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Sample records for swallow-wort cynanchum louiseae

  1. Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.) biological control update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum = Cynanchum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum = C. louiseae) are herbaceous, perennial, viney milkweeds introduced from Europe (Apocynaceae-subfamily Asclepiadoideae). Both species are becoming increasingly invasive in a variety of natural and manag...

  2. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench (synonym=Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi) and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (synonym=Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi) are invasive plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae and are the targets of biological cont...

  3. New biological information on the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi] (black swallow-wort) and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. [Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi] (pale swallow-wort) are herbaceous perennial vines in the Apocynaceae native to Europe. Both species are considered invasive in their in...

  4. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts caused by Colletotrichum lineola from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (family Apocynaceae subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are invasive plants and are the targets of biological control efforts to control their spread in the USA. In 2010, diseased leaves of a rela...

  5. Impact of Hypena opulenta on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.) under different light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. A defoliating moth from the Ukraine, Hypena opulenta (Christoph) (Lepid...

  6. Towards biological control of swallow-worts: the good, the bad and the ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native from Eurasia, the ugly swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum - Apocynaceae) invaded forested landscapes and prevent native plant regeneration in eastern North America. We first aimed to understand where do the invasive populations of both species come from, then we evaluated the ...

  7. Impact of Abrostola asclepiadis and plant competition on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are perennial vines from Europe that have become invasive in various terrestrial habitats in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. A classical weed biological control program has been in...

  8. The Invasive Swallow-worts: What Do We Know About Their Biology and Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swallow-worts [Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. and V. nigrum (L.) Moench] are nonnative, perennial, herbaceous vines in the Apocynaceae that are invading natural areas in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. The species form dense monospecific stands across a wide range of mo...

  9. First report of blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on the invasive exotic weed, Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallow-wort) in western New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum) are invasive, perennial twining vines that are becoming increasingly problematic in the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. Observations at one natural area heavily populated by pale swallow-wort in Monroe County, NY, revealed a ...

  10. Impact of the defoliating moth Hypena opulenta on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum species) under different light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum and V. rossicum, Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) are twining vines from Europe that have become invasive in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. Hypena opulenta (Christoph) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), a defoliating forest moth from the Ukraine, ha...

  11. Abrostola clarissa (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a new potential biocontrol agent for invasive swallow-worts, Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae), perennial vines native to Eurasia, are now invading natural and anthropogenic habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada, threatening natural biodiversity and increasing contr...

  12. When population genetics meets biological control of the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explored the population genetics of two European swallow-worts belonging to the Apocynaceae that have become established in the eastern United States and Canada. Population genetic data concerning both native and introduced populations are being used to pinpoint introduced population origin, and ...

  13. Anti-viral effect of herbal medicine Korean traditional Cynanchum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pestiviruses in general, and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in particular, present several potential targets for directed antiviral therapy. Material and Methods: The antiviral effect of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bge.) Kitag (Dog strangling vine: DS) extract on the bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus was tested. First ...

  14. Control of the invasive dog-strangling vine Cynanchum rossicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.

    1998-12-31

    Field studies have been undertaken in the Highland Creek valley in Toronto to determine the life cycle, reproductive capacity, and methods to control the spread of the dog-strangling vine Cynanchum rossicum which is posing a serious threat to southern Ontario`s flora. The study assessed the potential value of mowing, light blockage and herbicide treatments to reduce the presence of the vine in dense infestation. The effects of timing and the number of treatments on the per cent cover one year later was also determined. Results showed that of the methods tested, herbicide treatment provided the most effective control of the vine in the short-term. Mowing had no significant effect on cover. While plastic sheeting was not successful in controlling Cynanchum rossicum, the method holds promise in effectively suppressing its growth. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Cynanchum pachyphyllum (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, una nueva cita para la Flora Argentina Cynanchum pachyphyllum (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, a new cite for the Argentine flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel H. Rua

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cynanchum pachyphyllum fue colectado en las inmediaciones del Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina. Esta especie, conocida hasta el presente sólo para el sur de Chile, es citada por primera vez para la Argentina. Se adjunta una descripción y una ilustración, además de una clave para identificar las especies patagónicas afines.Cynanchum pachyphyllum was collected near Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina. This species, known from Southern Chile, is reported for the first time for Argentina. A description and an illustration is provided, as well as a key to the related Patagonian species.

  16. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woojong; Kim, Kyu-Yeob; Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Lee, Junki; Seong, Rack Seon; Shim, Young Hun; Sung, Sang Hyun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Cynanchum auriculatum is a climbing vine belonging to the Apocynaceae family and shows very similar morphology to Cynanchum wilfordii, a medicinal plant. The complete chloroplast genome of C. auriculatum was generated by de novo assembly using the small amount of whole genome sequencing data. The chloroplast genome of C. auriculatum was 160 840 bp in length and consisted of four distinct regions, such as large single copy region (91 973 bp), small single copy region (19 667 bp), and a pair of inverted repeat regions (24 600 bp). The overall GC contents of the chloroplast genome were 37.8%. A total of 114 genes were predicted and included 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that C. auriculatum is most closely related to Cynanchum wilfordii, a medicinal plant.

  17. Paniculatumoside G, a new C21 steroidal glycoside from Cynanchum paniculatum

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    Hua Gao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new C21 steroidal glycoside, paniculatumoside G, together with neocynapanogenin C isolated for the first time from the natural source and two known compounds were isolated and characterized from the roots and rhizomes of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bunge Kitag. ex H.Hara, Apocynaceae, a commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine. On the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, the structure of the new C21 steroidal glycoside was elucidated as neocynapanogenin H 3-O-β-D-oleandropyranoside.

  18. Interactive effects of mechanical stress, sand burial and defoliation on growth and mechanical properties in Cynanchum komarovii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Yu, F.H.; Werger, M.; Dong, M.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2013-01-01

    In drylands, wind, sand burial and grazing are three important factors affecting growth and mechanical properties of plants, but their interactive effects have not yet been investigated. Plants of the semi-shrub Cynanchum komarovii, common in semi-arid parts of NE Asia, were subjected to brushing,

  19. Effects of the Cynanchum wilfordii Ethanol Extract on the Serum Lipid Profile in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Young-Eon; Kim, In-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Mok; Lee, Chang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ethanol extract of Cynanchum wilfordii (ECW) on the blood lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed free access to either a normal diet (AIN-93 diet), or 1% high-cholesterol diet with or without 0.5% or 1% ECW for 5 weeks. After sacrifice, the rat serum lipid profile was analyzed. The diets containing ECW decreased body weight gains compared to the normal diet. Serum HDL-cholesterol levels of ECW-fed groups were significantly increased in the hypercholesterolemic groups and normal groups (P<0.05). When 1% ECW was fed to the normal group, total cholesterol level was increased. Moreover, treatment of ECW in hypercholesterolemic groups yielded a dose-dependent and highly significant decrease in the atherogenic index as compared to the control. These results suggest that intake of Cynanchum wilfordii may help reduce the risks of hypercholesterolemia by increasing blood HDL-cholesterol and lowering the atherogenic index. PMID:24471126

  20. A new C21 steroidal glycoside from Cynanchum inamoenum (Maxim.) Loes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Qin; Shen, Yue-Mao; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhou, Jun

    2008-01-01

    A new C21 steroidal glycoside, 5beta,6beta-epoxy-glaucogenin C-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-cymaropyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-oleandropyranoside, named inamoside D (1), was isolated from the MeOH extract of the roots of Cynanchum inamoenum (Maxim.) Loes (Asclepiadaceae). In addition, five known compounds, including 7-demethoxytylophorine (2), dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol gamma'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), beta-d-fructofuranosyl-(2 --> 1)-alpha-D-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranoside (4), neohancoside C (5), and cuchiloside (6), have also been isolated. The structure of 1 was determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopies. All the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an important medicinal plant Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim.) Hemsl. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Kyu-Yeob; Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Junki; Seong, Rack Seon; Shim, Young Hun; Sung, Sang Hyun; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim.) Hemsl. is a traditional medicinal herb belonging to the Asclepiadoideae subfamily, whose dried roots have been used as traditional medicine in Asia. The complete chloroplast genome of C. wilfordii was generated by de novo assembly using the small amount of whole genome sequencing data. The chloroplast genome of C. wilfordii was 161 241 bp long, composed of large single copy region (91 995 bp), small single copy region (19 930 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat regions (24 658 bp). The overall GC contents of the chloroplast genome was 37.8%. A total of 114 genes were annotated, which included 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that C. wilfordii is most closely related to Asclepias nivea (Caribbean milkweed) and Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) within the Asclepiadoideae subfamily.

  2. Pale Swallow-wort Establishment and Survival in Four Disturbance Regimens in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale swallowwort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) is a nonnative, perennial, herbaceous vine in the Apocynaceae that is invading natural areas in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. The species forms dense stands across a wide range of moisture regimes in full sun or forest understories. ...

  3. Conduritol F glucosides and terpenoid glucosides from Cynanchum liukiuense and distribution of conduritol F glucosides in several Asclepiadaceous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, F; Yamauchi, T; Honda, K; Hayashl, N

    2000-07-01

    Conduritol F 3-0- and 4-O-glucosides were obtained from Cynanchum liukiuense, along with conduritol F which was identified in all Asclepiadaceous plants examined, Tylophora tanakae, Asclepias curassavica and A. fruticosa, as well as in Marsdenia tomentosa. The pattern of the glucosidic linkage to conduritol F differed between individual species, 2-O-glucoside from T tanakae and M. tomentosa, 3-O-glucoside from A. curassavica, but none from A. fruticosa. Along with conduritol F glucosides, an 11-glucosyloxy-megastigmane and a monoterpenoid glucoside were isolated from C. liukiuense.

  4. Cynanchum atratum inhibits the development of atopic dermatitis in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Lee, Haesu; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young; Lee, Seok-Geun; Kim, Jinju; Yang, Woong Mo

    2017-06-01

    Cynanchum atratum Bunge (Apocynaceae) is a folk medicine to treat skin inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of C. atratum on atopic dermatitis have not been elucidated. In this study, we evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of C. atratum (CA) and its molecular mechanism on atopic dermatitis (AD). 1 and 100mg/mL CA were topically applied to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions for 11 days. The number of scratching behavior was evaluated for 20min. AD-like symptoms including elevated serum IgE, skin hyperplasia and mast cell infiltration were investigated. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators were analyzed in AD-like skin legions. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine production was confirmed in human mast cells (HMC)-1 stimulated with PMA plus A23187 (PMACI). Topical application of CA attenuated total serum IgE level and scratching behavior. Skin hyperplasia including epidermis and dermis was ameliorated in CA-treated skin legions. The number of infiltrated mast cells was significantly decreased by CA treatment. In addition, CA reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α and Th2 cytokine, IL-4, in both of AD-like skin lesions and PMACI-sensitized HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, CA decreased the expressions of NF-κB, phospho-IκBα and MAP kinase. These results suggest the inhibitory effects of CA on the development of AD by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators. CA could be an effective substance for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Polygalacturonase-Inhibiting Protein from Cynanchum komarovii That Confers Fungal Resistance in Arabidopsis.

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    Nana Liu

    Full Text Available Compliance with ethical standards: This study did not involve human participants and animals, and the plant of interest is not an endangered species. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs are leucine-rich repeat proteins that plants produce against polygalacturonase, a key virulence agent in pathogens. In this paper, we cloned and purified CkPGIP1, a gene product from Cynanchum komarovii that effectively inhibits polygalacturonases from Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. We found the expression of CkPGIP1 to be induced in response to salicylic acid, wounding, and infection with B. cinerea and R. solani. In addition, transgenic overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced resistance against B. cinerea. Furthermore, CkPGIP1 obtained from transgenic Arabidopsis inhibited the activity of B. cinerea and R. solani polygalacturonases by 62.7-66.4% and 56.5-60.2%, respectively. Docking studies indicated that the protein interacts strongly with the B1-sheet at the N-terminus of the B. cinerea polygalacturonase, and with the C-terminus of the polygalacturonase from R. solani. This study highlights the significance of CkPGIP1 in plant disease resistance, and its possible application to manage fungal pathogens.

  6. Effect of acid hydrolysis on morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchi; Wen, Fanting; Zhang, Shurong; Shen, Ruru; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Effect of acid hydrolysis on the morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight was investigated in this study. The hydrolysis degree of C. auriculatum starch rapidly increased to 63.69% after 4days and reached 78.67% at the end of 9days. Morphology observation showed that the starch granules remained intact during the first 4days of hydrolysis. However, serious erosion phenomenon was observed after 5days and starch granules completely fell into pieces after 7days. During acid hydrolysis process, the crystal type of hydrolyzed starch changed from original CB-type to final A-type. Small-angle X-ray scattering patterns showed the semi-crystalline growth rings started to be hydrolyzed after 4days. The proportions of single helix and amorphous components as well as amylose content in starch gradually decreased, whereas the proportion of double helix components continuously increased during acid hydrolysis. However, the contents of rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch and resistant starch were almost constant during acid hydrolysis process, indicating the in vitro digestion property of C. auriculatum starch was not affected by acid hydrolysis. Our results provided novel information on the inner structure of C. auriculatum starch granules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Composition of the essential oil of Cynanchum mongolicum (Asclepiadaceae) and insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphidiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wang; Zhao, An; Congai, Zhen; Qizhi, Liu; Wangpeng, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Farmers have applied Cynanchum mongolicum (Maxim) to control crop pests. The aim of this study was to analyze composition of essential oil from C. mongolicum, evaluate insecticidal activities against Aphis glycines, and lethal doses. Essential oil from C. mongolicum was efficiently extracted by steam distillation. The main components of the oil were analyzed with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system, and the insecticidal activity of the essential oil on soybean aphids Aphis glycines was tested using a variety of methods. The components of the essential oil from C. mongolicum mainly included terpenes and ester compounds, of which (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol acetate, cis-3-hexenyl isovalerate, α-farnesene, and β-caryophyllene accounted for 15.8, 10.4, 8.4, and 5.5%, respectively. With 1- and 2-day exposure, the essential oil showed pronounced contact toxicity (median lethal concentration (LC50) =37.8 and 38.4 μL/mL, respectively), weak fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 139.7 and 139.9 μL/L, respectively). The essential oil showed strong deterrent activity on soybean aphids in 2 and 4 h. The essential oil of C. mongolicum contained insecticidal components and possessed contact toxicity and deterrent activity to A. glycines.

  8. C21-steroidal glycosides and sesquiterpenes from the roots of Cynanchum bungei and their inhibitory activities against the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun-Jun; Chen, Xi; Lin, Ze-Min; Xu, Yan-Sheng; Li, Yi-Ming; Zuo, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Wei-Min

    2018-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Cynanchum bungei Decne (Asclepiadaceae) led to the elucidation of seven C 21 -steroidal glycosides (1-7) including three new compounds (1-3), named cynabungosides A-C, one new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene (8), named cynabungone, and one new humulane-type sesquiterpene (9), named cynabungolide. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of 8 and 9 were defined unequivocally by ECD analysis and X-ray crystallography, respectively. A putative biosynthetic pathway of humulane-type sesquiterpenes 9 and 10 is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Survival, growth, and fecundity of the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum) in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black and pale swallowwort (BSW and PSW, respectively) are perennial, herbaceous vines in the Apocynaceae that are native to Europe. The species are becoming increasingly abundant in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and are difficult to manage. However, we know little about t...

  10. Purification and characterization of a CkTLP protein from Cynanchum komarovii seeds that confers antifungal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cynanchum komarovii Al Iljinski is a desert plant that has been used as analgesic, anthelminthic and antidiarrheal, but also as a herbal medicine to treat cholecystitis in people. We have found that the protein extractions from C. komarovii seeds have strong antifungal activity. There is strong interest to develop protein medication and antifungal pesticides from C. komarovii for pharmacological or other uses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An antifungal protein with sequence homology to thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs was isolated from C. komarovii seeds and named CkTLP. The three-dimensional structure prediction of CkTLP indicated the protein has an acid cleft and a hydrophobic patch. The protein showed antifungal activity against fungal growth of Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Valsa mali. The full-length cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR according to the partial protein sequences obtained by nanoESI-MS/MS. The real-time PCR showed the transcription level of CkTLP had a significant increase under the stress of abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA, NaCl and drought, which indicates that CkTLP may play an important role in response to abiotic stresses. Histochemical staining showed GUS activity in almost the whole plant, especially in cotyledons, trichomes and vascular tissues of primary root and inflorescences. The CkTLP protein was located in the extracellular space/cell wall by CkTLP::GFP fusion protein in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, over-expression of CkTLP significantly enhanced the resistance of Arabidopsis against V. dahliae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the CkTLP is a good candidate protein or gene for contributing to the development of disease-resistant crops.

  11. 14,15-Secopregnane-Type Glycosides with 5α:9α-Peroxy and Δ(6,8(14))-diene Linkages from the Roots of Cynanchum stauntonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, An-Jun; Yu, Jin-Qian; Li, Zhi-Hong; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Qin, Hai-Lin

    2017-05-23

    Three new 14,15-secopregnane-type glycosides, stauntosides UA, UA₁, and UA₂, were isolated from the roots of Cynanchum stauntonii. The three compounds share the first reported and same basic structural features of 3β-hydroxy-14:16,15:20,18:20-triepoxy-5α:9α-peroxy-14,15-secopregnane-6,8(14)-diene named as stauntogenin G as the aglycones. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, mainly 1D and 2D NMR and MS methods and chemical analysis. The isolation and identification of the new compounds graced the structural diversity of pregnane-type steroids from C. stauntonii.

  12. 14,15-Secopregnane-Type Glycosides with 5α:9α-Peroxy and Δ6,8(14-diene Linkages from the Roots of Cynanchum stauntonii

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    An-Jun Deng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new 14,15-secopregnane-type glycosides, stauntosides UA, UA1, and UA2, were isolated from the roots of Cynanchum stauntonii. The three compounds share the first reported and same basic structural features of 3β-hydroxy-14:16,15:20,18:20-triepoxy-5α:9α-peroxy-14,15-secopregnane-6,8(14-diene named as stauntogenin G as the aglycones. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, mainly 1D and 2D NMR and MS methods and chemical analysis. The isolation and identification of the new compounds graced the structural diversity of pregnane-type steroids from C. stauntonii.

  13. Cynatratoside-C from Cynanchum atratum displays anti-inflammatory effect via suppressing TLR4 mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ge; Hong, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Duan, Huiqin; Wei, Panying; Guo, Xinxin; Mu, Xiang

    2018-01-05

    The present study was conducted to isolate anti-inflammatory compound from Cynanchum atratum and investigate the molecular mechanisms of active compound against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice. Bioassay-guided fractionations and isolation (via ex vivo tests) of compounds with anti-inflammatory activity were performed on roots of C. atratum yielding a pure bioactive compound: Cynatratoside-C, identified by comparing spectral data (EI-MS, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) with literature values. Ex vivo tests showed that Cynatratoside-C inhibited the expression of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) production in LPS-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells. In vivo results indicated that Cynatratoside-C markedly attenuated LPS-induced mammary histopathologic changes and mammary oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, GPx) activity. Besides, Cynatratoside-C blocked the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and then suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and degradation inhibitor of NF-κBα (IκBα). Further study showed that Cynatratoside-C could suppress the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that Cynatratoside-C played an anti-inflammatory role in LPS-induced mastitis by regulating TLR4 and the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in mammary gland tissues. Cynatratoside-C may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of mastitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Host specificity of Asian Chrysochus Chevr. in Dej. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Eumolpinae) and their potential use for biological control of invasive Vincetoxicum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European herbaceous perennials Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallow-wort) and V. nigrum (black swallow-wort; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) have invaded various natural areas and managed habitats in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and a classical biological contro...

  15. Ploidy level and genome size of Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbarich (Apocynaceae), two invasive vines in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Black swallow-wort] and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbarich [Pale swallow-wort] (Apocynaceae) are perennial vines that are targeted for classical biological control as a result of their massive invasion in natural areas and horticultural nurseries in the U.S. and Canada....

  16. Preliminary host range assessment of Asian Chrysochus spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), potential biological control agents of Vincetoxicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European herbaceous perennials pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) have been the subject of classical biological control efforts, due to their invasion of various natural areas and managed habitats in the northeaste...

  17. Oil Spill Pollution Treatment by Sorption on Natural Cynanchum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De-waxed WSH absorbs four times its weight, in case of de-waxing by n-hexane and six times its weight in case of de-waxing by methanol. Dehydrated WSH at 120oC absorbs seven times its weight. WSH absorbs eleven times its weight when it is used after soaking in 10-4 M dodecyl benzenesulphonic acid. WSH absorbs ...

  18. Oil Spill Pollution Treatment by Sorption on Natural Cynanchum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    donating by n-hexane and six times its weight in case of de-waxing by methanol. ... for use as fuel. The method according to the invention is particularly usefiil for collecting and removing oil accidentally discharged into open waters by oil tanker ships and enables substantially ...... Environmental Science and Technology,.

  19. Complete genome sequence of keunjorong mosaic virus, a potyvirus from Cynanchum wilfordii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Moon; Lee, Joo-Hee; Choi, Hong Soo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun; Lee, Su-Heon

    2013-08-01

    We have determined the complete genome sequence of keunjorong mosaic virus (KjMV). The KjMV genome is composed of 9,611 nucleotides, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail. It contains two open reading frames (ORFs), with the large one encoding a polyprotein of 3,070 amino acids and the small overlapping ORF encoding a PIPO protein of 81 amino acids. The KjMV genome shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity (57.5  %) with pepper mottle virus and freesia mosaic virus, two members of the genus Potyvirus. Based on the phylogenetic relatedness to known potyviruses, KjMV appears to be a member of a new species in the genus Potyvirus.

  20. Diapause in Abrostola asclepiadis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) may make for an ineffective weed biological control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are perennial vines from Europe that are invasive in various terrestrial habitats in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. A classical weed biological control program has been in develop...

  1. Establishment of the invasive perennial Vincetoxicum rossicum across a disturbance gradient in New York State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallow-wort) is a non-native, perennial, herbaceous vine in the Apocynaceae. The species’ abundance is steadily increasing in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Little is known about Vincetoxicum species recruitment and growth. Therefore, we condu...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xiao (Cynanchum taiwanianum Yamazaki), Abstract PDF. H Lee, T Wang, T Lin, J Guo, C Yang, Y Shen ... AA Madara, JA Ajayi, OA Salawu, AY Tijani. Vol 11, No 11 (2012), Antimicrobial action of purified raspberry flavonoid, Abstract PDF.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Callinectes sapidus) from Contaminated Site, Abstract PDF. IA Ololade, L lajide, IA Amoo. Vol 7, No 2 (2003), Oil Spill Pollution Treatment by Sorption on Natural Cynanchum Acutum L. Plant, Abstract PDF. S.A. SAYED ...

  4. Evaluation of host range and larval feeding impact of Chrysolina aurichalcea asclepiadis (Villa): considerations for biological control of Vincetoxicum in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Aaron S; Casagrande, Richard A

    2011-12-01

    A biological control program has been initiated against European swallow-worts Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench. and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., which are invasive in North America. A population of the leaf beetle Chrysolina aurichalcea asclepiadis (Villa) originating from the western Alps has been under evaluation as a part of this program. The preliminary host range of C. a. asclepiadis was determined among 37 potential host plants. In addition, a prerelease impact study was conducted to determine the effect of larval feeding on the performance of V. nigrum. Under no-choice conditions beetle larvae completed development on nine plant species within the genera Artemisia and Tanacetum (Asteraceae) and Asclepias and Vincetoxicum (Apocynaceae). The host range of adults is broader than larvae (13 plant species within five genera received sustained feeding). Three of the six nontarget species supporting larval development are native to North America, however in separate oviposition tests, female beetles failed to produce eggs when confined to these hosts. In multiple-choice tests, neither larvae nor adults preferred Vincetoxicum spp. to nontarget species. Larval damage by C. a. asclepiadis at densities at and above five larvae per plant substantially reduced growth, biomass, and delayed reproduction of V. nigrum. However, this population of C. a. asclepiadis is polyphagous and unsuitable for biological control of Vincetoxicum because of potential risk of attack to Asclepias tuberosa L. and native North American Asteraceae, particularly Artemisia.

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003. Cytotoxic activity and G2/M cell cycle arrest mediated by antofine, a phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid isolated from Cynanchum paniculatum. Planta medica 69:21-25. 9. Walz, P. H., D. L. Grooms, T. Passler, J. F. Ridpath, R. Tremblay, D. L. Step, R. J. Callan, M. D. Givens and M. American College of Veterinary Internal.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory molecular mechanisms of Bo-Ye-Niu- Pi-Xiao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bo-Ye-Niu-Pi-Xiao, Cynanchum taiwanianum Yamazaki (family: Asclepiadaceae) is a well-known and popular herb; its rhizome has been used as a folk medicine in Taiwan. Many therapeutic effects of C. taiwanianum Yamaz. had been studied; however, there is still no anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of C.

  7. Preliminary Anti-Fungal Activity of the Aqueous Bark Extract of Calotropis procera (ASCLEPIADACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Olatunde James; Wasagu, S U Rabiu; Adepoju-Bello, Aderonke Ayinke; Nwaeze, Kenneth Uzoma; Olufunsho, Awodele

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a species of flowering plant which belongs to the Asclepiadaceous family. Its other names are Apple of Sodom, Giant Milkweed and Swallow-wort. It's native to Africa and Asian countries where they exist as a spreading shrub or small tree with height of about 4m. They. exude copious milky sap when cut or broken. It has a broad grey-green leaves with a pointed tip, two rounded basal lobes and no leaf stalk. Their flowers are waxy white. The different part of this plant has been used for different medicinal purposes such as cure of leprosy, eczema, inflammation, cutaneous infections, syphilis, malarial and low hectic fevers, and as abortifacient. The extract of the bark of the plant Calotropis procera used locally by people in Sokoto to treat ringworm infection was investigated for the claimed activity by subjecting the extract collected to both phytochemical and antifungal screening. The extracts of water, n-hexane, petroleum ether and chloroform of the bark of the plant Calotropis procera were evaluated for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, steroids and flavonoids. And the water extract which is often used by the local people was tested for antifungal activity using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) in Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method developed by Kirby et al. Fulcin tablet was used as a standard and two petridishes that does not contain the extracts were used as control. In the phytochemical study using extracts of n-hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and water, the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and steroids (cardiac glycoside) were confirmed. Also, for the antifungal activity of the plant, there was a complete inhibition of Microsporum specie and Trichophyton specie in the sample after 10 days of inoculation when water extract at different concentrations (i.e. 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L and 40 mg/L) were applied. The tablet only completely inhibited Trichophyton specie. Epidermophyton specie was not found in the sample

  8. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy to identify authenticity of Polygonum multiflorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Bi, Fu-jun; Hou, Hui-chan; Zhang, Yong-yao

    2014-11-01

    To establish a near-infrared qualitative analysis model to identify the authenticity of Polygonum multiflo- rum and distinguish processed products Polygoni Multiflori Radix. The NIR spectra were peformed on over 30 batches of P. multiflorum and Polygoni Multiflori Radix samples and the adulterants Cynanchum bungei, Pteroxygonum giraldii, Polygonum cillinerve to establish the qualitative discriminant model and the conformity test model of Polygonum multifiorum , and cluster analysis was used to analyze the samples from different origins. The model is able to identify correctly P. multiflorum with its counterfeit, and distinguish between P. multiflorum and Polygoni multiflori Radix. Near-infrared spectroscopy can be applied in the identification of P. multiflorum, which could be used to screen Chinese herbal medicine preliminarily.

  9. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiras, Maria M; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including 'cryptic species'. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  10. Diversity of MAPs in some plant communities of Stara Planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The high floristic diversity of Stara Planina was the starting base for the research of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs in individual forest and meadow communities. The sites Javor and Prelesje, forest community Fagetum moesiacae montanum B. Jov. 1953, pioneer community of birch Betuletum verrucosae s.l. and meadow community Agrostietum vulgaris (capillaris Pavlović, Z. 1955, were researched as follows: soil types, floristic composition and structure of the community, percentage of MAPs, as well as the selection of species which, according to the predetermined criteria can be recommended for further exploitation. The study shows that the soil of the forest communities is eutric brown, and meadow soils are dystric and eutric humus-siliceous. The percentage of MAPs in the floristic structure of the study sites in forest and meadow communities is 32.35%. The following species can be recommended for the collection and utilisation: Hypericum perforatum L., Asperula odorata L., Dryopteris filix-mas (L Schott. Urtica dioica L., Euphorbia amygdaloides L., Prunella grandiflora L. Tanacetum vulgare L., Achillea millefolium L., Rumex acetosa L., Campanula glomerata L., Stachys officinalis (L Trevis., Plantago lanceolata W. et K., Potentilla erecta (L Rauchel, Chamaespartium sagittale (L P. Gibbs. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L Pers., Euphrasia stricta Host., Fagus moesiaca (Matt Liebl. and Fragaria vesca L.

  11. Cysteine proteases from the Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited thrombin and plasmin like activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, H V; Riyaz, M; Venkatesh Kumar, R; Dharmappa, K K; Tarannum, Shaista; Siddesha, J M; Rajesh, R; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-10-01

    In the present study we evaluated the presence of cysteine protease from the latex of four plants Asclepias curassavica L., Calotropis gigantea R.Br., Pergularia extensa R.Br. and Cynanchum puciflorum R.Br. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. Cysteine proteases from these plants latex exhibited both thrombin and plasmin like activities. Latex enzyme fraction in a concentration dependent manner induced the formation of clot in citrated blood plasma. Direct incubation of fibrinogen with latex enzyme fraction resulted in the formation of fibrin clot similar to thrombin enzyme. However prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot suggesting plasmin like activity. Latex enzyme fraction preferentially hydrolyzed Aalpha and Bbeta chains of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot. Latex enzyme fraction also hydrolyzed the subunits of fully cross linked fibrin efficiently, the order of hydrolysis was alpha-polymer > alpha-chains > beta-chain and gamma-gamma dimer. Cysteine proteases from all the four Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited similar action on fibrinogen and fibrin. This study scientifically validate the use of plant latex in stop bleeding and wound healing by traditional healers all over the world.

  12. Screening for Neuraminidase Inhibitory Activity in Traditional Chinese Medicines Used to Treat Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ying Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for influenza virus neuraminidase inhibition and to provide a reference for the clinical treatment of influenza using traditional Chinese medicines (TCM. In this study, 421 crude extracts (solubilized with petroleum ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous solvents were obtained from 113 TCM. The medicine extracts were then reacted with oseltamivir, using 2’-(4-methylumbelliferyl-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (MUNANA as the substrate, to determine influenza virus neuraminidase activity using a standard fluorimetric assay. It was found that Chinese medicine extracts from Pyrola calliantha, Cynanchum wilfordii, Balanophora involucrata and Paeonia delavayi significantly inhibited neuraminidase activity at a concentration of 40 μg/mL. Dose-dependent inhibitory assays also revealed significant inhibition. The IC50 range of the TCM extracts for influenza virus neuraminidase was approximately 12.66–34.85 μg/mL, respectively. Some Chinese medicines have clear anti-influenza viral effects that may play an important role in the treatment of influenza through the inhibition of viral neuraminidase. The results of this study demonstrated that plant medicines can serve as a useful source of neuraminidase (NA inhibitors and further investigation into the pharmacologic activities of these extracts is warranted.

  13. Effects of trampling on morphological and mechanical traits of dryland shrub species do not depend on water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    Full Text Available In semiarid drylands water shortage and trampling by large herbivores are two factors limiting plant growth and distribution. Trampling can strongly affect plant performance, but little is known about responses of morphological and mechanical traits of woody plants to trampling and their possible interaction with water availability. Seedlings of four shrubs (Caragana intermedia, Cynanchum komarovi, Hedysarum laeve and Hippophae rhamnoides common in the semiarid Mu Us Sandland were grown at 4% and 10% soil water content and exposed to either simulated trampling or not. Growth, morphological and mechanical traits were measured. Trampling decreased vertical height and increased basal diameter and stem resistance to bending and rupture (as indicated by the increased minimum bend and break force in all species. Increasing water availability increased biomass, stem length, basal diameter, leaf thickness and rigidity of stems in all species except C. komarovii. However, there were no interactive effects of trampling and water content on any of these traits among species except for minimum bend force and the ratio between stem resistance to rupture and bending. Overall shrub species have a high degree of trampling resistance by morphological and mechanical modifications, and the effects of trampling do not depend on water availability. However, the increasing water availability can also affect trade-off between stem strength and flexibility caused by trampling, which differs among species. Water plays an important role not only in growth but also in trampling adaptation in drylands.

  14. Large pollen loads of a South African asclepiad do not interfere with the foraging behaviour or efficiency of pollinating honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, G.; Dold, A. P.; Brassine, E. I.; Peter, C. I.

    2012-07-01

    The pollen of asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae) and most orchids (Orchidaceae) are packaged as large aggregations known as pollinaria that are removed as entire units by pollinators. In some instances, individual pollinators may accumulate large loads of these pollinaria. We found that the primary pollinator of Cynanchum ellipticum (Apocynaceae—Asclepiadoideae), the honey bee Apis mellifera, accumulate very large agglomerations of pollinaria on their mouthparts when foraging on this species. We tested whether large pollinarium loads negatively affected the foraging behaviour and foraging efficiency of honey bees by slowing foraging speeds or causing honey bees to visit fewer flowers, and found no evidence to suggest that large pollinarium loads altered foraging behaviour. C. ellipticum displayed consistently high levels of pollination success and pollen transfer efficiency (PTE). This may be a consequence of efficiently loading large numbers of pollinaria onto pollinators even when primary points of attachment on pollinators are already occupied and doing so in a manner that does not impact the foraging behaviour of pollinating insects.

  15. Potential anti-osteoporotic effects of herbal extracts on osteoclasts, osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most serious diseases in the modern world, and OP patients frequently suffer from fragility fractures in the hip, spine and wrist, resulting in a limited quality of life. Although bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most effective class of anti-bone-resorptive drugs currently available and the most commonly prescribed for the clinical treatment of OP, they are known to cause serious side effects such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Novel therapeutic materials that can replace the use of BPs have therefore been developed. Methods We commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only in OP, but also in oral and skeletal diseases. In the present study, we report on 3 Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Melia azedarach, Corydalis turtschaninovii, and Cynanchum atratum. Results All of these extracts inhibited osteoclast proliferation and induced apoptosis by up-regulation of caspase activity and increase of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins expression. Furthermore, the extracts enhanced differentiation, but did not affect proliferation of both osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The osteo-inducible effect was also observed in cultured primary bone marrow cells. Conclusions Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects in OP. In this study, we elucidate the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for OP therapy. PMID:24438322

  16. The effect of herbal extract (EstroG-100) on pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Albert; Kwak, Bo-Yeon; Yi, Kwontaek; Kim, Jae Soo

    2012-04-01

    This clinical research study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a new herbal product, EstroG-100, containing a mixture of standardized extracts of Cynanchum wilfordii, Phlomis umbrosa and Angelica gigas, on menopausal symptoms. This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed for 12 weeks with 64 pre-, peri- and postmenopausal White Hispanic, White non-Hispanic and African American women who were randomly allocated to either the EstroG-100 group (n = 31) or the placebo group (n =  33). Primary end-points were the mean change in scores of the Kupperman menopause index (KMI) that evaluates 11 symptoms, and the mean change in scores of vaginal dryness. The mean KMI score was significantly reduced in the EstroG-100 group from 29.5 ± 7.4 at baseline to 11.3 ± 5.8 (p < 0.01) compared with change of the placebo group (29.2 ± 6.6 at baseline vs 23.7 ± 7.7 at week 12). The constituting symptoms of vasomotor, paresthesia, insomnia, nervousness, melancholia, vertigo, fatigue and rheumatic pain were significantly improved in the EstroG-100 group in comparison with the placebo group (p < 0.05). Statistically significant improvement in vaginal dryness in the EstroG-100 group was also observed compared with that of the placebo group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EstroG-100 significantly improved the menopausal symptoms of pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women without weight gain or any serious side effects. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.