WorldWideScience

Sample records for swallow bugs hemiptera

  1. No Detectable Insecticide Resistance in Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Following Long-Term Exposure to Naled (Dibrom 8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runjaic, Jelena; Bellovich, Ian J; Page, Catherine E; Brown, Charles R; Booth, Warren

    2017-07-01

    The swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath, is a hematophagous ectoparasite of the cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Vieillot, and is closely related to bed bugs (Cimex spp.). Evolution of insecticide resistance has been documented for bed bugs but not studied in Oeciacus. For periods of 17 and 32 yr, two cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska were treated during the summer breeding season using the organophosphate insecticide Dibrom. Despite continual treatments, O. vicarius has been observed frequently within these colonies. We evaluated the efficacy of Dibrom 8 on O. vicarius during the 2016 season at two treated colonies and four that had never experienced treatment. Dibrom 8 was found to be effective in 100% of trials, with immobilization within minutes and death within 72 h, for individuals from all colonies. In control treatments (water), individuals collected from treated colonies exhibited greater survival than individuals from untreated colonies, and those from active colonies (bugs fed) had greater survival than those from inactive colonies (bugs unfed). A residual effect was observed in both lab and field trials: 100% mortality occurred in the lab after exposure to filter paper substrates treated both 5 and 10 d earlier, and in the field, nests treated once early in the season had O. vicarius counts 43 d later that were nests within the same colony. We hypothesize that the lack of resistance results from the limited potential for resistance allele fixation due to outbreeding and frequent immigration of insecticide-naïve individuals. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  3. The mitogenome of the brown pod-sucking bug Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown pod-sucking bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), causes significant damage to cultivated cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp, a staple crop in sub-Saharan Africa. C. tomentosicollis pierce and suck sap from cowpea pods, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. The compl...

  4. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  5. A laboratory study of sex- and stage-related mortality and morbidity in bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24h indicated there was no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24h or 168h post-exposure. Most bed bugs classified ...

  6. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  7. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    OpenAIRE

    Justi, Silvia A.; Galv?o, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an effici...

  8. Monitoring of brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) population dynamics in corn to predict its abundance using weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the Southeastern U. S. The BSB population dynamics was monitored for 17 wks from tasseling to pre-harvest of corn plants (i.e., late May to mid-September) using pheromone ...

  9. Melt With This Kiss: Paralyzing and Liquefying Venom of The Assassin Bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Madio, Bruno; Jin, Jiayi; Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2017-04-01

    Assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are venomous insects, most of which prey on invertebrates. Assassin bug venom has features in common with venoms from other animals, such as paralyzing and lethal activity when injected, and a molecular composition that includes disulfide-rich peptide neurotoxins. Uniquely, this venom also has strong liquefying activity that has been hypothesized to facilitate feeding through the narrow channel of the proboscis-a structure inherited from sap- and phloem-feeding phytophagous hemipterans and adapted during the evolution of Heteroptera into a fang and feeding structure. However, further understanding of the function of assassin bug venom is impeded by the lack of proteomic studies detailing its molecular composition.By using a combined transcriptomic/proteomic approach, we show that the venom proteome of the harpactorine assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis includes a complex suite of >100 proteins comprising disulfide-rich peptides, CUB domain proteins, cystatins, putative cytolytic toxins, triabin-like protein, odorant-binding protein, S1 proteases, catabolic enzymes, putative nutrient-binding proteins, plus eight families of proteins without homology to characterized proteins. S1 proteases, CUB domain proteins, putative cytolytic toxins, and other novel proteins in the 10-16-kDa mass range, were the most abundant venom components. Thus, in addition to putative neurotoxins, assassin bug venom includes a high proportion of enzymatic and cytolytic venom components likely to be well suited to tissue liquefaction. Our results also provide insight into the trophic switch to blood-feeding by the kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae). Although some protein families such as triabins occur in the venoms of both predaceous and blood-feeding reduviids, the composition of venoms produced by these two groups is revealed to differ markedly. These results provide insights into the venom evolution in the insect suborder

  10. Do male-derived substances affect female mating receptivity and release of sex pheromone by females of the sorghum plant bug Stenotus rubrovittatus (Hemiptera: Miridae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Yamane, T.

    2014-01-01

    In insects, male-derived substances transferred during copulation often alter female physiology. Thus these substances may affect female behaviour, including mating receptivity and release of sex pheromone. In the sorghum plant bug Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Miridae), males

  11. Immune responses of a native and an invasive bird to Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus and its arthropod vector, the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Fassbinder-Orth

    Full Text Available Invasive species often display different patterns of parasite burden and virulence compared to their native counterparts. These differences may be the result of variability in host-parasite co-evolutionary relationships, the occurrence of novel host-parasite encounters, or possibly innate differences in physiological responses to infection between invasive and native hosts. Here we examine the adaptive, humoral immune responses of a resistant, native bird and a susceptible, invasive bird to an arbovirus (Buggy Creek virus; Togaviridae: Alphavirus and its ectoparasitic arthropod vector (the swallow bug; Oeciacus vicarius. Swallow bugs parasitize the native, colonially nesting cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus that occupies nests in cliff swallow colonies. We measured levels of BCRV-specific and swallow bug-specific IgY levels before nesting (prior to swallow bug exposure and after nesting (after swallow bug exposure in house sparrows and cliff swallows in western Nebraska. Levels of BCRV-specific IgY increased significantly following nesting in the house sparrow but not in the cliff swallow. Additionally, house sparrows displayed consistently higher levels of swallow bug-specific antibodies both before and after nesting compared to cliff swallows. The higher levels of BCRV and swallow bug specific antibodies detected in house sparrows may be reflective of significant differences in both antiviral and anti-ectoparasite immune responses that exist between these two avian species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the macro- and microparasite-specific immune responses of an invasive and a native avian host exposed to the same parasites.

  12. Diploid chromosome set of kissing bug Triatoma baratai (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevi, K C C; Reis, Y V; Borgueti, A O; Mendonça, V J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2015-02-06

    Triatomines are insects that are taxonomically included in the Hemiptera order and Triatominae subfamily. Based on phenotypic similarity, capacity hybridization, and genetic and ecological aspects, the triatomine species can be grouped into specific complexes and subcomplexes. However, these groupings have not been confirmed. Cytogenetic analyses are important cytotaxonomic tools for improving the taxonomic knowledge of triatomines. Thus, we examined the karyotype of Triatoma baratai and compared the results with those of other species in the Matogrossensis subcomplex in order increase the understanding of vector potential. We also examined the cytotaxonomic classification of this insect. Triatoma baratai, similarly to other species that currently compose the Matogrossensis subcomplex, contains 22 chromosomes (20A + XY). Here, we describe the diploid chromosome set of T. baratai. We confirmed their current classification in the Matogrossensis subcomplex and demonstrated that the species in this subcomplex present karyotype homogeneity.

  13. Toxicities of Selected Essential Oils, Silicone Oils, and Paraffin Oil against the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Li, Andrew

    2018-02-09

    The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs. In this study, we screened 18 essential oils, three silicone oils, and paraffin oil (C5-20 paraffins) for their toxicities against bed bugs. All the oils exhibited insecticidal activity in topical assays. Their toxicities varied significantly; all of the evaluated essential oils were less effective than silicone oils and paraffin oil. The LD50 values of the most effective essential oil (blood orange), paraffin oil, and the most effective silicone oil (dodecamethylpentasiloxane) are 0.184 ± 0.018, 0.069 ± 0.012, and 0.036 ± 0.005 mg per bug, respectively. Direct spray of 1% water solution of 3-[hydroxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] heptamethyltrisiloxane, the only silicone oil that mixes well with water, resulted in 92% bed bug mortality after 1 d. Results of this study indicate silicone oils and paraffin oil have the potential to be used as safer alternative bed bug control materials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Non-Preference for Oviposition Cassava Lace Bug Vatiga illudens (Hemiptera: Tingidae by Cassava Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-preference for oviposition Vatiga illudens (Drake, 1922 (Hemiptera: Tingidae in cassava cultivars. The following cultivars were compared: Kiriris, N-25, Fécula Branca, IAC 90, M Ecu 72 and IAC 576, preference tests for oviposition were conducted, with a choice test in semi-field conditions. An adult double V. illudens was released in the leaves of cassava of their cultivars. Allowed to feeding and oviposition of these insects for 72 hours. We evaluated the number of eggs / female / leaf, the number of droppings / couple / sheet and the preference index for oviposition. The cultivar M Ecu 72 demonstrated to be highly resistant to cassava lace bug. This study showed that there are resistance mechanisms to V. illudens in cassava cultivars, which justifies the new studies on these cultivars in breeding programs, aiming to control this pest and identification of such mechanisms.

  15. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors.

  16. Comparative mitogenomics of plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae: identifying the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes.

  17. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  18. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris) species (Hemiptera: Miridae) under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH). Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80%) were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH) had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the finite rate of increase (λ) for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  20. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris species (Hemiptera: Miridae under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH. Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80% were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm, the net reproductive rate (R0 and the finite rate of increase (λ for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  1. IPM of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using trap and refuge crops within tomato fields in North Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southern Green Stink Bug (SGSB), Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious insect pest of tomatoes and numerous vegetable and fruit plants in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential to be used for IPM (Integrated Pest Manag...

  2. A Survey of the Species of Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) Egg Parasitoids in Virginia and Their Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James M; Kuhar, Thomas P

    2017-12-05

    Squash bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of squash and pumpkins in the United States. In order to better understand the importance of natural egg parasitism of this species in Virginia, we conducted a 2-yr statewide survey. In total, 1,127 squash bug egg masses (~20,000 total eggs) were sampled from squash and pumpkins from 43 counties in Virginia from 2014 to 2015. Egg masses were brought back to the lab to record levels of squash bug nymphal emergence or adult parasitoid eclosion and identification. Over 50% of the total squash bug eggs collected statewide were parasitized. Gryon pennsylvanicum Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) was the predominant egg parasitoid accounting for over 98% of all parasitoid adults recovered. The only other species emerging from squash bug eggs was Anastatus reduvii Howard (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), which is a generalist parasitoid. G. pennsylvanicum was found in 75% of the counties surveyed with the highest levels of parasitism occurring in the Northern, Southwestern Mountain, and Western Piedmont regions of the state and the lowest levels of parasitism occurring in the Tidewater region in the southeastern portion of the state. Based on this 2-yr survey, G. pennsylvanicum was determined to be a major natural enemy of squash bug, significantly reducing the number of nymphs that emerge from deposited eggs. Conservation of this natural enemy should therefore be a priority for integrated pest management programs in cucurbits. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Jumping performance of flea hoppers and other mirid bugs (Hemiptera, Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M; Dorosenko, M

    2017-05-01

    The order Hemiptera includes jumping insects with the fastest take-off velocities, all generated by catapult mechanisms. It also contains the large family Miridae or plant bugs. Here, we analysed the jumping strategies and mechanisms of six mirid species from high-speed videos and from the anatomy of their propulsive legs, and conclude that they use a different mechanism in which jumps are powered by the direct contractions of muscles. Three strategies were identified. First, jumping was propelled only by movements of the middle and hind legs, which were, respectively, 140% and 190% longer than the front legs. In three species with masses ranging from 3.4 to 12.2 mg, depression of the coxo-trochanteral and extension of femoro-tibial joints accelerated the body in 8-17 ms to take-off velocities of 0.5-0.8 m s -1 The middle legs lost ground contact 5-6 ms before take-off so that the hind legs generated the final propulsion. The power requirements could be met by the direct muscle contractions so that catapult mechanisms were not implicated. Second, other species combined the same leg movements with wing beating to generate take-off during a wing downstroke. Third, up to four wingbeat cycles preceded take-off and were not assisted by leg movements. Take-off velocities were reduced and acceleration times lengthened. Other species from the same habitat did not jump. The lower take-off velocities achieved by powering jumping by direct muscle contractions may be offset by eliminating the time taken to load catapult mechanisms. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Resistance of Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), to Conventional and Novel Chemistry Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saif; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2016-02-01

    The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), is polyphagous in nature and has become one of the severe sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. O. hyalinipennis has the potential to develop resistance to a number of insecticides, and as a result, O. hyalinipennis outbreaks occur. There is no previous study from Pakistan regarding O. hyalinipennis resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the resistance of different field populations of O. hyalinipennis to conventional (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos, triazophos) and novel chemistry (emamectin benzoate, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram) insecticides. Five populations of O. hyalinipennis, collected from Multan, Khanewal, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran, and Bahawalpur, were tested for resistance to selected insecticides by the leaf dip method. For three pyrethroids, the resistance ratios were in the range of 14- to 30-fold for bifenthrin, 2.14- to 8.41-fold for deltamethrin, and 9.12- to 16-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin, compared with the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-PK). For two organophosphates, the range of resistance ratios was 12- to 14-fold for profenofos and 9.04- to 15-fold for triazophos. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 4.68- to 9.83-fold for emamectin benzoate, 6.38- to 17-fold for spinosad, 16- to 46-fold for chlorfenapyr, 11- to 22-fold for imidacloprid, and 1.32- to 11-fold for nitenpyram. Regular assessment of resistance to insecticides and integrated management plans like judicious use of insecticides and rotation of insecticides along with different modes of action are required to delay resistance development in O. hyalinipennis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Seasonal phenology and natural enemies of the squash bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kimberly B; Yeargan, Kenneth V

    2008-06-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major indigenous pest of Cucurbita species across the United States and a vector of cucurbit yellow vine disease. The seasonal phenology of the squash bug in central Kentucky and its natural enemies were studied using summer squash planted sequentially throughout the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The squash bug was first detected on 5 June 2005 and 3 June 2006. In both years, peak numbers of all squash bug stages occurred in July and August. Our field data, substantiated by published degree-day models for squash bug development, suggest one complete and a partial second generation of squash bugs in 2005 and one complete generation of squash bugs in 2006. The most abundant ground-active predators in squash fields included Araneae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Geocoridae. Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer) and Geocoris punctipes (Say) were the most abundant foliage-inhabiting predators. Direct field observations of predators feeding on squash bugs or their eggs included G. punctipes, Pagasa fusca (Stein), and Nabis sp. The parasitoids Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius) and Gyron pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) were found also. Squash bug egg masses were monitored to determine predation and parasitism rates in the field. In four studies during 2005 and 2006, predation rates were low (7% or less), and parasitism ranged from 0 to 31%. Overall, squash bug egg mortality increased as the season progressed.

  6. Phytophagy by the Mullein Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Apples: Feeding Behavior and Fruit Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, O; Cormier, D; Chouinard, G; Lucas, E

    2016-12-01

    The zoophytophagous mullein bug, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a beneficial predator of mites and aphids, but also a pest causing damage when it feeds on apples. The aim of this study was to evaluate three different parameters of phytophagy of the mullein bug both in laboratory (phytophagous behavior) and field (fruit damage) tests: 1) apple cultivar, 2) fruit size, and 3) nymphal instar. In the laboratory, nymphs were observed individually for 15 min in Petri dishes containing agar gel and an apple fruitlet to evaluate feeding punctures of four apple cultivars, four fruit sizes, and five nymphal instars. In the orchard, nymphs were caged at bloom in sleeve cages to evaluate damage on the developing fruit of seven apple cultivars and three nymphal instars on 'Red Delicious'. The feeding punctures in the laboratory were higher on 'Red Delicious' than on 'Honeycrisp'; fruit damage in the orchard did not differ among cultivars at mid-season, but was higher on 'Red Delicious' than on 'Lobo' and 'Marshall McIntosh' at harvest. The number of feeding punctures in the laboratory was higher on 7-9 mm than on 18-20 mm size fruit for 'Red Delicious', but not for 'Honeycrisp'. The number of feeding punctures in the laboratory made by the fifth nymphal instar was higher than those made by younger nymphs, but fruit damage in the orchard did not differ among nymphal instars. Our results will help to elaborate a management chart for this insect by minimizing risks and promoting its use for biocontrol.  . La punaise de la molène, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae), est un prédateur bénéfique zoophytophage des acariens et pucerons dans les vergers, mais également un ravageur causant des dommages lorsqu'il se nourrit sur les pommes. Le but de cette étude était d'évaluer trois paramètres différents sur la phytophagie de la punaise de la molène, à la fois en laboratoire (comportement phytophage) et sur le terrain

  7. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary C. DeVries

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692 ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724 ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386 ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176 ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134 ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102 ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs.

  8. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C.; Reid, William R.; Kells, Stephen A.; Appel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692) ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724) ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386) ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176) ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134) ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102) ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs. PMID:26463068

  9. Comparison of management strategies for squash bugs (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Shrefler, James W; Roberts, B Warren; Pair, Sam; Edelson, J V

    2004-12-01

    Two watermelon pest management practices, a squash trap crop and a standard recommendation using soil-applied carbofuran, were compared using large-scale field plots to assess trap crop suitability as a replacement for the standard in 2000, 2001, and 2002. In both systems, foliar insecticide applications were used to control squash bugs when populations exceeded threshold levels. During 2001 and 2002, a treatment of untreated watermelon was used. Early season adult insects, from seedling to fruit set, are most critical for watermelon. Significantly fewer early adult bugs were found on watermelon in the trap crop than in the standard recommended practice in 1 of 3 yr. In both years, significantly fewer adult squash bugs were found in watermelon in the trap crop than in untreated fields. The standard recommended practice significantly reduced adult squash bugs in watermelon compared with the untreated in 1 of 2 yr. There was no significant correlation of watermelon yield and squash bug density, indicating that squash bug densities were too low to impact yield. Although squash bugs were reduced significantly by the trap crop, marketable watermelon yields were lower in the squash trap crop than in untreated watermelon, suggesting that pest management treatments may interfere with crop productivity factors other than squash bug colonization. Results suggest that mid-season production squash bug should be managed by monitoring populations and using insecticides as needed rather than using at-plant treatment. Further research is needed to compare treatments during early-season production.

  10. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages...

  11. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justi, Silvia A.; Galvão, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an efficient treatment and vaccine for Chagas disease, it is more common to find evolutionary studies focusing on the most relevant vectors than it is to find studies aiming to understand the evolution of the group as a whole. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study aiming to understand the events that led to the diversification of the Triatominae. Methodology/Principal Findings We gathered the most diverse samples of Reduviidae and Triatominae (a total of 229 Reduviidae samples, including 70 Triatominae species) and reconstructed a robust dated phylogeny with several fossil (Reduviidae and Triatominae) calibrations. Based on this information, the possible role of geological events in several of the major cladogenetic events within Triatominae was tested for the first time. We were able to not only correlate the geological changes in the Neotropics with Triatominae evolution but also add to an old discussion: Triatominae monophyly vs. paraphyly. Conclusions/Significance We found that most of the diversification events observed within the Rhodniini and Triatomini tribes are closely linked to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America and that variations in sea levels in North America also played a role in the diversification of the species of Triatoma in that region. PMID:27058599

  12. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justi, Silvia A; Galvão, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G

    2016-04-01

    The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an efficient treatment and vaccine for Chagas disease, it is more common to find evolutionary studies focusing on the most relevant vectors than it is to find studies aiming to understand the evolution of the group as a whole. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study aiming to understand the events that led to the diversification of the Triatominae. We gathered the most diverse samples of Reduviidae and Triatominae (a total of 229 Reduviidae samples, including 70 Triatominae species) and reconstructed a robust dated phylogeny with several fossil (Reduviidae and Triatominae) calibrations. Based on this information, the possible role of geological events in several of the major cladogenetic events within Triatominae was tested for the first time. We were able to not only correlate the geological changes in the Neotropics with Triatominae evolution but also add to an old discussion: Triatominae monophyly vs. paraphyly. We found that most of the diversification events observed within the Rhodniini and Triatomini tribes are closely linked to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America and that variations in sea levels in North America also played a role in the diversification of the species of Triatoma in that region.

  13. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  14. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo Tematico Controle Biologico

    2008-09-15

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  15. Validation of a less invasive blood sampling technique in rabies serology using reduviid bugs (Triatominae, Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Ad C; Müller, Thomas; Neubert, Larissa; Voigt, Christian C

    2010-03-01

    During serologic rabies surveys, bleeding is often difficult or almost impossible in small or endangered mammals such as bats. Therefore, the usefulness of an alternative, less invasive technique--that is, the use of blood-sucking reduviid bugs (Dipetalogaster maximus and Rhodnius prolixus)--was investigated. Bugs were used in combination with a conventional method (retro-orbitale bleeding) to obtain blood samples from the same individual NMRI-mice (Mus musculus) vaccinated against rabies. Rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers between paired blood samples obtained from the same mice were compared. The accuracy (between-method comparison), precision (repeatability of results), and robustness (influence of digestion on blood parameter) of the bug method was evaluated. VNA titers in the blood sample obtained from the bugs' crops were equivalent to those from samples collected directly from the mice. No differences between samples taken from different bugs that had fed on the same mouse were noted. In addition, there were no changes in VNA titers in blood samples collected from the triatomine bugs for up to 4 hr after completion of the blood meal. This study demonstrates that the application of blood-sucking bugs offers a validated alternative for obtaining blood samples to determine rabies virus-neutralizing antibody titers and is highly suitable for animals with limited or no accessibility of veins by conventional sampling techniques.

  16. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Epidaus wangi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), a new assassin bug from Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Jianyun; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-08-18

    Epidaus wangi Chen, Zhu, Wang & Cai, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) from Tibet, China, is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens. The new species is morphologically similar to E. tuberosus Yang, 1940. The new species represents the first record of Epidaus species from Tibet.

  18. Ecological patterns of blood-feeding by kissing-bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo; Kitron, Uriel Dan; Obed, Yamila; Yoshioka, Miho; Gottdenker, Nicole; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2011-06-01

    Host use by vectors is important in understanding the transmission of zoonotic diseases, which can affect humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Here, a synthesis of host exploitation patterns by kissing-bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, is presented. For this synthesis, an extensive literature review restricted to feeding sources analysed by precipitin tests was conducted. Modern tools from community ecology and multivariate statistics were used to determine patterns of segregation in host use. Rather than innate preferences for host species, host use by kissing-bugs is influenced by the habitats they colonise. One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. We propose that expanding foraging studies to consider the community of vectors will substantially increase the understanding of Chagas disease transmission ecology. Our results indicate that host accessibility is a major factor that shapes the blood-foraging patterns of kissing-bugs. Therefore, from an applied perspective, measures that are directed at disrupting the contact between humans and kissing-bugs, such as housing improvement, are among the most desirable strategies for Chagas disease control.

  19. Effects of Pesticides on the Survival of Rove Beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and Insidious Flower Bug (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Herrick, Nathan J

    2018-02-09

    This study determined the direct, indirect, or both effects of pesticides on the rove beetle, Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The pesticides evaluated were Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, and soybean oil; cyantraniliprole; flupyradifurone; GS-omega/kappa-Hxtx-Hv1; Isaria fumosorosea; tolfenpyrad; pyrethrins; and spinosad. One experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with rove beetle adults exposed to growing medium applications of cyantraniliprole. The number of live and dead rove beetle adults was determined after 10 d. Four additional experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle or insidious flower bug adults were individually placed into Petri dishes with filter paper treated with the pesticides. After 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, the number of live and dead adults of both natural enemies was recorded. GS-omega/kappa-Hxtx-Hv1 (VST-006340LC); tolfenpyrad; Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, and soybean oil (Captiva); and Isaria fumosorosea were not directly harmful to O. insidiosus (80-100% adult survival). Likewise, the pesticides such as tolfenpyrad, Captiva, and I. fumosoroea were not directly harmful to D. coriaria (80-100% adult survival). D. coriaria was more sensitive to VST-006340LC (40% survival) than O. insidiosus (100% survival), whereas O. insidiosus was more sensitive to flupyradifurone (0% survival) than D. coriaria (80% and 40% survival for both rates tested, respectively). The pesticides pyrethrins, spinosad, flupyradifurone, and combinations of tolfenpyrad and Captiva were directly harmful (<50% adult survival) to both natural enemies. However, none of the pesticides tested affected the ability of O. insidiosus adults to feed on western flower thrips adults. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  20. Ontogenetic trajectory and allometry of Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius), an Oriental aquatic bug (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Dnyaneshwar; Morey, Rashmi; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Padhye, Sameer M; Paripatyadar, Shruti V

    2017-03-01

    Despite being one of the dominant groups in freshwater ecosystems, morphological and ontogenetic studies on aquatic Hemiptera have received little attention in the Oriental region. We present the ontogenetic trajectory and allometry of the widespread Oriental belostomatid species, Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius) for the first time. We have measured nine different morphological variables throughout the growth of the bug using both field captured and laboratory reared specimens. Our results suggest that the developmental instars can be distinguished by the size variables, as seen in the Principal Component Analysis. On the basis of a CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) based regression tree, we also show that the characters - total length without head and maximum width - prove to be adequate for effective instar identification. The multivariate allometric growth pattern shows that different body parts exhibit different types of allometry. This is apparent in the allometry exhibited by forelegs and mid and hind legs, which show allometry of opposite polarities. This may be due to the different functions attributed to these body parts. Our results show that the growth pattern in D. rusticus is comparable with the New World genus Belostoma, suggesting a conserved growth pattern in the family Belostomatidae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product...

  2. Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Christoph Liedtke

    Full Text Available The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E-2-hexenal and (E-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  3. Estimating potential stylet penetration of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) - A mathematical modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.), and related species are significant pests of cotton in the U.S. Cotton Belt. Using their stylets, adults introduce disease pathogens of cotton into cotton bolls, and preliminary data indicates nymphs can also ingest these pathogens. Data is lacking ...

  4. Milkweed (Gentianales: Apocynaceae): a farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Carpenter, J E

    2014-04-01

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, the stink bugs Nezara viridula (L.) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.) (Hemiptera: Coreidae), disperse at crop-to-crop interfaces to feed on bolls in cotton. The main objective of this study was to determine whether insecticide-free tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica L.), a nectar-producing plant, can increase parasitism of these bugs by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) and provide nectar to monarch butterflies and insect pollinators in these farmscapes. Peanut-cotton plots with and without flowering milkweed plants were established in 2009 and 2010. Adult T. pennipes, monarch butterflies, honey bees, and native insect pollinators readily fed on floral nectar of milkweed. Monarch larvae feeding on milkweed vegetation successfully developed into pupae. In 2009, N. viridula was the primary host of T. pennipes in cotton, and parasitism of this pest by the parasitoid was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (61.6%) than in control cotton (13.3%). In 2010, parasitism of N. viridula, C. hilaris, and L. phyllopus by T. pennipes was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (24.0%) than in control cotton (1.1%). For both years of the study, these treatment differences were not owing to a response by the parasitoid to differences in host density, because density of hosts was not significantly different between treatments. In conclusion, incorporation of milkweed in peanut-cotton plots increased stink bug parasitism in cotton and provided nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

  5. Populations of Rice Grain Bug, Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis, (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in Weed-free Paddy Field, Weedy Paddy Field and Paddy Dykes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Nasruddin, Andi; Agus, Nurariaty

    2017-07-01

    Research on the populations of rice grain bug Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis Dallas (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in paddy field ecosystems was performed with the aim to determine the populations of rice grain bug in weed-free paddy field, weedy paddy field, and paddy dykes. Experiment was carried out in the village of Paccellekang in the district of Patallasang of Gowa Regency in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Observations were performed during the milky grain stage (85 days after planting), the mature grain stage (105 days after planting), and one day after harvest (115 days after transplanting). Results showed that 85 days after the transplanting, the populations of rice grain bug was significantly higher in the weedy paddy field compared to weed-free field and paddy dykes with total numbers of 1.75, 3.53, and 0.31 insects per 2 hills, respectively. Similarly, 105 days after the transplanting, 2.53, 5.53, and 0.11 insects per hill, respectively. However, one day after the harvest (115 days after transplanting) the number of insects in weed-free field decreased, while in the dykes increased, and the weedy plot still had the highest number of insects per 2 hills. Our results suggested that weeds played an important role in regulating the bug population by providing alternative shelter and foods for the insect.

  6. High Levels of Resistance in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), to Neonicotinoid Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alvaro; Anderson, Troy D

    2016-05-01

    The rapid increase of bed bug populations resistant to pyrethroids demands the development of novel control tactics. Products combining pyrethroids and neonicotinoids have become very popular for bed bug control in the United States, but there are concerns about evolution of resistance to these compounds. Laboratory assays were used to measure the toxicity of topical applications of four neonicotinoids to a susceptible population and three pyrethroid-resistant populations. Activity of esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and cytochrome P450s of all strains was also evaluated. High levels of resistance to four neonicotinoids, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam, relative to the susceptible Fort Dix population, were detected in populations collected from human dwellings in Cincinnati and Michigan. Because activity of detoxifying enzymes was increased in these two populations, our results suggest that these enzymes have some involvement in neonicotinoid resistance, but other resistance mechanisms might be involved as well. Detection of high levels of resistance to neonicotinoids further limits the options for chemical control of bed bugs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Evolutionary History of Assassin Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Insights from Divergence Dating and Ancestral State Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11–14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears

  8. New distributional data on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Isabelle R S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Water bugs in general play an important role in freshwater ecosystems, and knowledge about them is essential for the study of water biology and the proper management of aquatic habitats. The Neotropical fauna is relatively well known, but the existence of large under-collected areas makes taxonomic and faunistic studies concerning the aquatic and semiaquatic bugs from tropical America urgent. New information Distributional information is presented for thirty-eight species of Gerromorpha and five Nepomorpha, including first records from the Brazilian states of Bahia (Mesovelia amoena), Ceará (Limnogonus profugus and Rhagovelia whitei), Espírito Santo (R. lucida), Goiás (Halobatopsis platensis and R. zela), Mato Grosso (Rheumatobates bonariensis), Pará (Nerthra terrestris), Paraná (H. spiniventris, Hydrometra fruhstorferi and R. janeira), Piauí (Microvelia ayacuchana, M. pulchella, Neogerris lubricus and Platyvelia brachialis), Rio de Janeiro (Martarega bentoi) and São Paulo (Rheumatobates minutus flavidus); and the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios (Rhagovelia fontanalis). PMID:25892925

  9. Comparative bio-ecological studies among two species of Urentius lace bugs (Hemiptera: Tingidae in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the prevalent lace bugs in Sudan, Urentius hystricellus and Urentius euonymus are important pests of eggplant and pigeon pea, respectively. They attack alternative hosts, but some plants were reported as common hosts for both species. In fact, the identity of these pests and their actual host plants seems to be confusing. Therefore, the main objectives of this work were to; differentiate between such pest species based on certain morpho-biological investigations, verify their hosts’ ranges and study their intra-host distributions and seasonal trends through field surveys and experiments. The results showed clear morphological and biological differences among the two lace bug species. The durations of pre-imaginal stages of U. hystricellus were shorter than those of U. euonymus, while each pest took shorter durations in autumn as compared with winter season. Each pest has its own host range, and no shared hosts were detected, as believed. Hence, the mistaken hosts were corrected and new hosts were added. Such new records included Solanum incanum for U. hystricellus, and two hosts (Chrozophora plicata and Rhynchosia memnonia for U. euonymus. Counts of insects on either leaf sides have revealed variable distributions in different hosts. The seasonal trends of the two pests showed peak populations during autumn and summer seasons. In conclusion, the study made clear distinctions between U. hystricellus and U. euonymus, and gave supportive findings for ecological management.

  10. First observation of alternative food usage (extrafloral nectar by the assassin bug Atopozelus opsimus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhainer Guillermo-Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assassin bugs (Reduviidae are voracious insects that prey on other arthropods. Recent evidences have pointed out that these predators also feed on plant derived substances in rare opportunities. The present study describes the feeding behavior of the reduviid Atopozelus opsimus on extrafloral nectaries of Inga vera (Fabaceae in a Neotropical savanna area. It was investigated if the insects feed more frequently of extrafloral nectar or prey, and if individuals of different stages of development vary according to feeding behavior. Notably, the results suggest that the diet of all instars and adults consist mainly of extrafloral nectar (N = 1013, in detriment of captured prey ingestion (N = 18. Also, there was no variation on feeding behavior and life stage.

  11. Hox gene function and interaction in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, David R; Liu, Paul Z; Hughes, Cynthia L; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2005-11-15

    Studies in genetic model organisms such as Drosophila have demonstrated that the homeotic complex (Hox) genes impart segmental identity during embryogenesis. Comparative studies in a wide range of other insect taxa have shown that the Hox genes are expressed in largely conserved domains along the anterior-posterior body axis, but whether they are performing the same functions in different insects is an open question. Most of the Hox genes have been studied functionally in only a few holometabolous insects that undergo metamorphosis. Thus, it is unclear how the Hox genes are functioning in the majority of direct-developing insects and other arthropods. To address this question, we used a combination of RNAi and in situ hybridization to reveal the expression, functions, and regulatory interactions of the Hox genes in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Our results reveal many similarities and some interesting differences compared to Drosophila. We find that the gene Antennapedia is required for the identity of all three thoracic segments, while Ultrabithorax, abdominal-A and Abdominal-B cooperate to pattern the abdomen. The three abdominal genes exhibit posterior prevalence like in Drosophila, but apparently via some post-transcriptional mechanism. The functions of the head genes proboscipedia, Deformed, and Sex combs reduced were shown previously, and here we find that the complex temporal expression of pb in the labium is like that of other insects, but its regulatory relationship with Scr is unique. Overall, our data reveal that the evolution of insect Hox genes has included many small changes within general conservation of expression and function, and that the milkweed bug provides a useful model for understanding the roles of Hox genes in a direct-developing insect.

  12. Building-up of a DNA barcode library for true bugs (insecta: hemiptera: heteroptera) of Germany reveals taxonomic uncertainties and surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)).

  13. Building-up of a DNA barcode library for true bugs (insecta: hemiptera: heteroptera of Germany reveals taxonomic uncertainties and surprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Raupach

    Full Text Available During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae, Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae, Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833 (Aradidae or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811 (Anthocoridae.

  14. Filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palottini, Florencia; González, Andrés; Manrique, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The filling dynamics of exocrine defensive glands is an important component of the defensive capacity of an insect in its natural environment. We studied the filling state and reloading rate of the Brindley's glands in the haematophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Quantitative analyses of isobutyric acid, the main secretion component, were carried out with glands dissected from adults under different scenarios of development, number of discharging events and feeding conditions. The alarm-pheromone function of the gland secretion was also assessed in bioassays with conspecific nymphs. Although pharate adults have their glands completely developed, these were not full until imaginal ecdysis. If kept undisturbed, the adults maintained a constant gland load, and discharged about 75% of the gland contents upon one disturbance event. While the glands can be discharged several times, full replenishing was not complete after one week, unless the insect had access to food. The escape behavior of nymphs in bioassays correlated with the chemical analyses, with nymphs showing significant avoidance only toward gland discharges from undisturbed or disturbed/fed adults. The results are discussed in reference to the feeding frequency and gregarious behavior of T. infestans under natural conditions, which suggest a relevant role of the filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the intraspecific communication of the insect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2017-08-04

    Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product was the (+)-enantiomer of borneol and the optical isomer was undetectable. Although (+)-borneol showed significant sex pheromone activity against males, the antipode (-)-borneol also induced sex pheromone activity, albeit only slightly. Males may not have a strict identification mechanism based on stereochemistry. To verify the origin of this sex pheromone, we analysed the components of the essential oil of the leaves of Solidago canadensis L. (Compositae: Asteraceae), a host plant; bornyl acetate was detected to be a major component. The plant-produced bornyl acetate had different stereochemistry from the sex pheromone. The results suggested that the adults do not utilise the secondary metabolites of plants but biosynthesise this sex pheromone themselves. This is the first report on sex pheromone identification in Tingidae.

  16. Biology of rice bug Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae), population change and alternative host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapun, W

    2013-01-01

    Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) is a major rice pest which feeds on the sap of stems and rice seeds. Some graminaceous weed species serve as an alternative host of L. oratorius causing outbreaks throughout the rice growing season. Population changes of L. oratorius during both rice growing seasons - wet-season rice and dry-season rice - including the influence of alternative host, barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli (Graminaceae) on the development of L. oratorius was studied. Results presented that L. oratorius was the dominant pest species during the late phase of rice growth. Adults of L. oratorius started their migrations to wet-season rice at the vegetative stage of rice growth, while they migrated to dry-season rice at the repropuctive stage of rice growth. Leptocorisa oratorius breds rapidly in rice fields. Meanwhile, other adults migrated to the rice field. The population of adults and nymphs significantly increased from the reproductive stage to grain formation and ripening stage in both rice growing seasons. The population of nymphs was greater than adults but not significantly different in their number of individuals. Leptocorisa oratorius had one generation in each rice growing season. The results of the host plant study indicated that L oratorius developed completely in barnyard grass E. crus-galli as well as rice Oriza sativa (Graminaceae). However, L. oratorius preferred rice to barnyard grass for feeding and oviposition.

  17. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Vanessa Bellini; Pita, Sebastián; Vanzela, André Luis Laforga; Galvão, Cleber; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae. PMID:27759763

  18. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bellini Bardella

    Full Text Available The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae.

  19. Identification of volatiles released by diapausing brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Laura J; Morrison, William R; Rice, Kevin B; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Leskey, Tracy C; Guzman, Filadelfo; Khrimian, Ashot; Goldson, Stephen; Rostás, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is an agricultural and urban pest that has become widely established as an invasive species of major concern in the USA and across Europe. This species forms large aggregations when entering diapause, and it is often these aggregations that are found by officials conducting inspections of internationally shipped freight. Identifying the presence of diapausing aggregations of H. halys using their emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be a potential means for detecting and intercepting them during international freight inspections. Headspace samples were collected from aggregations of diapausing H. halys using volatile collection traps (VCTs) and solid phase microextraction. The only compound detected in all samples was tridecane, with small amounts of (E)-2-decenal found in most samples. We also monitored the release of defensive odors, following mechanical agitation of diapausing and diapause-disrupted adult H. halys. Diapausing groups were significantly more likely to release defensive odors than diapause-disrupted groups. The predominant compounds consistently found from both groups were tridecane, (E)-2-decenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, with a small abundance of dodecane. Our findings show that diapausing H. halys do release defensive compounds, and suggest that volatile sampling may be feasible to detect H. halys in freight.

  20. Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae, a parasite of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter(Hemiptera: Saldidae on the Oregon coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poinar George O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is rare to find terrestrial nematode lineages parasitizing arthropods inhabiting the intertidal or littoral zone of the oceans. During an ecological study along the Oregon dunes, an allantonematid nematode (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae was discovered parasitizing the intertidal shore bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter(Hemiptera: Saldidae. This shore bug is adapted to an intertidal environment and can survive short periods of submergence during high tides. The present study describes the nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development, ecology and evolution. Methods Adults and last instar nymphs of S. laticollis (Hemiptera: Saldidae were collected from the high intertidal zone among clumps of Juncus L. (Juncaceae plants at Waldport, Oregon on October 3, 2011. The bugs were dissected in 1% saline solution and the nematodes killed in 1% Ringers solution and immediately fixed in 5% formalin (at 20°C. Third stage juveniles removed from infected hosts were maintained in 1% saline solution until they matured to the adult stage, molted and mated. Results Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae is described from last instar nymphs and adults of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis on the Oregon coast. The new genus can be distinguished from other genera in the Allantonematidae by a stylet lacking basal knobs in both sexes, an excretory pore located behind the nerve ring, ribbed spicules, a gubernaculum, the absence of a bursa and the elongate-tubular shape of the ovoviviparous parasitic females. Studies of the organogenesis of Halophilanema showed development to third stage juveniles in the uterus of parasitic females. Maturation to the free-living adults and mating occurred in the environment. The incidence of infection of S. laticollis ranged from 0% to 85% depending on the microhabitat in the intertidal zone. Conclusions Based on the habitat and morphological characters, it is proposed

  1. Horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.; hemiptera: cimicidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Yasmin; Isman, Murray B

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor) bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient) bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51) was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.

  2. Horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.; hemiptera: cimicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Akhtar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51 was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.

  3. Carbohydrases in the digestive system of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamari, Mahboob; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Darvishzadeh, Ali; Chougule, Nanasaheb P

    2014-04-01

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, is a generalist predator of insects and has been used in biological control. However, information on the digestion of food in this insect is lacking. Therefore, we have studied the digestive system in P. maculiventris, and further characterized carbohydrases in the digestive tract. The midgut of all developmental stages was composed of anterior, median, and posterior regions. The volumes of the anterior midgut decreased and the median midgut increased in older instars and adults, suggesting a more important role of the median midgut in food digestion. However, carbohydrase activities were predominant in the anterior midgut. In comparing the specific activity of carbohydrases, α-amylase activity was more in the salivary glands (with two distinct activity bands in zymograms), and glucosidase and galactosidase activities were more in the midgut. Salivary α-amylases were detected in the prey hemolymph, demonstrating the role of these enzymes in extra-oral digestion. However, the catalytic efficiency of midgut α-amylase activity was approximately twofold more than that of the salivary gland enzymes, and was more efficient in digesting soluble starch than glycogen. Midgut α-amylases were developmentally regulated, as one isoform was found in first instar compared to three isoforms in fifth instar nymphs. Starvation significantly affected carbohydrase activities in the midgut, and acarbose inhibited α-amylases from both the salivary glands and midgut in vitro and in vivo. The structural diversity and developmental regulation of carbohydrases in the digestive system of P. maculiventris demonstrate the importance of these enzymes in extra-oral and intra-tract digestion, and may explain the capability of the hemipteran to utilize diverse food sources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparative mitogenomic analysis of damsel bugs representing three tribes in the family Nabidae (Insecta: Hemiptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Li

    of mitogenomic evolution in damsel bugs.

  5. Comparative mitogenomic analysis of damsel bugs representing three tribes in the family Nabidae (Insecta: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Liu, Haiyu; Song, Fan; Shi, Aimin; Zhou, Xuguo; Cai, Wanzhi

    2012-01-01

    evolution in damsel bugs.

  6. Optimization an optimal artificial diet for the predatory bug Orius sauteri (hemiptera: anthocoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flower bug Orius sauteri is an important polyphagous predator that is widely used for the biological control of mites and aphids. However, the optimal conditions for mass rearing of this insect are still unclear, thus limiting its application. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we investigated the optimal ingredients of an artificial diet for raising O. sauteri using a microencapsulation technique. The ingredients included egg yolk (vitellus, whole-pupa homogenate of the Tussah silk moth (Antheraea paphia, honey, sucrose, rapeseed (Brassica napus pollen and sinkaline. We tested 25 combinations of the above ingredients using an orthogonal experimental design. Using statistical analysis, we confirmed the main effect factors amongst the components, and selected five optimal combinations based on different biological and physiological characters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed that, although different artificial diet formats significantly influenced the development and reproductive ability of O. sauteri, the complete development of O. sauteri to sexual maturity could only be achieved by optimizing the artificial diet according to specific biological characters. In general, pupae of A. paphia had more influence on O sauteri development than did artificial components. The results of a follow-up test of locomotory and respiratory capacity indicated that respiratory quotient, metabolic rate and average creeping speed were all influenced by different diets. Furthermore, the field evaluations of mating preference, predatory consumption and population dispersion also demonstrated the benefits that could be provided by optimal artificial diets. CONCLUSIONS: A microencapsulated artificial diet overcame many of the difficulties highlighted by previous studies on the mass rearing of O. sauteri. Optimization of the microencapsulated artificial diet directly increased the biological and physiological characters investigated. Successive

  7. Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Heat, and Chemical Lures in Attracting the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. monitors incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2, heat, and chemical lures are being used for detecting bed bugs; however, there are few reported studies on the effectiveness of chemical lures in bed bug monitors and the interactions among chemical lure, CO2, and heat. We screened 12 chemicals for their attraction to bed bugs and evaluated interactions among chemical lures, CO2, and heat. The chemical lure mixture consisting of nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, spearmint oil, and coriander Egyptian oil was found to be most attractive to bed bugs and significantly increased the trap catches in laboratory bioassays. Adding this chemical lure mixture when CO2 was present increased the trap catches compared with traps baited with CO2 alone, whereas adding heat did not significantly increase trap catches when CO2 was present. Results suggest a combination of chemical lure and CO2 is essential for designing effective bed bug monitors.

  8. Toxicity of selected essential oils, silicone oils, and paraffino oil against the common bed bug, cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) resurged in the U.S. and many other countries over the past decade. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous “green pesticides”, mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic ...

  9. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode

    2003-01-01

    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  10. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll rotting bacteria vectored by the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determine the capacity of the brown stink bug (Euschistus servus) to transmit an infective Pantoea agglomerans into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) bolls. A laboratory colony of the brown stink bug (BSB) was maintained on fresh green beans. The P. agglomerans mutant strain Sc 1-R that holds rifamp...

  11. Comparative susceptibilities of different life stages of the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: miridae) to three classes of insecticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticidal control of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is targeted at the adult and nymphal stages, but there is little information on relative susceptibilities of these insects to insecticides. Tarnished plant bug adults were collected from various locations in Mi...

  12. A taxonomic monograph of the assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): 71 species based on 10,000 specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Elwood R; Weirauch, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The New World assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius, 1803 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Harpactorini) is revised based on more than 10,000 specimens. Seventy-one species are recognized and twenty-four described as new: Zelus aithaleos sp. n., Zelus amblycephalus sp. n., Zelus antiguensis sp. n., Zelus auralanus sp. n., Zelus bahiaensis sp. n., Zelus banksi sp. n., Zelus casii sp. n., Zelus championi sp. n., Zelus cordazulus sp. n., Zelus fuliginatus sp. n., Zelus gilboventris sp. n., Zelus gracilipes sp. n., Zelus grandoculus sp. n., Zelus kartaboides sp. n., Zelus lewisi sp. n., Zelus panamensis sp. n., Zelus paracephalus sp. n., Zelus rosulentus sp. n., Zelus russulumus sp. n., Zelus spatulosus sp. n., Zelus truxali sp. n., Zelus umbraculoides sp. n., Zelus umbraculus sp. n., and Zelus xouthos sp. n. Five species, Zelus araneiformis Haviland, 1931, Zelus gradarius Bergroth, 1905, Zelus modestus (Stål, 1862), Zelus subfasciatus Stål, 1860 and Zelus vittaticeps Stål, 1866, are removed from Zelus and placed incertae sedis within Harpactorini. Nine new synonyms are recognized (senior synonym in parentheses): Zelus atripes Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus conjungens [Stål, 1860]), Zelus dispar Fabricius, 1803 syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris Fabricius, 1803), Zelus formosus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853), Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål, 1860) syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris), Zelus pallidinervus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus kartabensis Haviland, 1931), Zelus personatus Berg, 1879 syn. nov. (=Zelus versicolor Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848), Zelus trimaculatus Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus means Fabricius, 1803), Zelus trimaculicollis (Stål, 1855) syn. nov. (=Zelus means), and Zelus tristis Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis). Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860) stat. rev. Is resurrected from junior synonymy with zealous armillatus (Lepeletier & Seville, 1825). Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862 stat. rev

  13. Evaluation of mature soybean pods as a food source for two pod-sucking bugs, Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae and Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahbubur Rahman

    Full Text Available Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius and Halyomorpha halys (Stål cause injury to soybeans by piercing and sucking pods and seeds. Growers believe that new damage decreases near to harvest despite the occurrence of these bugs at that time. As this question has never been assessed, we evaluated two diets: a mature soybean pods (dried shell + dried soybean seeds and b dried soybean seeds for the two bugs by assessing their biological, behavioral, and morphological attributes on each diet in laboratory. While nymphs of both species were able to develop and adults able to reproduce on the tested diets, bugs fed on pods had longer development times and 2.2 to 5.0 times higher mortality rates than bugs fed on seeds. Furthermore, adult longevity of R. pedestris and H. halys fed on pods was 8.4 and 7.5 days shorter, respectively, than that of bugs fed on seeds. However, pod feeding had no effect on adult fecundity or egg viability. In a behavioral choice test, adult R. pedestris preferred seeds over pods and probed seeds longer than pods. On average, adult H. halys also preferred seeds over pods, although 15.6% of H. halys showed the reverse, preferring pods over seeds. The proboscis length and estimated depth of stylet penetration into the host tissue of both nymphs and adults of both species was much greater than the thickness of the pod shell, suggesting that mouthpart structure does not explain the negative effects of pods vs. seeds. In conclusion, mature soybean pods were found to be a suitable food source for both R. pedestris and H. halys despite some negative effects, and thus careful attention should be paid to the population levels of these two bugs approaching harvest to reduce economic damage in soybean.

  14. Laboratory efficacy of mycoparasitic fungi (Aspergillus tubingensis and Trichoderma harzianum against tropical bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaikha Zahran

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Approaches to the bed bugs treatment should be explored in-depth using a natural biological agent like fungus especially A. tubingensis to reduce this pest population, in order to replace chemical methods.

  15. Genetic Variability and Geographic Diversity of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Populations from the Midwest Using Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Ralph B; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Kamble, Shripat T

    2015-07-01

    With the recent global resurgence of the bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), there is a need to better understand its biology, ecology, and ability to establish populations. Bed bugs are domestic pests that feed mainly on mammalian blood. Although bed bugs have not been implicated as vectors of pathogens, their biting activity inflicts severe insomnia and allergic reactions. Moreover, they have recently developed resistance to various insecticides, which requires further molecular research to determine genetic variation and appropriate interventions. Population dynamics, including genetic differentiation and genetic distance of 10 populations from the Midwest were analyzed in this study. The bed bug samples collected by pest control companies were genotyped using eight species-specific microsatellite markers. Results showed all eight markers were polymorphic, with 8-16 alleles per locus, suggesting high genetic diversity. The FST values were >0.25, signifying pronounced genetic differentiation. The G-test results also indicated high genetic differentiation among populations. The frequency of the most common allele across all eight loci was 0.42. The coefficient of relatedness between each of the populations was >0.5, indicative of sibling or parent-offspring relationships, while the FIS and its confidence interval values were statistically insignificant within the populations tested. The populations departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, possibly because of high heterozygosity. The genetic distance analysis using a neighbor-joining tree showed that the populations from Kansas City, MO, were genetically separate from most of those from Nebraska, indicating a geographic pattern of genetic structure. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of using microsatellite markers to study bed bugs population structure, thereby improving our understanding of bed bug population dynamics in the Midwest. Overall, this study showed a high genetic diversity and identified several

  16. Temperature-dependent models of development and survival of an insect pest of African tropical highlands, the coffee antestia bug Antestiopsis thunbergii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrag, Abdelmutalab G A; Murungi, Lucy K; Tonnang, Henri E Z; Mwenda, Dickson; Babin, Régis

    2017-12-01

    The antestia bug Antestiopsis thunbergii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a major pest of Arabica coffee in African tropical highlands. It feeds on coffee plant vegetative parts and berries leading to a direct reduction in coffee yield and quality. This study aimed to determine A. thunbergii thermal requirements, and to obtain new information on the pest demography as influenced by temperature. Temperature-dependent models were developed using the Insect Life Cycle Modelling software (ILCYM) through a complete life table study at seven constant temperatures in the range 18-32°C. Non-linear functions were fitted to A. thunbergii development, mortality, fecundity and senescence. Model parameters and demographic variables obtained from the models were given for each temperature and development stage. Life table parameters were estimated for nine constant temperatures, from 18°C to 26°C, using stochastic simulations. The minimum temperature threshold (T min ) and the thermal constant (k) for the development from egg to adult were estimated from a linear function at 12.1°C and 666.67° days, respectively. The maximum temperature threshold (T max ) was estimated at 33.9°C from a Logan model. The optimum temperature for immature stages' survival was estimated to be between 22.4 and 24.7°C. The maximum fecundity was 147.7 eggs female -1 at 21.2°C. Simulated A. thunbergii life table parameters were affected by temperature, and the maximum value of intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) was 0.029 at 22°C and 23°C. In general, the life cycle data, models and demographic parameters we obtained were in line with previous reports for antestia bugs or other stink bug species. The relationships between the pest thermal requirements and ecological preferences in highland coffee were discussed. Our results will contribute to risk prediction under climate change for this important coffee pest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Calendula officinalis as a floral resource to enhance aphid and thrips suppression by the flower bug Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Guo, Xiaojun; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Zappala, Lucia; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Su

    2017-03-01

    The flower bug Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is widely used as a biocontrol agent against thrips and aphids infesting greenhouse vegetables in Asia. The survival and oviposition of such predators, as well as the biocontrol services they provide, may be enhanced by adding extra floral resources to the crops. In the present study we investigated the effects of the plant Calendula officinalis L., used as a floral resource, for promoting the control of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) by O. sauteri under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Results showed that the presence of C. officinalis enhanced aphid and thrips suppression via an increased O. sauteri population growth. The predator populations responded positively to the addition of C. officinalis in the system, and they also varied as a function of the temperatures tested under laboratory conditions. In a similar way, predator populations varied among seasons, with the highest densities recorded in May in the greenhouse. C. officinalis can be used to increase available resources for natural enemies used in agricultural crops, notably in greenhouses. This study also provides evidence that increasing floral resources can enhance pest suppression provided by O. sauteri. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Up-regulation of carbon metabolism-related glyoxylate cycle and toxin production in Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 during infection of bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ting; Lee, Se Jin; Nai, Yu-Shin; Kim, Sihyeon; Kim, Jae Su

    2016-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana (Bb) is used as an environment-friendly biopesticide. However, the molecular mechanisms of Bb-host interactions are not well understood. Herein, RNA isolated from B. bassiana (Bb JEF-007) and Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) infected with this strain were firstly subjected to high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare transcriptomes. Due to lack of fungal and host genome information, fungal transcriptome was processed to partially exclude non-infection specific genes and host-flora. Differentially Expressed Gene (DEG) analysis showed that 2381 genes were up-regulated and 2303 genes were down-regulated upon infection. Most DEGs were classified into the categories of single-organism, cellular and metabolism processes by Gene Ontology analysis. Most DEGs were involved in metabolic pathways based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway mapping. Carbon metabolism-related enzymes in the glyoxylate cycle were significantly up-regulated, suggesting a possible role for them in Bb growth in the host. Additionally, transcript levels of several fungal genes were dramatically increased after infection, such as cytotoxic lectin-like protein, bacterial-like toxin, proteins related to cell wall formation, hyphal growth, nutrient uptake, and halogenated compound synthesis. This work provides insight into how entomopathogenic B. bassiana grows in agriculturally harmful bean bug at 6 d post infection. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Defensive secretion of rice bug,Leptocorisa oratorius fabricius, (Hemiptera: Coreidae): A unique chemical combination and its toxic, repellent, and alarm properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, N E; Bandumathie, M K

    1993-04-01

    Defensive secretion produced by adult males and females ofLeptocorisa oratorius, Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) living on the host plant,Oriza sativa, was analyzed by a combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. Both male and female secretions consisted of two major components: (E)-2-octenal andn-octyl acetate, 76% and 16% (w/w), respectively. The remaining 8% were trace compounds, some of which were identified as hexyl acetate, 3-octenal, 1-octanol, and (Z)-3-octenyl acetate. In a survey among 38 coreid defensive secretions, (E)-2-octenal andn-octyl acetate were found to occur rarely in addition to coreid-specific compounds, while their combination as primary constituents was found to be unique. Toxicity and repellency of this secretion were evaluated using two household pests,Anoplolepis longipes andSitotroga cerealella, as test insects, and lethal concentration (LC50) values of 0.24 ppm and 0.14 ppm, respectively, and repellencies of 63% and 58%, respectively, were obtained. Comparing the above values with those of a pentatomid bug,Coridius janus, evaluated under the same conditions, it was apparent that this secretion has potential as a repellent to enemies ofL. oratorius but not as a toxicant to attack them. Bioassay on the alarm activity of this secretion revealed that it elicits alarm responses, alerting and dispersing aggregated male and femaleL. oratorius: this is followed by "self-coating" activities. In addition, some unique behaviors were also noted among alarmedL. oratorius.

  20. First record of the subtropical leaf-footed bug, Paradasynus spinosus Hsiao (Hemiptera:Coreidae:Dasynini from the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junggon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paradasynus spinosus Hsiao, 1963 (Hemiptera:Coreidae:Dasynini, with its higher taxon, the tribe Dasynini, and the genus Paradasynus, is reported from the Korean Peninsula for the first time. The morphological information such as diagnosis and description of male/female genitalia and biological note are presented with photographs and illustrations, and the possibility of its spread in Korea as an insect pest is discussed under climate change. Keywords: Coreidae, Dasynini, New record, The Korean Peninsula

  1. Comparison of ingestion and topical application of insecticides against the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierras, Angela; Schal, Coby

    2016-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of Cimex lectularius infestations has challenged current intervention efforts, as pyrethroid resistance has become ubiquitous, availability of labeled insecticides for bed bugs is limited, and non-chemical treatment options, such as heat, are often unaffordable. We evaluated representative insecticides toward the goal of developing a novel, ingestible liquid bait for hematophagous arthropods. Results LC50 values were estimated for adult males and first instar nymphs of an insecticide-susceptible strain for abamectin, clothianidin, fipronil and indoxacarb, after ingestion from an in vitro feeder. LD50 values were calculated based on the ingested blood volume. Ingested abamectin, clothianidin and fipronil caused rapid mortality in both life stages. Fipronil was ∼43-fold more effective by ingestion than by topical application. Indoxacarb and its bioactive metabolite decarbomethoxyllated JW062 (DCJW) were ineffective at causing bed bug mortality even at concentrations as high as 1000 ng mL−1 blood. Conclusions Fipronil, clothianidin and abamectin have potential for being incorporated into a liquid bait for bed bug control; indoxacarb and DCJW were not effective. Bed bugs are a good candidate for an ingestible liquid bait because systemic formulations generally require less active ingredient than residual sprays, they remain contained and more effectively target hematophagous arthropods. PMID:27766740

  2. Parasitism of stink bug eggs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae of soybean fields in the Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Venzon

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the seasonal occurrence of stink bug egg parasitoids was carried out in soybean fields in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Collections of egg masses of stink bugs and monitoring of population levels of mobile stages were done weekly during the 1993/94 and 1994/95 soybean seasons. Piezodorus guildinii and Euschistus heros were the most abundant stink bugs throughout the survey. Rates of parasitism in P. guildinii eggs ranged from 50.2 to 77% in 1993/94 and from 31.3 to 44.1% in the 1994/95 soybean season. Parasitism in E. heros eggs ranged from 50.6 to 64.7 % in 1993/94 but no parasitized eggs were found in 1994/95. Telenomus podisi was the main parasitoid collected and the only species found to parasitize E. heros eggs. Trissolcus brochymenae and Ooencyrtus sp. were found attacking P. guildinii eggs, but at low levels. We discuss the contribution of egg parasitoids to natural control of stink bugs.

  3. The effects of temperature, activity and convection on the plastron PO2 of the aquatic bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis (Hemiptera; Aphelocheiridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karl K; Hetz, Stefan K; Seymour, Roger S

    2017-07-05

    The aquatic bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis (Fabricius 1794) utilises a plastron, a thin bubble layer on the surface of its body to extract O 2 from the water. Millions of tiny hairs keep the bubble from collapsing, enabling the bug to remain submerged indefinitely. The development of fibre optic O 2 -probes has allowed measurements of O 2 pressure (PO 2 ) surrounding the plastron, and within the plastron although only for short periods. Here we developed methods to continuously measure plastron PO 2 , and investigate how it is affected by temperature (15, 20, 25°C), activity, and water circulation. We also made measurements of water PO 2 , temperature and velocity in the field and swimming velocity at the treatment temperatures. Results show that plastron PO 2 is inversely related to temperature, associated with differences in metabolic demand, and that small bouts of activity or changes in water convection result in rapid changes in plastron PO 2 . A model was developed to calculate the conditions under which Aphelocheirus would exist without becoming O 2 -limited in relation to water temperature, PO 2 and boundary layer thickness. This suggests that Aphelocheirus at one of two field sites may have a reduced metabolic scope even in well convected water in association with low PO 2 and moderate temperature, and that in well convected, air-saturated water, bugs may have a reduced metabolic scope where water temperatures are between 20 and 25°C. If exposed to 5kPa PO 2 , Aphelocheirus cannot sustain resting metabolic rate even in well-convected water and would die at temperatures above approximately 25°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of artificial substrates of different colors for oviposition by the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to a rearing methodology for the brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, in the laboratory, we evaluated oviposition on artificial substrates of different colors. During six days, oviposition was evaluated daily, by counting the total number of eggs, number of clutches, and eggs/clutch. Females laid 12,463 eggs, in 1,677 clutches, resulting in an average of 7.28 ± 0.44 eggs/clutch. Black, brown, and green felt had the most eggs and clutches. The results demonstrated that many colors are suitable as oviposition substrate for E. heros, providing information for the mass rearing of this insect.

  5. Climate Change Impacts on the Potential Distribution and Abundance of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) With Special Reference to North America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Erica Jean

    2017-12-08

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål; Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), has recently emerged as a harmful pest of horticultural crops in North America and Europe. Native to East Asia, this highly polyphagous insect is spreading rapidly worldwide. Climate change will add further complications to managing this species in terms of both geographic distribution and population growth. This study used CLIMEX to compare potential H. halys distribution under recent and future climate models using one emission scenario (A2) with two different global circulation models, CSIRO Mk3.0 and MIROC-H. Simulated changes in seasonal phenology and voltinism were examined. Under the possible future climate scenarios, suitable range in Europe expands northward. In North America, the suitable H. halys range shifts northward into Canada and contracts from its southern temperature range limits in the United States due to increased heat stress. Prolonged periods of warm temperatures resulted in longer H. halys growing seasons. However, future climate scenarios indicated that rising summer temperatures decrease H. halys growth potential compared to recent climatic conditions, which in turn, may reduce mid-summer crop damage. Climate change may increase the number of H. halys generations produced annually, thereby enabling the invasive insect to become multivoltine in the northern latitudes of North America and Europe where it is currently reported to be univoltine. These results indicate prime horticultural production areas in Europe, the northeastern United States, and southeastern Canada are at greatest risk from H. halys under both current and possible future climates. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Dusky Cotton Bug Oxycarenus spp. (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Hibernating Sites and Management by using Plant Extracts under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Muneer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus spp., has now attained the status of a major pest of cotton crops that affects lint as well as the seed quality of cotton. Surveys were conducted to explore the hibernating sites in the districts Faisalabad, Multan and Bahawalpur. The efficacies of six different plant extracts, i.e. Neem (Azadirachta indica, Milkweed (Calotropis procera, Moringa (Moringa oleifera, Citrus (Citrus sinensis, Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum and Castor (Ricinus communis were tested by using three different concentrations of each plant extract, i.e. 5, 2.5 and 1.5% under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 70±5% RH. The data were recorded 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after treatment application. However, Psidium guajava, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Mangifera indica were graded as host plants heavily infested by Oxycarenus spp. Results (α≤0.05 indicated that increasing the concentration of extracts also increased the mortality. Nicotiana tobacum and Calotropis procera respectively displayed maximum 72 and 71, 84 and 80, 97 and 89% mortality at all concentrations, i.e. 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00%, after 96 hours of application. Two concentrations (2.5 and 5% are the most suitable for obtaining significant control of the dusky cotton bug.

  7. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  8. Population Genetic Baseline of the First Plataspid Stink Bug Symbiosis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae Reported in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D. Eaton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The stink bug, Megacopta cribraria, has an obligate relationship with a bacterial endosymbiont which allows it to feed on legumes. The insect is a pest of soybeans in Asia and was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in October 2009 on kudzu vine, Pueraria montana, in North Georgia, USA. By October 2010 M. cribraria had been confirmed in 80 counties in Georgia actively feeding on kudzu vine and soybean plants. Since the symbiosis may support the bug’s ecological expansions, a population genetic baseline for the symbiosis was developed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nuDNA gene sequence collected from each insect and its primary g- proteobacterium and secondary a -proteobacterium endosymbionts. A single mitochondrial DNA haplotype was found in all insects sampled in Georgia and South Carolina identified as GA1. The GAI haplotype appears to be rapidly dispersing across Georgia and into contiguous states. Primary and secondary endosymbiont gene sequences from M. cribraria in Georgia were the same as those found in recently collected Megacopta samples from Japan. The implications of these data are discussed.

  9. Population dynamics and structure of the neotropical bark bug Phloea subquadrata (Hemiptera: Phloeidae) on Plinia cauliflora (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomão, Adriana T; Vasconcellos-Neto, João

    2010-12-01

    Phloea subquadrata Spinola, 1837 (Pentatomoidea: Phloeidae) belongs to a small family of sap feeding bugs that live on tree trunks, on which they are cryptic because of their coloration and flat body. There are a few studies concerning phloeid anatomy and biology, but almost nothing is known about their ecology. In this study, population dynamics and structure of P. subquadrata on the host tree Plinia cauliflora (Myrtaceae) were investigated during 3 yr in a semideciduous forest in southeast Brazil. Nymphs and adults were active all year round, but the egg-laying season was mainly restricted to the warm, rainy season (September-March). Population density slightly increased at the end of this season because of reproduction. Population age structure changed markedly over time, with nymphs reaching the adult stage in the subsequent early-to-mid rainy season. Abiotic factors, such as rainfall and temperature, were correlated with female oviposition and population dynamics and phenology. Sex ratio was male-biased, not differing from 1:1 only during the adult recruitment period (October-January). Under dry weather conditions, phloeids were distributed closer to the base of the tree trunks when compared with rainy conditions. Our results suggest that seasonality and variations in weather conditions are important driving forces of population dynamics and phenology of P. subquadrata, as well as the microhabitat selection on host trees. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  10. Dispersion models and sampling of cacao mirid bug Sahlbergella singularis (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Theobroma Cacao in southern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisseleua, D H B; Vidal, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of Sahlbergella singularis Haglung, a major pest of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao) (Malvaceae), was studied for 2 yr in traditional cacao forest gardens in the humid forest area of southern Cameroon. The first objective was to analyze the dispersion of this insect on cacao trees. The second objective was to develop sampling plans based on fixed levels of precision for estimating S. singularis populations. The following models were used to analyze the data: Taylor's power law, Iwao's patchiness regression, the Nachman model, and the negative binomial distribution. Our results document that Taylor's power law was a better fit for the data than the Iwao and Nachman models. Taylor's b and Iwao's β were both significantly >1, indicating that S. singularis aggregated on specific trees. This result was further supported by the calculated common k of 1.75444. Iwao's α was significantly cacao plantations. Sampling plans, presented here, should be a tool for research on population dynamics and pest management decisions of mirid bugs on cacao. © 2011 Entomological Society of America

  11. Toxicity of essential oils from leaves of Piperaceae species in rice stalk stink bug eggs, Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tibraca limbativentris to is an important rice pest and occurs in all rice-growing regions of Latin America. The control this insect is accomplished with synthetic chemical insecticides, however, new approaches are needed to reduce risks to the environment, to the natural enemies and also to avoid the onset of insecticides resistance. This study was designed to assess the toxicity of essential oils (EOs from leaves of Piper aduncum, P. gaudichaudianum, P. malacophyllum, P. marginatum and P. tuberculatum (Piperaceae on rice stalk stink bug eggs, T. limbativentris. Essential oils were extracted with steam distillation and dilutions were made for bioassays at concentrations of 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0%. Essential oils from all species of Piperaceae displayed ovicidal activity. The LC50 values indicated that both younger and older eggs were susceptible to these oils. Ovicidal activity is related to the potential toxicity of several compounds, especially dilapiolle, myristicin, cubebene, α-guaiene, longifolene, prezizane, spathulenol, sabinene and δ-2-carene. Thus, EOs tested showed promising results for use as biorational botanical insecticides.

  12. Toxicity and sublethal effects of seven insecticides to eggs of the flower bug Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardini, Valéria Fonseca; Gontijo, Pablo da Costa; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Oliveira, Rodrigo Lopes de; Maia, Jader Braga; Silva, Fernanda Fonseca e

    2013-07-01

    The predatory bug Orius insidiosus is an important biological control agent of several insect pests, and is one of the most commonly used species in biological control programs worldwide. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on this species through life table, and classified the insecticides according to the definitions of toxicity given by the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC). A bioassay was carried out using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and 40 replicates. Eggs of O. insidiosus laid naturally in plant stems were immersed in aqueous solutions of the chemical products. Egg viability, duration of the embryonic period, survival of nymphs, and duration of the nymphal period were assessed daily. Insects that reached adulthood were paired and their reproduction assessed. The number of eggs produced and the survival of adults were assessed daily. The insecticides abamectin, cartap hydrochloride, spirotetramat+imidacloprid, and flubendiamid were classified as harmful. Pyriproxyfen and rynaxypyr were categorized as harmless and pymetrozine was classified as slightly harmful. Pyriproxyfen affected the population parameters rm, GT, DT, and λ, whereas other insecticides did not. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Absence of ribosomal DNA amplification in the meroistic (telotrophic) ovary of the large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    In the typical meroistic insect ovary, the oocyte nucleus synthesizes little if any RNA. Nurse cells or trophocytes actively synthesize ribosomes which are transported to and accumulated by the oocyte. In the telotrophic ovary a morphological separation exists, the nurse cells being localized at the apical end of each ovariole and communicating with the ooocytes via nutritive cords. In order to determine whether the genes coding for ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are amplified in the telotrophic ovary of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, the percentages of the genome coding for ribosomal RNA in somatic cells, spermatogenic cells, ovarian follicles, and nurse cells were compared. The oocytes and most of the nurse cells of O. fasciatus are uninucleolate. DNA hybridizing with ribosomal RNA is localized in a satellite DNA, the density of which is 1.712 g/cm(-3). The density of main-band DNA is 1.694 g/cm(-3). The ribosomal DNA satellite accounts for approximately 0.2% of the DNA in somatic and gametogenic tissues of both males and females. RNA-DNA hybridization analysis demonstrates that approximately 0.03% of the DNA in somatic tissues, testis, ovarian follicles, and isolated nurse cells hybridizes with ribosomal RNA. The fact that the percentage of DNA hybridizing with rRNA is the same in somatic and in male and female gametogenic tissues indicates that amplification of ribosomal DNA does not occur in nurse cells and that if it occurs in oocytes, it represents less than a 50- fold increase in ribosomal DNA. An increase in total genome DNA accounted by polyploidization appears to provide for increasing the amount of ribosomal DNA in the nurse cells. PMID:1158969

  14. Tolerance to high temperature extremes in an invasive lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae, in subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Ting Ju

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are predicted to be more frequent as climate change is increasing its positive impact on the prevalence of invasive exotic species. Success of insect invaders in different temperature zones is closely related to their tolerance to temperature extremes. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata as the study organism to address the hypotheses that an insect species invading a subtropical zone from temperate regions has a high capacity to survive and adapt to high temperatures, and that its thermal tolerance plays an important role in determining its seasonal abundance and geographic distribution. To test these hypotheses, the effects of heat shock on the survival and reproduction of C. ciliata adults were assessed in the laboratory. Adults were exposed to 26 (control, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, and 45°C for 2 h, and then were transferred to 26°C. Heat-shock temperatures ranging from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect survival pattern, longevity, and fecundity of adults, but heat shock at 43 and 45°C significantly reduced these traits. Exposing parent females to heat-shock treatments from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect the hatching rate of their eggs, survival of the nymphs, and the proportion of female F(1 progeny, while no progeny were produced with treatments of 43 and 45°C. The results indicate that C. ciliata can tolerate high temperatures less than 41°C, which may contribute to its expansion into the lower latitudes in China where its hosts (Platanus trees are widely planted. Our findings have important implications for predicting seasonal abundance and understanding invasion mechanisms of this important urban invader under climate change.

  15. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae: A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Dhammi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F., poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  16. A survey on the infestation levels of tropical bed bugs in Peninsular Malaysia: Current updates and status on resurgence of Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahran Zulaikha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey current bed bugs infestation status in 11 states and federal territory in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: Targeted sampling in the urban areas was performed and the sites in each state were selected based on foreign workers’ abundance and reports from pest control professionals in Malaysia. The collected bed bugs were classified into different strains obtained at the respective sites. Results: Out of all 185 surveyed sites, approximately 38 of them have been actively infested with one species, Cimex hemipterus (F.. A high number of collected bed bugs were found in the states of Perak (24.8%, Selangor (21.0% and Kedah (16.1%. In terms of preferred harborages, bedding, crevices in walls and floors and cushion seats were common locations with 49.2% infestation. Bed bugs were dominantly found in dormitories of foreign workers (51.6% compared to residential houses and public accommodations such as hotels and airports. Conclusions: Migration activities and reused infested furniture probably were the possible reasons to bed bug resurgence.

  17. Multiple model mimicry and feeding behavior of the spider web-inhabiting damsel bug, Arachnocoris berytoides Uhler (Hemiptera: Nabidae), from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier E. Mercado; Jorge A. Santiago-Blay

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus, Arachnocoris Scott groups thirteen species of specialized spider web-inhabiting damsel bugs (Nabidae) distributed from Panama to Brazil and the West Indies. We present new information on the web behavior of A. berytoides Uhler from Puerto Rico. Three different life stages were observed on the spider webs, suggesting this species likely depends on...

  18. Utilization of tall goldenrod by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the production of overwintering adults and as a possible winter food source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), nymphs and adults were collected from tall goldenrod, Solidago canadensis L. var. scabra Torr. and Gray, in Washington County, MS during October and November 2008 and 2009. Adults were dissected to determine their reproductive status in o...

  19. Behavioral response of the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to semiochemicals deployed inside and outside anthropogenic structures during the overwintering period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive species from Asia capable of causing severe agricultural damage. It can also be a nuisance pest in the United States when it enters and exits anthropogenic overwintering sites. In recent years, pheromone lures and traps for H. haly...

  20. Undesirable dispersal of eggs and early-stage nymphs of the bed bug Hemiptera: cimicidae) by static electricity and air currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement of whole live insects or other small arthropods attributed to static electricity has been reported only rarely. While viewing bed bugs in plastic or glass Petri dishes using a dissecting microscope, individual eggs and early stage nymphs were occasionally observed to move suddenly and rapid...

  1. Assessment of the impact of the egg parasitoid, Paratelenoumus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on populations of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kudzu bug has become a pest of economic importance ever since its introduction to the Southeastern United States from Asia in 2009. It causes serious economic damage to legume crops (soybeans, bean, pigeon pea, mung bean, velvet bean etc.) and is a nuisance to home owners. One natural egg parasi...

  2. Milkweed (Gentianales: Apocynaceae): A farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habit...

  3. Effect of climate change on annual fluctuations in the population density of the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between the population density of overwintering adults of the brown marmorated stink bug and the temperatures of each month during the preceding November to April was investigated in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, from 1999 to 2012. The number of adults entering traps for overwintering at the monitored hibernation site differed considerably among years. There was a significant negative correlation between the increase ratio (the ratio of the number collected in the current year to the number collected in the previous year) and the mean daily maximum temperature of the preceding March and April. These results suggest that the proportion of surviving adult brown marmorated stink bug may be higher when temperatures in early spring (March and April) are lower, as the postoverwintering adults may need to survive without food for a shorter period of time.

  4. Landscape Factors Facilitating the Invasive Dynamics and Distribution of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), after Arrival in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wallner, Adam M.; Hamilton, George C.; Nielsen, Anne L.; Hahn, Noel; Green, Edwin J.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.

    2014-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization proce...

  5. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina Presence of Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae in nests of swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. Carpintero

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.Nests of four species of Hirundinidae that nest in Argentina were prospected for Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, a parasite of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («oven bird» and Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («house sparrow» was found in nests of three species of Hirundinidae: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («gray-breasted martin», Progne elegans Baird («southern martin» and Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («barn swallow». The parasite was not found in nest boxes of Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («white-rumped swallow». Caminicimex furnarii is recorded for first time parasitizing swallows and martins. Interaction among these bird populations, associated with usurpation nests behavior, may explain the presence of the same cimicid species at the nests. According this idea, other possible C. furnarii hosts are suggested.

  6. Olfactory Response of the Predatory Bug Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) to the Aggregation Pheromone of Its Prey, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaello, Teresa; Casas, José L; Pineda, Ana; de Alfonso, Ignacio; Marcos-García, M Ángeles

    2017-10-01

    Herbivore natural enemies base their foraging decision on information cues from different trophic levels but mainly from plant odors. However, the second trophic level (i.e., the herbivorous prey) may also provide reliable infochemical cues for their natural enemies. We have evaluated the role of the aggregation pheromone from Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) as a potential kairomone for its natural enemy, the predatory bug Orius laevigatus (Fieber). For this purpose, we have analyzed the response of O. laevigatus to (R)-lavandulyl acetate and neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, the two major components of the thrips aggregation pheromone. These compounds have been offered to O. laevigatus adult females and nymphs of the predatory bugs both in separate and as specific (1:1 or 1:2.3) blends, in experiments involving a dual choice Y-tube olfactometer. None of the compounds attracted adults or nymphs when they were individually supplied. Conversely, they were significantly attracted to both adults and nymphs when offered as a blend. A 1:2.3 (R)-lavandulyl acetate:neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate blend was attractive to both nymphs and adults, while a 1:1 blend elicited response only in nymphs. These results suggest that specific blends of these compounds from the aggregation pheromone may be used as an attractant to O. laevigatus. The results of this work highlight the importance of studying olfactory responses of natural enemies for a better understanding of their foraging behavior. Potential uses of these results in future studies are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Performance consequences of food mixing in two passion vine leaf-footed bugs, Holymenia clavigera (Herbst, 1784) and Anisoscelis foliacea marginella (Dallas, 1852) (Hemiptera; Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D; Duarte, L S; Moreira, G R P

    2007-02-01

    Holymenia clavigera (Herbst) and Anisoscelis foliacea marginella (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Coreidae: Anisoscelini) are distributed in southern Brazil and use various passion vine species (Passifloraceae) as host-plants. Preliminary observations indicate a high coexistence of these species in terms of host-plant use; in addition, there is a strong similarity regarding egg and nymph morphology. In this study, the most suitable feeding sites for nymph performance on wild (Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus and Passiflora misera Humbold, Bonpland et Kunth) and cultivated (Passiflora edulis Sims) hosts were determined by rearing them on each host and on the combination of hosts. Performance was determined by evaluating nymph development and survivorship, and adult size at emergence. Plant parts used were also recorded. For both species, P. suberosa was the most suitable host plant. First instar nymphs of both species fed on terminal buds more frequently when compared to other plant parts. Second instar nymphs switched to green fruits, whose behavior was more pronounced for H. clavigera. Thus, H. clavigera and A. foliacea marginella immatures are extremely similar in terms of host-plant use and consequences for performance, in addition to their morphological similarity. We suggest that these coreids may have evolved through several processes, including parsimony between the immature stages after speciation, evolutionary convergence, mimicry or genetic drift.

  8. Na+/K+-ATPase resistance and cardenolide sequestration: basal adaptations to host plant toxins in the milkweed bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Lygaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramer, Christiane; Dobler, Susanne; Deckert, Jürgen; Stemmer, Michael; Petschenka, Georg

    2015-04-22

    Despite sequestration of toxins being a common coevolutionary response to plant defence in phytophagous insects, the macroevolution of the traits involved is largely unaddressed. Using a phylogenetic approach comprising species from four continents, we analysed the ability to sequester toxic cardenolides in the hemipteran subfamily Lygaeinae, which is widely associated with cardenolide-producing Apocynaceae. In addition, we analysed cardenolide resistance of their Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases, the molecular target of cardenolides. Our data indicate that cardenolide sequestration and cardenolide-resistant Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase are basal adaptations in the Lygaeinae. In two species that shifted to non-apocynaceous hosts, the ability to sequester was secondarily reduced, yet Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase resistance was maintained. We suggest that both traits evolved together and represent major coevolutionary adaptations responsible for the evolutionary success of lygaeine bugs. Moreover, specialization on cardenolides was not an evolutionary dead end, but enabled this insect lineage to host shift to cardenolide-producing plants from distantly related families. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional analyses in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hemiptera) support a role for Wnt signaling in body segmentation but not appendage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, David R; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2005-07-15

    Specification of the proximal-distal (PD) axis of insect appendages is best understood in Drosophila melanogaster, where conserved signaling molecules encoded by the genes decapentaplegic (dpp) and wingless (wg) play key roles. However, the development of appendages from imaginal discs as in Drosophila is a derived state, while more basal insects produce appendages from embryonic limb buds. Therefore, the universality of the Drosophila limb PD axis specification mechanism has been debated since dpp expression in more basal insect species differs dramatically from Drosophila. Here, we test the function of Wnt signaling in the development of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, a species with the basal state of appendage development from limb buds. RNA interference of wg and pangolin (pan) produce defects in the germband and eyes, but not in the appendages. Distal-less and dachshund, two genes regulated by Wg signaling in Drosophila and expressed in specific PD domains along the limbs of both species, are expressed normally in the limbs of pan-depleted Oncopeltus embryos. Despite these apparently paradoxical results, Armadillo protein, the transducer of Wnt signaling, does not accumulate properly in the nuclei of cells in the legs of pan-depleted embryos. In contrast, engrailed RNAi in Oncopeltus produces cuticular and appendage defects similar to Drosophila. Therefore, our data suggest that Wg signaling is functionally conserved in the development of the germband, while it is not essential in the specification of the limb PD axis in Oncopeltus and perhaps basal insects.

  10. Landscape Factors Facilitating the Invasive Dynamics and Distribution of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), after Arrival in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Adam M.; Hamilton, George C.; Nielsen, Anne L.; Hahn, Noel; Green, Edwin J.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.

    2014-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization processes of this pest in New Jersey. We present the results of monitoring H. halys from 51 to 71 black light traps that were placed on farms throughout New Jersey from 2004 to 2011 and examined relationships between total yearly densities of H. halys and square hectares of 48 landscape/land use variables derived from urban, wetland, forest, and agriculture metadata, as well as distances to nearest highways. From these analyses we propose the following hypotheses: (1) H. halys density is strongly associated with urban developments and railroads during its initial establishment and dispersal from 2004 to 2006; (2) H. halys overwintering in multiple habitats and feeding on a variety of plants may have reduced the Allee effect, thus facilitating movement into the southernmost regions of the state by railroads from 2005 to 2008; (3) density of H. halys contracted in 2009 possibly from invading wetlands or sampling artifact; (4) subsequent invasion of H. halys from the northwest to the south in 2010 may conform to a stratified-dispersal model marked by rapid long-distance movement, from railroads and wetland rights-of-way; and (5) high densities of H. halys may be associated with agriculture in southern New Jersey in 2011. These landscape features associated with the invasion of H. halys in New Jersey may predict its potential rate of invasion across the USA and worldwide. PMID:24787576

  11. Landscape factors facilitating the invasive dynamics and distribution of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, after arrival in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Wallner

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization processes of this pest in New Jersey. We present the results of monitoring H. halys from 51 to 71 black light traps that were placed on farms throughout New Jersey from 2004 to 2011 and examined relationships between total yearly densities of H. halys and square hectares of 48 landscape/land use variables derived from urban, wetland, forest, and agriculture metadata, as well as distances to nearest highways. From these analyses we propose the following hypotheses: (1 H. halys density is strongly associated with urban developments and railroads during its initial establishment and dispersal from 2004 to 2006; (2 H. halys overwintering in multiple habitats and feeding on a variety of plants may have reduced the Allee effect, thus facilitating movement into the southernmost regions of the state by railroads from 2005 to 2008; (3 density of H. halys contracted in 2009 possibly from invading wetlands or sampling artifact; (4 subsequent invasion of H. halys from the northwest to the south in 2010 may conform to a stratified-dispersal model marked by rapid long-distance movement, from railroads and wetland rights-of-way; and (5 high densities of H. halys may be associated with agriculture in southern New Jersey in 2011. These landscape features associated with the invasion of H. halys in New Jersey may predict its potential rate of invasion across the USA and worldwide.

  12. Landscape factors facilitating the invasive dynamics and distribution of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), after arrival in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Adam M; Hamilton, George C; Nielsen, Anne L; Hahn, Noel; Green, Edwin J; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R

    2014-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization processes of this pest in New Jersey. We present the results of monitoring H. halys from 51 to 71 black light traps that were placed on farms throughout New Jersey from 2004 to 2011 and examined relationships between total yearly densities of H. halys and square hectares of 48 landscape/land use variables derived from urban, wetland, forest, and agriculture metadata, as well as distances to nearest highways. From these analyses we propose the following hypotheses: (1) H. halys density is strongly associated with urban developments and railroads during its initial establishment and dispersal from 2004 to 2006; (2) H. halys overwintering in multiple habitats and feeding on a variety of plants may have reduced the Allee effect, thus facilitating movement into the southernmost regions of the state by railroads from 2005 to 2008; (3) density of H. halys contracted in 2009 possibly from invading wetlands or sampling artifact; (4) subsequent invasion of H. halys from the northwest to the south in 2010 may conform to a stratified-dispersal model marked by rapid long-distance movement, from railroads and wetland rights-of-way; and (5) high densities of H. halys may be associated with agriculture in southern New Jersey in 2011. These landscape features associated with the invasion of H. halys in New Jersey may predict its potential rate of invasion across the USA and worldwide.

  13. Karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative FISH mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA and telomeric (TTAGGn repeat in eight species of true bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snejana Grozeva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using DAPI/CMA3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with telomeric (TTAGGn and 18S rDNA probes. Standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for Deraeocoris rutilus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838 (2n=30+2m+XY and D. ruber (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=30+2m+XY from the family Miridae. Using FISH, the location of a 18S rDNA cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: Megaloceroea recticornis (Geoffroy, 1785 (2n=30+XY from the Miridae; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787 (2n=14+2m+XY from the Lygaeidae s.l.; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=22+X from the Pyrrhocoridae; Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=12+XY and Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=12+XY from the Pentatomidae. The species were found to differ with respect to location of a 18S rRNA gene cluster which resides on autosomes in O. lavaterae and P. apterus, whereas it locates on sex chromosomes in other five species. The 18S rDNA location provides the first physical landmark of the genomes of the species studied. The insect consensus telomeric pentanucleotide (TTAGGn was demonstrated to be absent in all the species studied in this respect, D. rutilus, M. recticornis, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Cimicidae, E. oleracea, and G. lineatum, supporting the hypothesis that this motif was lost in early evolution of the Heteroptera and secondarily replaced with another motif (yet unknown or the alternative telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Dot-blot hybridization analysis of the genomic DNA from C. lectularius, Nabis sp. and O. lavaterae with (TTAGGn and six other telomeric probes likewise provided a negative result.

  14. Karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative FISH mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA and telomeric (TTAGG) n repeat in eight species of true bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozeva, S; Kuznetsova, V G; Anokhin, B A

    2011-01-01

    Eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using DAPI/CMA3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric (TTAGG)n and 18S rDNA probes. Standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for Deraeocoris rutilus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838) (2n=30+2m+XY) and Deraeocoris ruber(Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=30+2m+XY) from the family Miridae. Using FISH, the location of a 18S rDNA cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: Megaloceroea recticornis (Geoffroy, 1785) (2n=30+XY) from the Miridae; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787) (2n=14+2m+XY) from the Lygaeidae s.l.; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=22+X) from the Pyrrhocoridae; Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=12+XY) and Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=12+XY) from the Pentatomidae. The species were found to differ with respect to location of a 18S rRNA gene cluster which resides on autosomes in Oxycarenus lavaterae and Pyrrhocoris apterus, whereas it locates on sex chromosomes in other five species. The 18S rDNA location provides the first physical landmark of the genomes of the species studied. The insect consensus telomeric pentanucleotide (TTAGG)n was demonstrated to be absent in all the species studied in this respect, Deraeocoris rutilus, Megaloceroea recticornis, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Cimicidae), Eurydema oleracea, and Graphosoma lineatum, supporting the hypothesis that this motif was lost in early evolution of the Heteroptera and secondarily replaced with another motif (yet unknown) or the alternative telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Dot-blot hybridization analysis of the genomic DNA from Cimex lectularius, Nabis sp. and Oxycarenus lavaterae with (TTAGG)n and six other telomeric probes likewise provided a negative result.

  15. Life table parameters of the dubas bug, Ommatissus lybicus (Hem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dubas bug, Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) is one of the major pests of date palm in Bam region, Iran. In this study, life table parameters of O. lybicus were studied at 25, 30 and 35°C. The experiments were conducted in a leaf cage at 60 ± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L: D) h.

  16. Swallowing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other swallowing tests Chest x-ray Esophageal pH monitoring (measures acid in the esophagus) Esophageal manometry ( ... Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management . 10th ed. ...

  17. Phylogeny of the true water bugs (Nepomorpha: Hemiptera–Heteroptera) based on 16S and 28S rDNA and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Martin Bay; Andersen, Nils M.; Damgaard, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    Morphological characters and molecular sequence data were for the first time analysed separately and combined for the true water bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). Data from forty species representing all families were included, together with two outgroup species representing...

  18. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    Many modern software systems are highly configurable. They embrace variability to increase adaptability and to lower cost. To implement configurable software, developers often use the C preprocessor (CPP), which is a well-known technique, mainly in industry, to deal with variability in code....... Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular...... be exploited. Variability bugs are not confined to any particular type of bug, error-prone feature, or location. In addition to introducing an exponential number of program variants, variability increases the complexity of bugs due to unintended feature interactions, hidden features, combinations of layers...

  19. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Michael D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  20. Pentatomidae bugs associated with sunflower crops in the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul state and the action of Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae on sunfl ower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Sivori Silva dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to identify the species of bugs attacking sunflowers in the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul state and to estimate the damage caused during the R6 and R8 stages. The bugs present in ten sunflower crops were collected, and their feeding sites were determined. The species Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794 was used to determine the damage by individualizing the capitula using mesh cages in the R6 and R8 stages. Each caged capitulum was infested with one, two, or four bugs. Besides E. heros (47.67%, Dichelops furcatus (Fabricius, 1775 (44.18%, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, 1837 (4.65% and Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius, 1794 (3.48% were found. There were no significant differences among the treatments regarding the yield components (weight of 1000 sunflower seeds, germination power, oil and protein content. The tetrazolio test indicated that the bugs fed on the sunflower seeds.

  1. Lightning Bugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 9. Lightning Bugs. B Gajendra Babu M Kannan. General Article Volume 7 Issue 9 September 2002 pp 49-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/09/0049-0055. Keywords.

  2. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  3. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Barium Swallow - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Swallowing Problems - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual ...

  4. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... by matching temporal bug-patterns against the control-flow graph of this program abstraction. I have implemented a proof-of-concept bug finder based on this technique, EBA, and confirmed that it is both scalable and effective at finding bugs. On a benchmark of historical Linux double-lock bugs, EBA was able...

  5. Integrative review of indigenous arthropod natural enemies of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the establishment of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in North America and Europe, there has been a large, multi-group effort to characterize the composition and impact of the indigenous community of arthropod natural enemies attacking this invas...

  6. Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aak, A; Rukke, B A

    2014-03-01

    A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6 °C for ≥ 14 days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. [Dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Fujishima, Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia is a life-threatening disorder caused by many medical conditions such as stroke, neurological disorders, tumors, etc. The symptoms of dysphagia are quite variable and diagnosed by observation or through screening involving instrumental swallowing examinations such as video-fluoroscopy and video-endoscopy, to determine functional severity and treatment-prognosis. Direct- and indirect-therapy is used with and without food, respectively. Swallowing rehabilitation is very effective, and could be used in conjunction with compensatory techniques. Here we present an overview of dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation.

  8. Speech and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hallucinations/Delusions Pain Skeletal & Bone Health Skin Changes Sleep Disorders Small Handwriting Speech & Swallowing Problems Urinary Incontinence Vision Changes Weight Management Diagnosis Treatment Help Us Make a Difference We need your ...

  9. Novas Plantas Hospedeiras para o Percevejo Fitófago Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Pires

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae is a phytophagous bug that can be found in several crops due to availability of food and favorable conditions for the development. The aim of this research was to record the occurrence of L. zonatus colonizing plants of Malpighia emarginata Sessé & Moc (Malpighiaceae, Morus nigra Linnaeus (Moraceae, Mangifera indica Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae in Municipality of Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil. L. zonatus should be included in monitoring for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM in these plants.

  10. Feeding preference of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and attractiveness of soybean genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Efrain de Santana [UNESP; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz [UNESP; Goncalves Franco da Silva, Jose Paulo [UNESP; Lourencao, Andre Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a cosmopolitan insect that causes economic damages to several cultures, in particular soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) Among the techniques that involve Integrated Pest Management, the resistance of plants is pointed as a tool of great value and can contribute to the reduction of populations of insects. The feeding preferences of adults of southern green stink bug (N. viridula), and the attractiveness of soybean genotypes were evaluated under...

  11. Selection of soybean pods by the stink bugs, Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Gonzalo A R; Trumper, Eduardo V

    2012-01-01

    Different biological parameters of the stink bugs, Nezara viridula L. and Piezodorus guildinii Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are affected by the developmental stage of the soybean (Glycine max Merrill) pods they feed on. These effects of the soybean on the stink bugs could represent a selection pressure leading to the ability of these species to discriminate the phenological stage of soybean pods, and, therefore, to exhibit feeding preferences. We designed three studies: (1) Distant detection of soybean pods through an olfactometer; (2) Free choice tests to evaluate preferences for soybean pods of different developmental stages; (3) No choice tests to study effects of soybean pod development on feeding time and number of probes. Stink bugs showed no differential response to olfactometer arms with or without soybean pods, suggesting an inability to detect soybean volatiles. Free choice tests showed no species effects on pods selection, but significant differences among fifth instar nymphs, adult male, and adult females. Fifth instar nymphs fed more frequently on soybean pods of advanced development stages compared to female adults, despite previous evidence showing poor development of stink bugs fed pods of the same stage. No choice tests showed significant effects of stink bug species, stink bug stage and sex, and soybean pod phenology. N. viridula expressed shorter feeding times and higher numbers of probes than P. guildinii. The highest numbers of probes of both species were observed when they were fed soybean pods in early phenological stages. When placed in direct contact with food, fifth instar nymphs prefered to feed on more developed pods, despite these pods being suboptimal food items. These results suggest that for the ecological time framework of soybean-stink bugs coexistence, around thirty-five years in Argentina, the selection pressure was not enough for stink bugs to evolve food preferences that match their performance on soybean pods of

  12. New species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on giant water bugs, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae from southern Brazil Nova espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosimbionte sobre baratas d´água, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae da região sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 is described from southern Brazil, ectosymbiont on giant water bugs (aquatic hemipterans, Belostoma spp. from the greater Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Some hemipterans examined were positive for this species of Temnocephala and carried bunches of eggs between the first two pairs of legs and between the first pair of legs and the rostrum, as well as adult and young specimens. The adults were darkly pigmented (greenish-brown, mimetizing the color of the hemipteran hosts. The new species is similar to Temnocephala decarloi Moretto, 1978, from Argentina, the only other species of Temnocephala from belostomatid hemipterans known to date, by having an extra long and curved cirrus, but differs by having the distal portion of the introvert not bent as a 'full-bent' smoking pipe-like, as the author depicted originally for T. decarloi.Uma nova espécie de Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 é descrita para o sul do Brasil, ectosimbionte sobre baratas-d'água (hemípteros aquáticos, Belostoma spp. da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Vários hemípteros examinados estavam positivos para esta espécie do gênero Temnocephala, inclusive com posturas sempre localizadas na face ventral entre os dois primeiros pares de apêndices locomotores, e entre o primeiro par de pernas e o rostro. Espécimes adultos e jovens de tamanhos variados também foram sempre encontrados na face ventral do hemíptero. Os vermes adultos eram pigmentados (marrom-esverdeado, mimetizando a cor do exoesqueleto de seus hospedeiros. A nova espécie é semelhante à Temnocephala decarloi Moretto, 1978, descrita da Argentina, única espécie conhecida do gênero já encontrada sobre hemípteros belostomatídeos, por ter um cirro extremamente longo e curvo, mas difere desta por ter a porção distal do 'introvert' sem a forma típica de um cachimbo ('full-bent' como ilustrada pelo autor na descri

  13. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different textures of food are often given. The barium is a contrast material that makes the food and liquid show ... MRI Intravenous Contrast Information MRI with or without Contrast Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) Tailored Barium Swallow Study The Upper GI Study (GI Series) ...

  14. Esophagram (Barium Swallow Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink 1 to 2 cups of barium. The barium is a contrast material that makes liquids show up on the ... MRI Intravenous Contrast Information MRI with or without Contrast Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) Tailored Barium Swallow Study The Upper GI Study (GI Series) ...

  15. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  16. A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on creeping water bugs, Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo (Hemiptera, Naucoridae from southern Brazil Nova espécie de Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosimbionte sobre naucorídeos, Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo (Hemiptera, Naucoridae da região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala minutocirrus sp. nov., an ectosymbiont on Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo, 1967, is described from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. One hundred and nine naucorids were examined, of which 36 (33% were positive for this species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. In one sample of 94 creeping water bugs, 49 (52% were 4th instar nymphs, 6% of which were infested; 45 (48% were adults, either brachypterous (40 with 18 males and 22 females or macropterous (5 with 1 male and 4 females, 67% of which were infested (29% males and 38% females. Temnocephalan eggs were found both ventrally and dorsally: fixed on coxae, trochanters, and along the sternum between fore middle, and hind pairs of legs; basal of the abdominal area; and on the scutellum, clavus, and hemelytra. Juvenile and adult temnocephalans were always devoid of body pigmentation, and were found living on the ventral body surface, preferably over the sternum, between the middle and hind pairs of legs. The most distinctive features of this new species are: 1 unusually short cirrus, slightly curved, with introvert corresponding to 37% of its total length; 2 dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates, elliptic, with excretory pore relatively equatorial, closer to inner limit of each plate; 3 two pairs of large disc gland cells (paranephrocytes? located centrally, just ahead of testes; 4 testes relatively large, but unequal in size, anterior pair smaller, always in the same zone, those of the same side, partially superposed; and (5 vagina with weak muscular wall and without muscular sphincters.Temnocephala minutocirrus sp. nov., ectosimbionte sobre Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo, 1967, é descrita para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Cento e nove naucorídeos foram examinados, dos quais 36 (33% estavam positivos para esta espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. Em uma amostra de 94 hemípteros, 49 (52% eram ninfas de 4º instar, das quais, 6% estavam

  17. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  18. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analy...

  19. IDENTIFIKASI DUPLIKASI LAPORAN BUG PADA REPOSITORI LAPORAN BUG UNTUK MENGHASILKAN SARAN RESOLUSI BUG PERANGKAT LUNAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Repositori laporan bug perangkat lunak sebenarnya menyediakan informasi dan saran resolusi bug tertentu yang dapat digunakan untuk memperbaiki bug yang terjadi pada tahap perbaikan perangkat lunak. Pengembang dapat mencari saran resolusi bug perangkat lunak tertentu dengan mengidentifikasi duplikasi bug pada repositori laporan bug perangkat lunak. Penelitian ini mengusulkan sistem identifikasi duplikasi laporan bug pada repositori laporan bug untuk menghasilkan saran resolusi bug perangkat lunak menggunakan teknik pendekatan temu kembali informasi. Pengembang dapat menemukan informasi alasan kegagalan perangkat lunak dan memperoleh saran resolusi untuk memperbaiki bug tersebut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa teknik pendekatan temu kembali informasi dapat digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi duplikasi laporan bug pada repositori laporan bug untuk menghasilkan saran resolusi bug perangkat lunak.

  20. Overdrinking, swallowing inhibition, and regional brain responses prior to swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saker, Pascal; Farrell, Michael J; Egan, Gary F; McKinley, Michael J; Denton, Derek A

    2016-10-25

    In humans, drinking replenishes fluid loss and satiates the sensation of thirst that accompanies dehydration. Typically, the volume of water drunk in response to thirst matches the deficit. Exactly how this accurate metering is achieved is unknown; recent evidence implicates swallowing inhibition as a potential factor. Using fMRI, this study investigated whether swallowing inhibition is present after more water has been drunk than is necessary to restore fluid balance within the body. This proposal was tested using ratings of swallowing effort and measuring regional brain responses as participants prepared to swallow small volumes of liquid while they were thirsty and after they had overdrunk. Effort ratings provided unequivocal support for swallowing inhibition, with a threefold increase in effort after overdrinking, whereas addition of 8% (wt/vol) sucrose to water had minimal effect on effort before or after overdrinking. Regional brain responses when participants prepared to swallow showed increases in the motor cortex, prefrontal cortices, posterior parietal cortex, striatum, and thalamus after overdrinking, relative to thirst. Ratings of swallowing effort were correlated with activity in the right prefrontal cortex and pontine regions in the brainstem; no brain regions showed correlated activity with pleasantness ratings. These findings are all consistent with the presence of swallowing inhibition after excess water has been drunk. We conclude that swallowing inhibition is an important mechanism in the overall regulation of fluid intake in humans.

  1. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Virla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  2. Bug Forecast: A Method for Automatic Bug Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, Rudolf

    In this paper we present an approach and a toolset for automatic bug prediction during software development and maintenance. The toolset extends the Columbus source code quality framework, which is able to integrate into the regular builds, analyze the source code, calculate different quality attributes like product metrics and bad code smells; and monitor the changes of these attributes. The new bug forecast toolset connects to the bug tracking and version control systems and assigns the reported and fixed bugs to the source code classes from the past. It then applies machine learning methods to learn which values of which quality attributes typically characterized buggy classes. Based on this information it is able to predict bugs in current and future versions of the classes.

  3. Potential of Three Trap Crops in Managing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Tomatoes in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T L; Haseeb, M; Kanga, L H B; Legaspi, J C

    2017-12-05

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (Asterales: Asteraceae) and wild game feed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (Poales: Poaceae) in both years, but different species of millet each year: browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2014 and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2015. The number of stink bug adults collected from wild game feed sorghum exceeded the number from sunflower, and none were collected from either species of millet. Sorghum attracted a significantly higher number of adults than did striped sunflower; however, both sunflower and sorghum attracted the adults of N. viridula. Adults of the pest feed on the sorghum panicle and sunflower head (inflorescence). Although fewer stink bugs were found feeding on sunflower, the sunflower was found to be a good source of other natural enemies and pollinators and also attracted significantly greater numbers of the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) (another pest of tomatoes). While this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sorghum, we recommend that sorghum be planted with another trap crop, preferably sunflower, for better preventive control of the southern green stink bug. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  5. 42 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    , serving to evaluate tool implementations of feature-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 42 variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits to the Linux kernel repository. We analyze each of the bugs, and record the results in a database. In addition, we...

  6. 40 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal Rivas, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    is a requirement for goal-oriented research, serving to evaluate tool implementations of feature-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 40 variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits to the Linux kernel repository. We investigate each of the 40 bugs, recording...

  7. Synergy of aggregation pheromone with methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate in attraction of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys

    Science.gov (United States)

    The male-produced aggregation pheromone of the brown marmorated stink bug ((BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)), recently identified as a mixture of (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3S,6S,7R,10R)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol, offers new opportunities for manage...

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  9. Bank Swallow - Monitoring [ds6

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The data set represents the annual count of bank swallow burrows at nesting colonies located along the Sacramento River. The data set contains two databases which...

  10. Bank Swallow - Monitoring [ds6

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The data set represents the annual count of bank swallow burrows at nesting colonies located along the Sacramento River. The data set contains two databases which...

  11. Inappropriate Timing of Swallow in the Respiratory Cycle Causes Breathing–Swallowing Discoordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Yagi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Swallowing during inspiration and swallowing immediately followed by inspiration increase the chances of aspiration and may cause disease exacerbation. However, the mechanisms by which such breathing–swallowing discoordination occurs are not well-understood.Objectives: We hypothesized that breathing–swallowing discoordination occurs when the timing of the swallow in the respiratory cycle is inappropriate. To test this hypothesis, we monitored respiration and swallowing activity in healthy subjects and in patients with dysphagia using a non-invasive swallowing monitoring system.Measurements and Main Results: The parameters measured included the timing of swallow in the respiratory cycle, swallowing latency (interval between the onset of respiratory pause and the onset of swallow, pause duration (duration of respiratory pause for swallowing, and the breathing–swallowing coordination pattern. We classified swallows that closely follow inspiration (I as I-SW, whereas those that precede I as SW-I pattern. Patients with dysphagia had prolonged swallowing latency and pause duration, and tended to have I-SW or SW-I patterns reflecting breathing–swallows discoordination.Conclusions: We conclude that swallows at inappropriate timing in the respiratory cycle cause breathing–swallowing discoordination, and the prolongation of swallowing latency leads to delayed timing of the swallow, and results in an increase in the SW-I pattern in patients with dysphagia.

  12. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fabric. Avoid Bugs Where You Are Staying Choose hotel rooms or other accommodations that are air conditioned ... to Us Policies FOIA Accessibility Privacy No FEAR Act Inspector General USA.gov Contact CDC Centers for ...

  13. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  14. The BUG BITBUS Universal Gateway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocki, G.

    1996-01-01

    The BITBUS Universal Gateway (BUG) provides a unique, cost effective solution to many different computer interface problems. Each BUG node, utilizing ''on board'' intelligence, has the ability to provide a communication link between BITBUS protocol and other computer-signal interfaces. Among them, IEEE-488, RS232, and raw analog and binary signal 1/0. BITBUS is a multidrop, multinode link with the ability to communicate over great distances. By using this method of signal transfer, along with the communication conversion ability of the BUG, one could accomplish such things as the ability to run IEEE-488 instruments over great distances, extend a multidrop links to RS232 instruments, and provide a convenient interface point for remote analog and binary 1/0 signals, all on one homogeneous network. The BUG not only provides this through the wired ''twisted pair'' standard of BITBUS, but extends the ability to fiber optic communications for signal transfer over extreme distances and through electrically ''noisy'' environments

  15. Acoustical modeling of swallowing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Samaneh Sarraf; Moussavi, Zahra M K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical modeling of the swallowing sound generation is presented. To evaluate the model, its application on swallowing disorder (dysphagia) diagnosis is discussed. As a starting point, a simple linear time invariant model is assumed to represent the pharyngeal wall and tissue excited by a train of impulses. The modeling is approached by two different assumptions. In one approach, it is assumed that the impulse train, representing the neural activities to trigger swallow, is the same for both groups of control and dysphagic, and it is the pharyngeal model that accounts for the difference between the two groups. On the other hand, in the second approach, it is assumed that the pharyngeal response is the same for both groups, but the neural activities to initiate the swallow are different between the two groups. The results show that the second approach complies better with the physiological characteristics of swallowing mechanism as it provides a much better discrimination between the swallowing sounds of control and dysphagic groups of this study. Though, it should be noted that our dysphagic group subjects were cerebral palsy and stroke patients. Hence, the model accounting for initiation of neural activities is reasonable to show better results.

  16. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Polygalacturonase Genes in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase (PG is an enzyme in the salivary glands of piercing-sucking mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae that plays a key role in plant feeding and injury. By constructing a full-length cDNA library, we cloned and characterized 14 PG genes from the salivary glands of Apolygus lucorum, a pestiferous mirid bug in cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China. BLAST search analysis showed that the amino acid sequences deduced from transcripts of the PG genes were closely related to PGs from other mirid bugs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PGs of mirid bugs had six main branches, PG1-PG6 (Genbank accession numbers: KF881899~KF881912. We investigated the mRNA expression patterns of the A. lucorum PG genes using real-time PCR. All 14 PGs were expressed significantly higher in the salivary glands than in other tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing. For eggs and nymphs, the expression levels of these PGs were much higher in the 5th instar stage than in the egg, and 1st and 3rd instar stages. The PG expression levels in 1-day-old adults were very low, and increased in 5, 20 and 30-day-old adults. Additionally, PG expression levels were generally similar between males and females. The possible physiological functions of PGs in A. lucorum were discussed.

  17. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  18. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat your bed bug infestation. Foggers and bug bombs should not be used as the only method ... effective but take some time to kill the population); or Bed bugs’ becoming resistant to a specific ...

  19. Swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Camargo Remesso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate occurrences of swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke. METHOD: This was a retrospective study on 596 medical files. The inclusion criterion was that the patients needed to have been hospitalized with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke; the exclusion criteria were the presence of associated cardiac problems and hospital stay already more than 14 days. RESULTS: 50.5% were men and 49.5% women; mean age 65.3 years (SD=±11.7 (p<0.001. Among the risk factors, 79.4% had hypertension, 36.7% had diabetes (p<0.001 and 42.7% were smokers. 13.3% of the patients died. Swallowing disorders occurred in 19.6%, among whom 91.5% had mild difficulty and 8.5% had severe difficulty. 87.1% had spontaneous recovery after a mean of 2.4 months. A lesion in the brainstem region occurred in 6.8% (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Swallowing disorders occurred in almost 20% of the population and most of the difficulty in swallowing found was mild. The predictors for swallowing disorders were older age, diabetes mellitus and lesions in the brainstem region.

  20. Bioefficacy of gamma radiation on Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarin, Mahtab; Zubeda; Seth, R.K.; Seth, Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be considered as a possible alternative for treating agricultural products to overcome quarantine barriers against the Solenopsis mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Exposure of ionizing radiation is one of the quarantine treatments which penetrate commodities quickly and most commodities can tolerate irradiation at doses that kill the pest. Evaluation of various bio-characteristics (survival, metamorphosis and reproductive potential) of Phenacoccus solenopsis irradiated in various life stages was attempted to ascertain the lethal doses and sublethal doses having sterilizing potential. A dose of 40Gy administered to the first instar nymph (N 1 ) inhibited formation of adult male, whereas 100Gy checked the transformation of N 1 up to adult female. Males exhibited short life span and appeared to have no or limited role in progeny formation. Males were more radio-sensitive than the female mealy bugs. Further, in case of N 2 treatment, a dose of 100Gy completely inhibited adult male formation, and 150 Gy could completely inhibit male adult formation. The sexes were discernible only after N 2 . A dose of 500Gy given to female-N 3 totally inhibited adult formation. The developmental period of female N 3 was protracted with increase in radiation dosage. The efficacy of radiation at dose range, 5-300Gy, was evaluated on N 3 and N 4 male nymphs. Irradiation affected metamorphosis and reduced adult formation. For instance, a dose of 300Gy caused 0% male adult development from N 4 . 400Gy was almost sterilizing dose for 11-12 day old female mealy bug, and this sterilizing dose reduced oviposition by 28.1%; whereas 200Gy was found to induce sterility in 5-6 day old female mealy bug, with about 50% reduction in oviposition. The freshly emerged female adults (0-1 day old) was the most sensitive stage than the adult mealy bugs in their older phase, and it was completely sterilized by 40Gy. The data suggests a definite role of

  1. Swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolar Andrés, Sandra; Santamarina Rabanal, María Liliana; Granda Membiela, Carla María; Fernández Gutiérrez, María José; Sirgo Rodríguez, Paloma; Álvarez Marcos, César

    Parkinson's disease is a type of chronic neurodegenerative pathology with a typical movement pattern, as well as different, less studied symptoms such as dysphagia. Disease-related disorders in efficacy or safety in the process of swallowing usually lead to malnutrition, dehydration or pneumonias. The aim of this study was identifying and analyzing swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease. The initial sample consisted of 52 subjects with Parkinson's disease to whom the specific test for dysphagia SDQ was applied. Nineteen participants (36.5%) with some degree of dysphagia in the SDQ test were selected to be evaluated by volume-viscosity clinical exploration method and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were detected in 94.7% of the selected sample. With regards to efficiency, disorders were found in food transport (89.5%), insufficient labial closing (68.4%) and oral residues (47.4%), relating to duration of ingestion. Alterations in security were also observed: pharynx residues (52.7%), coughing (47.4%), penetration (31.64%), aspiration and decrease of SaO 2 (5.3%), relating to the diagnosis of respiratory pathology in the previous year. The SDQ test detected swallowing disorders in 36.5% of the subjects with Parkinson's disease. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were demonstrated in 94.7% of this subset. Disorders of efficiency were more frequent than those of safety, establishing a relationship with greater time in ingestion and the appearance of respiratory pathology and pneumonias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial Distribution of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) Adults, Eggs and Parasitism by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ian A; Roberts, Phillip M; Gardner, Wayne A; Oliver, Kerry M; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Reisig, Dominic D; Toews, Michael D

    2017-12-08

    Since 2014, populations of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), have declined in the southeastern United States and seldom require treatment. This decline follows the discovery of Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd; Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), a non-native egg parasitoid. The objective of this project was to observe the temporal and spatial dynamics of P. saccharalis parasitism of kudzu bug egg masses in commercial soybean fields. Four fields were sampled weekly for kudzu bugs and egg masses at a density of one sample per 0.6 ha. Sampling commenced when soybean reached the R2 maturity stage and continued until no more egg masses were present. Responses including kudzu bugs, egg masses, and parasitism rates were analyzed using ANOVA, Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices (SADIE), and SaTScan spatial analysis software. Egg masses were collected from the field, held in the lab and monitored for emergence of kudzu bug nymphs or P. saccharalis. Kudzu bug populations were generally lower than previously reported in the literature and spatial aggregation was not consistently observed. Egg parasitism was first detected in early July and increased to nearly 40% in mid-August. Significant spatial patterns in parasitism were observed with spatio-temporal clusters being loosely associated with clusters of egg masses. There were no significant differences in parasitism rates between field margins and interiors, suggesting that P. saccharalis is an effective parasitoid of kudzu bug egg masses on a whole-field scale. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination and Swallowing Safety in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Irene; Rosenbek, John C.; Okun, Michael S.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) demonstrate abnormal respiratory events when swallowing thin liquids. In addition, this study sought to define associations between respiratory events, swallowing apnea duration, and penetration–aspiration (P–A) scale scores. Thirty-nine individuals with PD were administered ten trials of a 5-ml thin liquid bolus. P–A scale score quantified the presence of penetration and aspiration during the swallowing of a 3-oz sequential bolus. Participants were divided into two groups based on swallowing safety judged during the 3-oz sequential swallowing: Group 1 = P–A ≤ 2; Group 2 = P–A ≥ 3. Swallows were examined using videofluoroscopy coupled with a nasal cannula to record respiratory signals during the event(s). Findings indicated that expiration was the predominant respiratory event before and after swallowing apnea. The data revealed no differences in our cohort versus the percentages of post-swallowing events reported in the literature for healthy adults. In addition, individuals with decreased swallowing safety, as measured by the P–A scale, were more likely to inspire after swallows and to have shorter swallowing apnea duration. Individuals who inspired before swallow also had longer swallowing apnea duration. The occurrence of inspiratory events after a swallow and the occurrence of shorter swallowing apnea durations may serve as important indicators during clinical swallowing assessments in patients at risk for penetration or aspiration with PD. PMID:20623304

  4. Ocorrência de Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae no Estado de Goiás Occurence of the Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae in Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Magalhães Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo bronzeado Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae foi encontrado no Estado de Goiás atacando plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. e E. urophylla S. T. Blake. A detecção ocorreu nos municípios de São Luiz do Norte, São Francisco de Goiás e Goiânia.The bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae was found in Goiás state attacking Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. e E. urophylla S. T. Blake. The insect was detected in the cities of São Luiz do Norte, São Francisco de Goiás and Goiânia.

  5. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  6. Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics Secondary to Hemispheric Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Nelson H; Pisegna, Jessica M; Marchina, Sarah; Langmore, Susan E; Kumar, Sandeep; Pearson, William G

    2017-05-01

    Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is a method that utilizes multivariate shape change analysis to uncover covariant elements of pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with impairment using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. The goals of this preliminary study were to (1) characterize swallowing mechanics underlying stroke-related dysphagia, (2) decipher the impact of left and right hemispheric strokes on pharyngeal swallowing mechanics, and (3) determine pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with penetration-aspiration status. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies of 18 dysphagic patients with hemispheric infarcts and age- and gender-matched controls were selected from well-controlled data sets. Patient data including laterality and penetration-aspiration status were collected. Coordinates mapping muscle group action during swallowing were collected from videos. Multivariate morphometric analyses of coordinates associated with stroke, affected hemisphere, and penetration-aspiration status were performed. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in the following comparisons: stroke versus controls (D = 2.19, P mechanics associated with each comparison were visualized using eigenvectors. Whereas current literature focuses on timing changes in stroke-related dysphagia, these data suggest that mechanical changes are also functionally important. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed by the affected hemisphere and the penetration-aspiration status. CASM can be used to identify patient-specific swallowing impairment associated with stroke injury that could help guide rehabilitation strategies to improve swallowing outcomes. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Four bugs on a rectangle

    KAUST Repository

    Chapman, S. J.

    2010-11-10

    The idealized mathematical problem of four bugs in cyclic pursuit starting from a 2-by-1 rectangle is considered, and asymptotic formulas are derived to describe the motion. In contrast to the famous case of four bugs on a square, here the trajectories quickly freeze to essentially one dimension. After the first rotation about the centre point, the scale of the configuration has shrunk by a factor of 10427907250, and this number is then exponentiated four more times with each successive cycle. Relations to Knuth\\'s double-arrow notation and level-index arithmetic are discussed. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society.

  8. Zero bugs and program faster

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    A book about programming, improving skill, and avoiding mistakes. The author spent two years researching every bug avoidance technique she could find. This book contains the best of them. If you want to program faster, with fewer bugs, and write more secure code, buy this book! "This is the best book I have ever read." - Anonymous reviewer "Four score and seven years ago this book helped me debug my server code." -Abraham Lincoln "Would my Javascript have memory leaks without this book? Would fishes fly without water?" -Socrates "This book is the greatest victory since the Spanish Armada, and the best about programming." -Queen Elizabeth

  9. Effect of posture on swallowing.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ertekin C, Keskin A, Kiylioglu N, Kirazli Y, On AY,. Tarlaci S, et al. The effect of head and neck positions on oropharyngeal swallowing: a clinical and electrophysio- logic study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilita- tion. 2001;829:1255-60. Epub 2001/09/12. 17. Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Rademaker AW, Kahrilas.

  10. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; Brennan, Mike T.; Leeuw, Irma M. Verdonck-de; Gibson, Rachel J.; Eilers, June G.; Waltimo, Tuomas; Bots, Casper P.; Michelet, Marisol; Sollecito, Thomas P.; Rouleau, Tanya S.; Sewnaik, Aniel; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Fliedner, Monica C.; Silverman, Sol; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  11. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Gibson, R.J.; Eilers, J.G.; Waltimo, T.; Bots, C.P.; Michelet, M.; Sollecito, T.P.; Rouleau, T.S.; Sewnaik, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Fliedner, M.C.; Silverman, S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  12. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Gibson, R.J.; Eilers, J.G.; Waltimo, T.; Bots, C.P.; Michelet, M.; Sollecito, T.P.; Rouleau, T.S.; Sewnaik, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Fliedner, M.C.; Silverman, S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  14. Effect of Feeding History and Time Elapsed From Field Collection on the Movement Behavior and Response to Stimulation in Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Desen; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Eiden, Amanda L; Cooper, Richard; Zha, Chen

    2017-08-01

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is an obligate blood-sucking insect that has been resurging in many countries. Researching this pest's behavior will help design more effective control methods. In this study, we evaluated the effect of feeding history and time elapsed from field collection on bed bug movement behavior and response to chemical lure or carbon dioxide stimulation in the laboratory. After CO2 was released, bed bugs unfed for 3 d began to return to harborages; in contrast, the ones unfed for 2 and 4 wk spent significantly more time outside their harborages during the first 1 h after than the 1 h before CO2 release. After CO2 release, there was an increase in activity (time spent moving outside harborage) in all bed bugs with different feeding history or time elapsed from field collection. During the 8-h observation period when CO2 was present, bed bug males unfed for 4 wk spent significantly more time exploring outside harborages than the ones unfed for 3 d, 1 wk, and 2 wk. Nymphs collected 1-2 wk and 1 yr ago spent significantly more time exploring outside harborages than the ones collected 43 yr ago. Bed bug's exploratory activity (the total percentage of bed bugs trapped in both baited and unbaited interceptors) was significantly affected by their time elapsed from field collection and their exploratory activity level was 1-2 wk > 6 mo > 5 and 43 yr. Both feeding history and time elapsed from field collection significantly affected bed bug movement, whereas bed bug's response to chemical lure or CO2 (the percentage of bed bugs trapped in the baited interceptor, summarized as the number of bed bugs trapped in the baited interceptor divided by the total number of trapped bed bugs in both baited and unbaited interceptors) was unaffected by the time elapsed from field collection. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved

  15. The Spread of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae Species from its First Occurrence in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Grozea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lately in horticultural agroecosystems from Romania joined several insect species autochthonous. Among these is a species of bugs known as southern green stink bugs or Nezara viridula L. (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. Unlike other new entrants this bug species has a diversified polifagism being present in many plants but obvious damage produce only tomato fruit. The causes are unknown. Can be found in gardens, green spaces and parks. Often is observed in vegetable gardens where populations comprise all stages (egg, larva/nymph, adult. Although it has African origins of a warm area is interesting installation and survival in temperate zones like those in Europe. Presence in Europe appears to be more random which excludes primarily spread through the neighborhood. By observations made in west of Romania, during 2010-2015 we wanted to watch the evolution of the insect from the first point of occurrence (Timișoara, 2010. Also, were monitored tomato crops and ornamentals in gardens and green spaces from 5 counties. Only in four monitored counties it was observed this species. Most adults and larvae were registered in Timis county (5-6 adults or 7-8 larvae/tomato plant and 10 -11 adults or 15-20 larvae/ornamental shrub. In our country the insect has proven to be capable of a rapid spread in a relatively short time interval including surrounding counties.

  16. Oral Health and Swallowing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...

  17. SWALLOWING IN PATIENTS WITH LARYNGITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Isabela; Ricz, Hilton Marcos Alves; Aguiar-Ricz, Lilian Neto; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Dysphagia is described as a complaint in 32% of patients with laryngitis. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate oral and pharyngeal transit of patients with laryngitis, with the hypothesis that alteration in oral-pharyngeal bolus transit may be involved with dysphagia. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of the swallowing of liquid, paste and solid boluses was performed in 21 patients with laryngitis, 10 of them with dysphagia, and 21 normal volunteers of the same age and sex. Two swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus, two swallows of 5 mL paste bolus and two swallows of a solid bolus were evaluated in a random sequence. The liquid bolus was 100% liquid barium sulfate and the paste bolus was prepared with 50 mL of liquid barium and 4 g of food thickener (starch and maltodextrin). The solid bolus was a soft 2.2 g cookie coated with liquid barium. Durations of oral preparation, oral transit, pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were measured. All patients performed 24-hour distal esophageal pH evaluation previous to videofluoroscopy. The evaluation of 24-hour distal esophageal pH showed abnormal gastroesophageal acid reflux in 10 patients. Patients showed longer oral preparation for paste bolus and a faster oral transit time for solid bolus than normal volunteers. Patients with laryngitis and dysphagia had longer preparation for paste and solid boluses, and a faster oral transit time with liquid, paste and solid boluses. A longer oral preparation for paste and solid boluses and a faster transit through the mouth are associated with dysphagia in patients with laryngitis.

  18. The cost of being an omnivore: mandible wear from plant feeding in a true bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitberg, Bernard D.; Gillespie, David R.; Quiring, Donald M. J.; Alma, Colleen R.; Jenner, Wade H.; Perry, Jennifer; Peterson, Jason H.; Salomon, Maxence; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2005-09-01

    Evolutionary and ecological transitions from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding may be constrained by the ability of the animal to cope with disparate types of foods, even if preadaptations for such behaviour exist. The omnivorous true bug, Dicyphus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) requires both animals (small, soft-bodied insects) and plants in its diet and obtains the majority of its dietary and metabolic water from plant feeding. Serrations on the lateral margins of the mandibular stylets wear with age, and this wear is exacerbated when the insects feed on plants compared to those provided free water and no plants. D. hesperus that feed on plants attack fewer prey but consumed similar amounts of prey tissue compared to individuals that were provided free water. Although others have shown mandible wear for plant-chewing animals we show for the first time that plant feeding can impose similar wear on plant-piercing animals as well.

  19. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth; it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx an...

  20. Genetic structure of Pseudococcus microcirculus (Hemiptera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. A. ZETTLER

    major pests of orchids (Johnson 2009). Most notably, the long-tailed mealy bug Psuedococcus longispinus (Targioni. Tozzetti) and the citrus mealy bug Planococcus citri. (Risso) are polyphagous pests that commonly use orna- mental orchids as hosts. In 1960, the orchid mealy bug. (Pseudococcus microcirculus McKenzie) ...

  1. Bug City: Crickets, Grasshoppers & Friends [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  2. Using Software Dependency to Bug Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Software maintenance, especially bug prediction, plays an important role in evaluating software quality and balancing development costs. This study attempts to use several quantitative network metrics to explore their relationships with bug prediction in terms of software dependency. Our work consists of four main steps. First, we constructed software dependency networks regarding five dependency scenes at the class-level granularity. Second, we used a set of nine representative and commonly used metrics—namely, centrality, degree, PageRank, and HITS, as well as modularity—to quantify the importance of each class. Third, we identified how these metrics were related to the proneness and severity of fixed bugs in Tomcat and Ant and determined the extent to which they were related. Finally, the significant metrics were considered as predictors for bug proneness and severity. The result suggests that there is a statistically significant relationship between class’s importance and bug prediction. Furthermore, betweenness centrality and out-degree metric yield an impressive accuracy for bug prediction and test prioritization. The best accuracy of our prediction for bug proneness and bug severity is up to 54.7% and 66.7% (top 50, Tomcat and 63.8% and 48.7% (top 100, Ant, respectively, within these two cases.

  3. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  4. The isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi from Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Meng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Litchi stink-bug, Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae, is one of the most widespread and destructive pest species on Litchi chinensis Sonn and Dimocarpus longan Lour in Southern China. Inappropriate use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollution. Generating an improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM strategy for litchi stink-bug in orchard farming requires development of an effective biological control agent. Entomopathogenic fungi are regarded as a vital ecological factor in the suppression of pest populations under field conditions. With few effective fungi and pathogenic strains available to control litchi stink-bug, exploration of natural resources for promising entomopathogenic fungi is warranted. Methods & Results In this study, two pathogenic fungi were isolated from cadavers of adult T. papillosa. They were identified as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana by morphological identification and rDNA-ITS homogeneous analysis. Infection of T. papillosa with B. bassiana and P. lilacinus occurred initially from the antennae, metameres, and inter-segmental membranes. Biological tests showed that the two entomopathogenic fungi induced high mortality in 2nd and 5th instar nymphs of T. papillosa. B. bassiana was highly virulent on 2nd instar nymphs of T. papillosa, with values for cadaver rate, LC50 and LT50 of 88.89%, 1.92 × 107 conidia/mL and 4.34 days respectively. Discussion This study provides two valuable entomopathogenic fungi from T. papillosa. This finding suggests that the highly virulent P. lilacinus and B. bassiana play an important role in the biocontrol of T. papillosa in China. These pathogenic fungi had no pollution or residue risk, and could provide an alternative option for IPM of litchi stink-bug.

  5. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Blaauw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.. Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  6. Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Ntzoufras, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all ...

  7. WebBUGS: Conducting Bayesian Statistical Analysis Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A web interface, named WebBUGS, is developed to conduct Bayesian analysis online over the Internet through OpenBUGS and R. WebBUGS can be used with the minimum requirement of a web browser both remotely and locally. WebBUGS has many collaborative features such as email notification and sharing. WebBUGS also eases the use of OpenBUGS by providing built-in model templates, data management module, and other useful modules. In this paper, the use of WebBUGS is illustrated and discussed.

  8. Biological control of snail hosts transmitting schistosomiasis by the water bug, Sphaerodema urinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Aly; El-Sherief, Hanaa; Gawish, Fathia; Mahmoud, Marwa

    2017-04-01

    The water bug, Sphaerodema urinator (Hemiptera : Belostomatidae), shares the same habitat of the freshwater snails in ponds, lakes, and streams. Studies conducted in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails. In contrast, shallow ponds and marches often lack fish and crayfish but have abundant insect predators. This study has been carried out to evaluate the predatory potential of S. urinator adult on two freshwater snails that serves as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma. Laboratory evaluation of predation by S. urinator on these intermediate hosts revealed that the adult bug could kill and consume the two intermediate hosts: Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina. The number of snails consumed differed according to the snail type, size, and density. The times taken for searching and handling times were depending on the snail size, type, and vulnerability of the predator. The predation rate varied also with respect to snail type and density. Prey size is a major factor influencing predator preferences. This study indicated that the predator, S. urinator, may be a suitable bio-control agent in connection with Schistosoma intermediate hosts in the aquatic area.

  9. Multiple mating in the traumatically inseminating Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes: effects on fecundity and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Amy; Sait, Steven M; Cameron, Tom C

    2012-10-23

    Optimal mating frequencies differ between sexes as a consequence of the sexual differentiation of reproductive costs per mating, where mating is normally more costly to females than males. In mating systems where sexual reproduction is costly to females, sexual conflict may cause both direct (i.e. by reducing female fecundity or causing mortality) and indirect (i.e. increased risk of mortality, reduced offspring viability) reductions in lifetime reproductive success of females, which have individual and population consequences. We investigated the direct and indirect costs of multiple mating in a traumatically inseminating (TI) predatory Warehouse pirate bug, Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), where the male penetrates the female's abdomen during copulation. This study aimed to quantify the effects of TI on female fecundity, egg viability, the lifetime fecundity schedule, longevity and prey consumption in this cosmopolitan biocontrol agent. We found no difference in the total reproductive output between mating treatments in terms of total eggs laid or offspring viability, but there were significant differences found in daily fecundity schedules and adult longevity. In terms of lifetime reproduction, female Warehouse pirate bugs appear to be adapted to compensate for the costs of TI mating to their longevity.

  10. Pediatric feeding and swallowing rehabilitation: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Harding, C.; Gerven, M.H.J.C van; Cockerill, H.

    2017-01-01

    Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on

  11. How do tablet properties influence swallowing behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Nakamura, Yuki; Sato, Hideaki; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural performance of tablet swallowing was evaluated with different tablet conditions in terms of size, number and surface coating. Four different types of tablets were prepared: small or large, and with or without a surface coating. Fourteen normal male adults were instructed to swallow the prepared tablets with 15 ml of water. The number of tablets in one trial was changed from one to three. To evaluate swallowing and tablet transport, electromyographic activity was recorded in the left suprahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were examined. All tablet conditions (size, number and surface coating) affected the swallowing performance in terms of total number of swallows, electromyographic burst patterns and location of remaining tablets. Increases in the size and number of tablets increased the number of swallows and electromyographic burst area and duration. In addition, all of these parameters increased while swallowing tablets without a coating compared with tablets with a coating. Location of the remaining tablets was mainly within the mouth. This study only clarified the normal pattern of tablet swallowing under several conditions in healthy subjects, but the results may facilitate comprehensive evaluation and treatment planning in terms of administering medication to dysphagic patients. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Quantitative classification of pediatric swallowing through accelerometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Merey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia or swallowing disorder negatively impacts a child’s health and development. The gold standard of dysphagia detection is videofluoroscopy which exposes the child to ionizing radiation, and requires specialized clinical expertise and expensive institutionally-based equipment, precluding day-to-day and repeated assessment of fluctuating swallowing function. Swallowing accelerometry is the non-invasive measurement of cervical vibrations during swallowing and may provide a portable and cost-effective bedside alternative. In particular, dual-axis swallowing accelerometry has demonstrated screening potential in older persons with neurogenic dysphagia, but the technique has not been evaluated in the pediatric population. Methods In this study, dual-axis accelerometric signals were collected simultaneous to videofluoroscopic records from 29 pediatric participants (age 6.8 ± 4.8 years; 20 males previously diagnosed with neurogenic dysphagia. Participants swallowed 3-5 sips of barium-coated boluses of different consistencies (normally, from thick puree to thin liquid by spoon or bottle. Videofluoroscopic records were reviewed retrospectively by a clinical expert to extract swallow timings and ratings. The dual-axis acceleration signals corresponding to each identified swallow were pre-processed, segmented and trimmed prior to feature extraction from time, frequency, time-frequency and information theoretic domains. Feature space dimensionality was reduced via principal components. Results Using 8-fold cross-validation, 16-17 dimensions and a support vector machine classifier with an RBF kernel, an adjusted accuracy of 89.6% ± 0.9 was achieved for the discrimination between swallows with and with out airway entry. Conclusions Our results suggest that dual-axis accelerometry has merit in the non-invasive detection of unsafe swallows in children and deserves further consideration as a pediatric medical device.

  13. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  14. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-04-11

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide "Four-Pest Elimination" campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000-2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999-2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  15. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Brożek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha. The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera, together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae. The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae, (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae, (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae, Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae.

  16. Facilitation of a native pest of rice, Stenotus rubrovittatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), by the non-native Lolium multiflorum (Cyperales: Poaceae) in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Akira; Takada, Mayura; Washitani, Izumi

    2011-10-01

    Source populations of polyphagous pests often occur on host plants other than the economically damaged crop. We evaluated the contribution of patches of a non-native meadow grass, Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Poaceae), and other weeds growing in fallow fields or meadows as source hosts of an important native pest of rice, Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Miridae), in an agricultural landscape of northern Japan. Periodical censuses of this mirid bug by using the sweeping method, vegetation surveys, and statistical analysis revealed that L. multiflorum was the only plant species that was positively correlated with the density of adult S. rubrovittatus through two generations and thus may be the most stable and important host of the mirid bug early in the season before the colonization of rice paddies. The risk and cost of such an indirect negative effect on a crop plant through facilitation of a native pest by a non-native plant in the agricultural landscape should not be overlooked.

  17. The semi-aquatic pondweed bugs of a Cretaceous swamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Sánchez-García

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pondweed bugs (Hemiptera: Mesoveliidae, considered a sister group to all other Gerromorpha, are exceedingly rare as fossils. Therefore, each new discovery of a fossil mesoveliid is of high interest, giving new insight into their early evolutionary history and diversity and enabling the testing of their proposed relationships. Here, we report the discovery of new mesoveliid material from Spanish Lower Cretaceous (Albian amber, which is the first such find in Spanish amber. To date, fossil records of this family only include one species from French Kimmeridgian as compression fossils, two species in French amber (Albian-Cenomanian boundary, and one in Dominican amber (Miocene. The discovery of two males and one female described and figured as Glaesivelia pulcherrima Sánchez-García & Solórzano Kraemer gen. et sp. n., and a single female described and figured as Iberovelia quisquilia Sánchez-García & Nel, gen. et sp. n., reveals novel combinations of traits related to some genera currently in the subfamily Mesoveliinae. Brief comments about challenges facing the study of fossil mesoveliids are provided, showing the necessity for a revision of the existing phylogenetic hypotheses. Some of the specimens were studied using infrared microscopy, a promising alternative to the systematic study of organisms preserved in amber that cannot be clearly visualised. The new taxa significantly expand the fossil record of the family and shed new light on its palaeoecology. The fossils indicate that Mesoveliidae were certainly diverse by the Cretaceous and that numerous tiny cryptic species living in humid terrestrial to marginal aquatic habitats remain to be discovered. Furthermore, the finding of several specimens as syninclusions suggests aggregative behaviour, thereby representing the earliest documented evidence of such ethology.

  18. Stuttered swallowing: Electric stimulation of the right insula interferes with water swallowing. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoemaker J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various functional resonance imaging, magnetoencephalographic and lesion studies suggest the involvement of the insular cortex in the control of swallowing. However, the exact location of insular activation during swallowing and its functional significance remain unclear. Case presentation Invasive electroencephalographic monitoring was performed in a 24-year-old man with medically intractable stereotyped nocturnal hypermotor seizures due to a ganglioglioma. During stimulation of the right inferior posterior insular cortex with depth electrodes the patient spontaneously reported a perception of a "stutter in swallowing". Stimulation of the inferior posterior insular cortex at highest intensity (4 mA was also associated with irregular and delayed swallows. Swallowing was not impaired during stimulation of the superior posterior insular cortex, regardless of stimulation intensity. Conclusions These results indicate that the right inferior posterior insular cortex is involved in the neural circuitry underlying the control of swallowing.

  19. Identification of Swallowing Tasks from a Modified Barium Swallow Study That Optimize the Detection of Physiological Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelwood, R. Jordan; Armeson, Kent E.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify which swallowing task(s) yielded the worst performance during a standardized modified barium swallow study (MBSS) in order to optimize the detection of swallowing impairment. Method: This secondary data analysis of adult MBSSs estimated the probability of each swallowing task yielding the derived…

  20. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... Grants January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot No FEAR Act Data Privacy Privacy and Security Notice Connect. Data. ...

  1. The Andean Swallow (Orochelidon andecola) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mazar Barnett, Juan; Pugnali, Germán D.; Pearman Morrison, Mark; Bodrati, Alejandro; Moschione, Flavio; Clark, Ricardo; Roesler, Carlos Ignacio; Monteleone, Diego; Casañas, Hernán; Burgos Gallardo, Freddy; Segovia, José; Pagano, Luis; Povedano, Hernán; Areta, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    During ornithological studies in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, and San Juan, we recorded the Andean Swallow Orochelidon andecola at 40 localities. These are the first records in Argentina, and also represent the southernmost for the species. Some of these localities are up to 1500 m lower than the previously known elevational limit (now 800 masl), and up to 1100 km southwards. This is a relatively poorly known swallow, and we present novel natural history data. We found evidence of breeding ...

  2. Instrumentation for bedside analysis of swallowing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Catiuscia S S; Nunes, Luiz G Q; Melo, Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    Disordered swallowing, or dysphagia, is a common problem seen in patients undergoing treatment for cancer, stroke and neurodegenerative illnesses. This disease is associated with aspiration-induced chest infections. The methods currently used for diagnosis, however, are qualitative or based on expensive equipment. Swallowing accelerometry is a promising low-cost, quantitative and noninvasive tool for the evaluation of swallowing. This work describes the design and application of a bedside instrument able to evaluate swallowing mechanisms and to identify patients at risk of aspiration. Three-axis swallowing accelerometry was used to measure the neck vibrations associated with deglutition, providing analog signals to a virtual instrument developed in LabVIEW environment. In vivo tests in normal subjects as well as tests with disphagic patients showed that the system was able to easily and non-invasively detect changes in the swallowing acceleration pattern associated with increasing values of water volume (p disphagia. We concluded that the developed system could be a useful tool for the objective bedside evaluation of patients at risk of aspiration.

  3. An Insight into the Sialotranscriptome of Triatoma matogrossensis, a Kissing Bug Associated with Fogo Selvagem in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Eaton, Donald P.; Pham, Van M.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Aoki, Valéria; Hans-Filho, Gunter; Rivitti, Evandro A.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Diaz, Luis A.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Triatoma matogrossensis is a Hemiptera that belongs to the oliveirai complex, a vector of Chagas' disease that feeds on vertebrate blood in all life stages. Hematophagous insects' salivary glands (SGs) produce potent pharmacologic compounds that counteract host hemostasis, including anticlotting, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory molecules. Exposure to T. matogrossensis was also found to be a risk factor associated with the endemic form of the autoimmune skin disease pemphigus foliaceus, which is described in the same regions where Chagas' disease is observed in Brazil. To obtain a further insight into the salivary biochemical and pharmacologic diversity of this kissing bug and to identify possible allergens that might be associated with this autoimmune disease, a cDNA library from its SGs was randomly sequenced. We present the analysis of a set of 2,230 (SG) cDNA sequences, 1,182 of which coded for proteins of a putative secretory nature. PMID:22665609

  4. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  5. Dose-response relationships of clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam to Blissus occiduus (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, M D; Baxendale, F P; Heng-Moss, T M; Siegfried, B D; Blankenship, E E; Gaussoin, R E

    2011-02-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber (Hemiptera: Blissidae), has emerged as a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchlod dactyloides (Nuttall) Engelmann. In general, neonicotinoid insecticides effectively control a variety of turfgrass insects, particularly phloem-feeding pests. However, because of well documented inconsistencies in control, these compounds are generally not recommended for chinch bugs. This study was designed to document the contact and systemic toxicity of three neonicotinoid insecticides (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to B. occiduus. In contact bioassays, thiamethoxam was approximately 20-fold less toxic than clothianidin or imidacloprid to B. occiduus nymphs and three-fold more toxic to adults. In adult systemic bioassays, thiamethoxam was up to five-fold more toxic than clothianidin or imidacloprid. Interestingly, thiamethoxam was significantly more toxic to adults than to nymphs in both contact and systemic bioassays. This was not observed with clothianidin or imidacloprid. Bifenthrin, used for comparative purposes, exhibited 1844-fold and 122-fold increase in toxicity to nymphs and adults, respectively. These results provide the first documentation of the relative toxicity of these neonicotinoid insecticides to B. occiduus.

  6. Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Fabio Souto; Goncalves, Lenicio

    2007-01-01

    Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree), Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae). This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 ± 1 deg C, 80 ± 3% RH and 12h photo phase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 ± 2.6 deg C, 73.3 ± 9.9 % RH), and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety IAC-22 and kept at 25 or 30 deg C. In all treatments five immature stages were observed. The increase of temperature caused reduction in the developmental time. The temperature of 15 deg C disabled nymphal eclosion and was also lethal to those nymphs ecloded at other temperatures. The lower mortality of nymphs occurred in the temperature of 25 deg C with cotton as food (24.07%). The lower threshold temperature (Tb) occurred for the first instar (11.54 deg C) and the higher for the second instar (15.33 deg C). The females of D. maurus required more degree-days (329.93 degree-days) than males (300.49 degree-days) until adult emergence. (author)

  7. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, Dushyantha; Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%-100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%-100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows.

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy Action Center News Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ...

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  11. Protecting Yourself from Bed Bugs in Public Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can make treatment more difficult. Vacuum daily to pick up any stray bugs before they settle in. If a Bed Bug is Found Inform management and facility staff who have the lead in any control efforts. ...

  12. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur da Silva Neumann

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  13. Cold Tolerance of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae): An Invasive Pest of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jessica I; Lamp, William O

    2017-12-08

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), first discovered in the United States in 2009, is an invasive pest of soybeans. From 2013 to 2016, Maryland has been the northern limit of its distribution in the United States. We sought to determine the physiological cold temperature limits, timing of movement to overwintering locations, and to characterize overwintering microhabitat temperature. We measured supercooling point (SCP) on three populations from distinct USDA plant hardiness zones in Maryland and Virginia between October and December of 2015. The average SCP across all sample months and populations was -12.6°C and no consistent trend of month or population location were observed. Additionally, we assessed the lower lethal temperature to kill 50% of the population (LLT50) at the same population locations in October and November 2015. The average LLT50 over both months and all three population locations was -5.1°C. Again, no consistent trend based on population location was observed but we did find a modest depression in the LLT50 values between October and November. We observed that kudzu bug overwinters in leaf litter and begins to move into the litter in late November to early December. Leaf litter moderates day to night temperature differences and was warmer than ambient temperature by an average of 0.7°C. Evidence suggests that the cold tolerance of the kudzu bug limits its distribution north of Maryland. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  15. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.

    1986-01-01

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards. (orig.)

  16. Seed germination behavior of swallow wort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir hosein pahlavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The exotic plant, Swallow- wort, a twining perennial of the Milkweed family, has become increasingly invasive in some place of Iran, especially orchards. Increased knowledge of wort germination biology would facilitate development of an optimum control program. Germination of Swallow wort seeds as affected by environmental factors was studied under controlled-environment growth chamber conditions. The following studies were conducted in plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute during the years 2003-4: 1- Effect of constant temperature on germination that including 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40˚C; 2- Effect of light on constant germination; 3- Effect of temperature fluctuations on seed germination: 15/7, 20/12, 25/17 and 30/22˚C. All experiments were conducted with 8 replications. Swallow wort seeds showed no dormancy when detachment from mother plant. Seed germination was strongly influenced by temperature. Light did not play a crucial role on seed germination of this weed. Therefore Swallow wort seeds were not photoblastic and temperature fluctuations did not increase seed germination of Swallow wort. The above characteristics are very important in making swallowwort an invasive weed. Having precise information of these traits enables us to a better management and control of this troublesome weed.

  17. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O.

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards.

  18. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  19. Diet Selection Exhibited by Juvenile and Adult Lifestages of the Omnivores Western Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus hesperus and Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James R.; Jackson, C. Glen; Blackmer, Jacquelyn L.

    2010-01-01

    Lygus hesperus Knight and Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae) are economically important plant bugs on many crops worldwide. However, these omnivores are also facultative predators on a wide variety of insects. This study was conducted to quantify and compare herbivory and carnivory exhibited among different lifestages of these two insect pests. The feeding activity of a total of 422 individuals was observed for 1 h each in feeding arenas containing a cotton leaf disk and copious amounts of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) eggs, nymphs and adults. The L. hesperus and L. lineolaris lifestages examined included adults and 3rd, 4th and 5th instar nymphs. Plant feeding occupied the majority of both species' time budget, regardless of the species or lifestage examined. There was a tendency for L. lineolaris lifestages to feed more often and for longer duration on plant tissue than L. hesperus. All lifestages of both species rarely fed on B. tabaci, but when they did, they preferred nymphs > adults > eggs. There were only a few cases where there were significant differences in predation rates and prey handling times exhibited among lifestages and between species, but juvenile L. hesperus tended to be more predaceous than juvenile L. lineolaris on whitefly nymphs and adults and 5thinstar and adult L. lineolaris were significantly more herbaceous than their L. hesperus counterparts. In addition, the younger individuals of both species tended to have greater prey handling times than their older counterparts. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:20879921

  20. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches

  1. Towards Easing the Diagnosis of Bugs in OS Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Henrik; Hansen, René Rydhof; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2007-01-01

    The rapid detection and treatment of bugs in operating systems code is essential to maintain the overall security and dependability of a computing system.  A number of techniques have been proposed for detecting bugs, but little has been done to help developers analyze and treat them.......  In this paper we propose to combine bug-finding rules with transformations that automatically introduce bug-fixes or workarounds when a possible bug is detected.  This work builds on our previous work on the Coccinelle tool, which targets device driver evolution....

  2. Methods for excluding cliff swallows from nesting on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonially breeding migratory birds that frequently nest on highway : structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, nesting control methods cannot harm swallows or active : nests. This c...

  3. Triatomine bugs, their microbiota and Trypanosoma cruzi: asymmetric responses of bacteria to an infected blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Sebastián; Villavicencio, Bianca; Correia, Nathália; Costa, Jane; Haag, Karen L

    2016-12-09

    Triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) are vectors of the flagellate Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The study of triatomine gut microbiota has gained relevance in the last years due to its possible role in vector competence and prospective use in control strategies. The objective of this study is to examine changes in the gut microbiota composition of triatomines in response to a T. cruzi-infected blood meal and identifying key factors determining those changes. We sampled colony-reared individuals from six triatomine vectors (Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. infestans, T. juazeirensis and T. sherlocki) comparing experimentally T. cruzi strain 0354-challenged and non-challenged insects. The microbiota of gut and gonad tissues was characterized using high throughput sequencing of region V3-V4 of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The triatomine microbiota had a low intra-individual diversity, and a high inter-individual variation within the same host species. Arsenophonous appeared as the dominant triatomine bacterial symbiont in our study (59% of the total 16S coverage), but there were significant differences in the distribution of bacterial genera among vectors. In Rhodnius prolixus the dominant symbiont was Pectobacterium. Trypanosoma cruzi-challenge significantly affects microbiota composition, with challenged vectors harbouring a significantly more diverse bacterial community, both in the gut and the gonads. Our results show that blood-feeding with T. cruzi epimastigotes strongly affects microbiota composition in a species-specific manner. We suggest that triatomine-adapted enterobacteria such as Arsenophonus could be used as stable vectors for genetic transformation of triatomine bugs and control of Chagas disease.

  4. Sequencing and de novo assembly of the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Joe Hull

    Full Text Available Mirid plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae are economically important insect pests of many crops worldwide. The western tarnished plant bug Lygus hesperus Knight is a pest of cotton, alfalfa, fruit and vegetable crops, and potentially of several emerging biofuel and natural product feedstocks in the western US. However, little is known about the underlying molecular genetics, biochemistry, or physiology of L. hesperus, including their ability to survive extreme environmental conditions.We used 454 pyrosequencing of a normalized adult cDNA library and de novo assembly to obtain an adult L. hesperus transcriptome consisting of 1,429,818 transcriptomic reads representing 36,131 transcript isoforms (isotigs that correspond to 19,742 genes. A search of the transcriptome against deposited L. hesperus protein sequences revealed that 86 out of 87 were represented. Comparison with the non-redundant database indicated that 54% of the transcriptome exhibited similarity (e-value ≤ 1(-5 with known proteins. In addition, Gene Ontology (GO terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG annotations, and potential Pfam domains were assigned to each transcript isoform. To gain insight into the molecular basis of the L. hesperus thermal stress response we used transcriptomic sequences to identify 52 potential heat shock protein (Hsp homologs. A subset of these transcripts was sequence verified and their expression response to thermal stress monitored by semi-quantitative PCR. Potential homologs of Hsp70, Hsp40, and 2 small Hsps were found to be upregulated in the heat-challenged adults, suggesting a role in thermotolerance.The L. hesperus transcriptome advances the underlying molecular understanding of this arthropod pest by significantly increasing the number of known genes, and provides the basis for further exploration and understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of abiotic stress responses.

  5. Nuclear rDNA-based molecular clock of the evolution of triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, vectors of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargues MD

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history and times of divergence of triatomine bug lineages are estimated from molecular clocks inferred from nucleotide sequences of the small subunit SSU (18S and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of these reduviids. The 18S rDNA molecular clock rate in Triatominae, and Prosorrhynchan Hemiptera in general, appears to be of 1.8% per 100 million years (my. The ITS-2 molecular clock rate in Triatominae is estimated to be around 0.4-1% per 1 my, indicating that ITS-2 evolves 23-55 times faster than 18S rDNA. Inferred chronological data about the evolution of Triatominae fit well with current hypotheses on their evolutionary histories, but suggest reconsideration of the current taxonomy of North American species complexes.

  6. Blood Meal Source Characterization Using Illumina Sequencing in the Chagas Disease Vector Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Panamá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieran, Troy J; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Varian, Christina P; Saldaña, Azael; Means, Nicolas; Owens, Darlisha; Calzada, Jose E; Glenn, Travis C

    2017-11-07

    Accurate blood meal identification is critical to understand hematophagous vector-host relationships. This study describes a customizable Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach to identify blood meals from Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) triatomines using multiple barcoded primers and existing software to pick operational taxonomic units and match sequences for blood meal identification. We precisely identified all positive control samples using this method and further examined 74 wild-caught R. pallescens samples. With this novel blood meal identification method, we detected 13 vertebrate species in the blood meals, as well as single and multiple blood meals in individual bugs. Our results demonstrate the reliability and descriptive uses of our method. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Influence of genetic architecture on contemporary local evolution in the soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma: artificial selection on beak length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, H; Carroll, S P; Famula, T R

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about the influence of genetic architecture on local adaptation. We investigated the genetic architecture of the rapid contemporary evolution of mouthparts, the flight polymorphism and life history traits in the soapberry bug Jadera haematoloma (Hemiptera) using laboratory selection. The mouthparts of these seed-feeding bugs have adapted in 40-50 years by decreasing in length following novel natural selection induced by a host switch to the seeds of an introduced tree with smaller fruits than those of the native host vine. Laboratory selection on beak length in both an ancestral population feeding on the native host and a derived population feeding on the introduced host reveals genetic variance allowing a rapid response (heritabilities of 0.51-0.87) to selection for either longer or shorter beaks. This selection resulted in reverse evolution by restoring long beaks in the derived population and forward evolution by re-creating short beaks in the ancestral bugs. There were strong genetic correlations (0.68-0.84) in both populations between beak lengths and the frequency of flight morphs, with short beaks associated with short wings. The results reveal a genetically interrelated set of adaptive multivariate traits including both beak length and flight morph. This suite of traits reflects host plant patchiness and seeding phenology. Weaker evidence suggests that egg mass and early egg production may be elements of the same suite. Reversible or forward evolution thus may occur in a broad set of genetically correlated multivariate traits undergoing rapid contemporary adaptation to altered local environments.

  8. Vocalizations of the South African cliff swallow Hirundo spilodera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vocalizations of the South African cliff swallow. Hirundo spilodera. A.A. Earle. National Museum, Bloemfontein. The vocalizations of both adult and juvenile South African cliff swallows Hirundo spilodera are described. This swallow has a large vocal repertoire considering that it is a highly colonial species, and at least seven ...

  9. Cortical swallowing processing in early subacute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Maren

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a major complication in hemispheric as well as brainstem stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia and increased mortality. Little is known about the recovery from dysphagia after stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine the different patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with hemispheric and brainstem stroke with and without dysphagia in the early subacute phase. Methods We measured brain activity by mean of whole-head MEG in 37 patients with different stroke localisation 8.2 +/- 4.8 days after stroke to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced swallowing. An age matched group of healthy subjects served as controls. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry and group analyses were performed using a permutation test. Results Our results demonstrate strong bilateral reduction of cortical swallowing activation in dysphagic patients with hemispheric stroke. In hemispheric stroke without dysphagia, bilateral activation was found. In the small group of patients with brainstem stroke we observed a reduction of cortical activation and a right hemispheric lateralization. Conclusion Bulbar central pattern generators coordinate the pharyngeal swallowing phase. The observed right hemispheric lateralization in brainstem stroke can therefore be interpreted as acute cortical compensation of subcortically caused dysphagia. The reduction of activation in brainstem stroke patients and dysphagic patients with cortical stroke could be explained in terms of diaschisis.

  10. Checklist, distribution, and a new record of Nepomorphan water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Noura; Moulet, Pierre; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Boumaïza, Moncef; Guilbert, Eric

    2015-07-03

    We report on the results of a survey of the Nepomorpha of northern Tunisia, and list twenty-three species belonging to twelve genera and seven families: Nepidae, Ochteridae, Corixidae, Micronectidae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and Pleidae. These records are based on intensive field surveys during the year 2013 and examination of the entomological collections of the National Museum Natural History of Paris. Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) is recorded for the first time from Tunisia. The occurrence of Sigara (Halicorixa) stagnalis stagnalis (Leach, 1817) in Tunisia is confirmed. A preliminary checklist of the Nepomorpha of Northern Tunisia and updated distribution maps for all species treated are provided for further studies.

  11. What do we know about the phylogeny of the semi-aquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    The present study summarizes knowledge about phylogenetic relationships of the heteropteran infraorder Gerromorpha. A phylogeny for all families and subfamilies, and for all genera but those assigned to the two most diverse families, Veliidae and Gerridae, is compiled from the many studies...... by the late Dr. Nils Moller Andersen. Comparisons with recently published studies, including DNA sequence data show that the superfamilies Hydrometroidea and Gerroidea, the family Veliidae, the subfamily Mesoveliinae, and the genera Mesovelia and Microvelia are probably not monophyletic...

  12. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-06-25

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality.

  13. Holocentric chromosome evolution in kissing bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae): diversification of repeated sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Sebastián; Lorite, Pedro; Vela, Jesús; Mora, Pablo; Palomeque, Teresa; Thi, Khoa Pham; Panzera, Francisco

    2017-09-06

    The analysis of the chromosomal and genome evolution in organisms with holocentric chromosomes is restricted by the lack of primary constriction or centromere. An interesting group is the hemipteran subfamily Triatominae, vectors of Chagas disease, which affects around 6 to 7 million people worldwide. This group exhibits extensive variability in the number and chromosomal location of repeated sequences such as heterochromatin and ribosomal genes. This paper tries to reveal the significant differences of the repeated sequences among Triatoma species through the use of genomic DNA probes. We analysed the chromosomal distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in Triatoma species by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using genomic DNA probes from two North American Triatoma species. These genomic probes were hybridized both on their own chromosomes and on other Triatoma species from North and South America, with different amounts and chromosome location of C-heterochromatin. The results were compared with those previously described using South American Triatoma genomic probes. We observed two chromosomal hybridization patterns: (i) very intense hybridization signals concentrated on specific chromosomal regions or particular chromosomes; and (ii) lower intensity hybridization signals dispersed along all chromosomes. Self-GISH on T. rubrofasciata and T. dimidiata chromosomes presented strong hybridization signals on all C-heterochromatin regions. However, when we perform genomic cross-hybridizations, only strong signals are detected on the Y chromosome, leaving the C-heterochromatic autosomal regions unmarked. We confirm that repeated DNA of the Y chromosome is shared among Triatoma species and probably represents an ancestral character of the Triatomini tribe. On the contrary, autosomal heterochromatic regions are constituted by species-specific DNA repeats, most probably satDNA families, suggesting that Triatoma speciation involved the amplification of diverse types of autosomal repeats. Molecular characterization of principal repetitive DNAs seems to be an appropriate approach to infer evolutionary relationships in triatomines.

  14. The sialotranscriptome of the blood-sucking bug Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adriana; Ribeiro, José Marcos C.; Lehane, Michael J.; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Veloso, Artur Botelho; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R.V.; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Pereira, Marcos Horácio

    2007-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important autochthon vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil, where it is widely distributed in the semiarid areas of the Northeast. In order to advance the knowledge of the salivary biomolecules of Triatominae, a salivary gland cDNA library of T. brasiliensis was mass sequenced and analyzed. Polypeptides were sequenced by HPLC/Edman degradation experiments. 1,712 cDNA sequences were obtained and grouped in 786 clusters. The housekeeping category had 24.4% and 17.8% of the clusters and sequences, respectively. The putatively secreted category contained 47.1% of the clusters and 68.2% of the sequences. Finally, 28.5% of the clusters, containing 14% of all sequences, were classified as unknown. The sialoma of T. brasiliensis showed a high amount and great variety of different lipocalins (93.8% of secreted proteins). Remarkably, a great number of serine proteases that were not observed in previous blood-sucking sialotranscriptomes were found. Nine Kazal peptides were identified, among them one with high homology to the tabanid vasodilator vasotab, suggesting that the Triatoma vasodilator could be a Kazal protein. PMID:17550826

  15. Resin gathering in neotropical resin bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): functional and comparative morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Dimitri; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Weirauch, Christiane

    2011-02-01

    Apiomerini (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) collect plant resins with their forelegs and use these sticky substances for prey capture or maternal care. These behaviors have not been described in detail and morphological structures involved in resin gathering, transfer, and storage remain virtually undocumented. We here describe these behaviors in Apiomerus flaviventris and document the involved structures. To place them in a comparative context, we describe and document leg and abdominal structures in 14 additional species of Apiomerini that represent all but one of the 12 recent genera in the tribe. Based on these morphological data in combination with the behavioral observations on A. flaviventris, we infer behavioral and functional hypotheses for the remaining genera within the tribe Apiomerini. Setal abdominal patches for resin storage are associated with maternal care so far only documented for species of Apiomerus. Based on the occurrence of these patches in several other genera, we propose that maternal care is widespread within the tribe. Ventral abdominal glands are widespread within female Apiomerini. We propose that their products may prevent hardening of stored resins thus providing long-term supply for egg coating. Judging from the diverse setal types and arrangements on the front legs, we predict six different behavioral patterns of resin gathering within the tribe. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Comparative mitogenomic analysis of mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae and evaluation of potential DNA barcoding markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The family Miridae is one of the most species-rich families of insects. To better understand the diversity and evolution of mirids, we determined the mitogenome of Lygus pratenszs and re-sequenced the mitogenomes of four mirids (i.e., Apolygus lucorum, Adelphocoris suturalis, Ade. fasciaticollis and Ade. lineolatus. We performed a comparative analysis for 15 mitogenomic sequences representing 11 species of five genera within Miridae and evaluated the potential of these mitochondrial genes as molecular markers. Our results showed that the general mitogenomic features (gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and codon usage were well conserved among these mirids. Four protein-coding genes (PCGs (cox1, cox3, nad1 and nad3 had no length variability, where nad5 showed the largest size variation; no intraspecific length variation was found in PCGs. Two PCGs (nad4 and nad5 showed relatively high substitution rates at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, where cox1 had the lowest substitution rate. The Ka/Ks values for all PCGs were far lower than 1 (<0.59, but the Ka/Ks values of cox1-barcode sequences were always larger than 1 (1.34 –15.20, indicating that the 658 bp sequences of cox1 may be not the appropriate marker due to positive selection or selection relaxation. Phylogenetic analyses based on two concatenated mitogenomic datasets consistently supported the relationship of Nesidiocoris + (Trigonotylus + (Adelphocoris + (Apolygus + Lygus, as revealed by nad4, nad5, rrnL and the combined 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs, respectively. Taken sequence length, substitution rate and phylogenetic signal together, the individual genes (nad4, nad5 and rrnL and the combined 22 tRNAs could been used as potential molecular markers for Miridae at various taxonomic levels. Our results suggest that it is essential to evaluate and select suitable markers for different taxa groups when performing phylogenetic, population genetic and species identification studies.

  17. Toxicity of three aphicides to the generalist predators Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo R R; Michaud, J P; Bain, Clint L; Torres, Jorge B

    2017-07-01

    Recent widespread infestations of the invasive sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in sorghum fields in the southern USA have created demand for insecticides that will provide effective control of sugarcane aphid, while conserving those beneficial species that contribute to biological control of the pest. We tested the susceptibility of both adult and immature stages of two aphid predators, the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), to three aphicides, flonicamid, sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone. Flonicamid was innocuous to both species regardless of life stage or route of exposure. Lacewing adults were more susceptible to sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone than were larvae, and had higher mortality when fed contaminated honey solution than when contacting residues on an inert surface. When laid in sunflower stems treated with these two materials, eggs of O. insidiosus hatched successfully, but nymphs experienced significant mortality when exposed to treated stems, likely due to phytophagous behavior that resulted in some insecticide ingestion. Despite these impacts, we conclude that both sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone are likely to be relatively innocuous in comparison to more broad-spectrum insecticides and are thus potentially compatible with biological control and overall management of M. sacchari in grain sorghum.

  18. VIDEOFLUOROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF SWALLOWS IN ANOREXIA NERVOSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Manfredi; Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    There are some studies in the literature about the feeding behavior and masticatory process in patients with feeding disorders; however, it is not very well known if there are alterations in oral-pharyngeal swallowing dynamics in subjects with anorexia nervosa. To evaluate the oral and pharyngeal bolus transit in patients with anorexia nervosa. The study was conducted with 8 individuals clinically diagnosed and in treatment for restricting-type anorexia nervosa (seven women and one man), and 14 healthy individuals with no digestive or neurological symptoms (10 women, 4 men). Swallows were evaluated by videofluoroscopy with three swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus and three swallows of 5 mL paste bolus consistency, given in a random sequence. The participants were asked after each swallow about the sensation of the bolus passage. In the analysis of oral-pharyngeal transit duration, the mean duration of pharyngeal transit with paste bolus in patients with anorexia was shorter than in healthy volunteers (P=0.02). In the duration of movement of the hyoid bone, longer movement was observed in anorexia than in healthy volunteers with liquid bolus (P=0.01). With liquid bolus, five (62.5%) patients and one (7.1%) control had sensation of the bolus passage (Panorexia nervosa, although the results suggest that pharyngeal transit has shorter duration than that seen in healthy volunteers and the hyoid movement duration is longer in patients than in healthy volunteers. Fast pharyngeal transit may be the cause of bolus transit perception in patients with anorexia nervosa.

  19. Neuropeptidomics of the Bed Bug Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Derst, Christian; Reinhardt, Klaus; Wegener, Christian

    2018-01-05

    The bed bug Cimex lectularius is a globally distributed human ectoparasite with fascinating biology. It has recently acquired resistance against a broad range of insecticides, causing a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations. The recent annotation of the bed bug genome revealed a full complement of neuropeptide and neuropeptide receptor genes in this species. With regard to the biology of C. lectularius, neuropeptide signaling is especially interesting because it regulates feeding, diuresis, digestion, as well as reproduction and also provides potential new targets for chemical control. To identify which neuropeptides are translated from the genome-predicted genes, we performed a comprehensive peptidomic analysis of the central nervous system of the bed bug. We identified in total 144 different peptides from 29 precursors, of which at least 67 likely present bioactive mature neuropeptides. C. lectularius corazonin and myosuppressin are unique and deviate considerably from the canonical insect consensus sequences. Several identified neuropeptides likely act as hormones, as evidenced by the occurrence of respective mass signals and immunoreactivity in neurohemal structures. Our data provide the most comprehensive peptidome of a Heteropteran species so far and in comparison suggest that a hematophageous life style does not require qualitative adaptations of the insect peptidome.

  20. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  1. Análise das relações taxonômicas e sistemáticas entre espécies de triatomíneos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae de colônias mantidas pelo Serviço Especial de Saúde de Araraquara, inferida de seqüências do 16S rDNA mitocondrial Taxonomic and systematic analysis among triatomine bug species (Hemiptera, Reduviidae from colonies of the Special Health Service of Araraquara (SESA, inferred from 16S rDNA mitocondrial sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ceretti Junior

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas seqüências de nucleotídeos do gene 16S do rDNA mitocondrial em 14 populações de triatomíneos mantidos em colônias no insetário SESA de Araraquara- SP, comparando-as com seqüências do mesmo gene disponíveis no GenBank. Os fragmentos variaram de 311 a 317 pb com baixa variação intra-específica entre as distâncias genéticas (0% a 0,6%, exceto para os relacionamentos entre espécimes de Triatoma sordida (1% e espécimes de T. brasiliensis (1,3% atribuídos a populações geográficas diferentes. A parafilia de Rhodniini e do gênero Panstrongylus foi evidenciada pelas analises, confirmando resultados anteriores entre estes e os estreitos relacionamentos de R. prolixus com R. robustus e de T. infestans e T. platensis. O relacionamento entre T. maculata e T. pseudomaculata não foi solucionado, uma vez que, esses táxons apareceram tanto em monofilia quanto em parafilia: T. pseudomaculata (SESA está agrupado com T. maculata (seqüência do GenBank e associados a T . brasiliensis (SESA, enquanto T. maculata (SESA aparece agrupado com T. pseudomaculata do SESA e do GenBank. Os resultados evidenciam a utilidade do gene 16S como marcador de espécies de triatomíneos e sua importância em questões de sistemática e taxonomia. Há necessidade de novos estudos envolvendo outros marcadores associados a caracteres sistemáticos clássicos de morfologia, ecologia e comportamento para decisões sistemáticas adequadas uma vez, que teriam impacto não apenas sistemático mas, para as estratégias de controle.Nucleotide sequences of mitocondrial 16S rDNA gene were analyzed in 14 populations of triatomine bugs from colonies maintained by SESA, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, comparing them with sequences of same gene found in the GenBank. The fragments varied from 311 to 317 bp, with low intra-specific genetic distance (0% to 0.6%, with exception of the relationship among Triatoma sordida specimens (1% and T. brasiliensis

  2. Kissing Bug ( spp. Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Klotz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kissing bugs ( Triatoma spp. frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae. Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  3. Swallowing Disorders in Severe Brain Injury in the Arousal Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremare, A; Rapin, A; Veber, B; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Verin, E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of swallowing disorders in severe brain injury in the arousal phase after coma. Between December 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, eleven patients with severe acquired brain injury who were admitted to rehabilitation center (Male 81.8 %; 40.7 ± 14.6 years) were included in the study. Evaluation of swallowing included a functional examination, clinical functional swallowing test, and naso-endoscopic swallowing test. All patients had swallowing disorders at admission. The first functional swallowing test showed oral (77.8 %) and pharyngeal (66.7 %) food bolus transport disorders; and alterations in airway protection mechanisms (80 %). Swallowing test under endoscopic control showed a disorder in swallowing coordination in 55.6 % of patients tested. Seven (63.6 %) patients resumed oral feeding within an average of 6 weeks after admission to rehabilitation center and 14 weeks after acquired brain injury. Six (85.7 %) of these seven patients continued to require modified solid and liquid textures. Swallowing disorders are a major concern in severe brain injury in the arousal phase. Early bedside assessment of swallowing is essential for detection of swallowing disorders to propose appropriate medical rehabilitation care to these patients in a state of altered consciousness.

  4. Effect of body posture on involuntary swallow in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Shogo; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Ito, Kayoko; Tsukada, Tetsu; Inoue, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Clinically, reclining posture has been reported to reduce risk of aspiration. However, during involuntary swallow in reclining posture, changes in orofacial and pharyngeal movement before and during pharyngeal swallow should be considered. Further, the mechanisms underlying the effect of body posture on involuntary swallow remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of body posture on activity patterns of the suprahyoid muscles and on patterns of bolus transport during a natural involuntary swallow. Thirteen healthy male adults participated in a water infusion test and a chewing test. In the water infusion test, thickened water was delivered into the pharynx at a very slow rate until the first involuntary swallow was evoked. In the chewing test, subjects were asked to eat 10 g of gruel rice. In both tests, the recording was performed at four body postures between upright and supine positions. Results showed that reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow and prolonged onset latency of the swallowing initiation. Muscle burst duration and whiteout time measured by videoendoscopy significantly increased with body reclining and prolongation of the falling time. In the chewing test, reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow, and the frequency of bolus residue after the first swallow increased. Duration and area of EMG burst and whiteout time significantly increased with body reclining. These data suggest that body reclining may result in prolongation of pharyngeal swallow during involuntary swallow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How Does the Degree of Variability Affect Bug-Finding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    place. The difficulty in reasoning about several configurations is a likely reason why the variability bugs are actually introduced in configurable programs. We hope that the detailed findings presented here will inspire the creation of programmer support tools addressing the challenges faced......-based programs. We measure speed and precision for bug finding tasks defined at three different degrees of variability on several subject programs derived from real systems. The results show that the speed of bug finding decreases linearly with the number of features, while effectiveness of finding bugs...... is relatively independent of the degree of variability. Still, identifying the set of configurations in which the bug manifests itself is difficult already for a low number of features. Surprisingly, identifying the exact set of affected configurations appears to be harder than finding the bug in the first...

  6. Optical illusions in scanning electron micrographs: the case of the eggshell of Acrosternum (Chinavia) marginatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Klaus W; Reid, Walton; Schrauf, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy revealed that-as is common in this family of the Hemiptera-the eggs of the green stink bug Acrosternum (Chinavia) marginatum are roughly barrel-shaped and possess at their apical pole a row of slender extensions, the aero-micropylar processes. The outer surface of the eggshell carries hexagonally arranged pits. The analysis of cross-fractured eggshells showed that the pits have slender basal extensions with transverse diaphragms. When scanning electron micrographs of the egg surface of A. marginatum are viewed upside down, the perception flips and the pits appear as elevations to all observers addressed. Thus, we are dealing with an optical illusion, which is known as the 'shape-from-shading effect'. The perceived dents remain robust to changes in the angle of recording (zero to ca. 60 degrees tilt), the magnification (ca. x100 to x1400), and the number of pits included in the micrograph (one to several hundred). When through appropriate positioning of the specimen under the electron beam, contrast is significantly reduced and the distinct shadows at the slope of the pits are eliminated, the optical illusion does not appear. It is inferred that shades provide the decisive clue that determines whether bumps or dents will be perceived. Owing to the low resolution of their compound eyes, the shape-from-shading effect on the eggshell of the bug is in all likelihood not perceived by insects.

  7. Speech, language and swallowing in Huntington’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryluz Camargo-Mendoza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD has been described as a genetic condition caused by a mutation in the CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine nucleotide sequence. Depending on the stage of the disease, people may have difficulties in speech, language and swallowing. The purpose of this paper is to describe these difficulties in detail, as well as to provide an account on speech and language therapy approach to this condition. Regarding speech, it is worth noticing that characteristics typical of hyperkinetic dysarthria can be found due to underlying choreic movements. The speech of people with HD tends to show shorter sentences, with much simpler syntactic structures, and difficulties in tasks that require complex cognitive processing. Moreover, swallowing may present dysphagia that progresses as the disease develops. A timely, comprehensive and effective speech-language intervention is essential to improve the quality of life of people and contribute to their communicative welfare.

  8. Management of accidental swallowing in implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Francisley Ávila; Statkievicz, Cristian; Guilhem Rosa, Ana Laura; da Silveira Bossi, Fabrício

    2015-08-01

    This report describes a protocol for managing the accidental swallowing of dental instruments in implant dentistry, illustrated by a patient who accidentally swallowed a hexagonal wrench. The first step was to refer the patient to the medical emergency hospital service for radiographic and clinical evaluation. The hexagonal wrench was located in the stomach and was immediately removed with an endoscopic procedure. The gastric mucosa was sampled via biopsy and the sample submitted to the urease test, which was positive for Helicobacter pylori. Triple treatment was instituted for gastritis caused by H pylori to avoid exposing the patient to unnecessary risk. Removal of a foreign body by means of an endoscopic procedure constitutes a safe and effective treatment. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aspirating and Nonaspirating Swallow Sounds in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakking, Thuy; Chang, Anne; O'Grady, Kerry; David, Michael; Weir, Kelly

    2016-12-01

    Cervical auscultation (CA) may be used to complement feeding/swallowing evaluations when assessing for aspiration. There are no published pediatric studies that compare the properties of sounds between aspirating and nonaspirating swallows. To establish acoustic and perceptual profiles of aspirating and nonaspirating swallow sounds and determine if a difference exists between these 2 swallowing types. Aspiration sound clips were obtained from recordings using CA simultaneously undertaken with videofluoroscopic swallow study. Aspiration was determined using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale. The presence of perceptual swallow/breath parameters was rated by 2 speech pathologists who were blinded to the type of swallow. Acoustic data between groups were compared using Mann Whitney U-tests, while perceptual differences were determined by a test of 2 proportions. Combinations of perceptual parameters of 50 swallows (27 aspiration, 23 no aspiration) from 47 children (57% male) were statistically analyzed using area under a receiver operating characteristic (aROC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to determine predictors of aspirating swallows. The combination of post-swallow presence of wet breathing and wheeze and absence of GRS and normal breathing was the best predictor of aspiration (aROC = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.94). There were no significant differences between these 2 swallow types for peak frequency, duration, and peak amplitude. Our pilot study has shown that certain characteristics of swallow obtained using CA may be useful in the prediction of aspiration. However, further research comparing the acoustic swallowing sound profiles of normal children to children with dysphagia (who are aspirating) on a larger scale is required. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Technology of swallowable capsule for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Intzes, I; Meng, H; Cosmas, J

    2014-01-01

    Medical technology has undergone major breakthroughs in recent years, especially in the area of the examination tools for diagnostic purposes. This paper reviews the swallowable capsule technology in the examination of the gastrointestinal system for various diseases. The wireless camera pill has created a more advanced method than many traditional examination methods for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases such as gastroscopy by the use of an endoscope. After years of great innovation...

  11. MARS ANALOG SOIL BUG OBSERVATIONS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Bloomsburg University Goniometer (BUG) was used to make bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of Mars soil analogs at Mars...

  12. Prevalence of atypical swallowing: a kinesiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A; Cattaneo, R; Spadaro, A; Marchetti, E; Barone, A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of kinesiographic coincidence between the most cranial position during deglutition of mandible and habitual occlusal position and to evaluate the distribution of clinical diagnosis according to the kinesiographic pattern of deglutition. 201 random patients in waiting list for dental treatment and classified as orthodontic patients, prosthetic patients, TMD patients and control patients, were evaluated. Kinesiographic records were acquired using K7I and positioning a magnetic sensor frame integral with the head and with the sensory field balanced on an artificial magnet adhering to the mucosa covering the roots of the lower mandibular incisors. The kinesiographic occlusal position was compared to the kinesiographic most cranial position of the mandible during swallowing. 99 patients displayed a discrepancy between the most cranial position during swallowing and the occlusal position. 102 patients did not show any discrepancy. In this group the kinesiographic most cranial position during swallowing coincided with the occlusal position. The finding suggests that computerised kinesiography could be useful to study deglutition, detecting in a reliable way the movement pattern. Atypical deglutition seems to be less atypical than previously though in dental patient population and, despite these data confirm its correlation with malocclusion, we noted an inverse correlation with necessity of prosthetic treatment and no higher prevalence in TMD patients.

  13. Spatiotemporal characteristics of swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeo H; Oh, Byung-Mo; Jung, Ii-Young; Lee, Jung C; Lee, Goo J; Han, Tai R

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate spatiotemporal movement abnormalities during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to investigate relationships between disease and dysphagia severities. Retrospective study. We performed two-dimensional motion analysis of the hyoid bone, epiglottis, and vocal folds using videofluoroscopic images from 33 PD patients and 33 age-matched, healthy controls. The outcome measures were spatial and temporal movement variables during swallowing. Additionally, three subgroups of patients were compared based on the Hoehn and Yahr scale to identify the relationship between disease and dysphagia severities. Individuals with PD showed a reduced anterior hyoid bone displacement after normalization for each individual. The maximal angle of the epiglottic rotation was smaller in PD patients. The time to maximal displacement of the hyoid bone, epiglottis, and vocal folds were significantly delayed in PD patients (P = 0.001, 0.002, and disease severity was related to level of diet and supervision but not with dysphagia severity. This study shows that oropharyngeal bradykinesia, incoordination, reduced anterior hyoid bone movement, and decreased epiglottic rotation angle during swallowing are the most noticeable findings in individuals with PD. N/A. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Genetic structure of Pseudococcus microcirculus (Hemiptera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. A. ZETTLER

    Genetic structure of Pseudococcus microcirculus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations on epiphytic orchids in south Florida. J. A. ZETTLER. ∗. , K. ADAMS, B. FREDERICK, A. GUTTING, N. INGEBRETSEN, A. RAGSDALE and A. SCHREY. Department of Biology, Armstrong State University, Savannah, GA 31419, USA.

  15. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  16. Examination of swallowing maneuver training and transfer of practiced behaviors to laryngeal vestibule kinematics in functional swallowing of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Renata; Azola, Alba; Macrae, Phoebe; Sunday, Kirstyn; Mejia, Veerley; Vose, Alicia; Humbert, Ianessa A

    2017-05-15

    Swallowing maneuvers are routinely trained in dysphagia rehabilitation with the assumption that practiced behaviors transfer to functional swallowing, however transfer is rarely examined in the deglutition literature. The goal of this study was to train the volitional laryngeal vestibule closure (vLVC) maneuver, which is a swallowing maneuver that targets prolonged laryngeal vestibule closure (LVC). In two different training experiments, 69 healthy adults underwent Long-hold (hold vLVC as long as possible) or Short-hold vLVC training (hold vLVC for 2s). Before and after vLVC training, natural swallows (swallowing without a therapeutic technique) were completed. The outcome variables included laryngeal vestibule closure reaction time and the duration of laryngeal vestibule closure. Results indicate that during both Long-hold and Short-hold vLVC trainings, vLVC swallows had faster laryngeal vestibule closure reaction times and longer durations of laryngeal vestibule closure than in pre-training 5ml liquid swallows. However, only faster laryngeal vestibule closure reaction times transferred to post-training 5ml liquid swallows (20-24% faster), but not prolonged durations of laryngeal vestibule closure. Our findings suggest that swallowing maneuver training has the potential to induce transfer of what was practiced to functional swallowing behavior, although not all practiced behaviors may generalize. These findings are significant for bolstering the effectiveness of dysphagia management in medical settings and should be tested in individuals with dysphagia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  18. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  19. Gas swallow during meals in patients with excessive belching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, N; Serra, J

    2017-09-01

    Swallowed gas is an important source of abdominal gas, and aerophagia is often believed as a putative cause of gas-related abdominal symptoms. However, altered gas-swallow during meals has not been demonstrated. Our aim was to characterize the number of gas swallows during meals in patients complaining of excessive belching and gaseousness and a control group without abdominal symptoms during a 24-h period. A 24-h pH-impedance monitoring was performed in 10 patients with excessive belching, and 11 patients without digestive symptoms or reflux in the pH-impedance study. During the study, patients followed their daily routine and customary meals, without any specific limitation. In each patient the number and content of swallows and belches were analyzed. Total meal periods were similar in controls (75±26 min) and patients (79±21 min; P=.339), but the number of gaseous swallows was greater in patients (114±13 swallows) than controls (71±8 swallows; P=.007), due to a greater frequency of gaseous swallows during meals (15±2 swallows/10 min vs 10±1 swallows/10 min, respectively; P=.008). During the 24-h study period, 66±13 belches were recorded in patients, but only 13±3 belches in controls (PGas is frequently swallowed during meals. Patients complaining of excessive belching have a different swallow pattern during meals, with an increased ingestion of gas that correlates with increased gastric belching events. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Journey of a Swallowed Toothbrush to the Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Hee; Kim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Kang Hun; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Seung Ok

    2007-01-01

    Toothbrush swallowing is a rare event. Because no cases of spontaneous passage have been reported, prompt removal is recommended to prevent the development of complications. Most swallowed toothbrushes have been found in the esophagus or the stomach of affected patients, and there has been no previously reported case of a toothbrush in the colon. Here, we report a case of a swallowed toothbrush found in the ascending colon that caused a fistula between the right colon and the liver, with a complicating small hepatic abscess. This patient was successfully managed using exploratory laparotomy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of a swallowed toothbrush found in the colon. PMID:17616026

  1. Mastication and swallowing in patients with postirradiation xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, Sandra; Faull, Jennifer; Klein, Barbara; Aref, Amr; Fontanesi, James; Stachler, Robert; Shamsa, Falah; Jones, Lewis; Simpson, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Very little objective data has been reported on mastication and swallowing in xerostomic patients, which would substantiate presumed causal relationships between xerostomia and patient complaints. The purpose was to elucidate which components of mastication and swallowing were abnormal, and most directly related to xerostomia, and which appeared unaffected. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of timing events in mastication and swallowing was done using videofluoroscopic data for 15 cancer patients with xerostomia, and 20 normal controls. Scintigraphy was also used to determine oropharyngeal residue after a water swallow. Cancer treatment modalities included radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy. Results: For barium liquid and paste substances, timing measures were equivalent for controls and patients. Xerostomic patients took 46% longer to masticate a shortbread cookie, and timing for the initiation of swallowing was shorter, but duration of swallowing appeared unaffected. Oral and pharyngeal residues following the swallow were greater in the patient group. Conclusions: Xerostomia primarily affected mastication and oral manipulation of a dry, absorbent food material. Increased oral and pharyngeal residues after a water swallow are ambiguously related to xerostomia. The initiation and duration of the pharyngeal swallow was not abnormal

  2. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  3. lines for morphological resistance to the southern green stink bug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Means separated after log (x+1) transformation. Correlation matrices between the stink bug populations and t he soybean morphological characteristics. Positi vely si gnificant correlati ons were obser ved between plant heights, maturity periods and the stink bug. •population density per two rows. 0.064 be. 0.104 abc.

  4. Bed Bug Epidemic: A Challenge to Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haramis, Linn D.; Bliss, Kadi R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reported cases of bed bug infestations in the U.S. and throughout the world have escalated dramatically, posing a global public health problem. Although bed bugs are not known to transmit disease to humans, they pose both direct and indirect public health challenges in terms of health effects, treatment, cost, and resource…

  5. Software bug prediction using object-oriented metrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Software quality is the fundamental requirement for a user, academia person, software developing organizations and researchers. In this paper a model for object-oriented Software Bug Prediction System (SBPS) has been developed. This model is capable of predicting the existence of bugs in a class if found, during ...

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skin, hair, and nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", " ... Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick When to see ...

  7. Catching the Bug: How Virtual Coaching Improves Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Megan

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author describes virtual coaching and why it is so effective. The following six points of virtual coaching are explained: (1) Also known as bug-in-ear coaching, virtual coaching is not new; (2) Virtual coaching can save money and time; (3) Bug-in-ear coaching increases the frequency of observations for novice teachers; (4) It…

  8. Swallowing difficulties in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: indications for feeding assessment and outcome of videofluroscopic swallow studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aloysius, A.; Born, P.; Kinali, M.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding difficulties are known to occur with advancing age in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We evaluated the role of videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) in a group of 30 DMD patients with feeding difficulties. Indications for feeding assessment were: respiratory infections potentially...

  9. Swallowing dysfunction as a factor that should be remembered in recurrent pneumonia: videofluoroscopic swallow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Nazan; Özçelik, Uğur; Demir, Numan; Cinel, Güzin; Yalçin, Ebru; Ersöz, Deniz D; Kiper, Nural

    2017-10-01

    The swallow function is one of the strong defense mechanism against aspiration. Aspiration and pneumonia are unavoidable in patients with defective mechanism of swallowing. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with recurrent pneumonia in terms of videofluoroscopic examination results. The study comprised fifty pediatric cases (22 boys, 28 girls) with an average age of 2.9 years (2 months-7.5 years) who were referred to our clinic due to suffering from recurrent pneumonia. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) was performed on all patients. The presence of a correlation with pneumonia was investigated. In 45 of the children, VFSS results were not normal. Of the children, 41 had mental-motor retardation. The results of the videofluoroscopic study show that silent aspiration was the most common pathology in participants with the percentage of 40 (27.5% mild, 17.5% severe). Patients in the study had pneumonia with an incidence of 2.6 illnesses per year. Having one than more results on VFSS was found to be associated with more number of annual pneumonia episodes. Children with neurological impairments are at risk of recurrent acute pneumonia due to aspiration. Disturbances of swallowing phases should be remembered as a cause of pneumonia in these patients.

  10. Derangement of swallowing in children with myelomeningocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernbach, S.K.; McLone, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Barium esophagrams performed in 13 children with myelomeningocele demonstrated a variety of swallowing disorders: difficulty in bolus formation, nasopharyngeal reflux, tracheobronchial aspiration. Cricopharyngeal spasm was not identified in this group. Antegrade peristalsis in the distal two-thirds of the esophagus was normal. Gastroesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 8 of the children. Vocal cord paralysis (8/13) and death in early child-hood (6/13) occurred with greater frequency than in the general myelomeningocele population. Correct management of these children may require tracheostomy, gastrostomy, and fundoplication. (orig.)

  11. Feeding preference ofNezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and attractiveness of soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrain de Santana Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae is a cosmopolitan insect that causes economic damages to several cultures, in particular soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. Among the techniques that involve Integrated Pest Management, the resistance of plants is pointed as a tool of great value and can contribute to the reduction of populations of insects. The feeding preferences of adults of southern green stink bug (N. viridula, and the attractiveness of soybean genotypes were evaluated under laboratory conditions to detect the most resistant material against attack from this insect. A choice test, using mature grains and green pods of the genotypes was carried out, in which the number of individuals attracted in different periods was counted. Feeding preference was evaluated in the choice tests using green pods and the number of pricks and the average time spent feeding by pricks were evaluated. In addition, texture and trichome density in the green pods were evaluated. The mature grains of 'TMG 117RR' and 'TMG 121RR' were less attractive to the adults of N. viridula. Regarding the green pods, 'IAC 17' and PI 227687 were less attractive; 'IAC 17' and 'IAC PL1' were less consumed, indicating the feeding non-preference as a resistance mechanism. 'IAC 17', 'TMG-117RR' and PI 227687 presented high levels of trichome density, and in 'IAC 17' this morphological characteristic was considered to be the main resistance factor against N. viridula. These results may be useful for breeding programs that focus on the resistance of soybeans to insects.

  12. Landscape Effects on Reproduction of Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a Mobile, Polyphagous, Multivoltine Arthropod Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dawn M; Prescott, Kristina R; Zeilinger, Adam R; Hou, Suqin; Coffin, Alisa W; Smith, Coby M; Ruberson, John R; Andow, David A

    2018-04-04

    Landscape factors can significantly influence arthropod populations. The economically important brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a native mobile, polyphagous and multivoltine pest of many crops in southeastern United States and understanding the relative influence of local and landscape factors on their reproduction may facilitate population management. Finite rate of population increase (λ) was estimated in four major crop hosts-maize, peanut, cotton, and soybean-over 3 yr in 16 landscapes of southern Georgia. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to characterize the surrounding landscape structure. LASSO regression was used to identify the subset of local and landscape characteristics and predator densities that account for variation in λ. The percentage area of maize, peanut and woodland and pasture in the landscape and the connectivity of cropland had no influence on E. servus λ. The best model for explaining variation in λ included only four predictor variables: whether or not the sampled field was a soybean field, mean natural enemy density in the field, percentage area of cotton in the landscape and the percentage area of soybean in the landscape. Soybean was the single most important variable for determining E. servus λ, with much greater reproduction in soybean fields than in other crop species. Penalized regression and post-selection inference provide conservative estimates of the landscape-scale determinants of E. servus reproduction and indicate that a relatively simple set of in-field and landscape variables influences reproduction in this species.

  13. Selectivity of diacylhydrazine insecticides to the predatory bug Orius laevigatus: in vivo and modelling/docking experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Fermín; Christiaens, Olivier; Bengochea, Paloma; Medina, Pilar; Rougé, Pierre; Viñuela, Elisa; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of pesticide selectivity to natural enemies is necessary for a successful implementation of biological and chemical control methods in integrated pest management (IPM) programmes. Diacylhydrazine (DAH)-based ecdysone agonists, also known as moulting-accelerating compounds (MACs), are considered to be a selective group of insecticides, and their compatibility with predatory Heteroptera, which are used as biological control agents, is known. However, their molecular mode of action has not been explored in beneficial insects such as Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). In this project, in vivo toxicity assays demonstrated that the DAH-based RH-5849, tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide have no toxic effect against O. laevigatus. The ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) of O. laevigatus was sequenced, and a homology protein model was constructed that confirmed a cavity structure with 12 α-helices, harbouring the natural insect moulting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. However, docking studies showed that a steric clash occurred for the DAH-based insecticides owing to a restricted extent of the ligand-binding cavity of the EcR of O. laevigatus. The insect toxicity assays demonstrated that MACs are selective for O. laevigatus. The modelling/docking experiments are indications that these pesticides do not bind with the LBD-EcR of O. laevigatus and support the supposition that they show no biological effects in the predatory bug. These data help in explaining the compatible use of MACs together with predatory bugs in IPM programmes. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A case of colohepatic penetration by a swallowed toothbrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Ro; Hwang, Yong; Kim, Jong Hun

    2006-01-01

    Although foreign body ingestion is relatively common, toothbrush swallowing is rare. We report a case of a swallowed toothbrush which passed through the ileocecal valve and perforated the proximal transverse colon, then the liver. To our knowledge, this is the first case to be reported. PMID:16688846

  15. The surgical management and speech and swallowing rehabilitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advanced tongue cancer may have a devastating effect on a person's ability to speak and to swallow. Very little is known about the surgical management and speech and swallowing rehabilitation of persons with advanced tongue cancer in South Africa. The aim of this study was to obtain information regarding clinical ...

  16. Prophylactic Swallowing Exercises in Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H R; Jensen, Kenneth; Aksglæde, K

    2015-01-01

    Many head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors experience reduced quality of life due to radiotherapy (RT)-related dysphagia. The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to evaluate the impact of prophylactic swallowing exercises on swallowing-related outcomes in HNC patients treated with curative...

  17. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  18. Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.) biological control update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum = Cynanchum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum = C. louiseae) are herbaceous, perennial, viney milkweeds introduced from Europe (Apocynaceae-subfamily Asclepiadoideae). Both species are becoming increasingly invasive in a variety of natural and manag...

  19. Current distribution and population size of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two surveys of Blue Swallows were conducted in the southern Tanzanian highland grasslands in order to determine the habitat preferences and estimate the size of this subpopulation. During the 2008/09 and 2012 surveys, a total distance of 3 635 km was travelled in search of Blue Swallows (at an altitude of above 1 400 ...

  20. Swallowing in moderate and severe phases of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla de Medeiros Correia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the problems of feeding and swallowing in individuals with moderate and severe Alzheimer´s disease (AD and to correlate these with functional aspects. METHOD: Fifty patients with AD and their caregivers participated in this study. The instruments used were: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Activities of Daily Living, Assessment of Feeding and Swallowing Difficulties in Dementia, Functional Outcome Questionnaire for Aphasia, and Swallowing Rating Scale. RESULTS: Problems with passivity, distraction and refusal to eat were encountered in the CDR2 group. Distraction, passivity and inappropriate feeding velocity were predominant in the CDR3 group. The problems were correlated with communication, swallowing severity of AD individuals and caregiver schooling. CONCLUSION: Given the inexorable functional alterations during the course of the disease, it is vital to observe these in patients with a compromised feeding and swallowing mechanism. The present study supplies the instruments to orient caregivers and professionals.

  1. Aspiration and swallowing in Parkinson disease and rehabilitation with EMST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, M.S.; Okun, M.S.; Rosenbek, J.C.; Musson, N.; Fernandez, H.H.; Rodriguez, R.; Romrell, J.; Pitts, T.; Wheeler-Hegland, K.M.; Sapienza, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Dysphagia is the main cause of aspiration pneumonia and death in Parkinson disease (PD) with no established restorative behavioral treatment to date. Reduced swallow safety may be related to decreased elevation and excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex. Increased submental muscle force generation has been associated with expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and subsequent increases in hyolaryngeal complex movement provide a strong rationale for its use as a dysphagia treatment. The current study's objective was to test the treatment outcome of a 4-week device-driven EMST program on swallow safety and define the physiologic mechanisms through measures of swallow timing and hyoid displacement. Methods: This was a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled EMST trial performed at an academic center. Sixty participants with PD completed EMST, 4 weeks, 5 days per week, for 20 minutes per day, using a calibrated or sham, handheld device. Measures of swallow function including judgments of swallow safety (penetration–aspiration [PA] scale scores), swallow timing, and hyoid movement were made from videofluoroscopic images. Results: No pretreatment group differences existed. The active treatment (EMST) group demonstrated improved swallow safety compared to the sham group as evidenced by improved PA scores. The EMST group demonstrated improvement of hyolaryngeal function during swallowing, findings not evident for the sham group. Conclusions: EMST may be a restorative treatment for dysphagia in those with PD. The mechanism may be explained by improved hyolaryngeal complex movement. Classification of evidence: This intervention study provides Class I evidence that swallow safety as defined by PA score improved post EMST. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; EMST = expiratory muscle strength training; MEP = maximum expiratory pressure; PA = penetration–aspiration; PD = Parkinson disease; SWAL-QOL = Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire; UES = upper esophageal

  2. [Micronecta sp (Corixidae) and Diplonychus sp (Belostomatidae), two aquatic Hemiptera hosts and/or potential vectors of Mycobacterium ulcerans (pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer) in Cote d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doannio, J M C; Konan, K L; Dosso, F N; Koné, A B; Konan, Y L; Sankaré, Y; Ekaza, E; Coulibaly, N D; Odéhouri, K P; Dosso, M; Sess, E D; Marsollier, L; Aubry, J

    2011-02-01

    Buruli ulcer is currently a major public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. It is a neglected tropical disease closely associated with aquatic environments. Aquatic insects of the Hemiptera order have been implicated in human transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer. The purpose of this preliminary study using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was to evaluate aquatic insects in Sokrogbo, a village in the Tiassalé sanitary district where Buruli ulcer is endemic. Findings identified two water bugs hosting Mycobacterium ulcerans, i.e., one of the Micronecta genus in the Corixidae family and another of the Diplonychus genus in the Belostomatidae family. The PCR technique used revealed the molecular signatures of M. ulcerans in tissue from these two insects. Based on these findings, these two water bugs can be considered as potential hosts and/or vectors of M. ulcerans in the study zone. Unlike Diplonychus sp., this is the first report to describe Micronecta sp as a host of M. ulcerans. Further investigation will be needed to assess the role of these two water bugs in human transmission of M. ulcerans in Côte d'Ivoire.

  3. Swallowing difficulties in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: indications for feeding assessment and outcome of videofluroscopic swallow studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aloysius, A.; Born, P.; Kinali, M.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding difficulties are known to occur with advancing age in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We evaluated the role of videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) in a group of 30 DMD patients with feeding difficulties. Indications for feeding assessment were: respiratory infections potentially...... on VFSS. It is the oral phase of swallowing that is most significantly affected in DMD. The pharyngeal phase is well triggered but is weak with incomplete pharyngeal clearance leaving pharyngeal residue. Insufficient or effortful chewing coupled with weak clearance may predispose them to choking episodes...... either as a one off event or with increasing frequency with age. This study suggests that VFSS may not be of additional benefit to careful feeding history and observation in DMD with feeding difficulties Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  4. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) for flowering host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  5. Phenology of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in a California Urban Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Chuck A; Daane, Kent M

    2018-01-30

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive pest that has been resident in California since 2006. To better understand its seasonal phenology, we used baited traps to estimate nymph and adult population densities in midtown Sacramento, the focal area of the Northern California invasion. Adult H. halys populations were found soon after trapping began in February (2015-2016) or March (2014); the first egg masses for 2014, 2015, and 2016 were found on 5 May, 17 April, and 12 April, respectively, and the first nymphs were found 3 June, 19 May, and 9 May, respectively. There were two generations per year, with one peak in June and another in September. Summer temperatures above 36°C in July and August were associated with reduced catches in traps of both nymphs and adults. This extreme heat may have helped to form two clear nymph peaks and suppressed egg deposition. In 2016, two trap types and four lures were also compared. Trap type influenced season-long nymph captures, with fewer nymphs in double cone traps than pyramid traps. Lure type influenced season-long trap catch, with more nymphs and adults trapped with the Rescue lure than the AgBio Combo lure, Alpha Scents, or Trécé Pherocon Combo lures, although this difference was only associated with the capture of nymphs and we did not compare for longevity or seasonal variation. These data are discussed with respect to H. halys' phenology from the mid-Atlantic region. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür for flowering host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  7. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  8. Risk factors for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flávia Ferraz Barros Baroni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Stroke is a frequent cause of dysphagia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a tertiary care hospital the prevalence of swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients, to analyze factors associated with the dysfunction and to relate swallowing dysfunction to mortality 3 months after the stroke. METHODS: Clinical evaluation of deglutition was performed in 212 consecutive patients with a medical and radiologic diagnosis of stroke. The occurrence of death was determined 3 months after the stroke. RESULTS: It was observed that 63% of the patients had swallowing dysfunction. The variables gender and specific location of the lesion were not associated with the presence or absence of swallowing dysfunction. The patients with swallowing dysfunction had more frequently a previous stroke, had a stroke in the left hemisphere, motor and/or sensitivity alterations, difficulty in oral comprehension, alteration of oral expression, alteration of the level of consciousness, complications such as fever and pneumonia, high indexes on the Rankin scale, and low indexes on the Barthel scale. These patients had a higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing evaluation should be done in all patients with stroke, since swallowing dysfunction is associated with complications and an increased risk of death.

  9. Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyu Hosotsubo

    Full Text Available Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy. The results indicated that Young's modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing.

  10. Skill training for swallowing rehabilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, Ruvini P; Jones, Richard D; Sella, Oshrat; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2014-07-01

    To examine the effects of skill training on swallowing in individuals with dysphagia secondary to Parkinson's disease (PD) and to explore skill retention after treatment termination. Within-subject pilot study with follow-up after 2 weeks of treatment and after a 2-week nontreatment period. Clinic in a research institute. Patients (N=10; mean age, 67.4y) included 3 women (mean Hoehn and Yahr score, 2.6) and 7 men (mean Hoehn and Yahr score, 2.4). Patients underwent 10 daily sessions of skill training therapy focused on increasing precision in muscle contraction during swallowing using visual feedback. Data from the timed water swallow test, Test of Mastication and Swallowing Solids, surface electromyography (sEMG) of submental muscles, and swallowing-related quality of life questionnaire were collected at 2 baseline sessions (conducted 2wk apart) at the end of treatment and after 2 nontreatment weeks to assess skill retention. Immediately after posttreatment, the swallowing rate for liquids (P=.034), sEMG durational parameters of premotor time (P=.003), and preswallow time (P<.001) improved. A functional carryover effect was seen from dry to water swallows (P=.009). Additionally, swallowing-related quality of life improved (P=.018). Reassessment at 2 weeks after treatment termination revealed short-term retention of treatment effects. A skill-based training approach produced functional, biomechanical, and swallowing-related quality of life improvements in this cohort indicating compelling evidence for the effectiveness of this novel approach for dysphagia rehabilitation in PD. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

  12. Nymphal and adult performance of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), as a potential alternative host for egg parasitoids multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Wilsimar A.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Correa-Ferreira, Beatriz S. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2001-12-15

    This research aimed to evaluate the potential of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as host for multiplication of egg parasitoids, by determining the nymphal and adult performance of E. heros from laboratory and the field, comparing with Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), under mass conditions. One hundred eggs of E. heros and N. viridula were placed among the leaves of soybean plants contained in cages (50x50x70 cm) and observation were made until adult emergence. The nymphs fed on soybean pods, dry soybean and peanuts seeds. The number of nymphs that reached adulthood and the development time were calculated. The survivorship and reproduction performance of laboratory and field populations of E. heros and N. viridula were evaluated during 13 weeks in February-May 1999. The number of eggs produced by 100 pairs of stink bugs per cage containing the same diet was recorded. Nymphal development time of E. heros and N. viridula was 33.0 and 34.0 days and 65.0% and 71.3% of nymphs reached adulthood, respectively. Adults of E. heros reared under laboratory conditions produced 2.5 times more eggs (5547.0 eggs/cage) than those collected in the field (2262.7 eggs/cage). The adult field population of E. heros had reduced reproduction and longevity due to parasitism by Hexacladia smithii Ash. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The N. viridula adults collected in the field produced 1.7 times more eggs (6304.9 eggs/cage) than those reared in the laboratory (3609.2 eggs/cage). E. heros laboratory reared is a promising host for egg parasitoids multiplication when compared with N. viridula collected in the field. (author)

  13. Decoding human swallowing via electroencephalography: a state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-10-01

    Swallowing and swallowing disorders have garnered continuing interest over the past several decades. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an inexpensive and non-invasive procedure with very high temporal resolution which enables analysis of short and fast swallowing events, as well as an analysis of the organizational and behavioral aspects of cortical motor preparation, swallowing execution and swallowing regulation. EEG is a powerful technique which can be used alone or in combination with other techniques for monitoring swallowing, detection of swallowing motor imagery for diagnostic or biofeedback purposes, or to modulate and measure the effects of swallowing rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the existing literature which has deployed EEG in the investigation of oropharyngeal swallowing, smell, taste and texture related to swallowing, cortical pre-motor activation in swallowing, and swallowing motor imagery detection. Furthermore, this paper provides a brief review of the different modalities of brain imaging techniques used to study swallowing brain activities, as well as the EEG components of interest for studies on swallowing and on swallowing motor imagery. Lastly, this paper provides directions for future swallowing investigations using EEG.

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... laws Quality DataDerm Quality measures Clinical guidelines Appropriate use criteria Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC ... prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and ...

  17. Top Ten Tips to Prevent or Control Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confirm you have bed bugs rather than other insects (if needed, show to your local extension agent trained in pest control), assess Integrated Pest Management (IPM) options before considering pesticide, try mattress encasements, and more.

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair ... bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme ...

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video library Find a dermatologist "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ ... most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’ ...

  1. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... State advocacy grants Advocate of the Year Award Step therapy legislation Scope of practice Melanoma state reporting ... known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug ...

  2. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the mattress for maximum protection. Pay attention to outbreaks. Check the CDC Travel Health Notices website and ... that they can examine you for a transmitted disease. Additional related resources Bug bites and stings: When ...

  3. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hours before wearing them. Use bed nets. If sleeping in the great outdoors, use bed nets to ... that they can examine you for a transmitted disease. Additional related resources Bug bites and stings: When ...

  5. Hiring a Pest Management Professional for Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you hire someone to treat your bed bug infestation, make sure they use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques, check credentials, and know they may need multiple visits, to take apart furniture, and to use vacuums, heat, and pesticides.

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ... after a bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a ...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists ... take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. ...

  9. Implementation of the e-Bug Project in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennimata, Dimitra; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Barbouni, Anastasia; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2011-06-01

    The e-Bug pack and web site educational material has been translated and adapted to the Greek language and educational background, and implemented throughout Greece as a supplementary educational resource in elementary and junior high schools. Elementary and junior high school teachers in Greece have actively participated in the development of the e-Bug educational resource and supported the implementation of all e-Bug activities. Dissemination to all key national stakeholders has been undertaken, and endorsement has been obtained from educational and medical associations, societies and institutions. Independent evaluation has been carried out, as part of dissertation thesis projects, for postgraduate studies. The e-Bug educational resource provides all the essentials for the dissemination of good health behaviours in hygiene, monitoring the spread of infection and the prudent use of antibiotics, to the youth of this country. Its contribution is expected to be evident in the next adult generation.

  10. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Triatomine Bug FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bugs Back To Top Triatoma sanguisuga Photo Courtesy: James Gathany Triatoma gerstaeckeri next to a penny for scale. Photo courtesy S. Kjos. Triatoma protracta Photo Courtesy: James Gathany How ...

  11. Stay Legal and Safe in Treating for Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick fix solutions may sound appealing, but they may not be legal, safe, or effective. To avoid adverse effects such as poisoning, buy EPA-registered pesticides labeled for bed bug control, and follow all label directions and precautions.

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  13. Neural and cortical analysis of swallowing and detection of motor imagery of swallow for dysphagia rehabilitation-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Ang, K K; Wang, C; Phua, K S; Guan, C

    2016-01-01

    Swallowing is an essential function in our daily life; nevertheless, stroke or other neurodegenerative diseases can cause the malfunction of swallowing function, ie, dysphagia. The objectives of this review are to understand the neural and cortical basis of swallowing and tongue, and review the latest techniques on the detection of motor imagery of swallow (MI-SW) and motor imagery of tongue movements (MI-TM), so that a practical system can be developed for the rehabilitation of poststroke dysphagia patients. Specifically, we firstly describe the swallowing process and how the swallowing function is assessed clinically. Secondly, we review the techniques that performed the neural and cortical analysis of swallowing and tongue based on different modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and magnetoencephalography. Thirdly, we review the techniques that performed detection and analysis of MI-SW and MI-TM for dysphagia stroke rehabilitation based on electroencephalography (EEG) and NIRS. Finally, discussions on the advantages and limitations of the studies are presented; an example system and future research directions for the rehabilitation of stroke dysphagia patients are suggested. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Beyond prevention: containment rhetoric in the case of bug chasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkowski, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    Bug chasing, the practice of pursuing HIV positive sexual partners in order to acquire HIV, presents multiple dilemmas for health affiliates in terms of how to address discourses and practices that challenge widely held beliefs about health and medicine. In order to examine how researchers respond to controversial counterpublic rhetorics, this essay chronicles the construction of "bug chasing" in published social science literature. Guided by a theory of containment rhetoric, I analyze how bug chasers are configured in the language of social science used to describe and explain them. I find that social scientific coverage of bug chasing often addresses the behavior using a recipe of rhetorical containment: first, authors gaze upon bug chasers via distanced descriptions of the community; second, authors characterize the behavior as exhibiting an idealistic naiveté; and, third, authors stress the inconceivable, and therefore reproachable, sacrifice that bug chasing ultimately demands of its onlookers and participants. In closing, I evaluate the consequences of this containment rhetoric and offer three rhetorical maneuvers to aid future scholarship that examines the discourses and communities that counter dominant health ideologies.

  15. Role of Basal Ganglia in Swallowing Process: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Ghaemi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: Swallowing is a multifaceted performance that needs contribution of the tongue, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus as well as the neurological structures such as neocortex and subcortical regions - BG and brainstem.

  16. Swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with shortened dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Witter, D.J.; Tekamp, F.A.; Slagter, A.P.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with a moderate shortened dental arch dentition (SDA: missing molar teeth, but premolar teeth in occluding position and uninterrupted anterior regions) compared to subjects with a complete dental arch dentition (CDA). METHODS:

  17. Swallowing rehabilitation before and during concurrent chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneyuki, Miki; Yonezawa, Kouichiro; Morimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hitoshi; Saito, Miki; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, oropharyngeal cancer is more frequently being managed with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). As more patients receive CCRT, there is increasing attention on dysphagia. Since 2009, speech therapists in our hospital have performed swallowing rehabilitation for dysphagia associated with CCRT. We evaluated dysphagia after CCRT and examined the relationship between swallowing rehabilitation and swallowing disability. A total of 26 patients (22 males and 4 females) with a mean age of 63 years (range, 41 to 79), underwent CCRT between March 2008 and March 2010. Dysphagia after treatment was graded at the end of CCRT and discharge according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 and Fujishima dysphagia grade. Ten of the 26 patients underwent swallowing rehabilitation, exercise and education on muscle strengthening programs before and during CCRT. They tended not to have severe dysphagia, but there were no significant differences. (author)

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of oropharyngeal swallowing in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, André Vinicius Marcondes Natel; Giacheti, Célia Maria; Cola, Paula Cristina; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2017-10-23

    To describe the qualitative and quantitative temporal analysis of oropharyngeal swallowing in children diagnosed with Down syndrome (DS) through a case series study of six individuals aged 4 to 17 months (mean age = 11.16 months; median = 12 months). Qualitative and quantitative temporal analysis of swallowing using videofluoroscopy and specific software. The following parameters were assessed: presence or absence of oral incoordination, labial sphincter sealing incompetence, oral residue, posterior oral spillage, laryngotracheal penetration and aspiration, pharyngeal and total oral transit time (TOTT). Qualitative analysis identified individuals with disorders in at least four of the swallowing parameters investigated. Only one individual presented total oral transit time (TOTT) different from the others. No difference was observed between the cases regarding pharyngeal transit time. Qualitative swallowing disorders are observed in children with DS, with difference in TOTT only in the case report of the youngest infant.

  19. Community-based sampling methods for surveillance of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, E N I; Davies, C; Rosales, C Cordón; Yeo, M; Gezan, S A; Parra-Henao, G; Cameron, M M

    2014-09-01

    In Guatemala, the most widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). T. dimidiata is native to Guatemala and is present in both domestic and sylvatic habitats. Consequently, control of T. dimidiata is difficult because after successful elimination from homes, individual insects can recolonize homes from the surrounding environment. Therefore, intensive long-term surveillance of this species is essential to ensure adequate control is achieved. Manual inspection for signs of infestation, the current method used to monitor Triatominae throughout Central and South America, is labor and time-consuming, so cost-effective alternatives are needed. The current study compared the effectiveness of the current method of surveillance of T. dimidiata with community-based techniques of G6mez-Nuñez sensor boxes, collection and observation of bugs by householders, and presence of triatomine-like feces on walls. Although manual inspection was the most sensitive method when used alone, collection by householders also was sensitive and specific and involved less effort. Sensor boxes were not sensitive indicators of T. dimidiata infestation when used alone. Two recorded variables, visual inspection for feces and the sighting of bugs by householders, were sensitive and specific indicators of infestation, and in combination with collection by householders and sensor boxes these methods were significantly more likely to detect infestations than manual inspection alone. A surveillance program that combines multiple community-based techniques should have low cost and involve minimal effort from the government and at the same time promote sustainable community involvement in disease prevention.

  20. Swallow syncope caused by third-degree atrioventricular block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roust Aaberg, Anne Marie; Eriksson, Anna Elin; Madsen, Per Lav

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker.......We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker....

  1. Evidence for adaptive cortical changes in swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntrup, Sonja; Teismann, Inga; Bejer, Joke; Suttrup, Inga; Winkels, Martin; Mehler, David; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer; Warnecke, Tobias

    2013-03-01

    Dysphagia is a relevant symptom in Parkinson's disease, whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. It is mainly attributed to degeneration of brainstem nuclei. However, alterations in the cortical contribution to deglutition control in the course of Parkinson's disease have not been investigated. Here, we sought to determine the patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without dysphagia. Swallowing function in patients was objectively assessed with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation. Swallow-related cortical activation was measured using whole-head magnetoencephalography in 10 dysphagic and 10 non-dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease and a healthy control group during self-paced swallowing. Data were analysed applying synthetic aperture magnetometry, and group analyses were done using a permutation test. Compared with healthy subjects, a strong decrease of cortical swallowing activation was found in all patients. It was most prominent in participants with manifest dysphagia. Non-dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease showed a pronounced shift of peak activation towards lateral parts of the premotor, motor and inferolateral parietal cortex with reduced activation of the supplementary motor area. This pattern was not found in dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease. We conclude that in Parkinson's disease, not only brainstem and basal ganglia circuits, but also cortical areas modulate swallowing function in a clinically relevant way. Our results point towards adaptive cerebral changes in swallowing to compensate for deficient motor pathways. Recruitment of better preserved parallel motor loops driven by sensory afferent input seems to maintain swallowing function until progressing neurodegeneration exceeds beyond the means of this adaptive strategy, resulting in manifestation of dysphagia.

  2. Normal erect swallowing. Normal function and incidence of variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, D J; Cruess, D F; Dachman, A H

    1985-10-01

    Of 871 candidates presenting for upper gastrointestinal examinations, 16 met the rigorous criteria established for selecting asymptomatic normal volunteers. Frame-by-frame evaluation of their videorecorded pharyngeal swallow confirmed many observations made previously utilizing cine recording at much higher radiation dosages. In addition, new observations were made: the nasopharynx may not occlude until the bolus is entirely within the pharynx; air mixes with the bolus if the swallow is an "open" type; the epiglottis always inverts in normal individuals regardless of the type of swallow ("open," air filled oro-and hypopharynx into which the swallowed bolus is dropped; "closed," airless oropharynx into which the swallowed bolus is pushed by a continuous peristaltic drive of the tongue and palate, thus reconstituting the pharyngeal space); laryngeal descent may aid in stripping the bolus from the pharynx; the vestibule may not completely close during the swallow and the larynx can still be impervious to the bolus; the peristaltic wave does not begin until the bolus has breeched the cricopharyngeus; the cricopharyngeus may be seen frequently in normal individuals, but does not delay the passage of the bolus; asymmetric flow of the bolus around the larynx is common and may not be the result of epiglottic tilt or head positioning.

  3. Observation the swallowing mechanism in elderly patients with pharyngeal dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Campo-Cañar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation of the swallowing dynamics is an issue that demands close attention by the health professionals involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with dysphagia. This article is a review of the literature aimed to enhance the knowledge regarding the speech therapy assessment of pharyngeal dysphagia in elder adults. The disorder of the swallowing is called dysphagia and it is defined as difficulty swallowing. The dysphagia is often caused by affectation of mechanical or neuromuscular components of the swallowing mechanism. This type of disorder is likely to impact the the oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of the swallowing. The speech therapist should take into account assessing aspects such as level of consciousness, vital signs, whether or not the patient is ventilator dependent, means of feeding, if intubated what type of cannula, whether or not the patient uses a speaking valve (if a trach tube is present, nutritional status, the patient’s expressive and receptive language, the anatomical and physiological state of the oral motor structures. When assessing swallowing clinicians should also make sure to develop an adequate beside clinical, voice assessment and videofluoroscopy.

  4. Swallowing Quality of Life After Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstedt, Stina; Nordh, Erik; Linder, Jan; Hedström, Johanna; Finizia, Caterina; Olofsson, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    The management of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been improved, but management of signs like swallowing problems is still challenging. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates the cardinal motor symptoms and improves quality of life, but its effect on swallowing is not fully explored. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life before and after caudal zona incerta DBS (cZI DBS) in comparison with a control group. Nine PD patients (2 women and 7 men) completed the self-report Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) before and 12 months after cZI DBS surgery. The postoperative data were compared to 9 controls. Median ages were 53 years (range, 40-70 years) for patients and 54 years (range, 42-72 years) for controls. No significant differences were found between the pre- or postoperative scores. The SWAL-QOL total scores did not differ significantly between PD patients and controls. The PD patients reported significantly lower scores in the burden subscale and the symptom scale. Patients with PD selected for cZI DBS showed good self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life, in many aspects equal to controls. The cZI DBS did not negatively affect swallowing-specific quality of life in this study.

  5. Acoustic analysis of oropharyngeal swallowing using Sonar Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Franciele Savaris; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da; Furkim, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the aging process, one of the functions that changes is swallowing. These alterations in oropharyngeal swallowing may be diagnosed by methods that allow both the diagnosis and biofeedback monitoring by the patient. One of the methods recently described in the literature for the evaluation of swallowing is the Sonar Doppler. To compare the acoustic parameters of oropharyngeal swallowing between different age groups. This was a field, quantitative, study. Examination with Sonar Doppler was performed in 75 elderly and 72 non-elderly adult subjects. The following acoustic parameters were established: initial frequency, first peak frequency, second peak frequency; initial intensity, final intensity; and time for the swallowing of saliva, liquid, nectar, honey, and pudding, with 5- and 10-mL free drinks. Objective, measurable data were obtained; most acoustic parameters studied between adult and elderly groups with respect to consistency and volume were significant. When comparing elderly with non-elderly adult subjects, there is a modification of the acoustic pattern of swallowing, regarding both consistency and food bolus volume. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Solid bolus swallowing in the radiologic evaluation of dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westen, D. van; Ekberg, O.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with dysphagia, heartburn and chest pain are regularly referred for radiologic evaluation of swallowing. The liquid barium swallow has been of great value for the biphasic evaluation of the pharynx and esophagus. Though many patients complain of dysphagia specifically for solids, solid bolus swallow is ususally not part of the evaluation. For the present study we therefore included the use of a solid bolus with a diameter of 13 mm and interviewed the patients carefully for any symptoms during this tablet swallow. Of 200 patients examined, the tablet passed through the esophagus without delay in 102. In the 98 patients with delayed passage, the solid bolus arrest occurred in the pharynx in 5 and in the esophagus in 93. Arrest in the esophagus was due to esophageal dysmotility in 48 patients. Twenty of these were symptomatic during the tablet swallow. A narrowing was the cause in 45, of whom 9 had symptoms. In 18 patients (9%) the solid bolus added key information to the radiologic evaluation. We therefore recommend that the solid bolus is included in the routine radiologic work-up of patients with dysphagia. Careful attention to symptoms during the tablet swallow is important. (orig.)

  7. Interferential electric stimulation applied to the neck increases swallowing frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Takayuki; Takemura, Masanori; Tsujita, Junzo; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2012-03-01

    Swallowing disorders are a common complaint among the elderly. Recently, surface electrical stimulation applied to the neck region has received increased attention as a new modality to treat pharyngeal dysphagia. Previous reports used pulsed current at a frequency range of 1-120 Hz. Kilohertz-frequency alternating currents (ACs) have not been tested for treating dysphagia. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of interferential currents (IFCs), the most popular modality of amplitude-modulated kilohertz-frequency ACs in clinical practice, on the swallowing reflex in healthy subjects. We found that IFC stimulation at the sensory threshold with 50-Hz modulation significantly increased the number of swallows without any discomfort, but pure AC stimulation at the carrier frequency did not have a significant effect. There was no statistically significant difference in the time course of the number of swallows among 1,000-, 2,000-, 4,000-, and 6,000-Hz carrier frequencies. The number of swallows remained increased during the 15-min IFC stimulation, suggesting that IFC stimulation facilitates the swallowing reflex without adaptation, at least during this stimulation period. We suggest that an IFC stimulation or a low-frequency, modulated kilohertz AC stimulation, which would be more comfortable than pulsed currents, is an alternative stimulation mode for treating pharyngeal dysphagia.

  8. Quality of life related to swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Danielle; das Graças Wanderley de Sales Coriolano, Maria; Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; de Marcos Rabelo, Aneide Rocha; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-10-01

    Swallowing difficulties in Parkinson's disease can result in decreased quality of life. The swallowing quality of life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) is an instrument for specifically assessing quality of life with respect to swallowing, which has been little explored in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life with respect to swallowing in persons with PD compared to controls and at several stages of the disease using the SWAL-QOL. The experimental group was composed of 62 persons with PD at stages 1-4. Forty-one age-matched healthy subjects constituted the control group. The SWAL-QOL scores were significantly lower for the patients with PD than for the controls in all SWAL-QOL domains. Eating duration had the largest difference in score between persons with PD and the controls and the lowest mean score, followed by communication, fatigue, fear, sleep, and food selection. The scores of most domains were lower at later stages of the disease. The scores for eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep were significantly lower at stage 4 than stages 1 and 2. In conclusion, patients with PD have significantly lower scores in all domains of the SWAL-QOL than normal controls. This means swallowing difficulties occurring in patients with PD negatively affect their QOL. Progression of the disease worsens swallowing QOL, more specifically in the domains of eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep. This occurs mostly at later stages of the disease.

  9. Dosimetric assessment of swallowing examinations with videofluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.M.B.; Canevaro, L.V.; Azevedo, A.C.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dosimetric analysis measurements of the Dose-Area-Product (DAP) of 7 individuals were estimated for the deglutition dynamic using the videofluoroscopic method. The aim of this study is to establish in a preliminary way, typical DAP values for this kind of study. The DAP values were obtained attaching to the X ray tube exit, an ionization chamber from PTW and a Diamentor M4 meter. The typical DAP values obtained during the videofluoroscopic evaluation of the deglutition dynamic, including its three phases, was: 4101 ± 881 cGy.cm 2 and the typical DAP rate was 577 ± 94 cGy.cm 2 /min. These values refer to a standard patient (1.57 cm height, 56 kg. weight) and a protocol that can be performed in about 7 minutes. The values, defined herein as typical refer to the used protocol. To our knowledge, the mean DAP rate is a good parameter to estimate radiation exposure from videofluoroscopic study of swallowing process. (author)

  10. NRFixer: Sentiment Based Model for Predicting the Fixability of Non-Reproducible Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Software maintenance is an essential step in software development life cycle. Nowadays, software companies spend approximately 45\\% of total cost in maintenance activities. Large software projects maintain bug repositories to collect, organize and resolve bug reports. Sometimes it is difficult to reproduce the reported bug with the information present in a bug report and thus this bug is marked with resolution non-reproducible (NR. When NR bugs are reconsidered, a few of them might get fixed (NR-to-fix leaving the others with the same resolution (NR. To analyse the behaviour of developers towards NR-to-fix and NR bugs, the sentiment analysis of NR bug report textual contents has been conducted. The sentiment analysis of bug reports shows that NR bugs' sentiments incline towards more negativity than reproducible bugs. Also, there is a noticeable opinion drift found in the sentiments of NR-to-fix bug reports. Observations driven from this analysis were an inspiration to develop a model that can judge the fixability of NR bugs. Thus a framework, {NRFixer,} which predicts the probability of NR bug fixation, is proposed. {NRFixer} was evaluated with two dimensions. The first dimension considers meta-fields of bug reports (model-1 and the other dimension additionally incorporates the sentiments (model-2 of developers for prediction. Both models were compared using various machine learning classifiers (Zero-R, naive Bayes, J48, random tree and random forest. The bug reports of Firefox and Eclipse projects were used to test {NRFixer}. In Firefox and Eclipse projects, J48 and Naive Bayes classifiers achieve the best prediction accuracy, respectively. It was observed that the inclusion of sentiments in the prediction model shows a rise in the prediction accuracy ranging from 2 to 5\\% for various classifiers.

  11. Automated Bug Assignment: Ensemble-based Machine Learning in Large Scale Industrial Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Leif; Borg, Markus; Broman, David; Sandahl, Kristian; Eldh, Sigrid; Runeson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Bug report assignment is an important part of software maintenance. In particular, incorrect assignments of bug reports to development teams can be very expensive in large software development projects. Several studies propose automating bug assignment techniques using machine learning in open source software contexts, but no study exists for large-scale proprietary projects in industry. The goal of this study is to evaluate automated bug assignment techniques that are based on machine learni...

  12. Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernard R. Lewis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect’s host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect’s behavioral patterns.

  13. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    the tools on specific kinds of bugs and to relate the results to patterns in the source code. We propose a declarative approach to bug finding in Linux OS code using a control-flow based program search engine. Our approach is WYSIWIB (What You See Is Where It Bugs), since the programmer expresses...

  14. Pheromones of milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) attract wayward plant bugs: Phytocoris mirid sex pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

    2003-08-01

    The synthetic aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), also attracted males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae). Field testing partial blends against the six-component blend comprising the Oncopeltus pheromone showed that cross-attraction of P. difficilis males was due to synergism between (E)-2-octenyl acetate and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. Hexyl acetate was abundant in the metathoracic scent gland (MSG) secretion of P. difficilis males, but because female P. difficilis could not initially be found in the field, further combinatorial tests were guided by prior research on the pheromones of two Phytocoris species in the western United States. The combination of hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates was as attractive to P. difficilis males as the milkweed bug pheromone, yet no milkweed bugs were drawn to this blend. Gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of female P. difficilis MSGs determined that their secretion contained predominantly hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (all strongly EAD-active)-the latter two compounds found only in trace amounts from males-plus five minor female-specific compounds, three of which were EAD-active. (E,E)-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate was not detected from P. difficilis females or males. The blend of the three major components, hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (2:1.5:1 by volume), was as attractive as the blend of all six EAD-active compounds identified from females, indicating that this ternary blend constitutes the sex pheromone of P. difficilis. Hexyl acetate with (E)-2-octenyl acetate also attracted males of another species, P. breviusculus Reuter, but addition of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and/or (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate inhibited attraction of P. breviusculus males. Attraction of P. difficilis males occurred mainly during the first half of scotophase. The

  15. New Records and Distribution Expansions of Aquatic Heteropterous from Colombia (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Nancy Padilla Gil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three species water bugs were registered; 21 semiaquatic and 12 aquatic (Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha. Expansions of the geographical range for 24 species and nine species were recorded for the first time for Colombia Cryptocricos rufus DeCarlo, 1940; Gelastocoris bolivianus De Carlo, 1954; Ranatra tuberculifrons Montandon, 1907; Neoplea borelii, Kirkaldy, 1899; Hydrometra exalla Drake y Lauck, 1959; Hebrus plaumanni Porter, 1952; Merragata hebroides White, 1877; Rheumatobates drakei, Hungerford, 1954; Microvelia hinei Drake, 1920; for each of these species were considered a diagnosis and illustration of taxonomic characters. The distribution by department and municipality and an illustrative map was given for all species.     Nuevos registros y ampliación de la distribución de heterópteros acuáticos en Colombia (Hemiptera, Heteroptera   RESUMEN Se registran 33 especies de chinches acuáticas; 21 semiacuáticas y 12 acuáticas (Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha. Se amplia el rango geográfico para 24 especies y nueve especies son registradas por primera vez para Colombia: Cryptocricos rufus DeCarlo, 1940; Gelastocoris bolivianus De Carlo, 1954; Ranatra tuberculifrons Montandon, 1907; Neoplea borelii (Kirkaldy, 1899; Hydrometra exalla Drake y Lauck, 1959; Hebrus plaumanni Porter, 1952; Merragata hebroides White, 1877; Rheumatobates drakei (Hungerford, 1954; Microvelia hinei Drake, 1920; para cada una de estas especies se considera una diagnosis e ilustración de los caracteres taxonómicos. Para todas las especies se proporcionan la distribución por departamento y municipio y un mapa ilustrativo.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri Masran, Siti Nor Ain; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz

    2018-02-10

    Due to the growing public health and tourism awareness, Cimex hemipterus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) has gained a great interest in increasing reported infestation cases in tropical regions of the world, including Malaysia. Since the information on the molecular ecology and population biology of this species are tremendously lacking, the isolation and development of molecular markers can be used to determine its genetic structure. In this study, novel microsatellite primers isolated from enriched genomic libraries of C. hemipterus were developed using 454 Roche shotgun sequencing. Seven validated polymorphic microsatellite primers were consistently amplified and characterized from 70 tropical bed bugs collected from seven locations throughout Malaysia. The number of alleles per locus identified ranged from 6 to 14. Comparison of loci for overall and between population were done with mean observed and expected heterozygosity were determined at 0.320 and 0.814, 0.320 and 0.727, respectively. Polymorphic information criteria (PIC) valued the markers as highly informative as PIC >0.5. Overall population, they are possibly in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with loci Ch_09ttn, Ch_01dn, and Ch_13dn showing signs of a null allele. There were no scoring errors caused by stutter peaks, no large allele dropout was detected for all loci and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. In conclusion, all seven molecular microsatellite markers identified can be beneficially used to gain more information on the population genetic structure and breeding patterns of C. hemipterus as well as the relationship of dispersal and infestation. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on nestling Tree Swallows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    The sensitivity of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to the stress of ionizing radiation was investigated with growth analysis. Freshly hatched nestlings were temporarily removed from nests, taken to the laboratory and acutely exposed to 0.9, 2.7, or 4.5 Gy gamma radiation. Some of the unirradiated control nestlings were also taken to the laboratory whereas others were left in the nests. Growth of all the nestlings was measured daily and analyzed by fitting growth models. There was no detectable radiation-induced mortality up to fledgling, approx. = 20 d after irradiation. Radiation exposure did not affect the basic growth pattern; the logistic growth model was most suitable for body mass and foot length, and the von Bertalanffy model for primary-feather length, irrespective of treatment. Parameter values from these models indicated pronounced growth depression in the 2.7-Gy and 4.5-Gy groups, particularly for body mass. Radiation also affected the timing of development. The growth depression of the 2.7-Gy group was similar to that caused by hatching asynchrony in unirradiated nestlings. The 4.5-Cy nestlings grew as well as unexposed nestlings that died from natural causes. Chronic irradiation at approx. = 1.0 Cy/d caused more severe growth effects than acute exposure to 4.5 Gy and may have caused permanent stunting. Growth analysis is a potent tool for assessing man-made environmental stresses. Observed body-mass statistics and model parameters seem to be most sensitive to environmental stresses, but coefficients of variation are not necessarily correlated with sensitivity. 34 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  18. An outbreak of bed bug infestation in an office building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumblatt, Jane A Gwira; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Stull-Lane, Annica; Jones, Timothy F

    2014-04-01

    Since 2000, resurgence in bed bugs has occurred in the U.S. Reports of infestations of homes, hospitals, hotels, and offices have been described. On September 1, 2011, complaints of itching and bites among workers in an office were reported to the Tennessee Department of Health. A retrospective cohort study and environmental assessments were performed in response to the complaints. Canines certified to detect live bed bugs were used to inspect the office and arthropod samples were collected. Of 76 office workers, 61 (80%) were interviewed; 39 (64%) met the case definition. Pruritic maculopapular lesions were consistent with arthropod bites. One collected arthropod sample was identified as a bed bug by three entomologists. Exposures associated with symptoms included working in a cubicle in which a canine identified bed bugs (risk ratio [RR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3.6), and self-reported seasonal allergies (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4). Bed bugs represent a reemerging and challenging environmental problem with clinical, psychological, and financial impacts.

  19. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina: Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae), their inquiline birds and mammals, new hosts for Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turienzo, Paola; Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-06-03

    The insect fauna in nests of Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae) were studied in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Córdoba, and La Pampa in Argentina. A total of 7364 insect specimens comprising 77 taxa in a total of 29 families and 7 orders was found in their nests: 40 identified to species, 23 identified to genus, and 14 identified to family. Coryphistera alaudina and some of their vertebrate inquilines are new host records for the triatomine bugs Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and/or Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The insects in the nests of C. alaudina are separated by functional guilds, and their permanence time inside the nests are presented in a new manner and discussed.

  20. Hard to Swallow: Developmental Biological Insights into Pediatric Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Moody, Sally A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Karpinski, Beverly A.; Zohn, Irene E.; Mendelowitz, David; Lee, Norman H.; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric dysphagia—feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity—is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties. Altered hindbrain patterning, neural crest migration, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may reflect disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia. PMID:26554723

  1. A swallowed sewing needle migrating to the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcu, Serhat; Unal, Ozkan; Ozen, Ozkan; Bora, Aydın; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur

    2009-09-01

    Swallowing foreign bodies is a common problem in children. Although most objects pass through the gastrointestinal tract with no untoward effect; long, sharppointed, or slender objects can perforate the gut. Migration of a swallowed object to the liver is extremely rare and very few cases have been reported in the literature up to now. The aim of this study is to draw attention to this subject once again by contributing a case report of a child with hepatic migration of a swallowed sewing needle. A 16-year-old girl presented to the emergency room of pediatrics department in our hospital with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Physical examination revealed tenderness on the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Laboratory examination revealed increased hepatic enzymes as well as increased white blood cell count. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed foreign body in the liver accompanied by surrounding abscess formation. The foreign body (sewing needle) was removed surgically after two operations. The children may not be able to remember the swallowing of the foreign body or they may try to hide such a condition. The radiological diagnosis in such cases which can be achieved by X-rays, ultrasonography or computed tomography is of critical importance, as well as getting detailed patient history for foreign body swallowing.

  2. Effects of tongue pressing effortful swallow in older healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taeok; Kim, Youngsun

    2016-01-01

    The risk of swallowing disorders is increased for older individuals due to weak tongue and pharyngeal muscle strength. This study was appraised the value of a preventative approach by developing the tongue pressing effortful swallow (TPES) applied using a home-based and self-administered procedure. The TPES was developed by combining two swallowing exercises: tongue strengthening exercise and the effortful swallow. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the TPES on maximum tongue pressure and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity in older individuals. 27 older individuals (mean 73 years) performed a 4-week TPES. The exercise program was adapted to a home-based and self-administered procedure. The maximum tongue pressure was measured by the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity by surface electromyography (sEMG). Statistical comparisons were made by a matched pairs t-test (ptongue pressure, but the peak amplitude of the submental sEMG did not differ between before and after exercises. The TPES had a positive impact in older individuals. The TPES, a combining exercise, was possible because two exercises had common physiological events. The TPES was a more innovative and efficient approach than the tongue strengthening exercise alone. In addition, older individuals were able to perform the swallowing exercise at home and by themselves with little assistance. Future research needs to refine the TPES and apply it to patients with dysphagia. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Tongue pressure production during swallowing in patients with mandibular prognathism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, K; Fukui, T; Sasakura, C; Hori, K; Ono, T; Saito, I

    2016-05-01

    Abnormalities of swallowing in patients with mandibular prognathism have not been evaluated quantitatively. The aim of this study was to compare tongue pressure production for bolus transfer between volunteers with normal occlusion and patients with mandibular prognathism. The control group had 10 female volunteers with normal occlusion, and the patient group had 10 women with mandibular prognathism. Tongue pressure was measured by a palatal sensor sheet at five sites on swallowing 4 mL of a tasteless and odourless jelly. The tongue pressure waveform differed between the control and patient groups. The incidence of a double-peak tongue pressure waveform was more frequent in the patient group. In both groups, the exertion of tongue pressure began at the anterior point of the sensor sheet, followed by the peripheral parts. Although the order of expression of tongue pressure was the same for the two groups, maximum tongue pressure at all parts of the sensor sheet was lower in the patient group than in the control group. Furthermore, swallowing time was longer in the patient group than in the control group at the peripheral parts of the palate. These results clearly show the difference in tongue pressure production during swallowing between patients with mandibular prognathism and volunteers with normal occlusion. The current findings suggest that maxillofacial morphology may affect tongue movement during swallowing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease: a surface electromyography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ws Coriolano, Maria das Graças; R Belo, Luciana; Carneiro, Danielle; G Asano, Amdore; Al Oliveira, Paulo José; da Silva, Douglas Monteiro; G Lins, Otávio

    2012-12-01

    Our goal was to study deglutition of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and normal controls (NC) using surface electromyography (sEMG). The study included 15 patients with idiopathic PD and 15 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was collected over the suprahyoid muscle group. Conditions were the following: swallow at once 10 and 20 ml of water and 5 and 10 ml of yogurt of firm consistency, and freely drink 100 ml of water. During swallowing, durations of sEMG were significantly longer in PD patients than in normal controls but no significant differences of amplitudes were found. Eighty percent of the PD patients and 20 % of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 20 ml of water, while 70 % of the PD patients and none of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 5 ml of yogurt. PD patients took significantly more time and needed significantly more swallows to drink 100 ml of water than normal controls. We conclude that sEMG might be a simple and useful tool to study and monitor deglutition in PD patients.

  5. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses. PMID:23144967

  6. Empirical Analysis and Automated Classification of Security Bug Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyo, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    With the ever expanding amount of sensitive data being placed into computer systems, the need for effective cybersecurity is of utmost importance. However, there is a shortage of detailed empirical studies of security vulnerabilities from which cybersecurity metrics and best practices could be determined. This thesis has two main research goals: (1) to explore the distribution and characteristics of security vulnerabilities based on the information provided in bug tracking systems and (2) to develop data analytics approaches for automatic classification of bug reports as security or non-security related. This work is based on using three NASA datasets as case studies. The empirical analysis showed that the majority of software vulnerabilities belong only to a small number of types. Addressing these types of vulnerabilities will consequently lead to cost efficient improvement of software security. Since this analysis requires labeling of each bug report in the bug tracking system, we explored using machine learning to automate the classification of each bug report as a security or non-security related (two-class classification), as well as each security related bug report as specific security type (multiclass classification). In addition to using supervised machine learning algorithms, a novel unsupervised machine learning approach is proposed. An ac- curacy of 92%, recall of 96%, precision of 92%, probability of false alarm of 4%, F-Score of 81% and G-Score of 90% were the best results achieved during two-class classification. Furthermore, an accuracy of 80%, recall of 80%, precision of 94%, and F-score of 85% were the best results achieved during multiclass classification.

  7. Recent Advances in Sensing Oropharyngeal Swallowing Function in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ono

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing is an important issue in the elderly because it causes aspiration pneumonia, which is the second largest cause of death in this group. It also causes decline in activities of daily living and quality of life. The oral phase of swallowing has been neglected, despite its importance in the evaluation of dysphagia, because adequate protocols and measuring devices are unavailable. However, recent advances in sensor technology have enabled straightforward, non-invasive measurement of the movement of important swallowing-related organs such as the lips and tongue, as well as the larynx. In this article, we report the present state and possibility of clinical application of such systems developed in Japan.

  8. Testing a Threshold-Based Bed Bug Management Approach in Apartment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Zha, Chen; Cooper, Richard; Robson, Mark

    2017-07-26

    We tested a threshold-based bed bug ( Cimex lectularius L.) management approach with the goal of achieving elimination with minimal or no insecticide application. Thirty-two bed bug infested apartments were identified. These apartments were divided into four treatment groups based on apartment size and initial bed bug count, obtained through a combination of visual inspection and bed bug monitors: I- Non-chemical only in apartments with 1-12 bed bug count, II- Chemical control only in apartments with 1-12 bed bug count, III- Non-chemical and chemical control in apartments with >12 bed bug count, and IV- Chemical control only in apartments with ≥11 bed bug count. All apartments were monitored or treated once every two weeks for a maximum of 28 wk. Treatment I eliminated bed bugs in a similar amount of time to treatment II. Time to eliminate bed bugs was similar between treatment III and IV but required significantly less insecticide spray in treatment III than that in treatment IV. A threshold-based management approach (non-chemical only or non-chemical and chemical) can eliminate bed bugs in a similar amount of time, using little to no pesticide compared to a chemical only approach.

  9. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal the Pleistocene history of a semi-aquatic bug (Microvelia douglasi douglasi) in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhen; Zhu, Gengping; Chen, Pingping; Zhang, Danli; Bu, Wenjun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the Pleistocene history of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia douglasi douglasi Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Veliidae) in East Asia. We used M. douglasi douglasi as a model species to explore the effects of historical climatic fluctuations on montane semi-aquatic invertebrate species. Two hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENMs). First, we hypothesized that M. douglasi douglasi persisted in suitable habitats in southern Guizhou, southern Yunnan, Hainan, Taiwan and southeast China during the LIG. After that, the populations expanded (Hypothesis 1). As the spatial prediction in the LGM was significantly larger than in the LIG, we then hypothesized that the population expanded during the LIG to LGM transition (Hypothesis 2). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial data (COI+COII) and nuclear data (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2). Young lineages, relatively deep splits, lineage differentiation among mountain ranges in central, south and southwest China and high genetic diversities were observed in these suitable habitats. Evidence of mismatch distributions and neutrality tests indicate that a population expansion occurred in the late Pleistocene. The Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) revealed an unusual population expansion that likely happened during the cooling transition between LIG and LGM. The results of genetic data were mostly consistent with the spatial predictions from ENM, a finding that can profoundly improve phylogeographic research. The ecological requirements of M. douglasi douglasi, together with the geographical heterogeneity and climatic fluctuations of Pleistocene in East Asia, could have shaped this unusual demographic history. Our study contributes to our knowledge of semi-aquatic bug/invertebrate responses to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in East Asia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Usage of data warehouse for analysing software's bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živanov, Danijel; Krstićev, Danijela Boberić; Mirković, Duško

    2017-07-01

    We analysed the database schema of Bugzilla system and taking into account user's requirements for reporting, we presented a dimensional model for the data warehouse which will be used for reporting software defects. The idea proposed in this paper is not to throw away Bugzilla system because it certainly has many strengths, but to make integration of Bugzilla and the proposed data warehouse. Bugzilla would continue to be used for recording bugs that occur during the development and maintenance of software while the data warehouse would be used for storing data on bugs in an appropriate form, which is more suitable for analysis.

  11. Tracking the hyoid bone in videofluoroscopic swallowing studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellen, Patrick M.; Becker, Darci; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; van Daele, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    Difficulty swallowing, or dysphagia, has become a growing problem. Swallowing complications can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infection, and even death. The current gold standard for analyzing and diagnosing dysphagia is the videofluoroscopic barium swallow study. In these studies, a fluoroscope is used to image the patient ingesting barium solutions of different volumes and viscosities. The hyoid bone anchors many key muscles involved in swallowing and plays a key role in the process. Abnormal hyoid bone motion during a swallow can indicate swallowing dysfunction. Currently in clinical settings, hyoid bone motion is assessed qualitatively, which can be subject to intra-rater and inter-rater bias. This paper presents a semi-automatic method for tracking the hyoid bone that makes quantitative analysis feasible. The user defines a template of the hyoid on one frame, and this template is tracked across subsequent frames. The matching phase is optimized by predicting the position of the template based on kinematics. An expert speech pathologist marked the position of the hyoid on each frame of ten studies to serve as the gold standard. Results from performing Bland-Altman analysis at a 95% confidence interval showed a bias of 0.0+/-0.08 pixels in x and -0.08+/-0.09 pixels in y between the manually-defined gold standard and the proposed method. The average Pearson's correlation between the gold standard and the proposed method was 0.987 in x and 0.980 in y. This paper also presents a method for automatically establishing a patient-centric coordinate system for the interpretation of hyoid motion. This coordinate system corrects for upper body patient motion during the study and identifies superior-inferior and anterior-posterior motion components. These tools make the use of quantitative hyoid motion analysis feasible in clinical and research settings.

  12. VIDEOFLUOROSCOPIC SWALLOWING STUDY: esophageal alterations in patients with dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina SCHEEREN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Videofluoroscopic swallowing study is a dynamic exam and allows the evaluation of the complete swallowing process. However, most published studies have only reported alterations in the oropharynx and pharyngoesophageal transition, leaving the analysis of the esophagus as a secondary goal. Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alterations in the esophageal phase thorough videofluoroscopic swallowing study in patients with dysphagia. Methods Consecutive patients with dysphagia who underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study including esophageal analysis between May 2010 and May 2012 had their exams retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into two groups: Group I - without a pre-established etiological diagnosis and Group II - with neurological disease. During the exam, the patients ingested three different consistencies of food (liquid, pasty and solid contrasted with barium sulfate and 19 items were analyzed according to a protocol. The esophageal phase was considered abnormal when one of the evaluated items was compromised. Results Three hundred and thirty-three (n = 333 consecutive patients were studied - 213 (64% in Group I and 120 (36% in Group II. Esophageal alterations were found in 104 (31% patients, with a higher prevalence in Group I (36.2%, especially on the items esophageal clearance (16.9% and tertiary contractions (16.4%. It was observed that 12% of individuals in Group I only presented alterations on the esophageal phase. Conclusion Evaluation of the esophageal phase of swallowing during videofluoroscopic swallowing study detects abnormalities in patients with cervical dysphagia, especially in the group without pre-established etiological diagnosis.

  13. The effect of dairy farm management regime on swallow (Hirundo rustica) abundance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, S.K.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify differences in Swallow abundance between organically and conventionally managed dairy farms, by examining three factors: farm buildings, food availability and farmer attitudes to Swallows. Methods Organic and conventional dairy farm holdings were compared in pairwise fashion. On

  14. Comparison of endoscopy and barium swallow with marshmallow in dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, S; Stevenson, G W; Thompson, G

    1986-06-01

    Forty-four patients with dysphagia were examined both by endoscopy and by barium swallow with a marshmallow bolus. In these patients 36 stenoses were found: 34 by radiology and 30 by endoscopy. The radiologic criteria for stenosis included arrest of the marshmallow in a manner to support a column of barium and reproduction of the patient's symptoms at the time this occurred. Radiologic false negative findings were partly due to an inability by patients to swallow an adequate marshmallow bolus; endoscopic failures were associated with small endoscopes and mild stenoses.

  15. Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? A agressividade da presa altera o comportamento de ataque do predador Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Braga da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? The stink bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae is a predator found in several Brazilian regions, which possesses desirable attributes as a natural control agent and in biological control programs. The aim of this study was to test if the attack behavior and predation success of S. cincticeps were affected by prey species. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Geometridae were offered to S. cincticeps in laboratory bioassays where predatory attack and prey defensive behaviors were observed for 2-hour periods. The attack behavior of S. cincticeps changed with the prey species offered. More than 25% of T. molitor and S. frugiperda larvae were immediately attacked, but T. arnobia was not immediately attacked by S. cincticeps. Successful attack (i.e., successful insertion of the predator stylets into the prey depends on the region of the body attacked, with a greater proportion of successful attacks in the anterior than in the median or posterior regions. Larvae of T. arnobia and S. frugiperda displayed a sequence of abrupt head and body movements in response to S. cincticeps attack. Attempts of predation were more successful on T. molitor and S. frugiperda than on T. arnobia. Information about the differential attack behavior of S. cincticeps on different prey species is important for designing successful biological control programs using this hemipteran predator.A agressividade da presa altera o comportamento de ataque do predador Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? O percevejo Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae é um predador encontrado em várias regiões brasileiras, que possui atributos desejáveis como agente de controle natural ou em

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on nymphal development and reproductive capacity of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Hemiptera - Lygaeidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma radiation adversely affected important fitness components of Oncopeltus fasciatus, particularly as expressed by nymphal development, subsequent reproductive capacity, mating competitiveness and longevity. Early treated 5th instar nymphs are about 2X more sensitive to gamma radiation than late treated 5th instar nymphs based upon LD50 values. The extremes in sensitivity were 5.01 kilorads (krad) for early treated males and 13.09 krad for females treated late in the 5th instar. Wing deformities resulted from doses in the same range as those for mortality. Fifty percent of early treated males had wing deformities at a dose of 10.81 krad while a dose of 12.5 and 12.89 krad was necessary for 50% wing deformities in males and females, respectively, when treated late in the 5th instar. Fecundity and fertility were affected at lower dosages of radiation than for mortality. The treatment of both sexes produced the greatest effect. Fecundity was reduced by 50% at 1.22 krad, while 50% reduction in fertility occurred at about half that dose, or 0.66 krad. Somewhat greater doses were required when females alone were treated and mated with untreated males. In this case a 50% reduction occurred with 1.87 and 1.07 krad for fecundity and fertility, respectively. When males alone were treated, ED50 values were 2.24 and 1.58 krad for fecundity and fertility, respectively

  17. Differential infectivity of two Pseudomonas species and the immune response in the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Insecta: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Dorn, A

    2001-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida show a profound differential infectivity after inoculation in Oncopeltus fasciatus. Whereas P. putida has no significant impact on nymphs, P. aeruginosa kills all experimental animals within 48 h. Both Pseudomonas species, however, induce the same four hemolymph peptides in O. fasciatus. Also injection of saline solution and injury induced these peptides. In general peptide induction was stronger in nymphs than in adult males. A significantly higher number of nymphs survived a challenge with P. aeruginosa when an immunization with P. putida preceded. The antibacterial properties of the hemolymph were demonstrated in inhibition experiments with P. putida. Two of the four inducible peptides (peptides 1 and 4) could be partially sequenced after Edman degradation and were compared with known antibacterial peptides. Peptide 1, of 15 kDa, showed 47.1% identity with the glycine-rich hemiptericin of Pyrrhocoris apterus. Peptide 4, of 2 kDa, had a 77.8% identity with the proline-rich pyrrhocoricin of P. apterus and a 76.9% identity with metalnikowin 1 of Palomena prasina. Peptides 2 and 3 are also small, with molecular weights of 8 and 5 kDa.

  18. Influence of air pollutants on ecosystems. Pt. 8. Bug fauna (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) in the emission area of a fertilizer factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, W.

    1985-01-01

    On a primary Mesobrometum-grassland catena in the immission area of a phosphate-fertilizer factory the fauna of Heteroptera is analysed by semi-quantitative standardized sweepnet samplings. Along the immission gradient the grassland catena is subdivided into 5 sampling areas. Dominance structure, species diversity and evenness (Shannon-Wiener) as well as identity indices (Jaccard, Renkonen, Wainstein) are calculated. The sampling areas are compared separated in groups of consumers. The stress by immission affects the distribution of phytophages in an indirect way by foodplants. The predators are influenced imperceptible. The abundance of salt tolerant phytophagous species increases towards the emittent. In this case values of species diversity and evenness are small. Contrary to that, diversity and evenness of predators increase by rising pollution. A coefficient of association (Southwood) is calculated for the predator-prey system of Nabis brevis and Notostira elongata. The results are compared with those made in undisturbed Mesobrometum-plant communities of the near surroundings.

  19. Effects of temperature on the development and population growth of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Wang, Feng; Li, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an important invasive exotic pest of Platanus (Proteales: Platanaceae) trees in China. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of temperature on C. ciliata in the laboratory so that forecasting models based on heat accumulation units could be developed for the pest. Development and fecundity of C. ciliata reared on leaves of London plane tree (Platanus × acerifolia) were investigated at seven constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 26, 30, 33, and 36° C) and at a relative humidity of 80% with a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D). The developmental time was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature. The developmental time from egg hatching to adult emergence was respectively 47.6, 35.0, 24.1, 20.0, and 17.1 days at the temperatures of 19, 22, 26, 30, and 33° C. C. ciliata could not complete full development at 16° and 36° C. The developmental threshold temperature (C) estimated for egg-to-adult was 11.17° C, with a thermal constant of (K) 370.57 degree-days. Longevity of females was found to be the shortest, 17.7 days at 33° C and the longest, 58.9 days at 16° C, and that of males was the shortest, 19.7 days at 33° C and the longest, 59.7 days at 16° C. Fecundity was the highest at 30° C, being 286.8 eggs per female over an oviposition period of 8.9 days. Female lifetime fecundity was reduced at other temperatures, being the lowest (87.7 eggs per female) at 19° C. The population trend index (I) of C. ciliata was the highest (130.1) at 30° C and the lowest (24.9) at 19° C. Therefore, the optimal developmental temperature for C. ciliata was determined to be 30° C.

  20. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

  1. Efeito de extratos de plantas do Cerrado em Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Effect of Cerrado plant extracts on Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A. M. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmissão da doença de Chagas ocorre, principalmente, por meio de fezes de hemípteros hematófagos (Triatominae, os quais ingerem o Trypanosoma cruzi ao se alimentarem do sangue de pessoas ou outros mamíferos infectados. Para o controle dos triatomíneos, os piretróides são os principais inseticidas utilizados. Entretanto, algumas populações de insetos demonstraram resistência a determinados piretróides, indicando a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos inseticidas eficazes no controle desses vetores. Assim, foi avaliada a atividade inseticida de 83 extratos vegetais, pertencentes a 35 espécies diferentes, em ninfas do primeiro estádio de Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, triatomíneo encontrado no México. Para o teste tópico, foram aplicados 50 ìg de cada extrato nos tergitos abdominais de dez ninfas, em duplicata. Como controles, foram utilizados insetos tratados com etanol, acetona ou sem nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os triatomíneos foram observados durante 28 dias. Nenhum extrato apresentou atividade inseticida significativa, entretanto, o extrato hexânico do fruto e o etanólico da casca do caule de Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae inibiram a taxa de ecdise em D. maxima (40% e 25%, respectivamente. Sugere-se que estes extratos sejam quimicamente investigados e monitorados por ensaios biológicos a fim de determinar os componentes, para que estes possam ser utilizados como modelos moleculares ou como compostos biorracionais nos programas de controle de insetos.Chagas disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is chiefly transmitted by faeces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or other mammals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of

  2. Bug Diagnosis by String Matching: Application to ILTS for Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Tokuda, Naoyuki

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a new template-automaton-based knowledge database system for an interactive intelligent language tutoring system (ILTS) for Japanese-English translation, whereby model translations as well as a taxonomy of bugs extracted from ill-formed translations typical of nonnative learners are collected. (Author/VWL)

  3. Refinement-Based Student Modeling and Automated Bug Library Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffes, Paul; Mooney, Raymond

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of student modeling and intelligent tutoring systems focuses on the development of the ASSERT algorithm (Acquiring Stereotypical Student Errors by Refining Theories). Topics include overlay modeling; bug libraries (databases of student misconceptions); dynamic modeling; refinement-based modeling; and experimental results from tests at…

  4. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  5. Finding error handling bugs in OpenSSL using Coccinelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Laurie, Ben; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    in Linux kernel code using the program matching and transformation engine Coccinelle.  In this work, we report on our experience in applying this methodology to OpenSSL, focusing on API usage protocols related to error handling.  We have detected over 30 bugs in a recent OpenSSL snapshot, and in many cases...

  6. Sorghum head bug infestation and mould infection on the grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) panicle is reported to be attacked by a myriad of insect pest species, whose infestation predisposes the grains to fungal infection, thereby compromising their quality. A complex of bugs has been reported to infest sorghum, thereby affecting quality of grains in West Africa. The objective of this ...

  7. Software bug prediction using object-oriented metrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dharmendra Lal Gupta

    been aggregated in one dataset named combined_dataset. The combined_dataset is then passed through validation test in SPSS tool [4]; on this validated combined dataset,. Pearson correlation analysis is applied and the relationship among the various metrics and the respective bug value is analysed; 14 most influential ...

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite Splinters Treating sunburn Wound care Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ ...

  9. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  10. A Bug That Can Dig a Hole in the Stomach!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005. M E Sandeepa. and Dipshikha ... men was not sufficient to convince the scientific community about its role in peptic ulcer. Reputed journals rejected their. Recipients of the 2005. Nobel Prize. ... world, as many as 90 percent of the popUlation carries the bug. The infection is ...

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to ... bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs. ... t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid= ...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  14. HullBUG Technology Development for Underwater Hull Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    period an effort was also made to estimate the cost of a reasonably simple test device that consists of a motor, bearing support and underwater...planned for use at that facility. FIT Test Vehicle Successful operation of the HullBUG system on the sailing vessel Adele was performed in

  15. Short communications: White-throated Swallow Hirundo albigularis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communications: White-throated Swallow Hirundo albigularis in Tanzania. NE Baker, EM Baker. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  16. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  17. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  18. \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the Khotso legend. Felicity Wood. Abstract. No Abstract. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS) Vol. 4(1) 2005: 347-359. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911): Ecological Foremother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    Most educated women (in the sciences and other fields) still have a hard time discarding the patriarchal socialization and pressures in their own fields which prevent them from seeing this extraordinary woman as an environmental pioneer and ecological foremother. Ellen Swallow Richards merits attention and respect as a foremother of what would…

  20. Current conservation status of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall probability of extinction of the species in the wild is 3%. Minimum viable population size analysis suggests that a goal for the long-term conservation of the Blue Swallow should be to mitigate current threats that are driving declines such that the population increases to a minimum of 3 600 individuals. This should ...

  1. Mastication and swallowing : influence of fluid addition to foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Luciano Jose; Duarte Gaviao, Maria Beatriz; Engelen, Lina; van der Bilt, Andries

    2007-01-01

    introduction: The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. Objectives: The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence

  2. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  3. White-throated Swallow Hirundo albigularis in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus 33: 84–85, January 2014. Received 22 August 2013. White-throated Swallow Hirundo ... Paul Oliver and John Whittle for submitting records to the Atlas database. N.E. and E.M. Baker. P.O. Box 1605, Iringa, Tanzania; Email: tzbirdatlas@yahoo.co.uk. Scopus 33: 85, January 2014. Received 21 December 2011.

  4. Effect of posture on swallowing | Alghadir | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Swallowing is a systematic process. Any structural, physiological or neurological disturbance in this process may cause dysphagia. Although there are studies that report head/neck movements during mastication, there are fewer studies that show the effect of different head/neck postures on difficulty while ...

  5. Quantitative Measures of Swallowing Deficits in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerston, Julia K; Heller, Amanda C; Houtz, Daniel R; Kendall, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Dysphagia and associated aspiration pneumonia are commonly reported sequelae of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies of swallowing in patients with PD have described prolonged pharyngeal transit time, delayed onset of pharyngeal transit, cricopharyngeal (CP) achalasia, reduced pharyngeal constriction, and slowed hyolaryngeal elevation. These studies were completed using inconsistent evaluation methodology, reliance on qualitative analysis, and a lack of a large control group, resulting in concerns regarding diagnostic precision. The purpose of this study was to investigate swallowing function in patients with PD using a norm-referenced, quantitative approach. This retrospective study includes 34 patients with a diagnosis of PD referred to a multidisciplinary voice and swallowing clinic. Modified barium swallow studies were performed using quantitative measures of pharyngeal transit time, hyoid displacement, CP sphincter opening, area of the pharynx at maximal constriction, and timing of laryngeal vestibule closure relative to bolus arrival at the CP sphincter. Reduced pharyngeal constriction was found in 30.4%, and a delay in airway closure relative to arrival of the bolus at the CP sphincter was the most common abnormality, present in 62% of patients. Previously reported findings of prolonged pharyngeal transit, poor hyoid elevation, and CP achalasia were not identified as prominent features. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. DAMPAK APLIKASI INSEKTISIDA PERMETRIN TERHADAP HAMA PENGISAP BIJAIJ HELOPELTIS SPP. (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE DAN ARTROPODA NON-TARGET PADA PERTANAMAN KAKAO (THEOBROMA CACAO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma Hasibuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Permethrin-Insecticide Application on Mirid Pest of Cocoa Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae and on Non-target  Arthropods in Cocoa Plantations (Theobroma cacao L.. Cocoa mirid bugs, Helopeltis spp., (Hemiptera: Miridae are the most important pest of cocoa in Indonesia. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of permethrin on cocoa mirids and non-target arthropods at a cocoa plantation in specific place. A randomized complete block design was used in which each of four blocks consisted of 5 treatments (4 concentrations of permethrin; 50; 100; 200; and 250 ppm and control. The results indicated that the application of permethrin significantly increased the cocoa mirids mortaliiy throughout all sprayed cocoa trees (up to 100% 72 h after application. Even at 1 h after application, the percentage of Cocoa mirids mortality 29.2% - 53.9% on cocoa trees sprayed with permethrin at concentrations of 50 - 250 ppm was significantly higher than that on control plant (3.6%. At 72 h after treatments, application of permethrin at concentrations of 200 and 250 ppm caused a complete kill (mortalty of 100% in the test mirids. Meanwhile, ground cloths caught at least 22 fanilies of abore-ground arthropods that were found killed by permethrin applications. Moreover, the number of non-target arthropods killed by permethrin at concentrations of 100 - 250 ppm (27.3 - 85.3 individuals/ground cloth were signifcantly higher than that on control trees. These results demonstrated that despite high efficacy of permethrin in controlling of cocoa mirids (Hetopeltis spp., its application also had adverse effects on non-target arthropods incocoa plantations.

  7. Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Braga da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? The stink bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae is a predator found in several Brazilian regions, which possesses desirable attributes as a natural control agent and in biological control programs. The aim of this study was to test if the attack behavior and predation success of S. cincticeps were affected by prey species. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Geometridae were offered to S. cincticeps in laboratory bioassays where predatory attack and prey defensive behaviors were observed for 2-hour periods. The attack behavior of S. cincticeps changed with the prey species offered. More than 25% of T. molitor and S. frugiperda larvae were immediately attacked, but T. arnobia was not immediately attacked by S. cincticeps. Successful attack (i.e., successful insertion of the predator stylets into the prey depends on the region of the body attacked, with a greater proportion of successful attacks in the anterior than in the median or posterior regions. Larvae of T. arnobia and S. frugiperda displayed a sequence of abrupt head and body movements in response to S. cincticeps attack. Attempts of predation were more successful on T. molitor and S. frugiperda than on T. arnobia. Information about the differential attack behavior of S. cincticeps on different prey species is important for designing successful biological control programs using this hemipteran predator.

  8. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  9. Kissing Bug (Triatoma spp.) Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Stephen A.; Shirazi, F. Mazda; Boesen, Keith; Beatty, Norman L.; Dorn, Patricia L.; Smith, Shannon; Schmidt, Justin O.

    2016-01-01

    Kissing bugs (Triatoma spp.) frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae). Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites. PMID:27042091

  10. Kissing Bug (Triatoma spp.) Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Stephen A; Shirazi, F Mazda; Boesen, Keith; Beatty, Norman L; Dorn, Patricia L; Smith, Shannon; Schmidt, Justin O

    2016-01-01

    Kissing bugs (Triatoma spp.) frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae). Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  11. Radiation doses to children during modified barium swallow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, Kelly A.; McMahon, Sandra M.; Long, Gillian; Bunch, Judith A.; Pandeya, Nirmala; Coakley, Kerry S.; Chang, Anne B.

    2007-01-01

    There are minimal data on radiation doses to infants and children undergoing a modified barium swallow (MBS) study. To document screening times, dose area product (DAP) and effective doses to children undergoing MBS and to determine factors associated with increased screening times and effective dose. Fluoroscopic data (screening time, DAP, kVp) for 90 consecutive MBS studies using pulse fluoroscopy were prospectively recorded; effective dose was calculated and data were analyzed for effects of behavior, number of swallow presentations, swallowing dysfunction and medical problems. Mean effective dose for the entire group was 0.0826 ± 0.0544 mSv, screening time 2.48 ± 0.81 min, and DAP 28.79 ± 41.72 cGy cm 2 . Significant differences were found across three age groups (≤1.0, >1.0-3.0 and >3.0 years) for effective dose (mean 0.1188, 0.0651 and 0.0529 mSv, respectively; P < 0.001), but not for screening time or DAP. Effective dose was correlated with screening time (P 0.007), DAP (P < 0.001), number of swallow presentations (P = 0.007), lower age (P = 0.017), female gender (P = 0.004), and height (P < 0.001). Screening time was correlated with total number of swallow presentations (P < 0.001) and DAP (P < 0.001). Screening times, DAP, effective dose, and child and procedural factors associated with higher effective doses are presented for children undergoing MBS studies. (orig.)

  12. Dynamic evaluation of swallowing disorders with electron-beam tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raith, J.; Lindbichler, F.; Kern, R.; Groell, R.; Rienmueller, R.

    1996-01-01

    Three cases preselected by videofluorography were studied to evaluate whether electron beam tomography (EBT) permits more detailed dynamic imaging of swallowing disorders focusing on the mesonasopharyngeal segment, the hypopharynx and the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Immediately after videofluorographic examination of the oropharyngeal deglutition, EBT is performed. The patient is in a supine position and while the patient swallows a 20 ml bolus of water or diluted iodine containing contrast agent, a sequence of 20 images per level is scanned. The levels, which are determined by using the scout view, are oriented parallel to the hard palate either at the level of the hard palate to image the mesonasopharyngel segment or just above the hyoid bone to focus on the hypopharynx or at the location of the USE. The scan technique is a single-slice cinemode with a slice thickness of 3 mm (exposure time 100 ms, interscan delay 16 ms, 130 kV, 620 mA). The following structural interactions that we have so far been unable to image can be clearly demonstrated with EBT: During normal swallowing, the mesonasopharyngeal segment is completely and symmetrically closed by the soft palate and Passavant's cushion; lateral hypopharyngeal pouches can be located more precisely; and disorders of the UES can be differentiated into functional or morphologically caused disorders (e.g., goiter or cervical osteophytes). Videofluorography and cinematography are still the gold standard in functional evaluation of swallowing disorders. However, EBT permits dynamic imaging of pharyngeal deglutition in a preselected transverse plane and can give useful additional information concerning functional anatomical changes in the pharynx during swallowing. Further clinical evaluation is needed. (orig.) [de

  13. Barn swallows nesting near radioactive leaching ponds in southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Markham, O.D.

    1978-01-01

    Seasonally occurring populations of barn swallows nest near the Test Reactor Area (TRA) radioactive leaching ponds on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site. These birds utilize leaching pond arthropods and are therefore capable of accumulating radioactive materials and exporting them from the INEL Site during migration. The breeding biology is discussed for these swallows and a control group located 100 km away. Total nestling mortality for the controls and a 1977 TRA population was found to be statistically identical. Over 20 fission and activation products have been detected in immature and adult TRA birds. Mean concentrations of detectable radionuclides were used to calculate internal dose rates, and results showed that Na-24 contributed about 72% of the total average of 21.9 mrad/d for adult birds. Concentration factors were also calculated for predominant radionuclides in swallows relative to filtered pond water. Data from LiF dosimeters in swallow nests constructed with contaminated mud indicated average dose rates were 84 mrad/d for eggs and 220 mrad/d for nestlings. Growth curves were constructed for the immature TRA birds and controls. The first clutch of TRA swallows was found to have a significantly lower mean growth rate constant than the first clutch of controls. The statistical difference in growth rate between the control and TRA first clutch populations may have resulted from differences in climate, nesting site habitat, or available food sources, and cannot be solely attributed to radiation exposure as a causative factor. Growth rate parameters for TRA birds were within the range of values reported in the literature

  14. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  15. Radiation doses to children during modified barium swallow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, Kelly A. [University of Queensland, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, Herston, Queensland (Australia); McMahon, Sandra M. [SpeechNet Speech Pathology Services, Brisbane (Australia); Long, Gillian; Bunch, Judith A. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Herston (Australia); Pandeya, Nirmala [Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston (Australia); Coakley, Kerry S. [Biomedical Technology Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston (Australia); Chang, Anne B. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Herston (Australia)

    2007-03-15

    There are minimal data on radiation doses to infants and children undergoing a modified barium swallow (MBS) study. To document screening times, dose area product (DAP) and effective doses to children undergoing MBS and to determine factors associated with increased screening times and effective dose. Fluoroscopic data (screening time, DAP, kVp) for 90 consecutive MBS studies using pulse fluoroscopy were prospectively recorded; effective dose was calculated and data were analyzed for effects of behavior, number of swallow presentations, swallowing dysfunction and medical problems. Mean effective dose for the entire group was 0.0826 {+-} 0.0544 mSv, screening time 2.48 {+-} 0.81 min, and DAP 28.79 {+-} 41.72 cGy cm{sup 2}. Significant differences were found across three age groups ({<=}1.0, >1.0-3.0 and >3.0 years) for effective dose (mean 0.1188, 0.0651 and 0.0529 mSv, respectively; P < 0.001), but not for screening time or DAP. Effective dose was correlated with screening time (P = 0.007), DAP (P < 0.001), number of swallow presentations (P = 0.007), lower age (P = 0.017), female gender (P = 0.004), and height (P < 0.001). Screening time was correlated with total number of swallow presentations (P < 0.001) and DAP (P < 0.001). Screening times, DAP, effective dose, and child and procedural factors associated with higher effective doses are presented for children undergoing MBS studies. (orig.)

  16. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  17. Dysphagia progression and swallowing management in Parkinson's disease: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fontes Luchesi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dysphagia is relatively common in individuals with neurological disorders. Objective: To describe the swallowing management and investigate associated factors with swallowing in a case series of patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: It is a long-term study with 24 patients. The patients were observed in a five-year period (2006-2011. They underwent Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing, Functional Oral Intake Scale and therapeutic intervention every three months. In the therapeutic intervention they received orientation about exercises to improve swallowing. The Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's tests were used. The period of time for improvement or worsening of swallowing was described by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: During the follow-up, ten patients improved, five stayed the same and nine worsened their swallowing functionality. The median time for improvement was ten months. Prior to the worsening there was a median time of 33 months of follow-up. There was no associated factor with improvement or worsening of swallowing. The maneuvers frequently indicated in therapeutic intervention were: chin-tuck, bolus consistency, bolus effect, strengthening-tongue, multiple swallows and vocal exercises. Conclusion: The swallowing management was characterized by swallowing assessment every three months with indication of compensatory and rehabilitation maneuvers, aiming to maintain the oral feeding without risks. There was no associated factor with swallowing functionality in this case series.

  18. Dysphagia progression and swallowing management in Parkinson's disease: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchesi, Karen Fontes; Kitamura, Satoshi; Mourão, Lucia Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is relatively common in individuals with neurological disorders. To describe the swallowing management and investigate associated factors with swallowing in a case series of patients with Parkinson's disease. It is a long-term study with 24 patients. The patients were observed in a five-year period (2006-2011). They underwent Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing, Functional Oral Intake Scale and therapeutic intervention every three months. In the therapeutic intervention they received orientation about exercises to improve swallowing. The Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's tests were used. The period of time for improvement or worsening of swallowing was described by Kaplan-Meier analysis. During the follow-up, ten patients improved, five stayed the same and nine worsened their swallowing functionality. The median time for improvement was ten months. Prior to the worsening there was a median time of 33 months of follow-up. There was no associated factor with improvement or worsening of swallowing. The maneuvers frequently indicated in therapeutic intervention were: chin-tuck, bolus consistency, bolus effect, strengthening-tongue, multiple swallows and vocal exercises. The swallowing management was characterized by swallowing assessment every three months with indication of compensatory and rehabilitation maneuvers, aiming to maintain the oral feeding without risks. There was no associated factor with swallowing functionality in this case series. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. The swallowing reflex and its significance as an airway defensive reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eNishino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing function, in humans, is very complex. Swallowing plays, not only an important role in food digestion, but also a major role in preventing the entrance of food and/or other materials into the lower respiratory tract. To achieve this, precise coordination is necessary between breathing and swallowing since the pharynx serves as a common pathway for both respiration and digestion. The swallowing reflex consists of afferent pathways, central integration, and efferent pathways. Any defect or disorder along reflex arc can cause a potential delay or impairment in swallow function. The swallowing reflex can be modulated not only by pathological factors but also by physiological factors. Among these, timing of swallows in relation to the phase of respiration may be the most important factor that determines the occurrence of pulmonary aspiration, since phases of inspiration and the expiration-inspiration transition are the most vulnerable for pulmonary aspiration.

  20. Effect of occlusal vertical dimension on swallowing patterns and perioral electromyographic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S K; Jack, H C; Kieser, J; Farella, M

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal swallow patterns have been associated with specific dentofacial traits, such as an anterior open bite, but the cause-effect relationship between swallowing and malocclusion remains highly controversial. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of acute change in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) on intraoral pressure swallow patterns and perioral electromyographic activity (EMG) during swallowing. Ten volunteers (five female, five male; 27-32 years) repeated standardised swallowing tasks as the OVD was progressively increased using mandibular trays of different heights. Standardised swallowing tasks were performed repetitively with each tray in place. Individual swallowing waveforms were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. Peak pressure, swallow duration, time to peak pressure and lip EMG peak activity were assessed for each swallow. Data were analysed using mixed-model analysis. As OVD increased, lip peak pressure during swallowing increased almost threefold (+2·1 kPa; P ≤ 0·001), whereas swallow duration increased by 12·7 per cent (+160 ms; P = 0·01) at lip level and by 26·4 per cent (+270 ms; P < 0·001) at tongue level. Perioral muscle activity during swallows increased by 43·7 per cent (P ≤ 0·01) up to the OVD where resting lip seal was not attainable. Swallowing waveforms varied markedly between individuals, but interindividual waveforms were only minimally affected. The adaptive response and the waveform similarities associated with OVD variation supports the existence of a central control mechanism for swallowing, which may be modified by peripheral inputs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effective Bug Finding in C Programs with Shape and Effect Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when the manipula......Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when...... the Linux kernel. Our results show that our tool is more effective at finding bugs than similar code-scanning tools. EBA analyzes the drivers/ directory of Linux (nine thousand files) in less than thirty minutes, and uncovers a handful previously unknown double-lock bugs in various drivers....

  2. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Santangelo, Richard G; Barbarin, Alexis M; Schal, Coby

    2018-01-01

    Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust) and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  3. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin Favret; Nathan P. Havill; Gary L. Miller; Masakazu Sano; Benjamin Victor

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of...

  4. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  5. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  6. Aging-related changes in swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration determined by novel non-invasive measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Man; Chen, Ji-Yih; Chuang, Chiung-Cheng; Tseng, Wen-Chun; Wong, Alice M K; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the process of swallowing changes with aging, a phenomenon known as presbyphagia. These subtle and subclinical age-related changes make older adults more vulnerable to dysphagia during disease insults. However, there are limited studies of the swallowing process in older adults, because measurements are typically invasive or require exposure to X-rays. In the present study, we used integrated non-invasive measurements to determine aging-related changes of swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration for a population of healthy participants. The non-invasive system provided measurements of larynx movement with piezoelectric sensors, submental muscle activity with surface electromyography and respiration-swallowing coordination by measurement of nasal airflow. We recruited 112 healthy participants from the community, 35 in a young-age group (age 20-30 years), 38 in a middle-age group (age 31-50 years) and 39 in an old-age group (age 51-70 years). The oropharyngeal swallowing parameters of the old-age group had delayed onset latency and longer swallowing apnea duration relative to the other groups, and these differences were greater for larger boluses. The middle- and old-age groups had less expiratory-expiratory respiratory phase pattern than the young-age group. The probability of piecemeal deglutition was highest in the old-age group and lowest in the young-age group. These results show that the phases of oropharyngeal swallowing and the coordination of swallowing with respiration gradually change with aging. We used integrated non-invasive measurements to document age-related changes in swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration in healthy adults. © 2014 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna L Saenz

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  8. Decision-Making and Turn Alternation in Pill Bugs (Armadillidium Vulgare)

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Tohru

    1999-01-01

    Twelve pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Cmstacean) were examined in 200 successive T-mazes. When obstacles are present, A. vulgare tend to move by means of turn alternation, which is generally considered an innate adaptive behavior. With a decrease in air moisture, the bugs have a tendency to increase their turn alternation rate. However, in such long successive T-mazes as in this study, continued turn alternation should actually accelerate the bugs' desiccation. This fact implies t...

  9. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary C DeVries

    Full Text Available Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean < 2.5±1.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust. Heat treatments that eradicated the bed bug infestations failed to reduce histamine levels, even three months after treatment. We report a clear association between histamine levels in household dust and bed bug infestations. The high concentrations, persistence, and proximity to humans during sleep suggest that bed bug-produced histamine may represent an emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  10. A methodology for quantitatively managing the bug fixing process using Mahalanobis Taguchi system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The controlling of bug fixing process during the system testing phase of software development life cycle is very important for fixing all the detected bugs within the scheduled time. The presence of open bugs often delays the release of the software or result in releasing the software with compromised functionalities. These can lead to customer dissatisfaction, cost overrun and eventually the loss of market share. In this paper, the authors propose a methodology to quantitatively manage the bug fixing process during system testing. The proposed methodology identifies the critical milestones in the system testing phase which differentiates the successful projects from the unsuccessful ones using Mahalanobis Taguchi system. Then a model is developed to predict whether a project is successful or not with the bug fix progress at critical milestones as control factors. Finally the model is used to control the bug fixing process. It is found that the performance of the proposed methodology using Mahalanobis Taguchi system is superior to the models developed using other multi-dimensional pattern recognition techniques. The proposed methodology also reduces the number of control points providing the managers with more options and flexibility to utilize the bug fixing resources across system testing phase. Moreover the methodology allows the mangers to carry out mid- course corrections to bring the bug fixing process back on track so that all the detected bugs can be fixed on time. The methodology is validated with eight new projects and the results are very encouraging.

  11. Modified bug-1 algorithm based strategy for obstacle avoidance in multi robot system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandathil Jom J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary ability of an intelligent mobile robot system is obstacle avoidance. BUG algorithms are classic examples of the algorithms used for achieving obstacle avoidance. Unlike many other planning algorithms based on global knowledge, BUG algorithms assume only local knowledge of the environment and a global goal. Among the variations of the BUG algorithms that prevail, BUG-0, BUG-1 and BUG-2 are the more prominent versions. The exhaustive search algorithm present in BUG-1 makes it more reliable and safer for practical applications. Overall, this provides a more predictable and dependable performance. Hence, the essential focus in this paper is on implementing the BUG-1 algorithm across a group of robots to move them from a start location to a target location. The results are compared with the results from BUG-1 algorithm implemented on a single robot. The strategy developed in this work reduces the time involved in moving the robots from starting location to the target location. Further, the paper shows that the total distance covered by each robot in a multi robot-system is always lesser than or equal to that travelled by a single robot executing the same problem.

  12. Karyotype of Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevi, K C C; Ravazi, A; Mendonça, V J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2015-01-16

    The Triatominae subfamily comprises 6 tribes. The tribe Rhodniini comprises 2 genera and 22 nominal species. Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae) was recently described as evolutionarily related to R. robustus. Therefore, in order to contribute to karyosystematic study of the tribe Rhodniini, this report describes the number of chromosomes and compares the karyotype of R. montenegrensis to that of all other species in the tribe, in order to determine the karyotypic evolution of the tribe Rhodniini. The seminiferous tubules of adult males, after being removed and fixated on a cover slip, were processed with lacto-aceto-orcein for cytogenetic analysis. R. montenegrensis, as well as all other species of the tribe Rhodniini showed 22 chromosomes (20 autosomes + XY). Thus, we hereby describe the karyotype of the species R. montenegrensis and mainly highlight that the tribe Rhodniini displays karyotypic homogeneity, demonstrating itself as a derived group to a lesser extent when compared to the number of chromosomes of the common ancestors of the subfamily Triatominae.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of Triatomini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justi, Silvia Andrade; Russo, Claudia A M; Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos Santos; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Galvão, Cleber

    2014-03-31

    The Triatomini and Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) tribes include the most diverse Chagas disease vectors; however, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribes remain obscure. This study provides the most comprehensive phylogeny of Triatomini reported to date. The relationships between all of the Triatomini genera and representatives of the three Rhodniini species groups were examined in a novel molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the following six molecular markers: the mitochondrial 16S; Cytochrome Oxidase I and II (COI and COII) and Cytochrome B (Cyt B); and the nuclear 18S and 28S. Our results show that the Rhodnius prolixus and R. pictipes groups are more closely related to each other than to the R. pallescens group. For Triatomini, we demonstrate that the large complexes within the paraphyletic Triatoma genus are closely associated with their geographical distribution. Additionally, we observe that the divergence within the spinolai and flavida complex clades are higher than in the other Triatoma complexes. We propose that the spinolai and flavida complexes should be ranked under the genera Mepraia and Nesotriatoma. Finally, we conclude that a thorough morphological investigation of the paraphyletic genera Triatoma and Panstrongylus is required to accurately assign queries to natural genera.

  14. Successful endoscopic removal of a swallowed toothbrush: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkic, Ante; Bogdanovic, Zoran; Grandić, Leo

    2011-04-06

    Most ingested foreign bodies will pass uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, long and rigid foreign bodies are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal impaction, perforation and bleeding. Moreover, there has been no case of spontaneous passage of a toothbrush reported. Therefore, the prompt removal of such ingested foreign objects is recommended before complications develop. This case report describes a case of an 18-year-old woman who accidentally swallowed her toothbrush. The toothbrush was successfully removed via flexible endoscopy using a polypectomy snare. A swallowed toothbrush is a special clinical challenge. Early endoscopic retrieval of the toothbrush is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. In cases when endoscopic removal fails, a laparoscopic surgical approach may be an alternative.

  15. Successful Endoscopic Removal of a Swallowed Toothbrush: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Tonkic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Most ingested foreign bodies will pass uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, long and rigid foreign bodies are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal impaction, perforation and bleeding. Moreover, there has been no case of spontaneous passage of a toothbrush reported. Therefore, the prompt removal of such ingested foreign objects is recommended before complications develop. This case report describes a case of an 18-year-old woman who accidentally swallowed her toothbrush. The toothbrush was successfully removed via flexible endoscopy using a polypectomy snare. A swallowed toothbrush is a special clinical challenge. Early endoscopic retrieval of the toothbrush is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. In cases when endoscopic removal fails, a laparoscopic surgical approach may be an alternative.

  16. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  17. "Music & Memory" and improved swallowing in advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dan; Post, Stephen G; Lo, Angela; Lombardo, Robin; Pfeffer, Brandon

    2018-01-01

    Background Dysphagia and difficulty with eating affects a significant portion of individuals with advanced dementia. Such problems with oral intake can have serious health consequences including mealtime distress, dehydration and malnutrition, aspiration, reduced quality of life, and increased mortality risk. Design We present the first data indicating that "Music & Memory" interventions improve swallowing in individuals with advanced dementia, thereby making oral feeding easier and potentially diminishing reliance on PEG. Setting Columbia Health Care Center, Wyocena, WI (with Music&Memory.org, Mineola, NY and Stony Brook University). Participants Residents with advanced dementia (N = 5). Observation by eight professional caregivers. Results (1) Enhanced swallowing mechanism with Music & Memory prior to dining; (2) decreased incidents of choking during mealtime; (3) improved nutritional status; (4) reduced weight loss; (5) reduced need for speech interventions; (6) enhanced quality of life. Conclusions The preliminary results call for additional research.

  18. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  19. Fetal swallowing as a protective mechanism against oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios in late gestation sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Robert A; Anderson, Debra F; Cheung, Cecilia Y

    2013-03-01

    Our objectives were to (1) quantify the relationship between daily swallowed volume and amniotic fluid volume (AF volume) in late gestation ovine fetuses and (2) use the resulting regression equation to explore the role of swallowing in regulating AF volume. Daily swallowed volume ranged from 36 to 1963 mL/d while experimental AF volume ranged from 160 to 6150 mL (n = 115). Swallowed volume was near zero when AF volume was far below normal, a maximum of 635 ± 41 (standard error) mL/d when AF volume was 1682 ± 31 mL and did not increase further with higher AF volumes. Computer simulations predicted that fetal swallowing would (1) return AF volume to normal in 5 to 6 days following an acute volume change in the absence of changes in other amniotic inflows or outflows and (2) stabilize AF volume in 4 to 8 days following sustained alterations in amniotic inflows or outflows other than swallowing. The volume of AF swallowed each day by the fetus is a strong function of AF volume and reaches a maximum when mild polyhydramnios develops. With deviations in AF volume from normal, changes in fetal swallowing protect against oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios because the changes in swallowing over time reduce the extent of the AF volume change. However, with experimental changes in AF volume stabilizing in 1 to 2 days, it appears that swallowing is not the major regulator of AF volume.

  20. Attentional resource allocation and swallowing safety in Parkinson's disease: a dual task study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Michelle S; Okun, Michael S; Rosenbek, John C; Altmann, Lori J; Sapienza, Christine M

    2014-04-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of death in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite this, the mechanisms underlying dysphagia in this population are unclear. To date, researchers have not investigated the effects of varying cognitive demand on objective measures of swallowing safety. This study assessed whether swallowing safety could be disrupted by increasing cognitive demands during the task of swallowing. Twenty participants with moderate PD and dysphagia were tested while completing a novel dual task experimental paradigm under videofluoroscopy. In the dual task condition, participants swallowed 10 cc of thin liquid barium while completing a digits forward task. Four females and 16 males completed the study. Results revealed differential effects to swallowing safety based on baseline measures of cognitive flexibility and attention. Participants with mild impairment in cognitive flexibility and attention demonstrated cognitive-motor interference with worsening of both swallowing and cognitive performance. In contrast, participants who were most impaired in the domains of cognitive flexibility and attention improved swallowing safety in the dual task condition. Additionally, decreased swallow timing durations existed in the dual task condition compared to the single task condition. The results of this study support the hypothesis that supramedullary drive can influence the swallowing plan. Additionally, this study highlights the need for cognitive taxing during swallowing evaluations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attentional resource allocation and swallowing safety in Parkinson’s disease: A dual task study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Michelle S.; Okun, Michael S.; Rosenbek, John C.; Altmann, Lori J.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of death in persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Despite this, the mechanisms underlying dysphagia in this population are unclear. To date, researchers have not investigated the effects of varying cognitive demand on objective measures of swallowing safety. This study assessed whether swallowing safety could be disrupted by increasing cognitive demands during the task of swallowing. Methods Twenty participants with moderate PD and dysphagia were tested while completing a novel dual task experimental paradigm under videofluoroscopy. In the dual task condition, participants swallowed 10 cc of thin liquid barium while completing a digits forward task. Results Four females and 16 males completed the study. Results revealed differential effects to swallowing safety based on baseline measures of cognitive flexibility and attention. Participants with mild impairment in cognitive flexibility and attention demonstrated cognitive-motor interference with worsening of both swallowing and cognitive performance. In contrast, participants who were most impaired in the domains of cognitive flexibility and attention improved swallowing safety in the dual task condition. Additionally, decreased swallow timing durations existed in the dual task condition compared to the single task condition. Conclusions The results of this study support the hypothesis that supramedullary drive can influence the swallowing plan. Additionally, this study highlights the need for cognitive taxing during swallowing evaluations. PMID:24444532

  2. Automated acoustic analysis in detection of spontaneous swallows in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabbakhsh, Marzieh; Rajaei, Ali; Derakhshan, Mahmoud; Sadri, Saeed; Taheri, Masoud; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-10-01

    Acoustic monitoring of swallow frequency has become important as the frequency of spontaneous swallowing can be an index for dysphagia and related complications. In addition, it can be employed as an objective quantification of ingestive behavior. Commonly, swallowing complications are manually detected using videofluoroscopy recordings, which require expensive equipment and exposure to radiation. In this study, a noninvasive automated technique is proposed that uses breath and swallowing recordings obtained via a microphone located over the laryngopharynx. Nonlinear diffusion filters were used in which a scale-space decomposition of recorded sound at different levels extract swallows from breath sounds and artifacts. This technique was compared to manual detection of swallows using acoustic signals on a sample of 34 subjects with Parkinson's disease. A speech language pathologist identified five subjects who showed aspiration during the videofluoroscopic swallowing study. The proposed automated method identified swallows with a sensitivity of 86.67 %, a specificity of 77.50 %, and an accuracy of 82.35 %. These results indicate the validity of automated acoustic recognition of swallowing as a fast and efficient approach to objectively estimate spontaneous swallow frequency.

  3. Time budget of South African cliff swallows during breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of time by the South African cliff swallow was determined and use of energy calculated by using equations for predicting standard metabolic rate and the cost of flight. The highest daily energy expenditur.e was during the feeding of nestlings when 9,22 h were spent foraging. The cost of 127 kJ for building a nest is ...

  4. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  5. Pain, masticatory performance and swallowing threshold in orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Porto Trein

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess pain, masticatory performance and swallowing threshold of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. METHODS: Ten patients of both genders (mean age of 17.25 ± 5.21 years, with complete permanent dentition, who underwent orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were evaluated. The masticatory performance and the swallowing threshold were assessed by patient's individual capacity of fragmenting an artificial test food (Optocal which was chewed and had the resulting particles processed by a standardized sieving method, presenting the median particle size (MPS of crushed units. The intensity of pain / discomfort during chewing was evaluated by means of a visual analog scale. All tests were performed at the following times: T0 - before activating the orthodontic appliance; T1 - 24 hours after activation, and T2 - 30 days after activation. RESULTS: The results showed a significant increase in pain at T1 (T0 - 0.60 ± 0.70 mm; T1 - 66.2 ± 34.5 mm, returning to baseline values at T2 (3.20 ± 3.82 mm. Masticatory performance was also reduced in T1 (MPS 10.15 ± 1.1 mm² in comparison to T0 (MPS 7.01 ± 2.9 mm² and T2 (MPS 6.76 ± 1.3 mm². However, particle size was not affected in the swallowing threshold test (T0 - 5.47 ± 2.37 mm²; T1 - 6.19 ± 2.05 mm²; T2 - 5.94 ± 2.36 mm². CONCLUSION: The orthodontic appliances did not interfere in the size of the particles that would be swallowed, even in the presence of pain.

  6. Difficult to swallow: patient preferences for alternative valproate pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali Bhosle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Monali Bhosle,1 Joshua S Benner,1 Mitch DeKoven,1 Jeff Shelton21Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health Inc, Falls Church, VA, USA; 2Answers and Insights Market Research, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjective: To determine the degree to which swallowing valproate (VP tablets is an issue, the proportion of patients who would prefer an alternative formulation, and the predictors of preference.Methods: A quantitative telephone survey of eligible adults (n = 400, ≥18 years old who currently take (n = 236 or previously took (n = 164 VP tablets within the past 6 months was conducted.Results: More than half of the patients indicated that VP tablets were ‘uncomfortable to swallow’ (68.5%, n = 274 and were ‘very interested’ (65.8%, n = 263 in medications that were easier to swallow. When choosing conceptually between taking VP tablet once/day or an equally safe and effective but significantly smaller soft gel capsule twice per day, the 82.8%, (n = 331 preferred the soft gel capsule. In the multivariate regression analysis, perceiving soft gel capsules to be easier to swallow (OR = 73.54; 95% CI = 15.01 to 360.40 and taking VP more frequently (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.13 to 3.61 were significant predictors of soft gel capsule treatment preference.Conclusion: VP users would prefer a formulation that is easier to swallow, even if it is needed to be taken twice per day. When choosing between medications with similar efficacy and safety, physicians can consider patient preferences to optimize conditions for medication adherence.Keywords: patient preference, valproate formulations, tablet characteristics

  7. Suck, swallow and breathing coordination in infants with infantile colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlie Degenaar

    2015-12-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the suck, swallow and breathing coordination in infants with infantile colic and compare it with infants without the condition. Method: An assessment protocol for suck, swallow and breathing coordination was compiled from literature. This protocol was performed on a research group of 50 infants, independently diagnosed with infantile colic, and a control group of 28 infants without the condition. All participants were from two rural towns in the North–West province, South Africa, selected with a snowball selection method and strict selection criteria. The study followed a static comparison group design. Results: A significant difference in the key components of feeding and the presence of colic in participants of four age categories were found. The correlation between postural control and the presence of infantile colic were sustained in participants from 2–19 weeks old. Conclusion: Suck, swallow and breathing were found to be significantly associated with infantile colic. The findings should be investigated further. It appears that speech-language therapists may play an expanding role in infantile colic. [pdf to follow

  8. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  9. Tongue-surface movement patterns during speech and swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jordan R.; Wang, Yu-Tsai

    2003-05-01

    The tongue has been frequently characterized as being composed of several functionally independent articulators. The question of functional regionality within the tongue was examined by quantifying the strength of coupling among four different tongue locations across a large number of consonantal contexts and participants. Tongue behavior during swallowing was also described. Vertical displacements of pellets affixed to the tongue were extracted from the x-ray microbeam database. Forty-six participants recited 20 vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) combinations and swallowed 10 ccs of water. Tongue-surface movement patterns were quantitatively described by computing the covariance between the vertical time-histories of all possible pellet pairs. Phonemic differentiation in vertical tongue motions was observed as coupling varied predictably across pellet pairs with place of articulation. Moreover, tongue displacements for speech and swallowing clustered into distinct groups based on their coupling profiles. Functional independence of anterior tongue regions was evidenced by a wide range of movement coupling relations between anterior tongue pellets. The strengths and weaknesses of the covariance-based analysis for characterizing tongue movement are considered.

  10. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, Dana M.; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne; Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  11. Evaluation of Chewing and Swallowing Sensors for Monitoring Ingestive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward S

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring Ingestive Behavior (MIB) of individuals is of special importance to identify and treat eating patterns associated with obesity and eating disorders. Current methods for MIB require subjects reporting every meal consumed, which is burdensome and tend to increase the reporting bias over time. This study presents an evaluation of the burden imposed by two wearable sensors for MIB during unrestricted food intake: a strain sensor to detect chewing events and a throat microphone to detect swallowing sounds. A total of 30 healthy subjects with various levels of adiposity participated in experiments involving the consumption of four meals in four different visits. A questionnaire was handled to subjects at the end of the last visit to evaluate the sensors burden in terms of the comfort levels experienced. Results showed that sensors presented high comfort levels as subjects indicated that the way they ate their meal was not considerably affected by the presence of the sensors. A statistical analysis showed that chewing sensor presented significantly higher comfort levels than the swallowing sensor. The outcomes of this study confirmed the suitability of the chewing and swallowing sensors for MIB and highlighted important aspects of comfort that should be addressed to obtain acceptable and less burdensome wearable sensors for MIB.

  12. An elementary introduction to Bayesian computing using WinBUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryback, D G; Stout, N K; Rosenberg, M A

    2001-01-01

    Bayesian statistics provides effective techniques for analyzing data and translating the results to inform decision making. This paper provides an elementary tutorial overview of the WinBUGS software for performing Bayesian statistical analysis. Background information on the computational methods used by the software is provided. Two examples drawn from the field of medical decision making are presented to illustrate the features and functionality of the software.

  13. Learning from Mistakes --- A Comprehensive Study on Real World Concurrency Bug Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Lu; Soyeon Park; Eunsoo Seo; Yuanyuan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The reality of multi-core hardware has made concurrent programs pervasive. Unfortunately, writing correct concurrent programs is difficult. Addressing this challenge requires advances in multiple directions, including concurrency bug detection, concurrent program testing, concurrent programming model design, etc. Designing effective techniques in all these directions will significantly benefit from a deep understanding of real world concurrency bug characteristics. This paper provides the first (to the best of our knowledge) comprehensive real world concurrency bug characteristic study. Specifically, we have carefully examined concurrency bug patterns, manifestation, and fix strategies of 105 randomly selected real world concurrency bugs from 4 representative server and client opensource applications (MySQL, Apache, Mozilla and OpenOffice). Our study reveals several interesting findings and provides useful guidance for concurrency bug detection, testing, and concurrent programming language design. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) Around one third of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs are caused by violation to programmers order intentions, which may not be easily expressed via synchronization primitives like locks and transactional memories; (2) Around 34% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs involve multiple variables, which are not well addressed by existing bug detection tools; (3) About 92% of the examined concurrency bugs can be reliably triggered by enforcing certain orders among no more than 4 memory accesses. This indicates that testing concurrent programs can target at exploring possible orders among every small groups of memory accesses, instead of among all memory accesses; (4) About 73% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs were not fixed by simply adding or changing locks, and many of the fixes were not correct at the first try, indicating the difficulty of reasoning concurrent execution by programmers.

  14. Swallowing sound detection using hidden markov modeling of recurrence plot features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad; Moussavi, Zahra

    2009-01-01

    Automated detection of swallowing sounds in swallowing and breath sound recordings is of importance for monitoring purposes in which the recording durations are long. This paper presents a novel method for swallowing sound detection using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features. Tracheal sound recordings of 15 healthy and nine dysphagic subjects were studied. The multidimensional state space trajectory of each signal was reconstructed using the Taken method of delays. The sequences of three recurrence plot features of the reconstructed trajectories (which have shown discriminating capability between swallowing and breath sounds) were modeled by three hidden Markov models. The Viterbi algorithm was used for swallowing sound detection. The results were validated manually by inspection of the simultaneously recorded airflow signal and spectrogram of the sounds, and also by auditory means. The experimental results suggested that the performance of the proposed method using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features was superior to the previous swallowing sound detection methods.

  15. Critical Factors in the Oral Control Needed for Chewing and Swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, Jerilyn A

    2014-06-01

    Normal oropharyngeal swallowing is a complex set of neuromotor behaviors containing three phases: 1) Oral preparation to break food down to a swallowable consistency; 2) Oral phase which propels food from the mouth; 3) Pharyngeal phase creates pressure to push food into the esophagus, and includes valve functions which prevent food from entering the nose or airway and allow food into the esophagus. Systematic changes in normal oropharyngeal swallow are based on volume, viscosity, and taste of the food swallowed as well as age. Patients with oropharyngeal swallowing difficulties (dysphagia) react differently to these systematic variables in food characteristics. This review manuscript presents the results of a series of studies that examine the role of each of the stages of the nonoral orpharyngeal swallow. The importance of the definition of food viscosity in the care of dysphagic patients and the role of food production companies in this effort are emphasized.

  16. Laboratory bioassays to estimate the lethal and sublethal effects of various insecticides and fungicides on Deraeocoris brevis (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, K G; Shearer, P W

    2013-04-01

    This laboratory bioassay focused on lethal and sublethal effects of five insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, spinetoram, novaluron, and lambda-cyhalothrin) and two fungicide treatments (sulfur and a mixture of copper hydroxide and mancozeb) on the predatory mired bug, Deraeocoris brevis (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Miridae) using second instars and adult males and females. Formulated pesticides were tested using concentrations that were equivalent to the high label rate (1x) (high rate) and 1/10th of that amount (0.1x) (low rate) dissolved in 378.5 liters of water. Lambda-cyhalothrin was highly toxic to D. brevis nymphs and adults at both rates, whereas both rates of novaluron were highly toxic to nymphs. Cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, and novaluron were less toxic to adults, and chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram were less toxic to nymphs. Both rates of spinetoram caused significant mortality to adults. Fecundity of adult females was affected negatively by the high rates of either novaluron or spinetoram, whereas the fertility was affected only by the high rate of novaluron. The high rate of spinetoram reduced survival of nymphs. Adults treated with spinetoram had reduced longevity. Cyantraniliprole caused some mortality to nymphs and affected their survival. Both rates of sulfur were toxic to nymphs and affected emergence to adults. The mixture of copper hydroxide and mancozeb was less toxic to D. brevis. Neither adult longevity nor sex ratio was affected by the fungicides. The r values for D. brecis treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, novaluron, spinetoram, and sulfur were low, indicating that these products may have negative impact on population growth.

  17. Eficiência da Armadilha “R. Bianco” para Captura do Percevejo Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae, na Cultura do Milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliton Barreto

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. Maize is the cereal with the highest consumption in both industrialized as fresh nowadays. It is the grain with higher volume production, Brazil is the third largest producer, need special attention focused on the monitoring and control of invaders who risk their productivity. Among the pests that can affect the productivity highlight the insects (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, more specifically the bedbugs corn (Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, which has been an important pest for corn crops. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homemade traps R. Bianco in control of this insect. The experiments were conducted in Sitio Nossa Senhora Aparecida, in the municipality of Sinop, MT. Traps were divided into 10 open and 10 closed which were evaluated with and without baits by 20 days. The design was completely randomized (DIC in a 2x2x2 factorial with eight treatments and five repetitions. Traps without baits showed greater efficiency, with an average higher in catching the bugs regarding the traps with bait. The trap closed as compared with the open, demonstrated greater efficacy in retaining the insect. The effect of edge was little representative in this experiment. Therefore, the presence of bait did not influence the insect attraction and treatments submitted to the bait without test showed higher quantities and more efficient insect capture. Leading us to believe the attraction effect of salt by bedbug and the location of each trap had little influence in the capture of insects.

  18. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Improves Breathing-Swallowing Interaction of Ventilator Dependent Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garguilo, Marine; Lejaille, Michèle; Vaugier, Isabelle; Orlikowski, David; Terzi, Nicolas; Lofaso, Frédéric; Prigent, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory involvement in neuromuscular disorders may contribute to impaired breathing-swallowing interactions, swallowing disorders and malnutrition. We investigated whether the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by the patient could improve swallowing performances in a population of neuromuscular patients requiring daytime NIV. Ten neuromuscular patients with severe respiratory failure requiring extensive NIV use were studied while swallowing without and with NIV (while ventilated with a modified ventilator allowing the patient to withhold ventilation as desired). Breathing-swallowing interactions were investigated by chin electromyography, cervical piezoelectric sensor, nasal flow recording and inductive plethysmography. Two water-bolus sizes (5 and 10ml) and a textured yogurt bolus were tested in a random order. NIV use significantly improved swallowing fragmentation (defined as the number of respiratory interruption of the swallowing of a single bolus) (p = 0.003) and breathing-swallowing synchronization (with a significant increase of swallows followed by an expiration) (p <0.0001). Patient exhibited piecemeal swallowing which was not influenced by NIV use (p = 0.07). NIV use also significantly reduced dyspnea during swallowing (p = 0.04) while preserving swallowing comfort, regardless of bolus type. The use of patient controlled NIV improves swallowing parameters in patients with severe neuromuscular respiratory failure requiring daytime NIV, without impairing swallowing comfort. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01519388.

  19. Characterizing functional connectivity patterns during saliva swallows in different head positions

    OpenAIRE

    Jestrovi?, Iva; Coyle, James L.; Sejdi?, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    Background The anatomical rationale and efficacy of the chin tuck in improving airway protection for some people with swallowing disorders have been well researched and established. However, there are still open questions regarding whether brain activity for swallowing control is altered while performing this chin-tuck maneuver. Methods In this study, we collected EEG signals from 55 healthy adults while swallowing in the neutral and chin-tuck head positions. The time-frequency based synchron...

  20. Bug-in-Ear eCoaching: Impacts on Novice Early Childhood Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Ottley, Jennifer R.; Rahn, Naomi L.; Storie, Sloan

    2018-01-01

    A multiple-probe, single-case design was used to determine the effects of bug-in-ear eCoaching on teachers' use of two targeted naturalistic communication strategies and focus children's responses to these strategies. Results indicated that bug-in-ear eCoaching enhanced teachers' use of communication strategies and the appropriate responses of…

  1. Comparative Performance Analysis of Machine Learning Techniques for Software Bug Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Saiqa Aleem; Luiz Fernando Capretz; Faheem Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning techniques can be used to analyse data from different perspectives and enable developers to retrieve useful information. Machine learning techniques are proven to be useful in terms of software bug prediction. In this paper, a comparative performance analysis of different machine learning techniques is explored f or software bug prediction on public available data sets. Results showed most of the mac ...

  2. WYSIWYB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Lawall, Julia; Palix, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of approaches to finding bugs in systems code have been proposed, bugs still remain to be found. Current approaches have emphasized scalability more than usability, and as a result it is difficult to relate the results to particular patterns found in the source code and to contr...

  3. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    Although a number of approaches to finding bugs in systems code have been proposed, bugs still remain to be found. Current approaches have emphasized scalability more than usability, and as a result it is difficult to relate the results to particular patterns found in the source code and to contr...

  4. Behavioral Responses of the Bed Bug to Permethrin-Impregnated ActiveGuard™ Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Harrison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ActiveGuard™ Mattress Liners have been used to control house dust mites, and they also are commercially available as an integrated pest management tool for use against bed bugs (Cimex lectularius. The aim of our study was to evaluate responses of numerous populations of the bed bug to the permethrin-impregnated fabric, with particular regard to contact toxicity, repellency, and feeding inhibition. Continuous exposure to ActiveGuard fabric resulted in rapid intoxication for three of four populations, with 87 to 100% of moderately pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs succumbing by 1 d. In comparison, a highly resistant population reached 22% mortality at 10 d. Video data revealed that bed bugs readily traversed ActiveGuard fabric and spent a considerable amount of time moving about and resting on it during a 12-h period. ActiveGuard fabric was non-repellent to bed bugs from five tested populations. Furthermore, significantly fewer bed bugs successfully fed to repletion through ActiveGuard fabric than through blank fabric for the five populations. With just 30 min of feeding exposure, mortality ranged from 4% to 83%, depending upon the bed bug strain. These laboratory studies indicate that ActiveGuard liners adversely affected bed bugs from diverse populations.

  5. Edge effects of stink bugs in corn, cotton, peanut and soybean fields adjacent to woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  6. Area-wide management approach for tarnished plant bug in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is the major insect pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), within the Mid-South region. From 2001 to 2012, the tarnished plant bug has been the number one insect pest of cotton in Louisiana and Mississippi in eleven and nine of those...

  7. Central inhibition of initiation of swallowing by systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Sakai, Shogo; Suzuki, Taku; Ujihara, Izumi; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Canning, Brendan J; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Dysphagia is caused not only by neurological and/or structural damage but also by medication. We hypothesized memantine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, and baclofen, all commonly used drugs with central sites of action, may regulate swallowing function. Swallows were evoked by upper airway (UA)/pharyngeal distension, punctate mechanical stimulation using a von Frey filament, capsaicin or distilled water (DW) applied topically to the vocal folds, and electrical stimulation of a superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in anesthetized rats and were documented by recording electromyographic activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles and by visualizing laryngeal elevation. The effects of intraperitoneal or topical administration of each drug on swallowing function were studied. Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topically applied diazepam or baclofen had no effect on swallowing. These data indicate that diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topical applied diazepam or baclofen was without effect on swallowing. Diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Characteristics of sequential swallowing of liquids in young and elderly adults: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Helena Perrut; Bianchini, Esther Mandelbaum Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    To perform an integrative review of studies on liquid sequential swallowing, by characterizing the methodology of the studies and the most important findings in young and elderly adults. Review of the literature written in English and Portuguese on PubMed, LILACS, SciELO and MEDLINE databases, within the past twenty years, available fully, using the following uniterms: sequential swallowing, swallowing, dysphagia, cup, straw, in various combinations. Research articles with a methodological approach on the characterization of liquid sequential swallowing by young and/or elderly adults, regardless of health condition, excluding studies involving only the esophageal phase. The following research indicators were applied: objectives, number and gender of participants; age group; amount of liquid offered; intake instruction; utensil used, methods and main findings. 18 studies met the established criteria. The articles were categorized according to the sample characterization and the methodology on volume intake, utensil used and types of exams. Most studies investigated only healthy individuals, with no swallowing complaints. Subjects were given different instructions as to the intake of all the volume: usual manner, continually, as rapidly as possible. The findings about the characterization of sequential swallowing were varied and described in accordance with the objectives of each study. It found great variability in the methodology employed to characterize the sequential swallowing. Some findings are not comparable, and sequential swallowing is not studied in most swallowing protocols, without consensus on the influence of the utensil.

  9. Computational Analysis of Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics in Patients with Motor Neuron Disease: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, K L; Schwertner, Ryan; Chen, Amy; Pearson, William G

    2018-04-01

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) is a common sequela in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot investigation was to characterize how pharyngeal swallowing mechanics are impacted in patients with MND using a comparison with healthy, non-dysphagic control group. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) was used to determine covariate biomechanics of pharyngeal swallowing from videofluoroscopic assessment in 15 patients with MND and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Canonical variant analysis with post hoc discriminate function analysis (DFA) was performed on coordinate data mapping functional muscle groups underlying pharyngeal swallowing. Differences in swallowing mechanics associated with group (MND; control), motor neuron predominance (upper; lower), onset (bulbar; spinal), and swallow task (thin, pudding) were evaluated and visualized. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in patients with MND compared with healthy controls (D = 2.01, p mechanics by motor neuron predominance (D = 5.03, p mechanics of patients with MND differ from and are more heterogeneous than healthy controls. These findings suggest patients with MND may compensate reductions in pharyngeal shortening and tongue base retraction by extending the head and neck and increasing hyolaryngeal excursion. This work and further CASM investigations will lead to further insights into development and evaluation of targeted clinical treatments designed to prolong safe and efficient swallowing function in patients with MND.

  10. Spontaneous swallowing frequency has potential to identify dysphagia in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases, swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute [SPM]) were compared with stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with versus without clinically significant dysphagia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM, which was compared with a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was used to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a threshold of SPM≤0.40 that identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5- to 10-minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel.

  11. Spontaneous Swallowing Frequency [Has Potential to] Identify Dysphagia in Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. Methods In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute: SPM) were compared to stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with vs. without clinically significant dysphagia. ROC analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM which was compared to a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was employed to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. Results SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. ROC analysis yielded a threshold of SPM ≤ 0.40 which identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5 to 10 minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Conclusions Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel. PMID:24149008

  12. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders in Pediatric Neuromuscular Diseases: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; de Groot, Imelda J M; de Swart, Bert J M; Erasmus, Corrie E

    2015-11-20

    Feeding and swallowing problems in infants and children have a great impact on health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of recognized feeding and swallowing problems in different groups of children with neuromuscular diseases, based on relevant literature and expert opinion, and to propose recommendations for the assessment and treatment of these problems. Almost all pediatric neuromuscular diseases are accompanied by feeding and swallowing problems during the different phases of deglutition, problems that give rise to a wide variety of signs and symptoms, which emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive feeding and swallowing assessment by a speech and language therapist.

  13. Coordination of cough and swallow: a meta-behavioral response to aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Teresa; Rose, Melanie J; Mortensen, Ashley N; Poliacek, Ivan; Sapienza, Christine M; Lindsey, Bruce G; Morris, Kendall F; Davenport, Paul W; Bolser, Donald C

    2013-12-01

    Airway protections is the prevention and/or removal of material by behaviors such as cough and swallow. We hypothesized these behaviors are coordinated to respond to aspiration. Anesthetized animals were challenged with simulated aspiration that induced both coughing and swallowing. Electromyograms of upper airway and respiratory muscles together with esophageal pressure were recorded to identify and evaluate cough and swallow. During simulated aspiration, both cough and swallow intensity increased and swallow duration decreased consistent with rapid pharyngeal clearance. Phase restriction between cough and swallow was observed; swallow was restricted to the E2 phase of cough. These results support three main conclusions: 1) the cough and swallow pattern generators are tightly coordinated so as to generate a protective meta-behavior; 2) the trachea provides feedback on swallow quality, informing the brainstem about aspiration incidences; and 3) the larynx and upper esophageal sphincter act as two separate valves controlling the direction of positive and negative pressures from the upper airway into the thorax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between limit of Dysphagia and average volume per swallow in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; Gomes, Nathália Angelina Costa; Coriolano, Maria das Graças Wanderley de Sales; de Souza, Elizabete Santos; Moura, Danielle Albuquerque Alves; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain the limit of dysphagia and the average volume per swallow in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) but without swallowing complaints and in normal subjects, and to investigate the relationship between them. We hypothesize there is a direct relationship between these two measurements. The study included 10 patients with idiopathic PD and 10 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was recorded over the suprahyoid muscle group. The limit of dysphagia was obtained by offering increasing volumes of water until piecemeal deglutition occurred. The average volume per swallow was calculated by dividing the time taken by the number of swallows used to drink 100 ml of water. The PD group showed a significantly lower dysphagia limit and lower average volume per swallow. There was a significantly moderate direct correlation and association between the two measurements. About half of the PD patients had an abnormally low dysphagia limit and average volume per swallow, although none had spontaneously related swallowing problems. Both measurements may be used as a quick objective screening test for the early identification of swallowing alterations that may lead to dysphagia in PD patients, but the determination of the average volume per swallow is much quicker and simpler.

  15. Aspiration and swallowing in Parkinson disease and rehabilitation with EMST: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, M S; Okun, M S; Rosenbek, J C; Musson, N; Fernandez, H H; Rodriguez, R; Romrell, J; Pitts, T; Wheeler-Hegland, K M; Sapienza, C M

    2010-11-23

    Dysphagia is the main cause of aspiration pneumonia and death in Parkinson disease (PD) with no established restorative behavioral treatment to date. Reduced swallow safety may be related to decreased elevation and excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex. Increased submental muscle force generation has been associated with expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and subsequent increases in hyolaryngeal complex movement provide a strong rationale for its use as a dysphagia treatment. The current study's objective was to test the treatment outcome of a 4-week device-driven EMST program on swallow safety and define the physiologic mechanisms through measures of swallow timing and hyoid displacement. This was a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled EMST trial performed at an academic center. Sixty participants with PD completed EMST, 4 weeks, 5 days per week, for 20 minutes per day, using a calibrated or sham, handheld device. Measures of swallow function including judgments of swallow safety (penetration-aspiration [PA] scale scores), swallow timing, and hyoid movement were made from videofluoroscopic images. No pretreatment group differences existed. The active treatment (EMST) group demonstrated improved swallow safety compared to the sham group as evidenced by improved PA scores. The EMST group demonstrated improvement of hyolaryngeal function during swallowing, findings not evident for the sham group. EMST may be a restorative treatment for dysphagia in those with PD. The mechanism may be explained by improved hyolaryngeal complex movement. This intervention study provides Class I evidence that swallow safety as defined by PA score improved post EMST.

  16. Objective Measures of Swallowing Function Applied to the Dysphagia Population: A One Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine A; Ellerston, Julia; Heller, Amanda; Houtz, Daniel R; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative, reliable measures of swallowing physiology can be made from an modified barium swallowing study. These quantitative measures have not been previously employed to study large dysphagic patient populations. The present retrospective study of 139 consecutive patients with dysphagia seen in a university tertiary voice and swallowing clinic sought to use objective measures of swallowing physiology to (1) quantify the most prevalent deficits seen in the patient population, (2) identify commonly associated diagnoses and describe the most prevalent swallowing deficits, and (3) determine any correlation between objective deficits and Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) scores and body mass index. Poor pharyngeal constriction (34.5 %) and airway protection deficits (65.5 %) were the most common swallowing abnormalities. Reflux-related dysphagia (36 %), nonspecific pharyngeal dysphagia (24 %), Parkinson disease (16 %), esophageal abnormality (13 %), and brain insult (10 %) were the most common diagnoses. Poor pharyngeal constriction was significantly associated with an esophageal motility abnormality (p dysphagia symptoms as determined by the EAT-10 did not correlate with swallowing function abnormalities. This preliminary study indicates that reflux disease is common in patients with dysphagia and that associated esophageal abnormalities are common in dysphagic populations and may be associated with specific pharyngeal swallowing abnormalities. However, symptom scores from the EAT-10 did not correspond to swallowing pathophysiology.

  17. A comparative analysis of DBSCAN, K-means, and quadratic variation algorithms for automatic identification of swallows from swallowing accelerometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, Joshua M; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-04-01

    Cervical auscultation with high resolution sensors is currently under consideration as a method of automatically screening for specific swallowing abnormalities. To be clinically useful without human involvement, any devices based on cervical auscultation should be able to detect specified swallowing events in an automatic manner. In this paper, we comparatively analyze the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm (DBSCAN), a k-means based algorithm, and an algorithm based on quadratic variation as methods of differentiating periods of swallowing activity from periods of time without swallows. These algorithms utilized swallowing vibration data exclusively and compared the results to a gold standard measure of swallowing duration. Data was collected from 23 subjects that were actively suffering from swallowing difficulties. Comparing the performance of the DBSCAN algorithm with a proven segmentation algorithm that utilizes k-means clustering demonstrated that the DBSCAN algorithm had a higher sensitivity and correctly segmented more swallows. Comparing its performance with a threshold-based algorithm that utilized the quadratic variation of the signal showed that the DBSCAN algorithm offered no direct increase in performance. However, it offered several other benefits including a faster run time and more consistent performance between patients. All algorithms showed noticeable differentiation from the endpoints provided by a videofluoroscopy examination as well as reduced sensitivity. In summary, we showed that the DBSCAN algorithm is a viable method for detecting the occurrence of a swallowing event using cervical auscultation signals, but significant work must be done to improve its performance before it can be implemented in an unsupervised manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P; Miller, Gary L; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid.

  19. Catalog of the phylloxerids of the world (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favret, Colin; Blackman, Roger L; Miller, Gary L; Victor, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the phylloxerids (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, three being synonyms. Thirty-five genus-group names, of which six are subjectively valid, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. Ninety-four species-group names are listed, of which 73 are considered subjectively valid. This is the last group of Aphidomorpha to be catalogued, bringing the list of valid extant species to 5,218.

  20. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates—filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under...

  1. Revisional notes on the genus Melucha (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Coreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Brailovsky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Melucha grandicula sp. n. and M. perampla sp. n., (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Nematopodini are described from Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru. Melucha quadrivittis Stål, 1862, stat. restit., is resurrected from synonymy under M. phyllocnemis (Burmeister, 1835. Melucha ruficornis Breddin, 1903, syn. n., is synonymized under M. lineatella (Fabricius, 1803. An identification key for the known species of Melucha Amyot & Serville, 1843 is given. New distributional records for some previously known species are added.

  2. Why are the subfamily relationships of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) important?

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Carl W.

    2005-01-01

    Why are the subfamily relationships of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) important?-This question is really two: Is Triatominae a phylogenetically valid monophyletic subfamily; and, if it is, to what other reduviid subfamilies is it most closely related? If the answer to the first question is Yes, then what one knows about one member of Triatominae may be true for other members; if the answer is No, then no such prediction can be made. Because many members of Triatominae are of medical impo...

  3. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, F P F; Meijer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated. Stink bugs were spatially aggregated on the third week of bloom in 2011. Boll injury from stink bugs was spatially aggregated during the fourth week of bloom in 2012. The NDVI values were aggregated during both years. There was a positive association and correlation between stink bug numbers and NDVI values, as well as injured bolls and NDVI values, during the third week of bloom in 2011. During the third week of bloom in 2012, NDVI values were negatively correlated with stink bug numbers. During the fourth week of bloom in 2011, stink bug numbers and boll injury were both positively associated and correlated with NDVI values. During the fourth week of bloom in 2012, stink bugs were negatively correlated with NDVI values, and boll injury was negatively associated and correlated with NDVI values. This study suggests the potential of remote sensing as a tool to assist with sampling stink bugs in cotton, although more research is needed using NDVI and other plant measurements to predict stink bug injury. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA divergence in Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Lygus is widely distributed in North America and Eurasia. The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, is one of the most serious pest species within this genus having >300 different plant hosts. The intra-specific genetic diversity of L. lineolaris is being examined by employing mitochondri...

  5. Unilateral Superior Laryngeal Nerve Lesion in an Animal Model of Dysphagia and Its Effect on Sucking and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Malone, Regina; Holman, Shaina D.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; Fukuhara, Takako; Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Thexton, Allan J.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2013-01-01

    We tested two hypotheses relating to the sensory deficit that follows a unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) lesion in an infant animal model. We hypothesized that it would result in (1) a higher incidence of aspiration and (2) temporal changes in sucking and swallowing. We ligated the right-side SLN in six 2–3-week-old female pigs. Using videofluoroscopy, we recorded swallows in the same pre- and post-lesion infant pigs. We analyzed the incidence of aspiration and the duration and latency of suck and swallow cycles. After unilateral SLN lesioning, the incidence of silent aspiration during swallowing increased from 0.7 to 41.5 %. The durations of the suck containing the swallow, the suck immediately following the swallow, and the swallow itself were significantly longer in the post-lesion swallows, although the suck prior to the swallow was not different. The interval between the start of the suck containing a swallow and the subsequent epiglottal movement was longer in the post-lesion swallows. The number of sucks between swallows was significantly greater in post-lesion swallows compared to pre-lesion swallows. Unilateral SLN lesion increased the incidence of aspiration and changed the temporal relationships between sucking and swallowing. The longer transit time and the temporal coordinative dysfunction between suck and swallow cycles may contribute to aspiration. These results suggest that swallow dysfunction and silent aspiration are common and potentially overlooked sequelae of unilateral SLN injury. This validated animal model of aspiration has the potential for further dysphagia studies. PMID:23417250

  6. Fluid mechanics of eating, swallowing and digestion - overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Jan; Burbidge, Adam S

    2013-02-26

    From a very simplistic viewpoint, the human digestive system can be regarded as a long tube (with dramatic variations in diameter, cross-section, wall properties, pumping mechanisms, regulating valves and in-line sensors). We single out a few fluid mechanical phenomena along the trajectory of a food bolus from the mouth to the small intestine and discuss how they influence sensorial perception, safe transport, and nutrient absorption from a bolus. The focus is on lubrication flows between the tongue and palate, the oropharyngeal stage of swallowing and effects of flow on absorption in the small intestine. Specific challenges and opportunities in this research area are highlighted.

  7. Clinical investigation on application of water swallowing to MR esophagography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinping, E-mail: zjpmri@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Hu, Weijian; Zang, Lin [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Yao, Yibin; Tang, Yongxiang; Qian, Zhen; Gao, Ping; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, Shijian [Department of Radiology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Xie, Zhenlan; Yuan, Xiaoqing [Department of Pathology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To verify the clinical outcomes of applying water swallowing to MR esophagography. Methods: Thirty patients confirmed postoperatively or histopathologically with thoracic esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic biopsy and 10 healthy volunteers with normal esophagus underwent respectively conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection and water swallowing MR esophagography. Of those patients, 4 underwent second examination after radiotherapy. Assessment on imaging effects of MR esophagography was performed. Assessment on definition on MR esophagography of the tumor in both upper and lower ends, specific localization, tumor size finally measured, coincidence with the gross pathologic types and tumor staging were respectively performed by comparison with conventional MRI. Additionally, we evaluated the outcomes of radiotherapy by comparing the previous MR esophagography with the second one with interventional technique. Results: Of the total 44 images of MR esophagography, 97.7% (43/44) were in high resolution by sagittal view and 81.8% (36/44) by cross-section. 93.3% (56/60) of the MR esophagography were clearly defined with the neoplastic lesion ends in the 30 patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma, compared with 11.7% (7/60) by conventional MRI. The results were totally different in statistics (P < 0.005). Preoperative conventional MRI detection of the 22 cases in 25 undergone radical resection suggested vague diameter of the primary tumor and impossibly identified it at middle-lower thoracic esophagus in 5, and even failed to confirm gross pathologic types in 19 cases. Yet, MR esophagography with water swallowing represented accurate tumor length (graded as excellent) in 88% (22/25), localization in 100% (25/25), exact gross pathologic types in 88% (22/25), and accuracy for tumor staging in 80.8% (21/26) compared to 92.3% (24/26) by conventional MRI. Therapeutic effects achieved in 4 patients with radiotherapy. Conclusions: MR esophagography

  8. Treatment for dysphagia (swallowing difficulties) in hereditary ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Adam P; Keage, Megan J; Johansson, Kerstin; Schalling, Ellika

    2015-11-13

    Hereditary ataxias are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in progressive inco-ordination. Swallowing impairment, also known as dysphagia, is a common and potentially life threatening sequel of disease progression. The incidence and nature of dysphagia in these conditions is largely unknown. The loss of an effective and safe swallow can dramatically affect the health and well-being of an individual. Remediation of difficulties of eating and drinking is an important goal in the clinical care of people with hereditary ataxia. To assess the effects of interventions for swallowing impairment (dysphagia) in people with hereditary ataxias. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) on 14 September 2015. We also searched Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts (LLBA), Dissertation Abstracts, and Trials Registries on 24 September 2015. We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared treatments for hereditary ataxia with placebo or no treatment. We only included studies measuring dysphagia. Three review authors (ES, KJ, MK) independently screened all titles and abstracts. In the event of any disagreement or uncertainty over the inclusion of a particular paper, the review authors planned to meet and reach consensus. We identified no RCTs from the 519 titles and abstracts screened. We excluded papers primarily for not including participants with a hereditary ataxia (that is, being focused on other neurological conditions), being theoretical reviews rather than intervention studies, or being neither randomised nor quasi-randomised trials.We identified five papers of various design that described treatment for dysphagia, or improvement to swallow as a by-product of treatment, in people with hereditary ataxia. None of these studies were RCTs or

  9. Swallowing in Parkinson's disease: clinical issues and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Changes to swallowing affect most people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Changes may not initially exercise a decisive impact, but can later pose significant threats to nutritional, hydration and respiratory health and psychosocial quality of life. This review, from a largely clinical viewpoint, outlines the nature of changes in PD and considers the issue of how many people are affected and in what ways. It outlines main approaches to assessment and management, with an emphasis on aspects relevant to PD. Dysphagia contributes to drooling in PD. The review therefore also touches on the nature and management of this condition that has its own set of health and psychosocial quality-of-life issues.

  10. The anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal swallowing in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasegbon, A; Hamdy, S

    2017-11-01

    Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. The oropharynx is the anatomical region encompassing the oral cavity and the pharynx. Food must be masticated, formed into a bolus and transported to the pharynx by the tongue whereas fluids are usually held within the mouth before being transported ab-orally. The bolus must then be transported through the pharynx to the esophagus without any matter entering the larynx. The muscles needed for all these steps are coordinated by swallowing centers within the brainstem which are supplied with sensory information by afferent nerve fibers from several cranial nerves. The swallowing centers also receive modulatory input from higher centers within the brain. Hence, a swallow has both voluntary and involuntary physiologic components and the term dysphagia is given to difficult swallowing while oropharyngeal dysphagia is difficult swallowing due to pathology within the oropharynx. Problems affecting any point along the complex swallowing pathway can result in dysphagia. This review focuses on the anatomy and physiology behind normal and abnormal oropharyngeal swallowing. It also details the common diseases and pathology causing oropharyngeal dysphagia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dose-dependent deterioration of swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haderlein, M.; Semrau, S.; Ott, O.; Speer, S.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Bohr, C. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the influence of clinical, treatment- and dose-dependent factors on posttreatment swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy in a group of homogeneously treated laryngopharyngeal cancer patients. From 28 May 2008 to 15 February 2013, 45 patients with borderline inoperable laryngopharyngeal cancer that had responded well to induction chemotherapy were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Median follow-up was 22 months. Swallowing function and clinical data were prospectively analyzed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Swallowing structures were retrospectively delineated on the original treatment planning CT. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for swallowing structures and D{sub mean}, D{sub max} and V50-V64 values (in 2 Gy increments) were determined for each patient. Tumor volume and infiltration of the swallowing apparatus was defined by CT before induction chemotherapy. Of the 45 patients, 26 (57.8 %) fully regained swallowing function after chemoradiotherapy. A further 12 patients (26.7 %) were able to manage soft, pureed and/or liquid foods; the remaining 7 (15.6 %) were completely dependent on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Posttreatment swallowing function was significantly influenced by D{sub mean} to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM, p = 0.041). Correlations between late dysphagia and dose-volume relationships in the superior PCM and soft palate were also observed, which were significant from V60 (p = 0.043) and V58 for the soft palate and superior PCM, respectively. Of the evaluated clinical and tumor-related factors, only alcohol abuse (p = 0.024) had an influence on posttreatment swallowing function. Almost 50 % of patients had deterioration of swallowing function after definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. The dose to anatomical structures responsible for swallowing function appears to play a role. Therefore, in selected patients, target

  12. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on swallowing apraxia and cortical excitability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Wang, Jie; Wu, Dongyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Song, Weiqun

    2017-10-01

    Swallowing apraxia is characterized by impaired volitional swallowing but relatively preserved reflexive swallowing. Few studies are available on the effectiveness of behavioral therapy and management of the condition. This study aimed to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on swallowing apraxia and cortical activation in stroke patients. The study included three inpatients (age 48-70 years; 1 male, 2 females; duration of stroke, 35-55 d) with post-stroke swallowing apraxia and six age-matched healthy subjects (age 45-65 years; 3 males, 3 females). Treatments were divided into two phases: Phase A and Phase B. During Phase A, the inpatients received three weeks of sham tDCS and conventional treatments. During Phase B, these patients received three weeks of anodal tDCS over the bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (S 1 M 1 ) of swallowing and conventional treatments. Swallowing apraxia assessments were measured in three inpatients before Phase A, before Phase B, and after Phase B. The electroencephalography (EEG) nonlinear index of approximate entropy (ApEn) was calculated for three patients and six healthy subjects. After tDCS, scores of swallowing apraxia assessments increased, and ApEn indices increased in both stimulated and non-stimulated areas. Anodal tDCS might provide a useful means for recovering swallowing apraxia, and the recovery could be related to increased excitability of the swallowing cortex. Further investigations should explore the relationship between lesion size and/or lesion site and the prognosis of swallowing apraxia. Clinical trial registry: http://www.chictr.org Registration Number: ChiCTR-TRC-14004955.

  13. Voice- and swallow-related quality of life in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooren, Michel R A; Baijens, Laura W J; Vos, Rein; Pilz, Walmari; Kuijpers, Laura M F; Kremer, Bernd; Michou, Emilia

    2016-02-01

    This study explores whether changes in voice- and swallow-related QoL are associated with progression of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Furthermore, it examines the relationship between patients' perception of both voice and swallowing disorders in IPD. Prospective clinical study, quality of life (QoL). One-hundred mentally competent IPD patients with voice and swallowing complaints were asked to answer four QoL questionnaires (Voice Handicap Index, MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory, Visual Analog Scale [VAS] voice, and Dysphagia Severity Scale [DSS]). Differences in means for the QoL questionnaires and their subscales within Hoehn and Yahr stage groups were calculated using one-way analysis of variance. The relationship between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires was determined with the Spearman correlation coefficient. Scores on both voice and swallow questionnaires suggest an overall decrease in QoL with progression of IPD. A plateau in QoL for VAS voice and the DSS was seen in the early Hoehn and Yahr stages. Finally, scores on voice-related QoL questionnaires were significantly correlated with swallow-related QoL outcomes. Voice- and swallow-related QoL decreases with progression of IPD. A significant association was found between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires. Healthcare professionals can benefit from voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires in a multidimensional voice- or swallow-assessment protocol. The patient's perception of his/her voice and swallowing disorders and its impact on QoL in IPD should not be disregarded. 2b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Effects of carbonated liquid on swallowing dysfunction in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Victoria; Torisson, Gustav; Bülow, Margareta; Londos, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction is an increasingly recognized problem in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), which can result in aspiration pneumonia and death. Few studies have examined potential ways of improving swallowing function in this fragile patient group. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing dysfunction and carbonated liquid using videofluoroscopy in DLB and PDD patients. A total of 48 patients with DLB and PDD were referred for a clinical examination with videofluoroscopy. Descriptive overall assessments were provided at the time of the examination regarding swallowing function and the effects of different modifications, including carbonated thin liquid (CTL). Additionally, a repeated measures quantitative retrospective analysis has been performed comparing 1) thin liquids; 2) thickened liquids and 3) CTLs, with regard to the quantitative variables 1) pharyngeal transit time (PTT); 2) pharyngeal retention and 3) tracheal penetration. In all, 40/48 (83%) of the patients had a swallowing dysfunction, which was confirmed on videofluoroscopy, with 34/40 (85%) patients having a pharyngeal-type dysfunction. A total of 14/40 (35%) patients with an objective swallowing impairment did not have any subjective swallowing symptoms. Out of the patients with swallowing dysfunction, 87% had an overall improved swallowing function with carbonated liquid. PTT for carbonated liquid (median 633 ms, interquartile range [IQR] 516-786 ms) was quicker than for thin liquid (760 ms, IQR 613-940 ms, P =0.014) and thickened liquid (880.0 ms, IQR 600-1,500 ms, P <0.001). No significant effect was seen in residue or penetration. The majority of patients with DLB or PDD had a swallowing dysfunction, sometimes without subjective swallowing symptoms, which improved with carbonated liquid. This highlights the importance of investigating patients with videofluoroscopy and to carry out a prospective interventional study to further

  15. Efficiently, Effectively Detecting Mobile App Bugs with AppDoctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    1 ∼ 5 ACV Comic Viewer 2 1 ∼ 5 Yes OpenSudoku 1 1 ∼ 5 Yes OI Notepad 1 0.1 ∼ 0.5 Yes OI Safe 1 0.1 ∼ 0.5 Yes Table 1: Each app’s bug count. First row...Rare event sequence led to access of discarded variable Confirmed 4 OI File Manager Rare event order led to use of uninitialized variable Confirmed 5 ACV ...Comic Viewer Incorrect assumption of the presence of Google Services caused a crash Reported 6 ACV Comic Viewer Failed to check for the failure of

  16. Doing bayesian data analysis a tutorial with R and BUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Kruschke, John K

    2011-01-01

    There is an explosion of interest in Bayesian statistics, primarily because recently created computational methods have finally made Bayesian analysis obtainable to a wide audience. Doing Bayesian Data Analysis, A Tutorial Introduction with R and BUGS provides an accessible approach to Bayesian data analysis, as material is explained clearly with concrete examples. The book begins with the basics, including essential concepts of probability and random sampling, and gradually progresses to advanced hierarchical modeling methods for realistic data. The text delivers comprehensive coverage of all

  17. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jin Song

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that OST and NMES facilitated swallowing functions than OST and sham–NMES in children with CP and dysphagia. Future studies need to utilise video fluoroscopy swallowing study for outcome measurements in a large participant group.

  18. Mercury Contamination in Tree Swallows Nesting at Northern Wisconsin Inland Lakes that Differ in Methylation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are a useful species to assess the bioavailability and effects of trace elements, including mercury, because they will nest in boxes in relatively close proximity to one another. Because tree swallows feed on the aerial stages of benthic aquat...

  19. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  20. A predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after curative radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, Johannes A.; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H. F.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Leemans, C. Rene; Slotman, Ben J.

    Introduction: Recently, we found that swallowing dysfunction after curative (chemo) radiation (CH) RT has a strong negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), even more than xerostomia. The purpose of this study was to design a predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after

  1. A predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after curative radiotherapy in head and neck cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, J.A.; Doornaert, P.A.H.; Rietveld, D.H.F.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Leemans, C.R.; Slotman, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, we found that swallowing dysfunction after curative (chemo) radiation (CH) RT has a strong negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), even more than xerostomia. The purpose of this study was to design a predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after

  2. Prevalence of Auditory Problems in Children with Feeding and Swallowing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawool, Vishakha Waman

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although an interdisciplinary approach is recommended for assessment and management of feeding or swallowing difficulties, audiologists are not always included in the interdisciplinary team. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of middle ear and hearing problems in children with feeding and swallowing disorders and to…

  3. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  4. Association between swallow perception and esophageal bolus clearance in patients with globus sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Lin; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai

    2013-04-01

    Globus sensation is common, but its pathogenesis is not yet clear. Our purpose was to investigate subjective perception of swallowing and esophageal motility by combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and manometry (MII-EM) for patients with globus sensation. Combined MII-EM was performed for 25 globus patients and 15 healthy controls. Swallows were abnormal if hypocontractivity or simultaneous contractions occurred. Esophageal bolus transit was incomplete if bolus exit was not found at one or more of all measurement sites. Perception of each swallow was assessed by use of a standardized scoring system, and was enhanced if the score was >1. Few globus patients reported enhanced perception during viscous or solid swallows. Incomplete bolus transit and enhanced perception occurred similarly between viscous and solid boluses. Agreement between enhanced perception and proximal bolus clearance was greater during solid swallows (κ = 0.45, 95 % CI: 0.32-0.58) than during viscous swallows (κ = 0.13, 95 % CI: 0-0.25) (P perception and total bolus clearance was greater during solid swallows (κ = 0.46, 95 % CI: 0.34-0.58) than during viscous swallows (κ = 0.11, 95 % CI: 0-0.22) (P perception is uncommon in patients with globus sensation, although there is a significant association between enhanced esophageal perception and solid bolus clearance. Application of a solid bolus may help better delineation of the interrelationship between the subjective perception of bolus passage and the objective measurement of bolus clearance.

  5. Effects of pacifier and taste on swallowing, esophageal motility, transit, and respiratory rhythm in human neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, T R; Sitaram, S; Jadcherla, S R

    2016-04-01

    Pacifier use is widely prevalent globally despite hygienic concerns and uncertain mechanistic effects on swallowing or airway safety. The effects of pacifier and taste interventions on pharyngo-esophageal motility, bolus transit, and respiratory rhythms were investigated by determining the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body, esophagogastric junction (EGJ) motor patterns and deglutition apnea, respiratory rhythm disturbances, and esophageal bolus clearance. Fifteen infants (six males; median gestation 31 weeks and birth weight 1.4 kg) underwent high-resolution impedance manometry at 43 (41-44) weeks postmenstrual age. Manometric, respiratory, and impedance characteristics of spontaneous swallows, pacifier-associated dry swallowing and taste (pacifier dipped in 3% sucrose)-associated swallowing were analyzed. Linear mixed and generalized estimating equation models were used. Data are presented as mean ± SEM, %, or median (IQR). Pharyngo-esophageal motility, respiratory, and impedance characteristics of 209 swallows were analyzed (85 spontaneous swallows, 63 pacifier- swallows, 61 taste- swallows). Basal UES and EGJ pressures decreased upon pacifier (p pacifier or taste interventions decreases UES and EGJ basal pressure, but has no effects on pharyngo-esophageal motility, airway interactions, or esophageal bolus transit. A decrease in central parasympathetic-cholinergic excitatory drive is likely responsible for the basal effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Functional outcome in acute stroke patients with oropharyngeal Dysphagia after swallowing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun-Ling; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Chi; Leong, Chau-Peng; Lin, Wei-Che; Pong, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia after stroke is associated with mortality and increased pulmonary complications. Swallowing therapies may decrease pulmonary complications and improve patients' quality of life after stroke. This study used clinical swallowing assessments and videofluoroscopy (VFS) to assess the functional recovery of acute stroke patients with dysphagia after different swallowing therapies. We enrolled 29 acute stroke patients with dysphagia and randomly divided them into 3 therapy groups: traditional swallowing (TS), oropharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and combined NMES/TS. All patients were assessed using the clinical functional oral intake scale (FOIS), 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), and functional dysphagia scale (FDS) of VFS before and after treatment. There were no differences in the clinical parameters and swallowing results of the FOIS and VFS before swallowing treatment among the 3 groups (P > .05). TS therapy and combined therapy both had significant swallowing improvement after therapy according to the FOIS and 8-point PAS (P dysphagia, combined NMES/TS therapy is the most effective swallowing therapy in taking solid diets and thick liquids. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench (synonym=Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi) and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (synonym=Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi) are invasive plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae and are the targets of biological cont...

  8. New biological information on the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi] (black swallow-wort) and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. [Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi] (pale swallow-wort) are herbaceous perennial vines in the Apocynaceae native to Europe. Both species are considered invasive in their in...

  9. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts caused by Colletotrichum lineola from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (family Apocynaceae subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are invasive plants and are the targets of biological control efforts to control their spread in the USA. In 2010, diseased leaves of a rela...

  10. Relationships between air swallowing, intragastric air, belching and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, AJ; Weusten, BLAM; Timmer, R; Akkermans, LMA; Smout, AJPM

    Background: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms

  11. Relationships between air swallowing, intragastric air, belching and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Akkermans, L. M. A.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms

  12. Swallowing improvement after levodopa treatment in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: lack of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ailton; Monteiro, Larissa

    2013-03-01

    Swallowing impairment is the main cause of pulmonary infection and death in Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, there is no established effective treatment to restore swallowing function among these subjects. Levodopa is considered the gold standard treatment for motor symptoms in PD but its efficacy in improving oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia remains controversial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Patient-reported symptom questionnaires in laryngeal cancer: Voice, speech and swallowing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, N.P.M.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; van den Brakel, N.; de Bree, R.; Eerenstein, S.E.; Aaronson, N.K.; Leemans, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To validate questionnaires on voice, speech, and swallowing among laryngeal cancer patients, to assess the need for and use of rehabilitation services, and to determine the association between voice, speech, and swallowing problems, and quality of life and distress. Materials and methods

  14. Patient-reported symptom questionnaires in laryngeal cancer: Voice, speech and swallowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, R.N.P.M.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; van den Brakel, N.; de Bree, R.; Eerenstein, S.E.J.; Aaronson, N.K.; Leemans, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To validate questionnaires on voice, speech, and swallowing among laryngeal cancer patients, to assess the need for and use of rehabilitation services, and to determine the association between voice, speech, and swallowing problems, and quality of life and distress. Materials and

  15. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baijens, Laura, E-mail: laura.baijens@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Barikroo, Ali, E-mail: a.Barikroo@ufl.edu [Swallowing Research Laboratory, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pilz, Walmari, E-mail: walmari.pilz@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables.

  16. A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis Newtonian fluid is investigated analytically and numerically too. The result is physically interpreted as that the oesophagus makes more efforts to swallow fluids with higher concentration. It is observed that the pressure is uniformly distributed when an integral number of waves is there in the oesophagus; but it is non-uniform when a non-integral number of waves is present therein. It is further observed that as the plug flow region widens, the pressure difference increases, which indicates that the averaged flow rate will reduce for a Casson fluid. It is also concluded that Casson fluids are more prone to reflux.

  17. Voluntary cough production and swallow dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Teresa; Bolser, Donald; Rosenbek, John; Troche, Michelle; Sapienza, Christine

    2008-09-01

    Cough is important for airway clearance, particularly if penetration/aspiration of foreign material occurs during swallow. Measures of voluntary cough production from ten male participants with stage II-III Parkinson's disease (PD) who showed no videofluorographic evidence of penetration/aspiration (Group 1) were examined and compared with those of ten male participants with stage II-III PD who showed videofluorographic evidence of penetration/aspiration (Group 2). The degree of penetration/aspiration was expertly judged from the videofluorographic examinations of the participants' sequential swallow of a thin, 30-cc bolus. Measured cough parameters included inspiratory phase duration, inspiratory peak flow, compression phase duration, expiratory peak flow, expiratory rise time, and cough volume acceleration. Results indicated significant group differences for the majority of cough measures, except for inspiratory phase duration and inspiratory peak flow. A modest relationship existed between voluntary cough parameters and penetration/aspiration scores. Decreased ability to adequately clear material from the airway with voluntary cough may exacerbate symptoms resulting from penetration/aspiration, particularly for those with neurodegenerative disease. Measurement of voluntary cough may be useful for the evaluation of airway clearance ability.

  18. Mastication and swallowing: 1. Functions, performance and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchardson, Robert; Cadden, Samuel W

    2009-01-01

    The process of mastication involves movements of the tongue, lips and cheeks as well as the more obvious actions of the teeth and jaws. In recent years there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the relationships between these movements in human beings and of how the processes of mastication are related to the associated events of swallowing. In this, the first of two papers, we review the role of mastication in food processing and nutrition and the effect of tooth loss on masticatory performance.The paper also reviews new information on masticatory and swallowing functions in human beings eating naturally. The review relates this knowledge to clinical dentistry, notably to the relevance of a good dentition to the digestive process and practical considerations in the replacement of missing teeth. Dentists should understand the process of mastication because an adequate dentition can facilitate the general health and well-being of their patients.This understanding can also inform the clinical management of patients with a depleted dentition or otherwise impaired masticatory system.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Xing, Lu; Zhi-Teng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yu; Yu-Zhou, Du

    2017-03-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The 16 170 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 20 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. The A. dispersus mitogenome also includes a cytb-like non-coding region and shows several variations relative to the typical insect mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using the 13 protein-coding genes of 12 related species from Hemiptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Aleyrodidae and Hemiptera.

  20. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynn Tillman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L. adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F. at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly.