotomy and antrectomy, showing (a) early precipitous emptying of food, (b) heterogeneous distribution of half-emptying times, (c) near normal concentration of biliary and pancreatic secretions, (d) markedly reduced jejunal flow rates, and (e) a reduction in postcibal trypsin secretion. In contrast to subjects after truncal vagotomy and antrectomy, however, the majority of subjects with vagotomy and pyloroplasty did not show a persistent defect in grinding and sieving of solid food.

  19. Timing of solid food introduction in relation to eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food and inhalant sensitization at the age of 6 years: results from the prospective birth cohort study LISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutavern, Anne; Brockow, Inken; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Diez, Ulrike; Borte, Michael; Kraemer, Ursula; Herbarth, Olf; Behrendt, Heidrun; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Current prophylactic feeding guidelines recommend a delayed introduction of solids for the prevention of atopic diseases. This study investigates whether a delayed introduction of solids (past 4 or 6 months) is protective against the development of eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food or inhalant sensitization at the age of 6 years. Data from 2073 children in the ongoing LISA birth cohort study were analyzed at 6 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for all children and for children without skin or allergic symptoms within the first 6 months of life to take into account reverse causality. A delayed introduction of solids (past 4 or 6 months) was not associated with decreased odds for asthma, allergic rhinitis, or sensitization against food or inhalant allergens at 6 years of age. On the contrary, food sensitization was more frequent in children who were introduced to solids later. The relationship between the timing of solid food introduction and eczema was not clear. There was no protective effect of a late introduction of solids or a less diverse diet within the first 4 months of life. However, in children without early skin or allergic symptoms were considered, eczema was significantly more frequent in children who received a more diverse diet within the first 4 months. This study found no evidence supporting a delayed introduction of solids beyond 4 or 6 months for the prevention of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food or inhalant sensitization at the age of 6 years. For eczema, the results were conflicting, and a protective effect of a delayed introduction of solids cannot be excluded. Positive associations between late introduction of solids and food sensitization have to be interpreted with caution. A true protective effect of a delayed introduction of solids on food sensitization seems unlikely.

  20. The use of real-time PCR to study Penicillium chrysogenum growth kinetics on solid food at different water activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arquiza, J M R Apollo; Hunter, Jean

    2014-09-18

    Fungal growth on solid foods can make them unfit for human consumption, but certain specialty foods require fungi to produce their characteristic properties. In either case, a reliable way of measuring biomass is needed to study how various factors (e.g. water activity) affect fungal growth rates on these substrates. Biochemical markers such as chitin, glucosamine or ergosterol have been used to estimate fungal growth, but they cannot distinguish between individual species in mixed culture. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) protocol specific for a target fungal species was used to quantify its DNA while growing on solid food. The measured amount of DNA was then related to the biomass present using an experimentally determined DNA-to-biomass ratio. The highly sensitive rt-PCR biomass assay was found to have a wide range, able to quantify the target DNA within a six orders-of-magnitude difference. The method was used to monitor germination and growth of Penicillium chrysogenum spores on a model porous food (cooked wheat flour) at 25°C and different water activities of 0.973, 0.936, and 0.843. No growth was observed at 0.843, but lag, exponential and stationary phases were identified in the growth curves for the higher water activities. The calculated specific growth rates (μ) during the exponential phase were almost identical, at 0.075/h and 0.076/h for aw=0.973 and 0.936, respectively. The specificity of the method was demonstrated by measuring the biomass of P. chrysogenum while growing together with Aspergillus niger on solid media at aw=0.973. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mothers' restrictive eating and food neophobia and fathers' dietary quality are associated with breast-feeding duration and introduction of solid foods: the STEPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaarno, Jenni; Niinikoski, Harri; Kaljonen, Anne; Aromaa, Minna; Lagström, Hanna

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental eating behaviours and dietary patterns and feeding practices of infants and young children. Data on infant-feeding practices were collected from each infant's birth via parentally self-administered follow-up diaries. Three questionnaires, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, the Food Neophobia Scale and the Index of Diet Quality, were administered when the children were aged 4 and 13 months. South-western Finland. Families participating in the STEPS longitudinal cohort study (n 1797). Mean duration of exclusive breast-feeding was 2.4 months and total duration of breast-feeding averaged 8.1 months. The first solid food was introduced into children's diets at the age of 3.9 months, on average. Mothers with highly restrictive eating were more likely to introduce solid foods sooner than mothers who ranked lower in these behaviours (3.8 months v. 4.0 months, P = 0.012). Neophobic mothers breast-fed exclusively (2.0 v. 2.6 months, P = 0.038) and in total (7.2 v. 8.5 months, P = 0.039) for shorter times than average mothers, even after adjusting for various demographic characteristics. Fathers' diet quality was associated with total breast-feeding duration and with introduction of complementary foods in unadjusted analyses and with total breast-feeding duration also after adjusting for confounding factors. Mothers' and fathers' eating patterns and practices are associated with the feeding practices of infants and young children. Health promotion interventions seeking to improve parents' eating patterns might lead to more favourable feeding practices for infants and young children.

  2. Second Order Kinetic Modeling of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction of Flavors Released from Selected Food Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyuan Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME has been widely used in various fields as a simple and versatile method, yet challenging in quantification. In order to improve the reproducibility in quantification, a mathematical model with its root in psychological modeling and chemical reactor modeling was developed, describing the kinetic behavior of aroma active compounds extracted by SPME from two different food model systems, i.e., a semi-solid food and a liquid food. The model accounted for both adsorption and release of the analytes from SPME fiber, which occurred simultaneously but were counter-directed. The model had four parameters and their estimated values were found to be more reproducible than the direct measurement of the compounds themselves by instrumental analysis. With the relative standard deviations (RSD of each parameter less than 5% and root mean square error (RMSE less than 0.15, the model was proved to be a robust one in estimating the release of a wide range of low molecular weight acetates at three environmental temperatures i.e., 30, 40 and 60 °C. More insights of SPME behavior regarding the small molecule analytes were also obtained through the kinetic parameters and the model itself.

  3. The interaction between breathing and swallowing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Nazan Simsek; Karaali, Kamil; Ünal, Ali; Kızılay, Ferah; Öğüş, Candan; Uysal, Hilmi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the association between respiratory swallow patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the role of the dysphagia limit in defining the relationship between swallowing disorders and respiratory disorders. Functional rating scales were used to describe swallowing and respiratory function. Swallowing was observed using the dysphagia limit. Dysphagia limit is the volume at which a second or more swallows are required to swallow the whole bolus. Laryngeal and chest movement sensors, pulmonary function tests, submental, and diaphragm electromyography activity were used to evaluate the relationship between swallowing and respiratory phase. Of the 27 patients included in the study, 14 were dysphagic and 13 were non-dysphagic. Tests showed normal respiratory function in 11 of the non-dysphagic patients and 3 of the dysphagic patients. There was a high correlation between the dysphagia limit and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale swallowing parameters. Non-dysphagic patients were able to swallow during inspiration but only six patients in the dysphagic group were able to swallow during inspiration. The occurrence of dysphagia in ALS is related to piecemeal deglutition and respiration consistency during swallowing. Detecting the timing of disturbances in the relationship between swallowing and respiration may be a way of identifying dysphagia. Dysphagia limit may be a useful, complementary test for assessing swallowing disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  4. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches

  5. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of soft, semi-solid or solid food among infants in Boucle du Mouhoun, Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Ganaba, Rasmané; Sarrassat, Sophie; Cousens, Simon; Somé, Henri; Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Filippi, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is among the most effective interventions for preventing child mortality. The objectives of this paper are to describe infant feeding knowledge and practices in Boucle du Mouhoun, Burkina Faso; to identify predictors of exclusive breastfeeding among infants breastfeeding. A cross-sectional survey (n = 2288) of a representative sample of women aged 15-49 years with at least one live birth in past year took place during June and July 2015. Crude and multivariable random-effects logistic regressions were used to identify factors predictive of exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of soft, semi-solid or solid food. 30% of infants breastfeeding, nonetheless 60% of mothers who correctly identified that an infant should be exclusively breastfed for 6 months did not breastfeed their infant exclusively. Only 42% of mothers reported receiving advice on breastfeeding from a health worker, despite all mothers having contact with a health worker at least once during pregnancy or postpartum. Given poor practices and low levels of knowledge, targeted interventions are needed to improve infant nutrition in Boucle du Mouhoun during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. Most women now deliver in a facility in Burkina Faso; increased attention should be paid to ensuring that existing guidelines relating to support and counselling for infant feeding are adhered to. Factors such as social norms are also important and these should be investigated in more detail using qualitative methods.

  6. Repeated consumption of a large volume of liquid and semi-solid foods increases ad libitum intake, but does not change expected satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Mars, M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C. de

    2012-01-01

    Food intake and a food’s expected satiating effect initially rely on sensory attributes. People will learn about the food’s satiating capacity by exposure. We investigated whether repeated consumption changed the expected satiety effects and intake of iso-energetic liquid and semi-solid foods. In a

  7. Comparison of membrane assisted solvent extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, and solid phase microextraction in analysis of tetramine in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Lowri S; Perfetti, Gracia A; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2009-04-01

    Three environmentally friendly extraction techniques, membrane assisted solvent extraction (MASE), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), were compared for the direct analysis of the highly toxic rodenticide tetramine in food. The optimized MASE method was applied to seven foods fortified with tetramine and compared to previously reported SBSE and HS-SPME results. Parameters such as the standard addition linearity (MASE (0.964-0.999), SBSE (0.966-0.999), HS-SPME (0.955-0.999)), recovery (MASE (12-86%), SBSE (36-130%), HS-SPME (50-200%)), reproducibility (MASE (3.0-30%), SBSE (4.4-9.6%), HS-SPME (1-12%)), and LOD (MASE (1.6-6.4 ng/g), SBSE (0.2-2.1 ng/g), HS-SPME (0.9-4.3 ng/g)) were compared.

  8. Remote management of voice and swallowing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashima, Pauline A; Brown, Janet E

    2011-12-01

    Telehealth or telepractice can alleviate shortages of speech-language pathologists, particularly in rural and underserved areas, where specialists in voice and swallowing disorders may not be available. In addition to improving access to services, telehealth offers the opportunity for patients to receive care in their natural environment, as in the case of home health care where treatment can include family members and caregivers. This article presents an overview of telehealth applications in the remote management of voice and swallowing disorders including historical background, current issues, and a brief review of clinical effectiveness studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Swallowing Tablets and Capsules Increases the Risk of Penetration and Aspiration in Patients with Stroke-Induced Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Julia T; Penner, Heike; Schneider, Hendrik; Quinzler, Renate; Reich, Gabriele; Wezler, Nikolai; Micol, William; Oster, Peter; Haefeli, Walter E

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of difficulties swallowing solid dosage forms in patients with stroke-induced dysphagia and whether swallowing tablets/capsules increases their risk of penetration and aspiration. Concurrently, we explored whether routinely performed assessment tests help identify patients at risk. Using video endoscopy, we evaluated how 52 patients swallowed four different placebos (round, oval, and oblong tablets and a capsule) with texture-modified water (TMW, pudding consistency) and milk and rated their swallowing performance according to the Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS). Additionally, Daniels Test, Bogenhausener Dysphagiescore, Scandinavian Stroke Scale, Barthel Index, and Tinetti's Mobility Test were conducted. A substantial proportion of the patients experienced severe difficulties swallowing solid oral dosage forms (TMW: 40.4 %, milk: 43.5 %). Compared to the administration of TMW/milk alone, the placebos increased the PAS values in the majority of the patients (TMW: median PAS from 1.5 to 2.0; milk: median PAS from 1.5 to 2.5, each p value <0.0001) and residue values were significantly higher (p < 0.05). Whereas video-endoscopic examination reliably identified patients with difficulties swallowing medication, neither patients' self-evaluation nor one of the routinely performed bedside tests did. Therefore, before video-endoscopic evaluation, many drugs were modified unnecessarily and 20.8 % of these were crushed inadequately, although switching to another dosage form or drug would have been possible. Hence, safety and effectiveness of swallowing tablets and capsules should be evaluated routinely in video-endoscopic examinations, tablets/capsules should rather be provided with TMW than with milk, and the appropriateness of "non per os except medication" orders for dysphagic stroke patients should be questioned.

  10. Methods for recovering microorganisms from solid surfaces used in the food industry: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaïl, Rached; Aviat, Florence; Michel, Valérie; Le Bayon, Isabelle; Gay-Perret, Perrine; Kutnik, Magdalena; Fédérighi, Michel

    2013-11-14

    Various types of surfaces are used today in the food industry, such as plastic, stainless steel, glass, and wood. These surfaces are subject to contamination by microorganisms responsible for the cross-contamination of food by contact with working surfaces. The HACCP-based processes are now widely used for the control of microbial hazards to prevent food safety issues. This preventive approach has resulted in the use of microbiological analyses of surfaces as one of the tools to control the hygiene of products. A method of recovering microorganisms from different solid surfaces is necessary as a means of health prevention. No regulation exists for surface microbial contamination, but food companies tend to establish technical specifications to add value to their products and limit contamination risks. The aim of this review is to present the most frequently used methods: swabbing, friction or scrubbing, printing, rinsing or immersion, sonication and scraping or grinding and describe their advantages and drawbacks. The choice of the recovery method has to be suitable for the type and size of the surface tested for microbiological analysis. Today, quick and cheap methods have to be standardized and especially easy to perform in the field.

  11. Methods for Recovering Microorganisms from Solid Surfaces Used in the Food Industry: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Gay-Perret

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Various types of surfaces are used today in the food industry, such as plastic, stainless steel, glass, and wood. These surfaces are subject to contamination by microorganisms responsible for the cross-contamination of food by contact with working surfaces. The HACCP-based processes are now widely used for the control of microbial hazards to prevent food safety issues. This preventive approach has resulted in the use of microbiological analyses of surfaces as one of the tools to control the hygiene of products. A method of recovering microorganisms from different solid surfaces is necessary as a means of health prevention. No regulation exists for surface microbial contamination, but food companies tend to establish technical specifications to add value to their products and limit contamination risks. The aim of this review is to present the most frequently used methods: swabbing, friction or scrubbing, printing, rinsing or immersion, sonication and scraping or grinding and describe their advantages and drawbacks. The choice of the recovery method has to be suitable for the type and size of the surface tested for microbiological analysis. Today, quick and cheap methods have to be standardized and especially easy to perform in the field.

  12. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for selective extraction of bisphenol analogues in beverages and canned food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunjia; Yu, Jianlong; Yin, Jie; Shao, Bing; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-19

    This study aimed to develop a selective analytical method for the simultaneous determination of seven bisphenol analogues in beverage and canned food samples by using a new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE). Liquid chromatography coupled to triple-quadruple tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify the target analytes. The MIP-SPE method exhibited a higher level of selectivity and purification than the traditional SPE method. The developed procedures were further validated in terms of accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. The obtained recoveries varied from 50% to 103% at three fortification levels and yielded a relative standard deviation (RSD, %) of less than 15% for all of the analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQ) for the seven analytes varied from 0.002 to 0.15 ng/mL for beverage samples and from 0.03 to 1.5 ng/g for canned food samples. This method was used to analyze real samples that were collected from a supermarket in Beijing. Overall, the results revealed that bisphenol A and bisphenol F were the most frequently detected bisphenols in the beverage and canned food samples and that their concentrations were closely associated with the type of packaging material. This study provides an alternative method of traditional SPE extraction for screening bisphenol analogues in food matrices.

  13. Methods for Recovering Microorganisms from Solid Surfaces Used in the Food Industry: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaïl, Rached; Aviat, Florence; Michel, Valérie; Le Bayon, Isabelle; Gay-Perret, Perrine; Kutnik, Magdalena; Fédérighi, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Various types of surfaces are used today in the food industry, such as plastic, stainless steel, glass, and wood. These surfaces are subject to contamination by microorganisms responsible for the cross-contamination of food by contact with working surfaces. The HACCP-based processes are now widely used for the control of microbial hazards to prevent food safety issues. This preventive approach has resulted in the use of microbiological analyses of surfaces as one of the tools to control the hygiene of products. A method of recovering microorganisms from different solid surfaces is necessary as a means of health prevention. No regulation exists for surface microbial contamination, but food companies tend to establish technical specifications to add value to their products and limit contamination risks. The aim of this review is to present the most frequently used methods: swabbing, friction or scrubbing, printing, rinsing or immersion, sonication and scraping or grinding and describe their advantages and drawbacks. The choice of the recovery method has to be suitable for the type and size of the surface tested for microbiological analysis. Today, quick and cheap methods have to be standardized and especially easy to perform in the field. PMID:24240728

  14. A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis Newtonian fluid is investigated analytically and numerically too. The result is physically interpreted as that the oesophagus makes more efforts to swallow fluids with higher concentration. It is observed that the pressure is uniformly distributed when an integral number of waves is there in the oesophagus; but it is non-uniform when a non-integral number of waves is present therein. It is further observed that as the plug flow region widens, the pressure difference increases, which indicates that the averaged flow rate will reduce for a Casson fluid. It is also concluded that Casson fluids are more prone to reflux.

  15. [Determination of polysorbates in foods by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Chie; Kitagawa, Mikiya; Yoshida, Masaharu; Tanaka, Yukio

    2007-06-01

    A simple and rapid method using refractive index high-performance liquid chromatography (RI-HPLC) was developed for the determination of polysorbates (PS) in processed foods. PS were extracted with ethyl acetate containing 5% methanol. The extract was cleaned up on a multimode cartridge (300 mg) and an Alumina-N cartridge (500 mg) to remove fats and food color. HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column (4.6 i.d. x 150 mm) with methanol as the mobile phase. The recoveries of PS80 from nine kinds of foods fortified at the levels 1-5 g/kg were 80-99%. The limit of quantitation for PS80 in foods was 0.10 g/kg. The proposed method was applied to Worcestershire sauce that was PS-positive by TLC, and PS was confirmed to be present as PS80 at the concentration of 0.13 g/kg.

  16. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design,

  17. Energy issues in microwave food processing: A review of developments and the enabling potentials of solid-state power delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuonwu, J C; Tassou, S A

    2018-01-23

    The enormous magnitude and variety of microwave applications in household, commercial and industrial food processing creates a strong motivation for improving the energy efficiency and hence, sustainability of the process. This review critically assesses key energy issues associated with microwave food processing, focusing on previous energy performance studies, energy performance metrics, standards and regulations. Factors affecting energy-efficiency are categorised into source, load and source-load matching factors. This highlights the need for highly-flexible and controllable power sources capable of receiving real-time feedback on load properties, and effecting rapid control actions to minimise reflections, heating non-uniformities and other imperfections that lead to energy losses. A case is made for the use of solid-state amplifiers as alternatives to conventional power sources, magnetrons. By a full-scale techno-economic analysis, including energy aspects, it is shown that the use of solid-state amplifiers as replacements to magnetrons is promising, not only from an energy and overall technical perspective, but also in terms of economics.

  18. Selective solid-phase extraction using a molecularly imprinted polymer for the analysis of patulin in apple-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, Paolo; Moret, Sabrina; Bettin, Sara; Conte, Lanfranco

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of a molecularly imprinted polymer as a selective solid-phase extraction sorbent for the clean-up and pre-concentration of patulin from apple-based food products. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet absorbance detection was used for the analysis of patulin. The molecularly imprinted polymer was applied, for the first time, to the determination of patulin in apple juice, puree and jam samples spiked within the maximum levels specified by the European Commission No. 1881/2006. High recoveries (>77%) were obtained. The method was validated and found to be linear in the range 2-100 μg/kg with correlation coefficients greater than 0.965 and repeatability relative standard deviation below 11% in all cases. Compared with dispersive solid-phase extraction (QuEChERS method) and octadecyl sorbent, the molecularly imprinted polymer showed higher recoveries and selectivity for patulin. The application of Affinisep molecularly imprinted polymer as a selective sorbent material for detection of patulin fulfilled the method performance criteria required by the Commission Regulation No. 401/2006, demonstrating the suitability of the technique for the control of patulin at low ppb levels in different apple-based foods such as juice, puree and jam samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nonspecific effects of gap paradigm on swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Masaki; Saitoh, Kazuya

    2017-02-01

    Analogous to the gap paradigm in experiments for saccadic eye movements with very short reaction times, we hypothesized that the initiation of oropharyngeal swallowing movements guided by visual cues are encouraged under experimental conditions using a similar gap paradigm. A red visual cue indicating to hold a bolus in the mouth and a blue one indicating to swallow the bolus were sequentially provided on a computer display to 11 healthy participants. The gap period between these cues varied from 0 to 800ms. Swallowing kinetics and kinematics were recorded using surface electromyography and a laser displacement sensor, respectively. In comparison with the no-gap paradigm, the delay from the onset of muscle activities to initiation of movement significantly decreased with a 100- (pparadigm of 100-200ms. Wrist flexion was boosted in a similar manner. Thus, the gap effect may be a generalized warning effect. Our findings might provide insights into the contribution of the basal ganglia to volitional swallowing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Senescent Swallowing: Impact, Strategies and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Denise; Weiss, Jennifer; Kind, Amy; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    The risk for disordered oropharyngeal swallowing (dysphagia) increases with age. Loss of swallowing function can have devastating health implications including dehydration, malnutrition, and pneumonia, as well as reduced quality of life. Age-related changes place older adults at risk for dysphagia for two major reasons: One is that natural, healthy aging takes its toll on head and neck anatomy and physiologic and neural mechanisms underpinning swallowing function. This progression of change contributes to alterations in the swallowing in healthy older adults and is termed presbyphagia, naturally diminishing functional reserve. Second, disease prevalence increases with age and dysphagia is a co-morbidity of many age-related diseases and/or their treatments. Sensory changes, medication, sarcopenia and age-related diseases are discussed herein. Relatively recent findings that health complications are associated with dysphagia are presented. Nutrient requirements, fluid intake and nutritional assessment for older adults are reviewed relative to their relations to dysphagia. Dysphagia screening and the pros and cons of tube feeding as a solution are discussed. Optimal intervention strategies for elders with dysphagia ranging from compensatory interventions to more rigorous exercise approaches are presented. Compelling evidence of improved functional swallowing and eating outcomes resulting from active rehabilitation focusing on increasing strength of head and neck musculature is provided. In summary, while oropharyngeal dysphagia may be life-threatening, so are some of the traditional alternatives, particularly for frail, elderly patients. While the state of the evidence calls for more research, this review indicates the behavioral, dietary and environmental modifications emerging in this past decade are compassionate, promising and in many cases preferred alternatives to the always present option of tube feeding. PMID:19483069

  1. The effects of removable denture on swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dae-Sik; Seong, Jin Wan; Kim, Younghoon; Chee, Youngjoon; Hwang, Chang Ho

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between removable dentures and swallowing and describe risks. Twenty-four patients with removable dentures who were referred for videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were enrolled. We evaluated the change of swallowing function using VFSS before and after the removal of the removable denture. The masticatory performance by Kazunori's method, sensation of oral cavity by Christian's method, underlying disease, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale for level of consciousness were collected. Functional dysphagia scales, including the oral transit time (OTT), pharyngeal transit time (PTT), percentage of oral residue, percentage of pharyngeal residue, oropharyngeal swallow efficiency (OPSE), and presence of aspiration were measured. Four patients dropped out and 20 patients were analyzed (stroke, 13 patients; pneumonia, 3 patients; and others, 4 patients). The mean age was 73.3±11.4 years. There were significant differences before and after the removal of the denture for the OTT. OTT was significantly less after the removal of the denture (8.87 vs. 4.38 seconds, p=0.01). OPSE increased remarkably after the removal of the denture, but without significance (18.24%/sec vs. 25.26%/sec, p=0.05). The OTT and OPSE, while donning a removable denture, were correlated with the masticatory performance (OTT, p=0.04; OPSE, p=0.003) and sensation of oral cavity (OTT, p=0.006; OPSE, p=0.007). A removable denture may have negative effects on swallowing, especially OTT and OPSE. These affects may be caused by impaired sensation of the oral cavity or masticatory performance induced by the removable denture.

  2. Selective solid-phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer as a sorbent for the analysis of fenarimol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shagufta; Bhatia, Tejasvi; Trivedi, Purushottam; Satyanarayana, G N V; Mandrah, Kapil; Saxena, Prem Narayan; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Roy, Somendu Kumar

    2016-05-15

    In the present communication, a non-covalent fenarimol-imprinted polymer was synthesized by precipitation polymerization technique using methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker, and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator in different porogenic solvent. Binding study of molecularly imprinted and non-imprinted polymer (MIP and NIP) showed that MIP possesses a higher affinity towards this analyte compared to NIP. The binding affinity of MIP was calculated by static and kinetic adsorption study. Further, a MIP based cartridge was designed to use in extraction process, necessary for specific determination and quantification of the fungicide in food matrices. Under the optimum conditions, developed method was found to be linear (R(2)=0.9999-0.9994). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) in samples were 0.03-0.06 and 0.12-0.21 μg mL(-1), respectively. The rate of recovery of fenarimol was 91.16-99.52% on MIPs. The validated method of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) cartridge was successfully applied to the food matrices and compared with commercial sorbent (RP18 and Oasis HLB). However we feel, this method has promising applications in the routine analysis of food samples in industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Graaf C. de

    2012-01-01

    Background:People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake.Objective:To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption.Design:In a randomized crossover design,

  4. Accurate flow cytometric monitoring of Escherichia coli subpopulations on solid food treated with high pressure carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, S; Foladori, P; Ferrentino, G; Spilimbergo, S; Jousson, O

    2014-08-01

    Evaluation of flow cytometry coupled with viability markers to monitor the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells spiked on solid food following High Pressure Carbon Dioxide (HPCD), a mild processing technology. Flow cytometry (FCM) coupled with SYBR-Green I and Propidium Iodide was applied to monitor the effect of HPCD treatment on E. coli cells spiked on fresh cut carrots, therefore mimicking contamination of food products by faecal coliforms. FCM allowed to distinguish E. coli cells from carrot debris and natural flora, to evaluate the reduction of total cells, and to quantify viable and dead cells based on their membrane integrity after HPCD treatment. The comparison of FCM results with conventional cultivation methods revealed that HPCD treatments performed at 120 bar, 22 or 35°C for 5 min disrupted 43 and 53% of bacterial cells, respectively, and produced a large percentage of partially permeabilized (96·5 and 98%) cells. Although treatments at 22°C for 10 min and at 35°C for 7 min were sufficient to inhibit the ability of all E. coli cells to replicate with an inactivation of 8 Log, FCM analysis showed that the inactivation of intact cells was only 2-2·5 Log. A fraction of HPCD-treated cells maintained their metabolic activity and re-growth capacity, indicating that the treatment induces a transitory Viable But Not Cultivable (VNBC) state. Under stress conditions many pathogens enter in a VBNC state, thus escaping detection by traditional cultivation methods. We provide the first evaluation of HPCD-mediated bacterial inactivation on fresh food using FCM coupled with viability markers, which should assist in the prevention of food-associated health risks. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Bacterial colonies in solid media and foods: a review on their growth and interactions with the micro-environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eJeanson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, either indigenous or added, are immobilised in solid foods where they grow as colonies. Since the 80’s, relatively few research groups have explored the implications of bacteria growing as colonies and mostly focused on pathogens in large colonies on agar/gelatine media. It is only recently that high resolution imaging techniques and biophysical characterisation techniques increased the understanding of the growth of bacterial colonies, for different sizes of colonies, at the microscopic level and even down to the molecular level. This review covers the studies on bacterial colony growth in agar or gelatine media mimicking the food environment and in model cheese. The following conclusions have been brought to light.Firstly, under unfavourable conditions, mimicking food conditions, the immobilisation of bacteria always constrains their growth in comparison with planktonic growth and increases the sensibility of bacteria to environmental stresses. Secondly, the spatial distribution describes both the distance between colonies and the size of the colonies as a function of the initial level of population. By studying the literature, we concluded that there systematically exists a threshold that distinguishes micro-colonies (radius 200 µm. Micro-colonies growth resembles planktonic growth and no pH microgradients could be observed. Macro-colonies growth is slower than planktonic growth and pH microgradients could be observed in and around them due to diffusion limitations which occur around, but also inside the macro-colonies. Diffusion limitations of milk proteins have been demonstrated in a model cheese around and in the bacterial colonies. In conclusion, the impact of immobilisation is predominant for macro-colonies in comparison with micro-colonies. However, the interaction between the colonies and the food matrix itself remains to be further investigated at the microscopic scale.

  6. Bacterial Colonies in Solid Media and Foods: A Review on Their Growth and Interactions with the Micro-Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanson, Sophie; Floury, Juliane; Gagnaire, Valérie; Lortal, Sylvie; Thierry, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria, either indigenous or added, are immobilized in solid foods where they grow as colonies. Since the 80's, relatively few research groups have explored the implications of bacteria growing as colonies and mostly focused on pathogens in large colonies on agar/gelatine media. It is only recently that high resolution imaging techniques and biophysical characterization techniques increased the understanding of the growth of bacterial colonies, for different sizes of colonies, at the microscopic level and even down to the molecular level. This review covers the studies on bacterial colony growth in agar or gelatine media mimicking the food environment and in model cheese. The following conclusions have been brought to light. Firstly, under unfavorable conditions, mimicking food conditions, the immobilization of bacteria always constrains their growth in comparison with planktonic growth and increases the sensibility of bacteria to environmental stresses. Secondly, the spatial distribution describes both the distance between colonies and the size of the colonies as a function of the initial level of population. By studying the literature, we concluded that there systematically exists a threshold that distinguishes micro-colonies (radius 200 μm). Micro-colonies growth resembles planktonic growth and no pH microgradients could be observed. Macro-colonies growth is slower than planktonic growth and pH microgradients could be observed in and around them due to diffusion limitations which occur around, but also inside the macro-colonies. Diffusion limitations of milk proteins have been demonstrated in a model cheese around and in the bacterial colonies. In conclusion, the impact of immobilization is predominant for macro-colonies in comparison with micro-colonies. However, the interaction between the colonies and the food matrix itself remains to be further investigated at the microscopic scale.

  7. Aspirating and Nonaspirating Swallow Sounds in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakking, Thuy; Chang, Anne; O'Grady, Kerry; David, Michael; Weir, Kelly

    2016-12-01

    Cervical auscultation (CA) may be used to complement feeding/swallowing evaluations when assessing for aspiration. There are no published pediatric studies that compare the properties of sounds between aspirating and nonaspirating swallows. To establish acoustic and perceptual profiles of aspirating and nonaspirating swallow sounds and determine if a difference exists between these 2 swallowing types. Aspiration sound clips were obtained from recordings using CA simultaneously undertaken with videofluoroscopic swallow study. Aspiration was determined using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale. The presence of perceptual swallow/breath parameters was rated by 2 speech pathologists who were blinded to the type of swallow. Acoustic data between groups were compared using Mann Whitney U-tests, while perceptual differences were determined by a test of 2 proportions. Combinations of perceptual parameters of 50 swallows (27 aspiration, 23 no aspiration) from 47 children (57% male) were statistically analyzed using area under a receiver operating characteristic (aROC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to determine predictors of aspirating swallows. The combination of post-swallow presence of wet breathing and wheeze and absence of GRS and normal breathing was the best predictor of aspiration (aROC = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.94). There were no significant differences between these 2 swallow types for peak frequency, duration, and peak amplitude. Our pilot study has shown that certain characteristics of swallow obtained using CA may be useful in the prediction of aspiration. However, further research comparing the acoustic swallowing sound profiles of normal children to children with dysphagia (who are aspirating) on a larger scale is required. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Recent Developments and Applications of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME in Food and Environmental Analysis—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille Merkle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase microextraction (SPME is a simple, sensitive, rapid and solvent-free technique for the extraction of analytes from gaseous, liquid and solid samples and takes a leading position among microextraction methods. Application of SPME in sample preparation has been increasing continuously over the last decade. It is most often used as an automatized fiber injection system coupled to chromatographic separation modules for the extraction of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and also allows for the trace analysis of compounds in complex matrices. Since SPME was first introduced in the early 1990s, several modifications have been made to adapt the procedure to specific application requirements. More robust fiber assemblies and coatings with higher extraction efficiencies, selectivity and stability have been commercialized. Automation and on-line coupling to analytical instruments have been achieved in many applications and new derivatization strategies as well as improved calibration procedures have been developed to overcome existing limitations regarding quantitation. Furthermore, devices using tubes, needles or tips for extraction instead of a fiber have been designed. In the field of food analysis, SPME has been most often applied to fruit/vegetables, fats/oils, wine, meat products, dairy and beverages whereas environmental applications focus on the analysis of air, water, soil and sediment samples.

  9. Solid phase bio-electrofermentation of food waste to harvest value-added products associated with waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, K; Amulya, K; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-11-01

    A novel solid state bio-electrofermentation system (SBES), which can function on the self-driven bioelectrogenic activity was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. SBES was operated with food waste as substrate and evaluated for simultaneous production of electrofuels viz., bioelectricity, biohydrogen (H2) and bioethanol. The system illustrated maximum open circuit voltage and power density of 443 mV and 162.4 mW/m(2), respectively on 9 th day of operation while higher H2 production rate (21.9 ml/h) was observed on 19th day of operation. SBES system also documented 4.85% w/v bioethanol production on 20th day of operation. The analysis of end products confirmed that H2 production could be generally attributed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type of fermentation. Nevertheless, the presence of additional metabolites in SBES, including formate, lactate, propionate and ethanol, also suggested that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, lowering the conversion of substrate into H2. SBES also documented 72% substrate (COD) removal efficiency along with value added product generation. Continuous evolution of volatile fatty acids as intermediary metabolites resulted in pH drop and depicted its negative influence on SBES performance. Bio-electrocatalytic analysis was carried out to evaluate the redox catalytic capabilities of the biocatalyst. Experimental data illustrated that solid-state fermentation can be effectively integrated in SBES for the production of value added products with the possibility of simultaneous solid waste remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Speech, language and swallowing in Huntington’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryluz Camargo-Mendoza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD has been described as a genetic condition caused by a mutation in the CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine nucleotide sequence. Depending on the stage of the disease, people may have difficulties in speech, language and swallowing. The purpose of this paper is to describe these difficulties in detail, as well as to provide an account on speech and language therapy approach to this condition. Regarding speech, it is worth noticing that characteristics typical of hyperkinetic dysarthria can be found due to underlying choreic movements. The speech of people with HD tends to show shorter sentences, with much simpler syntactic structures, and difficulties in tasks that require complex cognitive processing. Moreover, swallowing may present dysphagia that progresses as the disease develops. A timely, comprehensive and effective speech-language intervention is essential to improve the quality of life of people and contribute to their communicative welfare.

  11. No difference in self-reported frequency of choking between infants introduced to solid foods using a baby-led weaning or traditional spoon-feeding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A

    2017-12-05

    Baby-led weaning (BLW) where infants self-feed family foods during the period that they are introduced to solid foods is growing in popularity. The method may promote healthier eating patterns, although concerns have been raised regarding its safety. The present study therefore explored choking frequency amongst babies who were being introduced to solid foods using a baby-led or traditional spoon-fed approach. In total, 1151 mothers with an infant aged 4-12 months reported how they introduced solid foods to their infant (following a strict BLW, loose BLW or traditional weaning style) and frequency of spoon-feeding and puree use (percentage of mealtimes). Mothers recalled if their infant had ever choked and, if so, how many times and on what type of food (smooth puree, lumpy puree, finger food and specific food examples). In total, 13.6% of infants (n = 155) had ever choked. No significant association was found between weaning style and ever choking, or the frequency of spoon or puree use and ever choking. For infants who had ever choked, infants following a traditional weaning approach experience significantly more choking episodes for finger foods (F 2,147  = 4.417, P = 0.014) and lumpy purees (F 2,131  = 6.46, P = 0.002) than infants following a strict or loose baby-led approach. Baby-led weaning was not associated with increased risk of choking and the highest frequency of choking on finger foods occurred in those who were given finger foods the least often. However, the limitations of noncausal results, a self-selecting sample and reliability of recall must be emphasised. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Application of anaerobic digestion products of municipal solid food wastes in treating wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is the breakdown of biodegradable organic material by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen or in an oxygen-starved environment.This technology is superior to the landfilling and also the aerobic composting. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the effluent Volatile Fatty Acids from the anaerobic acidogenesis of the food waste can be used du to its high value in organic elements, as an external carbon source for the denitrificationin in waste water treatment plants . The results showed that Volatile Fatty Acids concentration in mg COD/L in the fermentation was in the range between 3,300 mg COD/L and 6,560 mgCOD/L.The n-butiric acid had the highest concentration in mgCOD/L followed by the propionic and acetic acid, while the valeric acid had the lowest concentration. As well as the concentration of the acetic and valeric acid were stable over the time. Opposite to these, the propionic and n-butyric acid showed high variability in the concentration, especially the n-butyric acid. The specific denitrification rate tests tests showed that the ethanol cultivated biomass was more successful in using the effluent of the food waste digestion as carbon source than methanol cultivated biomass.The specific denitrification reta tests results of our experiment, showed that the average of 0.15 an 0.51 mg N/mg for methanol and ethanol cultivated biomass respectively.

  13. Pesticide residue analysis in cereal-based baby foods using multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Angel; Asensio-Ramos, María; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, a new analytical method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of 15 organophosphorus pesticides, including some of their metabolites, (disulfoton-sulfoxide, ethoprophos, cadusafos, dimethoate, terbufos, disulfoton, chlorpyrifos-methyl, malaoxon, fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, malathion, chlorpyrifos, terbufos-sulfone, disulfoton-sulfone and fensulfothion) in three different types of commercial cereal-based baby foods. Dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was used together with gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection. Most favorable conditions involved a previous ultrasound-assisted extraction of the sample with acetonitrile containing formic acid. After evaporation of the extract and redissolution in water, a dSPE procedure was carried out with MWCNTs. The whole method was validated in terms of repeatability, linearity, precision and accuracy and matrix effect was also evaluated. Absolute recoveries were in the range 64-105 % with relative standard deviation values below 7.6 %. Limits of quantification achieved ranged from 0.31 to 5.50 μg/kg, which were lower than the European Union maximum residue limits for pesticide residues in cereal-based baby foods.

  14. Magnetic graphene dispersive solid phase extraction combining high performance liquid chromatography for determination of fluoroquinolones in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Wang, Geng Nan; Yang, Kun; Liu, Hui Zhi; Wu, Xia Jun; Wang, Jian Ping

    2017-04-15

    In this study, a magnetic graphene-based dispersive solid phase extraction method was developed that was combined with high performance liquid chromatography to determine the residues of fluoroquinolone drugs in foods of animal origin. During the experiments, several parameters possible influencing the extraction performance were optimized (amount of magnetic graphene, sample pH, extraction time and elution solution). This extraction method showed high absorption capacities (>6800ng) and high enrichment factors (68-79-fold) for seven fluoroquinolones. Furthermore, this absorbent could be reused for at least 40 times. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.05-0.3ng/g, and the recoveries from the standards fortified blank samples (bovine milk, chicken muscle and egg) were in the range of 82.4-108.5%. Therefore, this method could be used as a simple and sensitive tool to determine the residues of fluoroquinolones in foods of animal origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste and cardboard at different substrate loads, solid contents and co-digestion proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    The increasing food waste production calls for developing efficient technologies for its treatment. Anaerobic processes provide an effective waste valorization. The influence of the initial substrate load on the performance of batch dry anaerobic co-digestion reactors treating food waste and cardboard was investigated. The load was varied by modifying the substrate to inoculum ratio (S/X), the total solids content and the co-digestion proportions. The results showed that the S/X was a crucial parameter. Within the tested values (0.25, 1 and 4gVS·gVS-1), only the reactors working at 0.25 produced methane. Methanosarcina was the main archaea, indicating its importance for efficient methanogenesis. Acidogenic fermentation was predominant at higher S/X, producing hydrogen and other metabolites. Higher substrate conversions (≤48%) and hydrogen yields (≤62mL·gVS-1) were achieved at low loads. This study suggests that different value-added compounds can be produced in dry conditions, with the initial substrate load as easy-to-control operational parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional connectivity patterns of normal human swallowing: difference among various viscosity swallows in normal and chin-tuck head positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L; Perera, Subashan; Sejdić, Ervin

    2016-12-01

    Consuming thicker fluids and swallowing in the chin-tuck position has been shown to be advantageous for some patients with neurogenic dysphagia who aspirate due to various causes. The anatomical changes caused by these therapeutic techniques are well known, but it is unclear whether these changes alter the cerebral processing of swallow-related sensorimotor activity. We sought to investigate the effect of increased fluid viscosity and chin-down posture during swallowing on brain networks. 55 healthy adults performed water, nectar-thick, and honey thick liquid swallows in the neutral and chin-tuck positions while EEG signals were recorded. After pre-processing of the EEG timeseries, the time-frequency based synchrony measure was used for forming the brain networks to investigate whether there were differences among the brain networks between the swallowing of different fluid viscosities and swallowing in different head positions. We also investigated whether swallowing under various conditions exhibit small-world properties. Results showed that fluid viscosity affects the brain network in the Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands and that swallowing in the chin-tuck head position affects brain networks in the Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands. In addition, we showed that swallowing in all tested conditions exhibited small-world properties. Therefore, fluid viscosity and head positions should be considered in future swallowing EEG investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional connectivity patterns of normal human swallowing: difference among various viscosity swallows in normal and chin-tuck head positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.; Perera, Subashan

    2016-01-01

    Consuming thicker fluids and swallowing in the chin-tuck position has been shown to be advantageous for some patients with neurogenic dysphagia who aspirate due to various causes. The anatomical changes caused by these therapeutic techniques are well known, but it is unclear whether these changes alter the cerebral processing of swallow-related sensorimotor activity. We sought to investigate the effect of increased fluid viscosity and chin-down posture during swallowing on brain networks. 55 healthy adults performed water, nectar-thick, and honey thick liquid swallows in the neutral and chin-tuck positions while EEG signals were recorded. After pre-processing of the EEG timeseries, the time-frequency based synchrony measure was used for forming the brain networks to investigate whether there were differences among the brain networks between the swallowing of different fluid viscosities and swallowing in different head positions. We also investigated whether swallowing under various conditions exhibit small-world properties. Results showed that fluid viscosity affects the brain network in the Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands and that swallowing in the chin-tuck head position affects brain networks in the Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands. In addition, we showed that swallowing in all tested conditions exhibited small-world properties. Therefore, fluid viscosity and head positions should be considered in future swallowing EEG investigations. PMID:27693396

  18. Anatomical Directional Dissimilarities in Tri-axial Swallowing Accelerometry Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Faezeh; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L; Perera, Subashan; Sejdic, Ervin

    2017-05-01

    Swallowing accelerometry is a noninvasive approach currently under consideration as an instrumental screening test for swallowing difficulties, with most current studies focusing on the swallowing vibrations in the anterior-posterior (A-P) and superior-inferior (S-I) directions. However, the displacement of the hyolaryngeal structure during the act of swallowing in patients with dysphagia involves declination of the medial-lateral (M-L), which suggests that the swallowing vibrations in the M-L direction have the ability to reveal additional details about the swallowing function. With this motivation, we performed a broad comparison of the swallowing vibrations in all three anatomical directions. Tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals were concurrently collected from 72 dysphagic patients undergoing videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing (mean age: 63.94 ± 12.58 years period). Participants swallowed one or more thickened liquids with different consistencies including thin-thick liquids, nectar-thick liquids, and pudding-thick liquids with either a comfortable self-selected volume from a cup or a controlled volume by the examiner from a 5-ml spoon. Swallows were grouped based on the viscosity of swallows and the participant's stroke history. Then, a comprehensive set of features was extracted in multiple signal domains from 881 swallows. The results highlighted inter-axis dissimilarities among tri-axial swallowing vibrations including the extent of variability in the amplitude of signals, the degree of predictability of signals, and the extent of disordered behavior of signals in time-frequency domain. First, the upward movement of the hyolaryngeal structure, representing the S-I signals, were actually more variable in amplitude and showed less predictable behavior than the sideways and forward movements, representing the A-P and M-L signals, during swallowing. Second, the S-I signals, which represent the upward movement of the hyolaryngeal structure

  19. Evaluation of Swallowing Functions in Patients with Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyigör, Sibel; Sezgin, Baha; Karabulut, Gonca; Öztürk, Kerem; Göde, Sercan; Kirazlı, Tayfun

    2017-04-01

    Patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) manifest symptoms such as dry eyes, dry mouth, and dysphagia. This study aims to evaluate the swallowing functions of the patients with SS. 69 patients with SS (65 females, 4 males) and 40 healthy individuals (33 females, 7 males) were included as study and control groups, respectively. Mean ages were 52.86 and 48.25 years for study and control groups, respectively. Swallowing functions were evaluated by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). All the patients underwent FEES and were given 3, 5, and 10 ml water, yogurt, and fish-shaped crackers twice, respectively. The presence of bolus control, residue, penetration, and aspiration were evaluated. Additionally, certain types of foods triggering the dysphagia, any difficulties in bolus control, need to clean the throat, sensation of having a lump in the throat, sensation of choking, and xerostomia were included in the questionnaire. The MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory were administered to patients. Considering the presence of residue with yogurt and fish cracker, there was a significant difference between groups (P  0.05). Regarding the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory, the average scores were 48.18 ± 13.21 and 87.6 ± 10.67 for study and control groups, respectively, and a statistically significant difference was detected (P < 0.05). Regarding the Beck Depression Inventory, the average scores were 11.83 ± 9.37 and 8.03 ± 6.84 for study and control groups, respectively (P < 0.05). SS affected the swallowing functions significantly. The presence of residue with yogurt and cracker was the most obvious finding, whereas penetration/aspiration was not clinically significant. Swallowing dysfunction reduced the quality of life in patients with SS.

  20. Development of a Solid-State Fermentation System for Producing Bioethanol from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu

    Liquid fermentation is the a conventional method of producing bioethanol. However, this method results in the formation of high concentrations waste after distillation and futher treatment requires more energy and is costly(large amounts of costly energy).Saccharification of dried raw garbage was tested for 12 types of Koji starters under the following optimum culture conditions: temperature of 30°C and initial moisture content of 50%.Among all the types, Aspergillus oryzae KBN650 had the highest saccharifying power. The ethanol-producing ability of the raw garbage was investigated for 72 strains of yeast, of which Saccharomyces cerevisiae A30 had the highest ethanol production(yield)under the following optimum conditions: 1 :1 ratio of dried garbage and saccharified garbage by weight, and initial moisture content of 60%. Thus, the solid-state fermentation system consisted of the following 4 processes: moisture control, saccharification, ethanol production and distillation. This system produced 0.6kg of ethanol from 9.6kg of garbage. Moreover the ethanol yield from all sugars was calculated to be 0.37.

  1. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Svenja K.; Hauf, Katharina; Vieira, Josélio; Heinrich, Stefan; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations.

  2. Gas swallow during meals in patients with excessive belching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, N; Serra, J

    2017-09-01

    Swallowed gas is an important source of abdominal gas, and aerophagia is often believed as a putative cause of gas-related abdominal symptoms. However, altered gas-swallow during meals has not been demonstrated. Our aim was to characterize the number of gas swallows during meals in patients complaining of excessive belching and gaseousness and a control group without abdominal symptoms during a 24-h period. A 24-h pH-impedance monitoring was performed in 10 patients with excessive belching, and 11 patients without digestive symptoms or reflux in the pH-impedance study. During the study, patients followed their daily routine and customary meals, without any specific limitation. In each patient the number and content of swallows and belches were analyzed. Total meal periods were similar in controls (75±26 min) and patients (79±21 min; P=.339), but the number of gaseous swallows was greater in patients (114±13 swallows) than controls (71±8 swallows; P=.007), due to a greater frequency of gaseous swallows during meals (15±2 swallows/10 min vs 10±1 swallows/10 min, respectively; P=.008). During the 24-h study period, 66±13 belches were recorded in patients, but only 13±3 belches in controls (PGas is frequently swallowed during meals. Patients complaining of excessive belching have a different swallow pattern during meals, with an increased ingestion of gas that correlates with increased gastric belching events. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Importance of the swallowing atypical in them malocclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Jiménez, Jonatan; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología.

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to determine the atypical swallowing malocclusions. When there are inadequate move-ments of the tongue and / or other structures during oral and pharyngolaryngeal phase of swallowing, talking about atypical swallowing, as a non-physiological habit. Its objectives may be multiple, simul-taneously acting alone or cumulatively. The size of a large tongue has been found as an impediment to correct such alternations, though this is a cause of causing malocclusion. the importance o...

  4. A simple bedside test to assess the swallowing dysfunction in Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vinoth Kanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swallowing changes are common in Parkinson′s disease (PD. Early identification is essential to avoid complications of aspiration. Objectives: To evaluate the swallowing ability of the PD patients and to correlate it with the indicators of disease progression. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 PD patients (70 males and 30 females aged between 50 years and 70 years with varying stage, duration, and severity were enrolled in a cross-sectional study carried out between January and May 2012. A simple bedside water swallowing test was performed using standard 150 ml of water. Swallowing process was assessed under three categories-swallowing speeds (ml/s, swallowing volume (ml/swallow and swallowing duration (s/swallow. Equal number of age and sex matched controls were also evaluated. Results: All of them completed the task of swallowing. A mean swallowing speed (27.48 ml/s, swallowing volume (28.5 ml/s, and swallowing duration (1.05 s/swallow was established by the control group. The PD patients showed decreased swallowing speed (7.15 ml/s in males and 6.61 ml/s in females, decreased swallowing volume (14.59 ml/swallow and 14 ml/swallow in females, and increased swallowing duration (2.37 s/swallow and 2.42 s/swallow which are statistically significant. There was a significant positive correlation between the severity, duration, and staging of the disease with the swallowing performance and a poor correlation between the subjective reports of dysphagia and the objective performance on water swallow test. Conclusion: The water swallowing test is a simple bedside test to identify the swallowing changes early in PD. It is recommended to do the test in all PD Patients to detect dysphagia early and to intervene appropriately.

  5. [Determination of Arsenic in Food Package Aluminum by Ultrasound Assisted Solid Phase Extraction/ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-xia; Gong, Qi; Li, Min; Deng, Li-xin; Mo, Li-shu; Li, Yan-lin

    2015-04-01

    Determination of arsenic in pure aluminum by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry was interfered by aluminum matrix. The experiment showed that when the mass concentration of Al was greater than or equal to 5 000 times the As in the test solution, the measurement error was greater than 5%. In order to eliminate the interference, strong acid cation exchange fiber (SACEF) was used as solid phase extraction agent to adsorb Al(3+). The extraction conditions included amount of SACEF, extraction time, temperature and pH were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions were that 0.9000 g SACEF was used to extract the aluminum from the sample solution of pH 2.0 at 55 °C for 5 min with the ultrasonic assist, and in this case, the arsenic in the form of arsenic acid was not extracted and left in the solution for the determination. The results showed that after treating 10. 00 mL test solution containing 1.00 µg arsenic and 20.0 mg aluminum, arsenic did not lose. The mass concentration of residual aluminum in the raffinate was about 2,000 times the As, which had not interfered the determination of arsenic. The detection limit (3 s) was 0.027 µg · mL(-1) and quantification limit (10 s) was 0.0091 µg · mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the separation and determination of arsenic in the synthetic samples, the aluminum cans and the barbecue aluminum foil. Recovery was in the range of 98.3%-105% and RSD (n = 3) was in the range of 0.1%-4.3%. The results showed that the content of arsenic in the aluminum cans and the aluminum barbecue foil was below the limited value of national standard (GB/T 3190-2008).

  6. Endoscopic evaluation of food bolus formation and its relationship with the number of chewing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, H; Nohara, K; Kotani, Y; Tanaka, N; Matsuno, K; Sakai, T

    2015-08-01

    It is known that solid food is transported to the pharynx actively in parallel to it being crushed by chewing and mixed with saliva in the oral cavity. Therefore, food bolus formation should be considered to take place from the oral cavity to the pharynx. In previous studies, the chewed food was evaluated after the food had been removed from the oral cavity. However, it has been pointed out that spitting food out of the oral cavity interferes with natural food bolus formation. Therefore, we observed food boluses immediately before swallowing using an endoscope to establish a method to evaluate the food bolus-forming function, and simultaneously performed endoscopic evaluation of food bolus formation and its relationship with the number of chewing cycles. The subject was inserted the endoscope nasally and instructed to eat two coloured samples of boiled rice simultaneously in two ingestion conditions ('as usual' and 'chewing well'). The condition of the food bolus was graded into three categories for each item of grinding, mixing and aggregation and scored 2, 1 and 0. The score of aggregation was high under both ingestion conditions. The scores of grinding and mixing tended to be higher in subjects with a high number of chewing cycles, and the score of aggregation was high regardless of the number of chewing cycles. It was suggested that food has to be aggregated, even though the number of chewing cycles is low and the food is not ground or mixed for a food bolus to reach the swallowing threshold. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in swallowing disorders – fees-. Case report at Popayán, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Molina-García

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia is a frequently pathological condition in pa­tients with stroke and carries a substantial risk of dehy­dration, malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. So far there are two methods for diagnosis; Videofluoroscopy (VFC and Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swa­llowing (FEES. The first is considered the gold standard method, with a high cost, radiation exposure that requires the transfer of the patient to radiology, the patient’s abili­ty to follow simple commands and time required to com­plete. VFC does not replicate physiological conditions in which the patient is routinely, so it is considered that its representation is limited, the second test is an alternative procedure to be more economical, safe, well tolerated, wi­dely available, lasting approximately 20 minutes and with the possibility of doing it in the patient’s bed. Unlike FVC, to evaluate the presence of pharyngeal, this correlates with the risk of aspiration. Clinical report: The objective of this report is to present a male patient, 33 years old, who admitted to a health institution because it presents a clini­ cal picture compatible with stroke, as findings found right hemiplegia and swallowing disorder, as required gastros­tomy tubes. We performed Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evalua­tion of Swallowing (FEES as a diagnostic method, which allowed visualization of the anatomic and functional en­vironment, the type of food consistency could be secure in their feeding process, thus avoiding silent aspirations and insights that could lead an aspiration pneumonia. It also allowed the group to make recommendations for nutritio­nal support, physiotherapy and speech therapy for ambu­latory management of the patient.

  8. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-12-13

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4-19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (-32 kcal/day, p -trend fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children's diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  9. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Rehm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001, added sugars (−16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001, SSBs (−0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL/day; p-trend < 0.001, and sodium (−166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001. Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  10. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures. PMID:27983573

  11. Swallowing difficulties in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: indications for feeding assessment and outcome of videofluroscopic swallow studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aloysius, A.; Born, P.; Kinali, M.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding difficulties are known to occur with advancing age in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We evaluated the role of videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) in a group of 30 DMD patients with feeding difficulties. Indications for feeding assessment were: respiratory infections potentially...

  12. [Simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in foods by solid-phase extraction and LC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruda, Sayuri; Sakamoto, Tomonori; Akaki, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in various foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The sweeteners and preservatives were extracted from solid samples with 80% and 50% methanol and from liquid samples with 80% methanol, followed by Oasis WAX cartridge cleanup. The LC separation was performed on a XSelect CSH Phenyl-Hexyl column (5 μm, 2.1 mm ×150 mm) with a mobile phase of 10 mmol/L acetate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile and MS detection with negative ion electrospray ionization. The quantification limits of acesulfame K (AK), alitame (AL), aspartame (ASP), cyclamic acid (CYC), neotame (NEO), saccharin Na (SAC), p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl (PHBA-Me), p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl (PHBA-Et), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isopropyl (PHBA-iPr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl (PHBA-Pr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isobutyl (PHBA-iBu) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid butyl (PHBA-Bu) were 0.001 g/kg, those of dulcin (DU), glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), rebaudioside A (REB), stevioside (STV), sucralose (SUC) and benzoic acid (BA) were 0.005 g/kg, and those of sorbic acid (SOA) and dehydroacetic acid (DHA) were 0.02 g/kg. The mean recoveries from ten kinds of foods fortified at the levels of 0.02 and 0.2 g/kg were 70.9-119.0%, and their relative standard deviations were 0.1-11.7%.

  13. Benefit from the Chin-Down Maneuver in the Swallowing Performance and Self-Perception of Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise Ayres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To verify the effectiveness of the maneuver application in swallowing therapy with PD. Materials and Method. We performed an open-label trial, with three groups compounds by PD individuals: the experimental group, control group, and orientation group. The study included PD patients with dysphagia. A cognitive screening, through a questionnaire about depression and quality of life, was conducted. Swallowing assessment was performed through (1 fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES; (2 clinical evaluation and Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS; and (3 assessment of the quality life related to swallowing (SWALQOL. A therapeutic program, which consisted of chin-down postural maneuver and orientations on feeding, was applied. Both groups (EG and OG received on-month therapeutic program. Results. A significant improvement in swallowing, evaluated by clinical assessment, was observed in solid (p<0.001 and liquid (p=0.022 consistencies in EG when compared to OG and CG. Patients in EG presented improvement in QoL, with the significant difference in comparison with the other groups, about domain frequency of symptoms (p=0.029 in SWALQOL questionnaire. Conclusion. The postural maneuver chin-down improved swallowing performance and self-perception, but not the laryngeal signs. This trial is registered with registration number NCT02973698.

  14. Determination of trace copper in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after solid phase extraction on modified soybean hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang Guoqiang, E-mail: xianggq@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang Yingming; Jiang Xiuming; He Lijun; Fan Lu; Zhao Wenjie [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Soybean hull was chemically modified with citric acid and used as a solid phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of trace amounts of Cu{sup 2+} in food samples by flame absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effect of pH, sample flow rate and volume, elution flow rate and volume and co-existing ions on the recovery of the analyte were investigated. The results showed that Cu{sup 2+} could be adsorbed on the modified soybean hull at pH 8.0 and eluted by 2.0 mL of 1.0 mol L{sup -1} HCl. Under the optimized conditions, the adsorption capacity of modified soybean hull was found to be 18.0 mg g{sup -1} for Cu{sup 2+}. The detection limit of the proposed method was 0.8 ng mL{sup -1} for Cu{sup 2+} with an enrichment factor of 18. The analytical result for the certified reference tea sample (GBW07605) was in a good agreement with the certified value. The proposed method has also been successfully applied to the determination of trace Cu{sup 2+} in dried sweet potato, lake water and milk powder, the recovery of Cu{sup 2+} for spiked samples was between 91% and 109.6%.

  15. DESIGN NOTE: Development of an integrated solid-state generator for light inactivation of food-related pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Z.; Macgregor, S.; Anderson, J.; Lamont, Y.

    2003-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and performance of a fully integrated solid-state Marx generator, which has been developed to drive a UV flashlamp for use in microbiological inactivation. The generator has an output voltage rating of 3 kV and a peak current rating of 2 kA, although the modular approach taken allows for a number of voltage and current ratings to be achieved. The generator is constructed using a number of series- and parallel-connected 1.2 kV insulated-gate-bipolar-transistor (IGBT) switched capacitors. Switching of the IGBT modules is controlled by an optical signal. Details are given of how the optimum IGBT gate-drive circuit is achieved using optical components and a pass-through wire to provide the required energies for individual IGBT modules. The generator is demonstrated as the driver of a UV flashlamp used for inactivation of food-related pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella. The performance of the Marx generator over a period of 106 pulses is examined, along with the changes that occur in the spectrum of the UV flashlamp during the same period.

  16. Simultaneous determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in food dressing by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunzhou; Mei, Yong; Chen, Lin

    2006-06-02

    A facile headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure using 85 microm polyacrylate (PA) fiber is presented for the simultaneous determination of preservatives (sorbic and benzoic acids) in food dressing, including Thousand Island Dressing, HellMANN'S Salad Dressing and Tomato Ketchup, by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). The method presented preserves the advantages typical of HS-SPME such as simplicity, low intensity of labor, low cost and solvent free. The main factors affecting the HS-SPME process, such as extraction temperature and time, desorption temperature and time, the acidity and salt concentration of the solution, were optimized. Limits of detection (LODs) of the method were 2.00 microg/L for sorbic acid and 1.22 microg/L for benzoic acid. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for quintuplicate analyses at three concentration levels of 0.10, 2.0 and 20 mg/L ranged between 3.86 and 14.8%. The method also showed good linearity n a range from 0.02 to 40 mg/L with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9986 for sorbic acid and 0.9994 for benzoic acid. Recoveries for the two analytes in all the samples tested ranged from 83.44 to 113.2%. Practical applicability was demonstrated through the simultaneous determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in the three complex samples.

  17. The surgical management and speech and swallowing rehabilitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advanced tongue cancer may have a devastating effect on a person's ability to speak and to swallow. Very little is known about the surgical management and speech and swallowing rehabilitation of persons with advanced tongue cancer in South Africa. The aim of this study was to obtain information regarding clinical ...

  18. Breeding biology and taxonomy of the Red-breasted Swallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nocturnal trapping and ringing of swallows around Harare, Zimbabwe, showed that at least five species have adapted their breeding behaviour to manmade road culverts, none more so than the Red-breasted Swallow, Hirundo semirufa, which may be found nesting in the smallest (46cm diameter) of pipe culverts.

  19. Vocalizations of the South African cliff swallow Hirundo spilodera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the impression that all chicks had these facial markings but never actually stated the number that really had these markings. In the South African swallow less than 250/0 of all chicks examined had any white markings, probably too few for facial recognition of chicks to be universal in a South. African cliff swallow colony.

  20. Swallow Characteristics in Patients with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Phyllis M.; Neel, Amy T.; Sprouls, Gwyneth; Morrison, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective investigation evaluates oral weakness and its impact on swallow function, weight, and quality of life in patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Method: Intraoral pressure, swallow pressure, and endurance were measured using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument in participants with OPMD and matched…

  1. Emetic stimulation inhibits the swallowing reflex in decerebrate rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurozumi, Chiharu; Yamagata, Ryuzo; Himi, Naoyuki; Koga, Tomoshige

    2008-06-01

    The effects of emetic stimulation on the swallowing reflex were investigated in decerebrated rats. Hypoxia, gastric distension and LiCl administration were used as emetic stimulations. The swallowing reflex was elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN, 20 Hz, 3-5 V, 0.3 ms duration) for 20 s. To examine the effect of hypoxia, nitrogen gas was inhaled under artificial ventilation. There were significantly fewer swallows during a decrease in PO(2) than under air ventilation (p<0.05). The number of swallows during 3-ml stomach distension was significantly lower than that before distension (p<0.05). Intravenous administration of LiCl (100 mg/kg) also significantly reduced the number of swallows (p<0.05). The combination of SLN stimulation and emetic stimuli occasionally produced burst activity of abdominal muscles, which might be associated with the gag reflex. Both the gag and swallowing reflexes are well known to be mediated by the nucleus of the solitary tract. The physiological roles of the gag reflex and the swallowing reflex are considered to be reciprocal. Taken together, these results suggest that emetic stimulation inhibits the swallowing pattern generator via the nucleus of the solitary tract, which in turn facilitates the gag reflex.

  2. Prophylactic Swallowing Exercises in Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H R; Jensen, Kenneth; Aksglæde, K

    2015-01-01

    Many head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors experience reduced quality of life due to radiotherapy (RT)-related dysphagia. The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to evaluate the impact of prophylactic swallowing exercises on swallowing-related outcomes in HNC patients treated with curativ...

  3. Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.) biological control update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum = Cynanchum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum = C. louiseae) are herbaceous, perennial, viney milkweeds introduced from Europe (Apocynaceae-subfamily Asclepiadoideae). Both species are becoming increasingly invasive in a variety of natural and manag...

  4. Current distribution and population size of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two surveys of Blue Swallows were conducted in the southern Tanzanian highland grasslands in order to determine the habitat preferences and estimate the size of this subpopulation. During the 2008/09 and 2012 surveys, a total distance of 3 635 km was travelled in search of Blue Swallows (at an altitude of above 1 400 ...

  5. Solid fat and added sugar intake among U.S. children: The role of stores, schools, and fast food, 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the role of location in U.S. children's excess intake of energy from solid fat and added sugar, collectively referred to as SoFAS. The goal of this study was to compare the SoFAS content of foods consumed by children from stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants and to determine whether trends from 1994 to 2010 differ across these locations. Children aged 2-18 years (N=22,103) from five nationally representative surveys of dietary intake from 1994 to 2010 were studied. SoFAS content was compared across locations for total intake and key foods. Regression models were used to test and compare linear trends across locations. Data were analyzed in 2012. The mean percentage of total energy intake consumed from each location that was provided by SoFAS remained above recommendations, despite significant improvements between 1994 and 2010 at stores (1994, 38.3%; 2004, 33.2%); schools (1994, 38.7%; 2004, 31.2%); and fast-food restaurants (1994, 34.6%; 2004, 34.6%). For each key food, SoFAS content decreased significantly at stores and schools, yet progress at schools was comparatively slower. Milk was higher in SoFAS at schools compared to stores because of shifts toward flavored milk at schools. Schools provided french fries that were higher in solid fat than store-bought versions and pizza that was not significantly different in SoFAS content than fast-food pizza. However, schools made significantly greater progress for sugar-sweetened beverages, as lower-sugar beverages replaced regular sodas. Key fast foods showed little improvement. These findings can inform future strategies targeted to the specific locations and foods where continued progress is needed to reduce children's SoFAS consumption. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  6. Quality of Life in Swallowing Disorders after Nonsurgical Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira, Marta Halina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy can result in severe swallowing disorders with potential risk for aspiration and can negatively impact the patient's quality of life (QOL. Objective To assess swallowing-related QOL in patients who underwent radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Methods We interviewed 110 patients (85 men and 25 women who had undergone exclusive radiotherapy (25.5% or concomitant chemoradiotherapy (74.5% from 6 to 12 months before the study. The Quality of Life in Swallowing Disorders (SWAL-QOL questionnaire was employed to evaluate dysphagia-related QOL. Results The QOL was reduced in all domains for all patients. The scores were worse among men. There was a relationship between oral cavity as the primary cancer site and the fatigue domain and also between advanced cancer stage and the impact of food selection, communication, and social function domains. Chemoradiotherapy association, the presence of nasogastric tube and tracheotomy, and the persistence of alcoholism and smoking had also a negative effect on the QOL. Conclusions According to the SWAL-QOL questionnaire, the dysphagia-related impact on QOL was observed 6 to 12 months after the treatment ended.

  7. Stomach temperature records reveal nursing behaviour and transition to solid food consumption in an unweaned mammal, the harbour seal pup (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Caroline C; Van de Walle, Joanie; Hammill, Mike O; Arnould, John P Y; Beauplet, Gwénaël

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of milk transfer from mother to offspring and early solid food ingestions in mammals allows for a greater understanding of the factors affecting transition to nutritional independence and pre-weaning growth and survival. Yet studies monitoring suckling behaviour have often relied on visual observations, which might not accurately represent milk intake. We assessed the use of stomach temperature telemetry to monitor suckling and foraging behaviour in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups during lactation. Stomach temperature declines were analysed using principal component and cluster analyses, as well as trials using simulated stomachs resulting in a precise classification of stomach temperature drops into milk, seawater and solid food ingestions. Seawater and solid food ingestions represented on average 15.3±1.6% [0-40.0%] and 0.7±0.2% [0-13.0%], respectively, of individual ingestions. Overall, 63.7% of milk ingestions occurred while the pups were in the water, of which 13.9% were preceded by seawater ingestion. The average time between subsequent ingestions was significantly less for seawater than for milk ingestions. These results suggest that seawater ingestion might represent collateral ingestion during aquatic suckling attempts. Alternatively, as solid food ingestions (n = 19) were observed among 7 pups, seawater ingestion could result from missed prey capture attempts. This study shows that some harbour seals start ingesting prey while still being nursed, indicating that weaning occurs more gradually than previously thought in this species. Stomach temperature telemetry represents a promising method to study suckling behaviour in wild mammals and transition to nutritional independence in various endotherm species.

  8. Stomach Temperature Records Reveal Nursing Behaviour and Transition to Solid Food Consumption in an Unweaned Mammal, the Harbour Seal Pup (Phoca vitulina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Caroline C.; Van de Walle, Joanie; Hammill, Mike O.; Arnould, John P. Y.; Beauplet, Gwénaël

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of milk transfer from mother to offspring and early solid food ingestions in mammals allows for a greater understanding of the factors affecting transition to nutritional independence and pre-weaning growth and survival. Yet studies monitoring suckling behaviour have often relied on visual observations, which might not accurately represent milk intake. We assessed the use of stomach temperature telemetry to monitor suckling and foraging behaviour in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) pups during lactation. Stomach temperature declines were analysed using principal component and cluster analyses, as well as trials using simulated stomachs resulting in a precise classification of stomach temperature drops into milk, seawater and solid food ingestions. Seawater and solid food ingestions represented on average 15.3±1.6% [0–40.0%] and 0.7±0.2% [0–13.0%], respectively, of individual ingestions. Overall, 63.7% of milk ingestions occurred while the pups were in the water, of which 13.9% were preceded by seawater ingestion. The average time between subsequent ingestions was significantly less for seawater than for milk ingestions. These results suggest that seawater ingestion might represent collateral ingestion during aquatic suckling attempts. Alternatively, as solid food ingestions (n = 19) were observed among 7 pups, seawater ingestion could result from missed prey capture attempts. This study shows that some harbour seals start ingesting prey while still being nursed, indicating that weaning occurs more gradually than previously thought in this species. Stomach temperature telemetry represents a promising method to study suckling behaviour in wild mammals and transition to nutritional independence in various endotherm species. PMID:24587327

  9. Stomach temperature records reveal nursing behaviour and transition to solid food consumption in an unweaned mammal, the harbour seal pup (Phoca vitulina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline C Sauvé

    Full Text Available Knowledge of milk transfer from mother to offspring and early solid food ingestions in mammals allows for a greater understanding of the factors affecting transition to nutritional independence and pre-weaning growth and survival. Yet studies monitoring suckling behaviour have often relied on visual observations, which might not accurately represent milk intake. We assessed the use of stomach temperature telemetry to monitor suckling and foraging behaviour in free-ranging harbour seal (Phoca vitulina pups during lactation. Stomach temperature declines were analysed using principal component and cluster analyses, as well as trials using simulated stomachs resulting in a precise classification of stomach temperature drops into milk, seawater and solid food ingestions. Seawater and solid food ingestions represented on average 15.3±1.6% [0-40.0%] and 0.7±0.2% [0-13.0%], respectively, of individual ingestions. Overall, 63.7% of milk ingestions occurred while the pups were in the water, of which 13.9% were preceded by seawater ingestion. The average time between subsequent ingestions was significantly less for seawater than for milk ingestions. These results suggest that seawater ingestion might represent collateral ingestion during aquatic suckling attempts. Alternatively, as solid food ingestions (n = 19 were observed among 7 pups, seawater ingestion could result from missed prey capture attempts. This study shows that some harbour seals start ingesting prey while still being nursed, indicating that weaning occurs more gradually than previously thought in this species. Stomach temperature telemetry represents a promising method to study suckling behaviour in wild mammals and transition to nutritional independence in various endotherm species.

  10. Post-anaerobic digestion thermal hydrolysis of sewage sludge and food waste: Effect on methane yields, dewaterability and solids reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kine; Kjørlaug, Oda; Higgins, Matthew J; Linjordet, Roar; Horn, Svein J

    2018-01-04

    Post-anaerobic digestion (PAD) treatment technologies have been suggested for anaerobic digestion (AD) to improve process efficiency and assure hygenization of organic waste. Because AD reduces the amount of organic waste, PAD can be applied to a much smaller volume of waste compared to pre-digestion treatment, thereby improving efficiency. In this study, dewatered digestate cakes from two different AD plants were thermally hydrolyzed and dewatered, and the liquid fraction was recirculated to a semi-continuous AD reactor. The thermal hydrolysis was more efficient in relation to methane yields and extent of dewaterability for the cake from a plant treating waste activated sludge, than the cake from a plant treating source separated food waste (SSFW). Temperatures above 165 °C yielded the best results. Post-treatment improved volumetric methane yields by 7% and the COD-reduction increased from 68% to 74% in a mesophilic (37 °C) semi-continuous system despite lowering the solid retention time (from 17 to 14 days) compared to a conventional system with pre-treatment of feed substrates at 70 °C. Results from thermogravimetric analysis showed an expected increase in maximum TS content of dewatered digestate cake from 34% up to 46% for the SSFW digestate cake, and from 17% up to 43% in the sludge digestate cake, after the PAD thermal hydrolysis process (PAD-THP). The increased dewatering alone accounts for a reduction in wet mass of cake leaving the plant of 60% in the case of sludge digestate cake. Additionaly, the increased VS-reduction will contribute to further reduce the mass of wet cake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance Characterization of Gas-Solid Cyclone for Separation of Particle from Syngas Produced from Food Waste Gasifier Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osezua O. Ibhadode

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A biofuel from any biodegradable formation process such as a food waste bio-digester plant is a mixture of several gases such as methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, ammonia (NH3 and impurities like water and dust particles. The results are reported of a parametric study of the process of separation of methane, which is the most important gas in the mixture and usable as a biofuel, from particles and H2S. A cyclone, which is a conventional, economic and simple device for gas-solid separation, is considered based on the modification of three Texas A&M cyclone designs (1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D by the inclusion of an air inlet tube. A parametric sizing is performed of the cyclone for biogas purification, accounting for the separation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S and dust particles from the biofuel. The stochiometric oxidation of H2S to form elemental sulphur is considered a useful cyclone design criterion. The proposed design includes geometric parameters and several criteria for quantifying the performance of cyclone separators such as the Lapple Model for minimum particle diameter collected, collection efficiency and pressure drop. For biogas volumetric flow rates between 0 and 1 m/s and inlet flow velocities of 12 m/s, 15 m/s and 18 m/s for the 1D2D, 2D2D and 1D3D cyclones, respectively, it is observed that the 2D2D configuration is most economic in terms of sizing (total height and diameter of cyclone. The 1D2D configuration experiences the lowest pressure drop. A design algorithm coupled with a user-friendly graphics interface is developed on the MATLAB platform, providing a tool for sizing and designing suitable cyclones.

  12. Solid phase microbial fuel cell (SMFC) for harnessing bioelectricity from composite food waste fermentation: influence of electrode assembly and buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Chandrasekhar, K

    2011-07-01

    Solid phase microbial fuel cells (SMFC; graphite electrodes; open-air cathode) were designed to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity production by stabilizing composite canteen based food waste. The performance was evaluated with three variable electrode-membrane assemblies. Experimental data depicted feasibility of bioelectricity generation from solid state fermentation of food waste. Distance between the electrodes and presence of proton exchange membrane (PEM) showed significant influence on the power yields. SMFC-B (anode placed 5 cm from cathode-PEM) depicted good power output (463 mV; 170.81 mW/m(2)) followed by SMFC-C (anode placed 5 cm from cathode; without PEM; 398 mV; 53.41 mW/m(2)). SMFC-A (PEM sandwiched between electrodes) recorded lowest performance (258 mV; 41.8 mW/m(2)). Sodium carbonate amendment documented marked improvement in power yields due to improvement in the system buffering capacity. SMFCs operation also documented good substrate degradation (COD, 76%) along with bio-ethanol production. The operation of SMFC mimicked solid-sate fermentation which might lead to sustainable solid waste management practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  14. Risk factors for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flávia Ferraz Barros Baroni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Stroke is a frequent cause of dysphagia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a tertiary care hospital the prevalence of swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients, to analyze factors associated with the dysfunction and to relate swallowing dysfunction to mortality 3 months after the stroke. METHODS: Clinical evaluation of deglutition was performed in 212 consecutive patients with a medical and radiologic diagnosis of stroke. The occurrence of death was determined 3 months after the stroke. RESULTS: It was observed that 63% of the patients had swallowing dysfunction. The variables gender and specific location of the lesion were not associated with the presence or absence of swallowing dysfunction. The patients with swallowing dysfunction had more frequently a previous stroke, had a stroke in the left hemisphere, motor and/or sensitivity alterations, difficulty in oral comprehension, alteration of oral expression, alteration of the level of consciousness, complications such as fever and pneumonia, high indexes on the Rankin scale, and low indexes on the Barthel scale. These patients had a higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing evaluation should be done in all patients with stroke, since swallowing dysfunction is associated with complications and an increased risk of death.

  15. Tactile thermal oral stimulation increases the cortical representation of swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntrup Sonja

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a leading complication in stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition and increased mortality. Current strategies of swallowing therapy involve on the one hand modification of eating behaviour or swallowing technique and on the other hand facilitation of swallowing with the use of pharyngeal sensory stimulation. Thermal tactile oral stimulation (TTOS is an established method to treat patients with neurogenic dysphagia especially if caused by sensory deficits. Little is known about the possible mechanisms by which this interventional therapy may work. We employed whole-head MEG to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced volitional swallowing in fifteen healthy subjects with and without TTOS. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM and the group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. Results Compared to the normal swallowing task a significantly increased bilateral cortical activation was seen after oropharyngeal stimulation. Analysis of the chronological changes during swallowing suggests facilitation of both the oral and the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. Conclusion In the present study functional cortical changes elicited by oral sensory stimulation could be demonstrated. We suggest that these results reflect short-term cortical plasticity of sensory swallowing areas. These findings facilitate our understanding of the role of cortical reorganization in dysphagia treatment and recovery.

  16. Tactile thermal oral stimulation increases the cortical representation of swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teismann, Inga K; Steinsträter, Olaf; Warnecke, Tobias; Suntrup, Sonja; Ringelstein, Erich B; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Background Dysphagia is a leading complication in stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition and increased mortality. Current strategies of swallowing therapy involve on the one hand modification of eating behaviour or swallowing technique and on the other hand facilitation of swallowing with the use of pharyngeal sensory stimulation. Thermal tactile oral stimulation (TTOS) is an established method to treat patients with neurogenic dysphagia especially if caused by sensory deficits. Little is known about the possible mechanisms by which this interventional therapy may work. We employed whole-head MEG to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced volitional swallowing in fifteen healthy subjects with and without TTOS. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) and the group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. Results Compared to the normal swallowing task a significantly increased bilateral cortical activation was seen after oropharyngeal stimulation. Analysis of the chronological changes during swallowing suggests facilitation of both the oral and the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. Conclusion In the present study functional cortical changes elicited by oral sensory stimulation could be demonstrated. We suggest that these results reflect short-term cortical plasticity of sensory swallowing areas. These findings facilitate our understanding of the role of cortical reorganization in dysphagia treatment and recovery. PMID:19566955

  17. Swallowed Fluticasone Propionate Is an Effective Long-Term Maintenance Therapy for Children With Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, Doerthe A; Hanna, Matthew G; Magid, Margret S; Malerba, Stefano; Andreae, Michael H; Bagiella, Emilia; Chehade, Mirna

    2016-08-01

    Although effective in the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in children, limited data exist on long-term safety and efficacy of swallowed topical corticosteroids. We investigated whether long-term use of swallowed fluticasone in children with EoE leads to sustained reduction in esophageal eosinophils, and endoscopic and clinical improvement. In an open-label, prospective, single-center study, we offered pediatric patients with active EoE fluticasone 2 puffs to swallow twice a day (strengths in μg/puff: 2-4 years: 44, 5-11 years: 110, ≥12 years: 220). Clinical, endoscopic, and histological assessments were performed at baseline and shortly after therapy. If histological remission was seen, fluticasone was continued with clinical follow-ups every 4 months and endoscopic and histological follow-ups yearly. Clinical scores were derived from eight symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, regurgitation, chest pain, dysphagia, food impaction, and early satiety). Endoscopic scores were derived from six features (rings, exudates, furrows, edema, stricture, and shearing). Scores were expressed as ratio (features present/total). In addition to peak eosinophils/high power field (HPF) (primary outcome), histological features (eosinophilic microabscesses, degranulation, superficial layering, basal zone hyperplasia, dilated intercellular spaces, and lamina propria fibrosis) were assessed. Median clinical and endoscopic scores and individual histologic features were compared over 4 time intervals: 24 months. Growth and adverse effects were monitored. We enrolled 54 patients, 80% male, median age 6.5 years (range 2-17 years), 85% atopic (57% asthma, 68% allergic rhinitis, and 31% atopic dermatitis), and 74% with food allergy. Mean follow-up was 20.4 months, the longest being 68 months (5.7 years). Esophageal eosinophil counts significantly decreased (median peak eosinophils/HPF at baseline 72, 24 months: 12, all P24 months: 39, all P24 months: 0.1, all P24 months: P

  18. Swallowing and respiratory distress in hospitalized patients with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffey, Alberto; Moviglia, Teresita; Mirabello, Catalina; Blumenthal, Lidia; Gentile, Luis; Niremberg, Mabel; Gilligan, Guillermo; Teper, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of airway and/or pulmonary food or saliva aspiration in infants with moderate respiratory distress who are hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. This prospective, descriptive study was conducted during two epidemic RSV seasons at the Ricardo Gutiérrez Children's Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Included were otherwise healthy infants in their first wheezing episode with a modified Tal clinical score between 5 and 9. Swallowing was evaluated using a dynamic technetium-99 m colloid radionuclide salivagram using a gamma camera, followed by video fluoroscopy using nonionic and ionic contrast material. Fifteen patients (7 boys) were included. Age at evaluation (mean ± SD) was 4.3 ± 1.5 months; clinical score was 7.5 ± 1.4. Patients required (mean ± SD) supplemental oxygen and hospitalization 7.5 ± 3.7 and 8.8 ± 4.3 days, respectively. All technetium-99 m salivagram (10/10, as the gamma camera equipment was out of service during part of the study) and video fluoroscopy (15/15) studies were normal. No episodes of aspiration or laryngeal penetration were detected in any patient. Our study found that infants hospitalized with moderate respiratory distress due to RSV bronchiolitis did not show aspiration.

  19. Using devices to upregulate nonnutritive swallowing in typically developing infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi Szynkiewicz, Sarah; Mulheren, Rachel W; Palmore, Kathryn W; O'Donoghue, Cynthia R; Ludlow, Christy L

    2016-10-01

    The role of various sensory stimuli for stimulating swallowing in infants may be of importance for assisting infants to develop oral feeding. We evaluated the swallowing mechanism response to two devices for increasing the rate of nonnutritive swallowing in two typically developing infant age groups, ages 2-4 mo and 7-9 mo. One device was a pacifier familiar to the infant; the other was a small vibrator placed on the skin overlying the thyroid cartilage. The rate of nonnutritive swallowing while infants were awake was compared in three 10-min conditions: at rest without stimulation (spontaneous); during nonnutritive sucking with a pacifier; and over 10 min containing 18 epochs of vibratory stimulation for 10 s each. To assess whether vibration on the throat over the laryngeal area altered respiration, the mean cycle length was compared between 10-min intervals either containing vibratory stimulation or without stimulation at rest. Both the pacifier and laryngeal vibration stimulation doubled the rate of swallowing in the infants with a mean age of 3 mo 16 days and infants with a mean age of 8 mo 8 days. No differences occurred in the mean respiratory cycle length between intervals with and without vibration in either age group. Results suggest that nonnutritive sucking, vibration, or both might be beneficial in enhancing swallowing in young infants. Because vibration on the neck would not interfere with oral transfer of liquid, it might provide additional stimulation for swallowing during oral feeding. Both stimulation types should be evaluated for enhancing swallowing in infants with immature swallowing skills. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Functional Connectivity of the Cortical Swallowing Network in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Arash; Ward, B. Douglas; Siwiec, Robert; Ahmad, Shahryar; Kern, Mark; Nencka, Andrew; Li, Shi-Jiang; Shaker, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Coherent fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal have been referred as “functional connectivity” (FC). Our aim was to systematically characterize FC of underlying neural network involved in swallowing, and to evaluate its reproducibility and modulation during rest or task performance. Methods Activated seed regions within known areas of the cortical swallowing network (CSN) were independently identified in 16 healthy volunteers. Subjects swallowed using a paradigm driven protocol, and the data analyzed using an event-related technique. Then, in the same 16 volunteers, resting and active state data were obtained for 540 seconds in three conditions: 1) swallowing task; 2) control visual task; and 3) resting state; all scans were performed twice. Data was preprocessed according to standard FC pipeline. We determined the correlation coefficient values of member regions of the CSN across the three aforementioned conditions and compared between two sessions using linear regression. Average FC matrices across conditions were then compared. Results Swallow activated twenty-two positive BOLD and eighteen negative BOLD regions distributed bilaterally within cingulate, insula, sensorimotor cortex, prefrontal and parietal cortices. We found that: 1) Positive BOLD regions were highly connected to each other during all test conditions while negative BOLD regions were tightly connected amongst themselves; 2) Positive and negative BOLD regions were anti-correlated at rest and during task performance; 3) Across all three test conditions, FC among the regions was reproducible (r > 0.96, p<10-5); and 4) The FC of sensorimotor region to other regions of the CSN increased during swallowing scan. Conclusions 1) Swallow activated cortical substrates maintain a consistent pattern of functional connectivity; 2) FC of sensorimotor region is significantly higher during swallow scan than that observed during a non-swallow visual task or at rest. PMID

  1. Decoding human swallowing via electroencephalography: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-10-01

    Swallowing and swallowing disorders have garnered continuing interest over the past several decades. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an inexpensive and non-invasive procedure with very high temporal resolution which enables analysis of short and fast swallowing events, as well as an analysis of the organizational and behavioral aspects of cortical motor preparation, swallowing execution and swallowing regulation. EEG is a powerful technique which can be used alone or in combination with other techniques for monitoring swallowing, detection of swallowing motor imagery for diagnostic or biofeedback purposes, or to modulate and measure the effects of swallowing rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the existing literature which has deployed EEG in the investigation of oropharyngeal swallowing, smell, taste and texture related to swallowing, cortical pre-motor activation in swallowing, and swallowing motor imagery detection. Furthermore, this paper provides a brief review of the different modalities of brain imaging techniques used to study swallowing brain activities, as well as the EEG components of interest for studies on swallowing and on swallowing motor imagery. Lastly, this paper provides directions for future swallowing investigations using EEG.

  2. Decoding human swallowing via electroencephalography: a state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-10-01

    Swallowing and swallowing disorders have garnered continuing interest over the past several decades. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an inexpensive and non-invasive procedure with very high temporal resolution which enables analysis of short and fast swallowing events, as well as an analysis of the organizational and behavioral aspects of cortical motor preparation, swallowing execution and swallowing regulation. EEG is a powerful technique which can be used alone or in combination with other techniques for monitoring swallowing, detection of swallowing motor imagery for diagnostic or biofeedback purposes, or to modulate and measure the effects of swallowing rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the existing literature which has deployed EEG in the investigation of oropharyngeal swallowing, smell, taste and texture related to swallowing, cortical pre-motor activation in swallowing, and swallowing motor imagery detection. Furthermore, this paper provides a brief review of the different modalities of brain imaging techniques used to study swallowing brain activities, as well as the EEG components of interest for studies on swallowing and on swallowing motor imagery. Lastly, this paper provides directions for future swallowing investigations using EEG.

  3. Clock gene variation in Tachycineta swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Roi; Cooper, Caren B; Lovette, Irby J; Massoni, Viviana; Bulit, Flor; Liljesthrom, Marcela; Winkler, David W

    2012-01-01

    Many animals use photoperiod cues to synchronize reproduction with environmental conditions and thereby improve their reproductive success. The circadian clock, which creates endogenous behavioral and physiological rhythms typically entrained to photoperiod, is well characterized at the molecular level. Recent work provided evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q length polymorphism and latitude and, within a population, an association with the date of laying and the length of the incubation period. Despite relatively high overall breeding synchrony, the timing of clutch initiation has a large impact on the fitness of swallows in the genus Tachycineta. We compared length polymorphism in the Clock poly-Q region among five populations from five different Tachycineta species that breed across a hemisphere-wide latitudinal gradient (Fig. 1). Clock poly-Q variation was not associated with latitude; however, there was an association between Clock poly-Q allele diversity and the degree of clutch size decline within breeding seasons. We did not find evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q variation and date of clutch initiation in for any of the five Tachycineta species, nor did we found a relationship between incubation duration and Clock genotype. Thus, there is no general association between latitude, breeding phenology, and Clock polymorphism in this clade of closely related birds. Figure 1 Photos of Tachycineta swallows that were used in this study: A) T. bicolor from Ithaca, New York, B) T. leucorrhoa from Chascomús, Argentina, C) T. albilinea from Hill Bank, Belize, D) T. meyeni from Puerto Varas, Chile, and E) T. thalassina from Mono Lake, California, Photographers: B: Valentina Ferretti; A, C-E: David Winkler. PMID:22408729

  4. Swallowed dentures: Two cases and a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachabayov, Mahir; Isaev, Mubariz; Orujova, Lala; Isaev, Emin; Yaskin, Evgeniy; Neronov, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Denture ingestion or aspiration is a problem requiring awareness of different specialists including dentists, surgeons, otolaryngologists, anesthesiologists etc. in terms of prevention, early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Complications of swallowed dentures include hollow viscus necrosis, perforation, penetration to neighbor organs leading to fistulae, bleeding and obstruction. Presentation of cases First case is a 54-year-old female who accidentally swallowed retractable one-tooth denture during fall about 22 h before admission and clinical manifestation of acute small bowel obstruction developed. The patient underwent laparotomy, enterotomy with retrieval of the foreign body. The second case is a 31-year-old male who accidentally ingested fixed one-tooth prosthesis while eating which impacted in the ileocaecal valve. During the preparation to colonoscopy the denture spontaneously passed out with stools. Discussion Denture ingestion is more common among patients with psychoneurologic deficit, alcohol and drug abusers. Among healthy and younger population denture ingestion is rare. Both reported patients are not elder. Thus dislodgement of removable or fixed dentures is another risk factor of denture ingestion. Most common site of denture impaction is esophagus; small bowel impaction is rare. Moreover, in most reported cases, small bowel impaction of ingested dentures leads to small bowel perforation. In our first case the complication of denture ingestion appeared to be bowel obstruction what is even rarer. Conclusion Fixed dentures can be accidentally ingested as well as removable dentures. Denture loosening leads to accidental denture ingestion. Patients with denture loosening should be recommended to visit dentist as soon as possible. PMID:26635957

  5. Mis-swallowing of cleaning naphtha: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C Y; Lee, C Y

    1990-01-01

    Cleaning naphtha, a product of Chinese Petroleum Corporation, is a complex hydrocarbon mixture which contains mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons. It is used as a cleaning fluid and solvent. Three toddlers mis-swallowed a mouth of cleaning naphtha accidentally. One developed multiple organ failure before death, another completely recovered without sequelae, and the other died very soon after mis-swallowing. Two fatal cases were both induced vomiting with aspiration immediately after mis-swallowing by their parents. Therefore, inducing vomiting should not be encouraged especially at home, and prevention of aspiration is very important in the management of such cases.

  6. Comparison between solid phase microextraction (SPME) and hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HFLPME) for determination of extractables from post-consumer recycled PET into food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Éder Costa; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Cruz, Sandra Andrea; Nerin, Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HFLPME) and solid phase microextraction (SPME) methods for pre-concentration of contaminants (toluene, benzophenone, tetracosane and chloroform) in food simulants were investigated. For HFLPME 1-heptanol, 2-octanone and dibutyl-ether were studied as extracting solvents. Analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame ionization (GC-FID) and electron capture detectors (GC-ECD) were carried out. In addition, the methods were employed to evaluate the safety in use of a PET material after the recycling process (comprising washing, extrusion and solid state polymerization (SSP)) through extractability studies of the contaminants using 10% (v/v) ethanol in deionized water and 3% (w/v) acetic acid in deionized water as food simulants in different conditions: 10 days at 40°C and 2h at 70°C. The HFLPME preconcentration method provided increased sensitivity when compared to the SPME method and allowed to analyze concentration levels below 10 µg surrogate per kg food simulant. The results of the extractability studies showed considerable reductions after the extrusion and SSP processes and indicated the compliance with regulations for using recycled PET in contact with food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A compilation of correlation parameters for predicting the enthalpy and thermal conductivity of solid foods within the temperature range of -40 C to +40 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos, N.D. [Comvita New Zealand Limited, Private Bag 1, Te Puke 3153 (New Zealand); Willix, J.; North, M.F. [AgResearch Limited, MIRINZ Centre, Ruakura Campus, East Street, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton (New Zealand); Chadderton, T. [Crop and Food Research Ltd, PO Box 5114, Nelson (New Zealand)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents thermal conductivity data for 40 foods, enthalpy data for 58 foods and density data for nine foods, along with the compositions of the foods. Measurements cover a range of solid food types (including meats, fats, offal, fish, dairy products and horticultural products). Some measurements reported are for foods that have never before been studied, others have been published elsewhere, but are included here for convenience. Thermal conductivity was measured using a guarded hot-plate apparatus, enthalpy using an adiabatic calorimeter and density using a water displacement meter. Thermal conductivity and enthalpy values were measured within the temperature range of -40 C to +40 C. (author) [French] Cette publication presente des donnes sur la conductivite thermique, l'enthalpie et la densite respectivement de 40, 58 et 9 produits alimentaires, ainsi que leurs compositions. Les mesures couvrent une variete de types de produits alimentaires (viande, matieres grasses, abats, poisson, produits laitiers, produits horticoles). Certaines sont rapportees pour des produits qui n 'ant jamais ete etudie auparavant, d'autres ant ete publie ailleurs mais sont aussi inclues pour plus de commodite. La conductivite thermique a ete mesure avec un appareil a plaque electrique protegee, l'enthalpie avec un calorimetre adiabatique et la densite avec un appareil mesurant Ie deplacement d'eau. La conductivite thermique et l'enthalpie ont ete toutes les mesures pour une fourchette de temperatures allant de -40 C a 40 C. (orig.)

  8. Promoting safe swallowing when puree is swallowed without aspiration but thin liquid is aspirated: nectar is enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Judson, Benjamin L; Sliwinski, Edward; Madson, Lindsay

    2013-03-01

    The use of thickened liquids is a common compensatory strategy to improve swallow safety. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal liquid viscosity to use to promote successful swallowing in a specific subset of dysphagic patients who swallow puree without aspiration but thin liquid with aspiration. A referral-based sample of 84 consecutive inpatients from a large, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital who met the study criteria was analyzed prospectively. Inclusion criteria were no preexisting dysphagia, a successful pharyngeal swallow without aspiration with puree consistency but pharyngeal dysphagia with aspiration of thin liquid consistency, and stable medical, surgical, and neurological status at the time of transnasal fiberoptic swallow testing and up to 24 h after recommendations for oral alimentation with a modified diet consisting of nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids. Success with ingesting both nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids and clinically evident aspiration events were recorded. Care providers were blinded to the study's purpose. All 84 patients were successfully ingesting nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids at the time of swallow testing and up to 24 h after testing. A specific subset of dysphagic patients who swallowed puree without aspiration but aspirated thin liquid demonstrated 100 % successful swallowing of both nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids. Therefore, a nectar-like thickened liquid appears to be adequate to promote safe swallowing in these patients and, because of patient preference for the least thick liquid, may enhance compliance and potentially contribute to maintenance of adequate hydration requirements.

  9. Cliff swallow populations in the southern Askinuk Mountains, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During breeding season, cliff swallows are widely distributed throughout Alaska and North America south to Mexico, and they are locally common in western and...

  10. Role of Basal Ganglia in Swallowing Process: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Ghaemi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: Swallowing is a multifaceted performance that needs contribution of the tongue, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus as well as the neurological structures such as neocortex and subcortical regions - BG and brainstem.

  11. Weather-related Tree Swallow Mortality and Reduced Nesting Effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents the spring 2007 die-off of 216 Tree Swallows in western New York due to a period of unseasonably warm temperatures followed immediately by a...

  12. Automated Detection and Evaluation of Swallowing Using a Combined EMG/Bioimpedance Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Schultheiss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Developing an automated diagnostic and therapeutic instrument for treating swallowing disorders requires procedures able to reliably detect and evaluate a swallow. We tested a two-stage detection procedure based on a combined electromyography/bioimpedance (EMBI measurement system. EMBI is able to detect swallows and distinguish them from similar movements in healthy test subjects. Study Design. The study was planned and conducted as a case-control study (EA 1/019/10, and EA1/160/09, EA1/161/09. Method. The study looked at differences in swallowing parameters in general and in the event of penetration during swallows in healthy subjects and in patients with an oropharyngeal swallowing disorder. A two-stage automated swallow detection procedure which used electromyography (EMG and bioimpedance (BI to reliably detect swallows was developed. Results. Statistically significant differences between healthy subjects and patients with a swallowing disorder were found in swallowing parameters previously used to distinguish between swallowing and head movements. Our two-stage algorithm was able to reliably detect swallows (sensitivity = 96.1%, specificity = 97.1% on the basis of these differences. Discussion. Using a two-stage detection procedure, the EMBI measurement procedure is able to detect and evaluate swallows automatically and reliably. The two procedures (EMBI + swallow detection could in future form the basis for automated diagnosis and treatment (stimulation of swallowing disorders.

  13. Automated detection and evaluation of swallowing using a combined EMG/bioimpedance measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Corinna; Schauer, Thomas; Nahrstaedt, Holger; Seidl, Rainer O

    2014-01-01

    Developing an automated diagnostic and therapeutic instrument for treating swallowing disorders requires procedures able to reliably detect and evaluate a swallow. We tested a two-stage detection procedure based on a combined electromyography/bioimpedance (EMBI) measurement system. EMBI is able to detect swallows and distinguish them from similar movements in healthy test subjects. The study was planned and conducted as a case-control study (EA 1/019/10, and EA1/160/09, EA1/161/09). The study looked at differences in swallowing parameters in general and in the event of penetration during swallows in healthy subjects and in patients with an oropharyngeal swallowing disorder. A two-stage automated swallow detection procedure which used electromyography (EMG) and bioimpedance (BI) to reliably detect swallows was developed. Statistically significant differences between healthy subjects and patients with a swallowing disorder were found in swallowing parameters previously used to distinguish between swallowing and head movements. Our two-stage algorithm was able to reliably detect swallows (sensitivity = 96.1%, specificity = 97.1%) on the basis of these differences. Using a two-stage detection procedure, the EMBI measurement procedure is able to detect and evaluate swallows automatically and reliably. The two procedures (EMBI + swallow detection) could in future form the basis for automated diagnosis and treatment (stimulation) of swallowing disorders.

  14. Changes in Swallowing Symptoms and Esophageal Motility After Thyroid Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Markoew, Simone; Døssing, Helle

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Swallowing difficulties, the pathophysiology behind which is incompletely understood, have been reported in 47-83% of goiter patients referred for thyroidectomy. We aimed at examining the influence of thyroid surgery on swallowing symptoms and esophageal motility. METHODS: Thirty-th...... to esophageal motility disturbances. This information is essential when interpreting dysphagia in patients with nodular goiter, and when balancing patients' expectations to surgical goiter therapy. REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03100357 ( www.clinicaltrials.org )....

  15. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and advice given by health professionals to parents in Ireland about the introduction of solid foods. A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allcutt, Claire

    2010-04-21

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For the purposes of this paper "weaning is defined as the introduction of the first solid foods to infants". Global recommendations by the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommend that all infants be exclusively breast-fed for the first six months of life. No global recommendations have been made for formula fed infants. In Europe it is recommended that weaning foods should be introduced between 18 weeks and 26 weeks regardless of whether infants are breast or formula fed. In the United Kingdom it is recommended that solids be introduced at around six-months for both breast and formula fed infants. In Ireland official guidelines recommend that breast fed infants should be introduced solids at 6 months of age while for formula fed infants the recommendation is for 4 months. The disparity between these global, European, UK and local recommendations may be a source of confusion for parents and health care professional based in Ireland. Emerging evidence suggests that babies in Ireland are given solid foods before the recommended age but there has been little investigation of the weaning advice provided by health professionals. Since community health professionals have routine parent interactions in the pre-weaning and early-weaning period and hence are in a unique position to positively influence parental weaning decisions, this study aimed to explore their knowledge, attitudes and advice practices about weaning. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was used for the research, commencing with a multi-disciplinary focus group to guide and develop a questionnaire. Questionnaires were then distributed in a postal survey to General Practitioners (GPs) (n 179), Practice Nurses (PNs) (n 121), Public Health Nurses (PHNs) (n 107) and Community Dieticians (CDs) (n 8). RESULTS: The results indicate varying levels of knowledge of official weaning recommendations and a variety of advice practices. CDs and PHNs acknowledged a clear role in providing weaning

  16. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and advice given by health professionals to parents in Ireland about the introduction of solid foods. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Mary-Rose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the purposes of this paper "weaning is defined as the introduction of the first solid foods to infants". Global recommendations by the World Health Organisation (WHO recommend that all infants be exclusively breast-fed for the first six months of life. No global recommendations have been made for formula fed infants. In Europe it is recommended that weaning foods should be introduced between 18 weeks and 26 weeks regardless of whether infants are breast or formula fed. In the United Kingdom it is recommended that solids be introduced at around six-months for both breast and formula fed infants. In Ireland official guidelines recommend that breast fed infants should be introduced solids at 6 months of age while for formula fed infants the recommendation is for 4 months. The disparity between these global, European, UK and local recommendations may be a source of confusion for parents and health care professional based in Ireland. Emerging evidence suggests that babies in Ireland are given solid foods before the recommended age but there has been little investigation of the weaning advice provided by health professionals. Since community health professionals have routine parent interactions in the pre-weaning and early-weaning period and hence are in a unique position to positively influence parental weaning decisions, this study aimed to explore their knowledge, attitudes and advice practices about weaning. Methods A mixed-methods approach was used for the research, commencing with a multi-disciplinary focus group to guide and develop a questionnaire. Questionnaires were then distributed in a postal survey to General Practitioners (GPs (n 179, Practice Nurses (PNs (n 121, Public Health Nurses (PHNs (n 107 and Community Dieticians (CDs (n 8. Results The results indicate varying levels of knowledge of official weaning recommendations and a variety of advice practices. CDs and PHNs acknowledged a clear role in providing

  17. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Observation the swallowing mechanism in elderly patients with pharyngeal dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Campo-Cañar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation of the swallowing dynamics is an issue that demands close attention by the health professionals involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with dysphagia. This article is a review of the literature aimed to enhance the knowledge regarding the speech therapy assessment of pharyngeal dysphagia in elder adults. The disorder of the swallowing is called dysphagia and it is defined as difficulty swallowing. The dysphagia is often caused by affectation of mechanical or neuromuscular components of the swallowing mechanism. This type of disorder is likely to impact the the oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of the swallowing. The speech therapist should take into account assessing aspects such as level of consciousness, vital signs, whether or not the patient is ventilator dependent, means of feeding, if intubated what type of cannula, whether or not the patient uses a speaking valve (if a trach tube is present, nutritional status, the patient’s expressive and receptive language, the anatomical and physiological state of the oral motor structures. When assessing swallowing clinicians should also make sure to develop an adequate beside clinical, voice assessment and videofluoroscopy.

  19. Functional magnetic resonance and swallowing: critical literature review,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Santilli de Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Aspects of the neuroanatomical representation of swallowing have been investigated in humans through brain mapping techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. OBJECTIVE: This critical qualitative review of the literature analyzed international scientific publications in the PubMed database that investigated the activation of the central nervous system in humans during the act of swallowing. METHODS: This investigation was limited to articles that investigated adults older than 18 years, published in English or Portuguese, between January 2002 and December 2013. Publications that did not have access to the full text, that were repeated by overlapping keywords, case studies, literature reviews, letters to the editor, and those not directly related to the topic of the investigation were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 649 articles were identified, of which 21 matched the inclusion criteria. CONCLUSION: The main purpose of the manuscripts that investigate the swallowing process through fMRI were: to characterize swallowing in different pathologies; to compare swallowing in different age groups; to describe brain activation in different stimulation conditions. These studies indicate multiple cortical regions involved in swallowing control. Overall, the studies indicate that fMRI is a non-invasive and quantitative method that allows the investigation of characteristics that are quite often not clinically visible.

  20. Normal erect swallowing. Normal function and incidence of variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, D J; Cruess, D F; Dachman, A H

    1985-10-01

    Of 871 candidates presenting for upper gastrointestinal examinations, 16 met the rigorous criteria established for selecting asymptomatic normal volunteers. Frame-by-frame evaluation of their videorecorded pharyngeal swallow confirmed many observations made previously utilizing cine recording at much higher radiation dosages. In addition, new observations were made: the nasopharynx may not occlude until the bolus is entirely within the pharynx; air mixes with the bolus if the swallow is an "open" type; the epiglottis always inverts in normal individuals regardless of the type of swallow ("open," air filled oro-and hypopharynx into which the swallowed bolus is dropped; "closed," airless oropharynx into which the swallowed bolus is pushed by a continuous peristaltic drive of the tongue and palate, thus reconstituting the pharyngeal space); laryngeal descent may aid in stripping the bolus from the pharynx; the vestibule may not completely close during the swallow and the larynx can still be impervious to the bolus; the peristaltic wave does not begin until the bolus has breeched the cricopharyngeus; the cricopharyngeus may be seen frequently in normal individuals, but does not delay the passage of the bolus; asymmetric flow of the bolus around the larynx is common and may not be the result of epiglottic tilt or head positioning.

  1. Achados da videoendoscopia da deglutição em adultos com disfagia orofaríngea neurogênica Findings of fiberoptic endoscopy of swallowing in adults with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Andrade dos Santos de Queiroz

    2009-01-01

    patients was 58.9 years, ranging between 18 and 85 years; 51.1% (22/43 were male and 48.9% (22/46 female. The exams were considered altered in the presence of one or more of the following dysphagic manifestations: premature spillage, delayed swallowing, residues in vallecules and/or pyriform recess, laryngeal penetration and/or tracheal aspiration. RESULTS: The main findings observed, in descending occurrence order, were: presence of residues in vallecules for pasty thick consistency, delay in swallowing during pasty thick and solid consistencies ingestion, presence of residues in pyriform recesses after the swallowing of pasty fine consistency, premature spillage for liquids, laryngeal penetration and tracheal aspiration for liquids before swallowing. CONCLUSION: The main dysphagic manifestations observed were related to alterations in the volunteer phases of deglutition and to the increase of the food consistencies. The fiberoptic endoscopy of swallowing proved to be an effective tool for the diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagias.

  2. The Functional Foods Dossier: Building Solid Health Claims. How to prepare the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional food. Practical Industrial guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Korver, O.; Kühn, M.C.; Richardson, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    This practical book explains to the industry manager all the special aspects related to the preparation of the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional foods (science, legislation, communication, product development).

  3. Dysphagia in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Relationships between disease progression and Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Bruno; Siciliano, Gabriele; Mancini, Valentina; Bastiani, Luca; Bongioanni, Paolo; Caldarazzo Ienco, Elena; Barillari, Maria R; Romeo, Salvatore O; Nacci, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    . Kruskal-Wallis test showed a highly significant association between the classes of severity in bulbar forms and all the FEES parameters, no matter what type of bolus was administered (p<0.0001), whereas a significant correlation in spinal forms only for post-swallowing residue with solid (p=0.026) and semisolid (p=0.031) boluses. There is a highly significant relationship as the following between the FEES parameters and the disease severity assessed via ALSFRS and b-ALSFRS: classes of greater severity entail a greater deterioration of FEES parameters. FEES can be considered a good indicator of the dysphagia severity and a useful test for the follow-up of dysphagia in patients with ALS, whether of spinal or bulbar onset. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of ultrasound-assisted in situ sorbent formation solid-phase extraction method for determination of arsenic in water, food and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddin, Maryam; Majidi, Behrooz; Abdi, Khosrou

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid ultrasound-assisted in situ sorbent formation solid-phase extraction (UAISFSPE) coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry detection (ET-AAS) was developed for preconcentration and determination of arsenic (As) in various samples. A small amount of cationic surfactant is dissolved in the aqueous sample containing As ions, which were complexed by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate After shaking, a little volume of hexafluorophosphate (NaPF6) as an ion-pairing agent was added into the solution by a microsyringe. Due to the interaction between surfactant and ion-pairing agent, solid particles are formed. The alkyl groups of the surfactant in the solid particles strongly interact with the hydrophobic groups of analytes and become bound. Sonication aids the dispersion of the sorbent into the sample solution and mass transfer of the analyte into the sorbent, thus reducing the extraction time. The solid particles are centrifuged, and the sedimented particles can be dissolved in an appropriate solvent to recover the absorbed analyte. After separation, total arsenic (As(III) and As(V)) was determined by ET-AAS. Several experimental parameters were investigated and optimized. A detection limit of 7 ng L(-1) with preconcentration factor of 100 and relative standard deviation for 10 replicate determinations of 0.1 µg L(-1) As(III) were 4.5% achieved. Consequently, the method was applied to the determination of arsenic in certified reference materials, water, food and biological samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Traditional Malian Solid Foods Made from Sorghum and Millet Have Markedly Slower Gastric Emptying than Rice, Potato, or Pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimata Cisse

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From anecdotal evidence that traditional African sorghum and millet foods are filling and provide sustained energy, we hypothesized that gastric emptying rates of sorghum and millet foods are slow, particularly compared to non-traditional starchy foods (white rice, potato, wheat pasta. A human trial to study gastric emptying of staple foods eaten in Bamako, Mali was conducted using a carbon-13 (13C-labelled octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying, and subjective pre-test and satiety response questionnaires. Fourteen healthy volunteers in Bamako participated in a crossover design to test eight starchy staples. A second validation study was done one year later in Bamako with six volunteers to correct for endogenous 13C differences in the starches from different sources. In both trials, traditional sorghum and millet foods (thick porridges and millet couscous had gastric half-emptying times about twice as long as rice, potato, or pasta (p < 0.0001. There were only minor changes due to the 13C correction. Pre-test assessment of millet couscous and rice ranked them as more filling and aligned well with postprandial hunger rankings, suggesting that a preconceived idea of rice being highly satiating may have influenced subjective satiety scoring. Traditional African sorghum and millet foods, whether viscous in the form of a thick porridge or as non-viscous couscous, had distinctly slow gastric emptying, in contrast to the faster emptying of non-traditional starchy foods, which are popular among West African urban consumers.

  6. Traditional Malian Solid Foods Made from Sorghum and Millet Have Markedly Slower Gastric Emptying than Rice, Potato, or Pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Fatimata; Erickson, Daniel P; Hayes, Anna M R; Opekun, Antone R; Nichols, Buford L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2018-01-26

    From anecdotal evidence that traditional African sorghum and millet foods are filling and provide sustained energy, we hypothesized that gastric emptying rates of sorghum and millet foods are slow, particularly compared to non-traditional starchy foods (white rice, potato, wheat pasta). A human trial to study gastric emptying of staple foods eaten in Bamako, Mali was conducted using a carbon-13 ( 13 C)-labelled octanoic acid breath test for gastric emptying, and subjective pre-test and satiety response questionnaires. Fourteen healthy volunteers in Bamako participated in a crossover design to test eight starchy staples. A second validation study was done one year later in Bamako with six volunteers to correct for endogenous 13 C differences in the starches from different sources. In both trials, traditional sorghum and millet foods (thick porridges and millet couscous) had gastric half-emptying times about twice as long as rice, potato, or pasta ( p Traditional African sorghum and millet foods, whether viscous in the form of a thick porridge or as non-viscous couscous, had distinctly slow gastric emptying, in contrast to the faster emptying of non-traditional starchy foods, which are popular among West African urban consumers.

  7. Effects of strengthening exercises on swallowing musculature and function in senior healthy subjects; a prospective effectiveness and feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, S.A.C.; van der Molen, L.; Stuiver, M.M.; Teertstra, H.J.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; van den Brekel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients may develop dysphagia due to muscle atrophy and fibrosis following chemoradiotherapy. Strengthening of the swallowing muscles through therapeutic exercise is potentially effective for improving swallowing function. We hypothesize that a customized Swallow Exercise

  8. Effects of Strengthening Exercises on Swallowing Musculature and Function in Senior Healthy Subjects: a Prospective Effectiveness and Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, S. A. C.; van der Molen, L.; Stuiver, M. M.; Teertstra, H. J.; Hilgers, F. J. M.; van den Brekel, M. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients may develop dysphagia due to muscle atrophy and fibrosis following chemoradiotherapy. Strengthening of the swallowing muscles through therapeutic exercise is potentially effective for improving swallowing function. We hypothesize that a customized Swallow Exercise

  9. Kinetics of Ultrasound-Assisted Flavonoid Extraction from Agri-Food Solid Wastes Using Water/Glycerol Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris P. Makris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Red grape pomace (RGP and onion solid wastes (OSW were used as raw material to produce flavonoid-enriched extracts, using ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction. The extraction medium used was composed of water and glycerol and under the conditions used the extraction of flavonoids from both materials was shown to obey first-order kinetics. Maximum diffusivities (De values were 4.01 × 10−11 and 2.35 × 10−11 m2·s−1, for RGP and OSW extraction, respectively, while the corresponding activation energies (Ea were 14.00 and 15.23 kJ·mol−1.

  10. The Effect of Rheological Properties of Foods on Bolus Characteristics After Mastication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junah; Bae, Jung Hyun; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Byong Ki; Lee, Sook Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of physical properties of foods on the changes of viscosity and mass as well as the particle size distribution after mastication. Method Twenty subjects with no masticatory disorders were recruited. Six grams of four solid foods of different textures (banana, tofu, cooked-rice, cookie) were provided, and the viscosity and mass after 10, 20, and 30 cycles of mastication and just before swallowing were measured. The physical properties of foods, such as hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness, were measured with a texture analyzer. Wet sieving and laser diffraction were used to determine the distribution of food particle size. Results When we measured the physical characteristics of foods, the cookie was the hardest food, and the banana exhibited marked adhesiveness. Tofu and cooked-rice exhibited a highly cohesive nature. As the number of mastication cycles increased, the masses of all foods were significantly increased (pmastication (pmastication process and food bolus formation were affected by the physical properties of the food. PMID:23342309

  11. Gamma radiation effects on nestling Tree Swallows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

    1984-10-01

    The sensitivity of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to the stress of ionizing radiation was investigated with growth analysis. Freshly hatched nestlings were temporarily removed from nests, taken to the laboratory and acutely exposed to 0.9, 2.7, or 4.5 Gy gamma radiation. Some of the unirradiated control nestlings were also taken to the laboratory whereas others were left in the nests. Growth of all the nestlings was measured daily and analyzed by fitting growth models. There was no detectable radiation-induced mortality up to fledgling, approx. = 20 d after irradiation. Radiation exposure did not affect the basic growth pattern; the logistic growth model was most suitable for body mass and foot length, and the von Bertalanffy model for primary-feather length, irrespective of treatment. Parameter values from these models indicated pronounced growth depression in the 2.7-Gy and 4.5-Gy groups, particularly for body mass. Radiation also affected the timing of development. The growth depression of the 2.7-Gy group was similar to that caused by hatching asynchrony in unirradiated nestlings. The 4.5-Cy nestlings grew as well as unexposed nestlings that died from natural causes. Chronic irradiation at approx. = 1.0 Cy/d caused more severe growth effects than acute exposure to 4.5 Gy and may have caused permanent stunting. Growth analysis is a potent tool for assessing man-made environmental stresses. Observed body-mass statistics and model parameters seem to be most sensitive to environmental stresses, but coefficients of variation are not necessarily correlated with sensitivity. 34 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Effect of wearing a palatal plate on swallowing function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshita, Yoshifumi; Koshino, Hisashi; Hirai, Toshihiro; Matsumi, Tamachi

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing a palatal plate on swallowing function. The subject group consisted of 10 healthy, fully dentate males. Two experimental palatal plates (EPP) were used in this study: one was 1.4mm thick (EPP1), and the other was 2.8mm thick (EPP2). Tongue movements and swallowing sounds were simultaneously recorded. The position of the surface of the tongue was recorded by using ultrasound diagnostic equipment in the sagittal plane. Swallowing tests were performed under three conditions: without EPP (WOE), with EPP1 (WP1), and with EPP2 (WP2). Swallowing index (SI) and tongue contact time (TCT) was calculated. The value of SI was lowest under WOE, and highest under WP2, with a statistically significant difference. There was no statistical significance, however, between SI under WOE and that under WP1. The value of TCT was longest under WOE, and shortest under WP2, with a statistically significant difference. This investigation suggests that the thickness of a palatal plate influences SI and TCT, which correlate with swallowing function.

  13. Hard to Swallow: Developmental Biological Insights into Pediatric Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Moody, Sally A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Karpinski, Beverly A.; Zohn, Irene E.; Mendelowitz, David; Lee, Norman H.; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric dysphagia—feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity—is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties. Altered hindbrain patterning, neural crest migration, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may reflect disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia. PMID:26554723

  14. Prevalence of swallowing dysfunction screened in Swedish cohort of COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Lindh, Margareta; Blom Johansson, Monica; Jennische, Margareta; Koyi, Hirsh

    2017-01-01

    COPD is a common problem associated with morbidity and mortality. COPD may also affect the dynamics and coordination of functions such as swallowing. A misdirected swallow may, in turn, result in the bolus entering the airway. A growing body of evidence suggests that a subgroup of people with COPD is prone to oropharyngeal dysphagia. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing dysfunction in patients with stable COPD and to determine the relation between signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted). Fifty-one patients with COPD in a stable phase participated in a questionnaire survey, swallowing tests, and spirometry. A post-bronchodilator ratio of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/best of forced vital capacity and vital capacity <0.7 was used to define COPD. Swallowing function was assessed by a questionnaire and two swallowing tests (water and cookie swallow tests). Sixty-five percent of the patients reported subjective signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction in the questionnaire and 49% showed measurable ones in the swallowing tests. For the combined subjective and objective findings, 78% had a coexisting swallowing dysfunction. No significant difference was found between male and female patients. Swallowing function is affected in COPD patients with moderate to severe airflow limitation, and the signs and symptoms of this swallowing dysfunction were subjective, objective, or both.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste composed of food waste, wastepaper, and plastic in a single-stage system: performance and microbial community structure characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shungang; Sun, Lei; Douieb, Yaniv; Sun, Jian; Luo, Wensui

    2013-10-01

    The performance of municipal organic solid waste anaerobic digestion was investigated using a single-stage bioreactor, and the microbial community structures were characterized during the digestion. The results showed that the biogas and methane production rates were 592.4 and 370.1L/kg with volatile solid added at the ratio of 2:1:1 for food waste, wastepaper, and plastic based on dry weight. The methane volume concentration fluctuated between 44.3% and 75.4% at steady stage. Acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were the major volatile fatty acids produced during the digestion process. The anaerobic process was not inhibited by the accumulation of ammonia and free ammonia. The bacterial community was found to consist of at least 21 bands of bacteria and 12 bands of archaea at the steady state. All of the results indicated that the mixture of food waste, wastepaper, and plastic could be efficiently co-digested using the anaerobic digestion system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of streptomycin residues in food by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization and fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edder, P; Cominoli, A; Corvi, C

    1999-01-15

    A reliable and sensitive procedure is presented for the analysis of streptomycin (STP) in food of animal origin, like meat, milk and honey. The method is based on a separation by ion-pair liquid chromatography with beta-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) postderivatization and fluorescence detection. The clean-up of the extract is done by solid-phase extraction, firstly with a cation-exchange cartridge and secondly with an octadecyl cartridge. The selectivity is very good and not many interfering peaks are observed for various food matrices. The streptomycin recovery of the total procedure is superior to 80%. The procedure is quantitatively characterized and repeatability, linearity, detection and quantification limits are very satisfactory. A special focus is given to STP residues in honeys and a survey on 64 commercial honeys is presented. For honey analysis, the HPLC method is compared with an immunoassay test (ELISA), and the possibility of using this test for screening with and without solid-phase extraction clean-up is also discussed.

  17. Solid sampling determination of total fluorine in baby food samples by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-11-15

    This study describes the applicability of solid sampling technique for the determination of fluorine in various baby foods via molecular absorption of calcium monofluoride generated in a graphite furnace of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry. Fluorine was determined at CaF wavelength, 606.440nm in a graphite tube applying a pyrolysis temperature of 1000°C and a molecule forming temperature of 2200°C. The limit of detection and characteristic mass of the method were 0.20ng and 0.17ng of fluorine, respectively. The fluorine concentrations determined in standard reference sample (bush branches and leaves) were in good agreement with the certified values. By applying the optimized parameters, the concentration of fluorine in various baby foods were determined. The fluorine concentrations were ranged from solid sampling analysis, micro-scale distribution of fluorine in the samples was also determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation and Evaluation of Core–Shell Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Solid-Phase Extraction and Determination of Sterigmatocystin in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Min Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs, combination of outstanding magnetism with specific selective binding capability for target molecules, have proven to be attractive in separation science and bio-applications. Herein, we proposed the core–shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for food analysis, employing the Fe3O4 particles prepared by co-precipitation protocol as the magnetic core and MMIP film onto the silica layer as the recognition and adsorption of target analytes. The obtained MMIPs materials have been fully characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, and re-binding experiments. Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated Fe3O4@MIPs demonstrated fast adsorption equilibrium, a highly improved imprinting capacity, and excellent specificity to target sterigmatocystin (ST, which have been successfully applied as highly efficient solid-phase extraction materials followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The MMIP-based solid phase extraction (SPE method gave linear response in the range of 0.05–5.0 mg·L−1 with a detection limit of 9.1 µg·L−1. Finally, the proposed method was used for the selective isolation and enrichment of ST in food samples with recoveries in the range 80.6–88.7% and the relative standard deviation (RSD <5.6%.

  19. Recent Advances in Sensing Oropharyngeal Swallowing Function in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ono

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing is an important issue in the elderly because it causes aspiration pneumonia, which is the second largest cause of death in this group. It also causes decline in activities of daily living and quality of life. The oral phase of swallowing has been neglected, despite its importance in the evaluation of dysphagia, because adequate protocols and measuring devices are unavailable. However, recent advances in sensor technology have enabled straightforward, non-invasive measurement of the movement of important swallowing-related organs such as the lips and tongue, as well as the larynx. In this article, we report the present state and possibility of clinical application of such systems developed in Japan.

  20. Tracking the hyoid bone in videofluoroscopic swallowing studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellen, Patrick M.; Becker, Darci; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; van Daele, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    Difficulty swallowing, or dysphagia, has become a growing problem. Swallowing complications can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infection, and even death. The current gold standard for analyzing and diagnosing dysphagia is the videofluoroscopic barium swallow study. In these studies, a fluoroscope is used to image the patient ingesting barium solutions of different volumes and viscosities. The hyoid bone anchors many key muscles involved in swallowing and plays a key role in the process. Abnormal hyoid bone motion during a swallow can indicate swallowing dysfunction. Currently in clinical settings, hyoid bone motion is assessed qualitatively, which can be subject to intra-rater and inter-rater bias. This paper presents a semi-automatic method for tracking the hyoid bone that makes quantitative analysis feasible. The user defines a template of the hyoid on one frame, and this template is tracked across subsequent frames. The matching phase is optimized by predicting the position of the template based on kinematics. An expert speech pathologist marked the position of the hyoid on each frame of ten studies to serve as the gold standard. Results from performing Bland-Altman analysis at a 95% confidence interval showed a bias of 0.0+/-0.08 pixels in x and -0.08+/-0.09 pixels in y between the manually-defined gold standard and the proposed method. The average Pearson's correlation between the gold standard and the proposed method was 0.987 in x and 0.980 in y. This paper also presents a method for automatically establishing a patient-centric coordinate system for the interpretation of hyoid motion. This coordinate system corrects for upper body patient motion during the study and identifies superior-inferior and anterior-posterior motion components. These tools make the use of quantitative hyoid motion analysis feasible in clinical and research settings.

  1. Respiratory phase resetting and airflow changes induced by swallowing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, D; Gilbert, R J; Poppel, C S; Nassab, P F

    1995-01-01

    1. Relationships between the timing of respiration and deglutition were studied in thirty awake healthy subjects at rest. Deglutition was monitored by submental electromyography, pharyngeal manometry and videofluoroscopy. Respiration was recorded by measurement of oronasal airflow and chest wall movement. Three types of deglutition were studied: injected bolus swallows, spontaneous swallows, and visually cued swallows of boluses previously placed in the mouth. 2. The effect of each swallow on respiratory rhythm was characterized by measurement of cophase, defined as the interval between the onset of deglutitive submental EMG activity to the onset of subsequent rescheduled inspirations. Cophase was determined for swallows initiated at different phases of the respiratory cycle. In all subjects deglutition caused phase resetting of respiratory rhythm. Cophase was largest for swallows initiated near the the inspiratory-expiratory (E-I) transition and smallest for swallows initiated near the expiratory-inspiratory (E-I) transition. The pattern of respiratory resetting by deglutition was topologically classified as type 0. This pattern was shown for swallows induced by bolus injection or visual cue, and for spontaneous swallows. 3. The incidence of spontaneous deglutition was influenced by the position of the swallow in the respiratory cycle. Few spontaneous swallows were initiated near the E-I transition whereas most occurred from late inspiration to mid-expiration. 4. Deglutition caused an abrupt decrease in airflow leading to an interval of apnoea, followed by a period of expiration. The duration of deglutition apnoea for spontaneous swallows was shorter than that for 5 ml bolus swallows, and was unaffected by the respiratory phase of swallow initiation. The period of expiration after swallowing was longest for swallows initiated at the I-E transition, and shortest for E-I swallows. 5. The intervals between bolus injection and the onset of deglutition apnoea, and the

  2. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems – Pros and cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    advantages and drawbacks. Among the advantages of the SPME method are its high sensitivity compared to static headspace and that it is less laborious than the dynamic headspace method. For these reasons, the use of SPME has increased in both academia and industry during the last decade. The extraction...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  3. Is Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) an appropriate method for extraction of volatile oxidation products from complex food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    advantages and drawbacks. Among the advantages of the SPME method are its high sensitivity compared to static headspace and that it is less laborious than the dynamic headspace method. For these reasons, the use of SPME has increased in both academia and industry during the last decade. The extraction...... for analysis of lipid oxidation during storage of complex food matrices. Examples on how uncontrollable factors have affected results obtained with the SPME method in the authors’ lab will be given and the appropriateness of the SPME method for the analysis of volatile oxidation products in selected food...

  4. Examining user perceptions of SwallowIT: A pilot study of a new telepractice application for delivering intensive swallowing therapy to head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Laurelie R; Ward, Elizabeth C; Cartmill, Bena; Hill, Anne J; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2017-01-01

    Consumer feedback and end-user perceptions provide important information regarding the clinical acceptability of new telepractice systems. This pilot investigation aimed to evaluate end-user perceptions of a new asynchronous telepractice application, ' SwallowIT', designed to support patients to remotely complete intensive swallowing therapy during curative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC). Insights were sought from 15 patients with oropharyngeal cancer who used SwallowIT to complete supported home swallowing therapy. Perceptions were evaluated via structured questionnaires, completed following initial orientation to SwallowIT and on completion of CRT. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted ≥3 months post-treatment. The majority of patients reported positive initial perceptions towards SwallowIT for comfort (87%), confidence (87%), motivation (73%) and support (87%). No statistically significant change in perceptions was observed from baseline to end of CRT ( p > 0.05). Thematic analysis of interviews revealed four main themes: the ease of use of SwallowIT, motivating factors, circumstances which made therapy difficult, and personal preferences for service-delivery models. These preliminary findings demonstrate that SwallowIT was well-perceived by the current group of HNC consumers and suggest that SwallowIT may be well-accepted as an alternate service-delivery model for delivering intensive swallowing therapy during CRT.

  5. Rapid and sensitive solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in cardboard and dried foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2012-06-22

    A rapid off-line solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (SPE-LVI-GC-FID) method, based on the use of silver silica gel and low solvent consumption, was developed for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbon (MOAH) determination in cardboard and dried foods packaged in cardboard. The SPE method was validated using LVI with a conventional on-column injector and the retention gap technique (which allowed to inject up to 50 μL of the sample). Detector response was linear over all the concentration range tested (0.5-250 μg/mL), recoveries were practically quantitative, repeatability was good (coefficients of variation lower than 7%) and limit of quantification adequate to quantify the envisioned limit of 0.15 mg/kg proposed in Germany for MOAH analysis in food samples packaged in recycled cardboard. Rapid heating of the GC oven allowed to increase sample throughput (3-4 samples per hour) and to enhance sensitivity. The proposed method was used for MOSH and MOAH determination in selected food samples usually commercialised in cardboard packaging. The most contaminated was a tea sample (102.2 and 7.9 mg/kg of MOSH and MOAH below n-C25, respectively), followed by a rice and a sugar powder sample, all packaged in recycled cardboard. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasound of oral and masticatory muscles: Why every neuromuscular swallow team should have an ultrasound machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Lagarde, M.L.J.; Alfen, N. van

    2017-01-01

    Patients with neuromuscular disorders often present with swallowing difficulties due to oral phase problems and pharyngeal residue after swallow. It is important to assess the underlying pathology and cause of the swallowing disturbance in this patient group, such as dystrophic changes in oral and

  7. Electromyographic evaluation of mastication and swallowing in elderly individuals with mandibular fixed implant-supported prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giédre Berretin-Felix

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of implant-supported oral rehabilitation in the mandible on the electromyographic activity during mastication and swallowing in edentulous elderly individuals. Fifteen patients aged more than 60 years were evaluated, being 10 females and 5 males. All patients were edentulous, wore removable complete dentures on both dental arches, and had the mandibular dentures replaced by implant-supported prostheses. All patients were submitted to electromyographic evaluation of the masseter, superior orbicularis oris muscles, and the submental muscles, before surgery and 3, 6 and 18 months postoperatively, using foods of different textures. The results obtained at the different periods were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. Statistical analysis showed that only the masseter muscle had a significant loss in electromyographic activity (p<0.001, with a tendency of similar response for the submental muscles. Moreover, there was an increase in the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during rubber chewing after treatment, yet without statistically significant difference. Mandibular fixed implant-supported prostheses in elderly individuals revealed a decrease in electromyographic amplitude for the masseter muscles during swallowing, which may indicate adaptation to new conditions of stability provided by fixation of the complete denture in the mandibular arch.

  8. Aspiration Pneumonia in Children with Cerebral Palsy after Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagos-Guimarães, Hellen Nataly Correia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dysphagia is a common symptom in children with cerebral palsy, either in oral or pharyngeal phases. Children who face such difficulties tend to show health problems such as food aspiration, malnutrition and respiratory infections. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study is the most recommended for these cases, as it reveals the real situation during swallowing. Objective The study aimed to verify the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia in children with cerebral palsy after videofluoroscopy. Methods The population for this prospective cross-sectional study involved 103 children with cerebral palsy, referred for videofluoroscopic who had returned for medical examination after a week to search for signs and symptoms of pneumonia. Results The study involved 46 girls (44.66% and 57 boys (55.34%, aged between 0 and 14 years of age. Of the total, 84 (81.5% had dysphagia, of which 24 (23.3% were severe, 8 (7.7% were moderate and 52 (50.4% were mild dysphagia. None of the children presented aspiration pneumonia or infectious complications during the course of videofluoroscopy or after the procedure. Conclusion In the population studied, the authors found no cases of aspiration pneumonia, even with tracheal aspiration present in 32 (31.07% cases.

  9. A Pilot Study of the Head Extension Swallowing Exercise: New Method for Strengthening Swallowing-Related Muscle Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong-Chi

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the effect of a new head extension swallowing exercise (HESE) on submental muscle activity and tongue strength in healthy volunteers. Fifteen young adults (10 females and 5 males) were instructed to extend their head backwards as much as possible, and while watching the ceiling, swallowed their saliva every 10 s for a duration of 20 min. Twenty-four treatments were performed over 8 weeks. The outcome variables evaluated at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks of training, and 12-week follow-up included mean and peak submental muscle activation amplitudes during normal and effortful swallowing measured via surface electromyography, and anterior and posterior isometric tongue pressures were measured with the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Results indicated that the muscle activation amplitudes during effortful swallowing increased significantly at 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline (p < 0.025). However, the increases in amplitudes during normal swallowing were minor (nonsignificant) after 8 weeks compared to baseline. The isometric pressures of the tongue tip and the posterior part of the oral tongue were significantly higher at 8 weeks compared to baseline (p < 0.025). Thus, the 8-week HESE protocol significantly improved suprahyoid muscle activity during effortful swallowing as well as the isometric tongue pressures. The HESE appears effective in exercising and strengthening the suprahyoid muscles and tongue muscles in healthy participants. Although encouraging, these results need to be replicated in clinical trials for testing the therapeutic effects of the HESE in older adults and patients with dysphagia who present with decreased hyolaryngeal elevation.

  10. Use of Texture Fading in the Treatment of Food Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Bridget A.; Babbitt, Roberta L.; Williams, Keith E.; Coe, David A.; Snyder, Angela

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the efficacy of texture fading in the treatment of food selectivity displayed by four children (ages 2-5). Successful treatment involved the gradual addition of higher textures based on results of periodic probes. Food acceptance and swallowing were reinforced, while food refusal and expulsion were placed on extinction.…

  11. Associations of breast-feeding patterns and introduction of solid foods with childhood bone mass: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hooven, Edith H; Gharsalli, Mounira; Heppe, Denise H M; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-03-28

    Breast-feeding has been associated with later bone health, but results from previous studies are inconsistent. We examined the associations of breast-feeding patterns and timing of introduction of solids with bone mass at the age of 6 years in a prospective cohort study among 4919 children. We collected information about duration and exclusiveness of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of any solids with postnatal questionnaires. A total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at 6 years of age, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC (aBMC) and bone area (BA) were analysed. Compared with children who were ever breast-fed, those never breast-fed had lower BMD (-4·62 mg/cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·97), BMC (-8·08 g; 95 % CI -12·45, -3·71) and BA (-7·03 cm2; 95 % CI -12·55, -1·52) at 6 years of age. Among all breast-fed children, those who were breast-fed non-exclusively in the first 4 months had higher BMD (2·91 mg/cm2; 95 % CI 0·41, 5·41) and aBMC (3·97 g; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·64) and lower BA (-4·45 cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·61) compared with children breast-fed exclusively for at least 4 months. Compared with introduction of solids between 4 and 5 months, introduction breast-feeding compared with never breast-feeding is associated with higher bone mass in 6-year-old children, but exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months or longer was not positively associated with bone outcomes.

  12. Quantification of Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) in Various Food Matrices by Solid Phase Extraction Liquid ChromatographyIon Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Agent Chemistry Team from the Research and Technology Directorate of the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC; Aberdeen Proving...food and biological sample matrices has been achieved using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS),6–10 and limited literature...were provided with one Adobe portable document format (pdf) electronic version of this report: U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center

  13. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  14. Time budget of South African cliff swallows during breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for predicting standard metabolic rate and the cost of flight. The highest daily energy expenditur.e was ... predict standard metabolic rate (SMR) of the South African cliff swallow and the cost of flight was estimated from ... estimation of the time spent in social activities was made. To calculate the cost of building a nest the time ...

  15. Evaluation of swallowing in infants with congenital heart defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karine da Rosa; Firpo, Cora; Gasparin, Marisa; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Dornelles, Silvia; Bacaltchuk, Tzvi; Levy, Deborah Salle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgical repair of congenital heart disease in the first years of life compromises the coordination of the suction, breathing, and swallowing functions. Objective To describe the alterations in swallowing found in infants with congenital heart defect during their hospitalization. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional study in a reference hospital for heart disease. The sample consisted of 19 postsurgical patients who underwent an evaluation of swallowing. The infants included were younger than 7 months and had a diagnosis of congenital heart defect and suspected swallowing difficulties. Results Of the 19 infants with congenital heart defect, the median age was 3.2 months. A significant association was found between suction rhythm and dysphagia (p = 0.036) and between oral-motor oral feeding readiness and dysphagia (p = 0.014). Conclusions The data suggest that dysphagia often occurs after surgery in infants with congenital heart defect. Infants with congenital heart defect had very similar behavior to preterm infants in terms of oral feeding readiness.

  16. Evaluation of Swallowing in Infants with Congenital Heart Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, Karine da Rosa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Surgical repair of congenital heart disease in the first years of life compromises the coordination of the suction, breathing, and swallowing functions. Objective To describe the alterations in swallowing found in infants with congenital heart defect during their hospitalization. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional study in a reference hospital for heart disease. The sample consisted of 19 postsurgical patients who underwent an evaluation of swallowing. The infants included were younger than 7 months and had a diagnosis of congenital heart defect and suspected swallowing difficulties. Results Of the 19 infants with congenital heart defect, the median age was 3.2 months. A significant association was found between suction rhythm and dysphagia (p = 0.036 and between oral-motor oral feeding readiness and dysphagia (p = 0.014. Conclusions The data suggest that dysphagia often occurs after surgery in infants with congenital heart defect. Infants with congenital heart defect had very similar behavior to preterm infants in terms of oral feeding readiness.

  17. Short communications: White-throated Swallow Hirundo albigularis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communications: White-throated Swallow Hirundo albigularis in Tanzania. NE Baker, EM Baker. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  18. Effect of posture on swallowing | Alghadir | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Swallowing is a systematic process. Any structural, physiological or neurological disturbance in this process may cause dysphagia. Although there are studies that report head/neck movements during mastication, there are fewer studies that show the effect of different head/neck postures on difficulty while ...

  19. [Specialties in dentistry. Salivary flow and swallowing in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierink, C.D.; Spijker, P.C.; Baat, C. de

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive and irreversible disorder of the nervous system. Drooling is listed as a secondary symptom of Parkinson's disease. Its cause is insufficiently clear. In the literature 2 possible causes are described: hypersalivation and swallowing abnormalities. These

  20. Time budget of South African cliff swallows during breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973) (see Appendix). The South African cliff swallow spent most of the 24-h day in the nest (Table 1). This included about 9 h spent sleeping in the nest at night. Nest building was a minor component of total activity during the incubation and ...

  1. \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the Khotso legend. Felicity Wood. Abstract. No Abstract. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS) Vol. 4(1) 2005: 347-359. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Tracer aroma compound transfer from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix packed in treated papers or plastic packaging film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury-Brun, Cécile; Lequin, Sonia; Chalier, Pascale; Desobry, Stéphane; Voilley, Andrée

    2007-02-21

    The objective of this work was to study the transfer of four aroma compounds (ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, cis-3-hexenol, and benzaldehyde) from a solid and complex-flavored food matrix (sponge cake) toward and through packaging films placed in indirect contact during storage in accelerated aging conditions (38 degrees C and 86% relative humidity gradient). The efficiency of treated papers relative to that of standard paper and plastic as barrier was tested. Before storage, aroma compound volatility in the sponge cake was measured, and similar values were found between aroma compounds, due to the fat content of the sponge cake. Whatever the aroma compound, permeability values during storage were similar for the same packaging film. The plastic film was the highest barrier, whereas calendering and coating treatments applied to treated papers decreased effectively their permeability. An opposite trend was observed for aroma compound sorption into packaging films during storage.

  3. European Society for Swallowing Disorders – European Union Geriatric Medicine Society white paper: oropharyngeal dysphagia as a geriatric syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baijens, Laura WJ; Clavé, Pere; Cras, Patrick; Ekberg, Olle; Forster, Alexandre; Kolb, Gerald F; Leners, Jean-Claude; Masiero, Stefano; Mateos-Nozal, Jesús; Ortega, Omar; Smithard, David G; Speyer, Renée; Walshe, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This position document has been developed by the Dysphagia Working Group, a committee of members from the European Society for Swallowing Disorders and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, and invited experts. It consists of 12 sections that cover all aspects of clinical management of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) related to geriatric medicine and discusses prevalence, quality of life, and legal and ethical issues, as well as health economics and social burden. OD constitutes impaired or uncomfortable transit of food or liquids from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and it is included in the World Health Organization’s classification of diseases. It can cause severe complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infections, aspiration pneumonia, and increased readmissions, institutionalization, and morbimortality. OD is a prevalent and serious problem among all phenotypes of older patients as oropharyngeal swallow response is impaired in older people and can cause aspiration. Despite its prevalence and severity, OD is still underdiagnosed and untreated in many medical centers. There are several validated clinical and instrumental methods (videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing) to diagnose OD, and treatment is mainly based on compensatory measures, although new treatments to stimulate the oropharyngeal swallow response are under research. OD matches the definition of a geriatric syndrome as it is highly prevalent among older people, is caused by multiple factors, is associated with several comorbidities and poor prognosis, and needs a multidimensional approach to be treated. OD should be given more importance and attention and thus be included in all standard screening protocols, treated, and regularly monitored to prevent its main complications. More research is needed to develop and standardize new treatments and management protocols for older patients with OD, which is a challenging mission for our societies

  4. Predictable swallowing function after open horizontal supraglottic partial laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Christine; Benter, Philipp; Seidl, Rainer O; Coordes, Annekatrin

    2016-12-01

    After horizontal supraglottic partial laryngectomy, patients have an increased risk of dysphagia as they are not able to close the laryngeal entrance during swallowing, especially if the surgical defect of the tongue base has increased. There is no investigation that studies risk factors for impaired swallow function, or that predicts postoperative swallow outcomes based on radiologically determined tumor dimensions. The present study investigated the impact of the tongue base tumor extension (determined by CT scan in patients undergoing partial laryngectomy) on the recovery rate of swallow function. The retrospective study in a tertiary hospital between 2000 and 2015 included all patients who underwent open horizontal supraglottic partial laryngectomy due to oropharyngeal cancer of the tongue base, or supraglottic laryngeal cancer with tongue base infiltration. All clinicopathological data were collected. The dimension of tongue base infiltration was measured using CT scan. Swallow function was recorded by Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing and determined by evaluating both the duration until nasogastric tube removal and changing of the cuffed tracheostomy tube for an uncuffed speech cannula. The study included 26 patients (44-76 years, median 59 years). The clinical tumor (cT) classification included cT2 and cT3, while the pathologic tumor (pT) classification included pT2 and pT3 in 90% and pT1 and pT4 in 10% respectively. The duration until using the speech cannula was not associated with clinicopathological data, including the investigated radiologic tumor dimensions (biggest tumor diameter, tongue base infiltration depth, width, height, area and volume). The duration until nasogastric tube removal was significantly associated with the tongue base infiltration width (p=0.012), height (p=0.026) and area (pfunction after open horizontal supraglottic partial laryngectomy depends on the tumor extension of the tongue base. The tongue base infiltration

  5. Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Swallowing Area of Human Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hamdy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing problems can affect as many as one in three patients in the period immediately after stroke. Despite this, in the majority of cases, recovery usually occurs to a safe level after a month or two. In this review, we show. how the organization of the cortical projections to swallowing nuscles can account for many of the clinical observations on swallowing after stroke and explain why recovery is common in the long term. In addition, we examine approaches that may be useful in speeding up recovery of swallowing. Swallowing may be a useful model in which to study central nervous reorganization after injury.

  6. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  7. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and insulin-like immunoreactivity in saliva following sham-fed and swallowed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, B; Clifford, M N; Morgan, L M

    2003-06-01

    Gastrointestinal peptides, including insulin, glucagon and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) have previously been reported in salivary glands. Recent evidence has suggested they might influence postprandial macronutrient metabolism. This study therefore investigated and compared postprandial hormone concentrations in saliva and plasma to determine whether their secretion was influenced by oral food stimuli. In a within-subject randomised cross-over comparison of hormone concentrations in plasma and saliva following a mixed meal, 12 subjects were given two 1708 kJ mixed meals. On one occasion the meal was chewed and swallowed (swallowed meal), on the other it was chewed and expectorated (sham-fed meal). Salivary and plasma levels of immunoreactive insulin, GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), total protein, alpha-amylase, glucose and non-esterified fatty acid were measured before and for 90 min following the meals. Saliva total protein and alpha-amylase rose following both meals, indicating that the stimulus for salivary protein release is related to the presence of food in the mouth. GLP-1 was not detected in saliva. Fasting salivary insulin levels were lower in saliva than plasma (28+/-6 vs 40+/-25 pmol/l respectively). Both increased following the swallowed meal but the rise in saliva was slower and less marked than in plasma (peak levels 96+/-18 and 270+/-66 pmol/l for saliva and plasma respectively, Psaliva. Fasting GIP levels were significantly higher in saliva than plasma (183+/-23 compared with 20+/-7 pmol/l, Psaliva following both swallowed and sham-fed meals to nadirs of 117+/-17 and 71+/-12 pmol/l respectively, but rose following the swallowed meal to peak levels of 268+/-66 pmol/l. These findings are consistent with insulin in saliva being an ultrafiltrate of that circulating in blood, but GIP in saliva being the product of local salivary gland synthesis, whose secretion is influenced, directly or indirectly, by oral stimuli. The

  8. Radiation doses to children during modified barium swallow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, Kelly A. [University of Queensland, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, Herston, Queensland (Australia); McMahon, Sandra M. [SpeechNet Speech Pathology Services, Brisbane (Australia); Long, Gillian; Bunch, Judith A. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Herston (Australia); Pandeya, Nirmala [Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston (Australia); Coakley, Kerry S. [Biomedical Technology Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston (Australia); Chang, Anne B. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Herston (Australia)

    2007-03-15

    There are minimal data on radiation doses to infants and children undergoing a modified barium swallow (MBS) study. To document screening times, dose area product (DAP) and effective doses to children undergoing MBS and to determine factors associated with increased screening times and effective dose. Fluoroscopic data (screening time, DAP, kVp) for 90 consecutive MBS studies using pulse fluoroscopy were prospectively recorded; effective dose was calculated and data were analyzed for effects of behavior, number of swallow presentations, swallowing dysfunction and medical problems. Mean effective dose for the entire group was 0.0826 {+-} 0.0544 mSv, screening time 2.48 {+-} 0.81 min, and DAP 28.79 {+-} 41.72 cGy cm{sup 2}. Significant differences were found across three age groups ({<=}1.0, >1.0-3.0 and >3.0 years) for effective dose (mean 0.1188, 0.0651 and 0.0529 mSv, respectively; P < 0.001), but not for screening time or DAP. Effective dose was correlated with screening time (P = 0.007), DAP (P < 0.001), number of swallow presentations (P = 0.007), lower age (P = 0.017), female gender (P = 0.004), and height (P < 0.001). Screening time was correlated with total number of swallow presentations (P < 0.001) and DAP (P < 0.001). Screening times, DAP, effective dose, and child and procedural factors associated with higher effective doses are presented for children undergoing MBS studies. (orig.)

  9. Quantitative fingerprinting by headspace--two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of solid matrices: some challenging aspects of the exhaustive assessment of food volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolotti, Luca; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Liberto, Erica; Sgorbini, Barbara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo

    2013-10-10

    The study proposes an investigation strategy that simultaneously provides detailed profiling and quantitative fingerprinting of food volatiles, through a "comprehensive" analytical platform that includes sample preparation by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME), separation by two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (GC×GC-MS) and data processing using advanced fingerprinting approaches. Experiments were carried out on roasted hazelnuts and on Gianduja pastes (sugar, vegetable oil, hazelnuts, cocoa, nonfat dried milk, vanilla flavorings) and demonstrated that the information potential of each analysis can better be exploited if suitable quantitation methods are applied. Quantitation approaches through Multiple Headspace Extraction and Standard Addition were compared in terms of performance parameters (linearity, precision, accuracy, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation) under headspace linearity conditions. The results on 19 key analytes, potent odorants, and technological markers, and more than 300 fingerprint components, were used for further processing to obtain information concerning the effect of the matrix on volatile release, and to produce an informative chemical blueprint for use in sensomics and flavoromics. The importance of quantitation approaches in headspace analysis of solid matrices of complex composition, and the advantages of MHE, are also critically discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrolysis-acidogenesis of food waste in solid-liquid-separating continuous stirred tank reactor (SLS-CSTR) for volatile organic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    The use of conventional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) can affect the methane (CH4) recovery in a two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW) due to carbon short circuiting in the hydrolysis-acidogenesis (Hy-Aci) stage. In this research, we have designed and tested a solid-liquid-separating CSTR (SLS-CSTR) for effective Hy-Aci of FW. The working conditions were pH 6 and 9 (SLS-CSTR-1 and -2, respectively); temperature-37°C; agitation-300rpm; and organic loading rate (OLR)-2gVSL(-1)day(-1). The volatile fatty acids (VFA), enzyme activities and bacterial population (by qPCR) were determined as test parameters. Results showed that the Hy-Aci of FW at pH 9 produced ∼35% excess VFA as compared to that at pH 6, with acetic and butyric acids as major precursors, which correlated with the high enzyme activities and low lactic acid bacteria. The design provided efficient solid-liquid separation there by improved the organic acid yields from FW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison between swallowing sounds and vibrations in patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Faezeh; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L; Perera, Subashan; Sejdić, Ervin

    2017-06-01

    The cervical auscultation refers to the observation and analysis of sounds or vibrations captured during swallowing using either a stethoscope or acoustic/vibratory detectors. Microphones and accelerometers have recently become two common sensors used in modern cervical auscultation methods. There are open questions about whether swallowing signals recorded by these two sensors provide unique or complementary information about swallowing function; or whether they present interchangeable information. This study aims to compare of swallowing signals recorded by a microphone and a tri-axial accelerometer from 72 patients (mean age 63.94 ± 12.58 years, 42 male, 30 female), who had videofluoroscopic examination. The participants swallowed one or more boluses of thickened liquids of different consistencies, including thin liquids, nectar-thick liquids, and pudding. A comfortable self-selected volume from a cup or a controlled volume by the examiner from a 5 ml spoon was given to the participants. A broad feature set was extracted in time, information-theoretic, and frequency domains from each of 881 swallows presented in this study. The swallowing sounds exhibited significantly higher frequency content and kurtosis values than the swallowing vibrations. In addition, the Lempel-Ziv complexity was lower for swallowing sounds than those for swallowing vibrations. To conclude, information provided by microphones and accelerometers about swallowing function are unique and these two transducers are not interchangeable. Consequently, the selection of transducer would be a vital step in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in brain networks during consecutive swallows detected using an optimized vertex-frequency algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L; Sejdić, Ervin

    2017-03-06

    Patients with dysphagia can have higher risks of aspiration after repetitive swallowing activity due to the "fatigue effect". However, it is still unknown how consecutive swallows affect brain activity. Therefore, we sought to investigate differences in swallowing brain networks formed during consecutive swallows using a signal processing on graph approach. Data were collected from 55 healthy people using electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Participants performed dry swallows (i.e., saliva swallows) and wet swallows (i.e., water, nectar-thick, and honey thick swallows). After standard pre-processing of the EEG time series, brain networks were formed using the time-frequency-based synchrony measure, while signals on graphs were formed as a line graph of the brain networks. For calculating the vertex frequency information from the signals on graphs, the proposed algorithm was based on the optimized window size for calculating the windowed graph Fourier transform and the graph S-transform. The proposed algorithms were tested using synthetic signals and showed improved energy concentration in comparison to the original algorithm. When applied to EEG swallowing data, the optimized windowed graph Fourier transform and the optimized graph S-transform showed that differences exist in brain activity between consecutive swallows. In addition, the results showed higher differences between consecutive swallows for thicker liquids. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Soft-robotic esophageal swallowing as a clinically-inspired bolus rheometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirven, Steven; Allen, Jacqueline; (Peter Xu, Weiliang; Cheng, Leo K.

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of viscosity and peristaltic transport parameters on manometric pressure signatures, a reproducible swallowing process is required. Due to inter- and intra-subject variability from swallow to swallow, the human body does not represent an optimal mechanism for such an investigation. A smooth and continuous swallowing soft-robot has been developed to produce biomimetic swallowing trajectories, and is proposed to operate as a bench-top bolus rheometric investigation method. The method compares conventional viscometry and pressure signature findings from robotic swallowing experiments. The robotic aspect of experimentation involved 450 biomimetic swallows (10 repetitions of 45 unique experiments). The method examined swallowing transport in three dimensions: bolus formulation, peristaltic wavelength, and peristaltic velocity, each of which are known to contribute to safe and effective swallowing in vivo. It is found that the pressure gradients and magnitudes are commensurate with clinical reports on biological swallowing, on the order of 100 mmHg peak, however, the relationship between viscosity and pressure signatures is less clear. Bolus transport cannot be predicted as a function of bolus viscosity alone. Traditional viscometric data at 50 s-1, as used in clinical practice, may not be a strong indicator of swallow effort, safety, or efficacy in vivo.

  14. Submental sEMG and Hyoid Movement during Mendelsohn Maneuver, Effortful Swallow, and Expiratory Muscle Strength Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler-Hegland, Karen M.; Rosenbek, John C.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the concurrent biomechanical and electromyographic properties of 2 swallow-specific tasks (effortful swallow and Mendelsohn maneuver) and 1 swallow-nonspecific (expiratory muscle strength training [EMST]) swallow therapy task in order to examine the differential effects of each on hyoid motion and associated…

  15. Human swallowing simulation based on videofluorography images using Hamiltonian MPS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takahiro; Michiwaki, Yukihiro; Kamiya, Tetsu; Toyama, Yoshio; Tamai, Tasuku; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2015-09-01

    In developed nations, swallowing disorders and aspiration pneumonia have become serious problems. We developed a method to simulate the behavior of the organs involved in swallowing to clarify the mechanisms of swallowing and aspiration. The shape model is based on anatomically realistic geometry, and the motion model utilizes forced displacements based on realistic dynamic images to reflect the mechanisms of human swallowing. The soft tissue organs are modeled as nonlinear elastic material using the Hamiltonian MPS method. This method allows for stable simulation of the complex swallowing movement. A penalty method using metaballs is employed to simulate contact between organ walls and smooth sliding along the walls. We performed four numerical simulations under different analysis conditions to represent four cases of swallowing, including a healthy volunteer and a patient with a swallowing disorder. The simulation results were compared to examine the epiglottic downfolding mechanism, which strongly influences the risk of aspiration.

  16. Clinical, Endoscopical And Manometric Evaluation Of Swallowing In Patients With Myasthenia Gravis [avaliação Clínica, Endoscópica E Manométrica Da Deglutição Em Pacientes Com Miastenia Grave Autoimune Adquirida

    OpenAIRE

    Oda A.L.; De Magalhaes Leal Chiappetta A.L.; Annes M.; Marchesan I.Q.; Oliveira A.S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, is a common problem following myasthenia gravis (MG) and may lead to aspiration of saliva, food or liquids. We herein present 22 MG patients, with complaint of dysphagia, evaluated by phonoaudiological evaluation, nasofibrolaryngoscopical analysis and manometry of upper esophageal sphincter. The main objective was to evaluate the phases of the swallowing process and anatomical and functional aspects of oropharyngeal musculature. The age of patients varied ...

  17. Determination of banned Sudan dyes in food samples by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggiani, Claudio; Anfossi, Laura; Baravalle, Patrizia; Giovannoli, Cristina; Giraudi, Gianfranco; Barolo, Claudia; Viscardi, Guido

    2009-10-01

    A method for molecularly imprinted SPE of banned Sudan azo-dyes from food samples was investigated. The molecularly imprinted polymer was obtained by suspension polymerization using 1-(4-chlorophenyl)azonaphthalen-2-ol as the mimic template. The molecular recognition properties of imprinted beads were evaluated for use as a SPE sorbent, in order to develop a selective extraction protocol for the Sudan class of dyes. The optimized extraction protocol resulted in a reliable molecularly imprinted SPE (MISPE) method suitable for HPLC analysis. It was selective for the main analyte, Sudan I, and the related azo-dyes Sudan II, III, IV, Sudan Red B, and Sudan Red 7B, while the permitted azo-dyes Allura Red AC, Neococcin, and Sunset Yellow FCF were not extracted. The method was tested for Sudan I, II, III, and IV in five different food samples (hot chilli pepper, hot chilli tomato sauce, sausage, tomato sauce, and hard boiled egg yolk) at three concentration levels (15, 100, and 300 microg/g). It demonstrated itself to be insensitive to the presence of different complex matrices, precise, accurate, and with good recovery rates (85-101%). The LOD and LOQ were satisfactory for most analytical determinations.

  18. Solid-state fermentation of whole oats to yield a synbiotic food rich in lactic acid bacteria and prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Li, Dan; Zhang, XiQing; Shi, Yan; Wang, HaiKuan

    2015-08-01

    This study developed a synbiotic food through the fermentation of whole oat flour with Lactobacillus plantarum TK9 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis V9. The physicochemical properties, changes in ingredients and peptide molecular weight distributions were determined during the whole oat fermentation. The highest viable counts of the fermented oats were 2.85 × 10(9) CFU g(-1) (L. plantarum TK9) and 3.17 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) (Bif. animalis subsp. lactis V9), with the titratable acidity increased to 10.01 and 8.40 mL at the end of the fermentation. By comparing the nutrition compositions between the fermented and non-fermented oat flour, we found that there was almost no change in the soluble dietary fiber and β-glucan content. However, the amounts of free amino nitrogen increased from 110.84 to 154.62 mg per 100 g (L. plantarum TK9) and 82.16 to 104.83 mg per 100 g (Bif. animalis subsp. lactis V9). The levels of oat peptides with molecular weights less than 6000 Da increased by 4.4 and 5.96%, respectively. The results suggest that the fermented whole oat flour has good potential for application in the production of a novel synbiotic food rich in lactic acid bacteria and β-glucan prebiotics.

  19. Simultaneous determination of multi-class veterinary drugs in chicken processed foods and muscle using solid-supported liquid extraction clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Souichi; Nagano, Chieko; Kanda, Maki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Yoko; Nakajima, Takayuki; Tsuruoka, Yumi; Nagata, Marie; Koike, Hiroshi; Sekimura, Kotaro; Hashimoto, Tsuneo; Takano, Ichiro; Shindo, Tetsuya

    2017-07-01

    We developed a simultaneous determination method for 37 veterinary drugs in two chicken processed foods (deep-fried chicken and non-fried chicken cutlet) and muscle via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The veterinary drugs belong to 7 different classes, including 4 antifolics, 4 benzimidazoles, 5 macrolides, 7 polyethers, 2 quinolones, 7 sulfonamides, and 8 other classes. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate followed by acetonitrile with salt and buffers extraction. The two-step extraction enabled analyte extraction from highly lipid samples. The clean-up procedure, a solid-supported liquid extraction clean-up using a diatomaceous earth mini-cartridge, eliminated lipid co-extraction. The prepared sample matrix did not have an effect on the 36 analytes. The method was validated in accordance with the requirements of Japanese validation guidelines. Almost all targeted veterinary drugs successfully satisfied the guideline criteria in the three types of food matrices. The method exhibited recoveries of 70-105%, and the precision of repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility ranged from 1 to 11% and 1 to 15%, respectively. The limits of quantification were estimated to range from 0.2 to 1.0μg/kg. Applying this method to samples commercially available in Tokyo, residues were detected in 3 out of 26 deep-fried chickens, 5 out of 20 non-fried chicken cutlets, and 17 out of 39 chicken muscles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Polypyrrole nanowire as an excellent solid phase microextraction fiber for bisphenol A analysis in food samples followed by ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalabadi, Mahdie; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Alizadeh, Naader

    2016-08-15

    A polypyrrole nanowire coated fiber was prepared and used in head-space solid phase microextraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (HS-SPME-IMS) to the analysis of bisphenol A (BPA) in canned food samples, for the first time. This fiber was synthesized by electrochemical oxidation of the monomer in aqueous solution. The fiber characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the new fiber exhibited two-dimensional structures with a nanowire morphology. The effects of important extraction parameters on the efficiency of HS-SPME were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity of 10-150ngg(-1) and limit of detection (based on S/N=3) of 1ngg(-1) were obtained in BPA analysis. The repeatability (n=5) expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD%) was 5.8%. At the end, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine BPA in various canned food samples (peas, corns, beans). Relative recoveries were obtained 93-96%. Method validation was conducted by comparing our results with those obtained through HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLD). Compatible results indicate that the proposed method can be successfully used in BPA analysis. This method is simple and cheaper than chromatographic methods, with no need of extra organic solvent consumption and derivatization prior to sample introduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dispersive solid-phase microextraction and capillary electrophoresis separation of food colorants in beverages using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles as both extractant and pseudostationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Jie; Liu, Chuan-Ting; Li, Wei; Tang, An-Na

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a new method for the determination of food colorants in beverage samples is developed, using diamino moiety functionalized silica nanoparticles (dASNPs) as both adsorbents in dispersive solid-phase microextraction (dSPME) and pseudostationary phases (PSPs) in capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. dASNPs were firstly used as adsorbents for the preconcentration of four colorants by the dSPME process. After that, colorants were efficiently separated by CE using 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) containing 2 mM β-CD and 0.9 mg/mL dASNPs as additives. All factors influencing dSPME and CE separations were optimized in detail. The investigated analytes showed good linearities with correlation coefficients (R(2)) higher than 0.9932. The limits of detection for the four food colorants were between 0.030 and 0.36 mg/L, which are lower than those reported previously. The established method was also used to analyze four colorants in beverage samples with recoveries ranging from 82.7% to 114.6%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to use NPs both as extractants in dSPME and pseudostationary phases in CE for the analytical purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel ionic liquid-modified organic-polymer monolith as the sorbent for in-tube solid-phase microextraction of acidic food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yi-Hui; Ma, Jun-Feng; Hu, Min-Jie; Li, Ying; Fang, Jiang-Hua; Gao, Hao-Qi

    2014-08-01

    A novel ionic liquid-modified organic-polymer monolithic capillary column was prepared and used for in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of acidic food additives. The primary amino group of 1-aminopropyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was reacted with the epoxide group of glycidyl methacrylate. The as-prepared new monomer was then copolymerized in situ with acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 and PEG-10,000 as porogens. The extraction performance of the developed monolithic sorbent was evaluated for benzoic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-cinnamic acid. Such a sorbent, bearing hydrophobic and anion-exchange groups, had high extraction efficiency towards the test compounds. The adsorption capacities for the analytes dissolved in water ranged from 0.18 to 1.74 μg cm(-1). Good linear calibration curves (R(2) > 0.99) were obtained, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the analytes were found to be in the range 1.2-13.5 ng mL(-1). The recoveries of five acidic food additives spiked in Coca-Cola beverage samples ranged from 85.4 % to 98.3 %, with RSD less than 6.9 %. The excellent applicability of the ionic liquid (IL)-modified monolithic column was further tested by the determination of benzoic acid content in Sprite samples, further illustrating its good potential for analyzing food additives in complex samples.

  3. Bioenergetics-based modeling of individual PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows from two contaminated sites on the Upper Hudson River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W.; Echols, Kathy R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Secord, Anne L.; McCarty, John P.

    2004-01-01

    A bioenergetics-based model was used to simulate the accumulation of total PCBs and 20 PCB congeners by nestling tree swallows at two contaminated sites on the Upper Hudson River, New York. PCB concentrations in birds were calculated as the sum of inherited residues and those acquired through consumption of contaminated insects. Close agreement between simulations and measured residues in 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings was obtained when PCB concentrations in the diet were set equal to those in food boli taken from adult birds. These simulations were further optimized by fitting the value of a dietary assimilation efficiency constant. Fitted constants for both sites were similar and averaged about 0.7. An evaluation of model performance for individual congeners provided no evidence of metabolic biotransformation. The results of this study are consistent with a companion effort in which principal components analysis was used to compare PCB congener patterns in insects and in tree swallow eggs, nestlings, and adults. Together, these studies establish a quantitative linkage between nestling tree swallows and the insects that they consume and provide strong support for the use of nestling swallows as a biomonitoring species for exposure assessment.

  4. Aging-related changes in swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration determined by novel non-invasive measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Man; Chen, Ji-Yih; Chuang, Chiung-Cheng; Tseng, Wen-Chun; Wong, Alice M K; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the process of swallowing changes with aging, a phenomenon known as presbyphagia. These subtle and subclinical age-related changes make older adults more vulnerable to dysphagia during disease insults. However, there are limited studies of the swallowing process in older adults, because measurements are typically invasive or require exposure to X-rays. In the present study, we used integrated non-invasive measurements to determine aging-related changes of swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration for a population of healthy participants. The non-invasive system provided measurements of larynx movement with piezoelectric sensors, submental muscle activity with surface electromyography and respiration-swallowing coordination by measurement of nasal airflow. We recruited 112 healthy participants from the community, 35 in a young-age group (age 20-30 years), 38 in a middle-age group (age 31-50 years) and 39 in an old-age group (age 51-70 years). The oropharyngeal swallowing parameters of the old-age group had delayed onset latency and longer swallowing apnea duration relative to the other groups, and these differences were greater for larger boluses. The middle- and old-age groups had less expiratory-expiratory respiratory phase pattern than the young-age group. The probability of piecemeal deglutition was highest in the old-age group and lowest in the young-age group. These results show that the phases of oropharyngeal swallowing and the coordination of swallowing with respiration gradually change with aging. We used integrated non-invasive measurements to document age-related changes in swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration in healthy adults. © 2014 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Electric field-assisted solid phase extraction and cleanup of ionic compounds in complex food matrices: Fluoroquinolones in eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cyntia Cabral; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Rohwedder, Jarbas José Rodrigues; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Rath, Susanne

    2016-05-15

    The use of electric fields as additional driving forces in sample preparation techniques is an innovative approach that is environmentally friendly, straightforward, and able to overcome several limitations of conventional sample preparation procedures. In this work, the advantages of electric field-assisted solid phase extraction (E-SPE) using syringe-type cartridges were demonstrated for the extraction of four fluoroquinolones (FQs) in their anionic forms. The FQs were extracted from eggs and subsequently determined by UHPLC-MS/MS. The use of electric fields during the washing and final elution steps resulted in a significant improvement of the extraction efficiencies for almost all FQs when compared to conventional SPE. Intra- and inter-day assays showed coefficients of variation below 10%. The better cleanup also resulted in the appearance of less precipitated matter in the final eluate, as well as reduced matrix effects. The results showed that the electrophoretic forces derived from electric fields are a promising way of significantly increasing the extraction efficiency of ionic analytes, while minimizing matrix effects associated with complex samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Curriculum in Florida: Food Modification for Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J.; Ford, Amanda L.; Radford, Allyson; Gal, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    State and national surveys of adult family care homes identified a strong need for education on texture-modified food preparation and the nutritional needs of older adults. An Extension curriculum, Food Modification for Special Needs, was developed to provide an overview of chewing and swallowing problems, food texture, pureed food preparation,…

  7. Automated mini-column solid-phase extraction cleanup for high-throughput analysis of chemical contaminants in foods by low-pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrated the application of an automated high-throughput mini-cartridge solid-phase extraction (mini-SPE) cleanup for the rapid low-pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS) analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in QuEChERS extracts of foods. ...

  8. Utility of solid phase spectrophotometry for the modified determination of trace amounts of cadmium in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alaa S; Gouda, Ayman A

    2012-05-01

    A modified selective, highly sensitive and accurate procedure for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium which reacts with 1-(2-benzothiazolylazo)-2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid (BTAHNA) to give a deep violet complex with high molar absorptivity (7.05×10(6)Lmol(-1) cm(-1), 3.92×10(7)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), 1.78×10(8)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), and 4.10×10(8)Lmol(-1)cm(-1)), fixed on a Dowex 1-X8 type anion-exchange resin for 10mL, 100mL, 500mL, and 1000mL, respectively. Calibration is linear over the range 0.2-3.5μgL(-1) with RSD of ⩽1.14% (n=10). The detection and quantification limits were calculated. Increasing the sample volume can enhance the sensitivity. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of Cd(II) in food samples, water samples and some salts samples without interfering effect of various cations and anions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fetal swallowing as a protective mechanism against oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios in late gestation sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Robert A; Anderson, Debra F; Cheung, Cecilia Y

    2013-03-01

    Our objectives were to (1) quantify the relationship between daily swallowed volume and amniotic fluid volume (AF volume) in late gestation ovine fetuses and (2) use the resulting regression equation to explore the role of swallowing in regulating AF volume. Daily swallowed volume ranged from 36 to 1963 mL/d while experimental AF volume ranged from 160 to 6150 mL (n = 115). Swallowed volume was near zero when AF volume was far below normal, a maximum of 635 ± 41 (standard error) mL/d when AF volume was 1682 ± 31 mL and did not increase further with higher AF volumes. Computer simulations predicted that fetal swallowing would (1) return AF volume to normal in 5 to 6 days following an acute volume change in the absence of changes in other amniotic inflows or outflows and (2) stabilize AF volume in 4 to 8 days following sustained alterations in amniotic inflows or outflows other than swallowing. The volume of AF swallowed each day by the fetus is a strong function of AF volume and reaches a maximum when mild polyhydramnios develops. With deviations in AF volume from normal, changes in fetal swallowing protect against oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios because the changes in swallowing over time reduce the extent of the AF volume change. However, with experimental changes in AF volume stabilizing in 1 to 2 days, it appears that swallowing is not the major regulator of AF volume.

  10. Enhancing effects of flavored nutritive stimuli on cortical swallowing network activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Arash; Kern, Mark; Antonik, Stephen; Mepani, Rachel; Ward, B. Douglas; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hyde, James

    2010-01-01

    A better understanding of the central control of the physiology of deglutition is necessary for devising interventions aimed at correcting pathophysiological conditions of swallowing. Positive modulation of the cortical swallowing network can have clinical ramifications in dysphagia due to central nervous system deficits. Our aim was to determine the effect of nutritive sensory input on the cortical swallowing network. In 14 healthy right-handed volunteers, we utilized a paradigm-driven protocol to quantify the number of activated voxels and their signal intensity within the left hemispheric cortical swallowing network by high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) during five different swallowing conditions. Swallowing conditions included a dry swallow (saliva) and natural water-, lemon-, popcorn-, and chocolate-flavored liquid swallows. Each flavored liquid was presented simultaneously by its image, scent, and taste in random order and tested over three runs. fMRIs were analyzed in a blinded fashion. Average fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensity and number of activated voxels during swallowing concurrent with nutritive gustatory, olfactory, and visual stimulations were significantly increased compared with dry/natural water swallows throughout the cortical swallowing network (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Subregion analysis showed the increased activity for flavored liquids in prefrontal, cingulate gyrus, and sensory/motor cortex, but not in precuneus and insula. Concurrent gustatory, olfactory, and visual nutritive stimulation enhances the activity of the cortical swallowing network. This finding may have clinical implications in management of swallowing disorders due to cortical lesions. PMID:20508154

  11. Clinical Characteristics and Lesions Responsible for Swallowing Hesitation After Acute Cerebral Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsukasa; Hayashi, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Hajime; Ota, Tetsuo

    2016-08-01

    Some stroke patients with a unilateral lesion demonstrate acute dysphagia characterized by a markedly prolonged swallowing time, making us think they are reluctant to swallow. In order to clarify the clinical characteristics and causative lesions of delayed swallowing, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 20 right-handed patients without a history of swallowing dysfunction who underwent videofluorography on suspicion of dysphagia after a first ischemic stroke. The oral processing time plus the postfaucial aggregation time required to swallow jelly for patients classified as having delayed swallowing was over 10 s. The time required for swallowing jelly was significantly longer than that without the hesitation (median value, 24.1 vs. 8.9 s, P oral processing time plus the postfaucial aggregation time required for patients with delayed swallowing to swallow thickened water was largely over 5 s and significantly longer than that of patients without swallowing hesitation (median value, 10.2 vs. 3.3 s, P acute unilateral infarction could be separated into two different patterns. Because four of the five patients with a rippling tongue movement in the swallowing hesitation pattern had a lesion in the left primary motor cortex, which induces some kinds of apraxia, swallowing hesitation with a rippling tongue movement seems to be a representative characteristic of apraxia. The patients with swallowing hesitation with a temporary stasis of the tongue in this study tended to have broad lesions in the frontal lobe, especially in the middle frontal gyrus, which is thought to be involved in higher cognition.

  12. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  13. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  14. Difficult to swallow: patient preferences for alternative valproate pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali Bhosle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Monali Bhosle,1 Joshua S Benner,1 Mitch DeKoven,1 Jeff Shelton21Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health Inc, Falls Church, VA, USA; 2Answers and Insights Market Research, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjective: To determine the degree to which swallowing valproate (VP tablets is an issue, the proportion of patients who would prefer an alternative formulation, and the predictors of preference.Methods: A quantitative telephone survey of eligible adults (n = 400, ≥18 years old who currently take (n = 236 or previously took (n = 164 VP tablets within the past 6 months was conducted.Results: More than half of the patients indicated that VP tablets were ‘uncomfortable to swallow’ (68.5%, n = 274 and were ‘very interested’ (65.8%, n = 263 in medications that were easier to swallow. When choosing conceptually between taking VP tablet once/day or an equally safe and effective but significantly smaller soft gel capsule twice per day, the 82.8%, (n = 331 preferred the soft gel capsule. In the multivariate regression analysis, perceiving soft gel capsules to be easier to swallow (OR = 73.54; 95% CI = 15.01 to 360.40 and taking VP more frequently (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.13 to 3.61 were significant predictors of soft gel capsule treatment preference.Conclusion: VP users would prefer a formulation that is easier to swallow, even if it is needed to be taken twice per day. When choosing between medications with similar efficacy and safety, physicians can consider patient preferences to optimize conditions for medication adherence.Keywords: patient preference, valproate formulations, tablet characteristics

  15. Determination of trace Para Red residues in foods through on-line molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z X; Zhou, J; Zhao, D Y; Qiao, X G; Yang, J M

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we prepared a novel imprinted polymer by a room temperature ionic liquid-mediated surface molecular imprinting technique in combination with a sol-gel process. This polymer was characterized by static and kinetic adsorption experiments and exhibited good recognition ability and offered fast kinetics for the adsorption of Para Red. A simple and sensitive analytical method, based on the coupling of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), had been developed for determination of trace Para Red. With a loading flow rate of 0.42 mL min(-1) for 25 mL, an enrichment factor of 1061 was achieved. Under the selected experimental condition, the detection limit (S/N = 3) of Para Red was 6.6 ng L(-1), and the peak area precision (RSD) for 5 replicate detections of 0.15 microg L(-1) Para Red was 4.1%. The applicability of this method for determination of the blank chili sauce sample, spiked with Para Red at 5 to 25 ng g(-1) levels, was demonstrated, with recoveries ranging from 86% to 95%. In this paper, a simple and sensitive analytical method, based on the coupling of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction with high performance liquid chromatography, had been developed for determination of trace Para Red. It was applied to the analysis of spiking Para Red in chili sauce sample with satisfactory recovery and repeatability. This proposed method has the potential to be used for monitoring the illegal addition of Para Red in foods in the future due to its simple, reliable, rapid, and excellent precision.

  16. Development of A MEMS Based Manometric Catheter for Diagnosis of Functional Swallowing Disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, H Y [Centre for Advanced Manufacturing Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Hariz, A J [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of South Australia (Australia); Omari, T [Centre for Paediatric and Adolescent Gastroenterology, Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Teng, M F [Centre for Advanced Manufacturing Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Sii, D [Centre for Advanced Manufacturing Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Chan, S [Centre for Advanced Manufacturing Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Lau, L [Centre for Advanced Manufacturing Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Tan, S [Centre for Advanced Manufacturing Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Lin, G [Centre for Advanced Manufacturing Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Haskard, M [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of South Australia (Australia); Mulcahy, D; Bakewell, M [Centre for Paediatric and Adolescent Gastroenterology, Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    2006-04-01

    Silicon pressure sensors based on micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technologies are gaining popularity for applications in bio-medical devices. In this study, a silicon piezo-resistive pressure sensor die is used in a feasibility study of developing a manometric catheter for functional swallowing disorders diagnosis. The function of a manometric catheter is to measure the peak and intrabolus pressures along the esophageal segment during the swallowing action. Previous manometric catheters used the water perfusion technique to measure the pressure changes. This type of catheter is reusable, large in size and the pressure reading is recorded by an external transducer. Current manometric catheters use a solid state pressure sensor on the catheter itself to measure the pressure changes. This type of catheter reduces the discomfort to the patient but it is reusable and is very expensive. We carried out several studies and experiments on the MEMS-based pressure sensor die, and the results show the MEMS-based pressure sensors have a good stability and a good linearity output response, together with the advantage of low excitation biasing voltage and extremely small size. The MEMS-based sensor is the best device to use in the new generation of manometric catheters. The concept of the new MEMS-based manometric catheter consists of a pressure sensing sensor, supporting ring, the catheter tube and a data connector. Laboratory testing shows that the new calibrated catheter is capable of measuring pressure in the range from 0 to 100mmHg and maintaining stable condition on the zero baseline setting when no pressure is applied. In-vivo tests are carried out to compare the new MEMS based catheter with the current version of catheters used in the hospital.

  17. Epidermal electronics for electromyography: An application to swallowing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Li, Xinda; Scott, Dylan K; Jang, Kyung-In; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Rogers, John A; Rieger, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment alters the anatomy and physiology of patients. Resulting swallowing difficulties can lead to serious health concerns. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is used as an adjuvant to swallowing therapy exercises. sEMG signal collected from the area under the chin provides visual biofeedback from muscle contractions and is used to help patients perform exercises correctly. However, conventional sEMG adhesive pads are relatively thick and difficult to effectively adhere to a patient's altered chin anatomy, potentially leading to poor signal acquisition in this population. Here, the emerging technology of epidermal electronics is introduced, where ultra-thin geometry allows for close contouring of the chin. The two objectives of this study were to (1) assess the potential of epidermal electronics technology for use with swallowing therapy and (2) assess the significance of the reference electrode placement. This study showed comparative signals between the new epidermal sEMG patch and the conventional adhesive patches used by clinicians. Furthermore, an integrated reference yielded optimal signal for clinical use; this configuration was more robust to head movements than when an external reference was used. Improvements for future iterations of epidermal sEMG patches specific to day-to-day clinical use are suggested. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  19. Pattern of tongue pressure on hard palate during swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takahiro; Hori, Kazuhiro; Nokubi, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Contact of the tongue against the hard palate plays an important role in swallowing. This study aimed to clarify the pattern of contact between the tongue and hard palate by analyzing tongue pressure produced in swallowing 15 ml of water by healthy subjects wearing an experimental palatal plate with seven pressure sensors. Tongue pressure was generated initially by close contact with the anteriomedian part of the hard palate, then with the circumferential part, and finally softly with the posteriomedian part. Tongue pressure reached a peak quickly, then decreased gradually before disappearing almost simultaneously at each measured part of the hard palate. Magnitude and duration were significantly larger in the anteriomedian part compared to the other six parts measured, and was significantly smaller in the posteriomedian part. No laterality was found in tongue pressure produced at the circumferential parts of the hard palate. Our findings indicate that the order of tongue contact against each part of the hard palate as well as duration and magnitude of tongue pressure are coordinated precisely during swallowing. These findings could aid assessment of the tongue movement of dysphagic patients during rehabilitation.

  20. An electrophysiological study of the sequential water swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürgör, N; Arıcı, Ş; Kurt Incesu, Tülay; Seçil, Y; Tokuçoğlu, F; Ertekin, C

    2013-06-01

    Sequential water swallowing (SWS) was mostly investigated by the videofluoroscopic and endoscopic methods. However some physiological features of SWS was rarely evaluated by neurophysiological techniques. Our aim was to investigate some neural and muscular changes on sequences of SWS using electromyography (EMG) methods. Fifty-eight normal adults were investigated. SWS was initiated voluntarily with 50ml and 100ml water volumes from a cup. Submental EMG, respiratory signals, heart rate, and sympathetic skin responses (SSR) were measured during SWS. All parameters were increased significantly during the 100ml SWS. During swallowing apnea period, compensatory respiration cycles occurred in 24% and 48% of participants in the 50ml and 100ml SWS, respectively. Heart rate increased during swallowing apnea. SSR were evoked just before and just after the SWS in more than halves of participants. A foreburst EMG in SM muscles at the initiation of SWS was recorded in 86% of normal participants. Older age was associated with a prolonged duration of the apnea period. All parameters of the SWS could be recorded numerically and objectively using electrphysiological methods. These are similar to those obtained by videofluoroscopic and similar methods. The foreburst activity of the initiation of SWS may represents preparatory activity from the activation of the fast cortical descending motor pathway. Increasing heart rate and the prolonged apnea urged that older people and patients could be carefully tested for respiratory and cardiac rhythm disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thirty years of blackouts: a case report of swallow syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lambiris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deglutition syncope has been demonstrated in isolated case reports, the first being described over 50 years ago. It is thought to be caused by a hypersensitive vagotonic reflex in response to esophageal dilation after swallowing. It can cause syncope due to complete atrioventricular (AV block and acute reduction of cardiac output. Although rare, its lethality is worthy of discussion, as early recognition can offer complete treatment with placement of a pacemaker. A 54-year-old man presented with 30 years of lightheadedness and syncope, followed by disorientation and tremors, after eating sandwiches or drinking carbonated beverages. He initially was evaluated by a neurologist. Work-up included cardiac 2D transthoracic echocardiogram, electroencephalogram, swallow stud, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram, and cardiac stress testing. All tests were within normal limits, and it was determined that he was suffering from convulsive syncope and deglutition syncope. Referral to the cardiac electrophysiology department with tilt-table testing accompanied by swallow evaluation was then recommended. The tests demonstrated marked vagal response resulting in sinus bradycardia with second-degree AV block and pauses up to 3.5 seconds. Patient experienced near syncope. A rate-responsive, dual-chamber Boston Scientific pacemaker with DDDR programming was implanted. Patient has remained asymptomatic at follow-up.

  2. Suck, swallow and breathing coordination in infants with infantile colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlie Degenaar

    2015-12-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the suck, swallow and breathing coordination in infants with infantile colic and compare it with infants without the condition. Method: An assessment protocol for suck, swallow and breathing coordination was compiled from literature. This protocol was performed on a research group of 50 infants, independently diagnosed with infantile colic, and a control group of 28 infants without the condition. All participants were from two rural towns in the North–West province, South Africa, selected with a snowball selection method and strict selection criteria. The study followed a static comparison group design. Results: A significant difference in the key components of feeding and the presence of colic in participants of four age categories were found. The correlation between postural control and the presence of infantile colic were sustained in participants from 2–19 weeks old. Conclusion: Suck, swallow and breathing were found to be significantly associated with infantile colic. The findings should be investigated further. It appears that speech-language therapists may play an expanding role in infantile colic. [pdf to follow

  3. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartl, Dana M. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)], E-mail: dmhartl@aol.com; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  4. Mercury speciation in sea food by flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry using selective solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereda Alonso, E; Siles Cordero, M T; García de Torres, A; Cañada Rudner, P; Cano Pavón, J M

    2008-10-19

    An on-line inorganic and organomercury species separation, preconcentration and determination system consisting of cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS or CV-ETAAS) coupled to a flow injection (FI) method was studied. The inorganic mercury species was retained on a column (i.d., 3 mm; length 3 cm) packed to a height of 0.7 cm with a chelating resin aminopropyl-controlled pore glass (550 A) functionalized with [1,5-bis (2 pyridyl)-3-sulphophenyl methylene thiocarbonohydrazyde] placed in the injection valve of a simple flow manifold. Methylmercury is not directly determined. Previous oxidation of the organomercurial species permitted the determination of total mercury. The separation of mercury species was obtained by the selective retention of inorganic mercury on the chelating resin. The difference between total and inorganic mercury determined the organomercury content in the sample. The inorganic mercury was removed on-line from the microcolumn with 6% (m/v) thiourea. The mercury cold vapor generation was performed on-line with 0.2% (m/v) sodium tethrahydroborate and 0.05% (m/v) sodium hydroxide as reducing solution. The determination was performed using CV-AAS and CV-ETAAS, both approaches have been used and compared for the speciation of mercury in sea food. A detection limit of 10 and 6 ng l(-1) was achieved for CV-AAS and CV-ETAAS, respectively. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 1 microg l(-1) Hg level was 3.5% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), calculated from the peak heights obtained. Both approaches were validated with the use of two certified reference materials and by spiking experiments. By analyzing the two biological certified materials, it was evident that the difference between the total mercury and inorganic mercury corresponds to methylmercury. The concentrations obtained by both techniques were in agreement with the certified values or with differences of the certified values for total Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg

  5. Determination of lead and cadmium concentration limits in agricultural soil and municipal solid waste compost through an approach of zero tolerance to food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Jayanta Kumar; Panwar, N R; Singh, M V

    2010-09-01

    Cadmium and lead are important environmental pollutants with high toxicity to animals and human. Soils, though have considerable metal immobilizing capability, can contaminate food chain via plants grown upon them when their built-up occurs to a large extent. Present experiment was carried out with the objective of quantifying the limits of Pb and Cd loading in soil for the purpose of preventing food chain contamination beyond background concentration levels. Two separate sets of pot experiment were carried out for these two heavy metals with graded levels of application doses of Pb at 0.4-150 mg/kg and Cd at 0.02-20 mg/kg to an acidic light textured alluvial soil. Spinach crop was grown for 50 days on these treated soils after a stabilization period of 2 months. Upper limit of background concentration levels (C(ul)) of these metals were calculated through statistical approach from the heavy metals concentration values in leaves of spinach crop grown in farmers' fields. Lead and Cd concentration limits in soil were calculated by dividing C(ul) with uptake response slope obtained from the pot experiment. Cumulative loading limits (concentration limits in soil minus contents in uncontaminated soil) for the experimental soil were estimated to be 170 kg Pb/ha and 0.8 kg Cd/ha. Based on certain assumptions on application rate and computed cumulative loading limit values, maximum permissible Pb and Cd concentration values in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost were proposed as 170 mg Pb/kg and 0.8 mg Cd/kg, respectively. In view of these limiting values, about 56% and 47% of the MSW compost samples from different cities are found to contain Pb and Cd in the safe range.

  6. How many meals should you skip before undergoing a colonoscopy? A randomized controlled trial: association between duration of abstinence from solid food to cleanliness of the bowel in patients undergoing elective colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz DA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dayang A Abdul Aziz,1 Loh H Peow,2 Jasiah Zakaria,2 Mahmud M Nor,3 Zarina A Latiff41Pediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, UKM Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Surgery, Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban, Malaysia; 3Department of Surgery, Universiti Sains Islam, 4Department of Pediatrics, UKM Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: An ideal cleansing regime to prepare a clean colon is important for yielding best results during colonoscopy. Many centers practice strict dietary modifications – ie, skipping more than one solid meal 1 or 2 days before the procedure with the consumption of a bowel cleansing agent. No formal studies have been performed to determine how long a patient should withhold solid meals during bowel preparation prior to an outpatient colonoscopy. Materials and methods: A randomized prospective controlled trial was carried out with patients who underwent elective colonoscopy at a tertiary general hospital in Malaysia for 7 months’ duration. Patients were randomized into one of two groups. Group A patients abstained from a solid diet for 24 hours (the last solid meal was breakfast the day before the colonoscopy. Group B patients abstained from a solid diet 14 hours prior to the colonoscopy (the last solid meal was dinner the day before the colonoscopy. We standardized the time for the oral intake of sodium phosphosoda in both groups. The Boston Bowel Preparation Scale was used to grade the cleanliness between the two groups and a score ≥2 was taken as clean bowel preparation. Results: A total of 178 patients (each arm had 89 patients were recruited for this study. Group A showed a mean bowel cleanliness score of 3. Group B showed a mean bowel cleanliness score of 2.5. However, there was a significant difference in bowel cleanliness between the groups (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Abstinence of solid food for either 24 hours or 14 hours prior to the colonoscopy both produced clean bowel

  7. Anesthesia and increased hypercarbic drive impair the coordination between breathing and swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Olivia M.; Diaz-Gil, Daniel; Nunn, Danuza; Simons, Jeroen C.P.; Gianatasio, Chloe; Mueller, Noomi; Meyer, Matthew J.; Pierce, Eric; Rosow, Carl; Eikermann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background Coordination between breathing and swallowing helps prevent aspiration of foreign material into the respiratory tract. We examined the effects of anesthesia, and hypercapnia on swallowing-breathing coordination. Methods In a randomized controlled cross-over study, general anesthesia with propofol or sevoflurane was titrated using an up-down method to identify the threshold for suppression of the motor response to electrical stimulation of the forearm. Additional measurements included bispectral index, genioglossus electromyogram, ventilation (pneumotachometer), and hypopharyngeal pressure. During wakefulness and at each level of anesthetic, carbon dioxide was added to increase its end tidal pressure by 4 and 8 mmHg. A swallow was defined as increased genioglossus activity with deglutition apnea and an increase in hypopharyngeal pressure. Spontaneous swallows were categorized as physiological (during expiration or followed by expiration), or pathological (during inspiration or followed by an inspiration). Results A total of 224 swallows were analyzed. Anesthesia increased the proportion of pathological swallows (25.9% versus 4.9%), and decreased the number of swallows per hour (1.7 ± 3.3 versus 28.0 ± 22.3) compared to wakefulness. During anesthesia, hypercapnia decreased hypopharyngeal pressure during inspiration (-14.1±3.7 versus -8.7±2 mmHg), and increased minute ventilation the proportion of pathological swallows (19.1% versus 12.3%), and the number of swallows per hour (5.5 ±17.0. versus 1.3 ± 5.5). Conclusions Anesthesia impaired the coordination between swallowing and respiration. Mild hypercapnia increased the frequency of swallowing during anesthesia and the likelihood of pathological swallowing. During anesthesia, the risk for aspiration may be further increased when ventilatory drive is stimulated. PMID:25275368

  8. A solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in food and water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daşbaşı, Teslima; Saçmacı, Şerife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Kartal, Şenol

    2015-05-01

    A relatively rapid, accurate and precise solid phase extraction method is presented for the determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) in various food and water samples. Quantitation is carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the retention of the trace metal ions on Dowex Marathon C, a strong acid cation exchange resin. Some important parameters affecting the analytical performance of the method such as pH, flow rate and volume of the sample solution; type, concentration, volume, flow rate of the eluent; and matrix effects on the retention of the metal ions were investigated. Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of the analytes. The detection limits (3 σb) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were found as 0.13 and 0.18 μg L(-1), respectively, while the limit of quantification values (10 σb) were computed as 0.43 and 0.60 μg L(-1) for the same sequence of the analytes. The precision (as relative standard deviation was lower than 4% at 5 μg L(-1) Cd(II) and 10 μg L(-1) Pb(II) levels, and the preconcentration factor was found to be 250. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing the certified reference materials, SPS-WW2 Batch 108 wastewater level 2 and INCT-TL-1 tea leaves, with the satisfactory results. In addition, for the accuracy of the method the recovery studies (⩾ 95%) were carried out. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in the various natural waters (lake water, tap water, waste water with boric acid, waste water with H2SO4) and food samples (pomegranate flower, organic pear, radish leaf, lamb meat, etc.), and good results were obtained. While the food samples almost do not contain cadmium, they have included lead at low levels of 0.13-1.12 μg g(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Responses of microbial community and acidogenic intermediates to different water regimes in a hybrid solid anaerobic digestion system treating food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Suyun; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of different water regimes in an acidogenic leach bed reactor (LBR) during 16-day batch mode food waste digestion. LBRs were operated under five water replacement ratios (WRRs) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 5% in LBRs R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5, respectively) and methanogenic effluent (ME) addition with two leachate recirculation frequencies (once in 24 h and 12 h in LBRs R6 and R7, respectively). Results showed that 50-100% WRRs accelerated the hydrolysis and acidogenesis with butyrate as the dominant product (∼35% of COD); whereas 5-25% WRRs promoted propionate production. The ME recirculation enhanced protein decomposition and reduced ethanol production. Lactobacillus dominated in LBRs with water addition (R1-R5), while Clostridium and hetero-fermenting lactic acid bacteria dominated in LBR with ME addition (R7). The highest volatile solid degradation (82.9%) and methane yield (0.29 L-CH4/g VS) were obtained with ME addition at 0.7 d hydraulic retention time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Feasibility of Metatranscriptome Analysis from Infant Gut Microbiota: Adaptation to Solid Foods Results in Increased Activity of Firmicutes at Six Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor Hugenholtz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns are rapidly colonized by microbes and their intestinal tracts contain highly dynamic and rapidly developing microbial communities in the first months of life. In this study, we describe the feasibility of isolating mRNA from rapidly processed faecal samples and applying deep RNA-Seq analysis to provide insight into the active contributors of the microbial community in early life. Specific attention is given to the impact of removing rRNA from the mRNA on the phylogenetic and transcriptional profiling and its analysis depth. A breastfed baby was followed in the first six months of life during adaptation to solid food, dairy products, and formula. It was found that, in the weaning period, the total transcriptional activity of Actinobacteria, mainly represented by Bifidobacterium, decreased while that of Firmicutes increased over time. Moreover, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, including the canonical Bifidobacteria as well as Collinsella, were found to be important contributors to carbohydrate fermentation and vitamin biosynthesis in the infant intestine. Finally, the expression of Lactobacillus rhamnosus-like genes was detected, likely following transfer from the mother who consumed L. rhamnosus GG. The study indicates that metatranscriptome analysis of the infant gut microbiota is feasible on infant stool samples and can be used to provide insight into the core activities of the developing community.

  11. Determination of Iodate in Food, Environmental, and Biological Samples after Solid-Phase Extraction with Ni-Al-Zr Ternary Layered Double Hydroxide as a Nanosorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abdolmohammad-Zadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured nickel-aluminum-zirconium ternary layered double hydroxide was successfully applied as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for the separation and pre-concentration of trace levels of iodate in food, environmental and biological samples. An indirect method was used for monitoring of the extracted iodate ions. The method is based on the reaction of the iodate with iodide in acidic solution to produce iodine, which can be spectrophotometrically monitored at 352 nm. The absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration of iodate in the sample. The effect of several parameters such as pH, sample flow rate, amount of nanosorbent, elution conditions, sample volume, and coexisting ions on the recovery was investigated. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s and enrichment factor were 0.12 μg mL−1 and 20, respectively. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system was linear in the range of 0.2–2.8 μg mL−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. In order to validate the presented method, a certified reference material, NIST SRM 1549, was also analyzed.

  12. Continuous H2 and CH4 production from high-solid food waste in the two-stage thermophilic fermentation process with the recirculation of digester sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ebie, Yoshitaka; Xu, Kai-Qin; Li, Yu-You; Inamori, Yuhei

    2010-01-01

    A thermophilic two-stage fermentation process using 10% total solids (TS) food waste was tested at varying organic loading rates (OLRs). The system was configured to produce H(2) and CH(4) in conjugation with the chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen removal, and adjustment of the pH by returning sludge as an alkali buffer from the sludge storage tank for denitrification. The pH in the H(2) fermentation reactor was maintained in the range of 5.4-5.7 using sludge recirculation (Q(r)/Q(i) ratio 1). The average H(2) (11.1l-H(2) l(-1)-fed d(-1)) and CH(4) (47.4l-CH(4) l(-1)-fed d(-1)) production rates were achieved at OLRs of 39 (H(2) fermentation reactor) and 4.16 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) (CH(4) fermentation reactor), respectively. These results suggest that long-term stability of the continuous two-stage process can be successfully achieved by recirculation of high-alkalinity sludge of 6.7-7.5 g l(-1) as CaCO(3), without any added external chemical buffer.

  13. Determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in food products using electrokinetic flow analysis-ion pair solid phase extraction-capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; He, You-Zhao; Li, Lian; Fu, Guo-Ni; Xie, Hai-Yang; Gan, Wu-Er

    2008-06-16

    An electrokinetic flow analysis system (EFA), consisting of one electroosmotic pump, five solenoid valves and one on-line homemade solid phase extraction (SPE) unit, combined with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was proposed to determine benzoic acid and sorbic acid in food products. Tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) was adopted as an ion pair reagent to improve the retention of the preservatives on C(8)-bonded silica sorbent, which was also used to remove sample matrices. By using the SPE unit, the EFA-SPE-CZE system was able to perform the SPE operation and CZE separation simultaneously. With a modified interface of EFA and CZE, the buffer consumption was reduced to 130 microL for each running. The preservatives were separated and determined under optimized conditions with p-hydroxybenzoic acid as an internal standard. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of peak area for each analyte was less than 3.1% (n=5) and the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 10 to 20 ngmL(-1) (K=3, n=11).

  14. Central inhibition of initiation of swallowing by systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Sakai, Shogo; Suzuki, Taku; Ujihara, Izumi; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Canning, Brendan J; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Dysphagia is caused not only by neurological and/or structural damage but also by medication. We hypothesized memantine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, and baclofen, all commonly used drugs with central sites of action, may regulate swallowing function. Swallows were evoked by upper airway (UA)/pharyngeal distension, punctate mechanical stimulation using a von Frey filament, capsaicin or distilled water (DW) applied topically to the vocal folds, and electrical stimulation of a superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in anesthetized rats and were documented by recording electromyographic activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles and by visualizing laryngeal elevation. The effects of intraperitoneal or topical administration of each drug on swallowing function were studied. Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topically applied diazepam or baclofen had no effect on swallowing. These data indicate that diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topical applied diazepam or baclofen was without effect on swallowing. Diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Spontaneous swallowing frequency has potential to identify dysphagia in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases, swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute [SPM]) were compared with stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with versus without clinically significant dysphagia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM, which was compared with a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was used to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a threshold of SPM≤0.40 that identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5- to 10-minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel.

  16. Spontaneous Swallowing Frequency [Has Potential to] Identify Dysphagia in Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. Methods In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute: SPM) were compared to stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with vs. without clinically significant dysphagia. ROC analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM which was compared to a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was employed to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. Results SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. ROC analysis yielded a threshold of SPM ≤ 0.40 which identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5 to 10 minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Conclusions Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel. PMID:24149008

  17. The relationship between limit of Dysphagia and average volume per swallow in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; Gomes, Nathália Angelina Costa; Coriolano, Maria das Graças Wanderley de Sales; de Souza, Elizabete Santos; Moura, Danielle Albuquerque Alves; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain the limit of dysphagia and the average volume per swallow in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) but without swallowing complaints and in normal subjects, and to investigate the relationship between them. We hypothesize there is a direct relationship between these two measurements. The study included 10 patients with idiopathic PD and 10 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was recorded over the suprahyoid muscle group. The limit of dysphagia was obtained by offering increasing volumes of water until piecemeal deglutition occurred. The average volume per swallow was calculated by dividing the time taken by the number of swallows used to drink 100 ml of water. The PD group showed a significantly lower dysphagia limit and lower average volume per swallow. There was a significantly moderate direct correlation and association between the two measurements. About half of the PD patients had an abnormally low dysphagia limit and average volume per swallow, although none had spontaneously related swallowing problems. Both measurements may be used as a quick objective screening test for the early identification of swallowing alterations that may lead to dysphagia in PD patients, but the determination of the average volume per swallow is much quicker and simpler.

  18. Objective Measures of Swallowing Function Applied to the Dysphagia Population: A One Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine A; Ellerston, Julia; Heller, Amanda; Houtz, Daniel R; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative, reliable measures of swallowing physiology can be made from an modified barium swallowing study. These quantitative measures have not been previously employed to study large dysphagic patient populations. The present retrospective study of 139 consecutive patients with dysphagia seen in a university tertiary voice and swallowing clinic sought to use objective measures of swallowing physiology to (1) quantify the most prevalent deficits seen in the patient population, (2) identify commonly associated diagnoses and describe the most prevalent swallowing deficits, and (3) determine any correlation between objective deficits and Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) scores and body mass index. Poor pharyngeal constriction (34.5 %) and airway protection deficits (65.5 %) were the most common swallowing abnormalities. Reflux-related dysphagia (36 %), nonspecific pharyngeal dysphagia (24 %), Parkinson disease (16 %), esophageal abnormality (13 %), and brain insult (10 %) were the most common diagnoses. Poor pharyngeal constriction was significantly associated with an esophageal motility abnormality (p < 0.001) and central neurologic insult. In general, dysphagia symptoms as determined by the EAT-10 did not correlate with swallowing function abnormalities. This preliminary study indicates that reflux disease is common in patients with dysphagia and that associated esophageal abnormalities are common in dysphagic populations and may be associated with specific pharyngeal swallowing abnormalities. However, symptom scores from the EAT-10 did not correspond to swallowing pathophysiology.

  19. The importance of the reproducibility of oropharyngeal swallowing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. An electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, G; Alfonsi, E; Mainardi, L; Alvisi, E; Brighina, F; Valentino, F; Fierro, B; Sandrini, G; Bertino, G; Berlangieri, M; De Icco, R; Fresia, M; Moglia, A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate electrophysiologically the reproducibility of oropharyngeal swallowing in patients with ALS. We enrolled 26 ALS patients, both with and without clinical signs of dysphagia, and 30 age-matched controls. The reproducibility of the electrophysiological signals related to the oral phase (electromyographic activity of the submental/suprahyoid muscles) and the pharyngeal phase (laryngeal-pharyngeal mechanogram) of swallowing across repeated swallows was assessed. To do this we computed two similarity indexes (SI) by using previously described mathematical algorithms. The reproducibility of oropharyngeal swallowing was significantly reduced both in patients with and in those without clinical signs of dysphagia, with more marked alterations being detected in the dysphagic group. The SI of both phases of swallowing, oral and pharyngeal, correlated significantly with dysphagia severity and disease severity. In ALS different pathophysiological mechanisms can alter the stereotyped motor behaviors underlying normal swallowing, thus reducing the reproducibility of the swallowing act. A decrease in swallowing reproducibility could be a preclinical sign of dysphagia and, beyond a certain threshold, a pathological hallmark of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Electrophysiological assessment is a simple and useful tool for the early detection of swallowing abnormalities, and for the management of overt dysphagia in ALS. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Computational Analysis of Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics in Patients with Motor Neuron Disease: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, K L; Schwertner, Ryan; Chen, Amy; Pearson, William G

    2017-10-20

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) is a common sequela in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot investigation was to characterize how pharyngeal swallowing mechanics are impacted in patients with MND using a comparison with healthy, non-dysphagic control group. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) was used to determine covariate biomechanics of pharyngeal swallowing from videofluoroscopic assessment in 15 patients with MND and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Canonical variant analysis with post hoc discriminate function analysis (DFA) was performed on coordinate data mapping functional muscle groups underlying pharyngeal swallowing. Differences in swallowing mechanics associated with group (MND; control), motor neuron predominance (upper; lower), onset (bulbar; spinal), and swallow task (thin, pudding) were evaluated and visualized. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in patients with MND compared with healthy controls (D = 2.01, p mechanics by motor neuron predominance (D = 5.03, p mechanics of patients with MND differ from and are more heterogeneous than healthy controls. These findings suggest patients with MND may compensate reductions in pharyngeal shortening and tongue base retraction by extending the head and neck and increasing hyolaryngeal excursion. This work and further CASM investigations will lead to further insights into development and evaluation of targeted clinical treatments designed to prolong safe and efficient swallowing function in patients with MND.

  1. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation can modulate swallowing in cortical processing and behavior - magnetoencephalographic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntrup, Sonja; Teismann, Inga; Wollbrink, Andreas; Winkels, Martin; Warnecke, Tobias; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The act of swallowing is a complex neuromuscular function that is processed in a distributed network involving cortical, subcortical and brainstem structures. Difficulty in swallowing arises from a variety of neurologic diseases for which therapeutic options are currently limited. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES) is a novel intervention designed to promote plastic changes in the pharyngeal motor cortex to aid dysphagia rehabilitation. In the present study we evaluate the effect of PES on cortical swallowing network activity and associated changes in swallowing performance. In a randomized, crossover study design 10min of real (0.2-ms pulses, 5Hz, 280V, stimulation intensity at 75% of maximum tolerated threshold) or sham PES were delivered to 14 healthy volunteers in two separate sessions. Stimulation was delivered via a pair of bipolar ring electrodes mounted on an intraluminal catheter positioned in the pharynx. Before and after each intervention swallowing capacity (ml/s) was tested using a 150ml-water swallowing stress test. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) of cortical oscillatory activity during volitional swallowing was recorded applying whole-head magnetoencephalography before, immediately after and 45min past the intervention. A prominent reduction of ERD in sensorimotor brain areas occurred in the alpha and beta frequency ranges immediately after real PES but not after sham stimulation (pefficiency, which is associated with subtle changes in swallowing function in healthy subjects. Our data contribute evidence that swallowing network organization and behavior can effectively be modulated by PES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative analysis of DBSCAN, K-means, and quadratic variation algorithms for automatic identification of swallows from swallowing accelerometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, Joshua M; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-04-01

    Cervical auscultation with high resolution sensors is currently under consideration as a method of automatically screening for specific swallowing abnormalities. To be clinically useful without human involvement, any devices based on cervical auscultation should be able to detect specified swallowing events in an automatic manner. In this paper, we comparatively analyze the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm (DBSCAN), a k-means based algorithm, and an algorithm based on quadratic variation as methods of differentiating periods of swallowing activity from periods of time without swallows. These algorithms utilized swallowing vibration data exclusively and compared the results to a gold standard measure of swallowing duration. Data was collected from 23 subjects that were actively suffering from swallowing difficulties. Comparing the performance of the DBSCAN algorithm with a proven segmentation algorithm that utilizes k-means clustering demonstrated that the DBSCAN algorithm had a higher sensitivity and correctly segmented more swallows. Comparing its performance with a threshold-based algorithm that utilized the quadratic variation of the signal showed that the DBSCAN algorithm offered no direct increase in performance. However, it offered several other benefits including a faster run time and more consistent performance between patients. All algorithms showed noticeable differentiation from the endpoints provided by a videofluoroscopy examination as well as reduced sensitivity. In summary, we showed that the DBSCAN algorithm is a viable method for detecting the occurrence of a swallowing event using cervical auscultation signals, but significant work must be done to improve its performance before it can be implemented in an unsupervised manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of the feeding habits of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), in an urban park in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo,MCB; Moreira, DM

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to observe and describe the feeding habits and available food resources of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura. The study was carried out in a municipal park located in the city of Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo. The observations took place between December 2003 and October 2004, recording the following variables: 1) the plant species visited for feeding and territorial defense; 2) the kinds of food resources; and 3) the kinds of flight to procure ...

  4. Unilateral Superior Laryngeal Nerve Lesion in an Animal Model of Dysphagia and Its Effect on Sucking and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Malone, Regina; Holman, Shaina D.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; Fukuhara, Takako; Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Thexton, Allan J.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2013-01-01

    We tested two hypotheses relating to the sensory deficit that follows a unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) lesion in an infant animal model. We hypothesized that it would result in (1) a higher incidence of aspiration and (2) temporal changes in sucking and swallowing. We ligated the right-side SLN in six 2–3-week-old female pigs. Using videofluoroscopy, we recorded swallows in the same pre- and post-lesion infant pigs. We analyzed the incidence of aspiration and the duration and latency of suck and swallow cycles. After unilateral SLN lesioning, the incidence of silent aspiration during swallowing increased from 0.7 to 41.5 %. The durations of the suck containing the swallow, the suck immediately following the swallow, and the swallow itself were significantly longer in the post-lesion swallows, although the suck prior to the swallow was not different. The interval between the start of the suck containing a swallow and the subsequent epiglottal movement was longer in the post-lesion swallows. The number of sucks between swallows was significantly greater in post-lesion swallows compared to pre-lesion swallows. Unilateral SLN lesion increased the incidence of aspiration and changed the temporal relationships between sucking and swallowing. The longer transit time and the temporal coordinative dysfunction between suck and swallow cycles may contribute to aspiration. These results suggest that swallow dysfunction and silent aspiration are common and potentially overlooked sequelae of unilateral SLN injury. This validated animal model of aspiration has the potential for further dysphagia studies. PMID:23417250

  5. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction as a powerful tool for the quantitative determination of volatile radiolysis products in a multilayer food packaging material sterilized with γ-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Patrícia; Rodriguez-Lafuente, Angel; Soares, Nilda de Fátima Ferreira; Nerin, Cristina

    2012-06-29

    A method consisting of multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was developed and used to determine the main volatile radiolysis products formed by γ-irradiation of flexible multilayer food packaging samples. The developed method allows the use of solid-phase microextraction in the quantification of compounds from plastic solid samples. A screening of volatiles in the γ-irradiated and non-irradiated films was performed and 29 compounds were identified in the irradiated packaging, 17 of which were absent in the non-irradiated samples. The main volatile radiolysis products identified were: 1,3-di-tert-butylbenzene; 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone; 4-tert-butyl-phenol and the off-odor compounds butanoic acid and valeric acid. These volatile radiolysis compounds were determined with the proposed method and the results are shown and discussed. Solid-liquid extraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction methods were also studied for comparative purposes. The automated solvent-free multiple HSPME technique here presented can be used to quantify the radiolysis compounds in irradiated plastic solid samples in a simple way with the advantages of being free from matrix influence and environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of attention and bolus volume on brain organization during swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L; Perera, Subashan; Sejdić, Ervin

    2017-10-20

    It has been shown that swallowing involves certain attentional and cognitive resources which, when disrupted can influence swallowing function with in dysphagic patient. However, there are still open questions regarding the influence of attention and cognitive demands on brain activity during swallowing. In order to understand how brain regions responsible for attention influence brain activity during swallowing, we compared brain organization during no-distraction swallowing and swallowing with distraction. Fifteen healthy male adults participated in the data collection process. Participants performed ten 1 ml, ten 5 ml, and ten 10 ml water swallows under both no-distraction conditions and during distraction while EEG signals were recorded. After standard pre-processing of the EEG signals, brain networks were formed using the time-frequency based synchrony measure. The brain networks formed were then compared between the two sets of conditions. Results showed that there are differences in the Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands between no-distraction swallowing and swallowing with distraction. Differences in the Delta and Theta frequency bands can be attributed to changes in subliminal processes, while changes in the Alpha and Beta frequency bands are directly associated with the various levels of attention and cognitive demands during swallowing process, and changes in the Gamma frequency band are due to changes in motor activity. Furthermore, we showed that variations in bolus volume influenced the swallowing brain networks in the Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands. Changes in the Delta, Theta, and Alpha frequency bands are due to sensory perturbations evoked by the various bolus volumes. Changes in the Beta frequency band are due to reallocation of cognitive demands, while changes in the Gamma frequency band are due to changes in motor activity produced by variations in bolus volume. These findings could potentially lead to

  7. Sex-related effects of an immune challenge on growth and begging behavior of barn swallow nestlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Romano

    Full Text Available Parent-offspring conflicts lead the offspring to evolve reliable signals of individual quality, including parasite burden, which may allow parents to adaptively modulate investment in the progeny. Sex-related variation in offspring reproductive value, however, may entail differential investment in sons and daughters. Here, we experimentally manipulated offspring condition in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica by subjecting nestlings to an immune challenge (injection with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS that simulates a bacterial infection, and assessed the effects on growth, feather quality, expression of morphological (gape coloration and behavioral (posture begging displays involved in parent-offspring communication, as well as on food allocation by parents. Compared to sham-injected controls, LPS-treated chicks suffered a depression of body mass and a reduction of palate color saturation. In addition, LPS treatment resulted in lower feather quality, with an increase in the occurrence of fault bars on wing feathers. The color of beak flanges, feather growth and the intensity of postural begging were affected by LPS treatment only in females, suggesting that chicks of either sex are differently susceptible to the immune challenge. However, irrespective of the effects of LPS, parents equally allocated food among control and challenged offspring both under normal food provisioning and after a short period of food deprivation of the chicks. These results indicate that bacterial infection and the associated immune response entail different costs to offspring of either sex, but a decrease in nestling conditions does not affect parental care allocation, possibly because the barn swallow adopts a brood-survival strategy. Finally, we showed that physiological stress induced by pathogens impairs plumage quality, a previously neglected major negative impact of bacterial infection which could severely affect fitness, particularly among long

  8. A hydrazone covalent organic polymer based micro-solid phase extraction for online analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjiang; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2015-11-06

    Covalent organic polymers (COPs) connected by covalent bonds are a new class of porous network materials with large surface area and potential superiority in sample pretreatment. In this study, a new hydrazone linked covalent organic polymer (HL-COP) adsorbent was well-designed and synthesized based on a simple Schiff-base reaction. The condensation of 1,4-phthalaldehyde and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbohydrazide as organic building blocks led to the synthesis of HL-COP with uniform particle size and good adsorption performance. This HL-COP adsorbent with high hydrophobic property and rich stacking π electrons contained abundant phenyl rings and imine (CN) groups throughout the entire molecular framework. The adsorption mechanism was explored and discussed based on π-π affinity, hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonding and electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction, which contributed to its strong recognition affinity to target compounds. Enrichment factors were 305-757 for six Sudan dyes by HL-COP micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE), indicating its remarkable preconcentration ability. Furthermore, the adsorption amounts by HL-COP μ-SPE were 1.0-11.0 folds as those by three commonly used commercial adsorbents. Then, HL-COP was applied as adsorbent of online μ-SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for enrichment and analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples with detection limit of 0.03-0.15μg/L. The method was successfully applied for online analysis of chilli powder and sausage samples. Sudan II and Sudan III in one positive chilli powder sample were actually found and determined with concentrations of 8.3 and 6.8μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of chilli powder and sausage samples were in range of 75.8-108.2% and 73.8-112.6% with relative standard deviations of 1.2-8.5% and 1.9-9.4% (n=5), respectively. The proposed method was accurate, reliable and convenient for the online simultaneous analysis of trace Sudan dyes in food samples

  9. Graphic representation of pharyngeal wall motion during swallow: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, O; Borgstrom, P S

    1989-01-01

    Movements of the pharyngeal wall were measured at 12 transverse levels, on consecutive cineradiograms obtained during swallowing of thin, liquid barium, in a single nondysphagic volunteer. By graphic representation of these measurements on the IBM personal computer, it was possible to analyze in detail pharyngeal motor activity in terms of displacement of the pharyngeal wall. The contraction created a fairly steep narrowing of the lumen. The peristaltic wave was more difficult to analyze. Movements of the pharyngeal wall in posteroanterior projection gave good information about the constrictors. Although this technique has several inherent methodologic difficulties, its use may expand our knowledge of pharyngeal peristalsis.

  10. A predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after curative radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, Johannes A.; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H. F.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Leemans, C. Rene; Slotman, Ben J.

    Introduction: Recently, we found that swallowing dysfunction after curative (chemo) radiation (CH) RT has a strong negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), even more than xerostomia. The purpose of this study was to design a predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after

  11. A predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after curative radiotherapy in head and neck cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, J.A.; Doornaert, P.A.H.; Rietveld, D.H.F.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Leemans, C.R.; Slotman, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, we found that swallowing dysfunction after curative (chemo) radiation (CH) RT has a strong negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), even more than xerostomia. The purpose of this study was to design a predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after

  12. Tongue Pressure and Submental Surface Electromyography Measures during Noneffortful and Effortful Saliva Swallows in Healthy Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Erin M.; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The effortful swallow, a compensatory technique frequently employed by speech-language pathologists for their patients with dysphagia, is still not fully understood in terms of how it modifies the swallow. In particular, although age-related changes are known to reduce maximum isometric tongue pressure, it is not known whether age affects…

  13. Effect of aging on oral and swallowing function after meal consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Tetsuya; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Osaki, Mari; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia may worsen due to fatigue of the infrahyoid and suprahyoid muscle groups as a result of repetitive swallowing during a meal. We investigated the hypothesis that meal consumption may reduce tongue strength and endurance in older adults (OAs). Tongue-palate pressure, oral diadochokinesis, repetitive saliva swallowing, and surface electromyography activity before and after a meal were measured in 23 young adults (YAs) and 23 OA volunteers. There was a statistically significant difference in both tongue pressure and the number of voluntary swallows between YAs and OAs. Peak tongue pressure was significantly lower in OAs than YAs both before and after meal consumption. The most notable finding was that the first time interval (the time from test initiation to the beginning of the first swallow) was prolonged after meal consumption only in OAs, whereas the first time interval showed no difference between YAs and OAs before meal consumption with reference to the repetitive saliva swallowing test. The initiation of swallowing was prolonged by both meal consumption and aging; there was a significant interaction between these two factors. The number of repetitions of the monosyllable/pa/was statistically similar between YAs and OAs before meal consumption, but it was significantly lower in OAs after meal consumption. Aging leads to declining tongue pressure and motor function of the lips. It is possible that swallowing function declines in older individuals when meal consumption is prolonged, especially at the end of mealtime, as a result of their efforts in mastication and swallowing.

  14. Relationships between air swallowing, intragastric air, belching and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Akkermans, L. M. A.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms

  15. Relationships between air swallowing, intragastric air, belching and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, AJ; Weusten, BLAM; Timmer, R; Akkermans, LMA; Smout, AJPM

    Background: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms

  16. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  17. Prevalence of Auditory Problems in Children with Feeding and Swallowing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawool, Vishakha Waman

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although an interdisciplinary approach is recommended for assessment and management of feeding or swallowing difficulties, audiologists are not always included in the interdisciplinary team. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of middle ear and hearing problems in children with feeding and swallowing disorders and to…

  18. Prevalence and Severity of Voice and Swallowing Difficulties in Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer L.; Whittaker, Roger G.; Miller, Nick; Clark, Sue; Taylor, Robert; McFarland, Robert; Turnbull, Douglass

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Anecdotal evidence suggests that voice and swallow problems are a common feature of these diseases. Aims: To characterize accurately the prevalence and severity of voice and swallow problems in a large cohort of patients with mitochondrial disease.…

  19. Extraction of average neck flexion angle during swallowing in neutral and chin-tuck positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdić Ervin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common but debated technique in the management of swallowing difficulties is the chin tuck swallow, where the neck is flexed forward prior to swallowing. Natural variations in chin tuck angles across individuals may contribute to the differential effectiveness of the technique. Methodology To facilitate the study of chin tuck angle variations, we present a template tracking algorithm that automatically extracts neck angles from sagittal videos of individuals performing chin tuck swallows. Three yellow markers geometrically arranged on a pair of dark visors were used as tracking cues. Results The algorithm was applied to data collected from 178 healthy participants during neutral and chin tuck position swallows. Our analyses revealed no major influences of body mass index and age on neck flexion angles during swallowing, while gender influenced the average neck angle only during wet swallows in the neutral position. Chin tuck angles seem to be independent of anthropometry and gender in healthy adults, but deserve further study in pathological populations. Conclusion The proposed neck flexion angle extraction algorithm may be useful in future studies where strict participant compliance to swallowing task protocol can be assured.

  20. Extraction of average neck flexion angle during swallowing in neutral and chin-tuck positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Delbert; Sejdić, Ervin; Steele, Catriona M; Chau, Tom

    2009-10-07

    A common but debated technique in the management of swallowing difficulties is the chin tuck swallow, where the neck is flexed forward prior to swallowing. Natural variations in chin tuck angles across individuals may contribute to the differential effectiveness of the technique. To facilitate the study of chin tuck angle variations, we present a template tracking algorithm that automatically extracts neck angles from sagittal videos of individuals performing chin tuck swallows. Three yellow markers geometrically arranged on a pair of dark visors were used as tracking cues. The algorithm was applied to data collected from 178 healthy participants during neutral and chin tuck position swallows. Our analyses revealed no major influences of body mass index and age on neck flexion angles during swallowing, while gender influenced the average neck angle only during wet swallows in the neutral position. Chin tuck angles seem to be independent of anthropometry and gender in healthy adults, but deserve further study in pathological populations. The proposed neck flexion angle extraction algorithm may be useful in future studies where strict participant compliance to swallowing task protocol can be assured.

  1. [Swallowing after non-surgical treatment (radiation therapy / radiochemotherapy protocol) of laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, Juliana; Socci, Claudia Pereira; Scian, Eliana Perissato; Queija, Débora Dos Santos; Ferreira, Alessandra Sampaio; Dedivitis, Rogério Aparecido; Barros, Ana Paula Brandão

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy and radiochemotherapy protocols can cause swallowing difficulties. To evaluate swallowing in patients undergoing radiation therapy and radiochemotherapy protocol only for the treatment of laryngeal tumors. A prospective study of 20 patients, with a mean age of 62 years, at the end of oncological therapy. Six patients (30%) underwent radiation therapy, and 14 patients (70%) underwent combined therapy. The mean time between treatment and an evaluation of swallowing was 8.5 months. Videofluoroscopy was done to assess the preparatory, oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. All patients had only an oral diet. Normal swallowing was present in only 25% of patients. The swallowing videofluoroscopic examination identified the following changes: bolus formation (85%), bolus ejection (60%), oral cavity stasis (55%), changes in the onset of the pharyngeal phase (100%), decreased laryngeal elevation (65%), and hypopharyngeal stasis (80%). Laryngeal penetration was observed in 25% of the cases; 40% presented tracheal aspiration. The grade of penetration/aspiration was mild in 60% of cases. Aspiration was silent in 35% of patients. Although 75% of patients had dysphagia, only 25% complained of swallowing difficulties. Patients with laryngeal cancer that underwent radiation therapy/combined treatment can present changes in all swallowing phases, or may be asymptomatic.

  2. Population Trends and Management of the Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia) on the Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett A. Garrison; Ronald W. Schlorff; Joan M. Humphrey; Stephen A. Laymon; Frank J. Michny

    1989-01-01

    Annual monitoring of Bank Swallows (Riparia riparia) along the Sacramento River, California has been conducted since 1986 to determine population trends, evaluate impacts from bank protection and flood control projects, and implement and monitor mitigation efforts. The population of Bank Swallows in a 50-mile river reach remained static over 3...

  3. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  4. Mechanism of Sequential Swallowing during Straw Drinking in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Corey, David M.; Hadskey, Leslie D.; Legendre, Calli; Priestly, Daniel H.; Rosenbek, John C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has revealed differences between isolated and sequential swallowing in healthy young adults; however, the influence of normal aging on sequential swallowing has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of normal aging on deglutition during sequential straw drinking. Videofluoroscopic…

  5. Effects of Pacifier and Taste on Swallowing, Esophageal Motility, Transit and Respiratory Rhythm in Human Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Theresa R.; Sitaram, Swetha; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pacifier use is widely prevalent globally despite hygienic concerns and uncertain mechanistic effects on swallowing or airway safety. Aims The effects of pacifier and taste interventions on pharyngo-esophageal motility, bolus transit and respiratory rhythms were investigated by determining the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body, esophagogastric junction (EGJ) motor patterns as well as deglutition apnea, respiratory rhythm disturbances and esophageal bolus clearance. Methods Fifteen infants (6 males; median gestation 31 wks and birth weight 1.4 kg) underwent high resolution impedance manometry at 43 (41-44) weeks post-menstrual age. Manometric, respiratory, and impedance characteristics of spontaneous swallows, pacifier associated dry swallowing and taste (pacifier dipped in 3% sucrose) associated swallowing were analyzed. Linear mixed and generalized estimating equation models were used. Data are presented as mean ± SEM, %, or median (IQR). Key Results Pharyngo-esophageal motility, respiratory, and impedance characteristics of 209 swallows were analyzed (85 spontaneous swallows, 63 pacifier associated dry swallows, 61 taste associated swallows). Basal UES and EGJ pressures decreased upon pacifier (P<0.05) and taste interventions (P<0.05); however, esophageal motility, respiratory rhythm, and impedance transit characteristics were similar with both interventions. Conclusions and Inferences Oral stimulus with pacifier or taste interventions decreases UES and EGJ basal pressure, but has no effects on pharyngo-esophageal motility, airway interactions, or esophageal bolus transit. A decrease in central parasympathetic-cholinergic excitatory drive is likely responsible for the basal effects. PMID:26727930

  6. Relationship between ease of swallowing and deglutition-related muscle activity in various postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, T; Kida, I

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ease of swallowing and the deglutition-related muscle activity in various body and head postures by surface electromyography (EMG). Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the right suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles of nine healthy adults (19-28 years) while swallowing jelly. Ten postures per subject were examined: five body angulations (0 degrees [supine], 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees [upright] and 120 degrees from the horizontal) and two head positions (chin-up and chin-down). The duration and amplitude of suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity were measured by an electromyograph, and the ease of swallowing was subjectively determined by using a rating scale (0 = difficult to swallow, 10 = easy to swallow). The group-average duration and amplitude of muscle activity and the group-average rating scales mostly showed insignificant changes with the body angulations independent of the head positions. Interestingly, the duration and amplitude of muscle activity during swallowing were negatively correlated with the rating scales, indicating that a shorter duration and smaller activity of muscle activity corresponds to easier swallowing. Consequently, the duration and amplitude of suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity measured by surface EMG would be a useful indicator of the easy-to-swallow performance.

  7. Respiratory-swallow training in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; McFarland, David; Hill, Elizabeth G; Strange, Charlton B; Focht, Kendrea L; Wan, Zhuang; Blair, Julie; McGrattan, Katlyn

    2015-05-01

    To test a novel intervention to train swallowing to occur in the midexpiratory to low expiratory phase of quiet breathing to improve swallowing safety and efficiency. Safety and efficacy nonrandomized controlled trial with 1-month follow-up. Ambulatory clinics. Patients (N=30) with head and neck cancer (HNC) and chronic dysphagia completed the intervention. Fifteen of these patients participated in a 1-month follow-up visit. Training protocol based on hierarchy of motor skill acquisition to encourage autonomous and optimal respiratory-swallowing coordination. Visual feedback of respiratory phase and volume for swallowing initiation was provided by nasal airflow and rib cage/abdomen signals. Respiratory-swallow phase pattern, Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImP) scores, Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores, and MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory scores. Using visual feedback, patients were trained to initiate swallows during the midexpiratory phase of quiet breathing and continue to expire after swallowing. This optimal phase patterning increased significantly after treatment (Pdysphagia, with favorable effects on airway protection and bolus clearance. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench (synonym=Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi) and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (synonym=Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi) are invasive plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae and are the targets of biological cont...

  9. New biological information on the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi] (black swallow-wort) and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. [Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi] (pale swallow-wort) are herbaceous perennial vines in the Apocynaceae native to Europe. Both species are considered invasive in their in...

  10. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts caused by Colletotrichum lineola from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (family Apocynaceae subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are invasive plants and are the targets of biological control efforts to control their spread in the USA. In 2010, diseased leaves of a rela...

  11. Soft Electronics Enabled Ergonomic Human-Computer Interaction for Swallowing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Nicholls, Benjamin; Sup Lee, Dong; Chen, Yanfei; Chun, Youngjae; Siang Ang, Chee; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a skin-friendly electronic system that enables human-computer interaction (HCI) for swallowing training in dysphagia rehabilitation. For an ergonomic HCI, we utilize a soft, highly compliant (“skin-like”) electrode, which addresses critical issues of an existing rigid and planar electrode combined with a problematic conductive electrolyte and adhesive pad. The skin-like electrode offers a highly conformal, user-comfortable interaction with the skin for long-term wearable, high-fidelity recording of swallowing electromyograms on the chin. Mechanics modeling and experimental quantification captures the ultra-elastic mechanical characteristics of an open mesh microstructured sensor, conjugated with an elastomeric membrane. Systematic in vivo studies investigate the functionality of the soft electronics for HCI-enabled swallowing training, which includes the application of a biofeedback system to detect swallowing behavior. The collection of results demonstrates clinical feasibility of the ergonomic electronics in HCI-driven rehabilitation for patients with swallowing disorders.

  12. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baijens, Laura, E-mail: laura.baijens@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Barikroo, Ali, E-mail: a.Barikroo@ufl.edu [Swallowing Research Laboratory, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pilz, Walmari, E-mail: walmari.pilz@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables.

  13. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... say about the relationship between food additives and ADHD? Answers from David C. Agerter, M.D Food ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and ...

  14. Neural activation of swallowing and swallowing-related tasks in healthy young adults: an attempt to separate the components of deglutition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Georgia A; Sutton, Bradley P; Perlman, Adrienne L; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Conway, Charles

    2009-10-01

    Understanding the underlying neural pathways that govern the highly complex neuromuscular action of swallowing is considered crucial in the process of correctly identifying and treating swallowing disorders. The aim of the present investigation was to identify the neural activations of the different components of deglutition in healthy young adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten right-handed young healthy individuals were scanned in a 3-Tesla Siemens Allegra MRI scanner. Participants were visually cued for both a "Swallow" task and for component/control tasks ("Prepare to swallow", "Tap your tongue", and "Clear your throat") in a randomized order (event-related design). Behavioral interleaved gradient (BIG) methodology was used to address movement-related artifacts. Areas activated during each of the three component tasks enabled a partial differentiation of the neural localization for various components of the swallow. Areas that were more activated during throat clearing than other components included the posterior insula and small portions of the post- and pre-central gyri bilaterally. Tongue tapping showed higher activation in portions of the primary sensorimotor and premotor cortices and the parietal lobules. Planning did not show any areas that were more activated than in the other component tasks. When swallowing was compared with all other tasks, there was significantly more activation in the cerebellum, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and all areas of the primary sensorimotor cortex bilaterally.

  15. [Migration of eight harmful elements from household products made with synthetic resin that infants may swallow by mistake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isama, Kazuo; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    Harmful elements are used as stabilizers and colorants in synthetic resin products. Accidental ingestion of harmful elements from such synthetic resins by infants is a dangerous health hazard. The Japanese Food Sanitation Law and the International Standard ISO 8124-3 "Safety of toys-Part 3: Migration of certain elements" control the levels of migrated harmful elements, such as lead or cadmium, from infants toys. However, the levels of migrated harmful elements from household products that are not infants toys are not controlled, since they are not covered by the law or standard. Therefore, we investigated the level of eight harmful elements (antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium) migrated from household products made of synthetic resin that infants may swallow by mistake. The extraction test of ISO 8124-3: 2010 was executed in 135 products (total 150 specimens), and the concentration of these elements was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). As a result, 1810 mg/kg and 1660 mg/kg of lead, exceeding the maximum acceptable level of the ISO standard, migrated from two products. In addition, lead and/or chromium at levels more than 1/10 of the maximum acceptable levels of the ISO standard migrated from four products. Household products that infants may swallow by mistake should ideally not release harmful elements such as lead and chromium.

  16. Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid-Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid ChromatographyTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    choice of food types arose from collaborations and conversations with U. S. Department of Agriculture personnel. Foods were tested using commercially...Mass Spectrometry after tert-Butyldimethylsilylation. J. Health Sci. 2008, 54, 513–523. 32. Karpas, Z. Applications of Ion Mobility Spectrometry...J.; Jung, J. Ion Mobility Spectrometry for Food Quality and Safety. Food Addit. Contam. 2006, 23, 1064–1073. 35. Lumor, S.E.; Diez-Gonzalez, F

  17. Importance of chewing, saliva, and swallowing function in patients with advanced oral cancer undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy: a prospective study of quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, D; Zaleczna, L; Huremovic, A; Engelmann, J; Poeschl, P W; Strasz, M; Holawe, S; Kornek, G; Laskus, A; Sacher, C; Erovic, B M; Perisanidis, C

    2017-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the quality of life (QOL) of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) undergoing curative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by radical tumour resection and simultaneous oral cavity reconstruction, using two validated questionnaires. A secondary objective was to assess clinical variables predicting post-treatment dysfunction in chewing, saliva, and swallowing. Thirty-five patients with locally advanced OSCC who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy were recruited prospectively. All patients completed both the University of Washington Quality of Life version 4 questionnaire (UW-QOL) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head & Neck version 4 questionnaire (FACT-H&N). UW-QOL and FACT-H&N items were associated with clinical variables. Nearly three-quarters of OSCC patients perceived good to excellent levels of overall QOL after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Chewing difficulties, decreased salivary function, and swallowing dysfunction were the most frequent complaints of OSCC patients. Items related to food intake were significantly worse in OSCC patients older than 60 years and those with T4 tumours, as well as those without alcohol intake. Chewing, saliva, and swallowing are the most significant issues in patients with OSCC undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The results of this study may help guide treatment decisions for OSCC patients based on more accurate expectations of adverse effects of cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, William G., E-mail: bp1@bu.edu [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hindson, David F. [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Langmore, Susan E. [Department of Otolaryngology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Speech and Hearing Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zumwalt, Ann C. [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Reduced hyolaryngeal elevation, a critical event in swallowing, is associated with radiation therapy. Two muscle groups that suspend the hyoid, larynx, and pharynx have been proposed to elevate the hyolaryngeal complex: the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. Thought to assist both groups is the thyrohyoid, a muscle intrinsic to the hyolaryngeal complex. Intensity modulated radiation therapy guidelines designed to preserve structures important to swallowing currently exclude the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. This study used muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) in normal healthy adults to determine whether both muscle groups are active in swallowing and to test therapeutic exercises thought to be specific to hyolaryngeal elevation. Methods and Materials: mfMRI data were acquired from 11 healthy subjects before and after normal swallowing and after swallowing exercise regimens (the Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide). Whole-muscle transverse relaxation time (T2 signal, measured in milliseconds) profiles of 7 test muscles were used to evaluate the physiologic response of each muscle to each condition. Changes in effect size (using the Cohen d measure) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to determine which muscles underlie swallowing and swallowing exercises. Results: Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity during swallowing) for the T2 signal profile of the thyrohyoid was a d value of 0.09; a d value of 0.40 for the mylohyoid, 0.80 for the geniohyoid, 0.04 for the anterior digastric, and 0.25 for the posterior digastric-stylohyoid in the suprahyoid muscle group; and d values of 0.47 for the palatopharyngeus and 0.28 for the stylopharyngeus muscles in the longitudinal pharyngeal muscle group. The Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide swallowing exercises showed significant effect size changes for all muscles tested, except for the thyrohyoid. Conclusions

  19. Factors associated with swallowing assessment after oral endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation for acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Martin B; González-Fernández, Marlís; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Shanholtz, Carl; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2014-12-01

    Endotracheal intubation is associated with postextubation swallowing dysfunction, but no guidelines exist for postextubation swallowing assessments. We evaluated the prevalence, patient demographic and clinical factors, and intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital organizational factors associated with swallowing assessment after oral endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study in which investigators evaluated 178 eligible patients with ALI who were mechanically ventilated via oral endotracheal tube. The patients were recruited from 13 ICUs at four teaching hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland. Patient demographic and clinical factors, types of ICU, and hospital study sites were evaluated for their association with completion of a swallowing assessment both in the ICU and after the ICU stay before hospital discharge. Factors significantly associated with a swallow assessment were evaluated in a multivariable logistic regression model. Before hospital discharge, 79 (44%) patients completed a swallowing assessment, among whom 59 (75%) had their assessments initiated in ICU and 20 (25%) had their assessments initiated on the hospital ward. Female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.03-3.97), orotracheal intubation duration (OR = 1.13 per day; 95% CI = 1.05-1.22), and hospital study site (Site 3: OR = 2.41; 95% CI = 1.00-5.78) were independently associated with swallowing assessment. Although Site 3 had a twofold increase in swallowing assessments in the ICU, there was no significant difference between hospitals in the frequency of swallowing assessments completed after ICU discharge (P = 0.287) or in the proportion of patients who failed a swallowing assessment conducted in the ICU (P = 0.468) or on the ward (P = 0.746). In this multisite prospective study, female sex, intubation duration, and

  20. Automatic discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing using a reputation-based classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikjoo Mohammad S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swallowing accelerometry has been suggested as a potential non-invasive tool for bedside dysphagia screening. Various vibratory signal features and complementary measurement modalities have been put forth in the literature for the potential discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing. To date, automatic classification of swallowing accelerometry has exclusively involved a single-axis of vibration although a second axis is known to contain additional information about the nature of the swallow. Furthermore, the only published attempt at automatic classification in adult patients has been based on a small sample of swallowing vibrations. Methods In this paper, a large corpus of dual-axis accelerometric signals were collected from 30 older adults (aged 65.47 ± 13.4 years, 15 male referred to videofluoroscopic examination on the suspicion of dysphagia. We invoked a reputation-based classifier combination to automatically categorize the dual-axis accelerometric signals into safe and unsafe swallows, as labeled via videofluoroscopic review. From these participants, a total of 224 swallowing samples were obtained, 164 of which were labeled as unsafe swallows (swallows where the bolus entered the airway and 60 as safe swallows. Three separate support vector machine (SVM classifiers and eight different features were selected for classification. Results With selected time, frequency and information theoretic features, the reputation-based algorithm distinguished between safe and unsafe swallowing with promising accuracy (80.48 ± 5.0%, high sensitivity (97.1 ± 2% and modest specificity (64 ± 8.8%. Interpretation of the most discriminatory features revealed that in general, unsafe swallows had lower mean vibration amplitude and faster autocorrelation decay, suggestive of decreased hyoid excursion and compromised coordination, respectively. Further, owing to its performance-based weighting of component classifiers, the static

  1. Planar solid phase extraction clean-up and microliter-flow injection analysis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for multi-residue screening of pesticides in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-07-18

    For multi-residue analysis of pesticides in food, a sufficient clean-up is essential for avoiding matrix effects in liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) analysis coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). In the last two years, high-throughput planar solid phase extraction (HTpSPE) was established as a new clean-up concept for pesticide residue analysis in fruits and vegetables (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2011) and tea (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2012). HTpSPE results in matrix-free extracts almost free of interferences and matrix effects. In this study, a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was applied to directly analyze HTpSPE extracts for pesticide residues. This HTpSPE-microliter-flow injection analysis (μL-FIA)-TOFMS approach detects all pesticides at once in a single mass spectrum, without a liquid chromatographic separation step. Complete sample information was obtained after the injection of the cleaned extract within a single peak. Recovery studies for seven representative pesticides in four different matrices (apples, red grapes, cucumbers, tomatoes) provided mean recoveries of 86-116% with relative standard deviations of 1.3-10% (n=5) using the mass signal intensities under the entire sample peak. Comparing the mass spectra of sample peaks from spiked extracts and solvent standards indicated the efficiency of HTpSPE clean-up. A pesticide database search detected all spiked pesticides with a low incidence of false-positives. HTpSPE of one sample required a few minutes, and numerous samples could be cleaned in parallel at minimal cost with low sample and solvent consumption. The μL-FIA-TOFMS screening then needed an additional 6min per sample. The novel screening approach was successfully applied to QuEChERS extracts of several real samples, and the pesticides identified by HTpSPE-μL-FIA-TOFMS were identical to the pesticides detected by common target LC-MS/MS analyses. The high degree of concordantly identified pesticides by the new developed HTp

  2. Dysphagia and trismus after concomitant chemo-Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (chemo-IMRT) in advanced head and neck cancer; dose-effect relationships for swallowing and mastication structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Lisette; Heemsbergen, Wilma D; de Jong, Rianne; van Rossum, Maya A; Smeele, Ludi E; Rasch, Coen R N; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2013-03-01

    Prospective assessment of dysphagia and trismus in chemo-IMRT head and neck cancer patients in relation to dose-parameters of structures involved in swallowing and mastication. Assessment of 55 patients before, 10-weeks (N=49) and 1-year post-treatment (N=37). Calculation of dose-volume parameters for swallowing (inferior (IC), middle (MC), and superior constrictors (SC)), and mastication structures (e.g. masseter). Investigation of relationships between dose-parameters and endpoints for swallowing problems (videofluoroscopy-based laryngeal Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS), and study-specific structured questionnaire) and limited mouth-opening (measurements and questionnaire), taking into account baseline scores. At 10-weeks, volume of IC receiving ≥60 Gy (V60) and mean dose IC were significant predictors for PAS. One-year post-treatment, reported problems with swallowing solids were significantly related to masseter dose-parameters (mean, V20, V40 and V60) and an inverse relationship (lower dose related to a higher probability) was observed for V60 of the IC. Dose-parameters of masseter and pterygoid muscles were significant predictors of trismus at 10-weeks (mean, V20, and V40). At 1-year, dose-parameters of all mastication structures were strong predictors for subjective mouth-opening problems (mean, max, V20, V40, and V60). Dose-effect relationships exist for dysphagia and trismus. Therefore treatment plans should be optimized to avoid these side effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Swallowing of bolus types by postsurgical head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, R J; Hamlet, S L; Mathog, R H; Jones, L; Heilbrun, L K; Manov, L J; O'Campo, J M

    1994-01-01

    Clinically, head and neck cancer patients with anterior resections have better postoperative outcomes than do patients with posterior resections. Videofluoroscopy was used to study the swallowing characteristics in postsurgery head and neck cancer patients and normal controls. Most patients received post-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and no cancer recurrence was noted at the time of study, 4-8 months posttreatment. Bolus types included: 3 mL and 10 mL liquid barium, barium paste, and barium-coated cookie. Temporal measurements and a count of the number of swallows required to ingest each material were made from the videotaped data. Statistical analysis using an unbalanced univariate repeated measures ANOVA was performed. The major differences were found between bolus types, with few differences noted between surgical groups (anterior vs posterior resections) and normal controls. Patients took longer to ingest viscous material, accomplishing this by multiple piecemeal and clearing swallows. Coordination of mastication and swallowing of the cookie was different between normal and patient groups. Patients who are able to swallow reasonably well postoperatively maintain normal coordination and timing of swallowing activity and do not vary these parameters to compensate for structural inadequacy. Instead, repeated swallows are used.

  4. Natural capsaicinoids improve swallow response in older patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Martin, Alberto; Clavé, Pere

    2013-09-01

    There is no pharmacological treatment for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effect of stimulation of oropharyngeal transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) with that of thickeners in older patients with OD. A clinical videofluoroscopic non-randomised study was performed to assess the signs of safety and efficacy of swallow and the swallow response in (1) 33 patients with OD (75.94 ± 1.88 years) while swallowing 5, 10 and 20 ml of liquid (20.4 mPa.s), nectar (274.4 mPa.s), and pudding (3930 mPa.s) boluses; (2) 33 patients with OD (73.94 ± 2.23 years) while swallowing 5, 10 and 20 ml nectar boluses, and two series of nectar boluses with 150 μM capsaicinoids and (3) 8 older controls (76.88 ± 1.51 years) while swallowing 5, 10 and 20 ml nectar boluses. Increasing bolus viscosity reduced the prevalence of laryngeal penetrations by 72.03% (p capsaicinoids reduced both, penetrations by 50.% (p capsaicinoids strongly improved safety and efficacy of swallow and shortened the swallow response in older patients with OD. Stimulation of TRPV1 might become a pharmacologic strategy to treat OD.

  5. Effect of oral piperine on the swallow response of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Martin, Alberto; Clavé, Pere

    2014-12-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a major gastrointestinal motility disorder that causes severe nutritional and respiratory complications in elderly and neurological patients. In an earlier study, we found that stimulation of pharyngeal sensory neurons by capsaicinoids acting on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) improved the swallow response of dysphagic patients. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of piperine, a dual TRPV1/TRPA1 agonist, on the swallow response of dysphagic patients. A videofluoroscopic study was performed to assess the signs of impaired safety and efficacy of swallow and the swallow response of 40 dysphagic patients while swallowing one series of nectar control boluses and two series of nectar boluses supplemented with piperine. Patients were randomized into two groups: one group received 150 μM piperine and the other group received 1 mM. Piperine improved the safety of swallow by: (a) reducing the prevalence of unsafe swallows by -34.48% (P = 0.004) at 150 μM and -57.19% (P sensory neurons is a very promising neurostimulation strategy for dysphagic patients.

  6. Characterizing Dysphagia and Swallowing Intervention in the Traumatic Spinal Injury Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Teresa J.; Waito, Ashley A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is reported to be a common secondary complication for individuals with traumatic spinal injuries. Different etiologies of traumatic spinal injuries may lead to different profiles of swallowing impairment. We conducted a systematic review to determine the characteristics of dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury and to describe interventions currently used to improve swallowing function in this population. A comprehensive multi-engine literature search identified 137 articles of which 5 were judged to be relevant. These underwent review for study quality, rating for level of evidence, and data extraction. The literature describing dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury was comprised predominantly of low level evidence and single case reports. Aspiration, pharyngeal residue, and decreased/absent hyolaryngeal elevation were found to be common characteristics of dysphagia in this population. The most commonly used swallowing interventions included tube feeding, compensatory swallowing strategies, and steroids/antibiotics. Improvement in swallowing function following swallowing intervention was reported in all studies, however there was no control for spontaneous recovery. The results demonstrate a need for high-quality research to profile the pathophysiology of dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury and controlled studies to demonstrate the efficacy of swallowing interventions in this population. PMID:27412004

  7. Evaluation of Swallow Function in Patients with Craniofacial Microsomia: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Lande, Lara S; Caron, Cornelia J J M; Pluijmers, Britt I; Joosten, Koen F M; Streppel, Marloes; Dunaway, David J; Koudstaal, Maarten J; Padwa, Bonnie L

    2017-11-04

    Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is characterized by underdevelopment of the structures derived from the first and second pharyngeal arches resulting in aesthetic, psychological, and functional problems including feeding and swallowing difficulties. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into swallowing difficulties in patients with CFM. A retrospective study was conducted in the population of patients diagnosed with CFM at three major craniofacial units. Patients with feeding difficulties and those who underwent video fluoroscopic swallow (VFS) studies were included for further analyses. The outcome of the VFS-studies was reviewed with regard to the four phases of swallowing. In our cohort, 13.5% of the 755 patients were diagnosed with swallowing difficulties. The outcome of the VFS-studies of 42 patients showed difficulties in the oral and pharyngeal phases with both thin and thick liquids. Patients with more severe mandibular hypoplasia showed more difficulties to form an appropriate bolus compared to patients who were less severely affected. This is the first study to document swallowing problems in patients with CFM. Difficulties were seen in both the oral and pharyngeal phases. We recommend routine screening for swallowing issues by a speech and language therapist in all patients with CFM and to obtain a VFS-study in patients with a type III mandible.

  8. Therapeutic singing as an early intervention for swallowing in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, E L; Hibbing, P; Radig, H; Wingate, J

    2017-04-01

    For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. Cohort study. University in the United States. Twenty-four participants with PD. Eight weeks of group therapeutic singing. Electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity associated with swallow pre and post the group singing intervention. Swallow quality of life (SWAL-QOL) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were also obtained pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported minimal difficulty with swallowing, yet results revealed a significant increase in EMG outcome measures, as well as significant improvement in UPDRS total and UPDRS motor scores. No significant differences were revealed for SWAL-QOL. Increases in EMG timing measures may suggest that group singing results in the prolongation of laryngeal elevation, protecting the airway from foreign material for longer periods of time during swallow. Combined with the improvement in UPDRS clinical measures, therapeutic singing may be an engaging early intervention strategy to address oropharyngeal dysphagia while also benefiting additional clinical symptoms of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of swallowing and its disorders—A dynamic MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay Kumar, K.V., E-mail: vijaykumarkv@yahoo.in [Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, SRU (India); Shankar, V., E-mail: drshankarv@yahoo.co.in [Department of Neurology, SRU (India); Santosham, Roy, E-mail: santoshamroy@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, SRU (India)

    2013-02-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging overcomes the limitations of videofluoroscopy in assessing without radiation exposure. The clinical utility of dynamic MRI for swallowing disorders is not well documented. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using dynamic MRI in assessment of swallowing disorders. Ten normal and three brainstem lesion patients participated in this study. GE Signa HDxt 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner with head-and-neck coil as a receiver and fast imaging employing steady state acquisition sequence was used. The swallow was analyzed in terms of symmetry and amplitude of movements of velum, faucial pillars, tongue, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous and images from the sagittal, coronal and axial planes. In sagittal plane posterior movement of tongue and its compression on velum, elevation of hyoid bone, elevation of larynx and lid action of epiglottis, in the coronal view the symmetrical movements of the faucial pillars and pharyngeal constrictor muscles and in axial plane three anatomical landmarks were targeted based on their role in swallowing, viz. velum, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous were studied. In brainstem lesion individuals, posterior movement of tongue, and elevation of larynx were not seen. Asymmetrical movements of faucial pillars and cricopharyngeous muscle were appreciated in the dynamic MRI. This demonstrates that, dynamic MRI is an efficient tool to understand the swallowing physiology and helps the speech language pathologist in modifying the swallowing maneuvers. Dynamic MRI is an effective tool in assessing swallowing and its disorders. This muscle specific information is not appreciated in videofluoroscopy and this information is necessary to modify the therapy maneuvers.

  10. Influence of the cuff pressure on the swallowing reflex in tracheostomized intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amathieu, R; Sauvat, S; Reynaud, P; Slavov, V; Luis, D; Dinca, A; Tual, L; Bloc, S; Dhonneur, G

    2012-10-01

    Because recovery of an efficient swallowing reflex is a determining factor for the recovery of airway protective reflexes, we have studied the influence of the tracheostomy tube cuff pressure (CP) on the swallowing reflex in tracheotomized patients. Twelve conscious adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients who had been weaned from mechanical ventilation were studied. Simultaneous EMG of the submental muscles with measurement of peak activity (EMGp) and amplitude of laryngeal acceleration (ALA) were performed during reflex swallows elicited by pharyngeal injection of distilled water boluses during end expiration. After cuff deflation, characteristics of the swallowing reflex (latency time: LaT, EMGp, and ALA) were measured at CPs of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 60 cm H(2)O. LaT and CP were linearly related (P<0.01). CP was inversely correlated (P<0.01) to both ALA and EMGp. We demonstrated that LaT, EMGp, and ALA of the swallowing reflex were influenced by tracheostomy tube CP. The swallowing reflex was progressively more difficult to elicit with increasing CP and when activated, the resulting motor swallowing activity and efficiency at elevating the larynx were depressed.

  11. Pre-emptive swallowing stimulation in long-term intubated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chang Ho; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Ko, Yoon Suk; Leem, Chae Man

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-emptive swallowing stimulation on the recovery of swallowing function in long-term intubated patients. Patients in the intensive care unit intubated for at least 48 hours due to respiratory distress from March to August 2004 were randomly divided into two groups. Fifteen patients of mean age 55.39+/-17.9 years were stimulated (experimental group) and 18 patients of mean age 61.39+/-13.5 years were not stimulated (control group). The duration of intubation was 15.59+/-6.7 days in the experimental group and 15.79+/-6.5 days in the control group. Duration of stimulation in the experimental group was 7.39+/-3.6 days. After extubation, we compared the severity of dysphagia via video-fluoroscopic swallow study. There were no statistically significant differences in the percentage of aspiration and the swallowed volume between the two groups. However, oral transit time in the experimental group (0.379+/-0.07 seconds) was significantly shorter than that of the control group (0.839+/-0.10 seconds), and the oropharyngeal swallowing efficiency of the experimental group (73.39+/-17.4%/s) was significantly higher than that of the control group (50.19+/-13.0%/s). Pre-emptive swallowing stimulation during intubation assists in the recovery of swallowing function in long-term intubated patients.

  12. Effect of carrot puree in vegetable juice on linguapalatal swallowing pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritaka, Hatsue; Mineki, Machiko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Ono, Takahiro; Hori, Kazuhiro

    2017-12-11

    This study aimed to ascertain the influence of various amounts (0-30%) of carrot puree (CP) in vegetable juice on linguapalatal swallowing pressure in healthy volunteers. Twenty healthy women (age range: 20-22 years) swallowed a 17-ml drink in a natural state, and linguapalatal swallowing pressure was measured using a special sensor sheet. Peak magnitude (maximum pressure of the tongue pushing on the hard palate), integrated values of linguapalatal swallowing pressure on the waveform, and duration of linguapalatal swallowing pressure were increased with increases in CP concentrations. The total integrated value for 30% CP vegetable juice was larger than that of vegetable juice with no CP. The apparent viscosity of the vegetable juice with a low CP concentration was smaller than that with a high CP concentration at the same shear rate. These results suggest that vegetable juice containing CP affects mechanoreceptor activity in the mouth and generates a neuromotor response. This study aimed to ascertain the influence of various amounts of carrot puree (CP) in vegetable juice on linguapalatal swallowing pressure measured by using a special sensor sheet in healthy volunteers. Obtained results of this study clearly showed that vegetable juice containing CP affects the movement of the tongue in maneuvering the bolus. Moreover, the results demonstrated that this effect depended on the concentration of CP in the vegetable juice. These findings are expected to provide clinically valuable data on the effect of mechanical stimulation during the oral stage of swallowing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Improves Breathing-Swallowing Interaction of Ventilator Dependent Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garguilo, Marine; Lejaille, Michèle; Vaugier, Isabelle; Orlikowski, David; Terzi, Nicolas; Lofaso, Frédéric; Prigent, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory involvement in neuromuscular disorders may contribute to impaired breathing-swallowing interactions, swallowing disorders and malnutrition. We investigated whether the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by the patient could improve swallowing performances in a population of neuromuscular patients requiring daytime NIV. Ten neuromuscular patients with severe respiratory failure requiring extensive NIV use were studied while swallowing without and with NIV (while ventilated with a modified ventilator allowing the patient to withhold ventilation as desired). Breathing-swallowing interactions were investigated by chin electromyography, cervical piezoelectric sensor, nasal flow recording and inductive plethysmography. Two water-bolus sizes (5 and 10ml) and a textured yogurt bolus were tested in a random order. NIV use significantly improved swallowing fragmentation (defined as the number of respiratory interruption of the swallowing of a single bolus) (p = 0.003) and breathing-swallowing synchronization (with a significant increase of swallows followed by an expiration) (p controlled NIV improves swallowing parameters in patients with severe neuromuscular respiratory failure requiring daytime NIV, without impairing swallowing comfort. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01519388.

  14. Suicide attempt by swallowing sponge or pica disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zganjer, Vlasta; Zganjer, Mirko; Cizmić, Ante; Pajid, Anto; Zupancić, Bozidar

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways how children with mental illness have actually tried to hurt themselves. Suicidal thinking or attempts always indicate that professional help is needed (2). Every object which can be potential dangerous should be removed but this is very difficult to do. Some of children with these symptoms had Pica diseases. Pica is a medical disorder characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive (e.g. metal, coal, soil, feces, paper, soap, gum, etc.) or an abnormal appetite for some things that may be considered foods. The patient swallow sponge from a pillow over a long period of time and she came into our hospital with abdominal pain. She was 16 years old and had abdominal distension, vomiting, abdominal cramping and failure to pass gas or stool. Immediately we suspected mechanical blockade of the intestine. Diagnosis was clinically confirmed by X-rays of the abdomen and with ultrasound. The operative treatment was indicated and we found the proximal bowel distended and the distal segment collapsed. The part of bowel necrosis was removed and anastomosis was done. When patients are determined to attempt suicide or have Pica disorder it is very difficult to prevent.

  15. Suicide Attempt by Swallowing Sponge or Pica Disorder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Žganjer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many ways how children with mental illness have actually tried to hurt themselves. Suicidal thinking or attempts always indicate that professional help is needed (2. Every object which can be potential dangerous should be removed but this is very difficult to do. Some of children with these symptoms had Pica diseases. Pica is a medical disorder characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive (e.g. metal, coal, soil, feces, paper, soap, gum, etc. or an abnormal appetite for some things that may be considered foods. Material and Methods: The patient swallow sponge from a pillow over a long period of time and she came into our hospital with abdominal pain. She was 16 years old and had abdominal distension, vomiting, abdominal cramping and failure to pass gas or stool. Immediately we suspected mechanical blockade of the intestine. Diagnosis was clinically confirmed by X-rays of the abdomen and with ultrasound. Results: The operative treatment was indicated and we found the proximal bowel distended and the distal segment collapsed. The part of bowel necrosis was removed and anastomosis was done. Conclusion: When patients are determined to attempt suicide or have Pica disorder it is very difficult to prevent.

  16. An Unusual Case of Spontaneous Esophageal Rupture after Swallowing a Boneless Chicken Nugget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeenia Aga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old previously healthy man presented to our Emergency Department with shortness of breath and epigastric pain after swallowing a boneless chicken nugget one hour prior to presentation. Physical examination revealed epigastric rigidity and tenderness. Serology was normal except for mildly elevated bilirubin and amylase. Computed tomography (CT scan of the chest revealed a distal esophageal rupture with accompanying pneumomediastinum and left-sided pleural effusion. Treatment was initiated with administration of intravenous fluids and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Subsequently, an esophageal stent was inserted endoscopically in addition to VATS (Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery drainage of the left-sided pleural space. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of Boerhaave’s syndrome: a rare and life-threatening form of noniatrogenic esophageal rupture most often preceded by forceful vomiting. Our case demonstrates that physicians should maintain an index of suspicion for spontaneous esophageal rupture in patients presenting with shortness of breath and epigastric pain even in the absence of preceding vomiting, cough, or seizure. Additionally, ingestion of boneless, shell-less foods may be sufficient to cause rupture in individuals without underlying esophageal pathology. CT scan of the thorax and upper abdomen should be performed in these patients to rule out this rare and life-threatening diagnosis.

  17. Evaluation of normal swallowing functions by using dynamic high-density surface electromyography maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingxing; Yu, Bin; Yang, Wanzhang; Jiang, Yanbing; Lu, Lin; Huang, Zhen; Chen, Shixiong; Li, Guanglin

    2017-11-21

    Swallowing is a continuous process with substantive interdependencies among different muscles, and it plays a significant role in our daily life. The aim of this study was to propose a novel technique based on high-density surface electromyography (HD sEMG) for the evaluation of normal swallowing functions. A total of 96 electrodes were placed on the front neck to acquire myoelectric signals from 12 healthy subjects while they were performing different swallowing tasks. HD sEMG energy maps were constructed based on the root mean square values to visualize muscular activities during swallowing. The effects of different volumes, viscosities, and head postures on the normal swallowing process were systemically investigated by using the energy maps. The results showed that the HD sEMG energy maps could provide detailed spatial and temporal properties of the muscle electrical activity, and visualize the muscle contractions that closely related to the swallowing function. The energy maps also showed that the swallowing time and effort was also explicitly affected by the volume and viscosity of the bolus. The concentration of the muscular activities shifted to the opposite side when the subjects turned their head to either side. The proposed method could provide an alternative method to physiologically evaluate the dynamic characteristics of normal swallowing and had the advantage of providing a full picture of how different muscle activities cooperate in time and location. The findings from this study suggested that the HD sEMG technique might be a useful tool for fast screening and objective assessment of swallowing disorders or dysphagia.

  18. Swallowing function after laryngeal cleft repair: more than just fixing the cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Alexander J; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Tabangin, Meredith E; Miller, Claire K; Cotton, Robin T; Rutter, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate and describe the swallowing function in children after laryngeal cleft repair. Ten-year (2002-2012) retrospective chart review. Academic tertiary care pediatric otolaryngology practice. Records of 60 children who had surgical repair of laryngeal cleft (ages 2 weeks-14 years) and postoperative functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing or videofluoroscopic swallow studies were examined retrospectively. Twenty-nine children had one postoperative swallow evaluation, 19 children had two, 4 children had three, 5 children had four, and 3 children had five. Median time to the first evaluation was 10.8 weeks (interquartile range [IQR]: 36.5, 231). On the final swallow evaluation, 34 (57%) children demonstrated normal swallowing parameters, 12 (20%) children showed penetration, and 14 (23%) children showed aspiration. Forty-three (72%) children were able to take everything by mouth normally or with minor behavioral modifications, 11 (18%) children required thickened fluids, and six (10%) children were kept nil per os (NPO). Mean improvement on the penetration-aspiration (pen-asp) scale was 2.13. On multivariable analysis, neurodevelopmental issues and gastronomy tube use were associated with the need for NPO status. Despite a high rate of surgical success, a substantial minority of children have persistent swallowing dysfunction after laryngeal cleft repair. Swallowing dysfunction after repair is multifactorial and arises from concomitant neurologic, anatomic, or other comorbidities that contribute to oropharyngeal and pharyngeal dysphagia. Based on our results, we recommend a testing schedule for postoperative swallowing evaluations after cleft repair. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. The prevalence of pediatric voice and swallowing problems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Determine the prevalence of pediatric voice and swallowing problems in the United States. The 2012 National Health Interview Survey pediatric voice and language module was analyzed, identifying children reporting a voice or swallowing problem in the preceding 12 months. In addition to demographic data, specific data regarding visits to health care professionals for voice or swallowing problems, diagnoses given, and severity of voice or swallowing problem were analyzed. An estimated 839 ± 89 thousand children (1.4% ± 0.1%) reported a voice problem. Overall, 53.5% ± 1.9% were given a diagnosis for the voice problem and 22.8% ± 4.6% received voice services. Laryngitis (16.6% ± 5.5%) and allergies (10.4% ± 4.0%) were the most common diagnoses. A total of 16.4% graded the voice problem as a "big" or "very big" problem. An estimated 569 ± 63 thousand children (0.9% ± 0.1%) reported a swallowing problem. A total of 12.7% ± 3.8% received swallowing services and 13.4% ± 1.6% were given a diagnosis for their swallowing problem. Neurological problems were the most common diagnoses (11.1% ± 4.5%). A total of 17.9% graded the swallowing problem as a "big" or "very big" problem. These data provide the first insight into the prevalence of childhood voice and swallowing problems, which affect approximately 1% of children annually. A relative minority seek care for their problem, despite the disease impact. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Swallowing transit times and valleculae residue in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Breathing and swallowing are physiologically linked to ensure effortless gas exchange during oronasal breathing and to prevent aspiration during swallowing. Studies have indicated consistent aspiration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mainly related to delayed swallowing reflex and problems with lingual propulsion and pharyngeal peristalsis as a result of bilateral weakness and incoordination of the related muscles. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate swallowing transit times and valleculae residue characteristics of stable COPD patients who have no swallowing complaints. Methods Our study population included 20 stable patients with COPD and no swallowing complaints and 20 healthy controls. Swallowing was assessed through videofluoroscopic examination and involved the analysis of the following parameters: (1) pharyngeal stages of deglutition; (2) the duration of bolus movement through the oral cavity and pharynx (i.e. transit times); (3) valleculae residue ratio; (4) penetration/aspiration. Results Participants of the study did not present any signs of penetration-aspiration for any of the tested consistencies. Patients with COPD presented longer pharyngeal transit times during the ingestion of the liquid consistency and during the ingestion of the paste consistency. Regarding the duration of tongue base contact with the posterior pharyngeal wall, COPD patients also presented longer durations for the liquid and paste consistencies. No significant difference was observed for the distribution of individuals among the different valleculae residue severity levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that stable COPD patients may present physiological adaptations as a protective swallowing maneuver to avoid aspiration/penetration of pharyngeal contents. Moreover, valleculae residue cannot be seen as an isolated factor when trying to explain swallowing alterations in this population. PMID:24739506

  1. [Clinical characterisation and course following therapeutic intervention for swallowing disorders in hospitalised paediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Valdebenito, Luis; Núñez-Farias, Alicia C; Milagros, Angeli; Escobar-Henríquez, Raúl G

    Swallowing disorders are common in hospitalised patients and are an added difficulty when it comes to discharging them from hospital. Suitable characterisation performed by means of assessments conducted by a neurologist and a speech and language therapist allows for more accurate therapeutic decision-making. To describe swallowing disorders from the speech and language therapy evaluation performed on admission until discharge in paediatric patients and their relation with the therapeutic intervention that was implemented. We performed a retrospective analysis consisting in the examination of the medical records of 38 paediatric patients hospitalised between May 2007 and June 2008. Functional clinical evaluation was carried out in 100% of patients, and a video swallow study was conducted in 34%. Swallowing disorders were characterised as mild, moderate and severe, according to the stage that was altered and aspiratory risk to the airway. A speech therapist provided therapeutic intervention, and parents and caregivers were given special training. Swallowing disorders were chiefly associated to prematurity. The most frequently used therapeutic techniques were: tactile stimulation, providing patterns and training of parents. In the speech and language therapy evaluation performed on admission, 37% of disorders were severe, 21% were moderate and 42% were mild disorders. In most of the newborn infants, progress was favourable, as shown by a shift to normal swallowing in 48% and to mild in 8%. In the 17 preterm newborn infants, there was a change to normal swallowing in 65% and to mild in 12%. Swallowing disorders in this group of patients is mainly associated to prematurity. Systematic therapeutic intervention would help in the recovery from swallowing disorders, especially in preterm newborn infants.

  2. Implication of the vagus nerve in breathing pattern during sequential swallowing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouahchi, Yacine; Duclos, Celia; Marie, Jean Paul; Verin, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The ventilatory pattern during sequential swallowing is influenced by the vagal activity. As the vagus nerve is paired and mixed, we aimed (1) to determine if vagal implication in swallowing and breathing coordination is symmetric. (2) to study the importance of vagal afferences in swallowing and breathing coordination. Sixty two Wistar rats (7-11weeks, 260-400g) were studied by barometric plethysmography. In the first part of the study, we determined the effects of a right cervical vagotomy and the effects of a left cervical vagotomy on ventilatory pattern at rest and during sequential swallowing (14 rats with right vagotomy, 14 rats with left vagotomy and 14 rats with sham surgery). Comparisons of ventilatory variables were made between right and left vagotomized animals. Thereafter, we determined the effects of electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on ventilatory pattern at rest and during sequential swallowing (10 rats with electrical VNS and 10 rats with sham VNS). We showed that a right or a left cervical vagotomy does not alter ventilation at rest, but induces during sequential swallowing a decrease in respiratory rate (RR) (p0.05). Electrical VNS had no effect on ventilation at rest, but it minimized during sequential swallowing a decrease in RR related to a local alteration of the vagus nerve after placement of the electrodes as shown following sham VNS. In conclusion, the implication of vagus nerve in breathing pattern during sequential swallowing seems symmetric and influenced by activation of the vagal afferent pathway. These data can be useful when testing electrical VNS in swallowing disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid, non-destructive and non-contact inspection of solid foods by means of photothermal radiometry; thermal effusivity and initial heating coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbertsen, A.; Bicanic, D.D.; Gielen, J.L.W.; Chirtoc, M.

    2004-01-01

    CO2-laser photothermal radiometry (PTR) was demonstrated to be suitable for the nondestructive and non-contact characterization (both optical and thermal) of solid phase agricultural commodities (fres vegetables, fruits) and confectionery products (candy).

  4. Swallowing abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: correlation between videofluoroscopy and subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Steinbrich, W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Wetzel, S.G.; Radue, E.W. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Kappos, L.; Hoshi, M.M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Witte, U. [Section of Logopedia, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if subjective symptoms indicating an impaired deglutition correlate with videofluoroscopic findings in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Videofluoroscopic examinations of 18 MS patients were analyzed by a radiologist and a logopedist and compared with the symptoms of these patients. Four patients complained about permanent dysphagia. Six patients reported mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing, but were asymptomatic at the time of videofluoroscopy. Eight patients had no symptoms regarding their deglutition. All patients (n=4) who complained of permanent dysphagia showed aspiration. All patients (n=6) with mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing showed undercoating of the epiglottis and/or laryngeal penetration. Of those 8 patients without any swallowing symptoms, only 2 had a normal videofluoroscopy. Swallowing abnormalities seem to be much more frequent in patients with MS than generally believed and they may easily be missed clinically as long as the patients do not aspirate. (orig.)

  5. Lost and found…Tracking a swallowed denture: Role of radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Khalekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture ingestion or aspiration is a problem requiring awareness of different specialists including dentists, surgeons, otolaryngologists, and anesthesiologists for prevention, early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Complications of swallowed dentures include hollow viscous necrosis, perforation, and penetration to neighbouring organs leading to fistulae, bleeding and obstruction. Here, we present the case of a 65 year old female patient who swallowed the denture, which was detected by barium swallow and removed by endoscopy. Hence, the management of swallowed denture needs a multidisciplinary approach with the help of a dentist, otolaryngologist and anesthesiologists. Dentists should recommend patients to visit them for planned check ups or revisit them in case of denture dislodgement or loosening as soon as possible to prevent such life threatening events.

  6. Time-Frequency Analysis and Hermite Projection Method Applied to Swallowing Accelerometry Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin Sejdić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast Hermite projections have been often used in image-processing procedures such as image database retrieval, projection filtering, and texture analysis. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for the analysis of one-dimensional biomedical signals that combines the Hermite projection method with time-frequency analysis. In particular, we propose a two-step approach to characterize vibrations of various origins in swallowing accelerometry signals. First, by using time-frequency analysis we obtain the energy distribution of signal frequency content in time. Second, by using fast Hermite projections we characterize whether the analyzed time-frequency regions are associated with swallowing or other phenomena (vocalization, noise, bursts, etc.. The numerical analysis of the proposed scheme clearly shows that by using a few Hermite functions, vibrations of various origins are distinguishable. These results will be the basis for further analysis of swallowing accelerometry to detect swallowing difficulties.

  7. Randomized trial of two swallowing assessment approaches in patients with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Annette; Nielsen, Lars Hedemann; Sjölund, Bengt H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether patients assessed for initiation of oral intake only by Facial-Oral Tract Therapy had a greater risk of developing aspiration pneumonia during neurorehabilitation than patients assessed by Fibreoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing. DESIGN: Randomized controlled ...

  8. European Society for Swallowing Disorders – European Union Geriatric Medicine Society white paper: oropharyngeal dysphagia as a geriatric syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baijens LW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Laura WJ Baijens,1 Pere Clavé,2,3 Patrick Cras,4 Olle Ekberg,5 Alexandre Forster,6 Gerald F Kolb,7 Jean-Claude Leners,8 Stefano Masiero,9 Jesús Mateos-Nozal,10 Omar Ortega,2,3 David G Smithard,11 Renée Speyer,12 Margaret Walshe13 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 2Gastrointestinal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Hospital of Mataró, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Mataró, 3CIBERehd, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Neurology, Antwerp University Hospital, University of Antwerp, Born Bunge Institute, Edegem, Belgium; 5Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Medical Radiology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; 6Clinique Bois-Bougy, Nyon, Switzerland; 7Department of Geriatrics and Physical Medicine, Bonifatius Hospital, Lingen, Germany; 8Long Term Care and Hospice, Ettelbruck, Luxembourg; 9Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Neuroscience, University of Padua, Padova, Italy; 10Department of Geriatric Medicine, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain; 11Clinical Gerontology, Princess Royal University Hospital, King’s College Hospital Foundation Trust, London, UK; 12College of Healthcare Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia; 13Department of Clinical Speech and Language Studies, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: This position document has been developed by the Dysphagia Working Group, a committee of members from the European Society for Swallowing Disorders and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, and invited experts. It consists of 12 sections that cover all aspects of clinical management of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD related to geriatric medicine and discusses prevalence, quality of life, and legal and ethical issues, as well as health economics and social burden. OD constitutes impaired or uncomfortable transit of food or liquids

  9. Contribution of the lateral lemniscus to the control of swallowing in decerebrate cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, R; Takakusaki, K; Katada, A; Harada, H; Nonaka, S; Harabuchi, Y

    2013-12-19

    Lateral lemniscus, a relay nucleus of auditory sensation, is involved in the control of phonatory movements such as human speech and vocalization of animals. The present study was designed to test whether neurons in the lateral lemniscus contributed to the control of swallowing, one of non-phonic oro-pharyngolaryngeal movements. In acutely decerebrated cats (n=15), swallowing was induced by electrical stimulation (20-80μA at 10Hz for 20s with rectangular pulses of 0.2ms duration) delivered to the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN). Repetitive electrical stimulation (30-50μA at 50Hz for 10-20s) applied to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (LLD) increased the number and reduced the latency to the onset of the SLN-induced swallowing. On the other hand, stimulation of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and the paralemniscal area, corresponding to the ventrolateral part of the parabrachial nucleus and the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, often suppressed the SLN-induced swallowing. Microinjection of NMDA (0.1-0.15μl, 5.0-10mM) into the LLD through a stereotaxically placed glass micropipette facilitated the SLN-induced swallowing, i.e., the number was increased and the latency of swallowing was reduced. We also injected muscimol (a gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA)A receptor agonist), bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist) and baclofen (a GABAB receptor agonist) into the LLD (0.1-0.15μl and 5.0mM for each substance). It was observed that an injection of muscimol suppressed the SLN-induced swallowing. However, an injection of bicuculline facilitated the swallowing. An injection of baclofen did not alter the swallowing. These results suggest the presence of functional topography in the lateral lemniscus and the paralemniscal area in relation to the control of swallowing. The facilitatory LLD-effects on swallowing are modulated by glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors on neurons in the LLD. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deleterious sucking habits and atypical swallowing in children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralli, Giovanni; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; Mora, Renzo; Guastini, Luca

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between otitis media with effusion, bad sucking habits and atypical swallowing in children affected by otitis media with effusion. 65 children, aged from 7 to 12 years, observed in the ENT Department of the "La Sapienza" University of Rome, were enrolled in the study group (group A). All children were affected by otitis media with effusion for more than 3 months. As control group, 60 healthy children, aged from 7 to 12 years were identified (group B). All the children underwent medical history, with evaluation of the sucking habits, ENT examination, tympanometry, orthodontic examination and evaluation of swallowing. In the orthodontic examination the variables analyzed were: maximum mouth opening, right and left mandibular lateral movements and mandibular protrusion. Atypical swallowing was considered to occur when lip activity produced strong tension in the perioral musculature, and/or the tip of the tongue was placed or pushed against the anterior teeth during swallowing. In the group A, atypical swallowing was found in 33/65 subjects out of the 65 children (50.7%). In the control group (group B) 16/60 children (26.6%) showed atypical swallowing. Compared with group B, deleterious sucking habits were significantly higher (phabits were present in almost all children with atypical swallowing (28/33 in group A and 12/16 in group B). Our data suggest a correlation between otitis media with effusion, deleterious sucking habits and prevalence of atypical swallowing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of aging on oral and swallowing function after meal consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiramatsu T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Hiramatsu,1,2 Hideyuki Kataoka,3 Mari Osaki,4 Hiroshi Hagino3,4 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Matsue Co-medical College, Matsue, Japan; 2Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 3School of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 4Rehabilitation Division, Tottori University Hospital, Yonago, Japan Background/purpose: Dysphagia may worsen due to fatigue of the infrahyoid and suprahyoid muscle groups as a result of repetitive swallowing during a meal. We investigated the hypothesis that meal consumption may reduce tongue strength and endurance in older adults (OAs.Methods: Tongue–palate pressure, oral diadochokinesis, repetitive saliva swallowing, and surface electromyography activity before and after a meal were measured in 23 young adults (YAs and 23 OA volunteers.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in both tongue pressure and the number of voluntary swallows between YAs and OAs. Peak tongue pressure was significantly lower in OAs than YAs both before and after meal consumption. The most notable finding was that the first time interval (the time from test initiation to the beginning of the first swallow was prolonged after meal consumption only in OAs, whereas the first time interval showed no difference between YAs and OAs before meal consumption with reference to the repetitive saliva swallowing test. The initiation of swallowing was prolonged by both meal consumption and aging; there was a significant interaction between these two factors. The number of repetitions of the monosyllable/pa/was statistically similar between YAs and OAs before meal consumption, but it was significantly lower in OAs after meal consumption.Conclusion: Aging leads to declining tongue pressure and motor function of the lips. It is possible that swallowing function declines in older individuals when meal consumption is prolonged, especially at the end of mealtime, as a result of their

  12. Swallowing dysfunction among patients with laryngeal cleft: More than just aspiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strychowsky, Julie E; Dodrill, Pamela; Moritz, Ethan; Perez, Jennifer; Rahbar, Reza

    2016-03-01

    The Modified Barium Swallow (MBS) is the most widely utilized instrumental assessment of swallowing disorders in children; however, the exact role in the evaluation of laryngeal clefts remains controversial. This study was an IRB-approved retrospective review on patients diagnosed with laryngeal cleft from 2002 to 2014. The objective was to describe the range of swallowing dysfunction that may be present in patients with laryngeal clefts both pre- and post-intervention (conservative management versus surgery). A speech-language pathologist reviewed MBS studies and medical records to determine Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) and Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) scores. One hundred seventy-five patients who underwent laryngeal cleft repair during the study period (type 1, n=111; type 2, n=54; type 3, n=9; type 4, n=1) were included. Fifty patients who were managed conservatively (type 1) were also included. Swallowing impairment was demonstrated in all phases of swallowing for all cleft types. Oral phase impairment ranged from 27-67% pre-intervention to 19-75% post-intervention, triggering impairment from 24-42% pre-intervention to 24-75% post-intervention, and pharyngeal phase impairment (laryngeal penetration and aspiration) from 57-100% pre-intervention to 40-100% post-intervention. Laryngeal penetration and aspiration on thin and thick liquids, silent aspiration, PAS, and FOIS scores are reported. Significant improvements in swallowing function (p<0.05) were documented in all of the conservatively and surgically managed sub-groups. The MBS study is a useful tool for evaluating swallowing function in patients with laryngeal cleft and provides information beyond the lack or presence of aspiration. Understanding impairments in all phases of swallowing may be beneficial for perioperative management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Favorable Swallowing Outcomes following Vagus Nerve Sacrifice for Vagal Schwannoma Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira A; Eytan, Danielle F; Bishop, Justin; Califano, Joseph A

    2017-02-01

    Objective To determine the impact of unilateral vagal sacrifice for vagal schwannoma on postoperative swallowing function. Study Design Case series, chart review. Setting Academic medical institution. Subjects and Methods Ten patients underwent vagus nerve sacrifice for vagal schwannoma resection. Archived pathology records dating from 1985 through 2012 at our institution were retrospectively queried for cases of vagal schwannoma with vagus nerve sacrifice. Medical records were abstracted for demographic and disease information as well as cranial nerve and swallowing function. Preoperative and postoperative cranial nerve function, subjective and objective measures of swallowing function, Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) level, and need for vocal fold medialization were variables collected. Data were analyzed with summary statistics. Results The patients who underwent vagal sacrifice for vagal schwannoma at our institution had a mean age of 42.3 years (median, 44 years; range, 15-63 years) and follow-up of 35.6 months (median, 9 months; range, 1-115 months). Most presented with no preoperative cranial nerve deficit or difficulty swallowing. Immediately postoperatively, 90% had a vagus nerve deficit, but 50% had no subjective difficulty swallowing, and 70% had a FOIS level of 7 at postoperative hospital discharge. Within 1 month after surgery, 70% had normal swallowing function according to a modified barium swallow study. A full diet was tolerated by mouth within an average of 2.7 days (median, 2 days; range, 1-6 days) after surgery in this cohort. Seventy percent required vocal fold medialization postoperatively for incomplete glottic closure. Conclusion Vagal nerve sacrifice during resection of vagal schwannoma can be performed with normal postoperative swallowing function.

  14. Impact of rhythmic oral activity on the timing of muscle activation in the swallow of the decerebrate pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thexton, Allan J; Crompton, A W; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; German, Rebecca Z

    2009-03-01

    The pharyngeal swallow can be elicited as an isolated event but, in normal animals, it occurs within the context of rhythmic tongue and jaw movement (RTJM). The response includes activation of the multifunctional geniohyoid muscle, which can either protract the hyoid or assist jaw opening; in conscious nonprimate mammals, two bursts of geniohyoid EMG activity (GHemg) occur in swallow cycles at times consistent with these two actions. However, during experimentally elicited pharyngeal swallows, GHemg classically occurs at the same time as hyoglossus and mylohyoid activity (short latency response) but, when the swallow is elicited in the decerebrate in the absence of RTJM, GHemg occurs later in the swallow (long latency response). We tested the hypothesis that it was not influences from higher centers but a brain stem mechanism, associated with RTJM, which caused GHemg to occur earlier in the swallow. In 38 decerebrate piglets, RTJM occurred sporadically in seven animals. Before RTJM, GHemg had a long latency, but, during RTJM, swallow related GHemg occurred synchronously with activity in hyoglossus and mylohyoid, early in the swallow. Both early and late responses were present during the changeover period. During this changeover period, duplicate electrodes in the geniohyoid could individually detect either the early or the late burst in the same swallow. This suggested that two sets of geniohyoid task units existed that were potentially active in the swallow and that they were differentially facilitated or inhibited depending on the presence or absence of rhythmic activity originating in the brain stem.

  15. Cine MRI of swallowing in patients with advanced oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeft, Anne Marijn; Rasch, Coen R N; Muller, Sara H; Pameijer, Frank A; Hallo, Eeke; Balm, Alfons J M

    2012-06-01

    Treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer may cause dysphagia. Purpose is to examine whether cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields additional information compared to standard examination in the evaluation of posttreatment dysphagia and mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures. Thirty-four cine MRIs were made in 23 patients with advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer, consisting of an MR image every 800 ms during swallowing which is compared to videofluoroscopy and quality of life questionnaires. A scoring system was applied to assess mobility on cine MR and videofluoroscopy leading to a score ranging from 9 to 17. Cine MRI of the swallowing in a midsagittal plane visualized the tumor (if located in the same plane), important anatomic structures and surgical reconstructions. Posttreatment mobility on cine MRI and videofluoroscopy was significantly diminished compared to pretreatment, mean pretreatment cine MRI score was 10.8 and posttreatment 12.4 (p = 0.017). Impaired mobility on cine MRI was significantly correlated to more swallowing problems (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.73, p = 0.04), on videofluoroscopy not. Cine MRI is a promising new technique as an adjunct to standard examinations for evaluation of swallowing in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Cine MRI directly visualizes the dynamics of swallowing and allows evaluation of pre- and posttreatment differences. Abnormal findings are significantly correlated with subjective swallowing complaints of patients.

  16. Intensive swallowing and orofacial contracture rehabilitation after severe burn: A pilot study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola A; Ward, Elizabeth C; Maitz, Peter K

    2017-02-01

    Dysphagia following severe burns can be significant and protracted, yet there is little evidence describing the rehabilitation principles, process or outcomes. Outline current evidence and detail the clinical outcomes of two cases who underwent a multifaceted intensive treatment programme aimed at rehabilitating dysphagia by strengthening swallow function and minimising orofacial contractures after severe head and neck burns. Two men (54 and 18 years) with full-thickness head and neck burns and inhalation injury underwent intensive orofacial scar management and dysphagia rehabilitation. Therapy was prescribed, consisting of scar stretching, splinting and pharyngeal swallow tasks. Horizontal and vertical range of movement (HROM; VROM), physiological swallow features, functional swallowing outcomes and related distress, were collected at baseline and routinely until dysphagia resolution and scar stabilisation. At presentation, both cases demonstrated severely reduced HROM and VROM, profound dysphagia and moderate dysphagia related distress. Therapy adherence was high. Resolution of dysphagia to full oral diet, nil physiological swallowing impairment, and nil dysphagia related distress was achieved by 222 and 77 days post injury respectively. VROM and HROM achieved normal range by 237 and 204 days. Active rehabilitation achieved full functional outcomes for swallowing and orofacial range of movement. A protracted duration of therapy can be anticipated in this complex population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Swallowing outcomes following surgical and non-surgical treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnip, E; Owen, S J; Barker, S; Patterson, J M

    2013-11-01

    Treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer includes surgery, and/or chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy. Each of these treatments results in major changes to the swallowing mechanism. Dysphagia is strongly correlated with poorer quality of life. A good understanding of outcomes is needed for well-informed treatment decisions. This study reports on patients' swallowing outcomes following surgical and non-surgical treatments based on the results of three different swallowing tests. A total of 123 data sets were collected in out-patient clinics across two hospitals in North East England. There were no significant differences between treatment groups for patient-reported swallowing outcomes or swallowing performance. However, patients who had undergone chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy (with or without laryngectomy) had significantly more diet restrictions than other groups. Long-term dysphagia is a common outcome of treatment for advanced laryngeal cancer. Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy and laryngectomy reported the worst overall outcomes. More longitudinal prospective research with large treatment groups is needed to investigate swallowing outcomes following different treatment methods.

  18. Swallowing function outcomes following nonsurgical therapy for advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, James Paul; Hill, Samuel L; Stachler, Robert J; Meleca, Robert J; Kewson, Danny

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) evaluate swallowing function using both subjective and objective measures in patients treated nonsurgically for stages III and IV laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, (2) assess the effect of time from treatment completion on swallowing function, and (3) assess sequelae associated with modality of treatment. To achieve these objectives, a retrospective study of 14 patients was conducted. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) was performed and evaluated by three independent judges for seven functional criteria: standing secretions, valleculae spillage, valleculae residue, postcricoid residue, laryngeal penetration, aspiration, and cough. Patient interviews were performed to establish patient perception of swallowing and his/her current posttreatment diet. Results revealed that each patient exhibited swallowing abnormalities in at least one of the seven objective functional categories studied. Ten patients suffered from variable degrees of dysphagia, ranging from mild to severe, on all measures. No significant differences were noted between those patients with less than or greater than 12 months posttreatment. Common treatment sequelae included PEG tube placement for nutritional supplementation, tracheostomy placement for airway security and/or pulmonary toilet, repeated episodes of aspiration pneumonia requiring hospital admission, and radiation-induced oropharyngeal stricture. Further studies using subjective and objective swallowing function measures for patients treated with alternative chemoradiation regimens versus surgery (with or without adjuvant therapies) for advanced stage laryngeal cancer are needed.

  19. Swallowing Disorders after Oral Cavity and Pharyngolaryngeal Surgery and Role of Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Giannitto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer diagnosed worldwide and the eighth most common cause of cancer death. Malignant tumors of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx can be treated by surgical resection or radiotheraphy with or without chemotheraphy and have a profound impact on quality of life functions, including swallowing. When surgery is the chosen treatment modality, the patient may experience swallowing impairment in the oral and pharyngeal phases of deglutition. A videofluoroscopic study of swallow enables the morphodynamics of the pharyngeal-esophageal tract to be accurately examined in patients with prior surgery. These features allow an accurate tracking of the various phases of swallowing in real time, identifying the presence of functional disorders and of complications during the short- and long-term postoperative recovery. The role of imaging is fundamental for the therapist to plan rehabilitation. In this paper, the authors aim to describe the videofluoroscopic study of swallow protocol and related swallowing impairment findings in consideration of different types of surgery.

  20. Viscosity threshold that allows safe swallow in elderly with post-stroke dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Peña

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the viscosity threshold that allows safe swallowing in older adults with post-stroke dysphagia. Method: Cross-sectional analytical study. 6 patients over 60 years old with dysphagia participated. Were given six viscosities (50mPa s, 110mPa s, 170mPa s, 230mPa s, 290mPa s and 350mPa s made from no carbonated water and a corn starch-based thickener. Swallowing safety signs (wet voice, cough and oxygen saturation were assessed in each viscosity by Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES. Viscosities’ performances in swallowing safety signs were compared in order to know which viscosity would be the safest. Results: 100% of swallowing safety signs did not appear in any viscosity assessed. Conclusions: It is not possible to determine the viscosity threshold that allows safe swallowing in patients with post-stroke dysphagia in the viscosities assessed. We discuss about multiple factors that had had affect our results: size sample, use of FEES to assess low viscosities, and viscosities’ intervals used.

  1. Efficacy of EMG/bioimpedance-triggered functional electrical stimulation on swallowing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Schultheiss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to support swallowing, the efficacy of functional electrical stimulation for different stimulation settings of the submental musculature has been investigated. The stimulation was administrated at rest and synchronously to voluntary initiated swallows. The onset of a swallow was detected in real-time by a combined electromyography/ bioimpedance measurement at the neck in order to trigger the stimulation. The amplitude and speed of larynx elevation caused by the FES has been assessed by the observed change in bioimpedance whereas a reduction of bioimpedance corresponds to an increase in larynx elevation. Study results from 40 healthy subjects revealed that 73% of the subjects achieved a larger and faster larynx elevation during swallowing with triggered FES and therefor a better protection of their airways. However, we also observed a decrease in larynx elevation compared to normal swallowing in 11 out of the 40 subjects what might not benefit from such a treatment. The largest improvement of larynx elevation and speed during swallowing could be achieved with three stimulation channels formed by four electrodes in the submental region.

  2. Contemporary management of voice and swallowing disorders in patients with advanced lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Grainne C; Carding, Paul N; Bhosle, Jaishree; Roe, Justin W G

    2015-06-01

    Advanced lung cancer can cause changes to swallowing and communication function. Direct tumour invasion, dyspnoea and deconditioning can all impact on swallowing function and communication. Cancer treatment, if administered, may cause or compound symptoms. In this study, the nature of swallowing and communication difficulties in patients with advanced lung cancer will be discussed, and management options including medical management, speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention, and surgical interventions will be considered. Advanced lung cancer can result in voice and swallowing difficulties, which can increase symptom burden and significantly impact on quality of life (QOL). There is a growing evidence base to support the use of injection laryngoplasty under local anaesthetic to offer immediate improvement in voice, swallowing and overall QOL. There is limited literature on the nature and extent of voice and swallowing impairment in patients with lung cancer. Well designed studies with robust and sensitive multidimensional dysphagia and dysphonia assessments are required. Outcome studies examining interventions with clearly defined treatment goals are required. These studies should include both functional and patient-reported outcome measures to develop the evidence base and to ensure that interventions are both timely and appropriate.

  3. Taste and Temperature in Swallowing Transit Time after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Cola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is common in individuals after stroke. Taste and temperature are used in dysphagia rehabilitation. The influence of stimuli, such as taste and temperature, on swallowing biomechanics has been investigated in both healthy individuals and in individuals with neurological disease. However, some questions still remain unanswered, such as how the sequence of offered stimuli influences the pharyngeal response. The goal of the present study was to determine the influence of the sequence of stimuli, sour taste and cold temperature, on pharyngeal transit time during deglutition in individuals after stroke. Methods: The study included 60 individuals with unilateral ischemic stroke, 29 males and 31 females, aged 41–88 years (mean age: 66.2 years examined 0–50 days after ictus (median: 6 days, with mild to moderate oropharyngeal dysphagia. Exclusion criteria were hemorrhagic stroke patients, patients with decreased level of consciousness, and clinically unstable patients, as confirmed by medical evaluation. The individuals were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. Group 1 received a nonrandomized sequence of stimuli (i.e. natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold and group 2 received a randomized sequence of stimuli. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed to analyze the pharyngeal transit time. Four different stimuli (natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold were offered. The images were digitalized and specific software was used to measure the pharyngeal transit time. Since the values did not present regular distribution and uniform variances, nonparametric tests were performed. Results: Individuals in group 1 presented a significantly shorter pharyngeal transit time with the sour-cold stimulus than with the other stimuli. Individuals in group 2 did not show a significant difference in pharyngeal transit time between stimuli. Conclusions: The results showed that the sequence of offered stimuli influences

  4. Regaining water swallowing function in the rehabilitation of critically ill patients with intensive-care-unit acquired muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simone; Sauter, Wolfgang; Starrost, Ulrike; Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan

    2017-03-21

    Treatment in intensive care units (ICUs) often results in swallowing dysfunction. Recent longitudinal studies have described the recovery of critically ill people, but we are not aware of studies of the recovery of swallowing function in patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. This paper aims to describe the time course of regaining water swallowing function in patients with ICU-acquired weakness in the post-acute phase and to describe the risks of regaining water swallowing function and the risk factors involved. This cohort study included patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness in our post-acute department, who were unable to swallow. We monitored the process of regaining water swallowing function using the 3-ounce water swallowing test. We included 108 patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. Water swallowing function was regained after a median of 12 days (interquartile range =17) from inclusion in the study and after a median of 59 days (interquartile range= 36) from the onset of the primary illness. Our multivariate Cox Proportional Hazard model yielded two main risk factors for regaining water swallowing function: the number of medical tubes such as catheters at admission to the post-acute department (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.282; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.099-1.495) and the time until weaning from the respirator in days (adjusted HR =1.02 per day; 95%CI: 0.998 to 1.008). We describe a time course for regaining water swallowing function based on daily tests in the post-acute phase of critically ill patients. Risk factors associated with regaining water swallowing function in rehabilitation are the number of medical tubes and the duration of weaning from the respirator. Implications for rehabilitation Little guidance is available for the management of swallowing dysfunction in the rehabilitation of critically ill patients with intensive-care-units acquired muscle weakness. There is a time dependent pattern of recovery from

  5. Degradation kinetics of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside during hot air and vacuum drying in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit: A comparative study based on solid food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wang, Yixiu; Wu, Xinye

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the degradation kinetic of anthocyanin in dehydration process of solid food system. Mulberry fruit was treated by hot air and vacuum drying at 60 and 75°C. The contents of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated for analysing the degradation characteristics. Model fitting results showed monomeric anthocyanin degradations were followed the second-order kinetic. Vacuum drying presented high kinetic rate constants and low t1/2 values. Thermodynamic parameters including the activation energy, enthalpy change and entropy change appeared significant differences between hot air and vacuum drying. Both heating techniques showed similar effects on polyphenol oxidase activities. These results indicate the anthocyanin degradation kinetic in solid food system is different from that in liquid and the oxygen can be regarded as a catalyst to accelerate the degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Severe breathing and swallowing difficulties during routine restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Trabucco, Laura; Leuzzi, Giovanni; Salvo, Fulvio; Paci, Massimiliano; Sgarbi, Giorgio; Ferrari, Anna Maria

    2015-04-30

    Although sporadically reported after dental examination, subcutaneous emphysema may be erroneously confused with an allergic, or anaphylactic, reaction. We herein report a case of a 57-year-old Caucasian woman who came to our attention after restorative treatment for a carious mandibular right second primary molar. During dental examination, an air driven hand-piece was used to restore occlusal caries. Suddenly, swallowing and breathing difficulties and a facial swelling involving the neck and, partially, the face occurred. She was urgently transported to the Emergency Department with the suspicious of allergic reaction. Clinical examination revealed palpable crepitus at the level of the head, neck and pre-sternal region but no inflammation, trismus or fluid collection was detected. A Chest X-ray first and a computed tomography scan later showed air in the deeper regions from the peri-mandibular and retro-mandibular spaces to the sub-maxillary and latero-cervical area along the vascular sulcus and retropharyngeal space descending into the mediastinal space. So, the patient was admitted for respiratory monitoring and started intravenous administration of largespectrum antibiotics and analgesics. Her hospital course was unremarkable and 5 days later she was discharged after regression of symptoms and complete radiological resolution. Three months after discharge, the patient was clinically free of recurrence. Dental care, Pneumomediastinum, Restorative dentistry.

  7. [Functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in infants with deglutition disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partida-Justo, I; Israel Grijalva-Otero, J E; Ramírez-Figueroa, J L; Sepúlveda-Vildosola, A C; Zurita-Cruz, J N

    2017-10-25

    Functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is a recognized method for Deglutition Disorders (DD) in adults, with anecdotal experience in children, obtaining not conclusive results. To compare the accuracy of test FEES in infants with high suspicion of altered DD seen in a third level hospital with the gold standard Videofluoroscopic (VF). The results and findings by FEES and VF of 66 children with clinical diagnosis of DD were compared. An estimate of the sensitivity and specificity of FEES was performed. As well as calculating positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and likelihood ratios. 60 patients enrolled, 4 and FEES showed high sensitivity to identify the presence of aspiration and penetration (9 98%) and high specificity for the arrest of spillage and waste (94% and 95%). Gastroesophageal reflux to make the diagnosis of DD with FEES had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 84%. Spill and penetration had the highest agreement with respect to the gold standard of 0.81. FEES in infants diagnosed with DD had a sensitivity of 80.8% and specificity 85.3%. 0696 concordance regarding to the VFD in the diagnosis of DD, and to identify suction stroke had a kappa of 0815.

  8. Swallowing performance after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, I.C.; Tiver, K.; Bull, C.; Gebski, V.; Langlands, A.O.

    1988-05-15

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to tabulate the incidence and etiologic factors of importance in the development of strictures after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus and to analyze the outcome of patients who develop such strictures. Eighty patients were treated with radiotherapy, 50 having radical and 30 having palliative treatment. Sixty-nine patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had adenocarcinoma, one had sarcoma, one had mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and five had undifferentiated tumors. Forty percent developed no stricture, 30% had benign fibrotic stricture, and 28% developed malignant stricture. The etiologic factors analysed included age, pretreatment swallowing score, histology and length (size) of tumor; stage of disease, dose of radiotherapy, and use of chemotherapy. None of these factors were shown to be of etiologic importance. The survival of patients who developed benign strictures was found to be significantly longer (1-year survival 88%) than those who developed no stricture (50%) or malignant stricture (19%). Using a success score for palliation of dysphagia, it was found that the majority of patients (71%) who developed a benign stricture had a moderately successful outcome--they were able to tolerate a full or soft diet and required dilatation with a median duration between dilatations of 5 months. Patients who developed a malignant stricture were palliated poorly by dilatation alone, and most required esophageal intubation.

  9. The mechanics and behavior of cliff swallows during tandem flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Ryan M; Jackson, Brandon E; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are highly maneuverable social birds that often forage and fly in large open spaces. Here we used multi-camera videography to measure the three-dimensional kinematics of their natural flight maneuvers in the field. Specifically, we collected data on tandem flights, defined as two birds maneuvering together. These data permit us to evaluate several hypotheses on the high-speed maneuvering flight performance of birds. We found that high-speed turns are roll-based, but that the magnitude of the centripetal force created in typical maneuvers varied only slightly with flight speed, typically reaching a peak of ~2 body weights. Turning maneuvers typically involved active flapping rather than gliding. In tandem flights the following bird copied the flight path and wingbeat frequency (~12.3 Hz) of the lead bird while maintaining position slightly above the leader. The lead bird turned in a direction away from the lateral position of the following bird 65% of the time on average. Tandem flights vary widely in instantaneous speed (1.0 to 15.6 m s(-1)) and duration (0.72 to 4.71 s), and no single tracking strategy appeared to explain the course taken by the following bird. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Swallow-induced esophageal shortening in patients without hiatal hernia is associated with gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, T; Singhal, S; Akimoto, S; Bremner, R M; Mittal, S K

    2017-12-21

    Longitudinal esophageal body shortening with swallow-induced peristalsis has been reported in healthy individuals. Esophageal shortening is immediately followed by esophageal re-elongation, and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) returns to the baseline position. High-resolution manometry (HRM) allows for objective assessment of extent of shortening and duration of shortening. In patients without hiatal hernia at rest, swallow-induced esophageal shortening can lead to transient hiatal hernia (tHH) which at times may persist after the completion of swallow. This manometric finding has not been investigated in the literature, but a question arises whether this swallow-induced transient herniation can effect on the likelihood of gastroesophageal reflux. This study aims to assess the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and the subtypes of swallow-induced esophageal shortening, i.e. tHH and non-tHH, in patients without hiatal hernia at rest. After Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, we queried a prospectively maintained database to identify patients who underwent HRM evaluation and 24-hour pH study between January to December 2015. Patients with type-I esophagogastric junction (EGJ) morphology (i.e. no hiatal hernia) according to the Chicago classification v3.0 were included. The patterns of the esophageal shortening with swallows were divided into two subtypes, i.e. tHH and non-tHH. tHH was defined as an EGJ double high-pressure zones (≥1 cm) at the second inspiration after the termination of swallow-induced esophageal body contraction. The number of episodes of tHH was counted per 10 swallows and tHH size was measured for each patient. In total, 41 patients with EGJ morphology Type-I met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 47.2 years, 35 patients (85.4%) were women, and the mean body mass index was 33.9 kg/m2. The mean number of tHH episodes was 3 out of 10 swallows; mean maximal tHH size was 1.3 cm. Patients who had tHH in ≥3 out of 10

  11. SU-D-BRA-01: Feasibility Study for Swallowing Prediction Using Pressure Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, K; Shin, D; Noh, Y; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a swallowing prediction system (SPS) using force sensing sensors and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: The SPS developed consists of force sensing sensor units, a thermoplastic mask, a signal transport device and a control PC installed with an in-house software. The SPS is designed to predict the pharyngeal stage of swallowing because it is known that internal organ movement occurs in pharyngeal stage. To detect prediction signal in the SPS, the force sensing sensor units were attached on both the submental muscle region and thyroid cartilage region of the thermoplastic mask. While the signal from the thyroid cartilage region informs the action of swallowing, the signal from the submental muscle region is utilized as a precursor for swallowing. Since the duration of swallowing is relatively short, using such precursor (or warning) signals for machine control is considered more beneficial. A volunteer study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the system. In this volunteer study, we intended to verify that the system could predict the pharyngeal stage of the swallowing. We measured time gaps between obtaining the warning signals in the SPS and starting points of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing. Results: The measured data was examined whether the time gaps were in reasonable order to be easily utilized. The mean and standard deviation values of these time gaps were 0.550 s ± 0.183 s. in 8 volunteers. Conclusion: The proposed method was able to predict the on-set of swallowing of human subjects inside the thermoplastic mask, which has never been possible with other monitoring systems such as camera-based monitoring system. With the prediction ability of swallowing incorporated into the machine control mechanism (in the future), beam delivery can be controlled to skip swallowing periods and significant dosimetric gain is expected in head & neck cancer treatments. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2015M

  12. supplementary foods for weaning purposes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    formulating complementary and supplementary foods and identifies staple foods as the target sources used for the purpose. It views the ... relationship of those foods to themselves is both complementary and supplementary during ... and rheologically between breast milk and solid foods as gently and naturally as possible ...

  13. The Impact of Dysphagia Therapy on Quality of Life in Patients with Parkinson's Disease as Measured by the Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWALQOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayres, Annelise

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dysphagia is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD and it has been associated with poor quality of life (QoL, anxiety, depression. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in individuals with PD before and after SLP therapy. Methods The program consisted of four individual therapy sessions. Each session comprised guidelines regarding food and postural maneuvers (chin down. The Quality of Life in Swallowing Disorders (SWAL-QOL questionnaire was applied before and after therapy. Results The sample comprised of 10 individuals (8 men, with a mean (SD age of 62.2 (11.3 years, mean educational attainment of 7.5 (4.3 years, and mean disease duration of 10.7 (4.7 years. Thirty percent of patients were Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y stage 2, 50% were H&Y stage 3, and 20% were H&Y stage 4. Mean scores for all SWAL-QOL domains increased after the intervention period, with significant pre- to post-therapy differences in total score (p = 0.033 and domain 4 (symptom frequency (p = 0.025. There was also a bias significance for domain 5 (food selection (p = 0.095. Conclusion Patients exhibited improvement in swallowing-related quality of life after a SLP therapy program. The earlier in the course of PD, greater the improvement observed after therapy.

  14. Mercury concentrations in eggs of red-winged blackbirds and tree swallows breeding in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Robin W.; Rolfhus, Kristofer R.; Wiener, James G.; Windels, Steve K.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most investigations of the environmental effects of mercury (Hg) have focused on aquatic food webs that include piscivorous fish or wildlife. However, recent investigations have shown that other species, including passerine songbirds, may also be at risk from exposure to methylmercury (MeHg). We quantified Hg concentrations in eggs of two species of songbirds, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), nesting in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA. Geometric mean concentrations of total Hg (THg) were lower in red-winged blackbird eggs [218 and 107 ng/g dry weight (dw) for 2012 and 2013, respectively] than in tree swallow eggs (228 and 300 ng/g dw for 2012 and 2013, respectively), presumably reflecting differences in the trophic positions of these two species. Concentrations of MeHg averaged 98.4 % of THg in red-winged blackbird eggs. Levels of THg observed in this study were well below critical toxicological benchmarks commonly applied to eggs of avian species, suggesting these breeding populations were not adversely affected by exposure to MeHg. In red-winged blackbirds, concentrations of THg in eggs collected in 2012 were twice those in eggs collected in 2013. Hg levels in eggs of both species increased with date of clutch initiation. In red-winged blackbirds, for example, temporal patterns showed that a 3-week delay in clutch initiation increased egg THg by 60 %. These observations indicate that in ovo exposure of wetland birds to MeHg can vary significantly within nesting season as well as between years.

  15. Effects of early intervention of swallowing therapy on recovery from dysphagia following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari, Jalal; Sarraf, Payam; Nakhostin-Ansari, Noureddin; Tafakhori, Abbas; Logemann, Jeri; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-07-06

    Dysphagia is common after stroke. The onset time of swallowing rehabilitation following stroke has an important role in the recovery of dysphagia and preventing of its complications, but it was either highly variable or was not stated in previous trials. The aim of this study was investigation effects of onset time of swallowing therapy on recovery from dysphagia following stroke. Sixty dysphagia patients due to stroke range of age 60-74 (67.1 ± 3.8), participated in this randomized clinical trial study. The patients allocated in Early, Medium and Late groups, on the base of initiation of swallowing therapy after the stroke. After basic clinical and video fluoroscopic swallowing study assessments, traditional swallowing therapy was initiated 3 times per week for 3 months. The outcome measures were North-Western dysphagia patient check sheet, functional oral intake scale, video fluoroscopy, and frequency of pneumonia. Statistical analysis was done by repeated measure ANOVA, Bonferroni and χ(2) tests. Three groups of patients in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in the pre-treatment P > 0.050. Onset time of swallowing therapy after stroke was effective on swallowing recovery on the main outcome variables. So that in first group patients, recovery was rather than other groups P < 0.050. Furthermore, the frequency of pneumonia in the early group was less than other groups and in the early group no patients experienced pneumonia P = 0.002. Our data suggested that early interventions for dysphagia in stroke have an important role in recovery from dysphagia and prevention of complications like aspiration pneumonia.

  16. Comparison of ease of swallowing of dietary supplement products for age-related eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherman, Donald P; Bayraktaroglu, Tolgar O; Garofalo, Renee J

    2004-01-01

    To examine patients' perceptions on the relative importance of the physical characteristics and appearance of dietary supplements, and to evaluate two supplements with the same combination of vitamins and minerals used in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) with respect to ease of swallowing and other features in elderly patients. A single-site, single-visit, crossover design, subject-masked comparison of two dietary supplements (ICaps AREDS Formula--Alcon; Ocuvite PreserVision-Bausch & Lomb). Ophthalmology practice. 50 patients aged 50 years or older. Patients ranked the importance of eight physical characteristics of a vitamin tablet or capsule (ease of swallowing, size, shape, color, smell, coating, texture, and taste) irrespective of the test products used in the study and then took both test products randomly and were asked to indicate which product they preferred based on the same eight characteristics. Overall patient preference and preference for swallowing two tablets at once. The highest rated (most important) characteristic in a vitamin supplement was ease of swallowing, with a median score of 9.0 on a 0-10 visual analogue scale. The characteristic of least importance was tablet color, with the lowest median score of 1.0. Statistically significant differences were detected between the products with regard to preferences for ease of swallowing, swallowing two tablets at once, size, and coating (P preferred the ICaps AREDS formula to Ocuvite PreserVision with respect to these characteristics and overall preference (P preferences. Based on the results of this study, ease of swallowing is the most important characteristic of dietary supplement tablets for elderly patients, followed by taste, size, and smell. Significant differences in preference exist between the study products, which contain similar formulations but have different physical characteristics.

  17. Effects of coal fly ash on tree swallow reproduction in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Suzanne J; Meyer, Carolyn B; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; Schlekat, Tamar H

    2015-01-01

    Coal-fly ash was released in unprecedented amounts (4.1 × 10(6) m(3) ) into the Emory River from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant on Watts Bar Reservoir in Tennessee. Tree swallows were exposed to ash-related constituents at the ash release via their diet of emergent aquatic insects, whose larval forms can accumulate constituents from submerged river sediments. Reproduction of tree swallow colonies was assessed over a 2-year period by evaluating whether 1) ash constituent concentrations were elevated in egg, eggshell, and nestling tissues at colonies near ash-impacted river reaches compared to reference colonies, 2) production of fledglings per nesting female was significantly lower in ash-impacted colonies versus reference colonies, and 3) ash constituent concentrations or diet concentrations were correlated with nest productivity measures (clutch size, hatching success, and nestling survival, and fledglings produced per nest). Of the 26 ash constituents evaluated, 4 (Se, Sr, Cu, and Hg) were significantly elevated in tissues potentially from the ash, and 3 (Se, Sr, and Cu) in tissues or in swallow diet items were weakly correlated to at least one nest-productivity measure or egg weight. Tree swallow hatching success was significantly reduced by 12%, but fledgling production per nest was unaffected due to larger clutch sizes in the impacted than reference colonies. Bioconcentration from the ash to insects in the diet to tree swallow eggs appears to be low. Overall, adverse impacts of the ash on tree swallow reproduction were not observed, but monitoring is continuing to further ensure Se from the residual ash does not adversely affect tree swallow reproduction over time. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:56-66. © 2014 SETAC. © 2014 SETAC.

  18. Voluntary Modulation of Hemodynamic Responses in Swallowing Related Motor Areas: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Neurofeedback Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erika Kober

    Full Text Available In the present study, we show for the first time that motor imagery of swallowing, which is defined as the mental imagination of a specific motor act without overt movements by muscular activity, can be successfully used as mental strategy in a neurofeedback training paradigm. Furthermore, we demonstrate its effects on cortical correlates of swallowing function. Therefore, N = 20 healthy young adults were trained to voluntarily increase their hemodynamic response in swallowing related brain areas as assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. During seven training sessions, participants received either feedback of concentration changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb group, N = 10 or deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb group, N = 10 over the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG during motor imagery of swallowing. Before and after the training, we assessed cortical activation patterns during motor execution and imagery of swallowing. The deoxy-Hb group was able to voluntarily increase deoxy-Hb over the IFG during imagery of swallowing. Furthermore, swallowing related cortical activation patterns were more pronounced during motor execution and imagery after the training compared to the pre-test, indicating cortical reorganization due to neurofeedback training. The oxy-Hb group could neither control oxy-Hb during neurofeedback training nor showed any cortical changes. Hence, successful modulation of deoxy-Hb over swallowing related brain areas led to cortical reorganization and might be useful for future treatments of swallowing dysfunction.

  19. Weight loss in the first month post-gastroplasty following diet progression with introduction of solid food three weeks after surgery

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRADE, Camila Garcia da Costa; LOBO, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective tool in treating severe obesity. It provides significant weight loss in morbidly obese people accompanied by improvement in comorbidities and quality of life. AIM: To investigate the weight loss outcomes in the first month after bariatric surgery after introduction of solids three weeks postoperatively. METHODS: Thirty-two charts of patients who underwent bariatric surgery were analyzed at a private nutritional clinic in São Sebastião do Para...

  20. Effect of spatial distribution of tastants on taste intensity, fluctuation of taste intensity and consumer preference of (semi-)solid food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Two sensory studies were carried out to compare the taste intensity, the perceived fluctuation of taste intensity and the consumer preference of food products with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of tastants using 2-alternative forced choice tests. The first study evaluated pairs of

  1. Swallowing disorders in nursing home residents: how can the problem be explained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dália Nogueira,1 Elizabeth Reis21Speech Therapy Department, Escola Superior de Saúde de Alcoitão, Estoril, Portugal; 2Department of Quantitative Methods, Lisbon University Institute ISCTE/IUL, Lisbon, PortugalBackground: The swallowing mechanism changes significantly as people age, even in the absence of chronic diseases. Presbyphagia, a term that refers to aging-related changes in the swallowing mechanism, may be linked to many health conditions and presents itself in distinct ways. Swallowing disorders are also identified as a major problem amongst the elderly population living in nursing homes.Methods: The study sought to determine the prevalence of swallowing disorders in nursing home residents, to identify the relationship between self-perceived swallowing disorders, cognitive functions, autonomy, and depression, and also to analyze which variables explain the score of the Dysphagia Self-Test (DST. For this purpose, the researchers chose to apply a survey conveying questions on demographic aspects, general health, eating and feeding, as well as instruments to assess functional performance and the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test.Results: The sample consisted of 272 elderly people living in eight nursing homes in Portugal. Six did not sign the informed consent form. Of the total, 29% were totally dependent, 33% were depressed, 45% had cognitive impairment, and 38% needed help with feeding. About 43% of the individuals reported having problems related to eating. Regarding the DST, 40% showed signs of dysphagia. With respect to the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, 38% revealed at least one of the symptoms, wet voice being the most prevalent. Correlation measures showed that age had no linear association with the DST score although correlation with the Barthel Index and Mini Mental State Examination was found to be significant. A linear regression model was estimated with the DST score as the dependent variable and the MMSE and BI scores, gender, age

  2. On the Physiology of Normal Swallowing as Revealed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Real Time

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    Arno Olthoff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the physiology of normal swallowing using recent advances in real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Therefore ten young healthy subjects underwent real-time MRI and flexible endoscopic evaluations of swallowing (FEES with thickened pineapple juice as oral contrast bolus. MRI movies were recorded in sagittal, coronal, and axial orientations during successive swallows at about 25 frames per second. Intermeasurement variation was analyzed and comparisons between real-time MRI and FEES were performed. Twelve distinct swallowing events could be quantified by real-time MRI (start time, end time, and duration. These included five valve functions: oro-velar opening, velo-pharyngeal closure, glottal closure, epiglottic retroflexion, and esophageal opening; three bolus transports: oro-velar transit, pharyngeal delay, pharyngeal transit; and four additional events: laryngeal ascent, laryngeal descent, vallecular, and piriform sinus filling and pharyngeal constriction. Repetitive measurements confirmed the general reliability of the MRI method with only two significant differences for the start times of the velo-pharyngeal closure (t(8=-2.4, P≤0.046 and laryngeal ascent (t(8=-2.6, P≤0.031. The duration of the velo-pharyngeal closure was significantly longer in real-time MRI compared to FEES (t(8=-3.3, P≤0.011. Real-time MRI emerges as a simple, robust, and reliable tool for obtaining comprehensive functional and anatomical information about the swallowing process.

  3. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough.

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    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  4. Application of Kinesio Taping method for newborn swallowing difficultly: A case report and literature review.

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    Lin, Chien-Lin; Wu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Ke-Vin; Lin, Hong-Yi; Chou, Li-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Preterm infants are at an increased risk of sucking problems, swallowing difficulty, and poor nourishment. During the neonatal period, the neurobehavioral organization of a preterm baby is poor compared with that of appropriate gestational age infants. Kinesio Taping has been widely used for edema control, joint protection, and proprioception training. With the help of augmentation of the sensory input for muscle facilitation and inhibition through tapping, the coordination of the target muscle groups can be improved. Until now, no research is available on the use of Kinesio Taping for the swallowing difficulty of infant. We reported a preterm infant suffering from brain edema at birth and swallowing difficultly until 40 weeks. The swallowing reflex was delayed. Moreover, lip closure and rooting reflex combined with the dysfunction grade of jaw movement were poor. We performed KT methods on the baby under the theory of the direction of the tape for facilitate or inhibit the muscle. After the Kinesio Taping treatment, the sucking function was improved with good lip closure.One week later, the baby was discharged without the use of an oral gastric tube. Kinesio Taping contributed significantly to the improvement of impaired sucking and swallowing and could be implemented as a regular rehabilitative approach for infants suffering from these difficulties.

  5. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus

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    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

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    Carlos Shuler Nin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough.METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons.RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6% of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6% of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%. We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration.CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  7. Impacts of palatal coverage on bolus formation during mastication and swallowing and subsequent adaptive changes.

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    Sato, T; Furuya, J; Tamada, Y; Kondo, H

    2013-10-01

    Palatal coverage is often required for elderly edentulous patients with complete dentures. The purpose of this study was to clarify impacts of palatal coverage on bolus formation and subsequent adaptive changes. Subjects were 18 healthy young dentulous adults who wore 1·5-mm-thick palatal plates. Subjects were asked to feed 12 g of bicoloured rice as usual, and the bolus formation by mastication and swallowing in the pharynx was observed using a nasal videoendoscopy. The bolus formation index (BFI), number of mastication strokes until swallowing, visual analogue scale about swallowing easiness and masticatory performance using colour-changeable gum were measured under three conditions: before placement of the palatal plate (day 0), immediately after placement (day 1) and after 7 days of wearing the plate (day 7). BFI and visual analogue scale on day 1 were significantly lower than those on day 0, but those on day 7 significantly recovered to the level of day 0. The number of mastication strokes did not change from day 0 to day 1, however, that on day 7 was significantly higher. Masticatory performance on days 1 and 7 was significantly lower than that on day 0. Although palatal coverage inhibits bolus formation during feeding, subjects increased the number of mastication strokes until swallowing threshold as they adapted to palatal coverage over time. This adaptive change was due to compensate for the lowered masticatory performance to achieve bolus formation for comfortable swallowing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Swallowing rehabilitation of dysphagic tracheostomized patients under mechanical ventilation in intensive care units: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Katia Alonso; Machado, Flávia Ribeiro; Chiari, Brasília Maria; Rosseti, Heloísa Baccaro; Lorenzon, Paula; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Rebelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of the early implementation of a swallowing rehabilitation program in tracheostomized patients under mechanical ventilation with dysphagia. This prospective study was conducted in the intensive care units of a university hospital. We included hemodynamically stable patients under mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours following 48 hours of tracheostomy and with an appropriate level of consciousness. The exclusion criteria were previous surgery in the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and/or esophagus, the presence of degenerative diseases or a past history of oropharyngeal dysphagia. All patients were submitted to a swallowing rehabilitation program. An oropharyngeal structural score, a swallowing functional score and an otorhinolaryngological structural and functional score were determined before and after swallowing therapy. We included 14 patients. The mean duration of the rehabilitation program was 12.4 ± 9.4 days, with 5.0 ± 5.2 days under mechanical ventilation. Eleven patients could receive oral feeding while still in the intensive care unit after 4 (2 - 13) days of therapy. All scores significantly improved after therapy. In this small group of patients, we demonstrated that the early implementation of a swallowing rehabilitation program is feasible even in patients under mechanical ventilation.

  9. Multisensor classification system for triggering FES in order to support voluntary swallowing

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    Benjamin Riebold

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In dysphagia the ability of elevating the larynx and hyoid is usually impaired. Electromyography (EMG and Bioimpedance (BI measurements at the neck can be used to trigger functional electrical stimulation (FES of swallowing related muscles. Nahrstaedt et al.1 introduced an algorithm to trigger the stimulation in phase with the voluntary swallowing to improve the airway closure and elevation speed of the larynx and hyoid. However, due to non-swallow related movements like speaking, chewing or head turning, stimulations might be unintentionally triggered. So far a switch was used to enable the BI/EMG-triggering of FES when the subject was ready to swallow, which is inconvenient for practical use. In this contribution, a range image camera system is introduced to obtain data of head, mouth, and jaw movements. This data is used to apply a second classification step to reduce the number of false stimulations. In experiments with healthy subjects, the amount of potential false stimulations could be reduced by 47% while 83% of swallowing intentions would have been correctely supported by FES.

  10. Effect of Bolus Viscosity on the Safety and Efficacy of Swallowing and the Kinematics of the Swallow Response in Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: White Paper by the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD).

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    Newman, Roger; Vilardell, Natàlia; Clavé, Pere; Speyer, Renée

    2016-04-01

    Fluid thickening is a well-established management strategy for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). However, the effects of thickening agents on the physiology of impaired swallow responses are not fully understood, and there is no agreement on the degree of bolus thickening. To review the literature and to produce a white paper of the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD) describing the evidence in the literature on the effect that bolus modification has upon the physiology, efficacy and safety of swallowing in adults with OD. A systematic search was performed using the electronic Pubmed and Embase databases. Articles in English available up to July 2015 were considered. The inclusion criteria swallowing studies on adults over 18 years of age; healthy people or patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia; bolus modification; effects of bolus modification on swallow safety (penetration/aspiration) and efficacy; and/or physiology and original articles written in English. The exclusion criteria consisted of oesophageal dysphagia and conference abstracts or presentations. The quality of the selected papers and the level of research evidence were assessed by standard quality assessments. At the end of the selection process, 33 articles were considered. The quality of all included studies was assessed using systematic, reproducible, and quantitative tools (Kmet and NHMRC) concluding that all the selected articles reached a valid level of evidence. The literature search gathered data from various sources, ranging from double-blind randomised control trials to systematic reviews focused on changes occurring in swallowing physiology caused by thickened fluids. Main results suggest that increasing bolus viscosity (a) results in increased safety of swallowing, (b) also results in increased amounts of oral and/or pharyngeal residue which may result in post-swallow airway invasion, (c) impacts the physiology with increased lingual pressure patterns, no major changes in impaired

  11. A phase I, open-label, randomized crossover study to assess the effect of dosing of the MEK 1/2 inhibitor Selumetinib (AZD6244; ARRY-142866) in the presence and absence of food in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijen, Suzanne; Soetekouw, Patricia M M B; Jeffry Evans, T R; Nicolson, Marianne; Schellens, Jan H M; Learoyd, Maria; Grinsted, Lynda; Zazulina, Victoria; Pwint, Thinn; Middleton, Mark

    2011-12-01

    This Phase I study assessed whether food influences the rate and extent of selumetinib absorption in patients with advanced solid malignancies and determined the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of selumetinib and its active metabolite N-desmethyl-selumetinib in fed and fasted states. A single dose of 75 mg selumetinib was to be taken with food on Day 1 followed by a single dose of 75 mg after fasting for at least 10 h on Day 8, or vice versa, followed by twice daily dosing of 75 mg selumetinib from Day 10. Plasma concentrations and PK parameters were determined on Days 1 and 8. Patients could continue to receive selumetinib for as long as they benefitted from treatment. In total, 31 patients were randomized to receive selumetinib; 15 to fed/fasted sequence and 16 to fasted/fed sequence. Comprehensive PK sampling was performed on 11 and 10 patients, respectively. The geometric least-squares means of C(max) and AUC for selumetinib were reduced by 62% (ratio 0.38 90% CI 0.29, 0.50) and 19% (ratio 0.81 90% CI 0.74, 0.88), respectively, under fed compared with fasting conditions. The rate of absorption (t(max)) of selumetinib (fed) was delayed by approximately 2.5 h (median). The food effect was also observed for the active metabolite N-desmethyl-selumetinib. Selumetinib was well tolerated. The presence of food decreased the extent of absorption of selumetinib. It is recommended that for further clinical studies, selumetinib be taken on an empty stomach. Selumetinib demonstrated an acceptable safety profile in the advanced cancer population.

  12. Sensitive determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol F in canned food using a solid-phase microextraction fibre coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes before GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastkari, N; Ahmadkhaniha, R; Yunesian, M; Baleh, L J; Mesdaghinia, A

    2010-10-01

    A reliable and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol F (BPF) in canned food by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is described after extraction and pre-concentration by a new solid-phase microextraction (SPME) adsorbent. The potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as SPME adsorbent for the pre-concentration of environmental contaminants has been investigated in recent years. This work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of SWCNTs as a headspace SPME adsorbent for the determination of bisphenol derivatives in canned food. Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption time, desorption temperature, and salinity were optimized. Calibration curves were linear (r(2)> or = 0.994) over the concentration range from 0.30 to 60 microg kg(-1). For both target analytes, the limit of detection (LOD) at signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3 was 0.10 microg kg(-1). In addition, a comparative study between the SWCNT and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fibre for the determination of bisphenol derivatives in canned food was conducted. SWCNT fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350 degrees C) and longer life span (over 150 times) than the commercial PDMS fibre. The method was successfully applied to determine BPA in canned food samples which were purchased from local markets. BPA was found in some of the samples within the concentration range from 0.5 to 5.2 microg kg(-1).

  13. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA overcomes swallowing disorders and hypersalivation – a case report

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    Hoffmann, Gerd

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Case description: A patient with a Barrett oesophageal carcinoma and a resection of the oesophagus with gastric pull-up developed swallowing disorders 6 years and 2 months after the operation. Within 1 year and 7 months two recurrences of the tumor at the anastomosis were found and treated with combined chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy respectively. 7 years and 9 months after the operation local tumor masses and destruction were present with no ability to orally drink or eat (full feeding by jejunal PEG tube: quality of life was poor, as saliva and mucus were very viscous (pulling filaments and could not be swallowed and had to be spat out throughout the day and night resulting in short periods of sleep (awaking from the necessity to spit out. In total the situation was interpreted more as a problem related to a feeling of choking (with food or fluid in the sense of a functional dysphagia rather than as a swallowing disorder from a structural stenosis. At that time acetylcysteine (2 times 200 mg per day, given via the PEG tube and irradiation with water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, a special form of heat radiation, of the ventral part of the neck and the thorax were added to the therapy. Within 1 day with acetylcysteine saliva and mucus became less viscous. Within 2 days with wIRA (one day with 4 to 5 hours with irradiation with wIRA at home salivation decreased markedly and quality of life clearly improved: For the first time the patient slept without interruption and without the need for sleep-inducing medication. After 5 days with wIRA the patient could eat his first soft dumpling although drinking of fluids was still not possible. After 2½ weeks with wIRA the patient could eat his first minced schnitzel (escalope. Following the commencement of wIRA (with typically approximately 90–150 minutes irradiation with wIRA per day the patient had 8 months with good quality of life with only small amounts of liquid saliva and mucus and without the

  14. Changes in food bolus texture during mastication.

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    Wada, Sachie; Goto, Takaharu; Fujimoto, Keiko; Watanabe, Megumi; Nagao, Kan; Nakamichi, Atsuko; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the changes that occur in bolus texture from intake to swallowing during the mastication process for four types of food materials and to identify how texture is related to the number of chews. We recruited 15 young Japanese participants for this study. The subjects were asked to spit the food bolus just before swallowing when eating four different foods: cracker, boiled rice, hard gelatine gel, and soft gelatine gel. Three physical properties (hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness) were measured in the bolus after being chewed for 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125% of the normal number of chews. Occlusal force and pressure as well as stimulated whole saliva volume were also measured. Extensive variation in the number of chews existed between subjects, but minimal intra-subject variation was observed. Hardness was observed to decrease, whereas cohesiveness and adhesiveness increased in a chew-dependent manner for the cracker, soft gelatine gel, and hard gelatine gel, but not boiled rice. Bolus texture appears to be largely related to the number of chews. Hardness also tended to be influenced by occlusion. The adhesiveness and hardness of the boiled rice were also greatly influenced by saliva volume and occlusal force, respectively. Hardness is an important rheological factor in food bolus texture and likely plays a significant role in determining the appropriate number of chews. Adhesiveness and cohesiveness appear to be secondary factors in this process. We propose a model of oral processing for application in determining the appropriate number of chews for an individual. Hardness appears to be an important rheological factor in food bolus texture, with adhesiveness and cohesiveness being secondary aspects. When food is hard or difficult to swallow, chewing behavior will likely be more influenced by the perception of bolus texture. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Longitudinal study on a rehabilitative model for correction of atypical swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuca, M R; Pasini, M; Pagano, A; Mummolo, S; Vanni, A

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse the prevalence of anomalous function of the orofacial muscles and their aetiological factors in a small sample of paediatric patients, to evaluate the correlation between anomalous functions of the orofacial muscles and malocclusions, and finally to verify the effects of a myofunctional protocol, composed of a series of exercises aimed at correcting the anomalous function and position of the tongue. The protocol that has been used in this research is a re-elaboration of the diagnostic and therapeutic methods set by two authors, Daniel Garliner and Aurelio Levrini. A group of 57 children (aged 5 to 13, mean age 8.2) with atypical swallowing diagnosis, has been treated for almost 3 years. Physiologic swallowing was achieved in 47% of the children treated. The results show the benefits of the myofunctional therapy in the treatment of children with abnormal swallowing.

  16. Analysis of the feeding habits of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, in an urban park in southeastern Brazil

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    MCB. Toledo

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to observe and describe the feeding habits and available food resources of the swallow-tailed hummingbird, Eupetomena macroura. The study was carried out in a municipal park located in the city of Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo. The observations took place between December 2003 and October 2004, recording the following variables: 1 the plant species visited for feeding and territorial defense; 2 the kinds of food resources; and 3 the kinds of flight to procure and obtain food. E. macroura visited 12 plant species. For territorial defense, Mangifera indica was the most visited, whereas Malvaviscus arboreus was most visited for feeding. The foliage was the plant part that received the most frequent visits. In order to obtain nectar, the only species visited was M. arboreus; to obtain arthropods, the species most visited were Mangifera indica and Hymenaea stilbocarpa. In the dry season, the hummingbirds visited flowers, whereas in the rainy season they visited leaves to acquire food. The arthropod groups most frequently found on leafy branches were Homoptera and Psocoptera. Finally, the results of the type of flight analysis showed that flight used to capture food was more often observed than were flights to search for food. In conclusion, these observations suggest that E. macroura shows plasticity in feeding behavior, which can help it to persist in urban areas.

  17. Swallowing disorders in patients with blepharospasm Trastornos deglutorios en pacientes con blefaroespasmo

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    María G. Cersósimo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Blepharospasm is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary eye closure due to abnormal contraction of orbicular eyelid muscles. When blepharospasm is associated to the presence of involuntary oromandibular movements, it is termed Meige syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of deglutition alterations in patients with concurrent blepharospasm and Meige syndrome. Twenty consecutive patients were studied by video fluoroscopy using a barium technique. The 4 stages of deglutition were investigated. Ninety percent of patients (18 cases presented deglutition disorders. The more commonly found alterations were premature food drop, 15 cases (83% and vallecuale residuals, 14 cases (78%. Sixty seven percent of abnormal findings occurred in the third stage of deglutition. Eighty-nine percent of patients (16 presented more than one swallowing alteration. There was a positive and significant correlation between the number of alterations and patient's age or disease duration. Prevalence of swallowing disorders in the healthy elderly population is reported to be 44%. In our series it reached 90%, suggesting that our findings might be related not only with age but also with a more widespread dystonia exceeding the orofacial muscles.El blefaroespasmo es una distonía focal caracterizada por el cierre involuntario de los ojos debido a la contracción anormal de los músculos orbiculares de los párpados. Cuando el blefaroespasmo se asocia a la presencia de movimientos involuntarios oromandibulares se denomina síndrome de Meige. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la presencia de alteraciones deglutorias en pacientes con blefaroespasmo y síndrome de Meige. Se incluyeron 20 pacientes consecutivos que fueron estudiados mediante vídeo fluoroscopia con técnica de bario. Se investigaron las 4 etapas de la deglución. El 90% de los pacientes (18 casos presentó trastornos en la deglución. Las alteraciones más comúnmente halladas

  18. Effect of saliva on physical food properties in fat texture perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupirovič, Urška Pivk; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Juillerat, Marcel-Alexandre; Raspor, Peter

    2017-04-13

    Sensory properties of food drive our food choices and it is generally accepted that lipids greatly contribute to the sensory properties of many foods and consequently to eating pleasure. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms of the fat perception. Unfortunately they used a variety of methods and products, thereby making generalization very difficult. The mechanism of fat perception in oral cavity is combined of several processes. Lipid composition and its properties strongly influence food structure. During consumption food is exposed to a range of in-mouth processing steps. Oral sensation of fat texture changes with time, from a first bite to chewing, while mixing with saliva, up to swallowing and even after swallowing. The present work reviews many aspects of fat texture perception from physical chemistry to physiology. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of in-mouth lipid processing would provide new concepts to produce low-fat food products with full-fat perception.

  19. Simulation of swallowing dysfunction and mechanical ventilation after a Montgomery T-tube insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, O; Malvè, M; Mena Tobar, A; Doblaré, M

    2015-01-01

    The Montgomery T-tube is used as a combined tracheal stent and airway after laryngotracheoplasty, to keep the lumen open and prevent mucosal laceration from scarring. It is valuable in the management of upper and mid-tracheal lesions, while invaluable in long and multisegmental stenting lesions. Numerical simulations based on real-patient-tracheal geometry, experimental tissue characterization, and previous numerical estimation of the physiological swallowing force are performed to estimate the consequences of Montgomery T-tube implantation on swallowing and assisted ventilation: structural analysis of swallowing is performed to evaluate patient swallowing capacity, and computational fluid dynamics simulation is carried out to analyze related mechanical ventilation. With an inserted Montgomery T-tube, vertical displacement (Z-axis) reaches 8.01 mm, whereas in the Y-axis, it reaches 6.63 mm. The maximal principal stress obtained during swallowing was 1.6 MPa surrounding the hole and in the upper contact with the tracheal wall. Fluid flow simulation of the mechanical ventilation revealed positive pressure for both inhalation and exhalation, being higher for inspiration. The muscular deflections, considerable during normal breathing, are nonphysiological, and this aspect results in a constant overload of the tracheal muscle. During swallowing, the trachea ascends producing a nonhomogeneous elongation. This movement can be compromised when prosthesis is inserted, which explains the high incidence of glottis close inefficiency. Fluid simulations showed that nonphysiological pressure is established inside the trachea due to mechanical ventilation. This may lead to an overload of the tracheal muscle, explaining several related problems as muscle thinning or decrease in contractile function.

  20. Adapting human videofluoroscopic swallow study methods to detect and characterize dysphagia in murine disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Teresa E; Braun, Sabrina M; Brooks, Ryan T; Harris, Rebecca A; Littrell, Loren L; Neff, Ryan M; Hinkel, Cameron J; Allen, Mitchell J; Ulsas, Mollie A

    2015-03-01

    This study adapted human videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) methods for use with murine disease models for the purpose of facilitating translational dysphagia research. Successful outcomes are dependent upon three critical components: test chambers that permit self-feeding while standing unrestrained in a confined space, recipes that mask the aversive taste/odor of commercially-available oral contrast agents, and a step-by-step test protocol that permits quantification of swallow physiology. Elimination of one or more of these components will have a detrimental impact on the study results. Moreover, the energy level capability of the fluoroscopy system will determine which swallow parameters can be investigated. Most research centers have high energy fluoroscopes designed for use with people and larger animals, which results in exceptionally poor image quality when testing mice and other small rodents. Despite this limitation, we have identified seven VFSS parameters that are consistently quantifiable in mice when using a high energy fluoroscope in combination with the new murine VFSS protocol. We recently obtained a low energy fluoroscopy system with exceptionally high imaging resolution and magnification capabilities that was designed for use with mice and other small rodents. Preliminary work using this new system, in combination with the new murine VFSS protocol, has identified 13 swallow parameters that are consistently quantifiable in mice, which is nearly double the number obtained using conventional (i.e., high energy) fluoroscopes. Identification of additional swallow parameters is expected as we optimize the capabilities of this new system. Results thus far demonstrate the utility of using a low energy fluoroscopy system to detect and quantify subtle changes in swallow physiology that may otherwise be overlooked when using high energy fluoroscopes to investigate murine disease models.

  1. MRI of the Swallow Tail Sign: A Useful Marker in the Diagnosis of Lewy Body Dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, S; Fällmar, D; Schwarz, S; Wahlund, L-O; van Westen, D; Hansson, O; Larsson, E-M; Haller, S

    2017-09-01

    There are, to date, no MR imaging diagnostic markers for Lewy body dementia. Nigrosome 1, containing dopaminergic cells, in the substantia nigra pars compacta is hyperintense on SWI and has been called the swallow tail sign, disappearing with Parkinson disease. We aimed to study the swallow tail sign and its clinical applicability in Lewy body dementia and hypothesized that the sign would be likewise applicable in Lewy body dementia. This was a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study including 97 patients (mean age, 65 ± 10 years; 46% women), consisting of the following: controls (n = 21) and those with Lewy body dementia (n = 19), Alzheimer disease (n = 20), frontotemporal lobe dementia (n = 20), and mild cognitive impairment (n = 17). All patients underwent brain MR imaging, with susceptibility-weighted imaging at 1.5T (n = 46) and 3T (n = 51). The swallow tail sign was assessed independently by 2 neuroradiologists. Interrater agreement was moderate (κ = 0.4) between raters. An abnormal swallow tail sign was most common in Lewy body dementia (63%; 95% CI, 41%-85%; P Lewy body dementia with an odds ratio of 9 (95% CI, 3-28; P Lewy body dementia showed a sensitivity of 63%, a specificity of 79%, a negative predictive value of 89%, and an accuracy of 76%; values were higher on 3T compared with 1.5T. The usefulness of the swallow tail sign was rater-dependent with the highest sensitivity equaling 100%. The swallow tail sign has diagnostic potential in Lewy body dementia and may be a complement in the diagnostic work-up of this condition. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. Speech and swallowing following tongue cancer surgery and free flap reconstruction--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lisetta; Samman, Nabil

    2013-06-01

    This was a systematic review of the current research on speech and swallowing outcomes and the factors affecting these outcomes after primary resection of tongue cancer and free flap reconstruction. A structured search in various electronic databases and relevant journals was performed. Retrieved articles were critically appraised in three rounds according to the level of evidence, the methodological quality, and the specific domain of speech and swallowing. A total of 21 articles were in the final review and the findings were categorized according to the area of tongue resection. For patients with resection and free flap reconstruction limited to either the oral tongue or the base of tongue (BOT), significant decline in speech and swallowing function was evident in the early postoperative phase, but the majority recovered close to preoperative level after 1 year. Poorer speech and swallowing outcomes were found following resections involving both oral and base of tongue (OBOT) regardless of the type of free flap reconstruction. Results overall were influenced by multiple factors including tumor size, area of resection, method of reconstruction and the use of adjuvant therapy. The use of free flaps in the immediate reconstruction of the tongue after tumor resection should aim at the maintenance of the mobility of the residual tongue and restoration of tongue bulk in order to optimize the recovery of speech and swallowing function. Future research in this field should employ standardized and reliable evaluation of speech and swallowing outcomes using multiple modalities in well-designed cohort studies with longer follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hybrid fuzzy logic committee neural networks for recognition of swallow acceleration signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Reddy, N P; Narayanan, J

    2001-02-01

    Biological signals are complex and often require intelligent systems for recognition of characteristic signals. In order to improve the reliability of the recognition or automated diagnostic systems, hybrid fuzzy logic committee neural networks were developed and the system was used for recognition of swallow acceleration signals from artifacts. Two sets of fuzzy logic-committee networks (FCN) each consisting of seven member networks were developed, trained and evaluated. The FCN-I was used to re