WorldWideScience

Sample records for swallow bug viruses

  1. Immune responses of a native and an invasive bird to Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus and its arthropod vector, the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Fassbinder-Orth

    Full Text Available Invasive species often display different patterns of parasite burden and virulence compared to their native counterparts. These differences may be the result of variability in host-parasite co-evolutionary relationships, the occurrence of novel host-parasite encounters, or possibly innate differences in physiological responses to infection between invasive and native hosts. Here we examine the adaptive, humoral immune responses of a resistant, native bird and a susceptible, invasive bird to an arbovirus (Buggy Creek virus; Togaviridae: Alphavirus and its ectoparasitic arthropod vector (the swallow bug; Oeciacus vicarius. Swallow bugs parasitize the native, colonially nesting cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus that occupies nests in cliff swallow colonies. We measured levels of BCRV-specific and swallow bug-specific IgY levels before nesting (prior to swallow bug exposure and after nesting (after swallow bug exposure in house sparrows and cliff swallows in western Nebraska. Levels of BCRV-specific IgY increased significantly following nesting in the house sparrow but not in the cliff swallow. Additionally, house sparrows displayed consistently higher levels of swallow bug-specific antibodies both before and after nesting compared to cliff swallows. The higher levels of BCRV and swallow bug specific antibodies detected in house sparrows may be reflective of significant differences in both antiviral and anti-ectoparasite immune responses that exist between these two avian species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the macro- and microparasite-specific immune responses of an invasive and a native avian host exposed to the same parasites.

  2. Between-group transmission dynamics of the swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2005-06-01

    The parasitic cimicid swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius, is the principal invertebrate vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) and has also been associated with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. To help understand the spread of this vector, we experimentally measured the transmission of O. vicarius between groups (colonies) of its main host, the cliff swallow (Petrochelidonpyrrhonota), in the field. Transmission of bugs between colonies varied significantly with year, size of the colony, and week within the season. Bug immigration into sites tended to peak in mid-summer. Swallow nests in larger colonies had more consistent rates of bug introduction than did nests in small colonies, but within a colony a given nest's weekly immigrant-bug count varied widely across the season. Transmission of O. vicarius between host social groups follows broadly predictable seasonal patterns, but there is nevertheless temporal and spatial heterogeneity in bug transmission. By understanding how long-distance movement by this vector varies in time and space, we can better predict where and when BCRV epizootics may occur.

  3. Bug breakfast in the bulletin: human papilloma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cate; Weisberg, Edith; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The Bug Breakfast topic for October was Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The presenters covered the epidemiology of HPV, the newly introduced HPV vaccine and social and psychological issues relating to HPV vaccination.

  4. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  6. Dirt - swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002840.htm Dirt - swallowing To use the sharing features on this ... article is about poisoning from swallowing or eating dirt. This article is for information only. DO NOT ...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  8. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  9. Swallowing Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throat discomfort in the throat or chest (when gastro esophageal reflux is present) a sensation of a foreign body ... to the particular cause of the swallowing disorder. Gastro esophageal reflux can often be treated by changing eating and ...

  10. Microbes and Viruses Are Bugging the Gut in Celiac Disease. Are They Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Arleevskaya, Marina; Schmiedl, Andreas; Matthias, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    The links between microorganisms/viruses and autoimmunity are complex and multidirectional. A huge number of studies demonstrated the triggering impact of microbes and viruses as the major environmental factors on the autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, growing evidences suggest that infectious agents can also play a protective role or even abrogate these processes. This protective crosstalk between microbes/viruses and us might represent a mutual beneficial equilibrium relationship between two cohabiting ecosystems. The protective pathways might involve post-translational modification of proteins, decreased intestinal permeability, Th1 to Th2 immune shift, induction of apoptosis, auto-aggressive cells relocation from the target organ, immunosuppressive extracellular vesicles and down regulation of auto-reactive cells by the microbial derived proteins. Our analysis demonstrates that the interaction of the microorganisms/viruses and celiac disease (CD) is always a set of multidirectional processes. A deeper inquiry into the CD interplay with Herpes viruses and Helicobacter pylori demonstrates that the role of these infections, suggested to be potential CD protectors, is not as controversial as for the other infectious agents. The outcome of these interactions might be due to a balance between these multidirectional processes.

  11. Microbes and Viruses Are Bugging the Gut in Celiac Disease. Are They Friends or Foes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Lerner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The links between microorganisms/viruses and autoimmunity are complex and multidirectional. A huge number of studies demonstrated the triggering impact of microbes and viruses as the major environmental factors on the autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, growing evidences suggest that infectious agents can also play a protective role or even abrogate these processes. This protective crosstalk between microbes/viruses and us might represent a mutual beneficial equilibrium relationship between two cohabiting ecosystems. The protective pathways might involve post-translational modification of proteins, decreased intestinal permeability, Th1 to Th2 immune shift, induction of apoptosis, auto-aggressive cells relocation from the target organ, immunosuppressive extracellular vesicles and down regulation of auto-reactive cells by the microbial derived proteins. Our analysis demonstrates that the interaction of the microorganisms/viruses and celiac disease (CD is always a set of multidirectional processes. A deeper inquiry into the CD interplay with Herpes viruses and Helicobacter pylori demonstrates that the role of these infections, suggested to be potential CD protectors, is not as controversial as for the other infectious agents. The outcome of these interactions might be due to a balance between these multidirectional processes.

  12. Febre maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas: ensaios negativos de transmissão experimental do virus por Triatomideos Rocky Mountain spotted fever: failure of Triatomid bugs to transmit the virus experimentally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius B. Philip

    1938-01-01

    das Montanhas Rochosas, ou retel-o em seu organismo, em estado virulento, por mais de 2 a 4 dias.1. - The following species of blood-sucking triatomids failed to transmit the virus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever to susceptible guinea pigs by feeding at the following respective time intervals after the infective feeding: Eutriatoma uhleri, 33, 47, 75, and 141 days (one bug; Triatoma protracta, 15 and 37 days (one bug; T. infestans, 8 days (15 bugs; and Rhodnius prolixus, 2 days (1 bug. The last was shown to contain virus. 2. - Mechanical transmission tests by undelayed, interrupted feedings of 3 species, T. protracta and R. prolixus, were also negative. One insect of the former species accepted 2 infective and 2 normal (test feedings, while 22 bugs of the latter species accepted alternate blood-meals one to 3 times each on infected and normal guinea pigs. 3. - Fecal droplets collected from one R. prolixus 2 days after an infected feeding failed to infect when injected into a susceptible guinea pig, although virus was shown to be present inthe bug by subsequent injection of the viscera into another test animal. 4. - The period of survival of the virus in the bugs was determined by injection of gut contents at various short intervals after infected feedings. T. infestans: Positive once a 24 hours and twice at 48 hours; negative twice at 72, 96, 120 and 192 hours each. Panstrongylus megistus: Positive 3 times at 24 hours, twice at 48 hours, and once at 72 hours; negative once each at 72 and 96 hours; tests doubtful or valueless once at 48 hours, and twice each at 72, 96 and 144 hours. R. prolixus: Positive once each at 24, 48 and 72 hours, and negative at 96 hours. 5. - From these data, involving species of 4 genera of the Triatomidae, it appears unlikely that triatomids can either transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever by their bites, or retain virulent virus within their bodies for longer than 2 to 4 days.

  13. Speech and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like stuttering. The term for swallowing difficulty is dysphagia. It affects the mechanics of swallowing and quality ... as dining with friends or family. More importantly, dysphagia can lead to malnutrition, dehydration and aspiration (when ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme ... and tuck your shirt into your pants. You can also pre-treat outer layers of clothing with ...

  15. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... by matching temporal bug-patterns against the control-flow graph of this program abstraction. I have implemented a proof-of-concept bug finder based on this technique, EBA, and confirmed that it is both scalable and effective at finding bugs. On a benchmark of historical Linux double-lock bugs, EBA was able...

  16. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... scanners will find mostly superficial errors. Thus, when bugs span multiple functions, even if simple, they become undetectable by most code scanners. The studied set of historical bugs contained many of such cases. This PhD thesis proposes a bug-finding technique that is both lightweight and capable...

  18. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  19. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  20. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  1. [Dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Fujishima, Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia is a life-threatening disorder caused by many medical conditions such as stroke, neurological disorders, tumors, etc. The symptoms of dysphagia are quite variable and diagnosed by observation or through screening involving instrumental swallowing examinations such as video-fluoroscopy and video-endoscopy, to determine functional severity and treatment-prognosis. Direct- and indirect-therapy is used with and without food, respectively. Swallowing rehabilitation is very effective, and could be used in conjunction with compensatory techniques. Here we present an overview of dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation.

  2. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Europe. Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not ... Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  3. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  4. Bed Bugs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  5. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted from "Swallowing Disorders After a Stroke," Stroke Connection Magazine July/August ...

  6. Swallowing Disorders in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepika P; Kamath, Vandan D; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2017-08-01

    Disorders of swallowing are poorly characterized but quite common in schizophrenia. They are a source of considerable morbidity and mortality in this population, generally as a result of either acute asphyxia from airway obstruction or more insidious aspiration and pneumonia. The death rate from acute asphyxia may be as high as one hundred times that of the general population. Most swallowing disorders in schizophrenia seem to fall into one of two categories, changes in eating and swallowing due to the illness itself and changes related to psychotropic medications. Behavioral changes related to the illness are poorly understood and often involve eating too quickly or taking inappropriately large boluses of food. Iatrogenic problems are mostly related to drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects, including drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia, but may also include xerostomia, sialorrhea, and changes related to sedation. This paper will provide an overview of common swallowing problems encountered in patients with schizophrenia, their pathophysiology, and management. While there is a scarcity of quality evidence in the literature, a thorough history and examination will generally elucidate the predominant problem or problems, often leading to effective management strategies.

  7. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  8. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  9. IDENTIFIKASI DUPLIKASI LAPORAN BUG PADA REPOSITORI LAPORAN BUG UNTUK MENGHASILKAN SARAN RESOLUSI BUG PERANGKAT LUNAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Repositori laporan bug perangkat lunak sebenarnya menyediakan informasi dan saran resolusi bug tertentu yang dapat digunakan untuk memperbaiki bug yang terjadi pada tahap perbaikan perangkat lunak. Pengembang dapat mencari saran resolusi bug perangkat lunak tertentu dengan mengidentifikasi duplikasi bug pada repositori laporan bug perangkat lunak. Penelitian ini mengusulkan sistem identifikasi duplikasi laporan bug pada repositori laporan bug untuk menghasilkan saran resolusi bug perangkat lunak menggunakan teknik pendekatan temu kembali informasi. Pengembang dapat menemukan informasi alasan kegagalan perangkat lunak dan memperoleh saran resolusi untuk memperbaiki bug tersebut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa teknik pendekatan temu kembali informasi dapat digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi duplikasi laporan bug pada repositori laporan bug untuk menghasilkan saran resolusi bug perangkat lunak.

  10. Dynamic imaging of oropharyngeal swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanucci, A.; Cerro, P.; Diotallevi, P.; Metastasio, F.; Fanucci, E.

    1991-01-01

    Oropharyngeal swallowing is too fast and complex a motion for the human eye to seize its various phases and subsequently evaluate morphology and function of the anatomical structures involved. A chronological subdivision of the swallowing act is needed for e step-by-step analysis. Dinamic evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing by means of fluoroscopic and US videorecording proved to be a reliable method. Echovideorecording allowed tongue movements to be depicted, together with bolus formation and propulsion. Fluorovideorecording (U-Matic Sony unit, 25-30 images/sec) demonstrated pharyngeal and esophageal phases. A series of chronological and morphological reference points, which characterize oropharyngeal swallowing, were employed to analyze videorecorded images. Slowmotion mode, 'freezed' images, and rewinding allowed an easy and accurate evaluation of swallowing details. Combined chronological and morphological pieces of information allow a comprehensive evaluation of the swallowing act

  11. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  12. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  13. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  14. Bug City: Ladybugs & Fireflies [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  16. The BUG BITBUS Universal Gateway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocki, G.

    1996-01-01

    The BITBUS Universal Gateway (BUG) provides a unique, cost effective solution to many different computer interface problems. Each BUG node, utilizing ''on board'' intelligence, has the ability to provide a communication link between BITBUS protocol and other computer-signal interfaces. Among them, IEEE-488, RS232, and raw analog and binary signal 1/0. BITBUS is a multidrop, multinode link with the ability to communicate over great distances. By using this method of signal transfer, along with the communication conversion ability of the BUG, one could accomplish such things as the ability to run IEEE-488 instruments over great distances, extend a multidrop links to RS232 instruments, and provide a convenient interface point for remote analog and binary 1/0 signals, all on one homogeneous network. The BUG not only provides this through the wired ''twisted pair'' standard of BITBUS, but extends the ability to fiber optic communications for signal transfer over extreme distances and through electrically ''noisy'' environments

  17. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Road Safety - 8 Steps MERS Health Advisory poster MERS Pictogram CDC Guide for Healthy Travel Website ... other accommodations that are air conditioned or have good window and door screens so bugs can’t ...

  18. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Bed ... to be careful in how you select a company. Related Information Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs - highlights ...

  19. Bank Swallow - Monitoring [ds6

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The data set represents the annual count of bank swallow burrows at nesting colonies located along the Sacramento River. The data set contains two databases which...

  20. Roosts and migrations of swallows

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Swallows of the north temperate zone display a wide variety of territorial behaviour during the breeding season, but as soon as breeding is over, they all appear to adopt a pattern of independent diurnal foraging interleaved with aggregation every night in dense roosts. Swallows generally migrate during the day, feeding on the wing. On many stretches of their annual journeys, their migrations can thus be seen as the simple spatial translation of nocturnal roost sites with foraging routes stra...

  1. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  2. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... with Bed Bug Problems Discover. Accessibility EPA Administrator Budget & Performance Contracting Grants January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot ...

  3. Bed Bug Guidance for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    School nurses are often called upon to provide vital information to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These tips on identifying, managing and preventing bed bugs will help you to effectively respond if bed bugs appear in your school.

  4. Evaluation of swallowing ability using swallowing sounds in maxillectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyanagi, A; Sumita, Y; Ino, S; Chikai, M; Nakane, A; Tohara, H; Minakuchi, S; Seki, Y; Endo, H; Taniguchi, H

    2018-02-01

    Maxillectomy for oral tumours often results in debilitating oral hypofunction, which markedly decreases quality of life. Dysphagia, in particular, is one of the most serious problems following maxillectomy. This study used swallowing sounds as a simple evaluation method to evaluate swallowing ability in maxillectomy patients with and without their obturator prosthesis placed. Twenty-seven maxillectomy patients (15 men, 12 women; mean age 66.0 ± 12.1 years) and 30 healthy controls (14 men, 16 women; mean age 44.9 ± 21.3 years) were recruited for this study. Participants were asked to swallow 4 mL of water, and swallowing sounds were recorded using a throat microphone. Duration of the acoustic signal and duration of peak intensity (DPI) were measured. Duration of peak intensity was significantly longer in maxillectomy patients without their obturator than with it (P maxillectomy patients without their obturator than in healthy controls (P maxillectomy patients who had undergone soft palate resection than in those who had not (P maxillectomy patients could be improved by wearing an obturator prosthesis, particularly during the oral stage. However, it is difficult to improve the oral stage of swallowing in patients who have undergone soft palate resection even with obturator placement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Camargo Remesso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate occurrences of swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke. METHOD: This was a retrospective study on 596 medical files. The inclusion criterion was that the patients needed to have been hospitalized with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke; the exclusion criteria were the presence of associated cardiac problems and hospital stay already more than 14 days. RESULTS: 50.5% were men and 49.5% women; mean age 65.3 years (SD=±11.7 (p<0.001. Among the risk factors, 79.4% had hypertension, 36.7% had diabetes (p<0.001 and 42.7% were smokers. 13.3% of the patients died. Swallowing disorders occurred in 19.6%, among whom 91.5% had mild difficulty and 8.5% had severe difficulty. 87.1% had spontaneous recovery after a mean of 2.4 months. A lesion in the brainstem region occurred in 6.8% (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Swallowing disorders occurred in almost 20% of the population and most of the difficulty in swallowing found was mild. The predictors for swallowing disorders were older age, diabetes mellitus and lesions in the brainstem region.

  6. 42 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Feature-sensitive verification pursues effective analysis of the exponentially many variants of a program family. However, researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, occurring in real large-scale systems. Such a collection of bugs is a requirement for goal-oriented research...... provide self-contained simplified C99 versions of the bugs, facilitating understanding and tool evaluation. Our study provides insights into the nature and occurrence of variability bugs in a large C software system, and shows in what ways variability affects and increases the complexity of software bugs....

  7. Zero bugs and program faster

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    A book about programming, improving skill, and avoiding mistakes. The author spent two years researching every bug avoidance technique she could find. This book contains the best of them. If you want to program faster, with fewer bugs, and write more secure code, buy this book! "This is the best book I have ever read." - Anonymous reviewer "Four score and seven years ago this book helped me debug my server code." -Abraham Lincoln "Would my Javascript have memory leaks without this book? Would fishes fly without water?" -Socrates "This book is the greatest victory since the Spanish Armada, and the best about programming." -Queen Elizabeth

  8. Four bugs on a rectangle

    KAUST Repository

    Chapman, S. J.

    2010-11-10

    The idealized mathematical problem of four bugs in cyclic pursuit starting from a 2-by-1 rectangle is considered, and asymptotic formulas are derived to describe the motion. In contrast to the famous case of four bugs on a square, here the trajectories quickly freeze to essentially one dimension. After the first rotation about the centre point, the scale of the configuration has shrunk by a factor of 10427907250, and this number is then exponentiated four more times with each successive cycle. Relations to Knuth\\'s double-arrow notation and level-index arithmetic are discussed. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society.

  9. Swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolar Andrés, Sandra; Santamarina Rabanal, María Liliana; Granda Membiela, Carla María; Fernández Gutiérrez, María José; Sirgo Rodríguez, Paloma; Álvarez Marcos, César

    Parkinson's disease is a type of chronic neurodegenerative pathology with a typical movement pattern, as well as different, less studied symptoms such as dysphagia. Disease-related disorders in efficacy or safety in the process of swallowing usually lead to malnutrition, dehydration or pneumonias. The aim of this study was identifying and analyzing swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease. The initial sample consisted of 52 subjects with Parkinson's disease to whom the specific test for dysphagia SDQ was applied. Nineteen participants (36.5%) with some degree of dysphagia in the SDQ test were selected to be evaluated by volume-viscosity clinical exploration method and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were detected in 94.7% of the selected sample. With regards to efficiency, disorders were found in food transport (89.5%), insufficient labial closing (68.4%) and oral residues (47.4%), relating to duration of ingestion. Alterations in security were also observed: pharynx residues (52.7%), coughing (47.4%), penetration (31.64%), aspiration and decrease of SaO 2 (5.3%), relating to the diagnosis of respiratory pathology in the previous year. The SDQ test detected swallowing disorders in 36.5% of the subjects with Parkinson's disease. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were demonstrated in 94.7% of this subset. Disorders of efficiency were more frequent than those of safety, establishing a relationship with greater time in ingestion and the appearance of respiratory pathology and pneumonias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  10. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  11. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  12. Effect of posture on swallowing.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ertekin C, Keskin A, Kiylioglu N, Kirazli Y, On AY,. Tarlaci S, et al. The effect of head and neck positions on oropharyngeal swallowing: a clinical and electrophysio- logic study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilita- tion. 2001;829:1255-60. Epub 2001/09/12. 17. Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Rademaker AW, Kahrilas.

  13. 40 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal Rivas, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Feature-sensitive verification is a recent field that pursues the effective analysis of the exponential number of variants of a program family. Today researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, and occurring in real large-scale software. Such a collection of bugs is a requi......Feature-sensitive verification is a recent field that pursues the effective analysis of the exponential number of variants of a program family. Today researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, and occurring in real large-scale software. Such a collection of bugs...... the outcome of our analysis into a database. In addition, we provide self-contained simplified C99 versions of the bugs, facilitating understanding and tool evaluation. Our study provides insights about the nature and occurrence of variability bugs in a large C software system, and shows in what ways...

  14. SWALLOWING IN PATIENTS WITH LARYNGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela MODA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is described as a complaint in 32% of patients with laryngitis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate oral and pharyngeal transit of patients with laryngitis, with the hypothesis that alteration in oral-pharyngeal bolus transit may be involved with dysphagia. METHODS: Videofluoroscopic evaluation of the swallowing of liquid, paste and solid boluses was performed in 21 patients with laryngitis, 10 of them with dysphagia, and 21 normal volunteers of the same age and sex. Two swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus, two swallows of 5 mL paste bolus and two swallows of a solid bolus were evaluated in a random sequence. The liquid bolus was 100% liquid barium sulfate and the paste bolus was prepared with 50 mL of liquid barium and 4 g of food thickener (starch and maltodextrin. The solid bolus was a soft 2.2 g cookie coated with liquid barium. Durations of oral preparation, oral transit, pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were measured. All patients performed 24-hour distal esophageal pH evaluation previous to videofluoroscopy. RESULTS: The evaluation of 24-hour distal esophageal pH showed abnormal gastroesophageal acid reflux in 10 patients. Patients showed longer oral preparation for paste bolus and a faster oral transit time for solid bolus than normal volunteers. Patients with laryngitis and dysphagia had longer preparation for paste and solid boluses, and a faster oral transit time with liquid, paste and solid boluses. CONCLUSION: A longer oral preparation for paste and solid boluses and a faster transit through the mouth are associated with dysphagia in patients with laryngitis.

  15. SWALLOWING IN PATIENTS WITH LARYNGITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Isabela; Ricz, Hilton Marcos Alves; Aguiar-Ricz, Lilian Neto; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Dysphagia is described as a complaint in 32% of patients with laryngitis. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate oral and pharyngeal transit of patients with laryngitis, with the hypothesis that alteration in oral-pharyngeal bolus transit may be involved with dysphagia. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of the swallowing of liquid, paste and solid boluses was performed in 21 patients with laryngitis, 10 of them with dysphagia, and 21 normal volunteers of the same age and sex. Two swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus, two swallows of 5 mL paste bolus and two swallows of a solid bolus were evaluated in a random sequence. The liquid bolus was 100% liquid barium sulfate and the paste bolus was prepared with 50 mL of liquid barium and 4 g of food thickener (starch and maltodextrin). The solid bolus was a soft 2.2 g cookie coated with liquid barium. Durations of oral preparation, oral transit, pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were measured. All patients performed 24-hour distal esophageal pH evaluation previous to videofluoroscopy. The evaluation of 24-hour distal esophageal pH showed abnormal gastroesophageal acid reflux in 10 patients. Patients showed longer oral preparation for paste bolus and a faster oral transit time for solid bolus than normal volunteers. Patients with laryngitis and dysphagia had longer preparation for paste and solid boluses, and a faster oral transit time with liquid, paste and solid boluses. A longer oral preparation for paste and solid boluses and a faster transit through the mouth are associated with dysphagia in patients with laryngitis.

  16. Swallowing Dysfunctions in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Janine A

    2017-01-01

    Dysphagia is a very frequent and highly relevant symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD) for quality of life, morbidity, and remaining lifetime, which is unfortunately widely underdiagnosed and underestimated regarding patients' centered care. Especially in early stages, the causal association between disease and swallowing disabilities remains unnoticed, which may be accounted for by the inability of caregivers and physicians to detect subtle swallowing problems and by the low self-awareness among PD patients. In order to prevent patients from serious negative consequences for health issues (e.g., aspiration pneumonia or malnutrition) as well as for negative impact on their quality of life, it is on the highest importance of managing dysphagia timely and working closely together in a multidisciplinary team, who all are involved in the patients' care system. This chapter includes background information on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of swallowing disorders in PD. This is followed by a summary of the clinical course and health treats, adequate diagnostic procedures for early identification of dysphagia as well as effective treatment strategies. The conclusion provides recommendations for clinical practice routine. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pediatric feeding and swallowing rehabilitation: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Harding, Celia; van Gerven, Marjo; Cockerill, Helen

    2017-05-16

    Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on supporting growth, nutrition and hydration, the development of feeding activities, and ensuring safe swallowing with the aim of preventing choking and aspiration pneumonia. Pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders can be divided into four groups: transient, developmental, chronic or progressive.This article provides an overview of the available literature about the rehabilitation of feeding and swallowing disorders in infants and children. Principles of motor control, motor learning and neuroplasticity are discussed for the four groups of children with feeding and swallowing disorders.

  18. Using Software Dependency to Bug Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Software maintenance, especially bug prediction, plays an important role in evaluating software quality and balancing development costs. This study attempts to use several quantitative network metrics to explore their relationships with bug prediction in terms of software dependency. Our work consists of four main steps. First, we constructed software dependency networks regarding five dependency scenes at the class-level granularity. Second, we used a set of nine representative and commonly used metrics—namely, centrality, degree, PageRank, and HITS, as well as modularity—to quantify the importance of each class. Third, we identified how these metrics were related to the proneness and severity of fixed bugs in Tomcat and Ant and determined the extent to which they were related. Finally, the significant metrics were considered as predictors for bug proneness and severity. The result suggests that there is a statistically significant relationship between class’s importance and bug prediction. Furthermore, betweenness centrality and out-degree metric yield an impressive accuracy for bug prediction and test prioritization. The best accuracy of our prediction for bug proneness and bug severity is up to 54.7% and 66.7% (top 50, Tomcat and 63.8% and 48.7% (top 100, Ant, respectively, within these two cases.

  19. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  20. Bug City: Crickets, Grasshoppers & Friends [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  1. Bug City: Spiders and Scorpions [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  2. Bug City: Butterflies and Moths [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  3. Bug City: House and Backyard Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  4. Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Ntzoufras, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all ...

  5. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  6. How do tablet properties influence swallowing behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Nakamura, Yuki; Sato, Hideaki; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural performance of tablet swallowing was evaluated with different tablet conditions in terms of size, number and surface coating. Four different types of tablets were prepared: small or large, and with or without a surface coating. Fourteen normal male adults were instructed to swallow the prepared tablets with 15 ml of water. The number of tablets in one trial was changed from one to three. To evaluate swallowing and tablet transport, electromyographic activity was recorded in the left suprahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were examined. All tablet conditions (size, number and surface coating) affected the swallowing performance in terms of total number of swallows, electromyographic burst patterns and location of remaining tablets. Increases in the size and number of tablets increased the number of swallows and electromyographic burst area and duration. In addition, all of these parameters increased while swallowing tablets without a coating compared with tablets with a coating. Location of the remaining tablets was mainly within the mouth. This study only clarified the normal pattern of tablet swallowing under several conditions in healthy subjects, but the results may facilitate comprehensive evaluation and treatment planning in terms of administering medication to dysphagic patients. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. R2WinBUGS: A Package for Running WinBUGS from R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Sturtz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The R2WinBUGS package provides convenient functions to call WinBUGS from R. It automatically writes the data and scripts in a format readable by WinBUGS for processing in batch mode, which is possible since version 1.4. After the WinBUGS process has finished, it is possible either to read the resulting data into R by the package itself--which gives a compact graphical summary of inference and convergence diagnostics--or to use the facilities of the coda package for further analyses of the output. Examples are given to demonstrate the usage of this package.

  8. Bug Distribution and Statistical Pattern Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.; Tatsuoka, Maurice M.

    1987-01-01

    The rule space model permits measurement of cognitive skill acquisition and error diagnosis. Further discussion introduces Bayesian hypothesis testing and bug distribution. An illustration involves an artificial intelligence approach to testing fractions and arithmetic. (Author/GDC)

  9. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Type of Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    This information is to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These brochures, fact sheets, manuals, posters, checklists, videos, and more provide guidance such as hotel room inspection and pesticide safety.

  10. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rest or hide in hampers, bed frames, even furniture); Failing to treat adjacent areas where bed bugs ... to work (some pesticides, such as desiccators or growth regulators, may be very effective but take some ...

  11. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  12. Stuttered swallowing: Electric stimulation of the right insula interferes with water swallowing. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoemaker J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various functional resonance imaging, magnetoencephalographic and lesion studies suggest the involvement of the insular cortex in the control of swallowing. However, the exact location of insular activation during swallowing and its functional significance remain unclear. Case presentation Invasive electroencephalographic monitoring was performed in a 24-year-old man with medically intractable stereotyped nocturnal hypermotor seizures due to a ganglioglioma. During stimulation of the right inferior posterior insular cortex with depth electrodes the patient spontaneously reported a perception of a "stutter in swallowing". Stimulation of the inferior posterior insular cortex at highest intensity (4 mA was also associated with irregular and delayed swallows. Swallowing was not impaired during stimulation of the superior posterior insular cortex, regardless of stimulation intensity. Conclusions These results indicate that the right inferior posterior insular cortex is involved in the neural circuitry underlying the control of swallowing.

  13. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  14. Identification of Swallowing Tasks from a Modified Barium Swallow Study That Optimize the Detection of Physiological Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelwood, R. Jordan; Armeson, Kent E.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify which swallowing task(s) yielded the worst performance during a standardized modified barium swallow study (MBSS) in order to optimize the detection of swallowing impairment. Method: This secondary data analysis of adult MBSSs estimated the probability of each swallowing task yielding the derived…

  15. Interjudge agreement in videofluoroscopic studies of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, F; Liss, J M; Siegel, G M

    1996-02-01

    Videofluoroscopic swallowing examinations of 3 patients with dysphagia were reviewed independently by 10 speech-language pathologists. Prior to viewing each video, clinicians were provided with information about the patient's history, the results of a bedside swallow examination, and oral-facial and oral motor control examinations. Clinicians completed a swallowing observation protocol as they viewed each video. They then recommended, from a list of treatment strategies, intervention techniques that would be most appropriate for each patient. Interjudge agreement was calculated by determining how many clinicians observed a given swallowing event or deficit, and how many recommended a given treatment strategy. Results suggest that the level of interjudge agreement for videofluoroscopic evaluations is not encouragingly high.

  16. Pharyngoesophageal swallowing disorders in Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, F.; Dumas, F.; Miremont, F.; Ferrer, X.; Amouretti, M.; Drouillard, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates pharyngeal and esophageal swallowing disorders in Parkinson disease. Clinical, videofluorographic and manometric investigations were performed prospectively in 12 control subjects (eight men and four women; mean age, 60 years) and 21 patients with Parkinson disease (10 men and 11 women; mean age, 64 years) to study oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal motoricity. Seventeen patients (81%) complained of swallowing disorders: buccal bolus retention (48%), split swallowing (48%), and saliva buccal outflow (57%). Videofluorography was normal in control subjects and in eight patients (40%). Abnormal findings included vallecular and piriform recesses retention (60%) and split swallowing (35%). Manometry showed a nonperistaltic pharyngeal motoricity with simultaneous contraction in 14 patients (67%) and incomplete upper esophageal sphincter relaxation in three patients (14%). Body esophageal motoricity disorders indicated achalasia in five patients (24%), diffuse esophageal spasm in six (29%), and nonspecific esophageal motility disorder in five (24%)

  17. The Andean Swallow (Orochelidon andecola) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mazar Barnett, Juan; Pugnali, Germán D.; Pearman Morrison, Mark; Bodrati, Alejandro; Moschione, Flavio; Clark, Ricardo; Roesler, Carlos Ignacio; Monteleone, Diego; Casañas, Hernán; Burgos Gallardo, Freddy; Segovia, José; Pagano, Luis; Povedano, Hernán; Areta, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    During ornithological studies in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, and San Juan, we recorded the Andean Swallow Orochelidon andecola at 40 localities. These are the first records in Argentina, and also represent the southernmost for the species. Some of these localities are up to 1500 m lower than the previously known elevational limit (now 800 masl), and up to 1100 km southwards. This is a relatively poorly known swallow, and we present novel natural history data. We found evidence of breeding ...

  18. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%–100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%–100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows. PMID:27170905

  19. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, Dushyantha; Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%-100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%-100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows.

  20. Worldwide survey of damage from swallowing multiple magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Radiology Department 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-02-15

    It is increasingly recognized that in children swallowed multiple magnets cause considerable damage to the gastrointestinal tract. To emphasize that complications from swallowed magnets are extensive worldwide and throughout childhood. The author surveyed radiologists and researched cases of magnet swallowing in the literature and documented age and gender, numbers of magnets, nature of the magnets, reasons for swallowing, and clinical course. A total of 128 instances of magnet swallowing were identified, one fatal. Cases from 21 countries were found. Magnet swallowing occurred throughout childhood, with most children older than 3 years of age. Numbers of swallowed magnets ranged up to 100. Twelve children were known to be autistic. Many reasons were given for swallowing magnets, and a wide range of gastrointestinal damage was encountered. Considerable delay before seeking medical assistance was frequent, as was delay before obtaining radiographs or US imaging. Damage from swallowing multiple magnets is a considerable worldwide problem. More educational and preventative measures are needed. (orig.)

  1. Worldwide survey of damage from swallowing multiple magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that in children swallowed multiple magnets cause considerable damage to the gastrointestinal tract. To emphasize that complications from swallowed magnets are extensive worldwide and throughout childhood. The author surveyed radiologists and researched cases of magnet swallowing in the literature and documented age and gender, numbers of magnets, nature of the magnets, reasons for swallowing, and clinical course. A total of 128 instances of magnet swallowing were identified, one fatal. Cases from 21 countries were found. Magnet swallowing occurred throughout childhood, with most children older than 3 years of age. Numbers of swallowed magnets ranged up to 100. Twelve children were known to be autistic. Many reasons were given for swallowing magnets, and a wide range of gastrointestinal damage was encountered. Considerable delay before seeking medical assistance was frequent, as was delay before obtaining radiographs or US imaging. Damage from swallowing multiple magnets is a considerable worldwide problem. More educational and preventative measures are needed. (orig.)

  2. Effects of pharyngeal electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Ryosuke; Magara, Jin; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PEStim) has been found to facilitate voluntary swallowing. This study investigated how PEStim contributed to modulation of swallowing function in 15 healthy humans. In the involuntary swallowing test, water was injected onto the pharynx at 0.05 ml/s and the onset latency of the first swallow was measured. In the voluntary swallowing test, subjects swallowed their own saliva as quickly as possible for 30 s and the number of swallows was counted. Voluntary and involuntary swallowing was evaluated before (baseline), immediately after, and every 10 min after 10-min PEStim for 60 min. A voluntary swallowing test with simultaneous 30-s PEStim was also conducted before and 60 min after 10-min PEStim. The number of voluntary swallows with simultaneous PEStim significantly increased over 60 min after 10-min PEStim compared with the baseline. The onset latency of the first swallow in the involuntary swallowing test was not affected by 10-min PEStim. The results suggest that PEStim may have a long-term facilitatory effect on the initiation of voluntary swallowing in healthy humans, but not on peripherally-evoked swallowing. The physiological implications of this modulation are discussed.

  3. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  4. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.

    1986-01-01

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards. (orig.)

  5. Chemical Sensing Regulates Mastication/Swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Kensuke; Kurose, Masayuki; Okamoto, Keiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Mastication and swallowing are the first stage of digestion involving several motor processes such as food intake, intra-oral food transport, bolus formation and chewing and swallowing reflex. These complicated motor functions are accomplished by the well-coordinated activities in the jaw, hyoid, tongue, facial and pharyngeal muscles. Although the basic activity patterns of these movements are controlled by the brainstem pattern generators, these movements generate various peripheral sensory inputs. Among the sensory inputs, it is well-known that somatic sensory inputs play important roles in reflexively modulating the movements so that the final motor outputs fit the environmental demand. However, little is known about the effects of chemical sensory inputs such as taste and olfaction originating from the ingested foods by these movements. A possible reason could be raised that cognition of the chemical sensory inputs at the higher brain also influences the movements, so it is difficult to discuss the neural mechanisms underlying the observed effect. In this review, we focus on the effects of chemical sensory inputs on the masticatory movements and initiation of swallowing. We first summarize chemical sensory inputs occurring during mastication and swallowing, and their receptive mechanisms. In addition, we will introduce the effect of application of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) solution as an umami taste to the oropharynx on the swallow initiation which is involuntary controlled and the possible neural mechanisms underlying this effect is discussed.

  6. Seed germination behavior of swallow wort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir hosein pahlavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The exotic plant, Swallow- wort, a twining perennial of the Milkweed family, has become increasingly invasive in some place of Iran, especially orchards. Increased knowledge of wort germination biology would facilitate development of an optimum control program. Germination of Swallow wort seeds as affected by environmental factors was studied under controlled-environment growth chamber conditions. The following studies were conducted in plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute during the years 2003-4: 1- Effect of constant temperature on germination that including 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40˚C; 2- Effect of light on constant germination; 3- Effect of temperature fluctuations on seed germination: 15/7, 20/12, 25/17 and 30/22˚C. All experiments were conducted with 8 replications. Swallow wort seeds showed no dormancy when detachment from mother plant. Seed germination was strongly influenced by temperature. Light did not play a crucial role on seed germination of this weed. Therefore Swallow wort seeds were not photoblastic and temperature fluctuations did not increase seed germination of Swallow wort. The above characteristics are very important in making swallowwort an invasive weed. Having precise information of these traits enables us to a better management and control of this troublesome weed.

  7. Towards Easing the Diagnosis of Bugs in OS Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Henrik; Hansen, René Rydhof; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2007-01-01

    The rapid detection and treatment of bugs in operating systems code is essential to maintain the overall security and dependability of a computing system.  A number of techniques have been proposed for detecting bugs, but little has been done to help developers analyze and treat them.  In this pa......The rapid detection and treatment of bugs in operating systems code is essential to maintain the overall security and dependability of a computing system.  A number of techniques have been proposed for detecting bugs, but little has been done to help developers analyze and treat them.......  In this paper we propose to combine bug-finding rules with transformations that automatically introduce bug-fixes or workarounds when a possible bug is detected.  This work builds on our previous work on the Coccinelle tool, which targets device driver evolution....

  8. Variability Bugs in Highly Configurable Systems: A Qualitative Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Melo, Jean; Stanciulescu, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Variability-sensitive verification pursues effective analysis of the exponentially many variants in number of features of a program family. Several variability-aware techniques have been proposed, but researchers still lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, occurring in real large......-scale systems. A collection of real world bugs is needed to evaluate tool implementations of variability-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 98 diverse variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits in the Apache, BusyBox, Linux kernel and Marlin repositories....... We analyze each of the bugs, and record the results in a database. For each bug, we create a self-contained simplified C99 version and a simplified patch, in order to help researchers who are not experts on these subject studies to understand them, so that they can use it for evaluation...

  9. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches

  10. Alterations to Swallowing Physiology as the Result of Effortful Swallowing in Healthy Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Hsu, Chuan-Ya; Lu, Ying; Lazarus, Cathy L

    2018-06-01

    A significant proportion of healthy seniors report difficulty swallowing, thought to result from age-related decline in muscle bulk/function. Effortful Swallowing (ES) is used both as a compensatory maneuver to improve pharyngeal propulsion/clearance and has been proposed as an exercise to improve pharyngeal strength. This study sought to quantify the immediate kinematic, temporal, and functional changes during an ES maneuver to quantify its exercise potential to combat age-related changes in swallowing. Videofluoroscopy data were collected from 44 healthy seniors (21 male) over 65 years old (mean = 76.9, SD = 7.1). Each participant swallowed six 5 ml boluses of Varibar nectar-thick liquids: three with regular effort and three using ES. Individual swallows (n = 260) were measured on pharyngeal constriction, pharyngeal shortening, laryngeal closure duration, hyoid movement duration, UES opening duration, stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, pharyngeal response duration, Normalized Residue Ratio Scale (NRRS), and the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). Non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank Sum for repeated measures tested the effect of ES on each outcome. Exact p-values were calculated based on permutation methods, individual p values < 0.008 was deemed to be significant. The ES maneuver significantly prolonged all temporal variables. While we found no significant differences for pharyngeal constriction, significantly less (i.e., worse) pharyngeal shortening was observed in ES condition compared with regular effort swallows. Further, significantly worse pyriform sinus residue (NRRSv) was observed in the ES condition. No differences between ES and regular effort swallows were noted for pharyngeal constriction, NRRSv or PAS. We speculate that these negative manifestations of worse kinematics (less pharyngeal shortening) and function (increase in NRRSp) may be the result of forced volitional manipulation of swallowing in the ES condition in an otherwise

  11. Effects of pollution on swallowing: how little we know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, J.B.; Silver, K.H. (Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Swallowing is an essential function of the upper alimentary tract. It is highly complex, requiring precise coordination of numerous nerves and muscles of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Swallowing is integrated with other physiologic functions, including mastication and respiration. Impairments of swallowing may result from many different structural or physiologic disorders. Little is currently known about the direct effects of pollution on swallowing. Structures critical to swallowing, however, are vulnerable to damage by environmental hazards such as exposure to ionizing radiation or intake of toxins by ingestion or inhalation. The relationship of swallowing to environmental lung disease is an area of particular interest because impaired swallowing may result in aspiration of food particles into the lung, and because pollutants may hamper airway defense mechanisms. In this article, we discuss the possible impact of selected environmental agents on swallowing and suggest future directions for research.26 references.

  12. Methods for excluding cliff swallows from nesting on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonially breeding migratory birds that frequently nest on highway : structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, nesting control methods cannot harm swallows or active : nests. This c...

  13. Swallowing difficulties in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: indications for feeding assessment and outcome of videofluroscopic swallow studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aloysius, A.; Born, P.; Kinali, M.

    2008-01-01

    were performed. Prolonged chewing and effortful bolus transport for solids increased with age. Swallow trigger was normal in the majority of cases. All patients had some post-swallow pharyngeal residue around the laryngeal inlet increasing in volume with age. Although this residue did not result...... on VFSS. It is the oral phase of swallowing that is most significantly affected in DMD. The pharyngeal phase is well triggered but is weak with incomplete pharyngeal clearance leaving pharyngeal residue. Insufficient or effortful chewing coupled with weak clearance may predispose them to choking episodes...

  14. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  15. Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Share Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control Información relacionada disponible en español Can you treat ... all of the residents to participate. Achieving complete control can take weeks to months, depending on the ...

  16. Bed Bugs Appearance and Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identify these bugs accurately, from egg to nymph to adult. Adults are about the size of an apple seed, brown and oval-shaped, and either flat or balloon-like depending on how recently fed. Nymphs are a bit smaller and translucent or whitish yellow.

  17. Kissing Bug ( spp. Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Klotz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kissing bugs ( Triatoma spp. frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae. Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  18. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  19. VIDEOFLUOROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF SWALLOWS IN ANOREXIA NERVOSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Manfredi; Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    There are some studies in the literature about the feeding behavior and masticatory process in patients with feeding disorders; however, it is not very well known if there are alterations in oral-pharyngeal swallowing dynamics in subjects with anorexia nervosa. To evaluate the oral and pharyngeal bolus transit in patients with anorexia nervosa. The study was conducted with 8 individuals clinically diagnosed and in treatment for restricting-type anorexia nervosa (seven women and one man), and 14 healthy individuals with no digestive or neurological symptoms (10 women, 4 men). Swallows were evaluated by videofluoroscopy with three swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus and three swallows of 5 mL paste bolus consistency, given in a random sequence. The participants were asked after each swallow about the sensation of the bolus passage. In the analysis of oral-pharyngeal transit duration, the mean duration of pharyngeal transit with paste bolus in patients with anorexia was shorter than in healthy volunteers (P=0.02). In the duration of movement of the hyoid bone, longer movement was observed in anorexia than in healthy volunteers with liquid bolus (P=0.01). With liquid bolus, five (62.5%) patients and one (7.1%) control had sensation of the bolus passage (Panorexia nervosa, although the results suggest that pharyngeal transit has shorter duration than that seen in healthy volunteers and the hyoid movement duration is longer in patients than in healthy volunteers. Fast pharyngeal transit may be the cause of bolus transit perception in patients with anorexia nervosa.

  20. Senescent Swallowing: Impact, Strategies and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Denise; Weiss, Jennifer; Kind, Amy; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    The risk for disordered oropharyngeal swallowing (dysphagia) increases with age. Loss of swallowing function can have devastating health implications including dehydration, malnutrition, and pneumonia, as well as reduced quality of life. Age-related changes place older adults at risk for dysphagia for two major reasons: One is that natural, healthy aging takes its toll on head and neck anatomy and physiologic and neural mechanisms underpinning swallowing function. This progression of change contributes to alterations in the swallowing in healthy older adults and is termed presbyphagia, naturally diminishing functional reserve. Second, disease prevalence increases with age and dysphagia is a co-morbidity of many age-related diseases and/or their treatments. Sensory changes, medication, sarcopenia and age-related diseases are discussed herein. Relatively recent findings that health complications are associated with dysphagia are presented. Nutrient requirements, fluid intake and nutritional assessment for older adults are reviewed relative to their relations to dysphagia. Dysphagia screening and the pros and cons of tube feeding as a solution are discussed. Optimal intervention strategies for elders with dysphagia ranging from compensatory interventions to more rigorous exercise approaches are presented. Compelling evidence of improved functional swallowing and eating outcomes resulting from active rehabilitation focusing on increasing strength of head and neck musculature is provided. In summary, while oropharyngeal dysphagia may be life-threatening, so are some of the traditional alternatives, particularly for frail, elderly patients. While the state of the evidence calls for more research, this review indicates the behavioral, dietary and environmental modifications emerging in this past decade are compassionate, promising and in many cases preferred alternatives to the always present option of tube feeding. PMID:19483069

  1. Pulmonary function in infants with swallowing dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Tutor

    Full Text Available Swallowing dysfunction can lead to recurring aspiration and is frequently associated with chronic symptoms such as cough and wheezing in infants. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of infants with swallowing dysfunction, determine if pulmonary function abnormalities are detectable, and if they improve after therapy.We studied 38 infants with a history of coughing and wheezing who had pulmonary function tests performed within two weeks of their diagnosis of swallowing dysfunction. The raised lung volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique was used. After 6 months of therapy, 17 of the infants repeated the tests.Initially, 25 had abnormal spirometry, 18 had abnormal plethysmography, and 15 demonstrated bronchodilator responsiveness. Six months later test were repeated for seventeen patients. Ten patients had continued abnormal spirometry, two patients remained normal, three patients' abnormal spirometry had normalized, and two patients' previously normal studies became abnormal. Eight of the 17 patients had continued abnormal plethysmography, six had continued normal plethysmography, and three patients' normal plethysmography became abnormal. After 6 months of treatment, eight patients demonstrated bronchodilator responsiveness, of which five continued to demonstrate bronchodilator responsiveness and three developed responsiveness. The remainder either continued to be non- bronchodilator responsive (two or lost responsiveness (three. The findings of the abnormal tests in most infants tested is complicated by frequent occurrence of other co-morbidities in this population, including gastroesophageal reflux in 23 and passive smoke exposure in 13 of the infants.The interpretation of lung function changes is complicated by the frequent association of swallowing dysfunction with gastroesophageal reflux and passive smoke exposure in this population. Six months of medical therapy for swallowing dysfunction/gastroesophageal reflux

  2. Effect of body posture on involuntary swallow in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Shogo; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Ito, Kayoko; Tsukada, Tetsu; Inoue, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Clinically, reclining posture has been reported to reduce risk of aspiration. However, during involuntary swallow in reclining posture, changes in orofacial and pharyngeal movement before and during pharyngeal swallow should be considered. Further, the mechanisms underlying the effect of body posture on involuntary swallow remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of body posture on activity patterns of the suprahyoid muscles and on patterns of bolus transport during a natural involuntary swallow. Thirteen healthy male adults participated in a water infusion test and a chewing test. In the water infusion test, thickened water was delivered into the pharynx at a very slow rate until the first involuntary swallow was evoked. In the chewing test, subjects were asked to eat 10 g of gruel rice. In both tests, the recording was performed at four body postures between upright and supine positions. Results showed that reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow and prolonged onset latency of the swallowing initiation. Muscle burst duration and whiteout time measured by videoendoscopy significantly increased with body reclining and prolongation of the falling time. In the chewing test, reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow, and the frequency of bolus residue after the first swallow increased. Duration and area of EMG burst and whiteout time significantly increased with body reclining. These data suggest that body reclining may result in prolongation of pharyngeal swallow during involuntary swallow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Michael D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  4. Transnasal endoscopic evaluation of swallowing: a bedside technique to evaluate ability to swallow pureed diets in elderly patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Torao; Horiuchi, Akira; Nakayama, Yoshiko

    2013-08-01

    Endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (EES) is not commonly used by gastroenterologists to evaluate swallowing in patients with dysphagia. To use transnasal endoscopy to identify factors predicting successful or failed swallowing of pureed foods in elderly patients with dysphagia. EES of pureed foods was performed by a gastroenterologist using a small-calibre transnasal endoscope. Factors related to successful versus unsuccessful swallowing of pureed foods were analyzed with regard to age, comorbid diseases, swallowing activity, saliva pooling, vallecular residues, pharyngeal residues and airway penetration⁄aspiration. Unsuccessful swallowing was defined in patients who could not eat pureed foods at bedside during hospitalization. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of swallowing of pureed foods. During a six-year period, 458 consecutive patients (mean age 80 years [range 39 to 97 years]) were considered for the study, including 285 (62%) men. Saliva pooling, vallecular residues, pharyngeal residues and penetration⁄aspiration were found in 240 (52%), 73 (16%), 226 (49%) and 232 patients (51%), respectively. Overall, 247 patients (54%) failed to swallow pureed foods. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of pharyngeal residues (OR 6.0) and saliva pooling (OR 4.6) occurred significantly more frequently in patients who failed to swallow pureed foods. Pharyngeal residues and saliva pooling predicted impaired swallowing of pureed foods. Transnasal EES performed by a gastroenterologist provided a unique bedside method of assessing the ability to swallow pureed foods in elderly patients with dysphagia.

  5. Speech, language and swallowing in Huntington’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryluz Camargo-Mendoza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD has been described as a genetic condition caused by a mutation in the CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine nucleotide sequence. Depending on the stage of the disease, people may have difficulties in speech, language and swallowing. The purpose of this paper is to describe these difficulties in detail, as well as to provide an account on speech and language therapy approach to this condition. Regarding speech, it is worth noticing that characteristics typical of hyperkinetic dysarthria can be found due to underlying choreic movements. The speech of people with HD tends to show shorter sentences, with much simpler syntactic structures, and difficulties in tasks that require complex cognitive processing. Moreover, swallowing may present dysphagia that progresses as the disease develops. A timely, comprehensive and effective speech-language intervention is essential to improve the quality of life of people and contribute to their communicative welfare.

  6. Prefrontal cortex activity during swallowing in dysphagia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Yamate, Chisato; Taira, Masato; Shinoda, Masamichi; Urata, Kentaro; Maruno, Mitsuru; Ito, Reio; Saito, Hiroto; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Iwata, Koichi

    2018-05-24

    Prefrontal cortex activity is modulated by flavor and taste stimuli and changes during swallowing. We hypothesized that changes in the modulation of prefrontal cortex activity by flavor and taste were associated with swallowing movement and evaluated brain activity during swallowing in patients with dysphagia. To evaluate prefrontal cortex activity in dysphagia patients during swallowing, change in oxidized hemoglobin (z-score) was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy while dysphagia patients and healthy controls swallowed sweetened/unsweetened and flavored/unflavored jelly. Total z-scores were positive during swallowing of flavored/unsweetened jelly and negative during swallowing of unflavored/sweetened jelly in controls but negative during swallowing of sweetened/unsweetened and flavored/unflavored jelly in dysphagia patients. These findings suggest that taste and flavor during food swallowing are associated with positive and negative z-scores, respectively. Change in negative and positive z-scores may be useful in evaluating brain activity of dysphagia patients during swallowing of sweetened and unsweetened food.

  7. Aspirating and Nonaspirating Swallow Sounds in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakking, Thuy; Chang, Anne; O'Grady, Kerry; David, Michael; Weir, Kelly

    2016-12-01

    Cervical auscultation (CA) may be used to complement feeding/swallowing evaluations when assessing for aspiration. There are no published pediatric studies that compare the properties of sounds between aspirating and nonaspirating swallows. To establish acoustic and perceptual profiles of aspirating and nonaspirating swallow sounds and determine if a difference exists between these 2 swallowing types. Aspiration sound clips were obtained from recordings using CA simultaneously undertaken with videofluoroscopic swallow study. Aspiration was determined using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale. The presence of perceptual swallow/breath parameters was rated by 2 speech pathologists who were blinded to the type of swallow. Acoustic data between groups were compared using Mann Whitney U-tests, while perceptual differences were determined by a test of 2 proportions. Combinations of perceptual parameters of 50 swallows (27 aspiration, 23 no aspiration) from 47 children (57% male) were statistically analyzed using area under a receiver operating characteristic (aROC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to determine predictors of aspirating swallows. The combination of post-swallow presence of wet breathing and wheeze and absence of GRS and normal breathing was the best predictor of aspiration (aROC = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.94). There were no significant differences between these 2 swallow types for peak frequency, duration, and peak amplitude. Our pilot study has shown that certain characteristics of swallow obtained using CA may be useful in the prediction of aspiration. However, further research comparing the acoustic swallowing sound profiles of normal children to children with dysphagia (who are aspirating) on a larger scale is required. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Prevalence of atypical swallowing: a kinesiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A; Cattaneo, R; Spadaro, A; Marchetti, E; Barone, A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of kinesiographic coincidence between the most cranial position during deglutition of mandible and habitual occlusal position and to evaluate the distribution of clinical diagnosis according to the kinesiographic pattern of deglutition. 201 random patients in waiting list for dental treatment and classified as orthodontic patients, prosthetic patients, TMD patients and control patients, were evaluated. Kinesiographic records were acquired using K7I and positioning a magnetic sensor frame integral with the head and with the sensory field balanced on an artificial magnet adhering to the mucosa covering the roots of the lower mandibular incisors. The kinesiographic occlusal position was compared to the kinesiographic most cranial position of the mandible during swallowing. 99 patients displayed a discrepancy between the most cranial position during swallowing and the occlusal position. 102 patients did not show any discrepancy. In this group the kinesiographic most cranial position during swallowing coincided with the occlusal position. The finding suggests that computerised kinesiography could be useful to study deglutition, detecting in a reliable way the movement pattern. Atypical deglutition seems to be less atypical than previously though in dental patient population and, despite these data confirm its correlation with malocclusion, we noted an inverse correlation with necessity of prosthetic treatment and no higher prevalence in TMD patients.

  9. Diagnosis of Spasmodic Dysphonia Manifested by Swallowing Difficulty in Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Han Gyeol; Lee, Seong Jae; Hyun, Jung Keun

    2015-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia is defined as a focal laryngeal disorder characterized by dystonic spasms of the vocal cord during speech. We described a case of a 22-year-old male patient who presented complaining of idiopathic difficulty swallowing that suddenly developed 6 months ago. The patient also reported pharyngolaryngeal pain, throat discomfort, dyspnea, and voice change. Because laryngoscopy found no specific problems, an electrodiagnostic study and videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were performed to find the cause of dysphagia. The VFSS revealed continuous twitch-like involuntary movement of the laryngeal muscle around the vocal folds. Then, he was diagnosed with spasmodic dysphonia by VFSS, auditory-perceptual voice analysis, and physical examination. So, we report the first case of spasmodic dysphonia accompanied with difficulty swallowing that was confirmed by VFSS. PMID:25932430

  10. Catching the Bug: How Virtual Coaching Improves Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Megan

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author describes virtual coaching and why it is so effective. The following six points of virtual coaching are explained: (1) Also known as bug-in-ear coaching, virtual coaching is not new; (2) Virtual coaching can save money and time; (3) Bug-in-ear coaching increases the frequency of observations for novice teachers; (4) It…

  11. Assassin bug uses aggressive mimicry to lure spider prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, Anne E; Taylor, Phillip W

    2011-05-07

    Assassin bugs (Stenolemus bituberus) hunt web-building spiders by invading the web and plucking the silk to generate vibrations that lure the resident spider into striking range. To test whether vibrations generated by bugs aggressively mimic the vibrations generated by insect prey, we compared the responses of spiders to bugs with how they responded to prey, courting male spiders and leaves falling into the web. We also analysed the associated vibrations. Similar spider orientation and approach behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from bugs and prey, whereas different behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from male spiders and leaves. Peak frequency and duration of vibrations generated by bugs were similar to those generated by prey and courting males. Further, vibrations from bugs had a temporal structure and amplitude that were similar to vibrations generated by leg and body movements of prey and distinctly different to vibrations from courting males or leaves, or prey beating their wings. To be an effective predator, bugs do not need to mimic the full range of prey vibrations. Instead bugs are general mimics of a subset of prey vibrations that fall within the range of vibrations classified by spiders as 'prey'.

  12. Biochemical characterization of digestive amylase of wheat bug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... ... Boyd et al., 2002). Wheat bug also feeds on different stage of developing grains. ... the grain during feeding, Wheat bug enzymes degrade gluten proteins and cause rapid relaxation of dough resulting in the production of .... A blank without substrate but with α-amylase extract and a control containing no ...

  13. Studies towards the sex pheromone of the green capsid bug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, F.P.

    2001-01-01

    The green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a serious pest in fruit orchards, which is difficult to control. Because it is difficult to determine the actual population density, fruit growers apply insecticides against the green capsid bug on

  14. Bed Bug Epidemic: A Challenge to Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haramis, Linn D.; Bliss, Kadi R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reported cases of bed bug infestations in the U.S. and throughout the world have escalated dramatically, posing a global public health problem. Although bed bugs are not known to transmit disease to humans, they pose both direct and indirect public health challenges in terms of health effects, treatment, cost, and resource…

  15. An automated approach for finding variable-constant pairing bugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Lo, David

    2010-01-01

    program-analysis and data-mining based approach to identify the uses of named constants and to identify anomalies in these uses.  We have applied our approach to a recent version of the Linux kernel and have found a number of bugs affecting both correctness and software maintenance.  Many of these bugs...... have been validated by the Linux developers....

  16. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  17. Protecting Anti-virus Programs From Viral Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2013-01-01

    During a fight between viruses and anti-viruses it is not always predictable that the anti-virus is going to win. There are many malicious viruses which target to attack and paralyze the anti-viruses. It is necessary for an anti-virus to detect and destroy the malware before its own files are detected and destroyed by the malware. The anti-virus may follow thorough testing and auditing procedures to fix all its bugs before releasing the software in the market. Besides the anti-virus may use a...

  18. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  19. Finding error handling bugs in OpenSSL using Coccinelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Laurie, Ben; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    OpenSSL is a library providing various functionalities relating to secure network communication.  Detecting and fixing bugs in OpenSSL code is thus essential, particularly when such bugs can lead to malicious attacks.  In previous work, we have proposed a methodology for finding API usage protocols...... in Linux kernel code using the program matching and transformation engine Coccinelle.  In this work, we report on our experience in applying this methodology to OpenSSL, focusing on API usage protocols related to error handling.  We have detected over 30 bugs in a recent OpenSSL snapshot, and in many cases...... it was possible to correct the bugs automatically.  Our patches correcting these bugs have been accepted by the OpenSSL developers.  This work furthermore confirms the applicability of our methodology to user-level code....

  20. Prophylactic Swallowing Exercises in Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H R; Jensen, Kenneth; Aksglæde, K

    2015-01-01

    Many head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors experience reduced quality of life due to radiotherapy (RT)-related dysphagia. The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to evaluate the impact of prophylactic swallowing exercises on swallowing-related outcomes in HNC patients treated with curative...... of the dysphagia outcomes during and after treatment. Adherence to exercises was poor and dropouts due to especially fatigue were very frequent in both groups. Systematic swallowing exercises had no impact on swallowing outcomes within the first year after RT. Despite repeated supervised sessions, adherence...

  1. Diagnosis of Swallowing Disorders: How We Interpret Pharyngeal Manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Charles; Omari, Taher

    2017-03-01

    We provide an overview of the clinical application of novel pharyngeal high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) with pressure flow analysis (PFA) in our hands with example cases. In our Centre, we base our interpretation of HRIM recordings upon a qualitative assessment of pressure-impedance waveforms during individual swallows, as well as a quantitative assessment of averaged PFA swallow function variables. We provide a description of two global swallowing efficacy measures, the swallow risk index (SRI), reflecting global swallowing dysfunction (higher SRI = greater aspiration risk) and the post-swallow impedance ratio (PSIR) detecting significant post-swallow bolus residue. We describe a further eight swallow function variables specific to the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES), assessing hypo-pharyngeal distension pressure, contractility, bolus presence and flow timing, and UES basal tone, relaxation, opening and contractility. Pharyngeal HRIM has now come of age, being applicable for routine clinical practice to assess the biomechanics of oropharyngeal swallowing dysfunction. In the future, it may guide treatment strategies and allow more objective longitudinal follow-up on clinical outcomes.

  2. Variability of the pharyngeal phase of swallow in the cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Spearman

    Full Text Available The pharyngeal phase of swallow has been thought to be a stereotypical motor behavior.This is a prospective, preclinical, hypothesis driven, one group by three-task design.We sought to compare the effects of pharyngeal swabbing, water only, and water plus punctate mechanical stimulation on the spatiotemporal features of the pharyngeal phase of swallow in the cat. Swallow was elicited under these three conditions in six anaesthetized cats. Electromyographic activity was recorded from seven muscles used to evaluate swallow: mylohyoid, geniohyoid, thyrohyoid, thyroarytenoid, thyropharyngeus, cricopharyngeus, and parasternal.Pharyngeal swabbing in comparison to the other stimulus conditions, results in decreases in post-swallow cricopharyngeus activity (upper esophageal sphincter; a significant increase in parasternal (schluckatmung; swallow breath activity; and increases in thyrohyoid (laryngeal elevator, thyroarytenoid (laryngeal adductor and parasternal muscles burst duration. Pearson correlations were found of moderate strength between 19% of burst duration comparisons and weak to moderate relationships between 29% of burst amplitude comparisons. However, there were no positive significant relationships between phase durations and electromyogram amplitudes between any of the muscles studied during swallow.The results support the concept that a stereotypical behavior, such as pharyngeal swallowing in animal models, can be modified by sensory feedback from pharyngeal mucosal mechanoreceptors. Furthermore, differences in swallow phase durations and amplitudes provide evidence that separate regulatory mechanisms exist which regulate spatial and temporal aspects of the behavior.

  3. STAMPS: development and verification of swallowing kinematic analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Chun, Changmook; Seo, Han Gil; Lee, Seung Hak; Oh, Byung-Mo

    2017-10-17

    Swallowing impairment is a common complication in various geriatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Swallowing kinematic analysis is essential to quantitatively evaluate the swallowing motion of the oropharyngeal structures. This study aims to develop a novel swallowing kinematic analysis software, called spatio-temporal analyzer for motion and physiologic study (STAMPS), and verify its validity and reliability. STAMPS was developed in MATLAB, which is one of the most popular platforms for biomedical analysis. This software was constructed to acquire, process, and analyze the data of swallowing motion. The target of swallowing structures includes bony structures (hyoid bone, mandible, maxilla, and cervical vertebral bodies), cartilages (epiglottis and arytenoid), soft tissues (larynx and upper esophageal sphincter), and food bolus. Numerous functions are available for the spatiotemporal parameters of the swallowing structures. Testing for validity and reliability was performed in 10 dysphagia patients with diverse etiologies and using the instrumental swallowing model which was designed to mimic the motion of the hyoid bone and the epiglottis. The intra- and inter-rater reliability tests showed excellent agreement for displacement and moderate to excellent agreement for velocity. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the measured and instrumental reference values were nearly 1.00 (P software is expected to be useful for researchers who are interested in the swallowing motion analysis.

  4. Mastication and swallowing in patients with postirradiation xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, Sandra; Faull, Jennifer; Klein, Barbara; Aref, Amr; Fontanesi, James; Stachler, Robert; Shamsa, Falah; Jones, Lewis; Simpson, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Very little objective data has been reported on mastication and swallowing in xerostomic patients, which would substantiate presumed causal relationships between xerostomia and patient complaints. The purpose was to elucidate which components of mastication and swallowing were abnormal, and most directly related to xerostomia, and which appeared unaffected. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of timing events in mastication and swallowing was done using videofluoroscopic data for 15 cancer patients with xerostomia, and 20 normal controls. Scintigraphy was also used to determine oropharyngeal residue after a water swallow. Cancer treatment modalities included radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy. Results: For barium liquid and paste substances, timing measures were equivalent for controls and patients. Xerostomic patients took 46% longer to masticate a shortbread cookie, and timing for the initiation of swallowing was shorter, but duration of swallowing appeared unaffected. Oral and pharyngeal residues following the swallow were greater in the patient group. Conclusions: Xerostomia primarily affected mastication and oral manipulation of a dry, absorbent food material. Increased oral and pharyngeal residues after a water swallow are ambiguously related to xerostomia. The initiation and duration of the pharyngeal swallow was not abnormal

  5. Green plant bug from South Texas gets a common name - the "verde plant" bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some cotton producers from south Texas and the Gulf Coast regions have been unfortunate over the last few years because they have had to deal with a green plant bug, Creontiades signatus, that will feed on cotton fruit. The insect was initially, and erroneously, thought to be Creontiades dilutus, an...

  6. A simple bedside test to assess the swallowing dysfunction in Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vinoth Kanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swallowing changes are common in Parkinson′s disease (PD. Early identification is essential to avoid complications of aspiration. Objectives: To evaluate the swallowing ability of the PD patients and to correlate it with the indicators of disease progression. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 PD patients (70 males and 30 females aged between 50 years and 70 years with varying stage, duration, and severity were enrolled in a cross-sectional study carried out between January and May 2012. A simple bedside water swallowing test was performed using standard 150 ml of water. Swallowing process was assessed under three categories-swallowing speeds (ml/s, swallowing volume (ml/swallow and swallowing duration (s/swallow. Equal number of age and sex matched controls were also evaluated. Results: All of them completed the task of swallowing. A mean swallowing speed (27.48 ml/s, swallowing volume (28.5 ml/s, and swallowing duration (1.05 s/swallow was established by the control group. The PD patients showed decreased swallowing speed (7.15 ml/s in males and 6.61 ml/s in females, decreased swallowing volume (14.59 ml/swallow and 14 ml/swallow in females, and increased swallowing duration (2.37 s/swallow and 2.42 s/swallow which are statistically significant. There was a significant positive correlation between the severity, duration, and staging of the disease with the swallowing performance and a poor correlation between the subjective reports of dysphagia and the objective performance on water swallow test. Conclusion: The water swallowing test is a simple bedside test to identify the swallowing changes early in PD. It is recommended to do the test in all PD Patients to detect dysphagia early and to intervene appropriately.

  7. Swallowing dysfunction as a factor that should be remembered in recurrent pneumonia: videofluoroscopic swallow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Nazan; Özçelik, Uğur; Demir, Numan; Cinel, Güzin; Yalçin, Ebru; Ersöz, Deniz D; Kiper, Nural

    2017-10-01

    The swallow function is one of the strong defense mechanism against aspiration. Aspiration and pneumonia are unavoidable in patients with defective mechanism of swallowing. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with recurrent pneumonia in terms of videofluoroscopic examination results. The study comprised fifty pediatric cases (22 boys, 28 girls) with an average age of 2.9 years (2 months-7.5 years) who were referred to our clinic due to suffering from recurrent pneumonia. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) was performed on all patients. The presence of a correlation with pneumonia was investigated. In 45 of the children, VFSS results were not normal. Of the children, 41 had mental-motor retardation. The results of the videofluoroscopic study show that silent aspiration was the most common pathology in participants with the percentage of 40 (27.5% mild, 17.5% severe). Patients in the study had pneumonia with an incidence of 2.6 illnesses per year. Having one than more results on VFSS was found to be associated with more number of annual pneumonia episodes. Children with neurological impairments are at risk of recurrent acute pneumonia due to aspiration. Disturbances of swallowing phases should be remembered as a cause of pneumonia in these patients.

  8. Derangement of swallowing in children with myelomeningocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernbach, S.K.; McLone, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Barium esophagrams performed in 13 children with myelomeningocele demonstrated a variety of swallowing disorders: difficulty in bolus formation, nasopharyngeal reflux, tracheobronchial aspiration. Cricopharyngeal spasm was not identified in this group. Antegrade peristalsis in the distal two-thirds of the esophagus was normal. Gastroesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 8 of the children. Vocal cord paralysis (8/13) and death in early child-hood (6/13) occurred with greater frequency than in the general myelomeningocele population. Correct management of these children may require tracheostomy, gastrostomy, and fundoplication. (orig.)

  9. Derangement of swallowing in children with myelomeningocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernbach, S.K.; McLone, D.G.

    1985-07-01

    Barium esophagrams performed in 13 children with myelomeningocele demonstrated a variety of swallowing disorders: difficulty in bolus formation, nasopharyngeal reflux, tracheobronchial aspiration. Cricopharyngeal spasm was not identified in this group. Antegrade peristalsis in the distal two-thirds of the esophagus was normal. Gastroesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 8 of the children. Vocal cord paralysis (8/13) and death in early child-hood (6/13) occurred with greater frequency than in the general myelomeningocele population. Correct management of these children may require tracheostomy, gastrostomy, and fundoplication.

  10. Hyolaryngeal excursion as the physiological source of swallowing accelerometry signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoratto, D C B; Chau, T; Steele, C M

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction, or dysphagia, is a serious condition that can result from any structural or neurological impairment (such as stroke, neurodegenerative disease or brain injury) that affects the swallowing mechanism. The gold-standard method of instrumental swallowing assessment is an x-ray examination known as the videofluoroscopic swallowing study, which involves radiation exposure. Consequently, there is interest in exploring the potential of less invasive methods, with lesser risks of biohazard, to accurately detect swallowing abnormalities. Accelerometry is one such technique, which measures the epidermal vibration signals on a patient's neck during swallowing. Determining the utility of accelerometry signals for detecting dysphagia requires an understanding of the physiological source of the vibrations that are measured on the neck during swallowing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent to which movement of the hyoid bone and larynx contributes to the vibration signal that is registered during swallowing accelerometry. This question was explored by mapping the movement trajectories of the hyoid bone and the arytenoid cartilages from lateral videofluoroscopy recordings collected during thin liquid swallowing, and comparing these trajectories to time-linked signals obtained from a dual-axis accelerometer placed on the neck, just anterior to the cricoid cartilage. Participants for this study included 43 adult patients referred for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies to characterize the nature and severity of suspected neurogenic dysphagia. A software program was created to allow frame-by-frame tracking of structural movement on the videofluoroscopy recordings. These movement data were then compared to the integrated acceleration data using multiple linear regressions. The results concur with previous studies, implicating hyolaryngeal excursion as the primary physiological source of swallowing accelerometry signals, with both

  11. Swallowing frequency in elderly people during daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, N; Nohara, K; Kotani, Y; Matsumura, M; Sakai, T

    2013-10-01

    Disuse atrophy of swallowing-related organs due to an excessive decrease in swallowing frequency is suspected to occur in patients with poor oral intake, especially elderly people. However, swallowing frequency in daily life has not previously been examined in the elderly. This study examined swallowing frequency in elderly people and compared these findings to those in a younger population and differences in the degree of activity in daily life. (i) We compared swallowing frequency in 20 elderly people (82·0 ± 8·3 year) and 15 healthy young people (26·5 ± 3·5 year). (ii) 20 elderly people were divided into two groups according to the degree of activity in daily life: a semi-bedridden group and bedridden group; the swallowing frequency was compared between these groups. (i) The swallowing frequency in the elderly people was 2-19 times per hour and the mean was 9·4 ± 4·9, and that in the healthy young people was 16-76 times per hour and the mean was 40·7 ± 19·5. Swallowing frequency in elderly people was significantly lower than that in young healthy people (P bedridden group was 2-11 times per hour and the mean was 6·8 ± 3·3, and that in semi-bedridden group was 3-19 times per hour and the mean was 11·9 ± 5·1. Swallowing frequency in bedridden group was significantly lower than that in semi-bedridden group (P elderly people tend to swallow less frequently than young people. In addition, swallowing frequency was lower in elderly subjects with a low degree of activity in daily life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Do Dysphagic Patients with an Absent Pharyngeal Swallow Have a Shorter Survival than Dysphagic Patients with Pharyngeal Swallow? Prognostic Importance of a Therapeutic Videoradiographic Swallowing Study (TVSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, M.; Olsson, R.; Ekberg, O.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study survival in two groups of dysphagic patients - one group unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow (APS) and another group with pharyngeal swallow (WPS) - and to compare recommendations regarding nutrition and therapeutic strategies based on the therapeutic swallowing study. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of dysphagic patients who have undergone a therapeutic videoradiographic swallowing study (TVSS) were reviewed. Forty patients without pharyngeal swallow were matched for age and gender with 40 patients with pharyngeal swallow; altogether 80 patients were included in the study. Survival was registered at 3, 12, and 72 months after the TVSS. Results: In this study, the APS group had a significantly shorter survival time compared to the WPS group when followed-up at 12 months. In the APS group, most patients (37.5% (15/40)) died within the 3 months after TVSS. At 72 months, 62.5% (25/40) of the patients in the APS group had died. In the WPS group, 5% (2/40) had died within 3 months and 47.4% (19/40) after 12 months. At 72 months, 52.5% (21/40) of the patients in the WPS group had died. Regarding nutritional and therapeutic recommendations based on TVSS, 34/40 in the APS group were recommended no oral intake. Eighteen naso-gastric tubes were placed directly after TVSS. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, and tongue exercises (in 8 patients). In the WPS group, all patients were recommended oral intake. Diet modification was recommended in 29 patients. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, tongue exercises, supraglottic swallow, and effortful swallow (in 24 patients). Conclusion: Patients unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow had a shorter survival time than patients with pharyngeal swallow, probably due to a more severe underlying disease. Tube feeding was more frequent in the APS group. Fewer

  13. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  14. Swallow Characteristics in Patients with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Phyllis M.; Neel, Amy T.; Sprouls, Gwyneth; Morrison, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective investigation evaluates oral weakness and its impact on swallow function, weight, and quality of life in patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Method: Intraoral pressure, swallow pressure, and endurance were measured using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument in participants with OPMD and matched…

  15. Current distribution and population size of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the crops, natural pastures, livestock and their dung possibly provide the food source for the aerial arthropods on which the Blue Swallows feed. In total, 151 Blue Swallows were recorded consisting of 62 males, 68 females and 21 unsexed ...

  16. Swallowing in moderate and severe phases of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla de Medeiros Correia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the problems of feeding and swallowing in individuals with moderate and severe Alzheimer´s disease (AD and to correlate these with functional aspects. METHOD: Fifty patients with AD and their caregivers participated in this study. The instruments used were: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Activities of Daily Living, Assessment of Feeding and Swallowing Difficulties in Dementia, Functional Outcome Questionnaire for Aphasia, and Swallowing Rating Scale. RESULTS: Problems with passivity, distraction and refusal to eat were encountered in the CDR2 group. Distraction, passivity and inappropriate feeding velocity were predominant in the CDR3 group. The problems were correlated with communication, swallowing severity of AD individuals and caregiver schooling. CONCLUSION: Given the inexorable functional alterations during the course of the disease, it is vital to observe these in patients with a compromised feeding and swallowing mechanism. The present study supplies the instruments to orient caregivers and professionals.

  17. Involvement of hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerves on swallowing pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Suzuki, Taku; Yoshihara, Midori; Sakai, Shogo; Koshi, Naomi; Ashiga, Hirokazu; Shiraishi, Naru; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    Swallowing pressure generation is important to ensure safe transport of an ingested bolus without aspiration or leaving residue in the pharynx. To clarify the mechanism, we measured swallowing pressure at the oropharynx (OP), upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and cervical esophagus (CE) using a specially designed manometric catheter in anesthetized rats. A swallow, evoked by punctate mechanical stimulation to the larynx, was identified by recording activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles using electromyography (EMG). Areas under the curve of the swallowing pressure at the OP, UES, and CE from two trials indicated high intrasubject reproducibility. Effects of transecting the hypoglossal nerve (12N) and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) on swallowing were investigated. Following bilateral hypoglossal nerve transection (Bi-12Nx), OP pressure was significantly decreased, and time intervals between peaks of thyrohyoid EMG bursts and OP pressure were significantly shorter. Decreased OP pressure and shortened times between peaks of thyrohyoid EMG bursts and OP pressure following Bi-12Nx were significantly increased and longer, respectively, after covering the hard and soft palates with acrylic material. UES pressure was significantly decreased after bilateral RLN transection compared with that before transection. These results suggest that the 12N and RLN play crucial roles in OP and UES pressure during swallowing, respectively. We speculate that covering the palates with a palatal augmentation prosthesis may reverse the reduced swallowing pressure in patients with 12N or tongue damage by the changes of the sensory information and of the contact between the tongue and a palates. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hypoglossal nerve transection reduced swallowing pressure at the oropharynx. Covering the hard and soft palates with acrylic material may reverse the reduced swallowing function caused by hypoglossal nerve damage. Recurrent laryngeal nerve transection reduced upper

  18. Machine Learning or Information Retrieval Techniques for Bug Triaging: Which is better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goyal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bugs are the inevitable part of a software system. Nowadays, large software development projects even release beta versions of their products to gather bug reports from users. The collected bug reports are then worked upon by various developers in order to resolve the defects and make the final software product more reliable. The high frequency of incoming bugs makes the bug handling a difficult and time consuming task. Bug assignment is an integral part of bug triaging that aims at the process of assigning a suitable developer for the reported bug who corrects the source code in order to resolve the bug. There are various semi and fully automated techniques to ease the task of bug assignment. This paper presents the current state of the art of various techniques used for bug report assignment. Through exhaustive research, the authors have observed that machine learning and information retrieval based bug assignment approaches are most popular in literature. A deeper investigation has shown that the trend of techniques is taking a shift from machine learning based approaches towards information retrieval based approaches. Therefore, the focus of this work is to find the reason behind the observed drift and thus a comparative analysis is conducted on the bug reports of the Mozilla, Eclipse, Gnome and Open Office projects in the Bugzilla repository. The results of the study show that the information retrieval based technique yields better efficiency in recommending the developers for bug reports.

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  20. BUGS at work : a bicycle user group guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This guide provides practical advice to cyclists on how start a Bicycle User Group (BUG) at their workplace. It offers tools to encourage employers to be proactive in improving facilities in support of cycle commuting. Several BUGs across Canada have worked towards getting better bicycle parking, lockers and shower facilities at their workplace. Other incentives include policies such as flexible work hours for cyclist commuters; casual dress on Friday; reimbursement for the subsidized cost of free parking provided by employers; and, use of a company car if needed for company business during the work day. The advantages to employers include: reduced health care costs because cyclists are physically fit; decreased absenteeism; increased productivity; reduced parking costs; lower company transportation bills; and, a greener corporate image. BUGs provide cycling information ranging from cycling maps to pamphlets and they raise cycle awareness. This guide includes cycling survey samples and examples of successful BUG activities across Canada. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated ... nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site= ...

  2. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Triatomine Bug FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are typically found in the southern United States, Mexico, Central America, and South America (as far south ... feed on the blood of mammals (including humans), birds, and reptiles. Triatomine bugs live in a wide ...

  3. Hiring a Pest Management Professional for Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you hire someone to treat your bed bug infestation, make sure they use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques, check credentials, and know they may need multiple visits, to take apart furniture, and to use vacuums, heat, and pesticides.

  4. Prevention and Control of Bed Bugs in Residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in other rooms, including bathrooms, living rooms and laundry rooms. Look for spots or smears Dark blood ... having the inspection done by a pest control service provider (exterminator). If you find a bed bug, ...

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty ... prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and ...

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  9. Implementation of the e-Bug Project in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennimata, Dimitra; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Barbouni, Anastasia; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2011-06-01

    The e-Bug pack and web site educational material has been translated and adapted to the Greek language and educational background, and implemented throughout Greece as a supplementary educational resource in elementary and junior high schools. Elementary and junior high school teachers in Greece have actively participated in the development of the e-Bug educational resource and supported the implementation of all e-Bug activities. Dissemination to all key national stakeholders has been undertaken, and endorsement has been obtained from educational and medical associations, societies and institutions. Independent evaluation has been carried out, as part of dissertation thesis projects, for postgraduate studies. The e-Bug educational resource provides all the essentials for the dissemination of good health behaviours in hygiene, monitoring the spread of infection and the prudent use of antibiotics, to the youth of this country. Its contribution is expected to be evident in the next adult generation.

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  11. Integrating Symbolic Execution with Sensornet Simulation for Efficient Bug Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Österlind, Fredrik; Sasnauskas, Raimondas; Dustmann, Oscar Soria; Dunkels, Adam; Wehrle, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    High-coverage testing of sensornet applications is vital for pre-deployment bug cleansing, but has previously been difficult due to the limited set of available tools. We integrate the KleeNet symbolic execution engine with the COOJA network simulator to allow for straight-forward and intuitive high-coverage testing initiated from a simulation environment. A tight coupling of simulation and testing helps detect, narrow down, and fix complex interaction bugs in an early ...

  12. Motor imagery and swallowing: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Salvetti Cavalcanti Caldas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objetive: to identify, in the literature, studies that address the use of motor imagery of swallowing. Methods: a systematic review in SCOPUS databases, Science Direct and Medline, with descriptors and free terms "Motor Imagery"; "Swallow"; "Feeding"; "Stomatognathic System"; "mastication ", "Chew "; "Deglutition "; "Deglutition Disorders "; and "Mental Practice". Original articles using the motor imagery of swallowing were included, while reviews were excluded. For data analysis, at the first and second steps, the reading of titles and abstracts of the studies was carried out. In the third step, all studies that were not excluded were read in full. Results: four manuscripts were selected. The use of motor imagery in the rehabilitation of swallowing shows to be a recent proposal (2014-2015. The sample was reduced and comprised mainly healthy individuals. The EMG of the supra-hyoid muscles was used in two manuscripts. The most used neuroimaging technique was the Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, demonstrating the occurrence of hemodynamic changes during motor imagery and motor execution of swallowing. Conclusion: the motor imagery produces brain response in the motor area of the brain, suggesting that mentalization of actions related to swallowing is effective. However, further studies are needed for the application of this approach in the swallowing rehabilitation.

  13. Risk factors for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flávia Ferraz Barros Baroni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Stroke is a frequent cause of dysphagia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a tertiary care hospital the prevalence of swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients, to analyze factors associated with the dysfunction and to relate swallowing dysfunction to mortality 3 months after the stroke. METHODS: Clinical evaluation of deglutition was performed in 212 consecutive patients with a medical and radiologic diagnosis of stroke. The occurrence of death was determined 3 months after the stroke. RESULTS: It was observed that 63% of the patients had swallowing dysfunction. The variables gender and specific location of the lesion were not associated with the presence or absence of swallowing dysfunction. The patients with swallowing dysfunction had more frequently a previous stroke, had a stroke in the left hemisphere, motor and/or sensitivity alterations, difficulty in oral comprehension, alteration of oral expression, alteration of the level of consciousness, complications such as fever and pneumonia, high indexes on the Rankin scale, and low indexes on the Barthel scale. These patients had a higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing evaluation should be done in all patients with stroke, since swallowing dysfunction is associated with complications and an increased risk of death.

  14. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  15. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  16. Tactile thermal oral stimulation increases the cortical representation of swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntrup Sonja

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a leading complication in stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition and increased mortality. Current strategies of swallowing therapy involve on the one hand modification of eating behaviour or swallowing technique and on the other hand facilitation of swallowing with the use of pharyngeal sensory stimulation. Thermal tactile oral stimulation (TTOS is an established method to treat patients with neurogenic dysphagia especially if caused by sensory deficits. Little is known about the possible mechanisms by which this interventional therapy may work. We employed whole-head MEG to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced volitional swallowing in fifteen healthy subjects with and without TTOS. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM and the group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. Results Compared to the normal swallowing task a significantly increased bilateral cortical activation was seen after oropharyngeal stimulation. Analysis of the chronological changes during swallowing suggests facilitation of both the oral and the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. Conclusion In the present study functional cortical changes elicited by oral sensory stimulation could be demonstrated. We suggest that these results reflect short-term cortical plasticity of sensory swallowing areas. These findings facilitate our understanding of the role of cortical reorganization in dysphagia treatment and recovery.

  17. Clock gene variation in Tachycineta swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Roi; Cooper, Caren B; Lovette, Irby J; Massoni, Viviana; Bulit, Flor; Liljesthrom, Marcela; Winkler, David W

    2012-01-01

    Many animals use photoperiod cues to synchronize reproduction with environmental conditions and thereby improve their reproductive success. The circadian clock, which creates endogenous behavioral and physiological rhythms typically entrained to photoperiod, is well characterized at the molecular level. Recent work provided evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q length polymorphism and latitude and, within a population, an association with the date of laying and the length of the incubation period. Despite relatively high overall breeding synchrony, the timing of clutch initiation has a large impact on the fitness of swallows in the genus Tachycineta. We compared length polymorphism in the Clock poly-Q region among five populations from five different Tachycineta species that breed across a hemisphere-wide latitudinal gradient (Fig. 1). Clock poly-Q variation was not associated with latitude; however, there was an association between Clock poly-Q allele diversity and the degree of clutch size decline within breeding seasons. We did not find evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q variation and date of clutch initiation in for any of the five Tachycineta species, nor did we found a relationship between incubation duration and Clock genotype. Thus, there is no general association between latitude, breeding phenology, and Clock polymorphism in this clade of closely related birds.Figure 1Photos of Tachycineta swallows that were used in this study: A) T. bicolor from Ithaca, New York, B) T. leucorrhoa from Chascomús, Argentina, C) T. albilinea from Hill Bank, Belize, D) T. meyeni from Puerto Varas, Chile, and E) T. thalassina from Mono Lake, California, Photographers: B: Valentina Ferretti; A, C-E: David Winkler.

  18. Isometric and swallowing tongue strength in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J Tee; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Butler, Susan G

    2013-10-01

    The tongue contributes to a safe swallow. It facilitates bolus control during mastication, maintains a bolus in the oral cavity to prevent premature entry of the bolus into the hypopharynx, and helps generate pressure in the hypopharynx during swallowing. This study examined isometric tongue strength and tongue pressure measured during swallowing in healthy young and older adults. Prospective group design. One hundred twenty-six healthy individuals who were recruited as part of a larger study on swallowing participated in this study. Participants were divided into three age groups: 20 to 40 years, 41 to 60 years, and ≥61 years. A KayPentax Digital Swallowing Workstation with an air-filled bulb array was placed on the tongue of each participant (anterior to posterior). Participants completed three isometric tongue presses and three swallows. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed a significant main effect of age (P = .01) and gender by tongue bulb location interaction (P = .02) for isometric tongue strength. That is, older adults had lower isometric tongue strength than young adults, and females had a greater difference between anterior and posterior tongue strength than males. Tongue strength during swallowing yielded significantly greater anterior versus posterior tongue pressure. This study comprises one of the largest in terms of number of healthy participants reported to date and confirms previous findings that isometric tongue strength decreases with age. Furthermore, given young and older adults generate similar swallowing pressures, swallowing is a submaximal strength activity, yet older adults have less functional reserve. 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Cervical auscultation as an adjunct to the clinical swallow examination: a comparison with fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Liza; Svensson, Per; Hartelius, Lena

    2014-10-01

    This prospective, single-blinded study investigated the validity and reliability of cervical auscultation (CA) under two conditions; (1) CA-only, using isolated swallow-sound clips, and (2) CSE + CA, using extra clinical swallow examination (CSE) information such as patient case history, oromotor assessment, and the same swallow-sound clips as condition one. The two CA conditions were compared against a fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) reference test. Each CA condition consisted of 18 swallows samples compiled from 12 adult patients consecutively referred to the FEES clinic. Patients' swallow sounds were simultaneously recorded during FEES via a Littmann E3200 electronic stethoscope. These 18 swallow samples were sent to 13 experienced dysphagia clinicians recruited from the UK and Australia who were blinded to the FEES results. Samples were rated in terms of (1) if dysphagic, (2) if the patient was safe on consistency trialled, and (3) dysphagia severity. Sensitivity measures ranged from 83-95%, specificity measures from 50-92% across the conditions. Intra-rater agreement ranged from 69-97% total agreement. Inter-rater reliability for dysphagia severity showed substantial agreement (rs = 0.68 and 0.74). Results show good rater reliability for CA-trained speech-language pathologists. Sensitivity and specificity for both CA conditions in this study are comparable to and often better than other well-established CSE components.

  20. Role of Basal Ganglia in Swallowing Process: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Ghaemi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: Swallowing is a multifaceted performance that needs contribution of the tongue, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus as well as the neurological structures such as neocortex and subcortical regions - BG and brainstem.

  1. Swallowing rehabilitation before and during concurrent chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneyuki, Miki; Yonezawa, Kouichiro; Morimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hitoshi; Saito, Miki; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, oropharyngeal cancer is more frequently being managed with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). As more patients receive CCRT, there is increasing attention on dysphagia. Since 2009, speech therapists in our hospital have performed swallowing rehabilitation for dysphagia associated with CCRT. We evaluated dysphagia after CCRT and examined the relationship between swallowing rehabilitation and swallowing disability. A total of 26 patients (22 males and 4 females) with a mean age of 63 years (range, 41 to 79), underwent CCRT between March 2008 and March 2010. Dysphagia after treatment was graded at the end of CCRT and discharge according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 and Fujishima dysphagia grade. Ten of the 26 patients underwent swallowing rehabilitation, exercise and education on muscle strengthening programs before and during CCRT. They tended not to have severe dysphagia, but there were no significant differences. (author)

  2. Changes in Swallowing Symptoms and Esophageal Motility After Thyroid Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Markoew, Simone; Døssing, Helle

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Swallowing difficulties, the pathophysiology behind which is incompletely understood, have been reported in 47-83% of goiter patients referred for thyroidectomy. We aimed at examining the influence of thyroid surgery on swallowing symptoms and esophageal motility. METHODS: Thirty-th...... to esophageal motility disturbances. This information is essential when interpreting dysphagia in patients with nodular goiter, and when balancing patients' expectations to surgical goiter therapy. REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03100357 ( www.clinicaltrials.org ).......INTRODUCTION: Swallowing difficulties, the pathophysiology behind which is incompletely understood, have been reported in 47-83% of goiter patients referred for thyroidectomy. We aimed at examining the influence of thyroid surgery on swallowing symptoms and esophageal motility. METHODS: Thirty......-three patients with benign nodular goiter undergoing thyroid surgery were included. All completed high-resolution esophageal manometry examinations and the goiter symptom scale score, assessed by the thyroid-specific patient-reported outcome measure. The evaluations were performed before and 6 months after...

  3. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES): proposal for informed consent

    OpenAIRE

    Nacci, A; Ursino, F; La Vela, R; Matteucci, F; Mallardi, V; Fattori, B

    2008-01-01

    Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is now a first choice method for studying swallowing disorders on account of the various advantages it offers: easy to use, very well tolerated, allows bedside examination and is economic. Nevertheless, this diagnostic procedure is not without risks, the most probable consequences of which include discomfort, gagging and/or vomiting, vasovagal syncope, epistaxis, mucosal perforation, adverse reactions to topical anaesthetics and laryngospa...

  4. Occurrences of yawn and swallow are temporally related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kimiko; Weisz, Sarah E M; Dunn, Rachelle L; DiGioacchino, Martina C; Nyentap, Jennifer A; Stanbouly, Seta; Theurer, Julie A; Bureau, Yves; Affoo, Rebecca H; Martin, Ruth E

    2015-02-01

    Yawning is a stereotyped motor behavior characterized by deep inhalation and associated dilation of the respiratory tract, pronounced jaw opening, and facial grimacing. The frequency of spontaneous yawning varies over the diurnal cycle, peaking after waking and before sleep. Yawning can also be elicited by seeing or hearing another yawn, or by thinking about yawning, a phenomenon known as "contagious yawning". Yawning is mediated by a distributed network of brainstem and supratentorial brain regions, the components of which are shared with other airway behaviors including respiration, swallowing, and mastication. Nevertheless, the possibility of behavioral coordination between yawning and other brainstem-mediated functions has not been examined. Here we show, with a double-blind methodology, a greater-than-fivefold increase in rest (saliva) swallowing rate during the 10-s period immediately following contagious yawning elicited in 14 adult humans through the viewing of videotaped yawn stimuli. Sixty-five percent of yawns were followed by a swallow within 10 s and swallows accounted for 26 % of all behaviors produced during this post-yawn period. This novel finding of a tight temporal coupling between yawning and swallowing provides preliminary evidence that yawning and swallowing are physiologically related, thus extending current models of upper airway physiology and neurophysiology. Moreover, our finding suggests the possibility that yawning plays a role in eliciting rest swallowing, a view not considered in previous theories of yawning. As such, the present demonstration of a temporal association between yawning and swallowing motivates a re-examination of the longstanding question, "Why do we yawn?".

  5. Evidence for adaptive cortical changes in swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntrup, Sonja; Teismann, Inga; Bejer, Joke; Suttrup, Inga; Winkels, Martin; Mehler, David; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer; Warnecke, Tobias

    2013-03-01

    Dysphagia is a relevant symptom in Parkinson's disease, whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. It is mainly attributed to degeneration of brainstem nuclei. However, alterations in the cortical contribution to deglutition control in the course of Parkinson's disease have not been investigated. Here, we sought to determine the patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without dysphagia. Swallowing function in patients was objectively assessed with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation. Swallow-related cortical activation was measured using whole-head magnetoencephalography in 10 dysphagic and 10 non-dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease and a healthy control group during self-paced swallowing. Data were analysed applying synthetic aperture magnetometry, and group analyses were done using a permutation test. Compared with healthy subjects, a strong decrease of cortical swallowing activation was found in all patients. It was most prominent in participants with manifest dysphagia. Non-dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease showed a pronounced shift of peak activation towards lateral parts of the premotor, motor and inferolateral parietal cortex with reduced activation of the supplementary motor area. This pattern was not found in dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease. We conclude that in Parkinson's disease, not only brainstem and basal ganglia circuits, but also cortical areas modulate swallowing function in a clinically relevant way. Our results point towards adaptive cerebral changes in swallowing to compensate for deficient motor pathways. Recruitment of better preserved parallel motor loops driven by sensory afferent input seems to maintain swallowing function until progressing neurodegeneration exceeds beyond the means of this adaptive strategy, resulting in manifestation of dysphagia.

  6. Parameters of Instrumental Swallowing Evaluations: Describing a Diagnostic Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisegna, Jessica M; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare selected parameters of two swallow evaluations: fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and the modified barium swallow (MBS) study. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Fifty-five clinicians were asked to watch video recordings of swallow evaluations of 2 patients that were done using fluoroscopy and endoscopy simultaneously. In a randomized order, clinicians viewed 4 edited videos from simultaneous evaluations: the FEES and MBS videos of patient 1 and 2 each taking one swallow of 5 mL applesauce. Clinicians filled out a questionnaire that asked (1) which anatomical sites they could visualize on each video, (2) where they saw pharyngeal residue after a swallow, (3) their overall clinical impression of the pharyngeal residue, and (4) their opinions of the evaluation styles. Clinicians reported a significant difference in the visualization of anatomical sites, 11 of the 15 sites were reported as better-visualized on the FEES than on the MBS video (p < 0.05). Clinicians also rated residue to be present in more locations on the FEES than on the MBS. Clinicians' overall impressions of the severity of residue on the same exact swallow were significantly different depending on the evaluation type (FEES vs. MBS for patient 1 χ(2) = 20.05, p < 0.0001; patient 2 χ(2) = 7.52, p = 0.006), with FEES videos rated more severely. FEES advantages were: more visualization of pharyngeal and laryngeal swallowing anatomy and residue. However, as a result, clinicians provided more severe impressions of residue amount on FEES. On one hand, this suggests that FEES is a more sensitive tool than MBS studies, but on the other hand, clinicians might provide more severe interpretations on FEES.

  7. Swallow Event Sequencing: Comparing Healthy Older and Younger Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Erica G; Lazarus, Cathy L; Steele, Catriona M; Molfenter, Sonja M

    2018-04-23

    Previous research has established that a great deal of variation exists in the temporal sequence of swallowing events for healthy adults. Yet, the impact of aging on swallow event sequence is not well understood. Kendall et al. (Dysphagia 18(2):85-91, 2003) suggested there are 4 obligatory paired-event sequences in swallowing. We directly compared adherence to these sequences, as well as event latencies, and quantified the percentage of unique sequences in two samples of healthy adults: young ( 65). The 8 swallowing events that contribute to the sequences were reliably identified from videofluoroscopy in a sample of 23 healthy seniors (10 male, mean age 74.7) and 20 healthy young adults (10 male, mean age 31.5) with no evidence of penetration-aspiration or post-swallow residue. Chi-square analyses compared the proportions of obligatory pairs and unique sequences by age group. Compared to the older subjects, younger subjects had significantly lower adherence to two obligatory sequences: Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES) opening occurs before (or simultaneous with) the bolus arriving at the UES and UES maximum distention occurs before maximum pharyngeal constriction. The associated latencies were significantly different between age groups as well. Further, significantly fewer unique swallow sequences were observed in the older group (61%) compared with the young (82%) (χ 2  = 31.8; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that paired swallow event sequences may not be robust across the age continuum and that variation in swallow sequences appears to decrease with aging. These findings provide normative references for comparisons to older individuals with dysphagia.

  8. Swallow syncope caused by third-degree atrioventricular block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roust Aaberg, Anne Marie; Eriksson, Anna Elin; Madsen, Per Lav

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker.......We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker....

  9. Changes in the frequency of swallowing during electrical stimulation of superior laryngeal nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kojun; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Sakai, Shogo; Nakamura, Yuki; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the adaptation of the swallowing reflex in terms of reduced swallowing reflex initiation following continuous superior laryngeal nerve stimulation. Forty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethane. To identify swallowing, electromyographic activity of the left mylohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles was recorded. To evoke the swallowing response, the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), recurrent laryngeal nerve, or cortical swallowing area was electrically stimulated. Repetitive swallowing evoked by continuous SLN stimulation was gradually reduced, and this reduction was dependent on the resting time duration between stimulations. Prior SLN stimulation also suppressed subsequent swallowing initiation. The reduction in evoked swallows induced by recurrent laryngeal nerve or cortical swallowing area stimulation was less than that following superior laryngeal nerve stimulation. Decerebration had no effect on the reduction in evoked swallows. Prior subthreshold stimulation reduced subsequent initiation of swallowing, suggesting that there was no relationship between swallowing movement evoked by prior stimulation and the subsequent reduction in swallowing initiation. Overall, these data suggest that reduced sensory afferent nerve firing and/or trans-synaptic responses, as well as part of the brainstem central pattern generator, are involved in adaptation of the swallowing reflex following continuous stimulation of swallow-inducing peripheral nerves and cortical areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. NRFixer: Sentiment Based Model for Predicting the Fixability of Non-Reproducible Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Software maintenance is an essential step in software development life cycle. Nowadays, software companies spend approximately 45\\% of total cost in maintenance activities. Large software projects maintain bug repositories to collect, organize and resolve bug reports. Sometimes it is difficult to reproduce the reported bug with the information present in a bug report and thus this bug is marked with resolution non-reproducible (NR. When NR bugs are reconsidered, a few of them might get fixed (NR-to-fix leaving the others with the same resolution (NR. To analyse the behaviour of developers towards NR-to-fix and NR bugs, the sentiment analysis of NR bug report textual contents has been conducted. The sentiment analysis of bug reports shows that NR bugs' sentiments incline towards more negativity than reproducible bugs. Also, there is a noticeable opinion drift found in the sentiments of NR-to-fix bug reports. Observations driven from this analysis were an inspiration to develop a model that can judge the fixability of NR bugs. Thus a framework, {NRFixer,} which predicts the probability of NR bug fixation, is proposed. {NRFixer} was evaluated with two dimensions. The first dimension considers meta-fields of bug reports (model-1 and the other dimension additionally incorporates the sentiments (model-2 of developers for prediction. Both models were compared using various machine learning classifiers (Zero-R, naive Bayes, J48, random tree and random forest. The bug reports of Firefox and Eclipse projects were used to test {NRFixer}. In Firefox and Eclipse projects, J48 and Naive Bayes classifiers achieve the best prediction accuracy, respectively. It was observed that the inclusion of sentiments in the prediction model shows a rise in the prediction accuracy ranging from 2 to 5\\% for various classifiers.

  11. Diversity of some endophytic fungi associated with rice black bug Paraeucosmetus pallicornis on rice plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; La Daha; Nurariaty, Agus; Ade, Rosmana; Muh., Fadlan

    2015-01-01

    A new rice insect pest was sighted in some rice producing areas of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This pest is rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis. The research aimed to isolation of fungi associated with rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis, so as to know the cause of a bitter taste to the rice. The isolation of the fungi consist of three kinds of treatment, namely rice black bugs without sterilization, with sterilization and rice black bugs cut and sterilized. The resul...

  12. Automated Bug Assignment: Ensemble-based Machine Learning in Large Scale Industrial Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Leif; Borg, Markus; Broman, David; Sandahl, Kristian; Eldh, Sigrid; Runeson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Bug report assignment is an important part of software maintenance. In particular, incorrect assignments of bug reports to development teams can be very expensive in large software development projects. Several studies propose automating bug assignment techniques using machine learning in open source software contexts, but no study exists for large-scale proprietary projects in industry. The goal of this study is to evaluate automated bug assignment techniques that are based on machine learni...

  13. Quality of life related to swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Danielle; das Graças Wanderley de Sales Coriolano, Maria; Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; de Marcos Rabelo, Aneide Rocha; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-10-01

    Swallowing difficulties in Parkinson's disease can result in decreased quality of life. The swallowing quality of life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) is an instrument for specifically assessing quality of life with respect to swallowing, which has been little explored in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life with respect to swallowing in persons with PD compared to controls and at several stages of the disease using the SWAL-QOL. The experimental group was composed of 62 persons with PD at stages 1-4. Forty-one age-matched healthy subjects constituted the control group. The SWAL-QOL scores were significantly lower for the patients with PD than for the controls in all SWAL-QOL domains. Eating duration had the largest difference in score between persons with PD and the controls and the lowest mean score, followed by communication, fatigue, fear, sleep, and food selection. The scores of most domains were lower at later stages of the disease. The scores for eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep were significantly lower at stage 4 than stages 1 and 2. In conclusion, patients with PD have significantly lower scores in all domains of the SWAL-QOL than normal controls. This means swallowing difficulties occurring in patients with PD negatively affect their QOL. Progression of the disease worsens swallowing QOL, more specifically in the domains of eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep. This occurs mostly at later stages of the disease.

  14. Swallowing Quality of Life After Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstedt, Stina; Nordh, Erik; Linder, Jan; Hedström, Johanna; Finizia, Caterina; Olofsson, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    The management of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been improved, but management of signs like swallowing problems is still challenging. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates the cardinal motor symptoms and improves quality of life, but its effect on swallowing is not fully explored. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life before and after caudal zona incerta DBS (cZI DBS) in comparison with a control group. Nine PD patients (2 women and 7 men) completed the self-report Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) before and 12 months after cZI DBS surgery. The postoperative data were compared to 9 controls. Median ages were 53 years (range, 40-70 years) for patients and 54 years (range, 42-72 years) for controls. No significant differences were found between the pre- or postoperative scores. The SWAL-QOL total scores did not differ significantly between PD patients and controls. The PD patients reported significantly lower scores in the burden subscale and the symptom scale. Patients with PD selected for cZI DBS showed good self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life, in many aspects equal to controls. The cZI DBS did not negatively affect swallowing-specific quality of life in this study.

  15. A Targeted Swallow Screen for the Detection of Postoperative Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Erica; Lancaster, Elizabeth; Meltzer, Jospeh; Mendelsohn, Abie H; Benharash, Peyman

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, prolonged hospital stay, and is associated with increased mortality. A simple and sensitive screening test to identify patients requiring objective dysphagia evaluation is presently lacking. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel targeted swallow screen evaluation. This was a prospective trial involving all adult patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at our institution over an 8-week period. Within 24 hours of extubation and before the initiation of oral intake, all postsurgical patients were evaluated using the targeted swallow screen. A fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was requested for failed screenings. During the study, 50 postcardiac surgery patients were screened. Fifteen (30%) failed the targeted swallow screen, and ten of the fifteen (66%) failed the subsequent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing exam and were confirmed to have dysphagia. The screening test had 100 per cent sensitivity for detecting dysphagia in our patient population, and a specificity of 87.5 per cent. The overall incidence of dysphagia was 20 per cent. We have shown that a targeted swallow evaluation can efficiently screen patients during the postcardiac surgery period. Furthermore, we have shown that the true incidence of dysphagia after cardiac surgery is significantly higher than previously recognized in literature.

  16. Swallowing difficulties for cerebellar stroke may recover beyond three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périé, S; Wajeman, S; Vivant, R; St Guily, J L

    1999-01-01

    Swallowing disorders after stroke or skull base surgery can be life threatening. Although late recovery can occur, it remains poorly documented. We report a case of a 54-year-old woman with dysphagia resulting from a cerebellar stroke with hemorrhage that was evacuated through craniotomy. Swallowing difficulties were assessed by a videoendoscopic swallowing study. She presented with disruption of swallow initiation and impairment of the pharyngeal stage, resulting in hypopharyngeal stasis and penetration with aspiration. Supportive swallowing therapy was conducted with careful reeducation to assist initiation of the pharyngeal stage as well as development of compensatory postural technique. Initial improvement was very slow but became rapidly progressive from the 31st month after the stroke. By the 34th month, oral feeding was possible without aspiration. This case demonstrates that improvement in swallowing function can be expected even 3 years after stroke or skull base surgery. Determination of predictive factors for late functional recovery is of great importance and should be the focus of further investigation.

  17. Solid bolus swallowing in the radiologic evaluation of dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westen, D. van; Ekberg, O.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with dysphagia, heartburn and chest pain are regularly referred for radiologic evaluation of swallowing. The liquid barium swallow has been of great value for the biphasic evaluation of the pharynx and esophagus. Though many patients complain of dysphagia specifically for solids, solid bolus swallow is ususally not part of the evaluation. For the present study we therefore included the use of a solid bolus with a diameter of 13 mm and interviewed the patients carefully for any symptoms during this tablet swallow. Of 200 patients examined, the tablet passed through the esophagus without delay in 102. In the 98 patients with delayed passage, the solid bolus arrest occurred in the pharynx in 5 and in the esophagus in 93. Arrest in the esophagus was due to esophageal dysmotility in 48 patients. Twenty of these were symptomatic during the tablet swallow. A narrowing was the cause in 45, of whom 9 had symptoms. In 18 patients (9%) the solid bolus added key information to the radiologic evaluation. We therefore recommend that the solid bolus is included in the routine radiologic work-up of patients with dysphagia. Careful attention to symptoms during the tablet swallow is important. (orig.)

  18. Solid bolus swallowing in the radiologic evaluation of dysphagia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westen, D. van (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe General Hospital, Univ. Lund (Sweden)); Ekberg, O. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe General Hospital, Univ. Lund (Sweden))

    1993-07-01

    Patients with dysphagia, heartburn and chest pain are regularly referred for radiologic evaluation of swallowing. The liquid barium swallow has been of great value for the biphasic evaluation of the pharynx and esophagus. Though many patients complain of dysphagia specifically for solids, solid bolus swallow is ususally not part of the evaluation. For the present study we therefore included the use of a solid bolus with a diameter of 13 mm and interviewed the patients carefully for any symptoms during this tablet swallow. Of 200 patients examined, the tablet passed through the esophagus without delay in 102. In the 98 patients with delayed passage, the solid bolus arrest occurred in the pharynx in 5 and in the esophagus in 93. Arrest in the esophagus was due to esophageal dysmotility in 48 patients. Twenty of these were symptomatic during the tablet swallow. A narrowing was the cause in 45, of whom 9 had symptoms. In 18 patients (9%) the solid bolus added key information to the radiologic evaluation. We therefore recommend that the solid bolus is included in the routine radiologic work-up of patients with dysphagia. Careful attention to symptoms during the tablet swallow is important. (orig.).

  19. Swallowing and pharyngo-esophageal manometry in obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almeida Moreira da Paz Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Upper airway nerve and muscle damage associated with obstructive sleep apnea may impair the strength and dynamics of pharyngeal and esophageal contractions during swallowing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of alterations in pharyngoesophageal manometry in patients with obstructive sleep apnea with and without oropharyngeal dysphagia. METHODS: This study prospectively evaluated 22 patients with obstructive sleep apnea without spontaneous complaints of dysphagia, using a questionnaire, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, and pharyngoesophageal manometry, including measurement of the upper and lower esophageal sphincter pressures and mean pharyngeal pressures at three levels during swallowing. RESULTS: The dysphagia group consisted of 17 patients (77.3% in whom swallowing abnormalities were detected on fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (n = 15; 68.2% and/or in the questionnaire (n = 7; 31.8%. The five remaining cases comprised a control group without oropharyngeal dysphagia. In all cases of abnormalities on fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, there was premature bolus leakage into the pharynx. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding any of the pharyngoesophageal manometry measurements, age, or severity of obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSION: Pharyngoesophageal manometry detected no statistically significant difference between the groups with and without oropharyngeal dysphagia.

  20. [Telemonitoring of swallowing function: technologies in speech therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Angela; Lavermicocca, Valentina; Notarnicola, Marilina; De Francesco, Luca; Dellomonaco, Anna Rita

    2018-02-01

    The process of medical-healthcare technological revolution represents an advantage for the patient and for the care provider, in terms of costs and distances reduction. The telehomecare approach could be useful for monitoring the swallowing disorder in neurodegenerative diseases, preventing complications. In this study the applicability of telemedicine techniques for the monitoring of swallowing function, in patients affected by Huntington's disease (HD), was evaluated through the acquisition and analysis of the sound of swallowing. Two patients with HD were outpatient screened for dysphagia through the Bedside Swallowing Assessment Scale (BSAS) sensitized with pulse oximetry and cervical auscultation. Subsequently, the swallowing functionality was telemonitored for three months with Skype. The swallowing sounds were acquired with a detection microphone attached to the lateral edge of the trachea during fluid intake. The sounds were instantly processed and graphically represented through the Praat software. The analysis of the acoustic signal acquired remotely has made it possible to identify the situations that required immediate speech therapy intervention, suggesting to the patients further modifications of food consistencies, and saving frequent moving to the hospital even in the absence of critical situations. Remote assistance applied to speech therapy could represent a benefit for patients and their carers and a more efficient use of medical and health resources.

  1. Observation the swallowing mechanism in elderly patients with pharyngeal dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Campo-Cañar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation of the swallowing dynamics is an issue that demands close attention by the health professionals involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with dysphagia. This article is a review of the literature aimed to enhance the knowledge regarding the speech therapy assessment of pharyngeal dysphagia in elder adults. The disorder of the swallowing is called dysphagia and it is defined as difficulty swallowing. The dysphagia is often caused by affectation of mechanical or neuromuscular components of the swallowing mechanism. This type of disorder is likely to impact the the oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of the swallowing. The speech therapist should take into account assessing aspects such as level of consciousness, vital signs, whether or not the patient is ventilator dependent, means of feeding, if intubated what type of cannula, whether or not the patient uses a speaking valve (if a trach tube is present, nutritional status, the patient’s expressive and receptive language, the anatomical and physiological state of the oral motor structures. When assessing swallowing clinicians should also make sure to develop an adequate beside clinical, voice assessment and videofluoroscopy.

  2. Swallowing and pharyngo-esophageal manometry in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luciana Almeida Moreira da Paz; Fontes, Luiz Henrique de Souza; Cahali, Michel Burihan

    2015-01-01

    Upper airway nerve and muscle damage associated with obstructive sleep apnea may impair the strength and dynamics of pharyngeal and esophageal contractions during swallowing. To evaluate the presence of alterations in pharyngoesophageal manometry in patients with obstructive sleep apnea with and without oropharyngeal dysphagia. This study prospectively evaluated 22 patients with obstructive sleep apnea without spontaneous complaints of dysphagia, using a questionnaire, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, and pharyngoesophageal manometry, including measurement of the upper and lower esophageal sphincter pressures and mean pharyngeal pressures at three levels during swallowing. The dysphagia group consisted of 17 patients (77.3%) in whom swallowing abnormalities were detected on fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (n=15; 68.2%) and/or in the questionnaire (n=7; 31.8%). The five remaining cases comprised a control group without oropharyngeal dysphagia. In all cases of abnormalities on fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, there was premature bolus leakage into the pharynx. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding any of the pharyngoesophageal manometry measurements, age, or severity of obstructive sleep apnea. Pharyngoesophageal manometry detected no statistically significant difference between the groups with and without oropharyngeal dysphagia. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Pheromones of milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) attract wayward plant bugs: Phytocoris mirid sex pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

    2003-08-01

    The synthetic aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), also attracted males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae). Field testing partial blends against the six-component blend comprising the Oncopeltus pheromone showed that cross-attraction of P. difficilis males was due to synergism between (E)-2-octenyl acetate and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. Hexyl acetate was abundant in the metathoracic scent gland (MSG) secretion of P. difficilis males, but because female P. difficilis could not initially be found in the field, further combinatorial tests were guided by prior research on the pheromones of two Phytocoris species in the western United States. The combination of hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates was as attractive to P. difficilis males as the milkweed bug pheromone, yet no milkweed bugs were drawn to this blend. Gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of female P. difficilis MSGs determined that their secretion contained predominantly hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (all strongly EAD-active)-the latter two compounds found only in trace amounts from males-plus five minor female-specific compounds, three of which were EAD-active. (E,E)-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate was not detected from P. difficilis females or males. The blend of the three major components, hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (2:1.5:1 by volume), was as attractive as the blend of all six EAD-active compounds identified from females, indicating that this ternary blend constitutes the sex pheromone of P. difficilis. Hexyl acetate with (E)-2-octenyl acetate also attracted males of another species, P. breviusculus Reuter, but addition of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and/or (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate inhibited attraction of P. breviusculus males. Attraction of P. difficilis males occurred mainly during the first half of scotophase. The

  4. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    the tools to be able to find specific kinds of bugs. In this paper, we propose a declarative approach based on a control-flow based program search engine. Our approach is WYSIWIB (What You See Is Where It Bugs), since the programmer is able to express specifications for protocol and bug finding using...

  5. WYSIWYB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Lawall, Julia; Palix, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    the tools to be able to find specific kinds of bugs. In this paper, we propose a declarative approach based on a control-flow based program search engine. Our approach is WYSIWIB (What You See Is Where It Bugs), since the programmer is able to express specifications for protocol and bug finding using...

  6. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    the tools on specific kinds of bugs and to relate the results to patterns in the source code. We propose a declarative approach to bug finding in Linux OS code using a control-flow based program search engine. Our approach is WYSIWIB (What You See Is Where It Bugs), since the programmer expresses...

  7. Role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    Full Text Available The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall and color (brown vs. black of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages.

  8. Dosimetric assessment of swallowing examinations with videofluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.M.B.; Canevaro, L.V.; Azevedo, A.C.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dosimetric analysis measurements of the Dose-Area-Product (DAP) of 7 individuals were estimated for the deglutition dynamic using the videofluoroscopic method. The aim of this study is to establish in a preliminary way, typical DAP values for this kind of study. The DAP values were obtained attaching to the X ray tube exit, an ionization chamber from PTW and a Diamentor M4 meter. The typical DAP values obtained during the videofluoroscopic evaluation of the deglutition dynamic, including its three phases, was: 4101 ± 881 cGy.cm 2 and the typical DAP rate was 577 ± 94 cGy.cm 2 /min. These values refer to a standard patient (1.57 cm height, 56 kg. weight) and a protocol that can be performed in about 7 minutes. The values, defined herein as typical refer to the used protocol. To our knowledge, the mean DAP rate is a good parameter to estimate radiation exposure from videofluoroscopic study of swallowing process. (author)

  9. Gamma radiation effects on nestling Tree Swallows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    The sensitivity of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to the stress of ionizing radiation was investigated with growth analysis. Freshly hatched nestlings were temporarily removed from nests, taken to the laboratory and acutely exposed to 0.9, 2.7, or 4.5 Gy gamma radiation. Some of the unirradiated control nestlings were also taken to the laboratory whereas others were left in the nests. Growth of all the nestlings was measured daily and analyzed by fitting growth models. There was no detectable radiation-induced mortality up to fledgling, approx. = 20 d after irradiation. Radiation exposure did not affect the basic growth pattern; the logistic growth model was most suitable for body mass and foot length, and the von Bertalanffy model for primary-feather length, irrespective of treatment. Parameter values from these models indicated pronounced growth depression in the 2.7-Gy and 4.5-Gy groups, particularly for body mass. Radiation also affected the timing of development. The growth depression of the 2.7-Gy group was similar to that caused by hatching asynchrony in unirradiated nestlings. The 4.5-Cy nestlings grew as well as unexposed nestlings that died from natural causes. Chronic irradiation at approx. = 1.0 Cy/d caused more severe growth effects than acute exposure to 4.5 Gy and may have caused permanent stunting. Growth analysis is a potent tool for assessing man-made environmental stresses. Observed body-mass statistics and model parameters seem to be most sensitive to environmental stresses, but coefficients of variation are not necessarily correlated with sensitivity. 34 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  10. Developing e-Bug web games to teach microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Weinberg, Julius; Lecky, Donna M; Adriaenssens, Niels; Koprivová Herotová, Tereza; Holt, Jette; Touboul, Pia; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Koncan, Raffaella; Olczak-Pienkowska, Anna; Avô, António Brito; Campos, José; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    As a complement to the e-Bug teaching pack, two e-Bug games were developed to provide content that aimed to entertain as well as to educate. A set of agreed learning outcomes (LOs) were provided by the scientific partners of the e-Bug Project and the games were developed using user-centred design techniques (the needs, wants and limitations of the potential game players were assessed at each stage of the design process). The e-Bug games were designed for two age groups: Junior (9-12 year olds); and Senior (13-15 year olds). A study using focus groups was done to gain an understanding as to the types of games enjoyed by the target users. According to the preliminary study, the Junior Game was developed as a platform game and the Senior Game was developed as a story-based detective game. The Junior Game consists of five levels, each associated with a set of LOs. Similarly, the Senior Game consists of four missions, each comprising five stages using problem-based learning techniques and LOs. In this paper, the process of development for each game is described in detail and an illustration is provided of how each game level or mission addresses the target LOs. Development of the games used feedback acquired from children in four schools across the UK (Glasgow, London and two in Gloucester). The children were selected according to their willingness to participate. European Partners of the e-Bug Project also provided further support, translation and requests for modifications. The knowledge gained of LOs and further evaluation of the games is continuing, and preliminary results are in press. The final versions of the games, translated into 11 European languages, are available online via www.e-bug.eu.

  11. Usage of data warehouse for analysing software's bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živanov, Danijel; Krstićev, Danijela Boberić; Mirković, Duško

    2017-07-01

    We analysed the database schema of Bugzilla system and taking into account user's requirements for reporting, we presented a dimensional model for the data warehouse which will be used for reporting software defects. The idea proposed in this paper is not to throw away Bugzilla system because it certainly has many strengths, but to make integration of Bugzilla and the proposed data warehouse. Bugzilla would continue to be used for recording bugs that occur during the development and maintenance of software while the data warehouse would be used for storing data on bugs in an appropriate form, which is more suitable for analysis.

  12. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of mastication and swallowing in individuals with TMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Carla; Mello, Marçal Motta de; Biase, Noemi Grigoletto de; Pasetti, Lilian; Camargo, Paulo A Monteiro; Silvério, Kelly Cristina Alves; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Rebelo

    2012-01-01

    To study mastication and swallowing disorders in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). To investigate mastication and swallowing disorders in patients with severe TMD referred to surgery. Clinical and experimental study involving ten individuals with TMD submitted to deglutition videofluoroscopy. These patients did not have posterior teeth, mastication pain and food replacement in favor of pasty consistence food. The assessment of the oral and pharyngeal phases approached the following aspects: side of onset and preferential side for chewing, premature escape, remains of food residues in the oral cavity or in the pharyngeal recesses, number of necessary swallowing efforts, laryngeal penetration and/or tracheal aspiration. During mastication and the oral phase we observed tongue compensatory movements upon chewing (n = 7; 70%), premature escape (n = 4; 40%), food remains in the cavity after swallowing (n = 5; 50%) and an excessive number of deglutition efforts (n = 5; 50%). On the pharyngeal phase we observed food remains in the valleculae (n = 6; 60%), in the pyriform sinuses (n = 4; 40%); laryngeal penetration (n = 1; 10%) and tracheal aspiration (n = 4; 40%). TMD patients may have alterations in their chewing and swallowing patterns, with laryngeal penetration and/or tracheal aspiration. The study indicates the need for a multidisciplinary assessment because of dysphagia in TMD patients.

  13. The Videofluorographic Swallowing Study in Rheumatologic Diseases: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Piazza, Ambra; Costanzo, Massimo; Scopelliti, Laura; Salvaggi, Francesco; Cupido, Francesco; Salerno, Sergio; Lo Casto, Antonio; Midiri, Massimo; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune connective tissue diseases are a heterogeneous group of pathologies that affect about 10% of world population with chronic evolution in 20%–80%. Inflammation in autoimmune diseases may lead to serious damage to other organs including the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in these patients may also due to both a direct action of antibodies against organs and pharmacological therapies. Dysphagia is one of the most important symptom, and it is caused by failure of the swallowing function and may lead to aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration, weight loss, and airway obstruction. The videofluorographic swallowing study is a key diagnostic tool in the detection of swallowing disorders, allowing to make an early diagnosis and to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal and pulmonary complications. This technique helps to identify both functional and structural anomalies of the anatomic chain involved in swallowing function. The aim of this review is to systematically analyze the basis of the pathological involvement of the swallowing function for each rheumatological disease and to show the main features of the videofluorographic study that may be encountered in these patients. PMID:28706536

  14. Swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease: a surface electromyography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ws Coriolano, Maria das Graças; R Belo, Luciana; Carneiro, Danielle; G Asano, Amdore; Al Oliveira, Paulo José; da Silva, Douglas Monteiro; G Lins, Otávio

    2012-12-01

    Our goal was to study deglutition of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and normal controls (NC) using surface electromyography (sEMG). The study included 15 patients with idiopathic PD and 15 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was collected over the suprahyoid muscle group. Conditions were the following: swallow at once 10 and 20 ml of water and 5 and 10 ml of yogurt of firm consistency, and freely drink 100 ml of water. During swallowing, durations of sEMG were significantly longer in PD patients than in normal controls but no significant differences of amplitudes were found. Eighty percent of the PD patients and 20 % of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 20 ml of water, while 70 % of the PD patients and none of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 5 ml of yogurt. PD patients took significantly more time and needed significantly more swallows to drink 100 ml of water than normal controls. We conclude that sEMG might be a simple and useful tool to study and monitor deglutition in PD patients.

  15. A procedure for denoising dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Chau, Tom; Steele, Catriona M

    2010-01-01

    Dual-axis swallowing accelerometry is an emerging tool for the assessment of dysphagia (swallowing difficulties). These signals however can be very noisy as a result of physiological and motion artifacts. In this note, we propose a novel scheme for denoising those signals, i.e. a computationally efficient search for the optimal denoising threshold within a reduced wavelet subspace. To determine a viable subspace, the algorithm relies on the minimum value of the estimated upper bound for the reconstruction error. A numerical analysis of the proposed scheme using synthetic test signals demonstrated that the proposed scheme is computationally more efficient than minimum noiseless description length (MNDL)-based denoising. It also yields smaller reconstruction errors than MNDL, SURE and Donoho denoising methods. When applied to dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals, the proposed scheme exhibits improved performance for dry, wet and wet chin tuck swallows. These results are important for the further development of medical devices based on dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals. (note)

  16. Nonimaging clinical assessment of impaired swallowing in community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao-Yen; Lin, Li-Chan

    2012-12-01

    Impaired swallowing is common in elderly patients as well as those with neurological disorders and degenerative diseases. Convenient and accurate assessments should be available to community-dwelling older adults to diagnose and provide early management and care of swallowing difficulties, an important factor of influence on elderly life quality. This study used convenient nonimaging methods to assess swallowing functions in community-dwelling older adults and estimated the prevalence of swallowing difficulties. The study adopted a survey method and recruited 216 community-dwelling older adults over 65 years old in northern Taiwan. Researchers used tools including a swallowing test, questionnaire, water test, peripheral arterial pulse oximeter, and laryngeal S-EMG to assess participant swallowing functions and the prevalence of impaired swallowing. We found a 9.5% prevalence of impaired swallowing based on swallow questionnaire and water test results. Age correlated negatively with swallowing speed. A one-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in swallowing speed among the four age groups (F = 6.478, p < .00). A post hoc Scheffe comparison showed significant differences in swallowing time between the 60- to 69- and 70- to 79-year-old groups and 60- to 69- and 80- to 89-year-old groups. Multiple regression of impaired swallowing on various independent variables showed a significant standardized coefficient of 0.163 for age (t = 2.328, p = .021). Logistic regression showed a significant Wals test value for age (p = .007). The Kappa value was 0.307 for agreement analysis between impaired swallowing and SaO(2) value reduction of more than 2%. Swallowing function deteriorates with age. Results of this study provide an assessment of the prevalence of impaired swallowing in community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan. Results can help guide clinical nurses to enhance their objective assessment of impaired swallowing to improve patient quality of life.

  17. Prevalence of swallowing dysfunction screened in Swedish cohort of COPD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Lindh, Margareta; Blom Johansson, Monica; Jennische, Margareta; Koyi, Hirsh

    2017-01-01

    Background COPD is a common problem associated with morbidity and mortality. COPD may also affect the dynamics and coordination of functions such as swallowing. A misdirected swallow may, in turn, result in the bolus entering the airway. A growing body of evidence suggests that a subgroup of people with COPD is prone to oropharyngeal dysphagia. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing dysfunction in patients with stable COPD and to determine the relation between signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted). Methods Fifty-one patients with COPD in a stable phase participated in a questionnaire survey, swallowing tests, and spirometry. A post-bronchodilator ratio of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/best of forced vital capacity and vital capacity <0.7 was used to define COPD. Swallowing function was assessed by a questionnaire and two swallowing tests (water and cookie swallow tests). Results Sixty-five percent of the patients reported subjective signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction in the questionnaire and 49% showed measurable ones in the swallowing tests. For the combined subjective and objective findings, 78% had a coexisting swallowing dysfunction. No significant difference was found between male and female patients. Conclusion Swallowing function is affected in COPD patients with moderate to severe airflow limitation, and the signs and symptoms of this swallowing dysfunction were subjective, objective, or both. PMID:28176891

  18. A rare cause of gastric obstruction: Lighters swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aday, Ulas; Tardu, Ali; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Yonder, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    The majority of swallowed foreign bodies are thrown spontaneously without causing complications in the digestive system. Multiple number of foreign bodies may be swallowed by psychiatric patients which delay diagnosis and increase the complication rate. Long and hard objects cannot pass through the pylorus, and may cause obstruction, ulceration, bleeding and perforation. Endoscopy is used as an effective method in such cases. An exploratory laparatomy was performed after unsuccessful endoscopic foreign object removal in a 28-year-old schizophrenic patient with gastric outlet obstruction due to multiple cigarette lighter swallowing. Ten lighters were removed from the stomach through gastrotomy and one more lighter was removed from the descending colon by milking through the anus. The aim of this paper is to discuss encountered difficulties in psychiatric patients who underwent surgery due to intake of foreign bodies.

  19. VIDEOFLUOROSCOPIC SWALLOWING STUDY: esophageal alterations in patients with dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina SCHEEREN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Videofluoroscopic swallowing study is a dynamic exam and allows the evaluation of the complete swallowing process. However, most published studies have only reported alterations in the oropharynx and pharyngoesophageal transition, leaving the analysis of the esophagus as a secondary goal. Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alterations in the esophageal phase thorough videofluoroscopic swallowing study in patients with dysphagia. Methods Consecutive patients with dysphagia who underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study including esophageal analysis between May 2010 and May 2012 had their exams retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into two groups: Group I - without a pre-established etiological diagnosis and Group II - with neurological disease. During the exam, the patients ingested three different consistencies of food (liquid, pasty and solid contrasted with barium sulfate and 19 items were analyzed according to a protocol. The esophageal phase was considered abnormal when one of the evaluated items was compromised. Results Three hundred and thirty-three (n = 333 consecutive patients were studied - 213 (64% in Group I and 120 (36% in Group II. Esophageal alterations were found in 104 (31% patients, with a higher prevalence in Group I (36.2%, especially on the items esophageal clearance (16.9% and tertiary contractions (16.4%. It was observed that 12% of individuals in Group I only presented alterations on the esophageal phase. Conclusion Evaluation of the esophageal phase of swallowing during videofluoroscopic swallowing study detects abnormalities in patients with cervical dysphagia, especially in the group without pre-established etiological diagnosis.

  20. Cortical recovery of swallowing function in wound botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringelstein Erich B

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Botulism is a rare disease caused by intoxication leading to muscle weakness and rapidly progressive dysphagia. With adequate therapy signs of recovery can be observed within several days. In the last few years, brain imaging studies carried out in healthy subjects showed activation of the sensorimotor cortex and the insula during volitional swallowing. However, little is known about cortical changes and compensation mechanisms accompanying swallowing pathology. Methods In this study, we applied whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG in order to study changes in cortical activation in a 27-year-old patient suffering from wound botulism during recovery from dysphagia. An age-matched group of healthy subjects served as control group. A self-paced swallowing paradigm was performed and data were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM. Results The first MEG measurement, carried out when the patient still demonstrated severe dysphagia, revealed strongly decreased activation of the somatosensory cortex but a strong activation of the right insula and marked recruitment of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC. In the second measurement performed five days later after clinical recovery from dysphagia we found a decreased activation in these two areas and a bilateral cortical activation of the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortex comparable to the results seen in a healthy control group. Conclusion These findings indicate parallel development to normalization of swallowing related cortical activation and clinical recovery from dysphagia and highlight the importance of the insula and the PPC for the central coordination of swallowing. The results suggest that MEG examination of swallowing can reflect short-term changes in patients suffering from neurogenic dysphagia.

  1. The effect of dairy farm management regime on swallow (Hirundo rustica) abundance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, S.K.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify differences in Swallow abundance between organically and conventionally managed dairy farms, by examining three factors: farm buildings, food availability and farmer attitudes to Swallows. Methods Organic and conventional dairy farm holdings were compared in pairwise fashion. On

  2. Role of Basal Ganglia in Swallowing Process: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh Ghaemi; Davood Sobhani-Rad; Ali Arabi; Sadegh Saifpanahi; Zahra Ghayoumi Anaraki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The basal ganglia (BG) controls different patterns of behavior by receiving inputs from sensory-motor and pre-motor cortex and projecting it to pre-frontal, pre-motor and supplementary motor areas. As the exact role of BG in swallowing process has not been fully determined, we aimed at reviewing the published data on neurological control in the swallowing technique to have a better understanding of BG’s role in this performance.  Methods: English-language articles, w...

  3. Comparison of endoscopy and barium swallow with marshmallow in dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, S; Stevenson, G W; Thompson, G

    1986-06-01

    Forty-four patients with dysphagia were examined both by endoscopy and by barium swallow with a marshmallow bolus. In these patients 36 stenoses were found: 34 by radiology and 30 by endoscopy. The radiologic criteria for stenosis included arrest of the marshmallow in a manner to support a column of barium and reproduction of the patient's symptoms at the time this occurred. Radiologic false negative findings were partly due to an inability by patients to swallow an adequate marshmallow bolus; endoscopic failures were associated with small endoscopes and mild stenoses.

  4. Swallowing function in pediatric patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Wu, Derek; Nassar, Michel; Tan, Melin

    2017-02-01

    Infants with bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) often have poor swallow function in addition to potential airway compromise. While there are several reports on BVFI and its effect on patients' airway status, little is known about long term swallow function. We aim to characterize the swallowing function over time in pediatric patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility. A retrospective review of medical records of infants diagnosed with BVFI at a tertiary care children's hospital between 2005 and 2014 was conducted. Patient demographics, nature and etiology of immobility, laryngoscopy findings, comorbidities, and swallow outcomes at diagnosis and follow-up were recorded. Swallowing outcomes as measured by presence or absence of a gastrostomy tube were compared by etiology, vocal fold status, and normal or developmentally delay using the Fisher's exact test. 110 patients with a diagnosis of vocal fold immobility were identified. Twenty-nine (26%) had BVFI and twenty-three had complete medical records. Etiologies of vocal fold immobility include cardiac related in 13% (3/23), idiopathic in 30% (7/23) prolonged intubation in 26% (6/23) central neurologic in 22% (5/23), trauma in 4% (1/23), and infection in 4% (1/23). Average follow-up time was 44 months (range 5-94 months). Ten patients (56.5%) required a gastrostomy tube at time of diagnosis. Of this cohort who received gastrostomy tubes, three (30%) ultimately transitioned to complete oral feeds. Return of vocal fold mobility did not correlate with swallow function. In those with non-neurologic etiologies, the need for gastrostomy tube at end of follow up was unlikely. There was a statistically significant difference in the percentage of gastrostomy tube-free children at most recent follow up in patients who were normally developed (86%) versus those who were developmentally delayed (33%) (p = 0.02). We characterized the swallowing function of 23 pediatric patients with BVFI. Comorbidities are significant

  5. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to ... bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other ...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick How to treat a bee sting When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite Splinters Treating sunburn Wound care Nail care ...

  8. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  9. Insecticide assays against the brown stink bug feeding on pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae), and other agronomic crops across the southeastern U.S. Management of this pest is mainly via insecticides. Many commercial products indicate o...

  10. Big-Eyed Bugs Have Big Appetite for Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of arthropod natural enemies (predators and parasitoids) inhabit crop fields in Arizona and can have a large negative impact on several pest insect species that also infest these crops. Geocoris spp., commonly known as big-eyed bugs, are among the most abundant insect predators in field c...

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs. ... t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid= ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dress appropriately to prevent bug bites. Cover exposed skin as much as possible by wearing long-sleeved shirts, pants, socks and closed shoes instead of sandals. For additional protection, pull your socks up over your pants and ...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  14. Protecting Yourself from Bed Bugs in Public Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... office. By reducing clutter in your workplace or school, you provide fewer places for the bed bugs to hide and fewer opportunities for them to hitchhike to your home. Keep your ... office or school, consider storing your belongings in a plastic bin. ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Private payer Medicare physician payment MACRA implementation Alternative payment models Fee schedule State policy State policy and action ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var ...

  16. Kissing Bug (Triatoma spp.) Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Stephen A; Shirazi, F Mazda; Boesen, Keith; Beatty, Norman L; Dorn, Patricia L; Smith, Shannon; Schmidt, Justin O

    2016-01-01

    Kissing bugs (Triatoma spp.) frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae). Construction features such as concrete foundations, solid walls and ceilings, window screens, tight thresholds for doors and windows, and other measures impede bug entry into homes, and air conditioning reduces the need for open doors and windows. Where Chagas disease is endemic in Mexico and Central and South America, homes often have thatch roofs, adobe walls, and open doors and windows. We investigated numerous instances of kissing bug intrusions into homes in Southern Arizona, California, and Louisiana and documented the reactions to kissing bug bites. Our work confirms the importance of modern home construction in limiting kissing bug intrusions. Older homes, especially those lacking modern screening, caulking, and weather stripping to reduce air leakage, may be subject to kissing bug intrusions and domiciliation. We describe a community in Southern Arizona where domiciliation of homes by Triatoma recurva is common. We also provide recent data regarding kissing bug bites and allergic reactions to the bites.

  17. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  18. Acoustic analysis of swallowing sounds: a new technique for assessing dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamato, Andrea; Panza, Francesco; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Russo, Anna; Frisardi, Vincenza; Megna, Marisa; Ranieri, Maurizio; Fiore, Pietro

    2009-07-01

    To perform acoustic analysis of swallowing sounds, using a microphone and a notebook computer system, in healthy subjects and patients with dysphagia affected by neurological diseases, testing the positive/negative predictive value of a pathological pattern of swallowing sounds for penetration/aspiration. Diagnostic test study, prospective, not blinded, with the penetration/aspiration evaluated by fibreoptic endoscopy of swallowing as criterion standard. Data from a previously recorded database of normal swallowing sounds for 60 healthy subjects according to gender, age, and bolus consistency was compared with those of 15 patients with dysphagia from a university hospital referral centre who were affected by various neurological diseases. Mean duration of the swallowing sounds and post-swallowing apnoea were recorded. Penetration/aspiration was verified by fibreoptic endoscopy of swallowing in all patients with dysphagia. The mean duration of swallowing sounds for a liquid bolus of 10 ml water was significantly different between patients with dysphagia and healthy patients. We also described patterns of swallowing sounds and tested the negative/positive predictive values of post-swallowing apnoea for penetration/aspiration verified by fibreoptic endoscopy of swallowing (sensitivity 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.24-0.94); specificity 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.56-1.00)). The proposed technique for recording and measuring swallowing sounds could be incorporated into the bedside evaluation, but it should not replace the use of more diagnostic and valuable measures.

  19. Disturbance of food ingestion and swallowing due to late toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Masanori; Ishitoya, Junichi; Ikeda, Youichi; Shiono, Osamu; Kawano, Toshirou; Tsukuda, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate late disturbance of food ingestion and swallowing in patients with advanced head and neck carcinoma after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Patients answered a questionnaire, the Quality of Life Radiation Therapy Instrument (QOL-RTI) for Japanese, and swallowing function was investigated by videoendoscopy (VE) more than 1 year after treatment. The results of patients after CCRT were compared with normal elderly serving as the control group. The total QOL score of the patient group was significantly lower than that of the control group. In terms of the results of the QOL questionnaires, the QOL scores for quantity of saliva, quality of saliva, taste and food swallowing were significantly lower in the patient group. Regarding the VE findings, the control group exhibited almost normal swallowing function, but pooling in the vallecura, laryngeal palsy and pooling in the hypopharynx were observed in the phase of not swallowing. Furthermore, dysfunction of swallowing using the colored water swallowing test was observed in about 40% of the patients. In addition, the factors associated with disturbance of QOL score and swallowing function were analyzed. All factors, id est (i.e.), age, T and N classification, stage, duration after treatment, acute toxicity of chemoradiotherapy and order of chemotherapy, had not influence on food ingestion or swallowing. Patients after CCRT might have potential dysfunction of swallowing. The colored water swallowing test is useful for diagnosis of swallowing dysfunction in head and neck cancer patients after CCRT. (author)

  20. Treatment of post-stroke dysphagia by vitalstim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenguang; Zheng, Chanjuan; Lei, Qingtao; Tang, Zhouping; Hua, Qiang; Zhang, Yangpu; Zhu, Suiqiang

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of VitalStim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training on recovery of post-stroke dysphagia, a total of 120 patients with post-stroke dysphagia were randomly and evenly divided into three groups: conventional swallowing therapy group, VitalStim therapy group, and VitalStim therapy plus conventional swallowing therapy group. Prior to and after the treatment, signals of surface electromyography (sEMG) of swallowing muscles were detected, swallowing function was evaluated by using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (SSA) and Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS) tests, and swallowing-related quality of life (SWAL-QOL) was evaluated using the SWAL-QOL questionnaire. There were significant differences in sEMG value, SSA, VFSS, and SWAL-QOL scores in each group between prior to and after treatment. After 4-week treatment, sEMG value, SSA, VFSS and SWAL-QOL scores were significantly greater in the VitalStim therapy plus conventional swallowing training group than in the conventional swallowing training group and VitalStim therapy group, but no significant difference existed between conventional swallowing therapy group and VitalStim therapy group. It was concluded that VitalStim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training was conducive to recovery of post-stroke dysphagia.

  1. Harvesting Venom Toxins from Assassin Bugs and Other Heteropteran Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew Allan; Rosenthal, Max; Undheim, Eivind E A; King, Glenn F

    2018-04-21

    Heteropteran insects such as assassin bugs (Reduviidae) and giant water bugs (Belostomatidae) descended from a common predaceous and venomous ancestor, and the majority of extant heteropterans retain this trophic strategy. Some heteropterans have transitioned to feeding on vertebrate blood (such as the kissing bugs, Triatominae; and bed bugs, Cimicidae) while others have reverted to feeding on plants (most Pentatomomorpha). However, with the exception of saliva used by kissing bugs to facilitate blood-feeding, little is known about heteropteran venoms compared to the venoms of spiders, scorpions and snakes. One obstacle to the characterization of heteropteran venom toxins is the structure and function of the venom/labial glands, which are both morphologically complex and perform multiple biological roles (defense, prey capture, and extra-oral digestion). In this article, we describe three methods we have successfully used to collect heteropteran venoms. First, we present electrostimulation as a convenient way to collect venom that is often lethal when injected into prey animals, and which obviates contamination by glandular tissue. Second, we show that gentle harassment of animals is sufficient to produce venom extrusion from the proboscis and/or venom spitting in some groups of heteropterans. Third, we describe methods to harvest venom toxins by dissection of anaesthetized animals to obtain the venom glands. This method is complementary to other methods, as it may allow harvesting of toxins from taxa in which electrostimulation and harassment are ineffective. These protocols will enable researchers to harvest toxins from heteropteran insects for structure-function characterization and possible applications in medicine and agriculture.

  2. Adolescents' struggles with swallowing tablets: barriers, strategies and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Tulinius, Ditte; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-01-01

    To explore adolescents' struggles with taking oral medications. Copenhagen, Denmark. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 89 adolescents (33 boys, 56 girls) between the ages of 11 and 20. Adolescents were recruited through four public schools. To identify struggles with taking oral medication, interview transcripts were systematically searched for statements including the terms swallow, chew, crush and eat. Thematic analysis of the identified statements was carried out to reveal dominant themes in the adolescents' accounts. Over one-third of the adolescents spontaneously provided accounts of the difficulties they experienced with taking oral medications, especially with swallowing tablets. Three themes were dominant in their narratives: barriers, strategies and learning. Barriers experienced by the adolescents involved the medications' properties, e.g. taste. Adolescents developed strategies to overcome these barriers, e.g. crushing tablets. Via a process of learning-by-doing and the acquisition of increased experience and autonomy, many adolescents mastered the skill of swallowing tablets. Many adolescents experienced barriers in their attempts to swallow tablets. They developed various strategies to overcome these barriers and gradually mastered taking medicines in a learning-by-doing process.

  3. Swallowing function before and after concurrent chemoradiotherapy for pharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyuna, Asanori; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Higa, Asano; Shinhama, Akihiko; Suzuki, Mikio

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for patients with advanced head or neck cancer has become popular as an effective treatment that can preserve their organs and functions after treatment. However, severe dysfunctions as the complications related to CCRT, e.g. dysphagia, sometimes appear in spite of preservation of the affected organs. The aim of the present study is to clarify swallowing function during and after CCRT. Medical records of subjects who received CCRT for treatment of oropharyngeal (21 cases) and hypopharyngeal (19 cases) cancer were retrospectively reviewed for mucositis and dysphagia before, during, and after CCRT using National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) version 2.0. Severity of mucositis and dysphagia kept deteriorating during CCRT and 27.5% of the subjects required tube feeding at the end of CCRT. The mucositis improved rapidly after treatment, but severe dysphagia still persisted in 7.5% of the subjects 6 months after CCRT. Planned neck dissections were carried out in 14 patients as additional treatment against lymph node involvement. Although severe dysphagia appeared immediately after surgery, swallowing function returned to preoperative condition within 1 month. The majority of patients who receive CCRT recover their swallowing function within 6 months after CCRT. However, since some patients demonstrate prolonged dysphagia after CCRT, we should receive informed consent from patients about their swallowing condition after CCRT. (author)

  4. Mastication and swallowing : influence of fluid addition to foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Luciano Jose; Duarte Gaviao, Maria Beatriz; Engelen, Lina; van der Bilt, Andries

    2007-01-01

    introduction: The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. Objectives: The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence

  5. Evaluation of swallowing disorders with videofluoroscopy in Austria: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhuber, Edith; Schima, Wolfgang; Stadler, Alfred; Schober, Ewald; Schibany, Nadja; Denk, Doris-Maria

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the availability of videofluoroscopy to examine patients with swallowing disorders in Austria. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was sent to the department heads of the radiology departments of all hospitals (n=143) and to all non-hospital-based radiologic practices (n=226) throughout Austria. The survey focused on the availability of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies and on the studies performed in patients with deglutition disorders. Results: The questionnaire was completed and returned by 134 of 143 radiology departments (94%) and 65 of 226 non-hospital-based radiologists (29%). Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies were performed in 38 of 134 radiology departments (28%) and in 21 of 65 practices (32%). The method is available in all nine Austrian states (100%) and 27 of 99 districts (27%). The number of examinations performed in different states ranged from 0.7 to 19 studies/10,000 population per year. The number of videofluoroscopic examinations per department or practice in the year 2001 ranged between 5 and 690 (median, 100 examinations). To 85% of videofluoroscopy units patients were referred from otorhinolaryngology/phoniatrics-logopedics, to 69% of videofluoroscopy units referrals were also from internal medicine, from neurology in 54%, and from pediatrics in 20%. Conclusion: Despite the widespread availability of videofluoroscopy throughout Austria, its use still varies largely between different states. The data show that in general there is a wide-spread demand for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies

  6. Current conservation status of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall probability of extinction of the species in the wild is 3%. Minimum viable population size analysis suggests that a goal for the long-term conservation of the Blue Swallow should be to mitigate current threats that are driving declines such that the population increases to a minimum of 3 600 individuals. This should ...

  7. Quantitative Measures of Swallowing Deficits in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerston, Julia K; Heller, Amanda C; Houtz, Daniel R; Kendall, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Dysphagia and associated aspiration pneumonia are commonly reported sequelae of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies of swallowing in patients with PD have described prolonged pharyngeal transit time, delayed onset of pharyngeal transit, cricopharyngeal (CP) achalasia, reduced pharyngeal constriction, and slowed hyolaryngeal elevation. These studies were completed using inconsistent evaluation methodology, reliance on qualitative analysis, and a lack of a large control group, resulting in concerns regarding diagnostic precision. The purpose of this study was to investigate swallowing function in patients with PD using a norm-referenced, quantitative approach. This retrospective study includes 34 patients with a diagnosis of PD referred to a multidisciplinary voice and swallowing clinic. Modified barium swallow studies were performed using quantitative measures of pharyngeal transit time, hyoid displacement, CP sphincter opening, area of the pharynx at maximal constriction, and timing of laryngeal vestibule closure relative to bolus arrival at the CP sphincter. Reduced pharyngeal constriction was found in 30.4%, and a delay in airway closure relative to arrival of the bolus at the CP sphincter was the most common abnormality, present in 62% of patients. Previously reported findings of prolonged pharyngeal transit, poor hyoid elevation, and CP achalasia were not identified as prominent features. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. [Age-related changes in swallowing. Physiology and pathophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, P; Wirth, R; Glahn, J; Dziewas, R

    2015-04-01

    The term presbyphagia refers to all changes of swallowing physiology that are manifested with increasing age. Alterations in the pattern of deglutition that are part of healthy aging are called primary presbyphagia. Primary presbyphagia is not an illness in itself but contributes to a more pervasive naturally diminished functional reserve, making older adults more susceptible to dysphagia. If disorders in swallowing occur in the elderly as a comorbidity of a specific disease, for example stroke or neurodegenerative disorders, this is called secondary presbyphagia. Increasing age has an impact on each stage of deglutition. In the oral preparatory phase a diminished input for smell and taste as well as a usually multifactorial cause of dry mouth are the most important influencing factors. Sarcopenia, the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality associated with aging, interferes in particular with the oropharyngeal phase. A decreased sensory feedback from the oropharyngeal mucosa leads to a delayed triggering of the swallowing reflex. Finally, a reduction in connective tissue elasticity and changes of the axial skeleton lead to various modifications of the swallowing pattern with advanced age.

  9. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  10. Effect of posture on swallowing | Alghadir | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Swallowing is a systematic process. Any structural, physiological or neurological disturbance in this process may cause dysphagia. Although there are studies that report head/neck movements during mastication, there are fewer studies that show the effect of different head/neck postures on difficulty while ...

  11. \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the Khotso legend. Felicity Wood. Abstract. No Abstract. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS) Vol. 4(1) 2005: 347-359. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Tongue-mandible coupling movements during saliva swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the tongue and mandible positions and displacements in relation to the maxilla in the midsagittal plane to characterize the different saliva swallowing patterns by recording their kinematics. A 2D electromagnetic articulograph using four transducer coils, three attached to the upper surface of the tongue midline plus one attached to the chin anterior part allowed continuous evaluation of tongue and chin movements in twelve young adults in good general health. During 170 s sequences recorded at a frequency of 100 Hz, subjects were at rest, silently reading a text they had chosen. The subjects were free to swallow during the sequence. Deglutition of accumulated saliva was analysed after averaging all values obtained during successive 250 ms periods. We identified three elementary swallowing patterns. Mean duration of tongue-mandible movements were 1·51 ± 0·17 s, 1·63 ± 0·14 s and 2·00 ± 0·08 s for the first, second and third patterns respectively. In the light of other studies based on intra-oral pressure recordings, our results help to understand the tongue-mandible coupling behaviours involved in managing an in-mouth saliva bolus during the three elementary swallowing patterns identified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  14. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Santangelo, Richard G; Barbarin, Alexis M; Schal, Coby

    2018-01-01

    Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust) and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  15. Effective Bug Finding in C Programs with Shape and Effect Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when the manipula......Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when...... the Linux kernel. Our results show that our tool is more effective at finding bugs than similar code-scanning tools. EBA analyzes the drivers/ directory of Linux (nine thousand files) in less than thirty minutes, and uncovers a handful previously unknown double-lock bugs in various drivers....

  16. WinBUGSio: A SAS Macro for the Remote Execution of WinBUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Smith

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a macro which facilitates remote execution of WinBUGS from within SAS. The macro pre-processes data for WinBUGS, writes the WinBUGS batch-script, executes this script and reads in output statistics from the WinBUGS log-file back into SAS native format. The user specifies the input and output file names and directory path as well as the statistics to be monitored in WinBUGS. The code works best for a model that has already been set up and checked for convergence diagnostics within WinBUGS. An obvious extension of the use of this macro is for running simulations where the input and output files all have the same name but all that differs between simulation iterations is the input dataset. The functionality and syntax of the macro call are described in this paper and illustrated using a simple linear regression model.

  17. Stricture location predicts swallowing outcomes following endoscopic rendezvous procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine N; Shah, Rupali N; Buckmire, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    Complete pharyngoesophageal strictures may be encountered by the otolaryngologist as a consequence of radiation/chemoradiotherapy therapies for head and neck cancer. A combined anterograde and retrograde dilation procedure (rendezvous procedure) has proven to be a useful surgical intervention in these cases. We assess the long-term swallowing outcomes of this patient cohort including gastrostomy tube (G-tube) reliance, swallowing quality of life, and variables that contribute to improved swallowing outcomes. Retrospective chart review. A retrospective chart review of 18 consecutive patients treated with rendezvous procedures between April 2007 and May 2015 was carried out. Data were collected from chart review and follow-up telephone calls including demographics, surgical/postoperative course details, and Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) (swallowing quality of life) scores. The completion rate of the procedure was 83% (15 completed/3 procedures aborted). Average follow-up was 22 months. Thirteen of 15 (86.7%) achieved an oral diet, and 7/15 (46.7%) had their G-tube removed. G-tube-independent (GTI) patients had an average stricture length of 2.33 cm and an average distance from the incisors of 17.4 cm compared to G-tube dependent-(GTD) patients who had an average stricture length of 2.63 cm and 14.6 cm mean distance from the incisors (P = .66 and .0343, respectively). Final EAT-10 scores averaged 20.1 in GTI patients and 33.8 in GTD patients (P = .022). Stricture/incisor distance and EAT-10 scores demonstrated a moderate to strong negative correlation (r = -0.67). Following the endoscopic rendezvous procedure, swallowing outcomes and G-tube status is related to the distance of the stricture from the incisors. 2b Laryngoscope, 127:1388-1391, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Radiation doses to children during modified barium swallow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, Kelly A.; McMahon, Sandra M.; Long, Gillian; Bunch, Judith A.; Pandeya, Nirmala; Coakley, Kerry S.; Chang, Anne B.

    2007-01-01

    There are minimal data on radiation doses to infants and children undergoing a modified barium swallow (MBS) study. To document screening times, dose area product (DAP) and effective doses to children undergoing MBS and to determine factors associated with increased screening times and effective dose. Fluoroscopic data (screening time, DAP, kVp) for 90 consecutive MBS studies using pulse fluoroscopy were prospectively recorded; effective dose was calculated and data were analyzed for effects of behavior, number of swallow presentations, swallowing dysfunction and medical problems. Mean effective dose for the entire group was 0.0826 ± 0.0544 mSv, screening time 2.48 ± 0.81 min, and DAP 28.79 ± 41.72 cGy cm 2 . Significant differences were found across three age groups (≤1.0, >1.0-3.0 and >3.0 years) for effective dose (mean 0.1188, 0.0651 and 0.0529 mSv, respectively; P < 0.001), but not for screening time or DAP. Effective dose was correlated with screening time (P 0.007), DAP (P < 0.001), number of swallow presentations (P = 0.007), lower age (P = 0.017), female gender (P = 0.004), and height (P < 0.001). Screening time was correlated with total number of swallow presentations (P < 0.001) and DAP (P < 0.001). Screening times, DAP, effective dose, and child and procedural factors associated with higher effective doses are presented for children undergoing MBS studies. (orig.)

  19. Barn swallows nesting near radioactive leaching ponds in southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Markham, O.D.

    1978-01-01

    Seasonally occurring populations of barn swallows nest near the Test Reactor Area (TRA) radioactive leaching ponds on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site. These birds utilize leaching pond arthropods and are therefore capable of accumulating radioactive materials and exporting them from the INEL Site during migration. The breeding biology is discussed for these swallows and a control group located 100 km away. Total nestling mortality for the controls and a 1977 TRA population was found to be statistically identical. Over 20 fission and activation products have been detected in immature and adult TRA birds. Mean concentrations of detectable radionuclides were used to calculate internal dose rates, and results showed that Na-24 contributed about 72% of the total average of 21.9 mrad/d for adult birds. Concentration factors were also calculated for predominant radionuclides in swallows relative to filtered pond water. Data from LiF dosimeters in swallow nests constructed with contaminated mud indicated average dose rates were 84 mrad/d for eggs and 220 mrad/d for nestlings. Growth curves were constructed for the immature TRA birds and controls. The first clutch of TRA swallows was found to have a significantly lower mean growth rate constant than the first clutch of controls. The statistical difference in growth rate between the control and TRA first clutch populations may have resulted from differences in climate, nesting site habitat, or available food sources, and cannot be solely attributed to radiation exposure as a causative factor. Growth rate parameters for TRA birds were within the range of values reported in the literature

  20. Analysis of vocal and swallowing functions after horizontal glottectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloğlu, İlhan; Bal, Muhlis; Salturk, Ziya; Berkiten, Güler; Atar, Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess vocal and swallowing functions after horizontal glottectomy. Our study population was made up of 22 men aged 45 to 72 years (mean: 58.3) who underwent horizontal glottectomy and completed at least 1 year of follow-up. To compare postoperative results, 20 similarly aged men were included as a control group; all glottectomy patients and all controls were smokers. We used three methods-acoustic and aerodynamic voice analyses, the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenicity, and strain) scale, and the voice handicap index-30 (VHI-30)-to assess vocal function objectively, perceptually, and subjectively, respectively. We also assessed swallowing function objectively by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and subjectively with the M.D. Anderson dysphagia inventory (MDADI). The 22 patients were also subcategorized into three groups according to the extent of their arytenoid cartilage resection, and their outcomes were compared. Acoustic and aerodynamic analyses showed that the mean maximum phonation time was significantly shorter and the fundamental frequency was significantly lower in the glottectomy group than in the controls (p = 0.001 for both), and that the mean jitter and shimmer values and the mean harmonics-to-noise ratio were all significantly higher (p = 0.001 for all); there were no significant differences among the three arytenoid subgroups. Self-assessments revealed that there were no statistically significant differences among the three subgroups in GRBAS scale scores except for the breathiness score (p = 0.045), which was lower in the arytenoid preservation subgroup than in the total resection subgroup; there were no statistically significant differences among the three subgroups in VHI-30 scores. Finally, swallow testing found no statistically significant differences in FEES scores or MDADI scores. We conclude that horizontal glottectomy caused a deterioration in vocal function, but

  1. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  2. Dynamic evaluation of swallowing disorders with electron-beam tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raith, J.; Lindbichler, F.; Kern, R.; Groell, R.; Rienmueller, R.

    1996-01-01

    Three cases preselected by videofluorography were studied to evaluate whether electron beam tomography (EBT) permits more detailed dynamic imaging of swallowing disorders focusing on the mesonasopharyngeal segment, the hypopharynx and the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Immediately after videofluorographic examination of the oropharyngeal deglutition, EBT is performed. The patient is in a supine position and while the patient swallows a 20 ml bolus of water or diluted iodine containing contrast agent, a sequence of 20 images per level is scanned. The levels, which are determined by using the scout view, are oriented parallel to the hard palate either at the level of the hard palate to image the mesonasopharyngel segment or just above the hyoid bone to focus on the hypopharynx or at the location of the USE. The scan technique is a single-slice cinemode with a slice thickness of 3 mm (exposure time 100 ms, interscan delay 16 ms, 130 kV, 620 mA). The following structural interactions that we have so far been unable to image can be clearly demonstrated with EBT: During normal swallowing, the mesonasopharyngeal segment is completely and symmetrically closed by the soft palate and Passavant's cushion; lateral hypopharyngeal pouches can be located more precisely; and disorders of the UES can be differentiated into functional or morphologically caused disorders (e.g., goiter or cervical osteophytes). Videofluorography and cinematography are still the gold standard in functional evaluation of swallowing disorders. However, EBT permits dynamic imaging of pharyngeal deglutition in a preselected transverse plane and can give useful additional information concerning functional anatomical changes in the pharynx during swallowing. Further clinical evaluation is needed. (orig.) [de

  3. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  4. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immo A Hansen

    Full Text Available Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and odorant receptors (ORs associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco. Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers.

  5. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary C. DeVries

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692 ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724 ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386 ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176 ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134 ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102 ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs.

  6. Neural network pattern recognition of lingual-palatal pressure for automated detection of swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Aaron J; Krival, Kate R; Ridgel, Angela L; Hahn, Elizabeth C; Tyler, Dustin J

    2015-04-01

    We describe a novel device and method for real-time measurement of lingual-palatal pressure and automatic identification of the oral transfer phase of deglutition. Clinical measurement of the oral transport phase of swallowing is a complicated process requiring either placement of obstructive sensors or sitting within a fluoroscope or articulograph for recording. Existing detection algorithms distinguish oral events with EMG, sound, and pressure signals from the head and neck, but are imprecise and frequently result in false detection. We placed seven pressure sensors on a molded mouthpiece fitting over the upper teeth and hard palate and recorded pressure during a variety of swallow and non-swallow activities. Pressure measures and swallow times from 12 healthy and 7 Parkinson's subjects provided training data for a time-delay artificial neural network to categorize the recordings as swallow or non-swallow events. User-specific neural networks properly categorized 96 % of swallow and non-swallow events, while a generalized population-trained network was able to properly categorize 93 % of swallow and non-swallow events across all recordings. Lingual-palatal pressure signals are sufficient to selectively and specifically recognize the initiation of swallowing in healthy and dysphagic patients.

  7. Dysphagia progression and swallowing management in Parkinson's disease: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchesi, Karen Fontes; Kitamura, Satoshi; Mourão, Lucia Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is relatively common in individuals with neurological disorders. To describe the swallowing management and investigate associated factors with swallowing in a case series of patients with Parkinson's disease. It is a long-term study with 24 patients. The patients were observed in a five-year period (2006-2011). They underwent Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing, Functional Oral Intake Scale and therapeutic intervention every three months. In the therapeutic intervention they received orientation about exercises to improve swallowing. The Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's tests were used. The period of time for improvement or worsening of swallowing was described by Kaplan-Meier analysis. During the follow-up, ten patients improved, five stayed the same and nine worsened their swallowing functionality. The median time for improvement was ten months. Prior to the worsening there was a median time of 33 months of follow-up. There was no associated factor with improvement or worsening of swallowing. The maneuvers frequently indicated in therapeutic intervention were: chin-tuck, bolus consistency, bolus effect, strengthening-tongue, multiple swallows and vocal exercises. The swallowing management was characterized by swallowing assessment every three months with indication of compensatory and rehabilitation maneuvers, aiming to maintain the oral feeding without risks. There was no associated factor with swallowing functionality in this case series. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Dysphagia progression and swallowing management in Parkinson's disease: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fontes Luchesi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dysphagia is relatively common in individuals with neurological disorders. Objective: To describe the swallowing management and investigate associated factors with swallowing in a case series of patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: It is a long-term study with 24 patients. The patients were observed in a five-year period (2006-2011. They underwent Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing, Functional Oral Intake Scale and therapeutic intervention every three months. In the therapeutic intervention they received orientation about exercises to improve swallowing. The Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's tests were used. The period of time for improvement or worsening of swallowing was described by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: During the follow-up, ten patients improved, five stayed the same and nine worsened their swallowing functionality. The median time for improvement was ten months. Prior to the worsening there was a median time of 33 months of follow-up. There was no associated factor with improvement or worsening of swallowing. The maneuvers frequently indicated in therapeutic intervention were: chin-tuck, bolus consistency, bolus effect, strengthening-tongue, multiple swallows and vocal exercises. Conclusion: The swallowing management was characterized by swallowing assessment every three months with indication of compensatory and rehabilitation maneuvers, aiming to maintain the oral feeding without risks. There was no associated factor with swallowing functionality in this case series.

  9. A comparison between swallowing sounds and vibrations in patients with dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Faezeh; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L.; Perera, Subashan

    2017-01-01

    The cervical auscultation refers to the observation and analysis of sounds or vibrations captured during swallowing using either a stethoscope or acoustic/vibratory detectors. Microphones and accelerometers have recently become two common sensors used in modern cervical auscultation methods. There are open questions about whether swallowing signals recorded by these two sensors provide unique or complementary information about swallowing function; or whether they present interchangeable information. The aim of this study is to present a broad comparison of swallowing signals recorded by a microphone and a tri-axial accelerometer from 72 patients (mean age 63.94 ± 12.58 years, 42 male, 30 female), who underwent videofluoroscopic examination. The participants swallowed one or more boluses of thickened liquids of different consistencies, including thin liquids, nectar-thick liquids, and pudding. A comfortable self-selected volume from a cup or a controlled volume by the examiner from a 5ml spoon was given to the participants. A comprehensive set of features was extracted in time, information-theoretic, and frequency domains from each of 881 swallows presented in this study. The swallowing sounds exhibited significantly higher frequency content and kurtosis values than the swallowing vibrations. In addition, the Lempel-Ziv complexity was lower for swallowing sounds than those for swallowing vibrations. To conclude, information provided by microphones and accelerometers about swallowing function are unique and these two transducers are not interchangeable. Consequently, the selection of transducer would be a vital step in future studies. PMID:28495001

  10. Soft-robotic esophageal swallowing as a clinically-inspired bolus rheometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirven, Steven; Allen, Jacqueline; Xu, Weiliang; Cheng, Leo K

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of viscosity and peristaltic transport parameters on manometric pressure signatures, a reproducible swallowing process is required. Due to inter- and intra-subject variability from swallow to swallow, the human body does not represent an optimal mechanism for such an investigation. A smooth and continuous swallowing soft-robot has been developed to produce biomimetic swallowing trajectories, and is proposed to operate as a bench-top bolus rheometric investigation method. The method compares conventional viscometry and pressure signature findings from robotic swallowing experiments. The robotic aspect of experimentation involved 450 biomimetic swallows (10 repetitions of 45 unique experiments). The method examined swallowing transport in three dimensions: bolus formulation, peristaltic wavelength, and peristaltic velocity, each of which are known to contribute to safe and effective swallowing in vivo . It is found that the pressure gradients and magnitudes are commensurate with clinical reports on biological swallowing, on the order of 100 mmHg peak, however, the relationship between viscosity and pressure signatures is less clear. Bolus transport cannot be predicted as a function of bolus viscosity alone. Traditional viscometric data at 50 s −1 , as used in clinical practice, may not be a strong indicator of swallow effort, safety, or efficacy in vivo . (paper)

  11. Prevalence of bed bug (Cimex lectularius in human settlement area of Bahnamir, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Farzad Motevalli Haghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey the factors concerning with bed bugs epidemiology among human settlement area of Bahnamir, Iran in 2012-2013. Methods: Bed bugs were collected from 500 households which lived in eight villages in suburban areas. After random cluster classification, we checked their houses to collect information on presence of bed bugs. When bed bugs infestation revealed, they were preserved in properly labeled specimen containing 70% alcohol. Bugs were transferred to the Faculty of Health and identified by stereomicroscopy. A questionnaire was filled by the owners. The recorded data were coded and analyzed statistically using the Chi-square test. Results: In the study area, 14 from 500 families were infested by bed bugs which revealed almost 2.8% of infestation in that area. Five infested villages had shown 62.50% infestation. From the total of 256 caught bugs, 56.45%, 31.25%, 8.59%, and 3.91% was separated from bedroom, setting room, kitchen and other parts of the infested houses, respectively. Regarding to 256 trapped bugs in the bedroom, 33.2% were immature (nymph and 66.8% were mature. Conclusions: The results illustrated the role of education and guidance of the owners towards improving personal hygiene and public health with using insecticides to control by professional persons, not using secondhand instrument in the home and washing sheets and blankets and drying on suitable hot drier in order to reduce the infestation rate of bed bug among human settlement.

  12. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary C DeVries

    Full Text Available Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean < 2.5±1.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust. Heat treatments that eradicated the bed bug infestations failed to reduce histamine levels, even three months after treatment. We report a clear association between histamine levels in household dust and bed bug infestations. The high concentrations, persistence, and proximity to humans during sleep suggest that bed bug-produced histamine may represent an emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  13. Comparison of management strategies for squash bugs (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Shrefler, James W; Roberts, B Warren; Pair, Sam; Edelson, J V

    2004-12-01

    Two watermelon pest management practices, a squash trap crop and a standard recommendation using soil-applied carbofuran, were compared using large-scale field plots to assess trap crop suitability as a replacement for the standard in 2000, 2001, and 2002. In both systems, foliar insecticide applications were used to control squash bugs when populations exceeded threshold levels. During 2001 and 2002, a treatment of untreated watermelon was used. Early season adult insects, from seedling to fruit set, are most critical for watermelon. Significantly fewer early adult bugs were found on watermelon in the trap crop than in the standard recommended practice in 1 of 3 yr. In both years, significantly fewer adult squash bugs were found in watermelon in the trap crop than in untreated fields. The standard recommended practice significantly reduced adult squash bugs in watermelon compared with the untreated in 1 of 2 yr. There was no significant correlation of watermelon yield and squash bug density, indicating that squash bug densities were too low to impact yield. Although squash bugs were reduced significantly by the trap crop, marketable watermelon yields were lower in the squash trap crop than in untreated watermelon, suggesting that pest management treatments may interfere with crop productivity factors other than squash bug colonization. Results suggest that mid-season production squash bug should be managed by monitoring populations and using insecticides as needed rather than using at-plant treatment. Further research is needed to compare treatments during early-season production.

  14. Modified bug-1 algorithm based strategy for obstacle avoidance in multi robot system

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    Kandathil Jom J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary ability of an intelligent mobile robot system is obstacle avoidance. BUG algorithms are classic examples of the algorithms used for achieving obstacle avoidance. Unlike many other planning algorithms based on global knowledge, BUG algorithms assume only local knowledge of the environment and a global goal. Among the variations of the BUG algorithms that prevail, BUG-0, BUG-1 and BUG-2 are the more prominent versions. The exhaustive search algorithm present in BUG-1 makes it more reliable and safer for practical applications. Overall, this provides a more predictable and dependable performance. Hence, the essential focus in this paper is on implementing the BUG-1 algorithm across a group of robots to move them from a start location to a target location. The results are compared with the results from BUG-1 algorithm implemented on a single robot. The strategy developed in this work reduces the time involved in moving the robots from starting location to the target location. Further, the paper shows that the total distance covered by each robot in a multi robot-system is always lesser than or equal to that travelled by a single robot executing the same problem.

  15. A methodology for quantitatively managing the bug fixing process using Mahalanobis Taguchi system

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    Boby John

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The controlling of bug fixing process during the system testing phase of software development life cycle is very important for fixing all the detected bugs within the scheduled time. The presence of open bugs often delays the release of the software or result in releasing the software with compromised functionalities. These can lead to customer dissatisfaction, cost overrun and eventually the loss of market share. In this paper, the authors propose a methodology to quantitatively manage the bug fixing process during system testing. The proposed methodology identifies the critical milestones in the system testing phase which differentiates the successful projects from the unsuccessful ones using Mahalanobis Taguchi system. Then a model is developed to predict whether a project is successful or not with the bug fix progress at critical milestones as control factors. Finally the model is used to control the bug fixing process. It is found that the performance of the proposed methodology using Mahalanobis Taguchi system is superior to the models developed using other multi-dimensional pattern recognition techniques. The proposed methodology also reduces the number of control points providing the managers with more options and flexibility to utilize the bug fixing resources across system testing phase. Moreover the methodology allows the mangers to carry out mid- course corrections to bring the bug fixing process back on track so that all the detected bugs can be fixed on time. The methodology is validated with eight new projects and the results are very encouraging.

  16. Prevalence of swallowing dysfunction screened in Swedish cohort of COPD patients

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    Gonzalez Lindh M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Margareta Gonzalez Lindh,1,2 Monica Blom Johansson,1 Margareta Jennische,1 Hirsh Koyi2,3 1Department of Neuroscience, Speech and Language Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Centre for Research and Development (CFUG, Uppsala University, County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gävle Hospital, Gävle, Sweden Background: COPD is a common problem associated with morbidity and mortality. COPD may also affect the dynamics and coordination of functions such as swallowing. A misdirected swallow may, in turn, result in the bolus entering the airway. A growing body of evidence suggests that a subgroup of people with COPD is prone to oropharyngeal dysphagia. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing dysfunction in patients with stable COPD and to determine the relation between signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted.Methods: Fifty-one patients with COPD in a stable phase participated in a questionnaire survey, swallowing tests, and spirometry. A post-bronchodilator ratio of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/best of forced vital capacity and vital capacity <0.7 was used to define COPD. Swallowing function was assessed by a questionnaire and two swallowing tests (water and cookie swallow tests.Results: Sixty-five percent of the patients reported subjective signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction in the questionnaire and 49% showed measurable ones in the swallowing tests. For the combined subjective and objective findings, 78% had a coexisting swallowing dysfunction. No significant difference was found between male and female patients.Conclusion: Swallowing function is affected in COPD patients with moderate to severe airflow limitation, and the signs and symptoms of this swallowing dysfunction were subjective, objective, or both. Keywords: deglutition, deglutition disorders, swallowing, COPD, speech

  17. Bayesian Analysis for Penalized Spline Regression Using WinBUGS

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    Ciprian M. Crainiceanu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Penalized splines can be viewed as BLUPs in a mixed model framework, which allows the use of mixed model software for smoothing. Thus, software originally developed for Bayesian analysis of mixed models can be used for penalized spline regression. Bayesian inference for nonparametric models enjoys the flexibility of nonparametric models and the exact inference provided by the Bayesian inferential machinery. This paper provides a simple, yet comprehensive, set of programs for the implementation of nonparametric Bayesian analysis in WinBUGS. Good mixing properties of the MCMC chains are obtained by using low-rank thin-plate splines, while simulation times per iteration are reduced employing WinBUGS specific computational tricks.

  18. The nuclear dimension of the millennium bug: The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudeir, I.

    1999-01-01

    Two nuclear facilities operated by the AECS have been investigated for the Y2K compliance. Computers and associated electronic systems in the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor and the Co-60 irradiator facility were examined. Real time clocks (BIOS) of the personal computers failed Y2K bug and needed to be manually rolled over January 1st 2000. Leap year checks, however were successful. Application software used by the operators for controlling facilities and performing measurements were able to function normally

  19. An elementary introduction to Bayesian computing using WinBUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryback, D G; Stout, N K; Rosenberg, M A

    2001-01-01

    Bayesian statistics provides effective techniques for analyzing data and translating the results to inform decision making. This paper provides an elementary tutorial overview of the WinBUGS software for performing Bayesian statistical analysis. Background information on the computational methods used by the software is provided. Two examples drawn from the field of medical decision making are presented to illustrate the features and functionality of the software.

  20. Learning from Mistakes --- A Comprehensive Study on Real World Concurrency Bug Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Lu; Soyeon Park; Eunsoo Seo; Yuanyuan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The reality of multi-core hardware has made concurrent programs pervasive. Unfortunately, writing correct concurrent programs is difficult. Addressing this challenge requires advances in multiple directions, including concurrency bug detection, concurrent program testing, concurrent programming model design, etc. Designing effective techniques in all these directions will significantly benefit from a deep understanding of real world concurrency bug characteristics. This paper provides the first (to the best of our knowledge) comprehensive real world concurrency bug characteristic study. Specifically, we have carefully examined concurrency bug patterns, manifestation, and fix strategies of 105 randomly selected real world concurrency bugs from 4 representative server and client opensource applications (MySQL, Apache, Mozilla and OpenOffice). Our study reveals several interesting findings and provides useful guidance for concurrency bug detection, testing, and concurrent programming language design. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) Around one third of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs are caused by violation to programmers order intentions, which may not be easily expressed via synchronization primitives like locks and transactional memories; (2) Around 34% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs involve multiple variables, which are not well addressed by existing bug detection tools; (3) About 92% of the examined concurrency bugs can be reliably triggered by enforcing certain orders among no more than 4 memory accesses. This indicates that testing concurrent programs can target at exploring possible orders among every small groups of memory accesses, instead of among all memory accesses; (4) About 73% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs were not fixed by simply adding or changing locks, and many of the fixes were not correct at the first try, indicating the difficulty of reasoning concurrent execution by programmers.

  1. Swallowing endoscopy findings in Huntington's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thaís Coelho; Cola, Paula Cristina; Santos, Rarissa Rúbia Dallaqua Dos; Motonaga, Suely Mayumi; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a degenerative genetic disorder with autosomal-dominant transmission. The triad of symptoms of this disease consists of psychiatric disorders, jerky movements, and dementia. Oropharyngeal dysphagia, which is more evident with disease progression, is also present. Few studies have addressed the swallowing characteristics using objective analysis in this population. The purpose of this research was to describe the swallowing endoscopic findings of the pharyngeal phase in HD. This is a cross-sectional study addressing a clinical case which included two individuals of the same family, male, 32 and 63 years old, designated as individual A and individual B, with progression of the disease for five and 13 years, respectively. Consistent liquid, nectar, and puree were offered during the evaluation. There was presence of posterior oral spillage in liquid and nectar, small amount of pharyngeal residues, and no laryngeal penetration or aspiration in the individuals with HD in this study.

  2. "Music & Memory" and improved swallowing in advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dan; Post, Stephen G; Lo, Angela; Lombardo, Robin; Pfeffer, Brandon

    2018-01-01

    Background Dysphagia and difficulty with eating affects a significant portion of individuals with advanced dementia. Such problems with oral intake can have serious health consequences including mealtime distress, dehydration and malnutrition, aspiration, reduced quality of life, and increased mortality risk. Design We present the first data indicating that "Music & Memory" interventions improve swallowing in individuals with advanced dementia, thereby making oral feeding easier and potentially diminishing reliance on PEG. Setting Columbia Health Care Center, Wyocena, WI (with Music&Memory.org, Mineola, NY and Stony Brook University). Participants Residents with advanced dementia (N = 5). Observation by eight professional caregivers. Results (1) Enhanced swallowing mechanism with Music & Memory prior to dining; (2) decreased incidents of choking during mealtime; (3) improved nutritional status; (4) reduced weight loss; (5) reduced need for speech interventions; (6) enhanced quality of life. Conclusions The preliminary results call for additional research.

  3. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  4. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  5. Automated acoustic analysis in detection of spontaneous swallows in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabbakhsh, Marzieh; Rajaei, Ali; Derakhshan, Mahmoud; Sadri, Saeed; Taheri, Masoud; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-10-01

    Acoustic monitoring of swallow frequency has become important as the frequency of spontaneous swallowing can be an index for dysphagia and related complications. In addition, it can be employed as an objective quantification of ingestive behavior. Commonly, swallowing complications are manually detected using videofluoroscopy recordings, which require expensive equipment and exposure to radiation. In this study, a noninvasive automated technique is proposed that uses breath and swallowing recordings obtained via a microphone located over the laryngopharynx. Nonlinear diffusion filters were used in which a scale-space decomposition of recorded sound at different levels extract swallows from breath sounds and artifacts. This technique was compared to manual detection of swallows using acoustic signals on a sample of 34 subjects with Parkinson's disease. A speech language pathologist identified five subjects who showed aspiration during the videofluoroscopic swallowing study. The proposed automated method identified swallows with a sensitivity of 86.67 %, a specificity of 77.50 %, and an accuracy of 82.35 %. These results indicate the validity of automated acoustic recognition of swallowing as a fast and efficient approach to objectively estimate spontaneous swallow frequency.

  6. Assessment of the swallowing function in older individuals referred to myocardial revascularization surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Mara de Oliveira Rodrigues Luiz; Auler, José Otávio Costa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing evaluation of older individuals with coronary disease referred to heart surgery. To identify the characteristics of the swallowing function in older individuals referred to myocardial revascularization surgery (MR), using an evaluating protocol composed by a water test, cervical auscultation and pulse oximetry. The Assessment Protocol for Dysphagia Risk through a Combined Swallowing test and Vital Signs monitoring was used (PADTC)--measurements of HR and SpO2 (heart rate and oxygen saturation), water swallowing test with 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 e 20 ml, measurement of respiratory rate and cervical auscultation. The electronic stethoscope was used to analyze the number of swallows, response time and swallowing sound classification. In the Research Group (RG) older individuals with heart disease who were referred to MR were included. In the Control Group (CG) healthy older individuals were included. 38 older individuals were evaluated in the RG (mean age 68 years). In the CG, 30 older individuals were evaluated (mean age 70 years). There was a significant difference for the swallowing response time in older individuals with heart disease who presented HR below 60: swallowing response was shorter for 3 ml, 10 ml, 15 ml e 20 ml. HR was lower for individuals with heart disease. No significant difference was found between the groups for the other analyzed parameters. Older individuals with heart disease presented differences in the swallowing function when compared to healthy older individuals. Older individuals with heart disease presented alterations in the temporal coordination between breathing and swallowing, thus indicating risk for dysphagia.

  7. Volitional chewing with a conscious effort alters and facilitates swallowing during feeding sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, J; Hara, A; Nomura, T; Kondo, H

    2014-03-01

    The key objective of mastication is to form a food bolus suitable for smooth swallowing. However, chewing is usually performed without a conscious effort. Poor bolus formation can cause pharyngeal residue and suffocation in elderly individuals with reduced swallowing function. Therefore, chewing with a conscious effort may help the bolus to more easily pass the pharynx. This study aimed to clarify the impact of mastication with a conscious effort on the feeding sequence. Subjects included 25 dentulous volunteers who were informed and provided written consent. Lateral videofluoroscopy was performed during the feeding of solid agar jelly under two conditions: chewing naturally in their usual manner (without volition) and chewing with a conscious effort (with volition). Temporal evaluation was performed for mastication, stage II transport (STII), swallow onset and oropharyngeal transit time. Moreover, bolus volume at swallow onset and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness were measured. Volitional chewing with a conscious effort lengthened the duration of the chewing sequence before and after STII and delayed the swallow onset despite the fact that the bolus volume in the vallecula and hypopharynx (HYP) had significantly increased. Furthermore, with volition, the bolus transit time from swallow onset in the oral cavity, upper oropharynx and HYP was reduced, and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness demonstrated significant improvement. These results suggest that volitional chewing with a conscious effort can alter bolus transport and swallowing, resulting in easier swallowing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Difficult to swallow: patient preferences for alternative valproate pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali Bhosle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Monali Bhosle,1 Joshua S Benner,1 Mitch DeKoven,1 Jeff Shelton21Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health Inc, Falls Church, VA, USA; 2Answers and Insights Market Research, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjective: To determine the degree to which swallowing valproate (VP tablets is an issue, the proportion of patients who would prefer an alternative formulation, and the predictors of preference.Methods: A quantitative telephone survey of eligible adults (n = 400, ≥18 years old who currently take (n = 236 or previously took (n = 164 VP tablets within the past 6 months was conducted.Results: More than half of the patients indicated that VP tablets were ‘uncomfortable to swallow’ (68.5%, n = 274 and were ‘very interested’ (65.8%, n = 263 in medications that were easier to swallow. When choosing conceptually between taking VP tablet once/day or an equally safe and effective but significantly smaller soft gel capsule twice per day, the 82.8%, (n = 331 preferred the soft gel capsule. In the multivariate regression analysis, perceiving soft gel capsules to be easier to swallow (OR = 73.54; 95% CI = 15.01 to 360.40 and taking VP more frequently (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.13 to 3.61 were significant predictors of soft gel capsule treatment preference.Conclusion: VP users would prefer a formulation that is easier to swallow, even if it is needed to be taken twice per day. When choosing between medications with similar efficacy and safety, physicians can consider patient preferences to optimize conditions for medication adherence.Keywords: patient preference, valproate formulations, tablet characteristics

  9. Time budget of South African cliff swallows during breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of time by the South African cliff swallow was determined and use of energy calculated by using equations for predicting standard metabolic rate and the cost of flight. The highest daily energy expenditur.e was during the feeding of nestlings when 9,22 h were spent foraging. The cost of 127 kJ for building a nest is ...

  10. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  11. The feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging of the dynamic swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingquan; Gao Mingyong; Luo Suling; Lu Ruiliang; He Xiaohong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To offer some visual and valuable clinical bases for the pharynx disease diagnosis and treatment by comparing the influence of different scanning sequences on the image quality and scanning time, and studying the application to the dynamic swallowing MRI scanning. Methods: The dynamic swallowing scanning of pharyngeal was performed on 20 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients without deglutition disorders through GE 3.0 MRI system with fast imaging employing steady state acquisition (FIESTA) and fast gradient recalled echo (Fast GRE) sequences, and combined with the array spatial sensitivity encoding technique (ASSET), which accelerating factors was 2.0 ph, and sixty dynamic images were acquired sequentially. The image quality was graded into three classes:excellent, favorable and poor,which were visually assessed by three senior MRI physician using double-blinded method. The quantitative data were analyzed statistically with the SPSS13.0 software. Results: Under the same parameters,the scanning time with FIESTA, FIESTA+ASSET, Fast GRE and Fast GREA+ASSET sequences were 54 s, 28 s, 49 s and 25 s respectively. The number of excellent images with the four sequences were 44, 52, 52 and 56 respectively. The scanning time was the shortest and the image quality was the best with Fast GRE+ASSET sequence. Conclusions: The dynamic imaging of swallowing in sagittal view was achieved with Fast GRE+ASSET sequence on GE 3.0T MRI system. It could present status of the pharynx well, and the soft tissue of swallowing was showed clearly in the dynamic images. These will provide visual and effective evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  12. A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, S. K.; Tripathi, Dharmendra

    2011-01-01

    This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis N...

  13. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartl, Dana M. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)], E-mail: dmhartl@aol.com; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  14. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, Dana M.; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne; Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  15. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  16. Evaluation of Chewing and Swallowing Sensors for Monitoring Ingestive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward S

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring Ingestive Behavior (MIB) of individuals is of special importance to identify and treat eating patterns associated with obesity and eating disorders. Current methods for MIB require subjects reporting every meal consumed, which is burdensome and tend to increase the reporting bias over time. This study presents an evaluation of the burden imposed by two wearable sensors for MIB during unrestricted food intake: a strain sensor to detect chewing events and a throat microphone to detect swallowing sounds. A total of 30 healthy subjects with various levels of adiposity participated in experiments involving the consumption of four meals in four different visits. A questionnaire was handled to subjects at the end of the last visit to evaluate the sensors burden in terms of the comfort levels experienced. Results showed that sensors presented high comfort levels as subjects indicated that the way they ate their meal was not considerably affected by the presence of the sensors. A statistical analysis showed that chewing sensor presented significantly higher comfort levels than the swallowing sensor. The outcomes of this study confirmed the suitability of the chewing and swallowing sensors for MIB and highlighted important aspects of comfort that should be addressed to obtain acceptable and less burdensome wearable sensors for MIB.

  17. Bug-in-Ear eCoaching: Impacts on Novice Early Childhood Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Ottley, Jennifer R.; Rahn, Naomi L.; Storie, Sloan

    2018-01-01

    A multiple-probe, single-case design was used to determine the effects of bug-in-ear eCoaching on teachers' use of two targeted naturalistic communication strategies and focus children's responses to these strategies. Results indicated that bug-in-ear eCoaching enhanced teachers' use of communication strategies and the appropriate responses of…

  18. Comparing Fine-Grained Source Code Changes And Code Churn For Bug Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, E.; Pinzger, M.; Gall, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of research effort has been dedicated to learning prediction models that allow project managers to efficiently allocate resources to those parts of a software system that most likely are bug-prone and therefore critical. Prominent measures for building bug prediction models are

  19. Comparative Performance Analysis of Machine Learning Techniques for Software Bug Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Saiqa Aleem; Luiz Fernando Capretz; Faheem Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning techniques can be used to analyse data from different perspectives and enable developers to retrieve useful information. Machine learning techniques are proven to be useful in terms of software bug prediction. In this paper, a comparative performance analysis of different machine learning techniques is explored f or software bug prediction on public available data sets. Results showed most of the mac ...

  20. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical...

  1. Verde plant bug is associated with cottong boll rot in South Texas cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde plant bug was the dominant boll-feeding sucking bug species (>98% of insects collected using a beat bucket) from peak to late bloom in cotton fields near the coast along the Coastal Bend of South Texas, from Port Lavaca to the Lower Rio qrande Valley in 2010 and 2011. It was common in fields w...

  2. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  3. Area-wide management approach for tarnished plant bug in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is the major insect pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), within the Mid-South region. From 2001 to 2012, the tarnished plant bug has been the number one insect pest of cotton in Louisiana and Mississippi in eleven and nine of those...

  4. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  5. Edge effects of stink bugs in corn, cotton, peanut and soybean fields adjacent to woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  6. Swallowing sound detection using hidden markov modeling of recurrence plot features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad; Moussavi, Zahra

    2009-01-01

    Automated detection of swallowing sounds in swallowing and breath sound recordings is of importance for monitoring purposes in which the recording durations are long. This paper presents a novel method for swallowing sound detection using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features. Tracheal sound recordings of 15 healthy and nine dysphagic subjects were studied. The multidimensional state space trajectory of each signal was reconstructed using the Taken method of delays. The sequences of three recurrence plot features of the reconstructed trajectories (which have shown discriminating capability between swallowing and breath sounds) were modeled by three hidden Markov models. The Viterbi algorithm was used for swallowing sound detection. The results were validated manually by inspection of the simultaneously recorded airflow signal and spectrogram of the sounds, and also by auditory means. The experimental results suggested that the performance of the proposed method using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features was superior to the previous swallowing sound detection methods.

  7. Swallowing sound detection using hidden markov modeling of recurrence plot features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)], E-mail: umaboofa@cc.umanitoba.ca; Moussavi, Zahra [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)], E-mail: mousavi@ee.umanitoba.ca

    2009-01-30

    Automated detection of swallowing sounds in swallowing and breath sound recordings is of importance for monitoring purposes in which the recording durations are long. This paper presents a novel method for swallowing sound detection using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features. Tracheal sound recordings of 15 healthy and nine dysphagic subjects were studied. The multidimensional state space trajectory of each signal was reconstructed using the Taken method of delays. The sequences of three recurrence plot features of the reconstructed trajectories (which have shown discriminating capability between swallowing and breath sounds) were modeled by three hidden Markov models. The Viterbi algorithm was used for swallowing sound detection. The results were validated manually by inspection of the simultaneously recorded airflow signal and spectrogram of the sounds, and also by auditory means. The experimental results suggested that the performance of the proposed method using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features was superior to the previous swallowing sound detection methods.

  8. Comparison of Three Bed Bug Management Strategies in a Low-Income Apartment Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are currently controlled by a variety of non-chemical and chemical methods. There have been few studies on the comparative effectiveness of these control techniques. We evaluated three bed bug management strategies in an apartment building: (1 non-chemical methods only (n = 9; (2 insecticides only (n = 6; and (3 integrated pest management including both non-chemical methods and insecticides (n = 9. The apartments were one-bedroom units occupied by seniors or people with disabilities. Bed bug numbers in each apartment were determined by visual inspection and/or installing intercepting devices under bed and sofa legs. The median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and integrated pest management (IPM treatment were: 4 (1, 57, 19 (1, 250, and 14 (1, 219, respectively prior to the treatments. The apartments were retreated if found necessary during biweekly to monthly inspections. After 10 weeks, bed bugs were found to be eliminated from 67, 33, and 44% of the apartments in the three treatment groups, respectively. The final (after 10 weeks median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and IPM treatment were: 0 (0, 134, 11.5 (0, 58, and 1 (0, 38, respectively. There were no significant differences in the speed of bed bug count reduction or the final bed bug counts. Lack of resident cooperation partially contributed to the failure in eliminating bed bugs from some of the apartments. Results of this study suggest that non-chemical methods can effectively eliminate bed bugs in lightly infested apartments.

  9. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, F P F; Meijer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated. Stink bugs were spatially aggregated on the third week of bloom in 2011. Boll injury from stink bugs was spatially aggregated during the fourth week of bloom in 2012. The NDVI values were aggregated during both years. There was a positive association and correlation between stink bug numbers and NDVI values, as well as injured bolls and NDVI values, during the third week of bloom in 2011. During the third week of bloom in 2012, NDVI values were negatively correlated with stink bug numbers. During the fourth week of bloom in 2011, stink bug numbers and boll injury were both positively associated and correlated with NDVI values. During the fourth week of bloom in 2012, stink bugs were negatively correlated with NDVI values, and boll injury was negatively associated and correlated with NDVI values. This study suggests the potential of remote sensing as a tool to assist with sampling stink bugs in cotton, although more research is needed using NDVI and other plant measurements to predict stink bug injury. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo Tematico Controle Biologico

    2008-09-15

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  11. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  12. Spontaneous swallowing frequency has potential to identify dysphagia in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases, swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute [SPM]) were compared with stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with versus without clinically significant dysphagia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM, which was compared with a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was used to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a threshold of SPM≤0.40 that identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5- to 10-minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel.

  13. Spontaneous Swallowing Frequency [Has Potential to] Identify Dysphagia in Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. Methods In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute: SPM) were compared to stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with vs. without clinically significant dysphagia. ROC analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM which was compared to a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was employed to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. Results SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. ROC analysis yielded a threshold of SPM ≤ 0.40 which identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5 to 10 minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Conclusions Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel. PMID:24149008

  14. Aspiration and swallowing in Parkinson disease and rehabilitation with EMST: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, M S; Okun, M S; Rosenbek, J C; Musson, N; Fernandez, H H; Rodriguez, R; Romrell, J; Pitts, T; Wheeler-Hegland, K M; Sapienza, C M

    2010-11-23

    Dysphagia is the main cause of aspiration pneumonia and death in Parkinson disease (PD) with no established restorative behavioral treatment to date. Reduced swallow safety may be related to decreased elevation and excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex. Increased submental muscle force generation has been associated with expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and subsequent increases in hyolaryngeal complex movement provide a strong rationale for its use as a dysphagia treatment. The current study's objective was to test the treatment outcome of a 4-week device-driven EMST program on swallow safety and define the physiologic mechanisms through measures of swallow timing and hyoid displacement. This was a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled EMST trial performed at an academic center. Sixty participants with PD completed EMST, 4 weeks, 5 days per week, for 20 minutes per day, using a calibrated or sham, handheld device. Measures of swallow function including judgments of swallow safety (penetration-aspiration [PA] scale scores), swallow timing, and hyoid movement were made from videofluoroscopic images. No pretreatment group differences existed. The active treatment (EMST) group demonstrated improved swallow safety compared to the sham group as evidenced by improved PA scores. The EMST group demonstrated improvement of hyolaryngeal function during swallowing, findings not evident for the sham group. EMST may be a restorative treatment for dysphagia in those with PD. The mechanism may be explained by improved hyolaryngeal complex movement. This intervention study provides Class I evidence that swallow safety as defined by PA score improved post EMST.

  15. Objective Measures of Swallowing Function Applied to the Dysphagia Population: A One Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine A; Ellerston, Julia; Heller, Amanda; Houtz, Daniel R; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative, reliable measures of swallowing physiology can be made from an modified barium swallowing study. These quantitative measures have not been previously employed to study large dysphagic patient populations. The present retrospective study of 139 consecutive patients with dysphagia seen in a university tertiary voice and swallowing clinic sought to use objective measures of swallowing physiology to (1) quantify the most prevalent deficits seen in the patient population, (2) identify commonly associated diagnoses and describe the most prevalent swallowing deficits, and (3) determine any correlation between objective deficits and Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) scores and body mass index. Poor pharyngeal constriction (34.5 %) and airway protection deficits (65.5 %) were the most common swallowing abnormalities. Reflux-related dysphagia (36 %), nonspecific pharyngeal dysphagia (24 %), Parkinson disease (16 %), esophageal abnormality (13 %), and brain insult (10 %) were the most common diagnoses. Poor pharyngeal constriction was significantly associated with an esophageal motility abnormality (p dysphagia symptoms as determined by the EAT-10 did not correlate with swallowing function abnormalities. This preliminary study indicates that reflux disease is common in patients with dysphagia and that associated esophageal abnormalities are common in dysphagic populations and may be associated with specific pharyngeal swallowing abnormalities. However, symptom scores from the EAT-10 did not correspond to swallowing pathophysiology.

  16. The relationship between limit of Dysphagia and average volume per swallow in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; Gomes, Nathália Angelina Costa; Coriolano, Maria das Graças Wanderley de Sales; de Souza, Elizabete Santos; Moura, Danielle Albuquerque Alves; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain the limit of dysphagia and the average volume per swallow in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) but without swallowing complaints and in normal subjects, and to investigate the relationship between them. We hypothesize there is a direct relationship between these two measurements. The study included 10 patients with idiopathic PD and 10 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was recorded over the suprahyoid muscle group. The limit of dysphagia was obtained by offering increasing volumes of water until piecemeal deglutition occurred. The average volume per swallow was calculated by dividing the time taken by the number of swallows used to drink 100 ml of water. The PD group showed a significantly lower dysphagia limit and lower average volume per swallow. There was a significantly moderate direct correlation and association between the two measurements. About half of the PD patients had an abnormally low dysphagia limit and average volume per swallow, although none had spontaneously related swallowing problems. Both measurements may be used as a quick objective screening test for the early identification of swallowing alterations that may lead to dysphagia in PD patients, but the determination of the average volume per swallow is much quicker and simpler.

  17. Children with central and peripheral neurologic disorders have distinguishable patterns of dysphagia on videofluoroscopic swallow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Erasmus, Corrie E; van Hulst, Karen C M; Arvedson, Joan C; de Groot, Imelda J M; de Swart, Bert J M

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether findings on videofluoroscopic swallow studies reveal different patterns of dysphagia between children with central and peripheral neurologic disorders, a retrospective study of 118 videofluoroscopic swallow studies was completed. There were 3 groups: cerebral palsy with only spastic features (n = 53), cerebral palsy with dyskinetic features (n = 34), and neuromuscular disorders (myotonic dystrophy I, n = 5; spinal muscular atrophy I-II, n = 8; Duchenne muscular dystrophy, n = 8; other neuromuscular disorder, n = 10). Interpretation of the videofluoroscopic swallow studies was not blinded. The video fluoroscopic swallow study findings were compared dichotomously between the groups. Children with cerebral palsy demonstrated dysphagia in 1 or all phases of swallowing. In neuromuscular disorder, muscle weakness results in pharyngeal residue after swallow. The underlying swallowing problem in neuromuscular disorder is muscle weakness whereas that in cerebral palsy is more complex, having to do with abnormal control of swallowing. This study serves as a first exploration on specific characteristics of swallowing in different neurologic conditions and will help clinicians anticipate what they might expect.

  18. Computational Analysis of Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics in Patients with Motor Neuron Disease: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, K L; Schwertner, Ryan; Chen, Amy; Pearson, William G

    2018-04-01

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) is a common sequela in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot investigation was to characterize how pharyngeal swallowing mechanics are impacted in patients with MND using a comparison with healthy, non-dysphagic control group. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) was used to determine covariate biomechanics of pharyngeal swallowing from videofluoroscopic assessment in 15 patients with MND and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Canonical variant analysis with post hoc discriminate function analysis (DFA) was performed on coordinate data mapping functional muscle groups underlying pharyngeal swallowing. Differences in swallowing mechanics associated with group (MND; control), motor neuron predominance (upper; lower), onset (bulbar; spinal), and swallow task (thin, pudding) were evaluated and visualized. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in patients with MND compared with healthy controls (D = 2.01, p mechanics by motor neuron predominance (D = 5.03, p mechanics of patients with MND differ from and are more heterogeneous than healthy controls. These findings suggest patients with MND may compensate reductions in pharyngeal shortening and tongue base retraction by extending the head and neck and increasing hyolaryngeal excursion. This work and further CASM investigations will lead to further insights into development and evaluation of targeted clinical treatments designed to prolong safe and efficient swallowing function in patients with MND.

  19. Central inhibition of initiation of swallowing by systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Sakai, Shogo; Suzuki, Taku; Ujihara, Izumi; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Canning, Brendan J; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Dysphagia is caused not only by neurological and/or structural damage but also by medication. We hypothesized memantine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, and baclofen, all commonly used drugs with central sites of action, may regulate swallowing function. Swallows were evoked by upper airway (UA)/pharyngeal distension, punctate mechanical stimulation using a von Frey filament, capsaicin or distilled water (DW) applied topically to the vocal folds, and electrical stimulation of a superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in anesthetized rats and were documented by recording electromyographic activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles and by visualizing laryngeal elevation. The effects of intraperitoneal or topical administration of each drug on swallowing function were studied. Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topically applied diazepam or baclofen had no effect on swallowing. These data indicate that diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topical applied diazepam or baclofen was without effect on swallowing. Diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders in Pediatric Neuromuscular Diseases: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; de Groot, Imelda J M; de Swart, Bert J M; Erasmus, Corrie E

    2015-11-20

    Feeding and swallowing problems in infants and children have a great impact on health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of recognized feeding and swallowing problems in different groups of children with neuromuscular diseases, based on relevant literature and expert opinion, and to propose recommendations for the assessment and treatment of these problems. Almost all pediatric neuromuscular diseases are accompanied by feeding and swallowing problems during the different phases of deglutition, problems that give rise to a wide variety of signs and symptoms, which emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive feeding and swallowing assessment by a speech and language therapist.

  1. Coordination of cough and swallow: a meta-behavioral response to aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Teresa; Rose, Melanie J; Mortensen, Ashley N; Poliacek, Ivan; Sapienza, Christine M; Lindsey, Bruce G; Morris, Kendall F; Davenport, Paul W; Bolser, Donald C

    2013-12-01

    Airway protections is the prevention and/or removal of material by behaviors such as cough and swallow. We hypothesized these behaviors are coordinated to respond to aspiration. Anesthetized animals were challenged with simulated aspiration that induced both coughing and swallowing. Electromyograms of upper airway and respiratory muscles together with esophageal pressure were recorded to identify and evaluate cough and swallow. During simulated aspiration, both cough and swallow intensity increased and swallow duration decreased consistent with rapid pharyngeal clearance. Phase restriction between cough and swallow was observed; swallow was restricted to the E2 phase of cough. These results support three main conclusions: 1) the cough and swallow pattern generators are tightly coordinated so as to generate a protective meta-behavior; 2) the trachea provides feedback on swallow quality, informing the brainstem about aspiration incidences; and 3) the larynx and upper esophageal sphincter act as two separate valves controlling the direction of positive and negative pressures from the upper airway into the thorax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-perception of swallowing by patients with benign nonsurgical thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernambuco, Leandro; Silva, Marlisson Pinheiro da; Almeida, Marluce Nascimento de; Costa, Erika Beatriz de Morais; Souza, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de

    2017-02-23

    To verify the frequency of swallowing complaints in patients with benign nonsurgical thyroid disease and compare the self-perception of swallowing disorder intensity between different types of thyroid disease. The study sample comprised 39 women aged 19-58 years (38.54 ± 10.74) with hypothyroidism (n=22; 56.4%) or thyroid nodules (n=17; 43.6%). Presence and type of swallowing complaint and self-perception of swallowing disorder intensity were investigated by means of self-ratings recorded on a 100-millimeter visual analog scale. The data were analyzed by descriptive measures and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test was used to compare the self-perception of swallowing disorder intensity between both clinical diagnoses of thyroid disease. The level of 5% was adopted for statistical significance. Twenty-six (66.7%) individuals reported the following swallowing complaints: pharyngolaryngeal stasis sensation (37.15%), chocking (34.29%), and odynophagia (28.57%). The mean value of self-perception of swallowing disorder intensity by the visual analog scale was 59.35 (± 27.38) millimeters. No difference in self-perception was reported between the clinical diagnoses of thyroid disease. In this sample, swallowing complaint was frequently observed in patients with benign nonsurgical thyroid disease. Moderate self-perception of swallowing disorder intensity was reported regardless of the clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease.

  3. Early perception of stink bug damage in developing seeds of field-grown soybean induces chemical defences and reduces bug attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Romina; Barneto, Jesica; Barriga, Lucia G; Sardoy, Pedro M; Balestrasse, Karina; Andrade, Andrea M; Pagano, Eduardo A; Alemano, Sergio G; Zavala, Jorge A

    2016-08-01

    Southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.) invade field-grown soybean crops, where they feed on developing seeds and inject phytotoxic saliva, which causes yield reduction. Although leaf responses to herbivory are well studied, no information is available about the regulation of defences in seeds. This study demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 are expressed and activated in developing seeds of field-grown soybean and regulate a defensive response after stink bug damage. Although 10-20 min after stink bug feeding on seeds induced the expression of MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4, only MPK6 was phosphorylated after damage. Herbivory induced an early peak of jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and ethylene (ET) emission after 3 h in developing seeds, whereas salicylic acid (SA) was also induced early, and at increasing levels up to 72 h after damage. Damaged seeds upregulated defensive genes typically modulated by JA/ET or SA, which in turn reduced the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut of stink bugs. Induced seeds were less preferred by stink bugs. This study shows that stink bug damage induces seed defences, which is perceived early by MPKs that may activate defence metabolic pathways in developing seeds of field-grown soybean. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. A comparative analysis of DBSCAN, K-means, and quadratic variation algorithms for automatic identification of swallows from swallowing accelerometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, Joshua M; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-04-01

    Cervical auscultation with high resolution sensors is currently under consideration as a method of automatically screening for specific swallowing abnormalities. To be clinically useful without human involvement, any devices based on cervical auscultation should be able to detect specified swallowing events in an automatic manner. In this paper, we comparatively analyze the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm (DBSCAN), a k-means based algorithm, and an algorithm based on quadratic variation as methods of differentiating periods of swallowing activity from periods of time without swallows. These algorithms utilized swallowing vibration data exclusively and compared the results to a gold standard measure of swallowing duration. Data was collected from 23 subjects that were actively suffering from swallowing difficulties. Comparing the performance of the DBSCAN algorithm with a proven segmentation algorithm that utilizes k-means clustering demonstrated that the DBSCAN algorithm had a higher sensitivity and correctly segmented more swallows. Comparing its performance with a threshold-based algorithm that utilized the quadratic variation of the signal showed that the DBSCAN algorithm offered no direct increase in performance. However, it offered several other benefits including a faster run time and more consistent performance between patients. All algorithms showed noticeable differentiation from the endpoints provided by a videofluoroscopy examination as well as reduced sensitivity. In summary, we showed that the DBSCAN algorithm is a viable method for detecting the occurrence of a swallowing event using cervical auscultation signals, but significant work must be done to improve its performance before it can be implemented in an unsupervised manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Doing bayesian data analysis a tutorial with R and BUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Kruschke, John K

    2011-01-01

    There is an explosion of interest in Bayesian statistics, primarily because recently created computational methods have finally made Bayesian analysis obtainable to a wide audience. Doing Bayesian Data Analysis, A Tutorial Introduction with R and BUGS provides an accessible approach to Bayesian data analysis, as material is explained clearly with concrete examples. The book begins with the basics, including essential concepts of probability and random sampling, and gradually progresses to advanced hierarchical modeling methods for realistic data. The text delivers comprehensive coverage of all

  6. Unilateral Superior Laryngeal Nerve Lesion in an Animal Model of Dysphagia and Its Effect on Sucking and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Malone, Regina; Holman, Shaina D.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; Fukuhara, Takako; Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Thexton, Allan J.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2013-01-01

    We tested two hypotheses relating to the sensory deficit that follows a unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) lesion in an infant animal model. We hypothesized that it would result in (1) a higher incidence of aspiration and (2) temporal changes in sucking and swallowing. We ligated the right-side SLN in six 2–3-week-old female pigs. Using videofluoroscopy, we recorded swallows in the same pre- and post-lesion infant pigs. We analyzed the incidence of aspiration and the duration and latency of suck and swallow cycles. After unilateral SLN lesioning, the incidence of silent aspiration during swallowing increased from 0.7 to 41.5 %. The durations of the suck containing the swallow, the suck immediately following the swallow, and the swallow itself were significantly longer in the post-lesion swallows, although the suck prior to the swallow was not different. The interval between the start of the suck containing a swallow and the subsequent epiglottal movement was longer in the post-lesion swallows. The number of sucks between swallows was significantly greater in post-lesion swallows compared to pre-lesion swallows. Unilateral SLN lesion increased the incidence of aspiration and changed the temporal relationships between sucking and swallowing. The longer transit time and the temporal coordinative dysfunction between suck and swallow cycles may contribute to aspiration. These results suggest that swallow dysfunction and silent aspiration are common and potentially overlooked sequelae of unilateral SLN injury. This validated animal model of aspiration has the potential for further dysphagia studies. PMID:23417250

  7. Fluid mechanics of eating, swallowing and digestion - overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Jan; Burbidge, Adam S

    2013-02-26

    From a very simplistic viewpoint, the human digestive system can be regarded as a long tube (with dramatic variations in diameter, cross-section, wall properties, pumping mechanisms, regulating valves and in-line sensors). We single out a few fluid mechanical phenomena along the trajectory of a food bolus from the mouth to the small intestine and discuss how they influence sensorial perception, safe transport, and nutrient absorption from a bolus. The focus is on lubrication flows between the tongue and palate, the oropharyngeal stage of swallowing and effects of flow on absorption in the small intestine. Specific challenges and opportunities in this research area are highlighted.

  8. Clinical investigation on application of water swallowing to MR esophagography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinping, E-mail: zjpmri@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Hu, Weijian; Zang, Lin [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Yao, Yibin; Tang, Yongxiang; Qian, Zhen; Gao, Ping; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, Shijian [Department of Radiology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Xie, Zhenlan; Yuan, Xiaoqing [Department of Pathology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To verify the clinical outcomes of applying water swallowing to MR esophagography. Methods: Thirty patients confirmed postoperatively or histopathologically with thoracic esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic biopsy and 10 healthy volunteers with normal esophagus underwent respectively conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection and water swallowing MR esophagography. Of those patients, 4 underwent second examination after radiotherapy. Assessment on imaging effects of MR esophagography was performed. Assessment on definition on MR esophagography of the tumor in both upper and lower ends, specific localization, tumor size finally measured, coincidence with the gross pathologic types and tumor staging were respectively performed by comparison with conventional MRI. Additionally, we evaluated the outcomes of radiotherapy by comparing the previous MR esophagography with the second one with interventional technique. Results: Of the total 44 images of MR esophagography, 97.7% (43/44) were in high resolution by sagittal view and 81.8% (36/44) by cross-section. 93.3% (56/60) of the MR esophagography were clearly defined with the neoplastic lesion ends in the 30 patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma, compared with 11.7% (7/60) by conventional MRI. The results were totally different in statistics (P < 0.005). Preoperative conventional MRI detection of the 22 cases in 25 undergone radical resection suggested vague diameter of the primary tumor and impossibly identified it at middle-lower thoracic esophagus in 5, and even failed to confirm gross pathologic types in 19 cases. Yet, MR esophagography with water swallowing represented accurate tumor length (graded as excellent) in 88% (22/25), localization in 100% (25/25), exact gross pathologic types in 88% (22/25), and accuracy for tumor staging in 80.8% (21/26) compared to 92.3% (24/26) by conventional MRI. Therapeutic effects achieved in 4 patients with radiotherapy. Conclusions: MR esophagography

  9. Dose-dependent deterioration of swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haderlein, M.; Semrau, S.; Ott, O.; Speer, S.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Bohr, C. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the influence of clinical, treatment- and dose-dependent factors on posttreatment swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy in a group of homogeneously treated laryngopharyngeal cancer patients. From 28 May 2008 to 15 February 2013, 45 patients with borderline inoperable laryngopharyngeal cancer that had responded well to induction chemotherapy were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Median follow-up was 22 months. Swallowing function and clinical data were prospectively analyzed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Swallowing structures were retrospectively delineated on the original treatment planning CT. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for swallowing structures and D{sub mean}, D{sub max} and V50-V64 values (in 2 Gy increments) were determined for each patient. Tumor volume and infiltration of the swallowing apparatus was defined by CT before induction chemotherapy. Of the 45 patients, 26 (57.8 %) fully regained swallowing function after chemoradiotherapy. A further 12 patients (26.7 %) were able to manage soft, pureed and/or liquid foods; the remaining 7 (15.6 %) were completely dependent on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Posttreatment swallowing function was significantly influenced by D{sub mean} to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM, p = 0.041). Correlations between late dysphagia and dose-volume relationships in the superior PCM and soft palate were also observed, which were significant from V60 (p = 0.043) and V58 for the soft palate and superior PCM, respectively. Of the evaluated clinical and tumor-related factors, only alcohol abuse (p = 0.024) had an influence on posttreatment swallowing function. Almost 50 % of patients had deterioration of swallowing function after definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. The dose to anatomical structures responsible for swallowing function appears to play a role. Therefore, in selected patients, target

  10. Voice- and swallow-related quality of life in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooren, Michel R A; Baijens, Laura W J; Vos, Rein; Pilz, Walmari; Kuijpers, Laura M F; Kremer, Bernd; Michou, Emilia

    2016-02-01

    This study explores whether changes in voice- and swallow-related QoL are associated with progression of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Furthermore, it examines the relationship between patients' perception of both voice and swallowing disorders in IPD. Prospective clinical study, quality of life (QoL). One-hundred mentally competent IPD patients with voice and swallowing complaints were asked to answer four QoL questionnaires (Voice Handicap Index, MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory, Visual Analog Scale [VAS] voice, and Dysphagia Severity Scale [DSS]). Differences in means for the QoL questionnaires and their subscales within Hoehn and Yahr stage groups were calculated using one-way analysis of variance. The relationship between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires was determined with the Spearman correlation coefficient. Scores on both voice and swallow questionnaires suggest an overall decrease in QoL with progression of IPD. A plateau in QoL for VAS voice and the DSS was seen in the early Hoehn and Yahr stages. Finally, scores on voice-related QoL questionnaires were significantly correlated with swallow-related QoL outcomes. Voice- and swallow-related QoL decreases with progression of IPD. A significant association was found between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires. Healthcare professionals can benefit from voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires in a multidimensional voice- or swallow-assessment protocol. The patient's perception of his/her voice and swallowing disorders and its impact on QoL in IPD should not be disregarded. 2b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on swallowing apraxia and cortical excitability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Wang, Jie; Wu, Dongyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Song, Weiqun

    2017-10-01

    Swallowing apraxia is characterized by impaired volitional swallowing but relatively preserved reflexive swallowing. Few studies are available on the effectiveness of behavioral therapy and management of the condition. This study aimed to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on swallowing apraxia and cortical activation in stroke patients. The study included three inpatients (age 48-70 years; 1 male, 2 females; duration of stroke, 35-55 d) with post-stroke swallowing apraxia and six age-matched healthy subjects (age 45-65 years; 3 males, 3 females). Treatments were divided into two phases: Phase A and Phase B. During Phase A, the inpatients received three weeks of sham tDCS and conventional treatments. During Phase B, these patients received three weeks of anodal tDCS over the bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (S 1 M 1 ) of swallowing and conventional treatments. Swallowing apraxia assessments were measured in three inpatients before Phase A, before Phase B, and after Phase B. The electroencephalography (EEG) nonlinear index of approximate entropy (ApEn) was calculated for three patients and six healthy subjects. After tDCS, scores of swallowing apraxia assessments increased, and ApEn indices increased in both stimulated and non-stimulated areas. Anodal tDCS might provide a useful means for recovering swallowing apraxia, and the recovery could be related to increased excitability of the swallowing cortex. Further investigations should explore the relationship between lesion size and/or lesion site and the prognosis of swallowing apraxia. Clinical trial registry: http://www.chictr.org Registration Number: ChiCTR-TRC-14004955.

  12. The anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal swallowing in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasegbon, A; Hamdy, S

    2017-11-01

    Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. The oropharynx is the anatomical region encompassing the oral cavity and the pharynx. Food must be masticated, formed into a bolus and transported to the pharynx by the tongue whereas fluids are usually held within the mouth before being transported ab-orally. The bolus must then be transported through the pharynx to the esophagus without any matter entering the larynx. The muscles needed for all these steps are coordinated by swallowing centers within the brainstem which are supplied with sensory information by afferent nerve fibers from several cranial nerves. The swallowing centers also receive modulatory input from higher centers within the brain. Hence, a swallow has both voluntary and involuntary physiologic components and the term dysphagia is given to difficult swallowing while oropharyngeal dysphagia is difficult swallowing due to pathology within the oropharynx. Problems affecting any point along the complex swallowing pathway can result in dysphagia. This review focuses on the anatomy and physiology behind normal and abnormal oropharyngeal swallowing. It also details the common diseases and pathology causing oropharyngeal dysphagia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Dose-dependent deterioration of swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haderlein, M.; Semrau, S.; Ott, O.; Speer, S.; Fietkau, R.; Bohr, C.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of clinical, treatment- and dose-dependent factors on posttreatment swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy in a group of homogeneously treated laryngopharyngeal cancer patients. From 28 May 2008 to 15 February 2013, 45 patients with borderline inoperable laryngopharyngeal cancer that had responded well to induction chemotherapy were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Median follow-up was 22 months. Swallowing function and clinical data were prospectively analyzed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Swallowing structures were retrospectively delineated on the original treatment planning CT. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for swallowing structures and D mean , D max and V50-V64 values (in 2 Gy increments) were determined for each patient. Tumor volume and infiltration of the swallowing apparatus was defined by CT before induction chemotherapy. Of the 45 patients, 26 (57.8 %) fully regained swallowing function after chemoradiotherapy. A further 12 patients (26.7 %) were able to manage soft, pureed and/or liquid foods; the remaining 7 (15.6 %) were completely dependent on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Posttreatment swallowing function was significantly influenced by D mean to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM, p = 0.041). Correlations between late dysphagia and dose-volume relationships in the superior PCM and soft palate were also observed, which were significant from V60 (p = 0.043) and V58 for the soft palate and superior PCM, respectively. Of the evaluated clinical and tumor-related factors, only alcohol abuse (p = 0.024) had an influence on posttreatment swallowing function. Almost 50 % of patients had deterioration of swallowing function after definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. The dose to anatomical structures responsible for swallowing function appears to play a role. Therefore, in selected patients, target volume

  14. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynn Tillman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L. adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F. at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly.

  15. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The HACMS program: using formal methods to eliminate exploitable bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen; Launchbury, John; Richards, Raymond

    2017-10-13

    For decades, formal methods have offered the promise of verified software that does not have exploitable bugs. Until recently, however, it has not been possible to verify software of sufficient complexity to be useful. Recently, that situation has changed. SeL4 is an open-source operating system microkernel efficient enough to be used in a wide range of practical applications. Its designers proved it to be fully functionally correct, ensuring the absence of buffer overflows, null pointer exceptions, use-after-free errors, etc., and guaranteeing integrity and confidentiality. The CompCert Verifying C Compiler maps source C programs to provably equivalent assembly language, ensuring the absence of exploitable bugs in the compiler. A number of factors have enabled this revolution, including faster processors, increased automation, more extensive infrastructure, specialized logics and the decision to co-develop code and correctness proofs rather than verify existing artefacts. In this paper, we explore the promise and limitations of current formal-methods techniques. We discuss these issues in the context of DARPA's HACMS program, which had as its goal the creation of high-assurance software for vehicles, including quadcopters, helicopters and automobiles.This article is part of the themed issue 'Verified trustworthy software systems'. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. The Bad Bugs Book Club: Science, Literacy, and Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Verran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bad Bugs Bookclub was launched in 2009. It comprises scientists and non-scientists. The aim of the Bookclub is to read and discuss novels where infectious disease forms part of the plot, in order to enhance learning about microbiology. The focus of the discussion is on appreciation of the novel, its scientific (microbiologic accuracy and relevance to contemporary microbiology. There are several potential audiences for the Bad Bugs Bookclub, for example students in a classroom setting, or in a more social environment, and/or the general public.  Meeting reports and reading guides have been posted on a dedicated website. For education purposes, additional project work for assessment is suggested for students reading each novel. Bookclub meetings may be held on particular dates in the microbiologic calendar, coupled with additional public engagement activities and student participation. The approach has significant flexibility in terms of intended audience, assessment and extension work, and provides a refreshing and stimulating alternative means for talking about microbiology.

  18. The HACMS program: using formal methods to eliminate exploitable bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launchbury, John; Richards, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    For decades, formal methods have offered the promise of verified software that does not have exploitable bugs. Until recently, however, it has not been possible to verify software of sufficient complexity to be useful. Recently, that situation has changed. SeL4 is an open-source operating system microkernel efficient enough to be used in a wide range of practical applications. Its designers proved it to be fully functionally correct, ensuring the absence of buffer overflows, null pointer exceptions, use-after-free errors, etc., and guaranteeing integrity and confidentiality. The CompCert Verifying C Compiler maps source C programs to provably equivalent assembly language, ensuring the absence of exploitable bugs in the compiler. A number of factors have enabled this revolution, including faster processors, increased automation, more extensive infrastructure, specialized logics and the decision to co-develop code and correctness proofs rather than verify existing artefacts. In this paper, we explore the promise and limitations of current formal-methods techniques. We discuss these issues in the context of DARPA’s HACMS program, which had as its goal the creation of high-assurance software for vehicles, including quadcopters, helicopters and automobiles. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Verified trustworthy software systems’. PMID:28871050

  19. Association between swallow perception and esophageal bolus clearance in patients with globus sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Lin; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai

    2013-04-01

    Globus sensation is common, but its pathogenesis is not yet clear. Our purpose was to investigate subjective perception of swallowing and esophageal motility by combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and manometry (MII-EM) for patients with globus sensation. Combined MII-EM was performed for 25 globus patients and 15 healthy controls. Swallows were abnormal if hypocontractivity or simultaneous contractions occurred. Esophageal bolus transit was incomplete if bolus exit was not found at one or more of all measurement sites. Perception of each swallow was assessed by use of a standardized scoring system, and was enhanced if the score was >1. Few globus patients reported enhanced perception during viscous or solid swallows. Incomplete bolus transit and enhanced perception occurred similarly between viscous and solid boluses. Agreement between enhanced perception and proximal bolus clearance was greater during solid swallows (κ = 0.45, 95 % CI: 0.32-0.58) than during viscous swallows (κ = 0.13, 95 % CI: 0-0.25) (P perception and total bolus clearance was greater during solid swallows (κ = 0.46, 95 % CI: 0.34-0.58) than during viscous swallows (κ = 0.11, 95 % CI: 0-0.22) (P perception is uncommon in patients with globus sensation, although there is a significant association between enhanced esophageal perception and solid bolus clearance. Application of a solid bolus may help better delineation of the interrelationship between the subjective perception of bolus passage and the objective measurement of bolus clearance.

  20. Demography of invasive black and pale swallow-wort populations in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (Black Swallow-wort) and Vincetoxicum rossicum (Pale Swallow-wort) are perennial twining vines introduced from Europe. Both species have become invasive in northeastern North America in a variety of habitats. To develop parameters for a population model for evaluating potential b...

  1. Gum chewing improves swallow frequency and latency in Parkinson patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Angela R; Somers, Stephanie M; Jog, Mandar S

    2010-04-13

    Reduced swallowing frequency affects secretion management in Parkinson disease (PD). Gum chewing increases saliva flow and swallow frequency. This study uses chewing gum to modify swallow frequency and latency between swallows in patients with PD. 1) Assess the frequency and latency of swallow at baseline (BL), during gum chewing (GC), and post gum chewing (PGC) for participants with PD (stage 2-4) nonsymptomatic for prandial dysphagia; and 2) assess carryover after gum is expectorated. Twenty participants were studied across 3 tasks, each of 5 minutes in duration: BL, GC, and PGC. Respiratory and laryngeal signals were continuously recorded using PowerLab (version 5.5.5; ADI Instruments, Castle Hill, Australia). Frequency and latency of swallow events were calculated. Differences (analysis of variance) are reported for frequency (p Parkinson disease. This study provides Class III evidence that chewing gum increases swallow frequency and decreases latency of swallowing in an experiment in patients with stage 2 to 4 Parkinson disease who are nonsymptomatic for significant prandial dysphagia.

  2. The Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS): Reliability, Validity and International Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; McIntosh, Theresa; Fuller, Laura; Curry, Morgan; Thomas, Paige; Walshe, Margaret; McCague, Ellen; Battel, Irene; Nogueira, Dalia; Frank, Ulrike; van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Sella-Weiss, Oshrat

    2018-01-01

    Background: Clinical swallowing assessment is largely limited to qualitative assessment of behavioural observations. There are limited quantitative data that can be compared with a healthy population for identification of impairment. The Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS) was developed as a quantitative assessment of solid bolus…

  3. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  4. Mercury Contamination in Tree Swallows Nesting at Northern Wisconsin Inland Lakes that Differ in Methylation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are a useful species to assess the bioavailability and effects of trace elements, including mercury, because they will nest in boxes in relatively close proximity to one another. Because tree swallows feed on the aerial stages of benthic aquat...

  5. Bilateral Killian-Jamieson diverticula demonstrated by videofluoroscopic swallowing study: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Scheeren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a 56-year-old male patient complaining of dysphagia for solids and food impaction, submitted to videofluoroscopic swallowing study that demonstrated the presence of two esophageal diverticula. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study was critical in the identification and diagnosis of the diverticula, an esophageal cause of dysphagia.

  6. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  7. Relationships between air swallowing, intragastric air, belching and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, AJ; Weusten, BLAM; Timmer, R; Akkermans, LMA; Smout, AJPM

    Background: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms

  8. Relationships between air swallowing, intragastric air, belching and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Akkermans, L. M. A.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms

  9. Improvement on the accuracy of beam bugs in linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yutong; Dai Zhiyong; Han Qing

    2002-01-01

    In linear induction accelerator the resistive wall monitors known as 'beam bugs' have been used as essential diagnostics of beam current and location. The author presents a new method that can improve the accuracy of these beam bugs used for beam position measurements. With a fine beam simulation set, this method locates the beam position with an accuracy of 0.02 mm and thus can scale the beam bugs very well. Experiment results prove that the precision of beam position measurements can reach submillimeter degree

  10. How Does Bug-Handling Effort Differ Among Different Programming Languages?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Feng; Hao, Dan; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Lu

    2018-01-01

    Handling bugs is an essential part of software development. The impact of programming language on this task has long been a topic of much debate. For example, some people hold the view that bugs in Python are easy to handle because its code is easy to read and understand, while some others believe the absence of static typing in Python will lead to higher bug-handling effort. This paper presents the first large-scale study to investigate whether the ecosystems of different (categories of) pro...

  11. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES): proposal for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacci, A; Ursino, F; La Vela, R; Matteucci, F; Mallardi, V; Fattori, B

    2008-08-01

    Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is now a first choice method for studying swallowing disorders on account of the various advantages it offers: easy to use, very well tolerated, allows bedside examination and is economic. Nevertheless, this diagnostic procedure is not without risks, the most probable consequences of which include discomfort, gagging and/or vomiting, vasovagal syncope, epistaxis, mucosal perforation, adverse reactions to topical anaesthetics and laryngospasm. The risks involved with FEES stress the importance of informing the patient of these; this is an important aspect in medicine that necessarily and immediately implies receiving the patient's so-called "informed consent". Informed consent should be obtained not only by means of specific printed forms but also after the patient has had an interview with the physician who will be performing the procedure and who will offer information according to the personal clinical, psychological, cultural and linguistic situation of the patient and in keeping with the type of procedure proposed. In the case of FEES, as with other invasive or non-invasive diagnostic procedures, therefore, routine written and signed consent, together with a patient/physician interview should fulfil what is known as "complete information". In this report, a specific form for informed consent to FEES procedures, is proposed.

  12. A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis Newtonian fluid is investigated analytically and numerically too. The result is physically interpreted as that the oesophagus makes more efforts to swallow fluids with higher concentration. It is observed that the pressure is uniformly distributed when an integral number of waves is there in the oesophagus; but it is non-uniform when a non-integral number of waves is present therein. It is further observed that as the plug flow region widens, the pressure difference increases, which indicates that the averaged flow rate will reduce for a Casson fluid. It is also concluded that Casson fluids are more prone to reflux.

  13. Post-operative swallowing in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueha, R; Nito, T; Sakamoto, T; Yamauchi, A; Tsunoda, K; Yamasoba, T

    2016-02-01

    Some patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) require surgical interventions such as tracheostomy and aspiration prevention. Few studies have investigated the postoperative clinical course of MSA patients. The aim of this study was to determine a management strategy for dysphagia and respiratory disorder in MSA. From 2001 to 2014, 18 MSA patients (13 males and 5 females, 52-76 years) underwent tracheostomy (TR, n = 11) or laryngeal closure (LC, n = 12). Five patients underwent LC following TR. Vocal fold impairment, the degree of dysphagia and pre/post-operative oral ingestion, and postoperative survival time were evaluated retrospectively. Swallowing function was assessed using the penetration aspiration scale (PAS). TR was performed due to respiratory disorder in seven patients and due to dysphagia in four patients. PAS scores ranged 1-8 in TR patients and 7-8 in LC patients. Seven of 11 patients who underwent TR displayed worsened PAS scores, and no patients displayed improved PAS scores following TR. All patients who underwent LC regained complete or partial oral intake after surgery. There were no significant differences in postoperative survival time between the two groups. Considering the impacts of TR and LC on survival time, postoperative feeding and swallowing, LC is a good option for treating MSA patients with dysphagia. © 2015 EAN.

  14. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baijens, Laura; Barikroo, Ali; Pilz, Walmari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables

  15. Radiological evaluation of swallowing and clinical patterns of systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesi, A.; Pesaresi, A.; Cavalli, M.L.; Serri, L.; Salmistraro, D.; Candela, M.; Gabrielli, A.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) were studied by means of videofluoroscopy in order to evaluate the abnormalities in the oral-pharyngeal and esophageal phases of deglutition and to correlate the radiological patterns with the clinical features of the disease. Thirteen patients (25.5%) exhibited swallowing disorders such as oral leakage, retention, penetration, mild or moderate aspiration and abnormal upper esophageal sphincter behavior. These dysfunctions were more evident in patients with esophageal motility abnormalities. A normal radiological pattern in the esophagus was not associated with swallowing alterations. Remarkably, patients with oral-pharyngeal disorders had a higher incidence of lung diseases. Forty-five patients (88%) exhibited disorders of the esophageal phase of deglutition, such as mild or severe motility abnormalities or hiatal hernia, gastro-esophageal reflux, reflux esophagitis, and stricture. Radiological findings in the esophagus can be abnormal in the early stages of the disease. On the other hand, the radiological pattern of esophageal motility can be occasionally negative in advanced or extensive disease. This indicates a discrepancy between clinical symptoms and radiological picture of the esophagus. The radiological examination of the oral-pharyngeal and esophageal phases of deglutition is important in patients with scleroderma in order to evaluate visceral involvement, motility disorders, and risk of aspiration. Such radiological information can be useful in preventing esophagitis and pulmonary complications

  16. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baijens, Laura, E-mail: laura.baijens@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Barikroo, Ali, E-mail: a.Barikroo@ufl.edu [Swallowing Research Laboratory, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pilz, Walmari, E-mail: walmari.pilz@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables.

  17. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

  18. Soft Electronics Enabled Ergonomic Human-Computer Interaction for Swallowing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Nicholls, Benjamin; Sup Lee, Dong; Chen, Yanfei; Chun, Youngjae; Siang Ang, Chee; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a skin-friendly electronic system that enables human-computer interaction (HCI) for swallowing training in dysphagia rehabilitation. For an ergonomic HCI, we utilize a soft, highly compliant (“skin-like”) electrode, which addresses critical issues of an existing rigid and planar electrode combined with a problematic conductive electrolyte and adhesive pad. The skin-like electrode offers a highly conformal, user-comfortable interaction with the skin for long-term wearable, high-fidelity recording of swallowing electromyograms on the chin. Mechanics modeling and experimental quantification captures the ultra-elastic mechanical characteristics of an open mesh microstructured sensor, conjugated with an elastomeric membrane. Systematic in vivo studies investigate the functionality of the soft electronics for HCI-enabled swallowing training, which includes the application of a biofeedback system to detect swallowing behavior. The collection of results demonstrates clinical feasibility of the ergonomic electronics in HCI-driven rehabilitation for patients with swallowing disorders.

  19. The Effects of Oral-Motor Exercises on Swallowing in Children: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvedson, Joan; Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this unregistered evidence-based systematic review was to determine the state and quality of evidence on the effects of oral motor exercises (OME) on swallowing physiology, pulmonary health, functional swallowing outcomes, and drooling management in children with swallowing disorders. Method: A systematic search of 20 electronic…

  20. Bug tracking and project management system application in an electronic design company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık ARSLAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, commercially available Bug Tracking and Management Information Systems has been investigated in a comprehensive manner. The systems that commonly used described in detail. Bug Tracking and Project Management Systems requirements analysis of medium-sized companies and Kentkart Ege Electronic which is an Information Technology company has been made. Obtained by the analysis requirements, the appropriate tools are selected for system application. JIRA that a product of Atlassian company was determined as a Bug Tracking and Project Management application tool. In this study, JIRA system adapted to the requirements, Bug Tracking and Project Management systems is designed in a structure which can be easily used by R&D employees. Cost-Benefit analysis is done and using this project was determined to be quite useful.

  1. A transcriptome survey spanning life stages and sexes of the Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolure...

  2. 2016 All Bugs Good and Bad Webinar Series - eXtension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importadas Resources Instructional Videos Publications Top of the Mound Game Fire Ant Images from BugMugs.org Breeding and Genomics Sheep Small and Backyard Flocks Small Meat Processors Sustainable Marine Fisheries

  3. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B; Adelman, Zach N; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C; Szuter, Elise M; Hagan, Richard W; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M; Nelson, David R; Rosendale, Andrew J; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Scharf, Michael E; Peterson, Brittany F; Raje, Kapil R; Hottel, Benjamin A; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S T; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Murali, Shwetha C; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C; Muzny, Donna M; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Vargo, Edward L; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T; Anderson, Michelle A E; Jones, Jeffery W; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Robertson, Hugh M; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Gibbs, Richard A; Werren, John H; Palli, Subba R; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-02-02

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host-symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human-bed bug and symbiont-bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite.

  4. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Adelman, Zach N.; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C.; Szuter, Elise M.; Hagan, Richard W.; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M.; Nelson, David R.; Rosendale, Andrew J.; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M.; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J. Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.; Scharf, Michael E.; Peterson, Brittany F.; Raje, Kapil R.; Hottel, Benjamin A.; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Murali, Shwetha C.; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L.; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A.; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Vargo, Edward L.; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Jones, Jeffery W.; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Werren, John H.; Palli, Subba R.; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host–symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human–bed bug and symbiont–bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite. PMID:26836814

  5. A Preliminary Videofluoroscopic Investigation of Swallowing Physiology and Function in Individuals with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waito, Ashley A; Steele, Catriona M; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Genge, Angela; Argov, Zohar

    2018-05-03

    Dysphagia is one of the primary symptoms experienced by individuals with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD). However, we lack understanding of the discrete changes in swallowing physiology that are seen in OPMD, and the resulting relationship to impairments of swallowing safety and efficiency. This study sought to describe the pathophysiology of dysphagia in a small sample of patients with OPMD using a videofluoroscopy examination (VFSS) involving 3 × 5 mL boluses of thin liquid barium (22% w/v). The aim of this study is to extend what is known about the pathophysiology of dysphagia in OPMD, by quantifying changes in swallow timing, kinematics, safety, and efficiency, measured from VFSS. This study is a secondary analysis of baseline VFSS collected from 11 adults (4 male), aged 48-62 (mean 57) enrolled in an industry-sponsored phase 2 therapeutic drug trial. Blinded raters scored the VFSS recordings for safety [Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS)], efficiency [Normalized Residue Ratio Scale (NRRS)], timing [Pharyngeal Transit Time (PTT), Swallow Reaction Time (SRT), Laryngeal Vestibule Closure Reaction Time (LVCrt), Upper Esophageal Sphincter Opening Duration (UESD)], and kinematics (hyoid movement, pharyngeal constriction, UES opening width). Impairment thresholds from existing literature were defined to characterize swallowing physiology and function. Further, Fisher's Exact tests and Pearson's correlations were used to conduct a preliminary exploration of associations between swallowing physiology (e.g., kinematics, timing) and function (i.e., safety, efficiency). Compared to published norms, we identified significant differences in the degree of maximum pharyngeal constriction, hyoid movement distance and speed, as well as degree and timeliness of airway closure. Unsafe swallowing (PAS ≥ 3) was seen in only 3/11 patients. By contrast, clinically significant residue (i.e., NRRS scores ≥ 0.09 vallecular; ≥ 0.2 pyriform) was seen in

  6. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, William G.; Hindson, David F.; Langmore, Susan E.; Zumwalt, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Reduced hyolaryngeal elevation, a critical event in swallowing, is associated with radiation therapy. Two muscle groups that suspend the hyoid, larynx, and pharynx have been proposed to elevate the hyolaryngeal complex: the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. Thought to assist both groups is the thyrohyoid, a muscle intrinsic to the hyolaryngeal complex. Intensity modulated radiation therapy guidelines designed to preserve structures important to swallowing currently exclude the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. This study used muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) in normal healthy adults to determine whether both muscle groups are active in swallowing and to test therapeutic exercises thought to be specific to hyolaryngeal elevation. Methods and Materials: mfMRI data were acquired from 11 healthy subjects before and after normal swallowing and after swallowing exercise regimens (the Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide). Whole-muscle transverse relaxation time (T2 signal, measured in milliseconds) profiles of 7 test muscles were used to evaluate the physiologic response of each muscle to each condition. Changes in effect size (using the Cohen d measure) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to determine which muscles underlie swallowing and swallowing exercises. Results: Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity during swallowing) for the T2 signal profile of the thyrohyoid was a d value of 0.09; a d value of 0.40 for the mylohyoid, 0.80 for the geniohyoid, 0.04 for the anterior digastric, and 0.25 for the posterior digastric-stylohyoid in the suprahyoid muscle group; and d values of 0.47 for the palatopharyngeus and 0.28 for the stylopharyngeus muscles in the longitudinal pharyngeal muscle group. The Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide swallowing exercises showed significant effect size changes for all muscles tested, except for the thyrohyoid. Conclusions

  7. Automatic discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing using a reputation-based classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikjoo Mohammad S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swallowing accelerometry has been suggested as a potential non-invasive tool for bedside dysphagia screening. Various vibratory signal features and complementary measurement modalities have been put forth in the literature for the potential discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing. To date, automatic classification of swallowing accelerometry has exclusively involved a single-axis of vibration although a second axis is known to contain additional information about the nature of the swallow. Furthermore, the only published attempt at automatic classification in adult patients has been based on a small sample of swallowing vibrations. Methods In this paper, a large corpus of dual-axis accelerometric signals were collected from 30 older adults (aged 65.47 ± 13.4 years, 15 male referred to videofluoroscopic examination on the suspicion of dysphagia. We invoked a reputation-based classifier combination to automatically categorize the dual-axis accelerometric signals into safe and unsafe swallows, as labeled via videofluoroscopic review. From these participants, a total of 224 swallowing samples were obtained, 164 of which were labeled as unsafe swallows (swallows where the bolus entered the airway and 60 as safe swallows. Three separate support vector machine (SVM classifiers and eight different features were selected for classification. Results With selected time, frequency and information theoretic features, the reputation-based algorithm distinguished between safe and unsafe swallowing with promising accuracy (80.48 ± 5.0%, high sensitivity (97.1 ± 2% and modest specificity (64 ± 8.8%. Interpretation of the most discriminatory features revealed that in general, unsafe swallows had lower mean vibration amplitude and faster autocorrelation decay, suggestive of decreased hyoid excursion and compromised coordination, respectively. Further, owing to its performance-based weighting of component classifiers, the static

  8. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, William G., E-mail: bp1@bu.edu [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hindson, David F. [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Langmore, Susan E. [Department of Otolaryngology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Speech and Hearing Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zumwalt, Ann C. [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Reduced hyolaryngeal elevation, a critical event in swallowing, is associated with radiation therapy. Two muscle groups that suspend the hyoid, larynx, and pharynx have been proposed to elevate the hyolaryngeal complex: the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. Thought to assist both groups is the thyrohyoid, a muscle intrinsic to the hyolaryngeal complex. Intensity modulated radiation therapy guidelines designed to preserve structures important to swallowing currently exclude the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. This study used muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) in normal healthy adults to determine whether both muscle groups are active in swallowing and to test therapeutic exercises thought to be specific to hyolaryngeal elevation. Methods and Materials: mfMRI data were acquired from 11 healthy subjects before and after normal swallowing and after swallowing exercise regimens (the Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide). Whole-muscle transverse relaxation time (T2 signal, measured in milliseconds) profiles of 7 test muscles were used to evaluate the physiologic response of each muscle to each condition. Changes in effect size (using the Cohen d measure) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to determine which muscles underlie swallowing and swallowing exercises. Results: Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity during swallowing) for the T2 signal profile of the thyrohyoid was a d value of 0.09; a d value of 0.40 for the mylohyoid, 0.80 for the geniohyoid, 0.04 for the anterior digastric, and 0.25 for the posterior digastric-stylohyoid in the suprahyoid muscle group; and d values of 0.47 for the palatopharyngeus and 0.28 for the stylopharyngeus muscles in the longitudinal pharyngeal muscle group. The Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide swallowing exercises showed significant effect size changes for all muscles tested, except for the thyrohyoid. Conclusions

  9. Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Heat, and Chemical Lures in Attracting the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. monitors incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2, heat, and chemical lures are being used for detecting bed bugs; however, there are few reported studies on the effectiveness of chemical lures in bed bug monitors and the interactions among chemical lure, CO2, and heat. We screened 12 chemicals for their attraction to bed bugs and evaluated interactions among chemical lures, CO2, and heat. The chemical lure mixture consisting of nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, spearmint oil, and coriander Egyptian oil was found to be most attractive to bed bugs and significantly increased the trap catches in laboratory bioassays. Adding this chemical lure mixture when CO2 was present increased the trap catches compared with traps baited with CO2 alone, whereas adding heat did not significantly increase trap catches when CO2 was present. Results suggest a combination of chemical lure and CO2 is essential for designing effective bed bug monitors.

  10. Hybridization and adaptation to introduced balloon vines in an Australian soapberry bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, J A; Thampy, P R; Mathieson, M T; Loye, J; Zalucki, M P; Dingle, H; Carroll, S P

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary adaptation of plant feeding insects to introduced hosts provides clear cases of ecologically based population divergence. In most cases the mechanisms permitting rapid differentiation are not well known. Here we study morphological and genetic variation associated with recent shifts by the Australian soapberry bug Leptocoris tagalicus onto two naturalized Neotropical balloon vines, Cardiospermum halicacabum and C. grandiflorum that differ in time since introduction. Our results show that these vines have much larger fruits than the native hosts (Whitewood tree -Atalaya hemiglauca- and Woolly Rambutan -Alectryon tomentosus-) and that bugs living on them have evolved significantly longer beaks and new allometries. Genetic analyses of mitochondrial haplotypes and amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers indicate that the lineage of bugs on the annual vine C. halicacabum, the older introduction, is intermediate between the two subspecies of L. tagalicus found on native hosts. Moreover, where the annual vine and Whitewood tree co-occur, the morphology and genomic composition of the bugs are similar to those occurring in allopatry. These results show that hybridization provided the genetic elements underlying the strongly differentiated 'Halicacabum bugs'. In contrast, the bugs feeding on the recently introduced perennial balloon vine (C. grandiflorum) showed no evidence of admixture, and are genetically indistinguishable from the nearby populations on a native host. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Monitoring stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in mid-Atlantic apple and peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, T C; Hogmire, H W

    2005-02-01

    Pyramid traps coated with "industrial safety yellow" exterior latex gloss enamel paint and baited with Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone, methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate captured more stink bugs than all other baited and unbaited trap types in both apple and peach orchards in 2002 and 2003. Commercial sources of dispensers of methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate deployed in association with pyramid traps had a significant impact on trap captures. Captures in pyramid traps were four-fold greater when baited with lures from IPM Technologies, Inc. (Portland, OR) than with lures from Suterra (Bend, OR). Variation in yellow pyramid trap color ("industrial safety yellow" and "standard coroplast yellow") and material (plywood, plastic, and masonite) did not affect trap captures. Brown stink bug was the predominant species captured (58%), followed by dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus (Say) (20%); green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (14%); and other stink bugs (Brochymena spp. and unidentified nymphs) (8%). Captures in baited pyramid traps were significantly correlated with tree beating samples in both managed and unmanaged apple orchards and with sweep netting samples in the unmanaged apple orchard. However, problems associated with trapping mechanisms of pyramid trap jar tops and jar traps likely resulted in reduced captures in baited traps. Improved trapping mechanisms must be established to develop an effective monitoring tool for stink bugs in mid-Atlantic orchards.

  12. Bug22 influences cilium morphology and the post-translational modification of ciliary microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Mendes Maia

    2014-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are organelles essential for motility and sensing of environmental stimuli. Depending on the cell type, cilia acquire a defined set of functions and, accordingly, are built with an appropriate length and molecular composition. Several ciliary proteins display a high degree of conservation throughout evolution and mutations in ciliary genes are associated with various diseases such as ciliopathies and infertility. Here, we describe the role of the highly conserved ciliary protein, Bug22, in Drosophila. Previous studies in unicellular organisms have shown that Bug22 is required for proper cilia function, but its exact role in ciliogenesis has not been investigated yet. Null Bug22 mutant flies display cilia-associated phenotypes and nervous system defects. Furthermore, sperm differentiation is blocked at the individualization stage, due to impaired migration of the individualization machinery. Tubulin post-translational modifications (PTMs such as polyglycylation, polyglutamylation or acetylation, are determinants of microtubule (MT functions and stability in centrioles, cilia and neurons. We found defects in the timely incorporation of polyglycylation in sperm axonemal MTs of Bug22 mutants. In addition, we found that depletion of human Bug22 in RPE1 cells resulted in the appearance of longer cilia and reduced axonemal polyglutamylation. Our work identifies Bug22 as a protein that plays a conserved role in the regulation of PTMs of the ciliary axoneme.

  13. Therapeutic singing as an early intervention for swallowing in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, E L; Hibbing, P; Radig, H; Wingate, J

    2017-04-01

    For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. Cohort study. University in the United States. Twenty-four participants with PD. Eight weeks of group therapeutic singing. Electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity associated with swallow pre and post the group singing intervention. Swallow quality of life (SWAL-QOL) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were also obtained pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported minimal difficulty with swallowing, yet results revealed a significant increase in EMG outcome measures, as well as significant improvement in UPDRS total and UPDRS motor scores. No significant differences were revealed for SWAL-QOL. Increases in EMG timing measures may suggest that group singing results in the prolongation of laryngeal elevation, protecting the airway from foreign material for longer periods of time during swallow. Combined with the improvement in UPDRS clinical measures, therapeutic singing may be an engaging early intervention strategy to address oropharyngeal dysphagia while also benefiting additional clinical symptoms of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dysphagia in Lewy body dementia - a clinical observational study of swallowing function by videofluoroscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londos, Elisabet; Hanxsson, Oskar; Alm Hirsch, Ingrid; Janneskog, Anna; Bülow, Margareta; Palmqvist, Sebastian

    2013-10-07

    Dysphagia, which can result in aspiration pneumonia and death, is a well-known problem in patients with dementia and Parkinson's disease. There are few studies on dysphagia in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), especially studies objectively documenting the type of swallowing dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the prevalence, and define the actual swallowing dysfunction according to a videofluoroscopic swallowing examination (VFSE) in patients with DLB and PDD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with DLB or PDD in a clinical follow-up program were asked about symptoms of dysphagia. Those experiencing dysphagia were examined with VFSE. Prevalence and type of swallowing dysfunction was recorded. Twenty-six patients (32%) reported symptoms of dysphagia such as swallowing difficulties or coughing. Twenty-four (92%) of these had a documented swallowing dysfunction on VFSE. Eighty-eight percent suffered from pharyngeal dysfunction. Almost all DLB or PDD patients with subjective signs of dysphagia had pathologic results on VFSE, the majority of pharyngeal type. This type of dysphagia has not been reported in DLB before. The results have clinical implications and highlight the importance of asking for and examining swallowing function to prevent complications such as aspiration.

  15. Swallowing and deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Michelle S.; Brandimore, Alexandra E.; Foote, Kelly D.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess the current state of the literature on the topic of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and its effects on swallowing function in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Pubmed, Cochrane review, and web of science searches were completed on all articles addressing DBS that contained a swallowing outcome measure. Outcome measures included the penetration/aspiration scale, pharyngeal transit time, oropharyngeal residue, drooling, aspiration pneumonia, death, hyolaryngeal excursion, epiglottic inversion, UPDRS scores, and presence of coughing/throat clearing during meals. The search identified 13 studies specifically addressing the effects of DBS on swallowing. Critical assessment of the 13 identified peer-reviewed publications revealed nine studies employing an experimental design, (e.g. “on” vs. “off”, pre- vs. post-DBS) and four case reports. None of the nine experimental studies were found to identify clinically significant improvement or decline in swallowing function with DBS. Despite these findings, several common threads were identified across experimental studies and will be examined in this review. Additionally, available data demonstrate that, although subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation has been considered to cause more impairment to swallowing function than globus pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation, there are no experimental studies directly comparing swallowing function in STN vs. GPi. Moreover, there has been no comparison of unilateral vs. bilateral DBS surgery and the coincident effects on swallowing function. This review includes a critical analysis of all experimental studies and discusses methodological issues that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:23726461

  16. Non-invasive assessment determine the swallowing and respiration dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Man; Shieh, Wann-Yun; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Yih-Ru

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is common among patients with Parkinson's disease. Swallowing and its coordination with respiration is extremely important to achieve safety swallowing. Different tools have been used to assess this coordination, however the results have been inconsistent. We aimed to investigate this coordination in patients with Parkinson's disease using a non-invasive method. Signals of submental muscle activity, thyroid cartilage excursion, and nasal airflow during swallowing were recorded simultaneously. Five different water boluses were swallowed three times, and the data were recorded and analyzed. Thirty-seven controls and 42 patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease were included. The rates of non-expiratory/expiratory pre- and post-swallowing respiratory phase patterns were higher in the patients than in the controls (P Parkinson's disease, and safety compensation mechanisms were used more than efficiency during swallowing. The results of this study may serve as a baseline for further research into new treatment regimens and to improve the management of swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of chair-side evaluation system of swallowing discomfort of denture wearers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keisuke; Ikuta, Ryuhei; Kataoka, Kanako; Ono, Yumie; Tamaki, Katsushi

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the appropriate hemodynamic parameters of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to best differentiate the discomfort intensity related to swallowing in healthy subjects wearing different types of simulated dentures. Thirty-one subjects performed 4 sessions of water-swallowing task in a sitting position without or with wearing any one of the 3 simulated dentures under continuous fNIRS monitoring of the prefrontal cortex. The simulated dentures were consisted of a flat maxillary palatal bar and bilateral support attachment to the teeth and gum. The palatal bar positions were arranged along with the anterior, middle, or posterior areas of the upper jaw. The cumulative values of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes were calculated for periods of 5 - 10 s from completion of swallowing. Subjective rating of swallowing-discomfort was the lowest without wearing denture and increased along with the palatal bar position placed from anterior to posterior. Cumulated deoxyhemoglobin signals calculated for 10 s post-swallowing event in the left frontopolar prefrontal cortex showed the best correlation with the subjective rating of discomfort in swallowing with dentures. These neurological signatures would be beneficial to detect swallowing discomfort in elderly denture wearers who have difficulty in communicating with dentists.

  18. Characterizing Dysphagia and Swallowing Intervention in the Traumatic Spinal Injury Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Teresa J.; Waito, Ashley A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is reported to be a common secondary complication for individuals with traumatic spinal injuries. Different etiologies of traumatic spinal injuries may lead to different profiles of swallowing impairment. We conducted a systematic review to determine the characteristics of dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury and to describe interventions currently used to improve swallowing function in this population. A comprehensive multi-engine literature search identified 137 articles of which 5 were judged to be relevant. These underwent review for study quality, rating for level of evidence, and data extraction. The literature describing dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury was comprised predominantly of low level evidence and single case reports. Aspiration, pharyngeal residue, and decreased/absent hyolaryngeal elevation were found to be common characteristics of dysphagia in this population. The most commonly used swallowing interventions included tube feeding, compensatory swallowing strategies, and steroids/antibiotics. Improvement in swallowing function following swallowing intervention was reported in all studies, however there was no control for spontaneous recovery. The results demonstrate a need for high-quality research to profile the pathophysiology of dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury and controlled studies to demonstrate the efficacy of swallowing interventions in this population. PMID:27412004

  19. Routine Use of Contrast Swallow After Total Gastrectomy and Esophagectomy: Is it Justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sourani, Nader; Bruns, Helge; Troja, Achim; Raab, Hans-Rudolf; Antolovic, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    After gastrectomy or esophagectomy, esophagogastrostomy and esophagojejunostomy are commonly used for reconstruction. Water-soluble contrast swallow is often used as a routine screening to exclude anastomotic leakage during the first postoperative week. In this retrospective study, the sensitivity and specificity of oral water-soluble contrast swallow for the detection of anastomotic leakage and its clinical symptoms were analysed. Records of 104 consecutive total gastrectomies and distal esophagectomies were analysed. In all cases, upper gastrointestinal contrast swallow with the use of a water-soluble contrast agent was performed on the 5 th postoperative day. Extravasation of the contrast agent was defined as anastomotic leakage. When anastomotic insufficiency was suspected but no extravasation was present, a computed tomography (CT) scan and upper endoscopy were performed. Oral contrast swallow detected 7 anastomotic leaks. Based on CT-scans and upper endoscopy, the true number of anastomotic leakage was 15. The findings of the oral contrast swallow were falsely positive in 4 and falsely negative in 12 patients, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the oral contrast swallow was 20% and 96%, respectively. Routine radiological contrast swallow following total gastrectomy or distal esophagectomy cannot be recommended. When symptoms of anastomotic leakage are present, a CT-scan and endoscopy are currently the methods of choice.

  20. Assessment of swallowing and its disorders—A dynamic MRI study

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    Vijay Kumar, K.V., E-mail: vijaykumarkv@yahoo.in [Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, SRU (India); Shankar, V., E-mail: drshankarv@yahoo.co.in [Department of Neurology, SRU (India); Santosham, Roy, E-mail: santoshamroy@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, SRU (India)

    2013-02-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging overcomes the limitations of videofluoroscopy in assessing without radiation exposure. The clinical utility of dynamic MRI for swallowing disorders is not well documented. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using dynamic MRI in assessment of swallowing disorders. Ten normal and three brainstem lesion patients participated in this study. GE Signa HDxt 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner with head-and-neck coil as a receiver and fast imaging employing steady state acquisition sequence was used. The swallow was analyzed in terms of symmetry and amplitude of movements of velum, faucial pillars, tongue, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous and images from the sagittal, coronal and axial planes. In sagittal plane posterior movement of tongue and its compression on velum, elevation of hyoid bone, elevation of larynx and lid action of epiglottis, in the coronal view the symmetrical movements of the faucial pillars and pharyngeal constrictor muscles and in axial plane three anatomical landmarks were targeted based on their role in swallowing, viz. velum, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous were studied. In brainstem lesion individuals, posterior movement of tongue, and elevation of larynx were not seen. Asymmetrical movements of faucial pillars and cricopharyngeous muscle were appreciated in the dynamic MRI. This demonstrates that, dynamic MRI is an efficient tool to understand the swallowing physiology and helps the speech language pathologist in modifying the swallowing maneuvers. Dynamic MRI is an effective tool in assessing swallowing and its disorders. This muscle specific information is not appreciated in videofluoroscopy and this information is necessary to modify the therapy maneuvers.

  1. Assessment of swallowing and its disorders—A dynamic MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay Kumar, K.V.; Shankar, V.; Santosham, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging overcomes the limitations of videofluoroscopy in assessing without radiation exposure. The clinical utility of dynamic MRI for swallowing disorders is not well documented. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using dynamic MRI in assessment of swallowing disorders. Ten normal and three brainstem lesion patients participated in this study. GE Signa HDxt 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner with head-and-neck coil as a receiver and fast imaging employing steady state acquisition sequence was used. The swallow was analyzed in terms of symmetry and amplitude of movements of velum, faucial pillars, tongue, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous and images from the sagittal, coronal and axial planes. In sagittal plane posterior movement of tongue and its compression on velum, elevation of hyoid bone, elevation of larynx and lid action of epiglottis, in the coronal view the symmetrical movements of the faucial pillars and pharyngeal constrictor muscles and in axial plane three anatomical landmarks were targeted based on their role in swallowing, viz. velum, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous were studied. In brainstem lesion individuals, posterior movement of tongue, and elevation of larynx were not seen. Asymmetrical movements of faucial pillars and cricopharyngeous muscle were appreciated in the dynamic MRI. This demonstrates that, dynamic MRI is an efficient tool to understand the swallowing physiology and helps the speech language pathologist in modifying the swallowing maneuvers. Dynamic MRI is an effective tool in assessing swallowing and its disorders. This muscle specific information is not appreciated in videofluoroscopy and this information is necessary to modify the therapy maneuvers

  2. New Swallowing Evaluation Using Piezoelectricity in Normal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Yuichiro; Kimura, Shinji; Harigai, Toru; Sakurai, Naoki; Toyosato, Akira; Nishikawa, Taro; Inoue, Makoto; Murasawa, Akira; Endo, Naoto

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between the piezoelectric waveform latency, hyoid bone movement, surface electromyogram (sEMG), and the pharyngeal transit time (PTT) during swallowing. Forty-one healthy subjects were divided into three age groups: younger (20-39 years, n = 8), middle-aged (40-59 years, n = 9), and older (60-79 years, n = 24). Motion analysis of the hyoid bone using videofluorography (VF), waveform analysis of the front neck using piezoelectric films, and sEMG of the suprahyoid muscle group were performed simultaneously. Latencies of the three movement phases were defined as upward (VFS1), forward (VFS2), and returning to starting position (VFS3). The three phases of the piezoelectric waveform-from wave initiation of the negative wave to the start of the second deep negative wave; from the start of the second deep negative wave to the start of the last positive wave (SLPW); and from the SLPW to the end of the last positive wave-were defined as PS1, PS2, and PS3, respectively. VFS1-3 and PS1-3 were significantly correlated. VFS1 and PS1 latencies were significantly longer with thick liquid than with thin liquid. VFS2, PS1, and PS2 latencies were longer in the older group than in the other two groups. The start of PS1 was nearly equal to those of sEMG and VFS1. Bolus arrival time in the valleculae was statistically equal to the end of the PS1 with both thin and thick liquids. To establish the swallowing screening using Piezoelectric film, further investigation is necessary in the dysphagia patients.

  3. Swallowing function after laryngeal cleft repair: more than just fixing the cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Alexander J; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Tabangin, Meredith E; Miller, Claire K; Cotton, Robin T; Rutter, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate and describe the swallowing function in children after laryngeal cleft repair. Ten-year (2002-2012) retrospective chart review. Academic tertiary care pediatric otolaryngology practice. Records of 60 children who had surgical repair of laryngeal cleft (ages 2 weeks-14 years) and postoperative functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing or videofluoroscopic swallow studies were examined retrospectively. Twenty-nine children had one postoperative swallow evaluation, 19 children had two, 4 children had three, 5 children had four, and 3 children had five. Median time to the first evaluation was 10.8 weeks (interquartile range [IQR]: 36.5, 231). On the final swallow evaluation, 34 (57%) children demonstrated normal swallowing parameters, 12 (20%) children showed penetration, and 14 (23%) children showed aspiration. Forty-three (72%) children were able to take everything by mouth normally or with minor behavioral modifications, 11 (18%) children required thickened fluids, and six (10%) children were kept nil per os (NPO). Mean improvement on the penetration-aspiration (pen-asp) scale was 2.13. On multivariable analysis, neurodevelopmental issues and gastronomy tube use were associated with the need for NPO status. Despite a high rate of surgical success, a substantial minority of children have persistent swallowing dysfunction after laryngeal cleft repair. Swallowing dysfunction after repair is multifactorial and arises from concomitant neurologic, anatomic, or other comorbidities that contribute to oropharyngeal and pharyngeal dysphagia. Based on our results, we recommend a testing schedule for postoperative swallowing evaluations after cleft repair. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Differential Response Pattern of Oropharyngeal Pressure by Bolus and Dry Swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Mana; Kurose, Masayuki; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Inoue, Makoto; Sato, Taisuke; Narumi, Takatsune; Fujii, Noritaka; Yamamura, Kensuke

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if bolus and dry swallow showed similar pressure changes in the oropharynx using our newly developed device. A unique character of it includes that baropressure can be measured with the sensor being placed in the balloon and can assess the swallowing mechanics in terms of pressure changes in the oropharynx with less influences of direct contacts of boluses and oropharyngeal structures during swallow indirectly. Fifteen healthy subjects swallowed saliva (dry), 15 ml of water, 45 ml of water, and 15 ml of two different types of food in terms of viscosity (potage soup-type and mayonnaise-type foods). Suprahyoid muscle activity was recorded simultaneously. Three parameters, area under the curve (AUC), peak amplitude, and duration of pressure, were analyzed from each swallow. Almost all of the bolus swallowing events had biphasic baropressure responses consisting of an early phase and late phase (99%), whereas 90% of the saliva swallowing events had a single phase. AUC, peak, and duration displayed greater effects during the late phase than during the early phase. Baropressure of the early phase, but not of the late phase, significantly increased with increasing volume; however, small but significant viscosity effects on pressure were seen during both phases. Peak pressure of the late phase was preceded by maximum muscle activity, whereas that of the early phase was seen when muscle activity displayed a peak response. These findings indicated that our device with the ability to measure baropressure has the potential to provide additional parameter to assess the swallow physiology, and biphasic baropressure responses in the early and late phases could reflect functional aspects of the swallowing reflexes.

  5. Involvement of ERK phosphorylation in brainstem neurons in modulation of swallowing reflex in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Kondo, Masahiro; Kitagawa, Junichi; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Kimiko; Tohara, Haruka; Ueda, Koichiro; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the neuronal mechanisms underlying functional abnormalities of swallowing in orofacial pain patients, this study investigated the effects of noxious orofacial stimulation on the swallowing reflex, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunohistochemical features in brainstem neurons, and also analysed the effects of brainstem lesioning and of microinjection of GABA receptor agonist or antagonist into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) on the swallowing reflex in anaesthetized rats. The swallowing reflex elicited by topical administration of distilled water to the pharyngolaryngeal region was inhibited after capsaicin injection into the facial (whisker pad) skin or lingual muscle. The capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect on the swallowing reflex was itself depressed after the intrathecal administration of MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor. No change in the capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect was observed after trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis lesioning, but the inhibitory effect was diminished by paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) lesioning. Many pERK-like immunoreactive neurons in the NTS showed GABA immunoreactivity. The local microinjection of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into the NTS produced a significant reduction in swallowing reflex, and the capsaicin-induced depression of the swallowing reflex was abolished by microinjection of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline into the NTS. The present findings suggest that facial skin–NTS, lingual muscle–NTS and lingual muscle–Pa5–NTS pathways are involved in the modulation of swallowing reflex by facial and lingual pain, respectively, and that the activation of GABAergic NTS neurons is involved in the inhibition of the swallowing reflex following noxious stimulation of facial and intraoral structures. PMID:19124539

  6. Role of Barium Swallow in Diagnosing Clinically Significant Anastomotic Leak following Esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Barium swallow is performed following esophagectomy to evaluate the anastomosis for detection of leaks and to assess the emptying of the gastric conduit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the barium swallow study in diagnosing anastomotic leaks following esophagectomy. Methods: Patients who underwent esophagectomy from January 2000 to December 2013 at our institution were investigated. Barium swallow was routinely done between days 5–7 to detect a leak. These results were compared to clinically determined leaks (defined by neck wound infection requiring jejunal feeds and or parenteral nutrition during the postoperative period. The sensitivity and specificity of barium swallow in diagnosing clinically significant anastomotic leaks was determined. Results: A total of 395 esophagectomies were performed (mean age, 62.2 years. The indications for the esophagectomy were as follows: malignancy (n=320, high-grade dysplasia (n=14, perforation (n=27, benign stricture (n=7, achalasia (n=16, and other (n=11. A variety of techniques were used including transhiatal (n=351, McKeown (n=35, and Ivor Lewis (n=9 esophagectomies. Operative mortality was 2.8% (n=11. Three hundred and sixty-eight patients (93% underwent barium swallow study after esophagectomy. Clinically significant anastomotic leak was identified in 36 patients (9.8%. Barium swallow was able to detect only 13/36 clinically significant leaks. The sensitivity of the swallow in diagnosing a leak was 36% and specificity was 97%. The positive and negative predictive values of barium swallow study in detecting leaks were 59% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion: Barium swallow is an insensitive but specific test for detecting leaks at the cervical anastomotic site after esophagectomy.

  7. Involvement of ERK phosphorylation in brainstem neurons in modulation of swallowing reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Kondo, Masahiro; Kitagawa, Junichi; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Kimiko; Tohara, Haruka; Ueda, Koichiro; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2009-02-15

    In order to evaluate the neuronal mechanisms underlying functional abnormalities of swallowing in orofacial pain patients, this study investigated the effects of noxious orofacial stimulation on the swallowing reflex, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunohistochemical features in brainstem neurons, and also analysed the effects of brainstem lesioning and of microinjection of GABA receptor agonist or antagonist into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) on the swallowing reflex in anaesthetized rats. The swallowing reflex elicited by topical administration of distilled water to the pharyngolaryngeal region was inhibited after capsaicin injection into the facial (whisker pad) skin or lingual muscle. The capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect on the swallowing reflex was itself depressed after the intrathecal administration of MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor. No change in the capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect was observed after trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis lesioning, but the inhibitory effect was diminished by paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) lesioning. Many pERK-like immunoreactive neurons in the NTS showed GABA immunoreactivity. The local microinjection of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol into the NTS produced a significant reduction in swallowing reflex, and the capsaicin-induced depression of the swallowing reflex was abolished by microinjection of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline into the NTS. The present findings suggest that facial skin-NTS, lingual muscle-NTS and lingual muscle-Pa5-NTS pathways are involved in the modulation of swallowing reflex by facial and lingual pain, respectively, and that the activation of GABAergic NTS neurons is involved in the inhibition of the swallowing reflex following noxious stimulation of facial and intraoral structures.

  8. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius Infestations in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid. After 12 weeks, the three treatments—EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents’ self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  9. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Coffey, Peter L; Dively, Galen P; Lamp, William O

    2014-01-01

    The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855), contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  10. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dilip Venugopal

    Full Text Available The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855, contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  11. Etiology and long-term functional swallow outcomes in pediatric unilateral vocal fold immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Wu, Derek; Hsu, Jeffrey V; Burton, William B; Nassar, Michel; Tan, Melin

    2016-09-01

    Unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) results in deficits in phonatory, respiratory, and swallow function of the pediatric patient. Little is known about long-term functional swallow outcomes. Medical records of children diagnosed with UVFI between 2005 and 2014 at a tertiary children's hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Etiology, laryngoscopy findings, and swallow status at diagnosis and follow-up were recorded. Swallow outcomes were compared by etiology using Fisher's exact test. McNemar's test was used to identify correlations between return of mobility and swallow recovery. Rates of pneumonia were compared with initial swallow evaluation results using a two-tailed t-test. Eighty-eight patients with UVFI were identified and 73 patients (47% female, mean age 14.4 months, standard deviation (SD) 26.7 months) had complete medical records. Mean follow up time was 52.7 months (SD 36.8 months). Etiologies included cardiothoracic surgery (68.5%), idiopathic (12.3%), prolonged intubation (11.0%), central nervous system (CNS) abnormality (5.5%), and non-cardiac iatrogenic injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (2.7%). Forty-seven patients underwent a follow up laryngoscopy, and recovery of vocal fold (VF) mobility was documented in 42.6% (20/47). At diagnosis, 31.5% fed orally, compared with 79.5% at follow-up. Direct correlation between recovery of VF mobility and swallow recovery was not demonstrated. Cardiac etiologies demonstrated higher rates of swallow recovery than CNS abnormalities (p = 0.0393). Twenty-five children aspirated on initial modified barium swallow (MBS) and 10 children developed pneumonias at some point during the follow up period. There was no significant difference in rates of pneumonia in patients with and without aspiration on MBS. Recovery of swallow in children with UVFI does not directly parallel return of VF mobility. Long-term swallow outcome is favorable in this population. Initial MBS does not indicate ultimate swallow outcome

  12. Characteristics of Dysphagia in Infants with Microcephaly Caused by Congenital Zika Virus Infection, Brazil, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Vanessa; Bezerra, Thiago P.; de Valois, Luciana; Borges, Adriana C.G.; Antunes, Margarida M.C.; Brandt, Kátia G.; Moura, Catharina X.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Ximenes, Coeli R.

    2017-01-01

    We summarize the characteristics of dysphagia in 9 infants in Brazil with microcephaly caused by congenital Zika virus infection. The Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, and the videofluoroscopic swallowing study were used as noninstrumental and instrumental assessments. All infants had a degree of neurologic damage and showed abnormalities in the oral phase. Of the 9 infants, 8 lacked oral and upper respiratory tract sensitivity, leading to delays in initiation of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Those delays, combined with marked oral dysfunction, increased the risk for aspiration of food, particularly liquid foods. Dysphagia resulting from congenital Zika virus syndrome microcephaly can develop in infants >3 months of age and is severe. PMID:28604336

  13. Characteristics of Dysphagia in Infants with Microcephaly Caused by Congenital Zika Virus Infection, Brazil, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Mariana C; van der Linden, Vanessa; Bezerra, Thiago P; de Valois, Luciana; Borges, Adriana C G; Antunes, Margarida M C; Brandt, Kátia G; Moura, Catharina X; Rodrigues, Laura C; Ximenes, Coeli R

    2017-08-01

    We summarize the characteristics of dysphagia in 9 infants in Brazil with microcephaly caused by congenital Zika virus infection. The Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, and the videofluoroscopic swallowing study were used as noninstrumental and instrumental assessments. All infants had a degree of neurologic damage and showed abnormalities in the oral phase. Of the 9 infants, 8 lacked oral and upper respiratory tract sensitivity, leading to delays in initiation of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Those delays, combined with marked oral dysfunction, increased the risk for aspiration of food, particularly liquid foods. Dysphagia resulting from congenital Zika virus syndrome microcephaly can develop in infants >3 months of age and is severe.

  14. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  15. Stability of Spatial Distributions of Stink Bugs, Boll Injury, and NDVI in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K; Bauer, Philip J

    2016-10-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the degree of aggregation of stink bugs and boll injury in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and their spatial association with a multispectral vegetation index (normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]). Using the spatial analysis by distance indices analyses, stink bugs were less frequently aggregated (17% for adults and 4% for nymphs) than boll injury (36%). NDVI values were also significantly aggregated within fields in 19 of 48 analyses (40%), with the majority of significant indices occurring in July and August. Paired NDVI datasets from different sampling dates were frequently associated (86.5% for weekly intervals among datasets). Spatial distributions of both stink bugs and boll injury were less stable than for NDVI, with positive associations varying from 12.5 to 25% for adult stink bugs for weekly intervals, depending on species. Spatial distributions of boll injury from stink bug feeding were more stable than stink bugs, with 46% positive associations among paired datasets with weekly intervals. NDVI values were positively associated with boll injury from stink bug feeding in 11 out of 22 analyses, with no significant negative associations. This indicates that NDVI has potential as a component of site-specific management. Future work should continue to examine the value of remote sensing for insect management in cotton, with an aim to develop tools such as risk assessment maps that will help growers to reduce insecticide inputs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Species composition, monitoring, and feeding injury of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in blackberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, S A; Liburd, O E; Eger, J E; Rhodes, E M

    2013-04-01

    Blackberry (Rubus spp.) production in Florida has increased > 100% within the past two decades. and several insect pests, including stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), have been observed feeding on this crop. The objectives for this study were to determine the stink bug species present in blackberry; to develop monitoring tools for stink bugs in blackberry; and to describe feeding injury to blackberries by Euschistus quadrator Rolston, a relatively new stink bug pest to Florida, that has spread throughout the state. In a field survey, E. quadrator was the most abundant stink bug species, followed by Euschistus servus Say, Euschistus obscurus (Palisot de Beauvois), Thyanta custator (F.), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot de Beauvois), and Podisus maculiventris Say. Yellow pyramid traps caught more stink bugs than tube traps with or without the addition of Euschistus spp. pheromone lures. There were no statistical differences between traps baited with a Trécé Pherocon Centrum lure, a Suterra Scenturion lure, and an unbaited trap. These results were supported by Y-tube olfactometer assays with E. quadrator where there were no differences between pheromone baited lures and a control. Injury to berries caused by E. quadrator adults and third instars was similar, and both adults and third instars fed more on green berries compared with turning berries. In addition, adults fed more on green berries compared with ripe fruit. The most common injury to green berries was discoloration. In contrast, misshapen drupelets were commonly seen on turning and ripe berries. The potential for managing stink bugs in blackberries to prevent them from reaching damaging levels is discussed.

  17. MENGGALI METRIK YANG PENTING DALAM RANGKAIAN AKTIVITAS PERUBAHAN PERANGKAT LUNAK UNTUK MEMPREDIKSI BUG DENGAN ATURAN ASOSIASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Arwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Dalam evolusi perangkat lunak terdapat rangkaian aktivitas proses perubahan yang kemudian oleh Nachiapan diformulasikan menjadi metrik-metrik yang mampu memprediksi bug secara presisi. Akan tetapi secara spesifik belum ditemukan seberapa besar pengaruh masing-masing metrik tersebut terhadap hasil prediksi sebuah bug. Penelitian ini mengusulkan pengukuran jumlah kemunculan metrik dengan kemunculan bug pada proyek eclipse. Sehingga dengan penelitian ini dapat diketahui metrik -metrik mana yang penting dalam prediksi kemunculan bug. Aturan asosiasi dalam penggalian data telah dipergunakan secara luas untuk menggali variabel-variabel saling terkait dalam sampel data. Metrik-metrik dalam proyek eclipse kemudian digali dengan aturan asosiasi untuk mendapatkan metrik yang muncul bersama bug. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa metrik Numberofchangeslate rata-rata kemunculannya sebesar 46,9%, sedangkan metrik Peopletotal muncul bersama bug rata-rata sebesar 43,57% dan metrik Numberofchangesearly memiliki kemunculan rata-rata 14% sehingga ketiga metrik tersebut merupakan metrik yang penting dalam memprediksi bug.

  18. Lost and found…Tracking a swallowed denture: Role of radiology

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    Yogita Khalekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture ingestion or aspiration is a problem requiring awareness of different specialists including dentists, surgeons, otolaryngologists, and anesthesiologists for prevention, early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Complications of swallowed dentures include hollow viscous necrosis, perforation, and penetration to neighbouring organs leading to fistulae, bleeding and obstruction. Here, we present the case of a 65 year old female patient who swallowed the denture, which was detected by barium swallow and removed by endoscopy. Hence, the management of swallowed denture needs a multidisciplinary approach with the help of a dentist, otolaryngologist and anesthesiologists. Dentists should recommend patients to visit them for planned check ups or revisit them in case of denture dislodgement or loosening as soon as possible to prevent such life threatening events.

  19. Comparison of Masticatory and Swallowing Functional Outcomes in Surgically and Prosthetically Rehabilitated Maxillectomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeraj, R; Krishnan, Vinod; V, Manju; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    This study compared masticatory and swallowing functional outcomes in maxillectomy patients who underwent surgical and prosthetic rehabilitation or prosthetic rehabilitation only following surgical resection. This comparative cross-sectional study involved 20 maxillectomy patients and compared their masticatory and swallowing functions following combined surgical and prosthodontic management vs an exclusively prosthodontic approach. Masticatory performance was measured by an originally modified sieve method using hydrocolloid material, and video fluoroscopic examination was employed for swallowing assessments. Masticatory performance was significantly better in the patient group treated with flaps and removable denture prostheses compared to patients treated with obturator prosthesis alone. Swallowing outcomes were comparable in both groups. Flap reconstruction followed by an obturator prosthesis seems to be a preferable option when planning for functional rehabilitation in maxillectomy patients. Further research is needed to substantiate the functional outcomes noted in this study.

  20. SWALLOWING DISORDERS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY, ASSESSMENT AND REHABILITATION STRATEGIES

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    STANESCU Ioana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing is a complex process consisting in transporting food from mouth to the stomach; it involves voluntary and reflex activity of more than 30 nerves and muscles, requiring complex neuromuscular coordination and brainstem and cortical centers for controle. Dysphagia is defined as a alteration in the swallowing process, which cause difficulty in transporting saliva and aliments from the mouth trough the pharynx and esophagus into the stomach . It is a frequent symptom, affecting especially old people, people with neurological diseases, cancers of head and neck or severe reflux . Dysphagia can result from a wide variety of functional or structural deficits of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx or esophagus, which could e caused by neurological conditions. Dysphagia carries serious health risks: malnutrition, dehydration, increase risk of infections. Effective dysphagia management requires an interdisciplinary approach; the goal of rehabilitation is to identify and treat abnormalities of swallowing while maintaining safe and efficient nutrition. KEY WORDS: swallowing, dysphagia, functional anatomy, rehabilitation, neuroplasticity

  1. Kinematic MRI using short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) in evaluating swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isogai, Satoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Kodaira, Nami; Masunaga, Hatsuko; Ozawa, Fukujirou; Kaneko, Masao [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan); Nozaki, Atsushi; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    1999-03-01

    The utility of short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) MR imaging for evaluating swallowing was determined. Five healthy volunteers underwent kinematic MR imaging of swallowing with a 1.5 T MR scanner using the short TR (300 ms) SSFSE sequence. Twenty phases of sagittal sections were acquired within 6 sec, where the temporal resolution was 300 ms. For oral contrast medium, we used prune yogurt juice with Fe added. The image contrast of short TR SSFSE was found to be somewhere like that of T1-weighted images. In all cases, both the buccal and pharyngeal stages of swallowing were successfully depicted. The Fe-added prune yogurt juice performed as a positive contrast medium and helped determine anatomical structures in the buccal stage. Short TR (300 ms) SSFSE was useful in evaluating swallowing. The combined use of Fe-added prune yogurt juice was helpful in enhancing the surface of the oropharynx. (author)

  2. Kinematic MRI using short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) in evaluating swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isogai, Satoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Kodaira, Nami; Masunaga, Hatsuko; Ozawa, Fukujirou; Kaneko, Masao; Nozaki, Atsushi; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    The utility of short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) MR imaging for evaluating swallowing was determined. Five healthy volunteers underwent kinematic MR imaging of swallowing with a 1.5 T MR scanner using the short TR (300 ms) SSFSE sequence. Twenty phases of sagittal sections were acquired within 6 sec, where the temporal resolution was 300 ms. For oral contrast medium, we used prune yogurt juice with Fe added. The image contrast of short TR SSFSE was found to be somewhere like that of T1-weighted images. In all cases, both the buccal and pharyngeal stages of swallowing were successfully depicted. The Fe-added prune yogurt juice performed as a positive contrast medium and helped determine anatomical structures in the buccal stage. Short TR (300 ms) SSFSE was useful in evaluating swallowing. The combined use of Fe-added prune yogurt juice was helpful in enhancing the surface of the oropharynx. (author)

  3. Swallowing dysfunction in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis: aetiology and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivere, B; Duce, K; Rowlands, G; Harrison, P; O'Reilly, B J

    2006-01-01

    Although unilateral vocal fold palsy (UVFP) is a common problem, data relating to swallowing dysfunction are sparse. We reviewed the clinical findings (method of presentation, underlying diagnosis and position of the vocal folds) of 30 patients and conducted a follow-up telephone survey. Outcome measures used were direct visualization of fold function, position and compensation. In addition, standardized speech and language assessments for swallowing dysfunction and dysphonia were noted and compared to presentation. Our study indicates that 56 per cent of patients with UVFP have associated dysphagia. Outcome with speech therapy is significant, with 73 per cent showing improvement. These data indicate a significant link between UVFP and swallowing dysfunction. There is a marked therapeutic benefit from voice therapy. Further work is required to evaluate the long-term outcomes and establish the mechanism of swallowing dysfunction in these patients.

  4. Time-Frequency Analysis and Hermite Projection Method Applied to Swallowing Accelerometry Signals

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    Ervin Sejdić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast Hermite projections have been often used in image-processing procedures such as image database retrieval, projection filtering, and texture analysis. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for the analysis of one-dimensional biomedical signals that combines the Hermite projection method with time-frequency analysis. In particular, we propose a two-step approach to characterize vibrations of various origins in swallowing accelerometry signals. First, by using time-frequency analysis we obtain the energy distribution of signal frequency content in time. Second, by using fast Hermite projections we characterize whether the analyzed time-frequency regions are associated with swallowing or other phenomena (vocalization, noise, bursts, etc.. The numerical analysis of the proposed scheme clearly shows that by using a few Hermite functions, vibrations of various origins are distinguishable. These results will be the basis for further analysis of swallowing accelerometry to detect swallowing difficulties.

  5. Swallowing abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: correlation between videofluoroscopy and subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Steinbrich, W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Wetzel, S.G.; Radue, E.W. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Kappos, L.; Hoshi, M.M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Witte, U. [Section of Logopedia, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if subjective symptoms indicating an impaired deglutition correlate with videofluoroscopic findings in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Videofluoroscopic examinations of 18 MS patients were analyzed by a radiologist and a logopedist and compared with the symptoms of these patients. Four patients complained about permanent dysphagia. Six patients reported mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing, but were asymptomatic at the time of videofluoroscopy. Eight patients had no symptoms regarding their deglutition. All patients (n=4) who complained of permanent dysphagia showed aspiration. All patients (n=6) with mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing showed undercoating of the epiglottis and/or laryngeal penetration. Of those 8 patients without any swallowing symptoms, only 2 had a normal videofluoroscopy. Swallowing abnormalities seem to be much more frequent in patients with MS than generally believed and they may easily be missed clinically as long as the patients do not aspirate. (orig.)

  6. Long-Term Efficacy of Various Natural or "Green" Insecticides against Bed Bugs: A Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jerome

    2014-11-28

    Bed bugs are resurging throughout the world, and, thus, effective pest control strategies are constantly needed. A few studies have evaluated 25(b) and other natural, or so-called "green" products, as well as over-the-counter insecticides for bed bugs, but additional studies are needed to determine efficacy of bed bug control products. This double-blinded research project was initiated to examine long-term effectiveness of six commercially available natural or "green" insecticides against bed bugs and to compare them with three known traditional residual products. Water was used as a control. Products were evaluated against both susceptible and resistant strains of bed bugs (1200 bugs each), and two different substrates were used. Temprid(®) (Bayer Corporation, Monheim, Germany), Transport(®) (FMC Corp., Philadelphia, PA, USA), Invader(®) (FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA USA), Cimexa(®) (Rockwell Laboratories, Kansas City, MO, USA), and BBT-2000(®) (Swepe-Tite LLC, Tupelo, MS, USA) were the only products which showed any substantial (>40%) bed bug control upon exposure to treated substrates after the six-month waiting period, although results with the resistant bed bug strain were much reduced. Alpine dust(®) (BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ, USA) killed 27% of bed bugs or less, depending on strain and substrate. EcoRaider(®) (North Bergen, NJ, USA) and Mother Earth D(®) (Whitmire Microgen, Florham Park, NJ, USA) (diatomaceous earth) produced 11% control or less. Cimi-Shield Protect(®) (Pest Barrier, Carson, CA, USA) showed no activity against bed bugs in this study. Analysis using SAS software showed a three-way interaction between treatment, substrate, and bed bug strain (Numerator DF 9; Denominator DF 80; F = 4.90; p < 0.0001).

  7. Comprehensive swallowing exercises to treat complicated dysphagia caused by esophageal replacement with colon: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Wang, Yujue; Li, Na; Qiu, Weihong; Wu, Huixiang; Huo, Jianshan; Dai, Meng; Yu, Yong; Wan, Guifang; Dou, Zulin; Guo, Weiping

    2017-02-01

    Surgical procedures for colonic replacement of the esophagus are most commonly associated with anastomotic stricture which cause dysphagia. In this report, we describe a rare case of a patient who demonstrated dysphagia resulting from an anastomotic stricture following esophageal replacement with the colon. All the treatments to dilate the anastomotic stricture were ineffective. To investigate the new treatment strategy for a case with complicated dysphagia, clinical dysphagia evaluations, functional oral intake scale (FOIS), videofluoroscopic swallowing study as well as high-resolution manometry were used to evaluate the swallowing function of the patient before and after treatments. Comprehensive swallowing exercises included the protective airway maneuver, tongue pressure resistance feedback exercise, Masako Maneuver swallowing exercise, and the effortful swallowing exercise. Comprehensive swallowing exercises showed good effect in the patient. The FOIS score increased from level 1 to level 7. The videofluoroscopy digital analysis showed that the pharynx constriction rate was 23% and 50%, before and after treatment, respectively. The data from the high-resolution manometry displayed that: the value of the velopharyngeal pressure peak was 82.8 mmHg before treatment and 156.9 mmHg after treatment; the velopharyngeal contraction duration time was 310 milliseconds before treatment and 525 milliseconds after treatment; the value of the hypopharynx pressure peak was 53.7 mmHg before treatment and 103.2 mmHg after treatment; and the hypopharynx contraction duration time was 390 milliseconds before treatment and 1030 milliseconds after treatment. The swallowing visualization illustrated that a bolus could normally pass through the anastomotic stoma, and the bolus leakage was no longer present. The patient was able to eat various consistencies of food independently, and we were able to remove the jejunum nutrient catheter before discharging the patient. For

  8. Aspiration of barium contrast medium in an elderly man with disordered swallowing

    OpenAIRE

    Bağcı Ceyhan, B.; Çelikel, T.; Koç, M.; Ahıskalı, R.; Biren, T.; Ataizi Çelikel, Ç.

    1995-01-01

    The aspiration of contrast medium during the investigation of gastrointestinal diseases is a well recognized hazard, particularly in patients with swallowing disorders. A case is reported in which accidental aspiration of contrast barium occurred owing to disordered swallowing in an elderly man. The infiltration on chest x-ray persisted 2 years after barium contrast aspiration. Inflammatory reaction and retractile, granular material observed in lung biopsy specimens suggested barium-induced p...

  9. Effect of aging on oral and swallowing function after meal consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiramatsu T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Hiramatsu,1,2 Hideyuki Kataoka,3 Mari Osaki,4 Hiroshi Hagino3,4 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Matsue Co-medical College, Matsue, Japan; 2Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 3School of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 4Rehabilitation Division, Tottori University Hospital, Yonago, Japan Background/purpose: Dysphagia may worsen due to fatigue of the infrahyoid and suprahyoid muscle groups as a result of repetitive swallowing during a meal. We investigated the hypothesis that meal consumption may reduce tongue strength and endurance in older adults (OAs.Methods: Tongue–palate pressure, oral diadochokinesis, repetitive saliva swallowing, and surface electromyography activity before and after a meal were measured in 23 young adults (YAs and 23 OA volunteers.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in both tongue pressure and the number of voluntary swallows between YAs and OAs. Peak tongue pressure was significantly lower in OAs than YAs both before and after meal consumption. The most notable finding was that the first time interval (the time from test initiation to the beginning of the first swallow was prolonged after meal consumption only in OAs, whereas the first time interval showed no difference between YAs and OAs before meal consumption with reference to the repetitive saliva swallowing test. The initiation of swallowing was prolonged by both meal consumption and aging; there was a significant interaction between these two factors. The number of repetitions of the monosyllable/pa/was statistically similar between YAs and OAs before meal consumption, but it was significantly lower in OAs after meal consumption.Conclusion: Aging leads to declining tongue pressure and motor function of the lips. It is possible that swallowing function declines in older individuals when meal consumption is prolonged, especially at the end of mealtime, as a result of their

  10. The digastric muscle is less involved in pharyngeal swallowing in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Yamada, Aki; Nakamura, Yuki; Fukuhara, Takako; Yamamura, Kensuke; Inoue, Makoto

    2012-06-01

    The swallowing reflex is centrally programmed by the lower brain stem, the so-called swallowing central pattern generator (CPG), and once the reflex is initiated, many muscles in the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions are systematically activated. The mylohyoid (MH) muscle has been considered to be a "leading muscle" according to previous studies, but the functional role of the digastric (DIG) muscle in the swallowing reflex remains unclear. In the present study, therefore, the activities of single units of MH and DIG neurons were recorded extracellularly, and the functional involvement of these neurons in the swallowing reflex was investigated. The experiments were carried out on eight adult male Japanese white rabbits anesthetized with urethane. To identify DIG and MH neurons, the peripheral nerve (either DIG or MH) was stimulated to evoke action potentials of single motoneurons. Motoneurons were identified as such if they either (1) responded to antidromic nerve stimulation of DIG or MH in an all-or-none manner at threshold intensities and (2) followed stimulation frequencies of up to 0.5 kHz. As a result, all 11 MH neurons recorded were synchronously activated during the swallowing reflex, while there was no activity in any of the 7 DIG neurons recorded during the swallowing reflex. All neurons were anatomically localized ventromedially at the level of the caudal portion of the trigeminal motor nucleus, and there were no differences between the MH and DIG neuron sites. The present results strongly suggest that at least in the rabbit, DIG motoneurons are not tightly controlled by the swallowing CPG and, hence, the DIG muscle is less involved in the swallowing reflex.

  11. Role of physical bolus properties as sensory inputs in the trigger of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Hartmann, Christoph; Loret, Chrystel; Dardevet, Dominique; Martin, Nathalie; Woda, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1) in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2) by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3) median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4) except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5) physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of swallowing, since they appeared in boluses prepared in various

  12. Role of physical bolus properties as sensory inputs in the trigger of swallowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Agnès Peyron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. METHODS: Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. FINDINGS: Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1 in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2 by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3 median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4 except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5 physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. CONCLUSIONS: Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of

  13. Deleterious sucking habits and atypical swallowing in children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralli, Giovanni; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; Mora, Renzo; Guastini, Luca

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between otitis media with effusion, bad sucking habits and atypical swallowing in children affected by otitis media with effusion. 65 children, aged from 7 to 12 years, observed in the ENT Department of the "La Sapienza" University of Rome, were enrolled in the study group (group A). All children were affected by otitis media with effusion for more than 3 months. As control group, 60 healthy children, aged from 7 to 12 years were identified (group B). All the children underwent medical history, with evaluation of the sucking habits, ENT examination, tympanometry, orthodontic examination and evaluation of swallowing. In the orthodontic examination the variables analyzed were: maximum mouth opening, right and left mandibular lateral movements and mandibular protrusion. Atypical swallowing was considered to occur when lip activity produced strong tension in the perioral musculature, and/or the tip of the tongue was placed or pushed against the anterior teeth during swallowing. In the group A, atypical swallowing was found in 33/65 subjects out of the 65 children (50.7%). In the control group (group B) 16/60 children (26.6%) showed atypical swallowing. Compared with group B, deleterious sucking habits were significantly higher (phabits were present in almost all children with atypical swallowing (28/33 in group A and 12/16 in group B). Our data suggest a correlation between otitis media with effusion, deleterious sucking habits and prevalence of atypical swallowing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Travel of a mis-swallowed long spoon to the jejunum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Guo, Hua; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Foreign-body ingestion is a relatively common presentation at emergency departments, but long metallic spoon swallowing is an infrequent occurrence. Unlike most cases of foreign-body ingestion, there have been no reported cases of long foreign bodies reaching the jejunum. We report a rare case of a coffee spoon that was swallowed accidentally and passed through the pylorus and duodenal loop and reached the jejunum, with no complications. PMID:19842235

  15. Taste and Temperature in Swallowing Transit Time after Stroke

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    Paula C. Cola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is common in individuals after stroke. Taste and temperature are used in dysphagia rehabilitation. The influence of stimuli, such as taste and temperature, on swallowing biomechanics has been investigated in both healthy individuals and in individuals with neurological disease. However, some questions still remain unanswered, such as how the sequence of offered stimuli influences the pharyngeal response. The goal of the present study was to determine the influence of the sequence of stimuli, sour taste and cold temperature, on pharyngeal transit time during deglutition in individuals after stroke. Methods: The study included 60 individuals with unilateral ischemic stroke, 29 males and 31 females, aged 41–88 years (mean age: 66.2 years examined 0–50 days after ictus (median: 6 days, with mild to moderate oropharyngeal dysphagia. Exclusion criteria were hemorrhagic stroke patients, patients with decreased level of consciousness, and clinically unstable patients, as confirmed by medical evaluation. The individuals were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. Group 1 received a nonrandomized sequence of stimuli (i.e. natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold and group 2 received a randomized sequence of stimuli. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed to analyze the pharyngeal transit time. Four different stimuli (natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold were offered. The images were digitalized and specific software was used to measure the pharyngeal transit time. Since the values did not present regular distribution and uniform variances, nonparametric tests were performed. Results: Individuals in group 1 presented a significantly shorter pharyngeal transit time with the sour-cold stimulus than with the other stimuli. Individuals in group 2 did not show a significant difference in pharyngeal transit time between stimuli. Conclusions: The results showed that the sequence of offered stimuli influences

  16. Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton damage and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  17. Swallowing Disorders in Sjögren's Syndrome: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Effects on Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jenny L; Tanner, Kristine; Merrill, Ray M; Miller, Karla L; Kendall, Katherine A; Roy, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    This epidemiological investigation examined the prevalence, risk factors, and quality-of-life effects of swallowing disorders in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). One hundred and one individuals with primary or secondary SS (94 females, 7 males; mean age 59.4, SD = 14.1) were interviewed regarding the presence, nature, and impact of swallowing disorders and symptoms. Associations among swallowing disorders and symptoms, select medical and social history factors, SS disease severity, and the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were examined. The prevalence of a current self-reported swallowing disorder was 64.4 %. SS disease severity was the strongest predictor of swallowing disorders, including significant associations with the following swallow symptoms: taking smaller bites, thick mucus in the throat, difficulty placing food in the mouth, and wheezing while eating (p esophageal reflux, current exposure to secondary tobacco smoke, frequent neck or throat tension, frequent throat clearing, chronic post-nasal drip, and stomach or duodenal ulcers. Swallowing disorders did not differ on the basis of primary or secondary SS. Swallowing disorders and specific swallowing symptoms were uniquely associated with reduced quality of life. Among those with swallowing disorders, 42 % sought treatment, with approximately half reporting improvement. Patient-perceived swallowing disorders are relatively common in SS and increase with disease severity. Specific swallowing symptoms uniquely and significantly reduce swallow and health-related quality of life, indicating the need for increased identification and management of dysphagia in this population.

  18. A model experiment to study swallowing of spherical and elongated particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconati Marco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing disorders are not uncommon among elderly and people affected by neurological diseases. For these patients the ingestion of solid grains, such as pharmaceutical oral solid formulations, could result in choking. This generally results in a low compliance in taking solid medications. The effect of the solid medication size on the real or perceived ease of swallowing is still to be understood from the mechanistic viewpoint. The interplay of the inclusion shape and the rheology of the liquid being swallowed together with the medication is also not fully understood. In this study, a model experiment was developed to study the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing, replicating the dynamics of the bolus flow induced by the tongue (by means of a roller driven by an applied force. Experiments were performed using a wide set of solid inclusions, dispersed in a thick Newtonian liquid. Predictions for a simple theory are compared with experiments. Results show that an increase in the grain size results in a slower dynamics of the swallowing. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrated the paramount role of shape, as flatter and more streamlined inclusions flow faster than spherical. This approach can support the design of new oral solid formulations that can be ingested more easily and effectively also by people with mild swallowing disorders.

  19. Impaired swallowing mechanics of post radiation therapy head and neck cancer patients: A retrospective videofluoroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William G; Davidoff, Alisa A; Smith, Zachary M; Adams, Dorothy E; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-02-28

    To determine swallowing outcomes and hyolaryngeal mechanics associated with post radiation therapy head and neck cancer (rtHNC) patients using videofluoroscopic swallow studies. In this retrospective cohort study, videofluoroscopic images of rtHNC patients (n = 21) were compared with age and gender matched controls (n = 21). Penetration-aspiration of the bolus and bolus residue were measured as swallowing outcome variables. Timing and displacement measurements of the anterior and posterior muscular slings elevating the hyolaryngeal complex were acquired. Coordinate data of anatomical landmarks mapping the action of the anterior muscles (suprahyoid muscles) and posterior muscles (long pharyngeal muscles) were used to calculate the distance measurements, and slice numbers were used to calculate time intervals. Canonical variate analysis with post-hoc discriminant function analysis was performed on coordinate data to determine multivariate mechanics of swallowing associated with treatment. Pharyngeal constriction ratio (PCR) was also measured to determine if weak pharyngeal constriction is associated with post radiation therapy. The rtHNC group was characterized by poor swallowing outcomes compared to the control group in regards to: Penetration-aspiration scale (P time of displacement was abbreviated (P = 0.002) and distance of excursion was reduced (P = 0.02) in the rtHNC group. A canonical variate analysis shows a significant reduction in pharyngeal mechanics in the rtHNC group (P clearance. Using videofluoroscopy, this study shows rtHNC patients have worse swallowing outcomes associated with reduced hyolaryngeal mechanics and pharyngeal constriction compared with controls.

  20. The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Abysique

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus. To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. Here we provide the first demonstration that, after intravenous and central administration, DON strongly inhibits the swallowing reflex with a short latency and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, using c-Fos staining, a strong neuronal activation was observed in the solitary tract nucleus which contains the central pattern generator of swallowing and in the area postrema after DON intravenous injection. Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation.

  1. Contemporary management of voice and swallowing disorders in patients with advanced lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Grainne C; Carding, Paul N; Bhosle, Jaishree; Roe, Justin W G

    2015-06-01

    Advanced lung cancer can cause changes to swallowing and communication function. Direct tumour invasion, dyspnoea and deconditioning can all impact on swallowing function and communication. Cancer treatment, if administered, may cause or compound symptoms. In this study, the nature of swallowing and communication difficulties in patients with advanced lung cancer will be discussed, and management options including medical management, speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention, and surgical interventions will be considered. Advanced lung cancer can result in voice and swallowing difficulties, which can increase symptom burden and significantly impact on quality of life (QOL). There is a growing evidence base to support the use of injection laryngoplasty under local anaesthetic to offer immediate improvement in voice, swallowing and overall QOL. There is limited literature on the nature and extent of voice and swallowing impairment in patients with lung cancer. Well designed studies with robust and sensitive multidimensional dysphagia and dysphonia assessments are required. Outcome studies examining interventions with clearly defined treatment goals are required. These studies should include both functional and patient-reported outcome measures to develop the evidence base and to ensure that interventions are both timely and appropriate.

  2. Effect of peripherally and cortically evoked swallows on jaw reflex responses in anesthetized rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taku; Yoshihara, Midori; Sakai, Shogo; Tsuji, Kojun; Nagoya, Kouta; Magara, Jin; Tsujimura, Takanori; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-05-03

    This study aimed to investigate whether the jaw-opening (JOR) and jaw-closing reflexes (JCR) are modulated during not only peripherally, but also centrally, evoked swallowing. Experiments were carried out on 24 adult male Japanese white rabbits. JORs were evoked by trigeminal stimulation at 1 Hz for 30 sec. In the middle 10 sec, either the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) or cortical swallowing area (Cx) was simultaneously stimulated to evoke swallowing. The peak-to-peak JOR amplitude was reduced during the middle and late 10-sec periods (i.e., during and after SLN or Cx stimulation), and the reduction was dependent on the current intensity of SLN/Cx stimulation: greater SLN/Cx stimulus current resulted in greater JOR inhibition. The reduction rate was significantly greater during Cx stimulation than during SLN stimulation. The amplitude returned to baseline 2 min after 10-sec SLN/Cx stimulation. The effect of co-stimulation of SLN and Cx was significantly greater than that of SLN stimulation alone. There were no significant differences in any parameters of the JCR between conditions. These results clearly showed that JOR responses were significantly suppressed, not only during peripherally evoked swallowing but also during centrally evoked swallowing, and that the inhibitory effect is likely to be larger during centrally compared with peripherally evoked swallowing. The functional implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Impacts and limitations of medialization thyroplasty on swallowing function of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateya, Ichiro; Hirano, Shigeru; Kishimoto, Yo; Suehiro, Atsushi; Kojima, Tsuyohi; Ohno, Satoshi; Ito, Juichi

    2010-11-01

    Medialization thyroplasty was effective in improving swallowing function as well as vocal function in most cases with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The impact of medialization thryoplasty was insufficient for the case with severe atrophy and that in which the vocal fold was fixed in the lateral position. To evaluate the impacts and limitations of medialization thyroplasty on swallowing function of the patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Eight cases (mean age 68.5 years) with unilateral vocal fold paralysis chiefly complaining of swallowing disturbance were studied. All patients underwent thyroplasty type I. The causes of the paralysis were lung cancer in four cases, esophageal cancer in one case, aortic aneurysm in one case, subarachnoid hemorrhage in one case, and unknown in one case. Subjective swallowing function score, maximum phonation time (MPT), mean flow rate (MFR), amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ), and pitch perturbation quotient (PPQ) were examined pre- and postoperatively. The swallowing score improved in all except two cases. However, bilateral thryoplasty was necessary for the case with severe vocal fold atrophy and arytenoid adduction was needed for the case in which the vocal fold was fixed in the lateral position. The swallowing score, MPT, and MFR showed significant improvement after surgery.

  4. Degree Day Requirements for Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), a Pest of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jessica I; Lamp, William O

    2018-04-02

    Understanding the phenology of a new potential pest is fundamental for the development of a management program. Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), kudzu bug, is a pest of soybeans first detected in the United States in 2009 and in Maryland in 2013. We observed the phenology of kudzu bug life stages in Maryland, created a Celsius degree-day (CDD) model for development, and characterized the difference between microhabitat and ambient temperatures of both kudzu, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae) and soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill (Fabales: Fabaceae). In 2014, low population numbers yielded limited resolution from field phenology observations. We observed kudzu bug populations persisting within Maryland; but between 2013 and 2016, populations were low compared to populations in the southeastern United States. Based on the degree-day model, kudzu bug eggs require 80 CDD at a minimum temperature of 14°C to hatch. Nymphs require 545 CDD with a minimum temperature of 16°C for development. The CDD model matches field observations when factoring a biofix date of April 1 and a minimum preoviposition period of 17 d. The model suggests two full generations per year in Maryland. Standard air temperature monitors do not affect model predictions for pest management, as microhabitat temperature differences did not show a clear trend between kudzu and soybeans. Ultimately, producers can predict the timing of kudzu bug life stages with the CDD model for the use of timing management plans in soybean fields.

  5. Insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in bed bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Kai; Doggett, Stephen L; Veera Singham, G; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2017-06-29

    The worldwide resurgence of bed bugs [both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)] over the past two decades is believed in large part to be due to the development of insecticide resistance. The transcriptomic and genomic studies since 2010, as well as morphological, biochemical and behavioral studies, have helped insecticide resistance research on bed bugs. Multiple resistance mechanisms, including penetration resistance through thickening or remodelling of the cuticle, metabolic resistance by increased activities of detoxification enzymes (e.g. cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases), and knockdown resistance by kdr mutations, have been experimentally identified as conferring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. Other candidate resistance mechanisms, including behavioral resistance, some types of physiological resistance (e.g. increasing activities of esterases by point mutations, glutathione S-transferase, target site insensitivity including altered AChEs, GABA receptor insensitivity and altered nAChRs), symbiont-mediated resistance and other potential, yet undiscovered mechanisms may exist. This article reviews recent studies of resistance mechanisms and the genes governing insecticide resistance, potential candidate resistance mechanisms, and methods of monitoring insecticide resistance in bed bugs. This article provides an insight into the knowledge essential for the development of both insecticide resistance management (IRM) and integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for successful bed bug management.

  6. Comparative susceptibilities of different life stages of the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: miridae) to three classes of insecticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticidal control of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is targeted at the adult and nymphal stages, but there is little information on relative susceptibilities of these insects to insecticides. Tarnished plant bug adults were collected from various locations in Mi...

  7. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode

    2003-01-01

    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  8. Virtual Reality Check: Teachers Use Bug-in-Ear Coaching to Practice Feedback Techniques with Student Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Marti; Carter, Richard A., Jr.; Aronin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There is not just one way to give feedback, nor is there just one kind of feedback. Bug-in-ear technology, which allows coaches to give teachers in the classroom immediate feedback, has been used successfully for 35 years. In an updated twist on this method, researchers at the University of Kansas used bug-in-ear coaching in a virtual classroom…

  9. Verde plant bug associatioin with boll damage including cotton boll rot and potential in-season indicators of damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  10. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  11. Toxicity of selected essential oils, silicone oils, and paraffino oil against the common bed bug, cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) resurged in the U.S. and many other countries over the past decade. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous “green pesticides”, mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic ...

  12. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  13. Swallowable fluorometric capsule for wireless triage of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, A; Ryou, M; Thompson, C C; Westervelt, R M

    2015-12-07

    Real-time detection of gastrointestinal bleeding remains a major challenge because there does not yet exist a minimally invasive technology that can both i) monitor for blood from an active hemorrhage and ii) uniquely distinguish it from blood left over from an inactive hemorrhage. Such a device would be an important tool for clinical triage. One promising solution, which we have proposed previously, is to inject a fluorescent dye into the blood stream and to use it as a distinctive marker of active bleeding by monitoring leakage into the gastrointestinal tract with a wireless fluorometer. This paper reports, for the first time to our knowledge, the development of a swallowable, wireless capsule with a built-in fluorometer capable of detecting fluorescein in blood, and intended for monitoring gastrointestinal bleeding in the stomach. The embedded, compact fluorometer uses pinholes to define a microliter sensing volume and to eliminate bulky optical components. The proof-of-concept capsule integrates optics, low-noise analog sensing electronics, a microcontroller, battery, and low power Zigbee radio, all into a cylindrical package measuring 11 mm × 27 mm and weighing 10 g. Bench-top experiments demonstrate wireless fluorometry with a limit-of-detection of 20 nM aqueous fluorescein. This device represents a major step towards a technology that would enable simple, rapid detection of active gastrointestinal bleeding, a capability that would save precious time and resources and, ultimately, reduce complications in patients.

  14. Swallowing performance after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, I.C.; Tiver, K.; Bull, C.; Gebski, V.; Langlands, A.O.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to tabulate the incidence and etiologic factors of importance in the development of strictures after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus and to analyze the outcome of patients who develop such strictures. Eighty patients were treated with radiotherapy, 50 having radical and 30 having palliative treatment. Sixty-nine patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had adenocarcinoma, one had sarcoma, one had mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and five had undifferentiated tumors. Forty percent developed no stricture, 30% had benign fibrotic stricture, and 28% developed malignant stricture. The etiologic factors analysed included age, pretreatment swallowing score, histology and length (size) of tumor; stage of disease, dose of radiotherapy, and use of chemotherapy. None of these factors were shown to be of etiologic importance. The survival of patients who developed benign strictures was found to be significantly longer (1-year survival 88%) than those who developed no stricture (50%) or malignant stricture (19%). Using a success score for palliation of dysphagia, it was found that the majority of patients (71%) who developed a benign stricture had a moderately successful outcome--they were able to tolerate a full or soft diet and required dilatation with a median duration between dilatations of 5 months. Patients who developed a malignant stricture were palliated poorly by dilatation alone, and most required esophageal intubation

  15. SU-D-BRA-01: Feasibility Study for Swallowing Prediction Using Pressure Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, K; Shin, D; Noh, Y; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a swallowing prediction system (SPS) using force sensing sensors and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: The SPS developed consists of force sensing sensor units, a thermoplastic mask, a signal transport device and a control PC installed with an in-house software. The SPS is designed to predict the pharyngeal stage of swallowing because it is known that internal organ movement occurs in pharyngeal stage. To detect prediction signal in the SPS, the force sensing sensor units were attached on both the submental muscle region and thyroid cartilage region of the thermoplastic mask. While the signal from the thyroid cartilage region informs the action of swallowing, the signal from the submental muscle region is utilized as a precursor for swallowing. Since the duration of swallowing is relatively short, using such precursor (or warning) signals for machine control is considered more beneficial. A volunteer study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the system. In this volunteer study, we intended to verify that the system could predict the pharyngeal stage of the swallowing. We measured time gaps between obtaining the warning signals in the SPS and starting points of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing. Results: The measured data was examined whether the time gaps were in reasonable order to be easily utilized. The mean and standard deviation values of these time gaps were 0.550 s ± 0.183 s. in 8 volunteers. Conclusion: The proposed method was able to predict the on-set of swallowing of human subjects inside the thermoplastic mask, which has never been possible with other monitoring systems such as camera-based monitoring system. With the prediction ability of swallowing incorporated into the machine control mechanism (in the future), beam delivery can be controlled to skip swallowing periods and significant dosimetric gain is expected in head & neck cancer treatments. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2015M

  16. SU-D-BRA-01: Feasibility Study for Swallowing Prediction Using Pressure Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, K; Shin, D; Noh, Y; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a swallowing prediction system (SPS) using force sensing sensors and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: The SPS developed consists of force sensing sensor units, a thermoplastic mask, a signal transport device and a control PC installed with an in-house software. The SPS is designed to predict the pharyngeal stage of swallowing because it is known that internal organ movement occurs in pharyngeal stage. To detect prediction signal in the SPS, the force sensing sensor units were attached on both the submental muscle region and thyroid cartilage region of the thermoplastic mask. While the signal from the thyroid cartilage region informs the action of swallowing, the signal from the submental muscle region is utilized as a precursor for swallowing. Since the duration of swallowing is relatively short, using such precursor (or warning) signals for machine control is considered more beneficial. A volunteer study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the system. In this volunteer study, we intended to verify that the system could predict the pharyngeal stage of the swallowing. We measured time gaps between obtaining the warning signals in the SPS and starting points of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing. Results: The measured data was examined whether the time gaps were in reasonable order to be easily utilized. The mean and standard deviation values of these time gaps were 0.550 s ± 0.183 s. in 8 volunteers. Conclusion: The proposed method was able to predict the on-set of swallowing of human subjects inside the thermoplastic mask, which has never been possible with other monitoring systems such as camera-based monitoring system. With the prediction ability of swallowing incorporated into the machine control mechanism (in the future), beam delivery can be controlled to skip swallowing periods and significant dosimetric gain is expected in head & neck cancer treatments. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2015M

  17. Meiotic Chromosome Analysis of the Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisoram, Wijit; Saengthong, Pradit; Ngernsiri, Lertluk

    2013-01-01

    The giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae), a native species of Southeast Asia, is one of the largest insects belonging to suborder Heteroptera. In this study, the meiotic chromosome of L. indicus was studied in insect samples collected from Thailand, Myanmar, Loas, and Cambodia. Testicular cells stained with lacto-acetic orcein, Giemsa, DAPI, and silver nitrate were analyzed. The results revealed that the chromosome complement of L. indicus was 2n = 22A + neo-XY + 2m, which differed from that of previous reports. Each individual male contained testicular cells with three univalent patterns. The frequency of cells containing neo-XY chromosome univalent (∼5%) was a bit higher than that of cells with autosomal univalents (∼3%). Some cells (∼0.5%) had both sex chromosome univalents and a pair of autosomal univalents. None of the m-chromosome univalents were observed during prophase I. In addition, this report presents clear evidence about the existence of m-chromosomes in Belostomatidae. PMID:23895100

  18. Prospective clinical study on long-term swallowing function and voice quality in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and preventive swallowing exercises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, Sophie A. C.; van der Molen, Lisette; Jacobi, Irene; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Hilgers, Frans J. M.; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with substantial early and late side effects, most notably regarding swallowing function, but also regarding voice quality and quality of life (QoL). Despite increased awareness/knowledge on acute dysphagia in

  19. Results of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing vs. radiation dose in the swallowing muscles after radiotherapy of cancer in the oropharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teguh, David N.; Levendag, Peter C.; Sewnaik, Aniel; Hakkesteegt, Marieke M.; Noever, Inge; Voet, Peter; Est, Henrie van der; Sipkema, Dick; Rooij, Peter van; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert Jan; Schmitz, Paul I.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dysphagia is a serious complaint but frequently underreported. This paper assesses for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) the relationship between the dose received by the swallowing structures, and the findings of a fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of the swallowing process (FEES). Materials and methods: Between 2000 and 2005, 60 of 67 OPC patients local-regionally NED for at least one year following treatment responded to three types of QoL questionnaires; i.e. Performance Status Scales, EORTC H and N35, and M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory. Twenty-four patients agreed to the FEES procedure. The main swallowing muscles were delineated, with the mean dose per muscle calculated using the original 3D CT-based treatment plans. Regression analysis was performed between FEES variables and the doses in the different swallowing muscles and the dysphagia related questionnaires. Results: A significant relationship was found between the results of FEES and the mean dose in the superior constrictor muscle (SCM). Some of the subjective dysphagia complaints were significantly correlated with the FEES variables in this retrospectively study. Conclusion: A higher dose in the SCM generally results in worsening of the findings obtained by the FEES examination

  20. Functional connectivity and laterality of the motor and sensory components in the volitional swallowing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Soren Y; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Horwitz, Barry; Ludlow, Christy L

    2012-05-01

    Functional neuroimaging has shown that multiple brain regions are active during volitional swallowing. Little is known, however, about which regions integrate motor execution and sensory feedback in the swallowing system. Although unilateral brain lesions in either hemisphere can produce swallowing deficits, some functional neuroimaging studies indicate that the left hemisphere has greater activation in certain sensory and motor-related swallowing regions. In this study, correlation coefficients were computed for five seed regions during volitional saliva swallowing to determine the functional relationships of these regions with the rest of the brain: the anterior and posterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus (BA44), primary sensory cortex (S1), and primary motor cortex (M1). A laterality index (LI) was derived that accounts for relative differences in total, positive connected voxels for the left/right hemisphere seeds. Clusters of significantly connected voxels were greater from the anterior and posterior insula than from the other three seed regions. Interactions of the insula with other brain regions were greater on the left than on the right during volitional swallowing. Group means showed laterality in the anterior insula (LI = 0.25) and the posterior insula (LI = 0.33). BA44 showed a lesser degree of difference in left versus right hemisphere interactions (LI = 0.12) while S1 did not show lateralization (LI = 0.02) and M1 showed some predominance of interactions in the right hemisphere (LI = -0.19). The greater connectivity from the left hemisphere insula to brain regions within and across hemispheres suggests that the insula is a primary integrative region for volitional swallowing in humans.

  1. Characterization of swallow modulation in response to bolus volume in healthy subjects accounting for catheter diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lara; Schar, Mistyka; McCall, Lisa; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Scholten, Ingrid; Rommel, Nathalie; Cock, Charles; Omari, Taher

    2018-06-01

    Characterization of the pharyngeal swallow response to volume challenges is important for swallowing function assessment. The diameter of the pressure-impedance recording catheter may influence these results. In this study, we captured key physiological swallow measures in response to bolus volume utilizing recordings acquired by two catheters of different diameter. Ten healthy adults underwent repeat investigations with 8- and 10-Fr catheters. Liquid bolus swallows of volumes 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mL were recorded. Measures indicative of distension, contractility, and flow timing were assessed. Pressure-impedance recordings with pressure-flow analysis were used to capture key distension, contractility, and pressure-flow timing parameters. Larger bolus volumes increased upper esophageal sphincter distension diameter (P < .001) and distension pressures within the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (P < .05). Bolus flow timing measures were longer, particularly latency of bolus propulsion ahead of the pharyngeal stripping wave (P < .001). Use of a larger-diameter catheter produced higher occlusive pressures, namely upper esophageal sphincter basal pressure (P < .005) and upper esophageal sphincter postdeglutitive pressure peak (P < .001). The bolus volume swallowed changed measurements indicative of distension pressure, luminal diameter, and pressure-flow timing; this is physiologically consistent with swallow modulation to accommodate larger, faster-flowing boluses. Additionally, catheter diameter predominantly affects lumen occlusive pressures. Appropriate physiological interpretation of the pressure-impedance recordings of pharyngeal swallowing requires consideration of the effects of volume and catheter diameter. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:1328-1334, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Standardization of a Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Protocol to Investigate Dysphagia in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R A; Grobman, M E; Allen, M J; Schachtel, J; Rawson, N E; Bennett, B; Ledyayev, J; Hopewell, B; Coates, J R; Reinero, C R; Lever, T E

    2017-03-01

    Videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) is the gold standard for diagnosis of dysphagia in veterinary medicine but lacks standardized protocols that emulate physiologic feeding practices. Age impacts swallow function in humans but has not been evaluated by VFSS in dogs. To develop a protocol with custom kennels designed to allow free-feeding of 3 optimized formulations of contrast media and diets that address limitations of current VFSS protocols. We hypothesized that dogs evaluated by a free-feeding VFSS protocol would show differences in objective swallow metrics based on age. Healthy juvenile, adult, and geriatric dogs (n = 24). Prospective, experimental study. Custom kennels were developed to maintain natural feeding behaviors during VFSS. Three food consistencies (thin liquid, pureed food, and dry kibble) were formulated with either iohexol or barium to maximize palatability and voluntary prehension. Dogs were evaluated by 16 swallow metrics and compared across age groups. Development of a standardized VFSS protocol resulted in successful collection of swallow data in healthy dogs. No significant differences in swallow metrics were observed among age groups. Substantial variability was observed in healthy dogs when evaluated under these physiologic conditions. Features typically attributed to pathologic states, such as gastric reflux, were seen in healthy dogs. Development of a VFSS protocol that reflects natural feeding practices may allow emulation of physiology resulting in clinical signs of dysphagia. Age did not result in significant changes in swallow metrics, but additional studies are needed, particularly in light of substantial normal variation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Effect of acid swallowing on esophageal contraction in patients with heartburn related to hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Lee, Sang Kil; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Yong Chan

    2013-01-01

    There are heterogeneous subgroups among those with heartburn, and data on these individuals are relatively scant. We aimed to evaluate the effect of acid challenge on the segmental contractions of esophageal smooth muscle in endoscopy-negative patients with normal esophageal acid exposure. High-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) was performed on 30 endoscopy-negative patients with heartburn accompanied by normal esophageal acid exposure using 10 water swallows followed by 10 acidic pomegranate juice swallows. Patients were classified into functional heartburn (FH) and hypersensitive esophagus (HE) groups based on the results of 24-hr impedance pH testing. HRM topographic plots were analyzed and maximal wave amplitude and pressure volumes were measured for proximal and distal smooth muscle segments. The pressure volume of the distal smooth muscle segment in the HE group measured during acidic swallows was higher than during water swallows (2224.1 ± 68.2 mmHg/cm per s versus 2105.6 ± 66.4 mmHg/cm per s, P = 0.027). A prominent shift in the pressure volume to the distal smooth muscle segment was observed in the HE group compared with the FH group (segmental ratio: 2.72 ± 0.08 versus 2.39 ± 0.07, P = 0.005). Manometric measurements during acidic swallows revealed that this shift was augmented in the HE group. The optimal ratio of pomegranate juice swallowing for discrimination of FH from HE was 2.82, with a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 100%. Hypercontractile response of distal smooth muscle segment to acid swallowing was more prominent in the HE group than the FH group. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Use of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in the management of psychogenic dysphagia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thottam, Prasad John; Silva, Rodrigo C; McLevy, Jennifer D; Simons, Jeffrey P; Mehta, Deepak K

    2015-02-01

    To describe the use of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) as an adjunct in the management of children presenting with psychogenic dysphagia, defined as food avoidance and excessive fear of eating without identifiable anatomic or functional swallowing abnormalities. Case series of patients presenting to the otolaryngology clinic of a tertiary pediatric teaching hospital between 2007 and 2008 that were evaluated and managed with the utilization of FEES. The outcomes measured were age, gender, duration of symptoms, findings of FEES, additional work-up and resolution of symptoms at follow-up. Five patients (4 males, 1 female) with ages ranging from 5 to 13 years old (mean=8.6). The median duration of symptoms before presentation was 3 weeks. Four families described refusal of solids starting after choking episode and variable estimated weight loss (mean 2.8kg). One child presented with vague complaints of intermittent odynophagia and food refusal. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was performed on all patients. No abnormalities of the oropharyngeal swallow were appreciated. Additional management included different combinations of modified barium swallow study, esophagastroduodenoscopy (EGD), upper GI series, antibiotics, and psychotherapy. Mean follow-up with clinic visit was 4.2 months. Three of the five children reported complete resolution of symptoms after FEES at follow-up visit. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing can be a useful management tool in children with psychogenic dysphagia as it provides direct visualization of the oropharyngeal swallowing mechanism. This can be used to provide visual reassure and biofeedback to patients and parents. Additional workup should be decided on an individual basis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cannabinoids facilitate the swallowing reflex elicited by the superior laryngeal nerve stimulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafeezur, Rahman Md; Zakir, Hossain Md; Takatsuji, Hanako; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Yamamura, Kensuke; Kitagawa, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids have been reported to be involved in affecting various biological functions through binding with cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2). The present study was designed to investigate whether swallowing, an essential component of feeding behavior, is modulated after the administration of cannabinoid. The swallowing reflex evoked by the repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve in rats was recorded before and after the administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55-212-2 (WIN), with or without CB1 or CB2 antagonist. The onset latency of the first swallow and the time intervals between swallows were analyzed. The onset latency and the intervals between swallows were shorter after the intravenous administration of WIN, and the strength of effect of WIN was dose-dependent. Although the intravenous administration of CB1 antagonist prior to intravenous administration of WIN blocked the effect of WIN, the administration of CB2 antagonist did not block the effect of WIN. The microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist directly into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) prior to intravenous administration of WIN also blocked the effect of WIN. Immunofluorescence histochemistry was conducted to assess the co-localization of CB1 receptor immunoreactivity to glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) or glutamate in the NTS. CB1 receptor was co-localized more with GAD67 than glutamate in the NTS. These findings suggest that cannabinoids facilitate the swallowing reflex via CB1 receptors. Cannabinoids may attenuate the tonic inhibitory effect of GABA (gamma-aminobuteric acid) neurons in the central pattern generator for swallowing.

  6. Cannabinoids facilitate the swallowing reflex elicited by the superior laryngeal nerve stimulation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Md Mostafeezur

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids have been reported to be involved in affecting various biological functions through binding with cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1 and 2 (CB2. The present study was designed to investigate whether swallowing, an essential component of feeding behavior, is modulated after the administration of cannabinoid. The swallowing reflex evoked by the repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve in rats was recorded before and after the administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55-212-2 (WIN, with or without CB1 or CB2 antagonist. The onset latency of the first swallow and the time intervals between swallows were analyzed. The onset latency and the intervals between swallows were shorter after the intravenous administration of WIN, and the strength of effect of WIN was dose-dependent. Although the intravenous administration of CB1 antagonist prior to intravenous administration of WIN blocked the effect of WIN, the administration of CB2 antagonist did not block the effect of WIN. The microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist directly into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS prior to intravenous administration of WIN also blocked the effect of WIN. Immunofluorescence histochemistry was conducted to assess the co-localization of CB1 receptor immunoreactivity to glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67 or glutamate in the NTS. CB1 receptor was co-localized more with GAD67 than glutamate in the NTS. These findings suggest that cannabinoids facilitate the swallowing reflex via CB1 receptors. Cannabinoids may attenuate the tonic inhibitory effect of GABA (gamma-aminobuteric acid neurons in the central pattern generator for swallowing.

  7. Economic Injury Level of the Neotropical Brown Stink Bug Euschistus heros (F.) on Cotton Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M F; Degrande, P E; Panizzi, A R; Toews, M D

    2017-06-01

    In Brazil, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), commonly disperses from soybeans to cotton fields. The establishment of an economic treatment threshold for this pest on cotton crops is required. Infestation levels of adults of E. heros were evaluated on cotton plants at preflowering, early flowering, boll filling, and full maturity by assessing external and internal symptoms of injury on bolls, seed cotton/lint production, and fiber quality parameters. A completely randomized experiment was designed to infest cotton plants in a greenhouse with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 bugs/plant, except at the full-maturity stage in which only infestation with 8 bugs/plant and uninfested plants were evaluated. Results indicated that the preflowering, early-flowering, and full-maturity stages were not affected by E. heros. A linear regression model showed a significant increase in the number of internal punctures and warts in the boll-filling stage as the population of bugs increased. The average number of loci with mottled immature fibers was significantly higher at 4, 6, and 8 bugs compared with uninfested plants with data following a quadratic regression model. The seed and lint cotton was reduced by 18 and 25% at the maximum level of infestation (ca. 8 bugs/plant) in the boll-filling stage. The micronaire and yellowing indexes were, respectively, reduced and increased with the increase of the infestation levels. The economic injury level of E. heros on cotton plants at the boll-filling stage was determined as 0.5 adult/plant. Based on that, a treatment threshold of 0.1 adult/plant can be recommended to avoid economic losses.

  8. Melt With This Kiss: Paralyzing and Liquefying Venom of The Assassin Bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Madio, Bruno; Jin, Jiayi; Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2017-04-01

    Assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are venomous insects, most of which prey on invertebrates. Assassin bug venom has features in common with venoms from other animals, such as paralyzing and lethal activity when injected, and a molecular composition that includes disulfide-rich peptide neurotoxins. Uniquely, this venom also has strong liquefying activity that has been hypothesized to facilitate feeding through the narrow channel of the proboscis-a structure inherited from sap- and phloem-feeding phytophagous hemipterans and adapted during the evolution of Heteroptera into a fang and feeding structure. However, further understanding of the function of assassin bug venom is impeded by the lack of proteomic studies detailing its molecular composition.By using a combined transcriptomic/proteomic approach, we show that the venom proteome of the harpactorine assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis includes a complex suite of >100 proteins comprising disulfide-rich peptides, CUB domain proteins, cystatins, putative cytolytic toxins, triabin-like protein, odorant-binding protein, S1 proteases, catabolic enzymes, putative nutrient-binding proteins, plus eight families of proteins without homology to characterized proteins. S1 proteases, CUB domain proteins, putative cytolytic toxins, and other novel proteins in the 10-16-kDa mass range, were the most abundant venom components. Thus, in addition to putative neurotoxins, assassin bug venom includes a high proportion of enzymatic and cytolytic venom components likely to be well suited to tissue liquefaction. Our results also provide insight into the trophic switch to blood-feeding by the kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae). Although some protein families such as triabins occur in the venoms of both predaceous and blood-feeding reduviids, the composition of venoms produced by these two groups is revealed to differ markedly. These results provide insights into the venom evolution in the insect suborder

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your head About nails: More important than you think Questions lots of kids ask about their skin, ... bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly ...

  10. Voluntary Modulation of Hemodynamic Responses in Swallowing Related Motor Areas: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Neurofeedback Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erika Kober

    Full Text Available In the present study, we show for the first time that motor imagery of swallowing, which is defined as the mental imagination of a specific motor act without overt movements by muscular activity, can be successfully used as mental strategy in a neurofeedback training paradigm. Furthermore, we demonstrate its effects on cortical correlates of swallowing function. Therefore, N = 20 healthy young adults were trained to voluntarily increase their hemodynamic response in swallowing related brain areas as assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. During seven training sessions, participants received either feedback of concentration changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb group, N = 10 or deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb group, N = 10 over the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG during motor imagery of swallowing. Before and after the training, we assessed cortical activation patterns during motor execution and imagery of swallowing. The deoxy-Hb group was able to voluntarily increase deoxy-Hb over the IFG during imagery of swallowing. Furthermore, swallowing related cortical activation patterns were more pronounced during motor execution and imagery after the training compared to the pre-test, indicating cortical reorganization due to neurofeedback training. The oxy-Hb group could neither control oxy-Hb during neurofeedback training nor showed any cortical changes. Hence, successful modulation of deoxy-Hb over swallowing related brain areas led to cortical reorganization and might be useful for future treatments of swallowing dysfunction.

  11. Dysphagia management: an analysis of patient outcomes using VitalStim therapy compared to traditional swallow therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Mary; Brown, Catherine S; Watkins, Lynn

    2006-10-01

    This study compares the outcomes using VitalStim therapy to outcomes using traditional swallowing therapy for deglutition disorders. Twenty-two patients had an initial and a followup videofluoroscopic swallowing study or fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and were divided into an experimental group that received VitalStim treatments and a control group that received traditional swallowing therapy. Outcomes were analyzed for changes in oral and pharyngeal phase dysphagia severity, dietary consistency restrictions, and progression from nonoral to oral intake. Results of chi(2) analysis showed no statistically significant difference in outcomes between the experimental and control groups.

  12. Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS): The Effectiveness of an Afterschool Environmental Science Program for Increasing Female Students' Interest in Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Ellison, Amber; Lim, Okyoung; Periathiruvadi, Sita

    2012-02-01

    Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS) was an afterschool program for 4th and 5th grade girls that provided authentic learning experiences in environmental science as well as valuable female mentoring opportunities in an effort to increase participants' academic achievement in science. BUGS participants demonstrated significantly greater amounts of gain in science knowledge as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills in Science (ITBS-S). The original BUGS participants and contrasts have now completed high school and entered college, allowing researchers to assess the long-term impact of the BUGS program. Fourteen former BUGS participants completed two instruments to assess their perceptions of science and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Their results were compared to four contrast groups composed entirely of females: 12 former BUGS contrasts, 10 college science majors, 10 non-science majors, and 9 current STEM professionals. Results indicate that BUGS participants have higher perceptions of science careers than BUGS contrasts. There were no significant differences between BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM professionals in their perceptions of science and STEM careers, whereas the BUGS contrast group was significantly lower than BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM Professionals. Additional results and implications are discussed within.

  13. Nitric Oxide - Its Importance in Swallowing, Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy

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    ABR Thomson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is a neurotransmitter found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS is localized in the central nervous system, including the nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus ambiguus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. These are regions that are implicated in the central control of swallowing and esophageal motility. In rats and rabbits, NOS has been shown to be present in the nucleus subcentralis of the nucleus of the solitary tract, and is thought to be responsible for the central programming of the striated muscle component of esophageal peristalsis. Beyak and co-workers from the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario provided evidence that the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway is implicated in the central control of swallowing and esophageal motility. They studied oropharyngeal swallowing as well as esophageal peristalsis, and determined the functional role of brain stem nitric oxide by examining the effects of blockade of central nervous system NOS on swallowing, and on primary and secondary peristalsis. Administering NOS inhibitors intravenously or intracerebroventricularly into the fourth ventricle produced a number of oropharyngeal swallows and induced primary peristalsis in the smooth muscle portion of the esophageal body. NOS reduced the number of oropharyngeal swallows and the incidence of primary peristalsis in both smooth and striated muscle, and reduced the amplitude of peristalsis and smooth muscle contraction. This suggests that nitric oxide is a functional neurotransmitter in the central pattern generator responsible for swallowing and the central control of esophageal peristalsis. Peripherally administered NOS inhibitor can access structures within the blood-brain barrier to affect neuronal activity and physiological function. The central pattern generated for swallowing and esophageal peristalsis is suggested to be a serial network of linked neurons within the nucleus of the solitary

  14. Swallowing disorders in nursing home residents: how can the problem be explained?

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    Nogueira D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dália Nogueira,1 Elizabeth Reis21Speech Therapy Department, Escola Superior de Saúde de Alcoitão, Estoril, Portugal; 2Department of Quantitative Methods, Lisbon University Institute ISCTE/IUL, Lisbon, PortugalBackground: The swallowing mechanism changes significantly as people age, even in the absence of chronic diseases. Presbyphagia, a term that refers to aging-related changes in the swallowing mechanism, may be linked to many health conditions and presents itself in distinct ways. Swallowing disorders are also identified as a major problem amongst the elderly population living in nursing homes.Methods: The study sought to determine the prevalence of swallowing disorders in nursing home residents, to identify the relationship between self-perceived swallowing disorders, cognitive functions, autonomy, and depression, and also to analyze which variables explain the score of the Dysphagia Self-Test (DST. For this purpose, the researchers chose to apply a survey conveying questions on demographic aspects, general health, eating and feeding, as well as instruments to assess functional performance and the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test.Results: The sample consisted of 272 elderly people living in eight nursing homes in Portugal. Six did not sign the informed consent form. Of the total, 29% were totally dependent, 33% were depressed, 45% had cognitive impairment, and 38% needed help with feeding. About 43% of the individuals reported having problems related to eating. Regarding the DST, 40% showed signs of dysphagia. With respect to the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, 38% revealed at least one of the symptoms, wet voice being the most prevalent. Correlation measures showed that age had no linear association with the DST score although correlation with the Barthel Index and Mini Mental State Examination was found to be significant. A linear regression model was estimated with the DST score as the dependent variable and the MMSE and BI scores, gender, age

  15. Impacts of palatal coverage on bolus formation during mastication and swallowing and subsequent adaptive changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Furuya, J; Tamada, Y; Kondo, H

    2013-10-01

    Palatal coverage is often required for elderly edentulous patients with complete dentures. The purpose of this study was to clarify impacts of palatal coverage on bolus formation and subsequent adaptive changes. Subjects were 18 healthy young dentulous adults who wore 1·5-mm-thick palatal plates. Subjects were asked to feed 12 g of bicoloured rice as usual, and the bolus formation by mastication and swallowing in the pharynx was observed using a nasal videoendoscopy. The bolus formation index (BFI), number of mastication strokes until swallowing, visual analogue scale about swallowing easiness and masticatory performance using colour-changeable gum were measured under three conditions: before placement of the palatal plate (day 0), immediately after placement (day 1) and after 7 days of wearing the plate (day 7). BFI and visual analogue scale on day 1 were significantly lower than those on day 0, but those on day 7 significantly recovered to the level of day 0. The number of mastication strokes did not change from day 0 to day 1, however, that on day 7 was significantly higher. Masticatory performance on days 1 and 7 was significantly lower than that on day 0. Although palatal coverage inhibits bolus formation during feeding, subjects increased the number of mastication strokes until swallowing threshold as they adapted to palatal coverage over time. This adaptive change was due to compensate for the lowered masticatory performance to achieve bolus formation for comfortable swallowing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Esophageal Transit, Contraction and Perception of Transit After Swallows of Two Viscous Boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmazo, Jucileia; Aprile, Lilian Rose Otoboni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    There have been results showing the influence of bolus viscosities and consistency on esophageal motility and transit. However, there is no description about the influence of two different viscous boluses on esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit. Our objective in this investigation was to evaluate the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses. By impedance and manometric methods, we measured the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses of 5 mL volume, 100% barium sulfate and yogurt, swallowed in duplicate in the supine and upright positions. The bolus transit, esophageal contractions and the perception of bolus transit through the esophagus were evaluated in both positions. Impedance and contraction were measured at 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. After each swallow, the volunteers were asked about the sensation of bolus transit through the esophagus. In supine position, the yogurt had a less frequent complete bolus transit than barium. Also in the supine position, the esophageal transit was longer with yogurt than with barium. Esophageal contractions after swallows were similar between barium and yogurt boluses. There was no difference in perception of transit between the two boluses. Although both 100% barium sulfate and yogurt are viscous boluses and have similar viscosities, the transit through the esophagus is slower with yogurt bolus than with barium bolus, which suggests that viscosity may be not the sole factor to determine transit.

  17. Swallowing impairment and pulmonary dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: the silent threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Larissa; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Pinho, Patrícia; Sampaio, Marília; Nóbrega, Ana Caline; Melo, Ailton

    2014-04-15

    Swallowing disorders and respiratory impairment are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and aspiration pneumonia remains the leading cause of death among these subjects. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between pulmonary impairment and swallowing dysfunction in PD patients. A cross-sectional study with a comparison group was conducted with PD patients. Subjects were submitted to demographic questionnaires and underwent spirometric and videofluorographic assessments. Significance level was considered at 95% (p<0.05). Among 35 PD patients, 40% presented with swallowing complaints. However, 22% of the clinically asymptomatic patients presented airway food penetration when submitted to videofluoroscopy. In 20% of PD patients material entered the airways and there was contact with the vocal folds in 7%. However, there was an efficient cleaning with residue deglutition in almost all patients. No penetration/aspiration was detected among the controls. Respiratory parameters were below the normal predicted values in PD patients when compared to the healthy controls. These data suggest an association between pulmonary dysfunction and swallowing impairment in PD patients; even in patients without swallowing complaints, impaired pulmonary function can be detected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of oropharyngeal dysphagia through fibroendoscopy evaluation of swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Flores, Melissa; Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Villeda-Miranda, Alicia; Rocha-Cacho, Karina Elizabeth; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Hernández-López, Xochiquetzal

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a high incidence in Mexico and is estimated at approximately 500,000 patients. One of the main clinical manifestations of PD is dysphagia, which is the difficult passage of food from the mouth to the stomach. The aim of this study was to assess oropharyngeal dysphagia through fibroendoscopy evaluation of swallowing in patients with PD. We conducted a census sample of patients with PD: 17 males and 10 females, aged >49 years. Clinical history, physical examination and neurological evaluation of swallowing fibroendoscopy were carried out. Of the symptomatic patients, 16 patients (59.25%) reported dysphagia. Fibroendoscopic evaluation demonstrated swallowing disorders in 25 patients (92.59%). The main findings were poor bolus control in 19 patients (70.37%), deficits in bolus propulsion in 25 patients (92.59%), impaired swallowing in 14 patients (51.85%), fractional swallowing in 11 patients (40.74%), reduced epiglottic tilting in 11 patients (48.14%), food residue in vallecula in 24 patients (88.88%) and piriform sinus in 19 patients (70.37%). There was no correlation between duration of PD and degree of involvement of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with PD is a common symptom and can range from the oral cavity to the upper esophageal sphincter. Early onset of severe dysphagia is exceptional in this disease and should alert the clinician to the diagnostic possibility of parkinsonism.

  19. Deglutitive inhibition, latency between swallow and esophageal contractions and primary esophageal motor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifrim, Daniel; Jafari, Jafar

    2012-01-01

    Swallowing induces an inhibitory wave that is followed by a contractile wave along the esophageal body. Deglutitive inhibition in the skeletal muscle of the esophagus is controlled in the brain stem whilst in the smooth muscle, an intrinsic peripheral control mechanism is critical. The latency between swallow and contractions is determined by the pattern of activation of the inhibitory and excitatory vagal pathways, the regional gradients of inhibitory and excitatory myenteric nerves, and the intrinsic properties of the smooth muscle. A wave of inhibition precedes a swallow-induced peristaltic contraction in the smooth muscle part of the human oesophagus involving both circular and longitudinal muscles in a peristaltic fashion. Deglutitive inhibition is necessary for drinking liquids which requires multiple rapid swallows (MRS). During MRS the esophageal body remains inhibited until the last of the series of swallows and then a peristaltic contraction wave follows. A normal response to MRS requires indemnity of both inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms and esophageal muscle. MRS has recently been used to assess deglutitive inhibition in patients with esophageal motor disorders. Examples with impairment of deglutitive inhibition are achalasia of the LES and diffuse esophageal spasm.

  20. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Shuler Nin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough.METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons.RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6% of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6% of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%. We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration.CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  1. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  2. Sensory and instrumental analysis for slipperiness and compliance of food during swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H-S; Hwang, I K; Han, T R; Kim, I S

    2007-11-01

    In spite of its importance, there have been few attempts to evaluate the sensory attributes of the food bolus during swallowing. In the current study, the slipperiness, the degree of slide for the food bolus through the mucosal surface of the oro-pharynx, and the compliance, how easily the shape of a food bolus can be transformed for automatic and comfortable swallowing, were derived among several sensory attributes related to the swallowing. Therefore, the study aims were twofold: (1) to develop the methods of sensory and instrumental analyses for determining the slipperiness and compliance of the food bolus during swallowing and (2) to examine the appropriateness of the newly designed devices by correlating the data between the sensory and instrumental analyses. Six commercial food products were evaluated by 10 trained panelists for each attribute. The devices for assessing each attribute were developed in consideration of the oro-pharyngeal movements. The sensory and instrumental analyses showed high correlation and regression coefficients as well as intensity differences of the 6 samples for each attribute. In conclusion, the slipperiness and the compliance were suitable for acquiring a better understanding of the sensory attributes of the food bolus during swallowing, and the newly developed devices showed a high potential for determining those attributes.

  3. Visual and auditory stimuli associated with swallowing. An fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Tonogi, Morio; Yamane, Gen-yuki; Abe, Shinichi; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Callan, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    We focused on brain areas activated by audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motions. In this study, three kinds of stimuli related to human swallowing movement (auditory stimuli alone, visual stimuli alone, or audiovisual stimuli) were presented to the subjects, and activated brain areas were measured using functional MRI (fMRI) and analyzed. When auditory stimuli alone were presented, the supplementary motor area was activated. When visual stimuli alone were presented, the premotor and primary motor areas of the left and right hemispheres and prefrontal area of the left hemisphere were activated. When audiovisual stimuli were presented, the prefrontal and premotor areas of the left and right hemispheres were activated. Activation of Broca's area, which would have been characteristic of mirror neuron system activation on presentation of motion images, was not observed; however, activation of brain areas related to swallowing motion programming and performance was verified for auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motion. These results suggest that audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motion could be applied to the treatment of patients with dysphagia. (author)

  4. Oropharyngeal and laryngeal sensory innervation in the pathophysiology of swallowing disorders and sensory stimulation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Rofes, Laia; Casamitjana, J Francesc; Padrón, Andreína; Quer, Miquel; Clavé, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) affects older and neurological patients, causing malnutrition and dehydration and increasing the risk for aspiration pneumonia. There is evidence that sensory deficits in those populations are closely related to swallowing disorders, and several research groups are developing new therapies based on sensory stimulation of this area. More information on the sensory innervation participating in the swallow response is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of OD and to develop new treatments. This review focuses on the sensory innervation of the human oropharynx and larynx in healthy people compared with patients with swallowing disorders in order to unravel the abnormalities that may lead to the loss of sensitivity in patients with OD. We also hypothesize the pathway through which active sensory-enhancement treatments may elicit their therapeutic effect on patients with swallowing dysfunctions. As far as we know, this is the first time a review covers the anatomy, histology, ultrastructure, and molecular biology of the sensory innervation of the swallowing function. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. On the Physiology of Normal Swallowing as Revealed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Olthoff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the physiology of normal swallowing using recent advances in real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Therefore ten young healthy subjects underwent real-time MRI and flexible endoscopic evaluations of swallowing (FEES with thickened pineapple juice as oral contrast bolus. MRI movies were recorded in sagittal, coronal, and axial orientations during successive swallows at about 25 frames per second. Intermeasurement variation was analyzed and comparisons between real-time MRI and FEES were performed. Twelve distinct swallowing events could be quantified by real-time MRI (start time, end time, and duration. These included five valve functions: oro-velar opening, velo-pharyngeal closure, glottal closure, epiglottic retroflexion, and esophageal opening; three bolus transports: oro-velar transit, pharyngeal delay, pharyngeal transit; and four additional events: laryngeal ascent, laryngeal descent, vallecular, and piriform sinus filling and pharyngeal constriction. Repetitive measurements confirmed the general reliability of the MRI method with only two significant differences for the start times of the velo-pharyngeal closure (t(8=-2.4, P≤0.046 and laryngeal ascent (t(8=-2.6, P≤0.031. The duration of the velo-pharyngeal closure was significantly longer in real-time MRI compared to FEES (t(8=-3.3, P≤0.011. Real-time MRI emerges as a simple, robust, and reliable tool for obtaining comprehensive functional and anatomical information about the swallowing process.

  6. Effect of Bolus Viscosity on the Safety and Efficacy of Swallowing and the Kinematics of the Swallow Response in Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: White Paper by the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Roger; Vilardell, Natàlia; Clavé, Pere; Speyer, Renée

    2016-04-01

    Fluid thickening is a well-established management strategy for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). However, the effects of thickening agents on the physiology of impaired swallow responses are not fully understood, and there is no agreement on the degree of bolus thickening. To review the literature and to produce a white paper of the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD) describing the evidence in the literature on the effect that bolus modification has upon the physiology, efficacy and safety of swallowing in adults with OD. A systematic search was performed using the electronic Pubmed and Embase databases. Articles in English available up to July 2015 were considered. The inclusion criteria swallowing studies on adults over 18 years of age; healthy people or patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia; bolus modification; effects of bolus modification on swallow safety (penetration/aspiration) and efficacy; and/or physiology and original articles written in English. The exclusion criteria consisted of oesophageal dysphagia and conference abstracts or presentations. The quality of the selected papers and the level of research evidence were assessed by standard quality assessments. At the end of the selection process, 33 articles were considered. The quality of all included studies was assessed using systematic, reproducible, and quantitative tools (Kmet and NHMRC) concluding that all the selected articles reached a valid level of evidence. The literature search gathered data from various sources, ranging from double-blind randomised control trials to systematic reviews focused on changes occurring in swallowing physiology caused by thickened fluids. Main results suggest that increasing bolus viscosity (a) results in increased safety of swallowing, (b) also results in increased amounts of oral and/or pharyngeal residue which may result in post-swallow airway invasion, (c) impacts the physiology with increased lingual pressure patterns, no major changes in impaired

  7. Toxicities of Selected Essential Oils, Silicone Oils, and Paraffin Oil against the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Li, Andrew

    2018-02-09

    The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs. In this study, we screened 18 essential oils, three silicone oils, and paraffin oil (C5-20 paraffins) for their toxicities against bed bugs. All the oils exhibited insecticidal activity in topical assays. Their toxicities varied significantly; all of the evaluated essential oils were less effective than silicone oils and paraffin oil. The LD50 values of the most effective essential oil (blood orange), paraffin oil, and the most effective silicone oil (dodecamethylpentasiloxane) are 0.184 ± 0.018, 0.069 ± 0.012, and 0.036 ± 0.005 mg per bug, respectively. Direct spray of 1% water solution of 3-[hydroxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] heptamethyltrisiloxane, the only silicone oil that mixes well with water, resulted in 92% bed bug mortality after 1 d. Results of this study indicate silicone oils and paraffin oil have the potential to be used as safer alternative bed bug control materials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Early Identification and Treatment of Communication and Swallowing Deficits in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Michelle R.; Grant, Laura M.; Paul Rajamanickam, Eunice S.; Hilby, Breanna L.; Blue, Katherine V.; Jones, Corinne A.; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a wide range of deficits including fine and gross sensorimotor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive decline. Traditionally, the focus for diagnosis and treatment has been on sensorimotor impairment related to dopamine depletion. It is now widely recognized, however, that PD-related pathology affects multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters and pathways. Communication and swallowing functions can be impaired even in the early stages, significantly affecting health and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on early intervention for communication and swallowing impairment in PD. Overarching themes were that (1) studies and interpretation of data from studies in early PD are limited; (2) best therapy practices have not been established, in part due to the heterogeneous nature of PD; and (3) as communication and swallowing problems are pervasive in PD, further treatment research is essential. PMID:24166192

  9. Comparison of barium swallow and ultrasound in diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, D R; Bolia, A; Moore, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fifty one infants and older children with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux entered a study comparing the diagnostic accuracy of a standard barium swallow examination with that of ultrasound scanning. All children were examined by both techniques. In 40 cases there was unequivocal agreement between the examinations. Of the remaining patients, four had definite reflux by ultrasonic criteria but showed no evidence of reflux on barium swallow examination, four had positive findings on ultrasound but showed only minimal reflux on barium swallow, and one showed minimal reflux on ultrasound but had a negative barium meal result. In two children the ultrasound study was inconclusive. Ultrasound has an important role in the diagnosis and follow up of patients under the age of 5 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:3924317

  10. Quantifying swallowing function for healthy adults in different age groups using acoustic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Man-Yin

    Dysphagia is a medical condition that can lead to devastating complications including weight loss, aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, and malnutrition; hence, timely identification is essential. Current dysphagia evaluation tools are either invasive, time consuming, or highly dependent on the experience of an individual clinician. The present study aims to develop a non-invasive, quantitative screening tool for dysphagia identification by capturing acoustic data from swallowing and mastication. The first part of this study explores the feasibility of using acoustic data to quantify swallowing and mastication. This study then further identifies mastication and swallowing trends in a neurotypical adult population. An acoustic capture protocol for dysphagia screening is proposed. Finally, the relationship among speaking, lingual and mastication rates are explored. Results and future directions are discussed.

  11. [Visualization of laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with cine mode 64-row MDCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudeya, Taku; Otake, Shoichiro; Watabe, Hirotaka; Mitsuoka, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Akitoshi

    2010-05-20

    Video fluoroscopic examination of swallowing generally needs a contrast media such as a barium sulfate. Since the examination is usually performed in patients with dysphasia, there is a risk of aspiration. We tried to visualize the laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (64-MDCT). Cine mode 64-MDCT was performed to visualize the laryngopharynx in 4 healthy volunteers during swallowing of negative contrast media (air). The data were converted to three-dimensional (3D) images of 2 conditions (air and bone) and sagittal images of the soft tissue condition at a workstation. These images were sent to a personal computer and modeled to 3D cine images with Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Viewer and Quick Time Player. 3D cine images demonstrated movements of the epiglottis, vallecula, piriform sinus, tongue, pharyngeal wall, hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage.

  12. Stress Tolerance of Bed Bugs: A Review of Factors That Cause Trauma to Cimex lectularius and C. Hemipterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Benoit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp. has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. Research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. Bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowing their prolonged survival when no host is available. High relative humidities are detrimental to bed bugs, leading to reduced survival in comparison to those held at lower relative humidities. Continual exposure of bed bugs, eggs and mobile stages, to temperatures below freezing and short term exposure (=1 h to temperatures below −16 to −18 °C results in mortality. The upper thermal limit for short term exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults is between 40–45 °C for the common (Cimex lectularius and tropical (C. hemipterus bed bugs. Long-term exposure to temperatures above 35 °C results in significant reduction in survival of mobile bed bugs. Eggs for C. lectularius and C. hemipterus are no longer viable when held below 10 °C or above 37 °C throughout embryogenesis. Blood feeding, although necessary for survival and reproduction, is discussed as a stress due to thermal and osmotic fluctuations that result from ingesting a warm bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. Cold, heat, water stress and blood feeding prompted the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps. Pesticide application is a common human-induced stress for urban pests, and recent studies have documented pesticide resistance in many bed bug populations. High levels of traumatic insemination (mating of bed bugs has been linked to reduced survival and fecundity along with possibly exposing individuals to microbial infections after cuticular penetration by the paramere (=male reproductive organ

  13. Successful treatment of pill-swallowing difficulties with head posture practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Steiger, Roberta A; Pope, Jamie; Marsh, Ashley; Sharp, Maegan; Crawford, Susan G

    2010-05-01

    Clinics often encounter neurologically intact patients who are unable to swallow pills. All of the interventions published previously have used traditional behavioural techniques, which are time consuming and often not helpful. To determine whether children who had never been able to swallow a whole pill could become successful as a result of an intervention based on head posture. A novel intervention was developed based on published research showing that changing head position alters swallowing dynamics. The method was developed in two studies of 240 adults and children, pilot tested in a study of 108 university students with very mild pill-swallowing discomfort, and then evaluated in a study of 41 children who had never successfully swallowed a pill in spite of much instruction and coaxing. Children were recruited from a tertiary paediatric hospital: 34 were clinic patients, four were their siblings or friends, and three were children of hospital staff. The primary intervention involved teaching five head positions (centre, up, down, left and right) followed by a two-week period of daily practice. EIGHT CHILDREN (ALL CLINIC REFERRALS) WITHDREW WITHOUT PRACTICING: four were too ill to practice (primarily due to sedation or nausea) and four simply refused to do the homework practice. All 33 of the children who were able and willing to practice daily were successful. Practice with head posture variations was successful in treating pill-swallowing difficulties in all 33 children who practiced for 14 days. A training video can be viewed at www.ucalgary.ca/research4kids/pillswallowing.

  14. INFLUENCE OF AGE ON SWALLOWS OF A HIGHLY VISCOUS LIQUID BOLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslania Viviane NASCIMENTO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Swallow function has a decline with aging, mainly in those over 80 years old. In the population over 69 years, about 11% of subjects reported symptoms indicative of significant dysphagia. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the hypothesis that older asymptomatic subjects before 80 years old have compensations to sustain a safe and efficient swallow, at least with swallows of liquid bolus. Methods We performed videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallows in 55 normal volunteers, a younger group with 33 subjects (16 men and 17 women aged 19 to 55 years, mean 35.5±9.8 years, and an older group with 22 subjects (15 men and 7 women aged 56 to 77 years, mean 64.8±6.8 years. The subjects swallowed in duplicate 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid barium with a pH of 7.9, density of 1.82 g/cm3, and viscosity of 895 cp. Results The mean duration of pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were longer in the younger group compared with the older group. The relation between pharyngeal clearance duration and hyoid movement duration was similar in younger and older subjects, for 5 mL and 10 mL bolus volumes. Conclusions On average, a highly viscous liquid bolus crosses the pharynx faster in older subjects (56-77 years old than in younger subjects (19-55 years old, which suggested an adaptation to the aging process to maintain a safe swallow.

  15. Improvement of swallowing function in patients with esophageal cancer treated by radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, Shinji; Nakajima, Kotaro; Nozawa, Kumiko [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi General Hospital; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Tanaka, Naomi; Fukao, Katashi; Itai, Yuji

    1996-12-01

    This study investigated the impact of radiotherapy on swallowing function in 152 patients with esophageal cancer. Swallowing function was retrospectively assessed in these patients using a swallowing-function scoring system. Total tumor dose ranged from 22.5 Gy in 14 fractions to 104.4 Gy in 50 fractions. Improvement in dysphagia was noted in 62.3% of these patients, with a median time to improvement of 6 weeks. Improvement rate of patients irradiated with 20.0 to 34.9 Gy, 35.0 to 59.9 Gy and 60.0 Gy or more was 23.1%, 58.3% and 71.6%, respectively. Patients with T1-3 showed, a greater improvement rate than patients with T4 cancer (72.2% versus 54.1%). On multivariate analysis, the initial score, total dose and T factor correlated with improvements in swallowing function. Our results suggest that 35.0 Gy or more is necessary to improve swallowing function. The median duration in which patients could swallow soft or solid foods, was 8 months in patients receiving 60.0 Gy or more and 2 months in patients receiving 50.0 to 59.9 Gy, respectively. There was a significant difference between these periods (p<0.01). Regarding duration of palliation, median duration for patients receiving 60.0 Gy or more was 30 weeks, while it was 22 weeks for patients treated with lesser doses (p=0.053). We recommend 60.0 Gy or more as the optimal dosage for improving dysphagia. (author)

  16. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazonov, Edward; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Melanson, Edward L; Neuman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone-conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free-living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprising sensors, related hardware and software for multi-modal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in 21 volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of five subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior

  17. Defining Swallowing-Related Quality of Life Profiles in Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziano, Joy; Watts, Stephanie; Robison, Raele; Plowman, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that dysphagia contributes to significant malnutrition, pneumonia, and mortality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), it remains unclear how swallowing impairment impacts quality of life in this vulnerable patient population. The aim of the current study was to (1) delineate swallow-related quality of life (SR-QOL) profiles in individuals with ALS and (2) evaluate relationships between SR-QOL, degree of swallowing impairment, and ALS global disease progression. Eighty-one ALS patients underwent a standardized videofluoroscopic swallow study and completed the swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL) instrument and ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R). Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores were derived by a blinded rater. Correlation analyses and a between groups ANOVA (safe vs. penetrators vs. aspirators) were performed. Mean SWAL-QOL score for this cohort was 75.94 indicating a moderate degree of SR-QOL impairment with fatigue, eating duration, and communication representing the most affected domains. Correlations were revealed between the SWAL-QOL and (1) PAS (r = −0.39, p < 0.001) and (2) ALSFRS-R (r = 0.23, p < 0.05). Mean (SD) SWAL-QOL scores for safe versus penetrator versus aspirator groups were 81.2 (2.3) versus 77 (3.4) versus 58.7 (5.9), respectively, with a main effect observed [F(2,78) = 9.71, p < 0.001]. Post hoc testing revealed lower SWAL-QOL scores for aspirators versus safe swallowers (p < 0.001) and aspirators versus penetrators (p < 0.001). Overall, SR-QOL was moderately reduced in this cohort of ALS patients and profoundly impacted in ALS aspirators and individuals with advanced disease. These findings highlight the importance of early multidisciplinary intervention to not only avoid malnutrition, weight loss, and pulmonary sequelae but also the associated reduced QOL seen in these individuals. PMID:26837611

  18. Objective clinical assessment of change in swallowing ability of maxillectomy patients when wearing obturator prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Miwa; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of treatment outcome is important in maxillofacial rehabilitation. Although eating is one of the oral functions that most strongly influences patients' quality of life, only a few reports exist on the objective assessment of swallowing for maxillectomy patients. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the swallowing ability of maxillectomy patients when wearing obturator prostheses through the use of an objective clinical assessment. The swallowing ability of 38 postmaxillectomy patients consecutively treated with obturator prostheses was objectively evaluated with the "water-drinking test" that was developed for the assessment of dysphagia patients after cerebrovascular disease. In this test, the subjects were instructed to drink 30 mL of water in one swallow. The profile was evaluated with the combination of the time required for drinking the water and the incidence of cough reflex. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the paired t test, and the Chi-square test with StatView 5.0 for the Macintosh. Performance improved significantly when the patients wore prostheses (P = .0026, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The mean drinking times without and with prostheses were 8.2 +/- 6.3 s and 5.0 +/- 3.5 s, respectively. Drinking time was shortened significantly when the prosthesis was worn (P = .0002, paired t test). The assessment of behavior and episodes revealed that the swallowing ability of the maxillectomy patients was significantly improved when a prosthesis was worn (P = .0002, Chi-square test). The swallowing ability of maxillectomy patients was quantitatively and qualitatively improved with obturator prostheses.

  19. [Evaluation of swallowing function with surface electromyography before and after tonsillectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Emre; Veyseller, Bayram; Açıkalın, Reşit Murat; Elbistanlı, Suphi; Yurtsever, Serveren; Acar, Hürtan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the swallowing function with surface electromyography before and after tonsillectomy. Twenty patients (12 males, 8 females; mean age 23.8 years; range 17 to 30 years) who had tonsillectomy indication as study group, and 10 healthy individuals (8 males, 2 females; mean age 26 years; range 18 to 35 years) as control group were included in this prospective study between October 2008 and February 2009. Due to their significant role on oral and faringeal phases of swallowing; the surface electromyography prosedure is performed on the masseter muscle, the submental-submandibular muscle group and the infrahyoid muscles to measure their electrical activity and duration of contraction. For this purpose, single swallow and continuous drinking of 100 cc water tests were applied to each patient preoperatively and; in the postoperative 1st week and the 1st month. The preoperative duration of drinking periods were significanly longer in the study group compared to the control group (p<0.05). At the end of the first postoperative week the duration of drinking 100 cc water test was significantly longer than the preoperative mean of the study group (p<0.05). After one month single- swallow durations of study group were significantly shorter then the preoperative mean (p<0.05). The electrical activity of the masseter and infrahyoid muscles were significantly higher in study group compared with control group (p<0.05). The close proximity of the surgical area to the muscles affects swallowing after tonsillectomy. The surface electromyography is a simple, non-invasive and reliable method for postoperative evaluation of the swallowing functions of the throat muscles and thereby allows monitoring of the recovery and functional improvement of these muscles.

  20. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Edward; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Melanson, Edward L; Neuman, Michael

    2008-05-01

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone-conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free-living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprising sensors, related hardware and software for multi-modal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in 21 volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of five subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior.

  1. A Novel Imaging Analysis Method for Capturing Pharyngeal Constriction During Swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertner, Ryan W; Garand, Kendrea L; Pearson, William G

    2016-01-01

    Videofluoroscopic imaging of swallowing known as the Modified Barium Study (MBS) is the standard of care for assessing swallowing difficulty. While the clinical purpose of this radiographic imaging is to primarily assess aspiration risk, valuable biomechanical data is embedded in these studies. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is an established research methodology for assessing multiple interactions of swallowing mechanics based on coordinates mapping muscle function including hyolaryngeal movement, pharyngeal shortening, tongue base retraction, and extension of the head and neck, however coordinates characterizing pharyngeal constriction is undeveloped. The aim of this study was to establish a method for locating the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors using hard landmarks as guides on MBS videofluoroscopic imaging, and to test the reliability of this new method. Twenty de-identified, normal, MBS videos were randomly selected from a database. Two raters annotated landmarks for the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors frame-by-frame using a semi-automated MATLAB tracker tool at two time points. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess test-retest reliability between two raters with an ICC = 0.99 or greater for all coordinates for the retest measurement. MorphoJ integrated software was used to perform a discriminate function analysis to visualize how all 12 coordinates interact with each other in normal swallowing. The addition of the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor coordinates to CASM allows for a robust analysis of the multiple components of swallowing mechanics interacting with a wide range of variables in both patient specific and cohort studies derived from common use imaging data.

  2. Estimating potential stylet penetration of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) - A mathematical modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.), and related species are significant pests of cotton in the U.S. Cotton Belt. Using their stylets, adults introduce disease pathogens of cotton into cotton bolls, and preliminary data indicates nymphs can also ingest these pathogens. Data is lacking ...

  3. 76 FR 550 - Second National Bed Bug Summit; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... identify knowledge gaps and barriers to effective community-wide bed bug control; propose the next steps in addressing knowledge gaps and eliminating barriers; and develop a framework for addressing the highest... many areas of the country. As this resilient pest has become a nationwide problem affecting hotels...

  4. Morphometrics of the Southern Green Stink Bug [Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)] Stylet Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a cosmopolitan pest of high-value cash crops, including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.; Malvales: Malvaceae). The pest can ingest and transmit disease-causing bacterial and fungal pathogens of cotton. We hypothesized t...

  5. Fooling the harlequin bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using synthetic volatiles to alter host plant choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a widespread invasive pest that feeds on a variety of brassicaceous crops and other plants. To understand olfactory cues which mediate host-finding, and possible utility in pest management, we deployed aggregation pheromone (m...

  6. The Impact of Test Case Summaries on Bug Fixing Performance : An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panichella, S.; Panichella, A.; Beller, M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Gall, H.

    2015-01-01

    Automated test generation tools have been widely investigated with the goal of reducing the cost of testing activities. However, generated tests have been shown not to help developers in detecting and finding more bugs even though they reach higher structural coverage compared to manual testing. The

  7. The Impact of Test Case Summaries on Bug Fixing Performance : An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panichella, Sebastiano; Panichella, A.; Beller, M.M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Gall, Harald C.

    2016-01-01

    Automated test generation tools have been widely investigated with the goal of reducing the cost of testing activities. However, generated tests have been shown not to help developers in detecting and finding more bugs even though they reach higher structural coverage compared to manual testing.

  8. No hospital is an island when it comes to Y2K bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, A

    1999-01-01

    If a recent meeting on the millennium bug is any indication, Canada's health care facilities have plenty to worry about as the year 2,000 approaches. Topics discussed included the state of readiness within the health care sector and potential legal issues that may arise. PMID:9951449

  9. Investigating Information Needs to Improve Cooperation Between Developers and Bug Reporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breu, S.; Premraj, R.; Sillito, J.; Zimmermann, T.

    2010-01-01

    For many software projects, bug tracking systems play a central role in supporting collaboration between the developers and the users of the software. To better understand this collaboration and how tool support can be improved, we have quantitatively and qualitatively analysed the questions asked

  10. A Transcriptome Survey Spanning Life Stages and Sexes of the Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sparks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn, is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected. Gene ontology and protein family analyses were conducted to explore the functional potential of the harlequin bug’s gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on gene families germane to xenobiotic detoxification, including glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s. Genic content in harlequin bug was compared with that of the closely related invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål. Quantitative analyses of harlequin bug gene expression levels, experimentally validated using quantitative real-time PCR, identified genes differentially expressed between life stages and/or sexes.

  11. Computer games to teach hygiene: an evaluation of the e-Bug junior game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Weinberg, Julius; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Lecky, Donna M; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    Handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance remain major public health concerns. In order to facilitate an effective outcome when teaching the basic principles of hand and respiratory hygiene, educational interventions should first target school children. As computer games are ubiquitous in most children's lives, e-Bug developed computer games targeted at teaching children handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance. The games were designed for two target audiences: junior school children (9-12 year olds); and senior school children (13-15 year olds). Between May and August 2009, the finalized junior game underwent an evaluation in three UK schools (in Glasgow, Gloucester and London), involving 62 children in the schools and ∼ 1700 players accessing the junior game online. The e-Bug junior game consists of a number of levels of play, each of which promotes a set of learning outcomes (LOs). These LOs, complementary to those in the e-Bug packs, are expressed through the game mechanics (the rules of the game) rather than through story or dialogue. Although the junior game's evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant change in the knowledge for only a small number of given LOs, because many children had the required knowledge already before playing the game, this is e-Bug's first statistical study on the junior game and the first comprehensive evaluation of its kind. Future work includes a re-examination of the quiz-style questionnaires utilized in this study and an exploration of the potential knowledge change acquired strictly through engagement.

  12. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the

  13. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF BUG RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture, and transport contributes to an increased environmental pollution by heavy metals. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of the contents of selected metals (lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel in the sediments of Bug river. The study comprised part of the river flowing through Poland. It was found that the Bug river sediments are not contaminated in respect to the content of tested metals. Based on the analysis of the study results, these metals can be lined up in the following order: Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. Statistical analysis showed that copper and chromium occur in Bug river sediments in forms bindings with organic matter in majority of cases. The granulometric analysis of sediments from Bug river revealed the largest percentage of two fractions: 1.0–0.2 mm with average of 47.7 ± 19.77% and 0.2–0.1 mm with average of 20.6 ± 7.7%. These are the dominant fractions with the accumulation of metals in river sediments, which has been confirmed by statistical analysis.

  14. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, R.; Almeida, L.; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception

  15. Ecosystem-based incorporation of nectar-producing plants for stink bug parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests of crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of s...

  16. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as

  17. The Heteroptera of the Netherlands Antilles – V Tingidae (Lace Bugs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drake, Carl J.; Cobben, R.H.

    1960-01-01

    The present paper is based upon the lace bugs, Family Tingidae, collected by the junior author in the West Indies, on the islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, St. Martin, Saba, and St. Eustatius. This collection of several tingids comprises 17 species, including the five new forms described below.

  18. Evaluating impacts of brown marmorated stink bug on non-fruiting nursery crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyomorpha halys, commonly known as the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), has become a major pest and nuisance since it arrived in the US in 1998 for both agricultural growers and homeowners. They can feed on ~200 different plant species, several of which are important ornamental crop species. The...

  19. Correlation of ultrasound imaging of oral swallow with ventilatory alterations in cerebral palsied and normal children: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, D J; Casas, M J; McPherson, K A

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation that synchronizes the videotaped output of ultrasound camera and the analog data from physiological measurements of swallowing and ventilation in normal and cerebral palsied (CP) children are presented. Four cerebral palsied children and three control children undertook a single sip-swallow of 5 ml of liquid and a solid mastication-swallow sequence on three occasions according to a defined protocol. The CP children exhibited much more variability and less control of the liquid bolus than did the controls. The ultrasound image clearly demonstrates the lack of control of the posterior of the tongue in many CP children. Some parts of the sequence of oral swallow and the time to achieve maximum anterior displacement of the hyoid bone appear to be slowed. The sequential events of swallowing show less variability as the sip-swallow proceeds from the oral voluntary to pharyngeal and lower involuntary phases. This study also identified a short-latency apnea that appears to accompany a saliva (protective) swallow and a long-latency apnea that accompanies semi-solid or liquid bolus (alimentary) swallows. Further investigations of normal and CP children utilizing a combined diagnostic imaging-physiological measurement approach will follow this initial study.

  20. Auditory Verbal Cues Alter the Perceived Flavor of Beverages and Ease of Swallowing: A Psychometric and Electrophysiological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possible effects of auditory verbal cues on flavor perception and swallow physiology for younger and elder participants. Apple juice, aojiru (grass juice, and water were ingested with or without auditory verbal cues. Flavor perception and ease of swallowing were measured using a visual analog scale and swallow physiology by surface electromyography and cervical auscultation. The auditory verbal cues had significant positive effects on flavor and ease of swallowing as well as on swallow physiology. The taste score and the ease of swallowing score significantly increased when the participant’s anticipation was primed by accurate auditory verbal cues. There was no significant effect of auditory verbal cues on distaste score. Regardless of age, the maximum suprahyoid muscle activity significantly decreased when a beverage was ingested without auditory verbal cues. The interval between the onset of swallowing sounds and the peak timing point of the infrahyoid muscle activity significantly shortened when the anticipation induced by the cue was contradicted in the elderly participant group. These results suggest that auditory verbal cues can improve the perceived flavor of beverages and swallow physiology.

  1. Nitric Oxide and Histamine Signal Attempts to Swallow: A Component of Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Ayelet; Miller, Nimrod; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2010-01-01

    Memory that food is inedible in "Aplysia" arises from training requiring three contingent events. Nitric oxide (NO) and histamine are released by a neuron responding to one of these events, attempts to swallow food. Since NO release during training is necessary for subsequent memory and NO substitutes for attempts to swallow, it was suggested that…

  2. Feasibility and usefulness of using swallow contrast-enhanced ultrasound to diagnose Zenker's diverticulum: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin-Wu; Ignee, Andre; Baum, Ulrich; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-04-01

    Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) may be misdiagnosed on conventional ultrasound as a thyroid nodule or other lesion. A barium esophagram is usually used to confirm the diagnosis; however, this procedure exposes the patient to radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using swallow contrast-enhanced ultrasound (swallow-CEUS) to diagnose ZD. Ten consecutive patients with ZD (7 men and 3 women, aged 67 ± 11 y) were included in the study. In 4 patients, ZD was incidentally found on head and neck ultrasound, and in 6 patients, ZD was suspected because of dysphagia. All lesions could be detected on conventional ultrasound before swallow-CEUS. Ten healthy volunteers (8 men and 2 women, aged 60 ± 12 y) were chosen as a control group. Written informed consent was obtained. With the patient in the sitting or upright position, conventional ultrasound was performed first to image the lesion, then the patient was asked to swallow ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) (2-4 drops of SonoVue diluted with about 200 mL of tap water). Transity of the contrast agent in the esophagus was imaged with CEUS. Retention of the UCA in the diverticulum was monitored for at least 3 min. All patients underwent a barium esophagram as the gold standard. Swallow-CEUS revealed that in all patients (100%), the UCA was transported from the pharynx to the esophagus while the patient swallowed. ZD appeared as a pouch-shaped structure at the posterior pharyngo-esophageal junction that retained UCA longer than 3 min. The barium esophagram confirmed the diagnosis of ZD in all patients. For the 10 volunteers, no abnormal structure (retaining UCA) was detected during or after swallowing of UCA. With the advantages of no radiation and bedside availability, swallow-CEUS may become a method of choice in confirmation of the diagnosis of ZD, especially when ZD is suspected on conventional ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier

  3. A predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after curative radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langendijk, Johannes A.; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H.F.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Rene Leemans, C.; Slotman, Ben J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, we found that swallowing dysfunction after curative (chemo) radiation (CH) RT has a strong negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), even more than xerostomia. The purpose of this study was to design a predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after curative radiotherapy or chemoradiation. Materials and methods: A prospective study was performed including 529 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with curative (CH) RT. In all patients, acute and late radiation-induced morbidity (RTOG Acute and Late Morbidity Scoring System) was scored prospectively. To design the model univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out with grade 2 or higher RTOG swallowing dysfunction at 6 months as the primary (SWALL 6months ) endpoint. The model was validated by comparing the predicted and observed complication rates and by testing if the model also predicted acute dysphagia and late dysphagia at later time points (12, 18 and 24 months). Results: After univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, the following factors turned out to be independent prognostic factors for SWALL 6months : T3-T4, bilateral neck irradiation, weight loss prior to radiation, oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal tumours, accelerated radiotherapy and concomitant chemoradiation. By summation of the regression coefficients derived from the multivariate model, the Total Dysphagia Risk Score (TDRS) could be calculated. In the logistic regression model, the TDRS was significantly associated with SWALL 6months ((p 6months was 5%, 24% and 46% in case of low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients, respectively. These observed percentages were within the 95% confidence intervals of the predicted values. The TDRS risk group classification was also significantly associated with acute dysphagia (P < 0.001 at all time points) and with late swallowing dysfunction at 12, 18 and 24 months (p < 0.001 at all time points

  4. Fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES): predictor of swallowing-related complications in the head and neck cancer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Michael W; McDonough, Alanna; Dort, Joseph C; Dort, Erika; Nakoneshny, Steve; Matthews, T Wayne

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of head and neck cancer is associated with significant dysphagia and morbidity. Prescribing a safe oral diet in this population is challenging. Data from 116 consecutive patients having 189 fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) examinations over a 3-year period were analyzed. All patients had been treated for head and neck cancer and subsequently were assessed by FEES. The primary outcome was the incidence of swallowing-related adverse events resulting from the FEES-based dietary recommendations. There were 10 episodes of aspiration pneumonia, 4 episodes of airway obstruction, 3 unanticipated insertions of gastrostomy tubes, and 2 unexplained deaths within the study period. The overall rate of adverse events was 10.1%. The only statistically significant predictor of adverse events was the Rosenbek score (p = .03). Our experience is that FEES guides appropriate and safe diet recommendations in this population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Rifkin bugs bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, P

    Activist Jeremy Rifkin is seeking a court injunction to prevent the University of California at Berkeley from proceeding with a controversial frost-retarding experiment involving the release of DNA-modified bacteria into the environment. Rifkin and several environmental groups filed suit in federal court last year to challenge a National Institutes of Health decision to approve the experiment.

  6. Prospective clinical study on long-term swallowing function and voice quality in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and preventive swallowing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenga, Sophie A C; van der Molen, Lisette; Jacobi, Irene; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with substantial early and late side effects, most notably regarding swallowing function, but also regarding voice quality and quality of life (QoL). Despite increased awareness/knowledge on acute dysphagia in HNC survivors, long-term (i.e., beyond 5 years) prospectively collected data on objective and subjective treatment-induced functional outcomes (and their impact on QoL) still are scarce. The objective of this study was the assessment of long-term CCRT-induced results on swallowing function and voice quality in advanced HNC patients. The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial on preventive swallowing rehabilitation (2006-2008) in a tertiary comprehensive HNC center with twenty-two disease-free and evaluable HNC patients as participants. Multidimensional assessment of functional sequels was performed with videofluoroscopy, mouth opening measurements, Functional Oral Intake Scale, acoustic voice parameters, and (study specific, SWAL-QoL, and VHI) questionnaires. Outcome measures at 6 years post-treatment were compared with results at baseline and at 2 years post-treatment. At a mean follow-up of 6.1 years most initial tumor-, and treatment-related problems remained similarly low to those observed after 2 years follow-up, except increased xerostomia (68%) and increased (mild) pain (32%). Acoustic voice analysis showed less voicedness, increased fundamental frequency, and more vocal effort for the tumors located below the hyoid bone (n = 12), without recovery to baseline values. Patients' subjective vocal function (VHI score) was good. Functional swallowing and voice problems at 6 years post-treatment are minimal in this patient cohort, originating from preventive and continued post-treatment rehabilitation programs.

  7. SU-E-J-193: Application of Surface Mapping in Detecting Swallowing for Head-&-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D; Xie, X; Mehta, V; Shepard, D [Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Recent evidence is emerging that long term swallowing function may be improved after radiotherapy for head-&-neck cancer if doses are limited to certain swallowing structures. Immobilization of patients with head-&-neck cancer is typically done with a mask. This mask, however, doesn’t limit patient swallowing. Patient voluntary or involuntary swallowing may introduce significant tumor motion, which can lead to suboptimal delivery. In this study, we have examined the feasibility of using surface mapping technology to detect patient swallowing during treatment and evaluated its magnitude. Methods: The C-RAD Catalyst system was used to detect the patient surface map. A volunteer lying on the couch was used to simulate the patient under treatment. A virtual marker was placed near the throat and was used to monitor the swallowing action. The target motion calculated by the Catalyst system through deformable registration was also collected. Two treatment isocenters, one placed close to the throat and the other placed posterior to the base-of-tongue, were used to check the sensitivity of surface mapping technique. Results: When the patient’s throat is not in the shadow of the patient’s chest, the Catalyst system can clearly identify the swallowing motion. In our tests, the vertical motion of the skin can reach to about 5mm. The calculated target motion can reach up to 1 cm. The magnitude of this calculated target motion is more dramatic when the plan isocenter is closer to the skin surface, which suggests that the Catalyst motion tracking technique is more sensitive to the swallowing motion with a shallower isocenter. Conclusion: Surface mapping can clearly identify patient swallowing during radiation treatment. This information can be used to evaluate the dosimetric impact of the involuntary swallowing. It may also be used to potentially gate head-&-neck radiation treatments. A prospective IRB approved study is currently enrolling patients in our

  8. Effect of spontaneous saliva swallowing on short-term heart rate variability (HRV) and reliability of HRV analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Metin; Doma, Serian

    2017-09-26

    The effects of effortful swallowing and solid meal ingestions on heart rate variability (HRV) have been examined previously. The effects of spontaneous saliva swallowing on short-term HRV and reliability of HRV analysis have not been studied before. The effect of saliva swallowing on HRV analyses parameters [meanRRI, SDNN (standard deviation of normal-to-normal), LF (low frequency), HF (high frequency) powers, LH/HF] and the reliability of LF and HF powers were investigated by frequency, time-frequency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses. Electrocardiogram and swallowing signal that obtained from an electronic stethoscope placed on the necks of subjects were recorded simultaneously from 30 healthy and young volunteers in sitting position during 15 min. Spontaneous swallowing has been shown to significantly alter some HRV parameters (SDNN, LF power and LF/HF ratio). Time-frequency analysis results showed that the contribution of saliva swallowing to LF (1-58%) and HF (2-42%) powers could change significantly depending on the number of swallowing. The ICC of the LF and HF powers for the successive 5-min signal segments were found 0·89, 0·92, respectively. These values decreased to 0·73 and 0·90 in the subjects with more swallowing rate. When the analyses were made for 2-min signal periods, these values decreased to 0·63 and 0·67. We concluded that spontaneous saliva swallowing can change HRV parameters. We have also seen that changes in swallowing rate and use of short signal segments may reduce the reliability of HRV analyses. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  10. Laboratory efficacy of mycoparasitic fungi (Aspergillus tubingensis and Trichoderma harzianum against tropical bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaikha Zahran

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Approaches to the bed bugs treatment should be explored in-depth using a natural biological agent like fungus especially A. tubingensis to reduce this pest population, in order to replace chemical methods.

  11. A comparison of infectivity between polyhedra of the Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R K; Gani, Mudasir; Jasrotia, P; Srivastava, K; Kaul, V

    2014-01-01

    Infectivity of polyhedra of Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the predatory stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was compared through field bioassay studies. Three sets of E. furcellata were used for bioassays and these were allowed to feed on a single meal of five third instar Oriental leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), that were infected with polyhedra before passage, after passage, and healthy (control) larvae 1 day prior to the trial. The predators were subsequently released on cabbage plants that were infested with 100 healthy S. litura larvae. The median lethal dose (LD50) and survival time (ST50) values before and after passage through the gut were not significantly different. Additional mortality due to virus infection increased 13- 17% before and after treatments but within these treatments the mortality did not vary significantly. It was concluded that E. furcellata disseminated the virus through their feces into the ecosystem and infectivity of the SpltMNPV was not altered after passage through the gut of the predator. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  12. Effectiveness of a Reduced-Risk Insecticide Based Bed Bug Management Program in Low-Income Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are becoming increasingly common in low-income communities. Once they are introduced, elimination is very difficult. As part of the efforts to develop effective and safe bed bug management programs, we conducted a laboratory study evaluating the efficacy of a reduced-risk insecticide—Alpine aerosol (0.5% dinotefuran. We then conducted a field evaluation of a reduced-risk insecticide based integrated pest management (IPM program in low-income family apartments with young children. In laboratory evaluations, direct spray and 5 min exposure to dry Alpine aerosol residue caused 100.0 ± 0.0 and 91.7 ± 8.3% mortality to bed bug nymphs, respectively. Direct Alpine aerosol spray killed 91.3 ± 4.3% of the eggs. The IPM program included education, steam, bagging infested linens, placing intercepting devices under furniture legs and corners of rooms, applying Alpine aerosol and Alpine dust (0.25% dinotefuran, 95% diatomaceous earth dust, and regularly scheduled monitoring and re-treatment. Nine apartments ranging from 1–1,428 (median: 29 bed bugs based on visual inspection and Climbup interceptor counts were included. Over a 6-month period, an average 172 g insecticide (Alpine aerosol + Alpine dust was used in each apartment, a 96% reduction in pesticide usage compared to chemical only treatment reported in a similar environment. The IPM program resulted in an average of 96.8 ± 2.2% reduction in the number of bed bugs. However, elimination of bed bugs was only achieved in three lightly infested apartments (<30 bed bugs at the beginning. Elimination success was closely correlated with the level of bed bug populations.

  13. New insights into sucking, swallowing and breathing central generators: A complexity analysis of rhythmic motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Nathalie; Praud, Jean-Paul; Quenet, Brigitte; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian

    2017-01-18

    Sucking, swallowing and breathing are dynamic motor behaviors. Breathing displays features of chaos-like dynamics, in particular nonlinearity and complexity, which take their source in the automatic command of breathing. In contrast, buccal/gill ventilation in amphibians is one of the rare motor behaviors that do not display nonlinear complexity. This study aimed at assessing whether sucking and swallowing would also follow nonlinear complex dynamics in the newborn lamb. Breathing movements were recorded before, during and after bottle-feeding. Sucking pressure and the integrated EMG of the thyroartenoid muscle, as an index of swallowing, were recorded during bottle-feeding. Nonlinear complexity of the whole signals was assessed through the calculation of the noise limit value (NL). Breathing and swallowing always exhibited chaos-like dynamics. The NL of breathing did not change significantly before, during or after bottle-feeding. On the other hand, sucking inconsistently and significantly less frequently than breathing exhibited a chaos-like dynamics. Therefore, the central pattern generator (CPG) that drives sucking may be functionally different from the breathing CPG. Furthermore, the analogy between buccal/gill ventilation and sucking suggests that the latter may take its phylogenetic origin in the gill ventilation CPG of the common ancestor of extant amphibians and mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparison of swallowing dysfunction in Becker muscular dystrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuka; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Wada, Ayako; Otsuka, Tomoyoshi; Muraoka, Kaori; Liu, Meigen

    2018-06-01

    Swallowing dysfunction has been reported in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but has not been studied in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). The aims of this study were to report the characteristics of swallowing dysfunction in BMD compared with DMD. The study participants were 18 patients with BMD and 18 patients with DMD. All the patients were examined using videofluorography during swallowing of 5 mL of fluid. The penetration-aspiration scale (P-A scale) and the videofluorographic dysphagia scale (VDS) were used to evaluate dysphagia. Swinyard functional ability stage was not significantly different between the BMD and DMD groups. Rate of aspiration, P-A scale score, and total VDS score did not differ across groups, but the VDS item score for laryngeal elevation was lower in the BMD group than in the DMD group (median scores 4.5 and 9, respectively; p Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) was not well known. Eighteen patients with BMD and 18 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were examined with videofluorography. Patients with BMD have swallowing problems similar to those observed in patients with DMD.

  15. Five days of successful oral alimentation for hospitalized patients based upon passing the Yale Swallow Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Suiter, Debra M

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the success of oral alimentation and patient retention rate 1 to 5 days after passing the Yale Swallow Protocol. Participants were 200 consecutive acute care inpatients referred for swallow assessment. Inclusion criteria were adequate cognitive abilities to participate safely, completing an oral mechanism examination, and passing the 3-ounce water swallow challenge. Exclusion criteria were altered mental status, failing the 3-ounce challenge, preadmission dysphagia, head-of-bed restrictions alimentation and retention rate. All patients who remained medically and neurologically stable drank thin liquids and ate successfully 1 to 5 days after passing the protocol. Mean (SD) volume of liquid ingested per day was 474.2 (435.5) cc. Patient retention declined steadily from day of testing (n = 200) through post-testing day 5 (n = 95). Passing the Yale Swallow Protocol allowed for initial determination of aspiration risk followed by successful oral alimentation for 1 to 5 days in medically and neurologically stable acute care hospitalized patients and without the need for instrumental dysphagia testing. The decline in patient retention was expected because of increasingly rapid transit through the acute care setting, which often renders longer follow-up problematic. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. A VALIDATION STUDY OF THE FACIAL-ORAL TRACT THERAPY SWALLOWING ASSESSMENT OF SALIVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Jensen, Ditte; Kjærsgaard, Annette

    Introduction Facial-Oral Tract Therapy (F.O.T.T.) (1) is an approach that provides both clinical assessment and treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. In the F.O.T.T. approach, a prerequisite for the initiation of oral intake is safe swallowing of saliva. A recent randomized controlled trial (2...

  17. Movie MRI at five frames a second for evaluation of speech and swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Masanobu; Mori, Koichi; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nozaki, Seiji

    2004-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging method that is widely used in the medical field. One of the limitations of MRI is its low time-resolution images of MRI are usually obtained as still images. Here we introduced a newly developed method of ``movie'' MRI with high time-resolution at five images a second. Its good application would include study and evaluation of speech and swallowing. Instrument: MRT-2001 XG with Software ver.5.5. (Toshiba). Coil: head QD coil for the tongue; CTL ARRY coil (3ch) for the neck, Imaging condition: sagital FFE2D; TR=2.8 ms TE=1.2 ms FA=10 deg Matrix=64×128 ST=10 mm NAQ=1 AV FOV=23×35 ; ROAFI; sequential acquisition. Maximum imaging length=51 s. A healthy Japanese male (Tokyo dialect speaker, 39 years). Task: Repetitive utterance of /tenten.../ and intentional swallowing of saliva. Results: In the task of /tenten..../, we could detect, in temporal order, velopharyngeal (VP) closure, opening of the tongue-palate (TP) closure, VP opening, TP closure, VP closure, and so on. In the swallowing task of saliva, we could detect movement of the tongue for conveying saliva to the pharynx, VP closure, backward movement of the tongue root, elevation and descent of the larynx in this temporal order. Our ``Movie MRI'' seemed promising for the noninvasive evaluation of speech and deglutition. Appropriate materials for swallowing evaluation will be presented.

  18. A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hobson

    Full Text Available Populations of most North American aerial insectivores have undergone steep population declines over the past 40 years but the relative importance of factors operating on breeding, wintering, or stopover sites remains unknown. We used archival light-level geolocators to track the phenology, movements and winter locations of barn swallows (Hirdundo rustica; n = 27 from populations across North America to determine their migratory connectivity. We identified an east-west continental migratory divide for barn swallows with birds from western regions (Washington State, USA (n = 8 and Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 5 traveling shorter distances to wintering areas ranging from Oregon to northern Colombia than eastern populations (Ontario (n = 3 and New Brunswick (n = 10, Canada which wintered in South America south of the Amazon basin. A single swallow from a stable population in Alabama shared a similar migration route to eastern barn swallows but wintered farther north in northeast Brazil indicating a potential leap frog pattern migratory among eastern birds. Six of 9 (67% birds from the two eastern populations and Alabama underwent a loop migration west of fall migration routes including around the Gulf of Mexico travelling a mean of 2,224 km and 722 km longer on spring migration, respectively. Longer migration distances, including the requirement to cross the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and subsequent shorter sedentary wintering periods, may exacerbate declines for populations breeding in northeastern North America.

  19. Perception of Wet Vocal Quality in Identifying Penetration/Aspiration during Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves-Wright, Kathy Jean; Boyce, Suzanne; Kelchner, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors investigated the association between wet vocal quality (WVQ) and prandial material in the larynx during phonation. The presence of such material is indicative of oropharyngeal dysphagia and results from entry of material into the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing. The primary aim of the study was to…

  20. Air swallowing, belching, and reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Belching and gastroesophageal reflux share a common physiological mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether air swallowing leads to both belching and reflux. METHODS: Esophageal impedance, pH, and pressure were measured during two 20-min recording periods in 12 controls